WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly varying perturbations

  1. Rapid Functional Reorganization in Human Cortex Following Neural Perturbation

    OpenAIRE

    Zanto, Theodore P.; Chadick, James Z.; Satris, Gabriela; Gazzaley, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Despite the human brain's ability to rapidly reorganize neuronal activity patterns in response to interactions with the environment (e.g., learning), it remains unclear whether compensatory mechanisms occur, on a similar time scale, in response to exogenous cortical perturbations. To investigate this, we disrupted normal neural function via repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and assessed, using fMRI, activity changes associated with performance on a working memory task. Although tra...

  2. Head and neck control varies with perturbation acceleration but not jerk: implications for whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2009-04-15

    Recent studies have proposed that a high rate of acceleration onset, i.e. high jerk, during a low-speed vehicle collision increases the risk of whiplash injury by triggering inappropriate muscle responses and/or increasing peak head acceleration. Our goal was to test these proposed mechanisms at realistic jerk levels and then to determine how collision jerk affects the potential for whiplash injuries. Twenty-three seated volunteers (8 F, 15 M) were exposed to multiple experiments involving perturbations simulating the onset of a vehicle collision in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. In the first experiment, subjects experienced five forward and five rearward perturbations to look for the inappropriate muscle responses and 'floppy' head kinematics previously attributed to high jerk perturbations. In the second experiment, we independently varied the jerk ( approximately 125 to 3 000 m s(-3)) and acceleration ( approximately 0.65 to 2.6 g) of the perturbation to assess their effect on the electromyographic (EMG) responses of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), scalene (SCAL) and cervical paraspinal (PARA) muscles and the kinematic responses of the head and neck. In the first experiment, we found neither inappropriate muscle responses nor floppy head kinematics when subjects had their eyes open, but observed two subjects with floppy head kinematics with eyes closed. In the second experiment, we found that about 70% of the variations in the SCM and SCAL responses and about 95% of the variations in head/neck kinematics were explained by changes in perturbation acceleration in both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Less than 2% of the variation in the muscle and kinematic responses was explained by changes in perturbation jerk and, where significant, response amplitudes diminished with increasing jerk. Based on these findings, collision jerk appears to have little or no role in the genesis of whiplash injuries in low-speed vehicle crashes.

  3. Robust Exponential Stability Criteria of LPD Systems with Mixed Time-Varying Delays and Nonlinear Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanit Mukdasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of robust exponential stability for linear parameter-dependent (LPD systems with discrete and distributed time-varying delays and nonlinear perturbations. Parameter dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, Leibniz-Newton formula, and linear matrix inequality are proposed to analyze the stability. On the basis of the estimation and by utilizing free-weighting matrices, new delay-dependent exponential stability criteria are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and less conservativeness of the proposed methods.

  4. Regional Advection Perturbations in an Irrigated Desert (RAPID) Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debruin, H.A.R.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Allen, R.G.; Kramer, J.W.J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The RAPID field experiment took place in August - September 1999 at a site 25km south of Twin Falls, Idaho, USA. The experiment concerned micrometeorological observations over extensive, well-irrigated fields covered with the fast-growing crop alfalfa. During daytime, on a number of days the

  5. New shooting algorithms for transition path sampling: centering moves and varied-perturbation sizes for improved sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Christopher N; Woo, Tom K

    2009-12-21

    Transition path sampling has been established as a powerful tool for studying the dynamics of rare events. The trajectory generation moves of this Monte Carlo procedure, shooting moves and shifting modes, were developed primarily for rate constant calculations, although this method has been more extensively used to study the dynamics of reactive processes. We have devised and implemented three alternative trajectory generation moves for use with transition path sampling. The centering-shooting move incorporates a shifting move into a shooting move, which centers the transition period in the middle of the trajectory, eliminating the need for shifting moves and generating an ensemble where the transition event consistently occurs near the middle of the trajectory. We have also developed varied-perturbation size shooting moves, wherein smaller perturbations are made if the shooting point is far from the transition event. The trajectories generated using these moves decorrelate significantly faster than with conventional, constant sized perturbations. This results in an increase in the statistical efficiency by a factor of 2.5-5 when compared to the conventional shooting algorithm. On the other hand, the new algorithm breaks detailed balance and introduces a small bias in the transition time distribution. We have developed a modification of this varied-perturbation size shooting algorithm that preserves detailed balance, albeit at the cost of decreased sampling efficiency. Both varied-perturbation size shooting algorithms are found to have improved sampling efficiency when compared to the original constant perturbation size shooting algorithm.

  6. On the effect of laterally varying boundary heat flux on rapidly rotating spherical shell convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Swarandeep; Sreenivasan, Binod

    2017-08-01

    The onset of convection in a rotating spherical shell subject to laterally varying heat flux at the outer boundary is considered in this paper. The focus is on the geophysically relevant regime of rapid rotation (low Ekman number) where the natural length scale of convection is significantly smaller than the length scale imposed by the boundary heat flux pattern. Contrary to earlier studies at a higher Ekman number, we find a substantial reduction in the onset Rayleigh number Rac with increasing lateral variation. The decrease in Rac is shown to be closely correlated to the equatorial heat flux surplus in the steady, basic state solution. The consistency of such a correlation makes the estimation of Rac possible without solving the full stability problem. The steady baroclinic flow has a strong cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry in the kinetic helicity only for equatorially symmetric lateral variations, with possible implications for dynamo action. Equatorially antisymmetric variations, on the other hand, break the symmetry of the mean flow, in turn negating its helicity. Analysis of the perturbation solution reveals strongly localized clusters through which convection rolls drift in and out at a frequency higher than that for the reference case with homogeneous boundary heat flux. Large lateral variations produce a marked decrease in the azimuthal length scale of columns, which indicates that small-scale motions are essential to the transport of heat in rapidly rotating, localized convection. With an equatorially antisymmetric heat flux pattern, convection in individual clusters goes through an asynchronous wax-wane cycle whose frequency is much lower than the drift rate of the columns. These continual variations in convection intensity may in turn result in fluctuations in the magnetic field intensity, an effect that needs to be considered in dynamo models. Finally, there is a notable analogy between the role of a laterally varying boundary heat flux and the role of a

  7. Density perturbations in f (R ,ϕ ) gravity with an application to the varying-power-law model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Fayçal

    2017-09-01

    Density perturbations in the cosmic microwave background within general f (R ,ϕ ) models of gravity are investigated. The general dynamical equations for the tensor and scalar modes in any f (R ,ϕ )-gravity model are derived. An application of the equations to the varying-power-law modified gravity toy model is then made. Formulas and numerical values for the tensor-to-scalar ratio, the scalar tilt, and the tensor tilt are all obtained within this specific model. While the model cannot provide a theoretical reason for the value of the energy scale at which inflation should occur, it is found, based on the latest observations of the density perturbations in the sky, that the model requires inflation to occur at an energy scale less than the grand unified theory scale, namely, ˜1014 GeV . The different energy intervals examined here show that the density perturbations recently obtained from observations are recovered naturally, with very high precision, and without fine tuning the model's parameters.

  8. Addressing model uncertainty through stochastic parameter perturbations within the High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, J.; Jankov, I.; Beck, J.; Carson, L.; Frimel, J.; Harrold, M.; Jiang, H.

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that global and regional numerical weather prediction ensemble systems are under-dispersive, producing unreliable and overconfident ensemble forecasts. Typical approaches to alleviate this problem include the use of multiple dynamic cores, multiple physics suite configurations, or a combination of the two. While these approaches may produce desirable results, they have practical and theoretical deficiencies and are more difficult and costly to maintain. An active area of research that promotes a more unified and sustainable system for addressing the deficiencies in ensemble modeling is the use of stochastic physics to represent model-related uncertainty. Stochastic approaches include Stochastic Parameter Perturbations (SPP), Stochastic Kinetic Energy Backscatter (SKEB), Stochastic Perturbation of Physics Tendencies (SPPT), or some combination of all three. The focus of this study is to assess the model performance within a convection-permitting ensemble at 3-km grid spacing across the Contiguous United States (CONUS) when using stochastic approaches. For this purpose, the test utilized a single physics suite configuration based on the operational High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model, with ensemble members produced by employing stochastic methods. Parameter perturbations were employed in the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) land surface model and Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) planetary boundary layer scheme. Results will be presented in terms of bias, error, spread, skill, accuracy, reliability, and sharpness using the Model Evaluation Tools (MET) verification package. Due to the high level of complexity of running a frequently updating (hourly), high spatial resolution (3 km), large domain (CONUS) ensemble system, extensive high performance computing (HPC) resources were needed to meet this objective. Supercomputing resources were provided through the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Strategic Capability (NSC) project support

  9. New Delay-Dependent Stability Criteria for Uncertain Neutral Systems with Mixed Time-Varying Delays and Nonlinear Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Karimi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of stability analysis for a class of neutral systems with mixed time-varying neutral, discrete and distributed delays and nonlinear parameter perturbations is addressed. By introducing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and combining the descriptor model transformation, the Leibniz-Newton formula, some free-weighting matrices, and a suitable change of variables, new sufficient conditions are established for the stability of the considered system, which are neutral-delay-dependent, discrete-delay-range-dependent, and distributed-delay-dependent. The conditions are presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs and can be efficiently solved using convex programming techniques. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  10. Rapid calculations of susceptibility-induced magnetostatic field perturbations for in vivo magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Kevin M; Papademetris, Xenophon; Rothman, Douglas L; Graaf, Robin A de [Yale University, Magnetic Resonance Research Center, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2006-12-21

    Static magnetic field perturbations generated by variations of magnetic susceptibility within samples reduce the quality and integrity of magnetic resonance measurements. These perturbations are difficult to predict in vivo where wide variations of internal magnetic susceptibility distributions are common. Recent developments have provided rapid computational means of estimating static field inhomogeneity within the small susceptibility limits of materials typically studied using magnetic resonance. Such a predictive mechanism could be a valuable tool for sequence simulation, field shimming and post-acquisition image correction. Here, we explore this calculation protocol and demonstrate its predictive power in estimating in vivo inhomogeneity within the human brain. Furthermore, we quantitatively explore the predictive limits of the computation. For in vivo comparison, a method of magnetic susceptibility registration using MRI and CT data is presented and utilized to carry out subject-specific inhomogeneity estimation. Using this algorithm, direct comparisons in human brain and phantoms are made between field map acquisitions and calculated inhomogeneity. Distortion correction in echo-planar images due to static field inhomogeneity is also demonstrated using the computed field maps.

  11. Priors engaged in long-latency responses to mechanical perturbations suggest a rapid update in state estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Crevecoeur

    Full Text Available In every motor task, our brain must handle external forces acting on the body. For example, riding a bike on cobblestones or skating on irregular surface requires us to appropriately respond to external perturbations. In these situations, motor predictions cannot help anticipate the motion of the body induced by external factors, and direct use of delayed sensory feedback will tend to generate instability. Here, we show that to solve this problem the motor system uses a rapid sensory prediction to correct the estimated state of the limb. We used a postural task with mechanical perturbations to address whether sensory predictions were engaged in upper-limb corrective movements. Subjects altered their initial motor response in ∼60 ms, depending on the expected perturbation profile, suggesting the use of an internal model, or prior, in this corrective process. Further, we found trial-to-trial changes in corrective responses indicating a rapid update of these perturbation priors. We used a computational model based on Kalman filtering to show that the response modulation was compatible with a rapid correction of the estimated state engaged in the feedback response. Such a process may allow us to handle external disturbances encountered in virtually every physical activity, which is likely an important feature of skilled motor behaviour.

  12. A Boussinesq-type method for fully nonlinear waves interacting with a rapidly varying bathymetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Wang, Benlong

    2006-01-01

    New equations are derived for fully nonlinear and highly dispersive water waves interacting with a rapidly varying bathymetry. The derivation is an extension of a recent high order Boussinesq type formulation valid on a mildly sloping bottom. It is based on a series expansion from a rapidly...... locally deteriorate, and we provide a guideline for using this technique within acceptable accuracy bounds. Numerical results are given for the linear reflection from a plane shelf, a Gaussian shaped trench, and a symmetric trench with sloped transitions. Furthermore, we simulate the linear class I...

  13. Interaction of a magnetic island chain in a tokamak plasma with a resonant magnetic perturbation of rapidly oscillating phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2017-12-01

    An investigation is made into the interaction of a magnetic island chain, embedded in a tokamak plasma, with an externally generated magnetic perturbation of the same helicity whose helical phase is rapidly oscillating. The analysis is similar in form to the classic analysis used by Kapitza [Sov. Phys. JETP 21, 588 (1951)] to examine the angular motion of a rigid pendulum whose pivot point undergoes rapid vertical oscillations. The phase oscillations are found to modify the existing terms, and also to give rise to new terms, in the equations governing the secular evolution of the island chain's radial width and helical phase. An examination of the properties of the new secular evolution equation reveals that it is possible to phase-lock an island chain to an external magnetic perturbation with an oscillating helical phase in a stabilizing phase relation provided that the amplitude, ɛ, of the phase oscillations (in radians) is such that |J0(ɛ )|≪1 , and the mean angular frequency of the perturbation closely matches the natural angular frequency of the island chain.

  14. Finite element analysis of gradually and rapidly varied unsteady flow in open channel : II. Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kun Yeun; Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Eul Rae [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-28

    Petrov-Galerkin finite element model for analyzing dynamic wave equation is applied to gradually and rapidly varied unsteady flow. The model is verified by applying to hydraulic jump, nonlinear disturbance propagation in frictionless horizontal channel and dam-break analysis. It shows stable and accurate results compared with analytical solutions for various cases. The model is applied to a surge propagation in a frictionless horizontal channel. Three-dimensional water surface profiles show that the computed result converges to the analytical one with sharp discontinuity. The model is also applied to the Taehwa River to analyze unsteady flood wave propagation. The computed results have good agreements with those of DWOPER model in terms of discharge and stage hydrographs. (author). 19 refs., 22 figs.

  15. New Delay-Dependent Robust Exponential Stability Criteria of LPD Neutral Systems with Mixed Time-Varying Delays and Nonlinear Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirada Pinjai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of robust exponential stability for linear parameter-dependent (LPD neutral systems with mixed time-varying delays and nonlinear perturbations. Based on a new parameter-dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, Leibniz-Newton formula, decomposition technique of coefficient matrix, free-weighting matrices, Cauchy’s inequality, modified version of Jensen’s inequality, model transformation, and linear matrix inequality technique, new delay-dependent robust exponential stability criteria are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and less conservativeness of the proposed methods.

  16. Rapid yet accurate first principle based predictions of alkali halide crystal phases using alchemical perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyeva, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    We assess the predictive power of alchemical perturbations for estimating fundamental properties in ionic crystals. Using density functional theory we have calculated formation energies, lattice constants, and bulk moduli for all sixteen iso-valence-electronic combinations of pure pristine alkali halides involving elements $A \\in \\{$Na, K, Rb, Cs$\\}$ and $X \\in \\{$F, Cl, Br, I$\\}$. For rock salt, zincblende and cesium chloride symmetry, alchemical Hellmann-Feynman derivatives, evaluated along lattice scans of sixteen reference crystals, have been obtained for all respective 16$\\times$15 combinations of reference and predicted target crystals. Mean absolute errors (MAE) are on par with density functional theory level of accuracy for energies and bulk modulus. Predicted lattice constants are less accurate. NaCl is the best reference salt for alchemical estimates of relative energies (MAE $<$ 40 meV/atom) while alkali fluorides are the worst. By contrast, lattice constants are predicted best using NaF as a re...

  17. Modeling the relationship between rapid automatized naming and literacy skills across languages varying in orthographic consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Aro, Mikko; Liao, Chen-Huei; Parrila, Rauno

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to contrast the prominent theoretical explanations of the rapid automatized naming (RAN)-reading relationship across languages varying in orthographic consistency (Chinese, English, and Finnish) and (b) to examine whether the same accounts can explain the RAN-spelling relationship. In total, 304 Grade 4 children (102 Chinese-speaking Taiwanese children, 117 English-speaking Canadian children, and 85 Finnish-speaking children) were assessed on measures of RAN, speed of processing, phonological processing, orthographic processing, reading fluency, and spelling. The results of path analysis indicated that RAN had a strong direct effect on reading fluency that was of the same size across languages and that only in English was a small proportion of its predictive variance mediated by orthographic processing. In contrast, RAN did not exert a significant direct effect on spelling, and a substantial proportion of its predictive variance was mediated by phonological processing (in Chinese and Finnish) and orthographic processing (in English). Given that RAN predicted reading fluency equally well across languages and that phonological/orthographic processing had very little to do with this relationship, we argue that the reason why RAN is related to reading fluency should be sought in domain-general factors such as serial processing and articulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A nonlinear self-similar solution to barotropic flow over rapidly varying topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Ruy; Kuehl, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Beginning from the Shallow Water Equations (SWE), a nonlinear self-similar analytic solution is derived for barotropic flow over rapidly varying topography. We study conditions relevant to the ocean slope where the flow is dominated by Earth's rotation and topography. Attention is paid to the northern Gulf of Mexico slope with application to pollutant dispersion and the Norwegian Coastal Current which sheds eddies into the Lofoten Basin that are believe to influence deep water formation. The solution is found to extend the topographic β-plume solution (Kuehl 2014, GRL) in two ways: 1) The solution is valid for intensifying jets. 2) The influence of nonlinear advection is included. The SWE are scaled to the case of a topographically controlled jet, then solved by introducing a similarity variable η = Cxy . The nonlinear solution, valid for topographies h =h0 - αxy3 , takes the form of the Lambert W Function for velocity. The linear solution, valid for topographies h =h0 - αxyγ , takes the form of the Error Function for transport. Kuehl's results considered the case - 1 <= γ < 1 which admits expanding jets, while the new result consider the case γ < - 1 which admits intensifying jets.

  19. Coordinated Control of Multi-Agent Systems in Rapidly Varying Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this Phase II STTR project is to develop advanced control algorithms that enable multiple autonomous agents to perform complex tasks in rapidly...

  20. Numerical modeling of rapidly varying flows using HEC-RAS and WSPG models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Prasada; Hromadka, Theodore V

    2016-01-01

    The performance of two popular hydraulic models (HEC-RAS and WSPG) for modeling hydraulic jump in an open channel is investigated. The numerical solutions are compared with a new experimental data set obtained for varying channel bottom slopes and flow rates. Both the models satisfactorily predict the flow depths and location of the jump. The end results indicate that the numerical models output is sensitive to the value of chosen roughness coefficient. For this application, WSPG model is easier to implement with few input variables.

  1. Systems biology analysis of Brucella infected Peyer's patch reveals rapid invasion with modest transient perturbations of the host transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Rossetti

    Full Text Available Brucella melitensis causes the most severe and acute symptoms of all Brucella species in human beings and infects hosts primarily through the oral route. The epithelium covering domed villi of jejunal-ileal Peyer's patches is an important site of entry for several pathogens, including Brucella. Here, we use the calf ligated ileal loop model to study temporal in vivo Brucella-infected host molecular and morphological responses. Our results document Brucella bacteremia occurring within 30 min after intraluminal inoculation of the ileum without histopathologic traces of lesions. Based on a system biology Dynamic Bayesian Network modeling approach (DBN of microarray data, a very early transient perturbation of the host enteric transcriptome was associated with the initial host response to Brucella contact that is rapidly averted allowing invasion and dissemination. A detailed analysis revealed active expression of Syndecan 2, Integrin alpha L and Integrin beta 2 genes, which may favor initial Brucella adhesion. Also, two intestinal barrier-related pathways (Tight Junction and Trefoil Factors Initiated Mucosal Healing were significantly repressed in the early stage of infection, suggesting subversion of mucosal epithelial barrier function to facilitate Brucella transepithelial migration. Simultaneously, the strong activation of the innate immune response pathways would suggest that the host mounts an appropriate protective immune response; however, the expression of the two key genes that encode innate immunity anti-Brucella cytokines such as TNF-α and IL12p40 were not significantly changed throughout the study. Furthermore, the defective expression of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling pathways may partially explain the lack of proinflammatory cytokine production and consequently the absence of morphologically detectable inflammation at the site of infection. Cumulatively, our results indicate that the in vivo pathogenesis of the early infectious process

  2. Large-timestep techniques for particle-in-cell simulation of systems with applied fields that vary rapidly in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

    1996-10-01

    Under conditions which arise commonly in space-charge-dominated beam applications, the applied focusing, bending, and accelerating fields vary rapidly with axial position, while the self-fields (which are, on average, comparable in strength to the applied fields) vary smoothly. In such cases it is desirable to employ timesteps which advance the particles over distances greater than the characteristic scales over which the applied fields vary. Several related concepts are potentially applicable: sub-cycling of the particle advance relative to the field solution, a higher-order time-advance algorithm, force-averaging by integration along approximate orbits, and orbit-averaging. We report on our investigations into the utility of such techniques for systems typical of those encountered in accelerator studies for heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion.

  3. Bed Evolution under Rapidly Varying Flows by a New Method for Wave Speed Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawar Rehman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sediment-transport model based on coupled Saint-Venant and Exner equations. A finite volume method of Godunov type with predictor-corrector steps is used to solve a set of coupled equations. An efficient combination of approximate Riemann solvers is proposed to compute fluxes associated with sediment-laden flow. In addition, a new method is proposed for computing the water depth and velocity values along the shear wave. This method ensures smooth solutions, even for flows with high discontinuities, and on domains with highly distorted grids. The numerical model is tested for channel aggradation on a sloping bottom, dam-break cases at flume-scale and reach-scale with flat bottom configurations and varying downstream water depths. The proposed model is tested for predicting the position of hydraulic jump, wave front propagation, and for predicting magnitude of bed erosion. The comparison between results based on the proposed scheme and analytical, experimental, and published numerical results shows good agreement. Sensitivity analysis shows that the model is computationally efficient and virtually independent of mesh refinement.

  4. The quantum 2D-harmonic oscillator in 1:1 resonance with time-dependent perturbation : averaging applied to slowly varying quantum systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huveneers, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we will study the 2D-harmonic oscillator in 1:1 resonance. We add a general third- and fourth order perturbation which is slowly time-dependent, and are interested in the resulting interaction between the unperturbed orbits (states). By treating this system quantummechanically we get a

  5. A current-pulsed power supply with rapid rising and falling edges for magnetic perturbation coils on the J-TEXT tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, M.X. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Rao, B., E-mail: borao@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ding, Y.H.; Hu, Q.M.; Hu, F.R.; Li, D.; Li, M.; Ji, X.K.; Xu, G.; Zheng, W.; Jiang, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The power supply is required to have rapid rising and falling edges. • A modified topology based on the buck chopper of current-pulsed power supply is presented and analyzed. • An entity meeting the electrical requirements has been constructed. • The spike voltage of IGBT is qualitatively analyzed. - Abstract: This study presents the design and principle of a current-pulsed power supply (CPPS) for the tearing mode (TM) feedback control of the J-TEXT tokamak. CPPS is a new method of stabilizing large magnetic islands and accelerating mode rotation through the use of modulated magnetic perturbation. In this application, continuous magnetic perturbation pulse trains with frequency of 1 kHz to kHz, amplitude of 0.25 G, and duty ratio of 20%–50% are required generating via in-vessel magnetic coils. A modified topology based on buck chopper is raised to satisfy the demands of inductive load. This modified topology is characterized by high frequency, rapid rising and falling edges, and large amplitude of current pulses. Appropriate RCD snubber circuit is applied to protect the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switch device. Equipment with peak current that reaches 1 kA, frequency that ranges from 1 kHz to 3 kHz, and rising and falling time within 100 μs was constructed and applied to physical experiment.

  6. PERTURBATIVE QCD

    OpenAIRE

    I. Hinchliffe

    2010-01-01

    This is the written version of a set of lectures on perturbative QCD that were delivered to a mixed audience of young theorists and experimentalists in the course of the XXII International Meeting on Fundamental Physics. These notes are virtually a verbatim transcription of the lectures. The selection of topics is somewhat arbitrary, but two basic points are emphasized: the rationale behind QCD and how ongoing experiments, such as those taking place in LEP and HERA, contribute to our understa...

  7. Rapid quantification of casein in skim milk using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, enzymatic perturbation, and multiway partial least squares: Monitoring chymosin at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Hansen, P. W.; Nørgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we introduce enzymatic perturbation combined with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a concept for quantifying casein in subcritical heated skim milk using chemometric multiway analysis. Chymosin is a protease that cleaves specifically caseins. As a result of hydroly......, and cream. This method can be used at different stages in the dairy production chain to ensure the quality of the delivered milk. In particular, the cheese-making industry can benefit from such methods to optimize production control....

  8. Cosmological Perturbations in Conformal Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mannheim, Philip D

    2011-01-01

    We present the first steps needed for an analysis of the perturbations that occur in the cosmology associated with the conformal gravity theory. We discuss the implications of conformal invariance for perturbative coordinate gauge choices, and show that in the conformal theory the trace of the metric fluctuation kinematically decouples from the first-order gravitational fluctuation equations. We determine the equations that describe first-order metric fluctuations around the illustrative conformally flat de Sitter background. Via a conformal transformation we show that such fluctuations can be constructed from fluctuations around a flat background, even though the fluctuations themselves are associated with a perturbative geometry that is not itself conformal to flat. We extend the analysis to fluctuations around other cosmologically relevant backgrounds, such as the conformally-flat Robertson-Walker background, and find tensor fluctuations that grow far more rapidly than those that occur in the analogous sta...

  9. Rapid and long-term effects of water deficit on gas exchange and hydraulic conductance of silver birch trees grown under varying atmospheric humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Arne; Niglas, Aigar; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Kupper, Priit

    2014-03-24

    Effects of water deficit on plant water status, gas exchange and hydraulic conductance were investigated in Betula pendula under artificially manipulated air humidity in Eastern Estonia. The study was aimed to broaden an understanding of the ability of trees to acclimate with the increasing atmospheric humidity predicted for northern Europe. Rapidly-induced water deficit was imposed by dehydrating cut branches in open-air conditions; long-term water deficit was generated by seasonal drought. The rapid water deficit quantified by leaf (ΨL) and branch water potentials (ΨB) had a significant (P gas exchange parameters, while inclusion of ΨB in models resulted in a considerably better fit than those including ΨL, which supports the idea that stomatal openness is regulated to prevent stem rather than leaf xylem dysfunction. Under moderate water deficit (ΨL≥-1.55 MPa), leaf conductance to water vapour (gL), transpiration rate and leaf hydraulic conductance (KL) were higher (P < 0.05) and leaf temperature lower in trees grown in elevated air humidity (H treatment) than in control trees (C treatment). Under severe water deficit (ΨL<-1.55 MPa), the treatments showed no difference. The humidification manipulation influenced most of the studied characteristics, while the effect was to a great extent realized through changes in soil water availability, i.e. due to higher soil water potential in H treatment. Two functional characteristics (gL, KL) exhibited higher (P < 0.05) sensitivity to water deficit in trees grown under increased air humidity. The experiment supported the hypothesis that physiological traits in trees acclimated to higher air humidity exhibit higher sensitivity to rapid water deficit with respect to two characteristics - leaf conductance to water vapour and leaf hydraulic conductance. Disproportionate changes in sensitivity of stomatal versus leaf hydraulic conductance to water deficit will impose greater risk of desiccation-induced hydraulic

  10. Rapid Changes in Scores on Principal Components of the EEG Spectrum do not Occur in the Course of "Drowsy" Sleep of Varying Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putilov, Arcady A

    2015-04-01

    Wakefulness is separated from a well-established sleep by an onset period. This is characterized by dramatic changes in scores on the first and second principal components of the electroencephalographic (EEG) spectrum, which reflects the kinetics of sleep- and wake-promoting processes. The present analysis examined whether significant buildups and declines of the first and second scores can occur throughout stage 1 sleep, or only on its boundaries with stage 2 and wakefulness. Twenty-seven adults participated in multiple 20-minute attempts to nap in the course of 24-hour wakefulness after either deprivation, restriction or ad lib night sleep. Power spectra were calculated on 1-minute intervals of 251 EEG records. Irrespective of accumulated sleep debt and duration of stage 1 sleep (from 5 minutes), the first principal component score was permanently attenuated across this stage as well as during preceding wakefulness. It showed rapid buildup only on the boundary with stage 2. The second principal component score always started its decline earlier, on the wake-sleep boundary. It did not show further decline throughout the following intervals of stages 1 and 2. It seems that stage 1 sleep occurs due to a delay of the buildup of the sleep-promoting process relative to the decline of the wake-promoting process which coincide, with initiation of stage 2 sleep and termination of wakefulness. Therefore, "drowsy" sleep can be regarded as occupying "no man's land", between the opponent driving forces for wake and sleep. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  11. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  12. Perturbing macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic stability for toroidal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Kathryn J.

    We have introduced a new perturbative technique to rapidly explore the dependence of long wavelength ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities on equilibrium profiles, shaping properties, and wall parameters. Traditionally, these relations are studied with numerical parameter scans using computationally intensive stability codes. Our perturbative technique first finds the equilibrium and stability using traditional methods. Subsequent small changes in the original equilibrium parameters change the stability. We quickly find the new stability with an expansion of the energy principle, rather than with another run of the stability codes. We first semi-analytically apply the technique to the screw pinch after eliminating compressional Alfven wave effects. The screw pinch results validate the approach, but also indicate that allowable perturbations to equilibria with certain features may be restricted. Next, we extend the approach to toroidal geometry using experimental equilibria and a simple constructed equilibrium, with the ideal MHD stability code GATO. Stability properties are successfully predicted from perturbed toroidal equilibria when only the vacuum beyond the plasma is perturbed (through wall parameter variations), rather than the plasma itself. Small plasma equilibrium perturbations to both experimental and simple equilibria result in very large errors to the predicted stability, and valid results are found only over a narrow range of most perturbations. Despite the large errors produced when changing plasma parameters, the wall perturbations revealed two useful applications of this technique. Because the calculations are non-iterative matrix multiplications, the convergence issues that can disrupt a full MHD stability code are absent. Marginal stability, therefore, is much easier to find with the perturbative technique. Also, the perturbed results can be input as the initial guess for the eigenvalue for a full stability code, and improve subsequent

  13. Conformal invariance of curvature perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Park, Wan Il; Sasaki, Misao; Song, Yong-Seon

    2011-01-01

    We show that in the single component situation all perturbation variables in the comoving gauge are conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. Generally we identify a special time slicing, the uniform-conformal transformation slicing, where all perturbations are again conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. We apply this result to the delta N formalism, and show its conformal invariance.

  14. Conformal invariance of curvature perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Wan Il; Sasaki, Misao; Song, Yong-Seon, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@cern.ch, E-mail: jchan@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: wipark@kias.re.kr, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: ysong@kias.re.kr [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-01

    We show that in the single component situation all perturbation variables in the comoving gauge are conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. Generally we identify a special time slicing, the uniform-conformal transformation slicing, where all perturbations are again conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. We apply this result to the δN formalism, and show its conformal invariance.

  15. Cosmological perturbations in antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Marius; Brandenberger, Robert

    2014-10-01

    We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the standard model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity," during each successive transition from a big crunch to a big bang. For simplicity, we consider scalar perturbations in the absence of anisotropies, with potential set to zero and without any radiation. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, these perturbations are neither ghostlike nor tachyonic in the limit of strongly repulsive gravity. On this basis, we argue—pending a future analysis of vector and tensor perturbations—that, with respect to perturbative stability, the cosmological solutions of this theory are viable.

  16. Perturbed S3 neutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    jora, Renata; Schechter, Joseph; Naeem Shahid, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of the perturbation which violates the permutation symmetry of three Majorana neutrinos but preserves the well known (23) interchange symmetry. This is done in the presenceof an arbitrary Majorana phase which serves to insure the degeneracy of the three neutrinos...

  17. Perturbations in warm inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Oliveira, H. P.; Joras, S. E.

    2001-09-15

    Warm inflation is an interesting possibility to describe the early universe, whose basic feature is the absence, at least in principle, of a preheating or reheating phase. Here we analyze the dynamics of warm inflation generalizing the usual slow-roll parameters that are useful for characterizing the inflationary phase. We study the evolution of entropy and adiabatic perturbations, where the main result is that for a very small amount of dissipation the entropy perturbations can be neglected and the purely adiabatic perturbations will be responsible for the primordial spectrum of inhomogeneities. Taking into account the Cosmic Background Explorer Differential Microwave Radiometer data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy as well as the fact that the interval of inflation for which the scales of astrophysical interest cross outside the Hubble radius is about 50 e-folds before the end of inflation, we could estimate the magnitude of the dissipation term. It is also possible to show that at the end of inflation the universe is hot enough to provide a smooth transition to the radiation era.

  18. Explicit Analytical Solution of a Pendulum with Periodically Varying Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Fang, Bo; Li, Song; Huang, Wenhu

    2010-01-01

    A pendulum with periodically varying length is an interesting physical system. It has been studied by some researchers using traditional perturbation methods (for example, the averaging method). But due to the limitation of the conventional perturbation methods, the solutions are not valid for long-term prediction of the pendulum. In this paper,…

  19. Approximation and perturbation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Iyer, B R

    1993-01-01

    Few problems in nature are amenable to an exact solution and hence when one proceeds from elegant problems of theory to messy complicated problems of practice one is forced to recourse to methods of approximation and perturbation. The development of such techniques has been natural in attempts to extract physically verifiable consequences from either exact solutions of general relativity or from specific astrophysical systems for which an exact solution is impossible to find. However, this should not be taken to imply giving up of mathematical rigour and an appeal to only physical intuition.

  20. Perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    This book will be of great interest to advanced students and researchers in the area of high energy theoretical physics. Being the most complete and updated review volume on Perturbative QCD, it serves as an extremely useful textbook or reference book. Some of the reviews in this volume are the best that have been written on the subject anywhere. Contents: Factorization of Hard Processes in QCD (J C Collins, D E Soper & G Sterman); Exclusive Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics (S J Brodsky & G P Lepage); Coherence and Physics of QCD Jets (Yu L Dokshitzer, V A Khoze & S I Troyan); Pomeron in Qu

  1. Perturbative and Non-Perturbative Aspects of N=8 Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of quantum properties of N=8 supergravity in four dimensions are discussed for non-practitioners. At perturbative level, they include the Weyl trace anomaly as well as composite duality anomalies, the latter being relevant for perturbative finiteness. At non-perturbative level, we briefly review some facts about extremal black holes, their Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and attractor flows for single- and two-centered solutions.

  2. Perturbed effects at radiation physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külahcı, Fatih; Şen, Zekâi

    2013-09-01

    Perturbation methodology is applied in order to assess the linear attenuation coefficient, mass attenuation coefficient and cross-section behavior with random components in the basic variables such as the radiation amounts frequently used in the radiation physics and chemistry. Additionally, layer attenuation coefficient (LAC) and perturbed LAC (PLAC) are proposed for different contact materials. Perturbation methodology provides opportunity to obtain results with random deviations from the average behavior of each variable that enters the whole mathematical expression. The basic photon intensity variation expression as the inverse exponential power law (as Beer-Lambert's law) is adopted for perturbation method exposition. Perturbed results are presented not only in terms of the mean but additionally the standard deviation and the correlation coefficients. Such perturbation expressions provide one to assess small random variability in basic variables.

  3. Applications Of Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mohta, V

    2005-01-01

    Effective field theory techniques are used to describe the spectrum and interactions of hadrons. The mathematics of classical field theory and perturbative quantum field theory are reviewed. The physics of effective field theory and, in particular, of chiral perturbation theory and heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory are also reviewed. The geometry underlying heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is described in detail. Results by Coleman et. al. in the physics literature are stated precisely and proven. A chiral perturbation theory is developed for a multiplet containing the recently- observed exotic baryons. A small coupling expansion is identified that allows the calculation of self-energy corrections to the exotic baryon masses. Opportunities in lattice calculations are discussed. Chiral perturbation theory is used to study the possibility of two multiplets of exotic baryons mixed by quark masses. A new symmetry constraint on reduced partial widths is identified. Predictions in the literature based ...

  4. Perturbative Gadgets at Arbitrary Orders

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Stephen P.; Farhi, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum algorithms are often most easily formulated using many-body interactions. However, experimentally available interactions are generally two-body. In 2004, Kempe, Kitaev, and Regev introduced perturbative gadgets, by which arbitrary three-body effective interactions can be obtained using Hamiltonians consisting only of two-body interactions. These three-body effective interactions arise from the third order in perturbation theory. Since their introduction, perturbative gadgets...

  5. Perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1979-12-01

    The application of QCD to hadron dynamics at short distances, where asymptotic freedom allows a systematic perturbative approach, is addressed. The main theme of the approach is to incorporate systematically the effects of the hadronic wave function in large momentum transfer exclusive and inclusive reactions. Although it is conventional to treat the hadron as a classical source of on-shell quarks, there are important dynamical effects due to hadronic constituent structure which lead to a broader testing ground for QCD. QCD predictions are discussed for exclusive processes and form factors at large momentum transfer in which the short-distance behavior and the finite compositeness of the hadronic wave functions play crucial roles. Many of the standard tests of QCD are reviewed including the predictions for R = sigma/sub e/sup +/e/sup -/..-->..had//sigma/sub e/sup +/e/sup -/..--> mu../sup +/..mu../sup -//, the structure functions of hadrons and photons, jet phenomena, and the QCD corrections to deep inelastic processes. The exclusive-inclusive connection in QCD, the effects of power-law scale-breaking contributions, and the important role of the available energy in controlling logarithmic scale violations are also discussed. 150 references, 44 figures. (RWR)

  6. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  7. Inversion of the perturbation series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2008-01-18

    We investigate the inversion of the perturbation series and its resummation, and prove that it is related to a recently developed parametric perturbation theory. Results for some illustrative examples show that in some cases series reversion may improve the accuracy of the results.

  8. Path integral for inflationary perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokopec, T.; Rigopoulos, G.

    2010-01-01

    The quantum theory of cosmological perturbations in single-field inflation is formulated in terms of a path integral. Starting from a canonical formulation, we show how the free propagators can be obtained from the well-known gauge-invariant quadratic action for scalar and tensor perturbations, and

  9. Perturbative QCD (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Perturbative QCD is the general theoretical framework for describing hard scattering processes yielding multiparticle production at hadron colliders. In these lectures, we shall introduce fundamental features of perturbative QCD and describe its application to several high energy collider processes, including jet production in electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic scattering, Higgs boson and gauge boson production at the LHC.

  10. Streamer properties and associated x-rays in perturbed air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhn, C.; Chanrion, O.; Babich, L. P.; Neubert, T.

    2018-01-01

    Streamers are ionization waves in electric discharges. One of the key ingredients of streamer propagation is an ambient gas that serves as a source of free electrons. Here, we explore the dependence of streamer dynamics on different spatial distributions of ambient air molecules. We vary the spatial profile of air parallel and perpendicular to the ambient electric field. We consider local sinusoidal perturbations of 5%–100%, as induced from discharge shock waves. We use a cylindrically symmetric particle-in-cell code to simulate the evolution of bidirectional streamers and compare the electron density, electric field, streamer velocity and electron energy of streamers in uniform air and in perturbed air. In all considered cases, the motion is driven along in decreasing air density and damped along increasing air density. Perturbations of at most 5%–10% change the velocity differences by up to approximately 40%. Perturbations perpendicular to the electric field additionally squeeze or branch streamers. Air variations can thus partly explain the difference of velocities and morphologies of streamer discharges. In cases with large perturbations, electrons gain energies of up to 30 keV compared to 100 eV in uniformly distributed air. For such perturbations parallel to the ambient electric field, we see the spontaneous initiation of a negative streamer; for perpendicular perturbations, x-rays with energies of up to 20 keV are emitted within 0.17 ns.

  11. A perturbation-based model for rectifier circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin B. Vats

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A perturbation-theoretic analysis of rectifier circuits is presented. The governing differential equation of the half-wave rectifier with capacitor filter is analyzed by expanding the output voltage as a Taylor series with respect to an artificially introduced parameter in the nonlinearity of the diode characteristic as is done in quantum theory. The perturbation parameter introduced in the analysis is independent of the circuit components as compared to the method presented by multiple scales. The various terms appearing in the perturbation series are then modeled in the form of an equivalent circuit. This model is subsequently used in the analysis of full-wave rectifier. Matlab simulation results are included which confirm the validity of the theoretical formulations. Perturbation analysis acts a helpful tool in analyzing time-varying systems and chaotic systems.

  12. Cosmological perturbations beyond linear order

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is the standard tool to understand the formation of the large scale structure in the Universe. However, its degree of applicability is limited by the growth of the amplitude of the matter perturbations with time. This problem can be tackled with by using N-body simulations or analytical techniques that go beyond the linear calculation. In my talk, I'll summarise some recent efforts in the latter that ameliorate the bad convergence of the standard perturbative expansion. The new techniques allow better analytical control on observables (as the matter power spectrum) over scales very relevant to understand the expansion history and formation of structure in the Universe.

  13. Perturbative gadgets at arbitrary orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Stephen P.; Farhi, Edward

    2008-06-01

    Adiabatic quantum algorithms are often most easily formulated using many-body interactions. However, experimentally available interactions are generally two-body. In 2004, Kempe, Kitaev, and Regev introduced perturbative gadgets, by which arbitrary three-body effective interactions can be obtained using Hamiltonians consisting only of two-body interactions. These three-body effective interactions arise from the third order in perturbation theory. Since their introduction, perturbative gadgets have become a standard tool in the theory of quantum computation. Here we construct generalized gadgets so that one can directly obtain arbitrary k -body effective interactions from two-body Hamiltonians. These effective interactions arise from the k th order in perturbation theory.

  14. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with experiment is presented. Some interesting topics with scope for further elaboration are touched upon.

  15. Perturbation Theory of Embedded Eigenvalues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Matthias

    project gives a general and systematic approach to analytic perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues. The spectral deformation technique originally developed in the theory of dilation analytic potentials in the context of Schrödinger operators is systematized by the use of Mourre theory. The group......We study problems connected to perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues in two different setups. The first part deals with second order perturbation theory of mass shells in massive translation invariant Nelson type models. To this end an expansion of the eigenvalues w.r.t. fiber parameter up...... of dilations is thereby replaced by the unitary group generated y the conjugate operator. This then allows to treat the perturbation problem with the usual Kato theory....

  16. HRP2 and pLDH-Based Rapid Diagnostic Tests, Expert Microscopy, and PCR for Detection of Malaria Infection during Pregnancy and at Delivery in Areas of Varied Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Study in Burkina Faso and Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kyabayinze

    Full Text Available Intermittent screening and treatment (IST of malaria during pregnancy has been proposed as an alternative to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp, where IPTp is failing due to drug resistance. However, the antenatal parasitaemias are frequently very low, and the most appropriate screening test for IST has not been defined.We conducted a multi-center prospective study of 990 HIV-uninfected women attending ANC in two different malaria transmission settings at Tororo District Hospital, eastern Uganda and Colsama Health Center in western Burkina Faso. Women were enrolled in the study in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and followed to delivery, generating 2,597 blood samples for analysis. Screening tests included rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2 and parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH and microscopy, compared to nPCR as a reference standard. At enrolment, the proportion of pregnant women who were positive for P. falciparum by HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT, microscopy and PCR was 38%, 29%, 36% and 44% in Uganda and 21%, 16%, 15% and 35% in Burkina Faso, respectively. All test positivity rates declined during follow-up. In comparison to PCR, the sensitivity of the HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT and microscopy was 75.7%, 60.1% and 69.7% in Uganda, 55.8%, 42.6% and 55.8% in Burkina Faso respectively for all antenatal visits. Specificity was greater than 96% for all three tests. Comparison of accuracy using generalized estimating equation revealed that the HRP2- detecting RDT was the most accurate test in both settings.The study suggests that HRP2-based RDTs are the most appropriate point-of-care test currently available for use during pregnancy especially for symptomatic women, but will still miss some PCR-positive women. The clinical significance of these very low density infections needs to be better defined.

  17. Historical developments in singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Malley, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    This engaging text describes the development of singular perturbations, including its history, accumulating literature, and its current status. While the approach of the text is sophisticated, the literature is accessible to a broad audience. A particularly valuable bonus are the historical remarks. These remarks are found throughout the manuscript. They demonstrate the growth of mathematical thinking on this topic by engineers and mathematicians. The book focuses on detailing how the various methods are to be applied. These are illustrated by a  number and variety of examples. Readers are expected to have a working knowledge of elementary ordinary differential equations, including some familiarity with power series techniques, and of some advanced calculus. Dr. O'Malley  has written a number of books on singular perturbations.  This book has developed from many of his works in the field of perturbation theory.

  18. Logarithmic perturbation theory: Applications and limitations | Ndefru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The time independent, non-degenerate standard perturbation theory is compared the alternate treatment of perturbation theory called logarithmic perturbation theory (LPT). For determining the non-degenerate ground state the LPT is, in principle, easier to apply than standard perturbation theory. This is because, as ...

  19. Entanglement entropy: a perturbative calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenhaus, Vladimir; Smolkin, Michael [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-12-31

    We provide a framework for a perturbative evaluation of the reduced density matrix. The method is based on a path integral in the analytically continued spacetime. It suggests an alternative to the holographic and ‘standard’ replica trick calculations of entanglement entropy. We implement this method within solvable field theory examples to evaluate leading order corrections induced by small perturbations in the geometry of the background and entangling surface. Our findings are in accord with Solodukhin’s formula for the universal term of entanglement entropy for four dimensional CFTs.

  20. Efficient optimization of perturbative gadgets

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yudong; Kais, Sabre

    2017-01-01

    Perturbative gadgets are general techniques for reducing many-body spin interactions to two-body ones using perturbation theory. This allows for potential realization of effective many-body interactions using more physically viable two-body ones. In parallel with prior work (arXiv:1311.2555 [quant-ph]), here we consider minimizing the physical resource required for implementing the gadgets initially proposed by Kempe, Kitaev and Regev (arXiv:quant-ph/0406180) and later generalized by Jordan a...

  1. Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Romeo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Trento,Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo TN (Italy); Fredenhagen, Klaus [II Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg,Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Hack, Thomas-Paul [Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig,Brüderstr. 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Pinamonti, Nicola [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Rejzner, Katarzyna [Department of Mathematics, University of York,Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-04

    It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.

  2. Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, Romeo; Hack, Thomas-Paul; Pinamonti, Nicola; Rejzner, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.

  3. On transformation to the singularly perturbed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, V.

    2011-01-01

    A rapid progress in hard- and software development of computational facilities as well as in numerical methods has increased the role of numerical simulations in the quantitative system analysis of many engineering problems. At the same time, the system complexity (in terms of dimensionality and non-linearity) has grown considerably increasing demand for automatic methods of analysis of qualitative system behavior. For instance, nowadays, definition of key system parameters controlling the system dynamics and finding critical regimes automatically have become crucial issue of numerical system analysis. In the present paper a transformation to the Singularly Perturbed System (SPS) as a main theoretical framework to cope with the complexity and high dimensionality will be discussed in detail. Both simple but famous and meaningful model example of Van der Pol oscillator and an example of application to numerical analysis of chemical kinetics mechanisms will be used to show the potential of the suggested framework.

  4. Quantum cosmological perturbations of multiple fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Patrick; Pinto-Neto, N.; Vitenti, Sandro D. P.

    2016-01-01

    The formalism to treat quantization and evolution of cosmological perturbations of multiple fluids is described. We first construct the Lagrangian for both the gravitational and matter parts, providing the necessary relevant variables and momenta leading to the quadratic Hamiltonian describing linear perturbations. The final Hamiltonian is obtained without assuming any equations of motions for the background variables. This general formalism is applied to the special case of two fluids, having in mind the usual radiation and matter mix which made most of our current Universe history. Quantization is achieved using an adiabatic expansion of the basis functions. This allows for an unambiguous definition of a vacuum state up to the given adiabatic order. Using this basis, we show that particle creation is well defined for a suitable choice of vacuum and canonical variables, so that the time evolution of the corresponding quantum fields is unitary. This provides constraints for setting initial conditions for an arbitrary number of fluids and background time evolution. We also show that the common choice of variables for quantization can lead to an ill-defined vacuum definition. Our formalism is not restricted to the case where the coupling between fields is small, but is only required to vary adiabatically with respect to the ultraviolet modes, thus paving the way to consistent descriptions of general models not restricted to single-field (or fluid).

  5. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the CLEO Collaboration. Other sources could be the decay τ →ππν. In the modern context, a fresh Roy equation analysis with the view of combining dis- persion relations with chiral perturbation theory has been carried out [20]. The evaluation of the inhomogeneous terms, the so-called 'driving terms' for the Roy equations ...

  6. Disformal invariance of curvature perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motohashi, Hayato [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, 60637 (United States); White, Jonathan, E-mail: motohashi@kicp.uchicago.edu, E-mail: jwhite@post.kek.jp [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We show that under a general disformal transformation the linear comoving curvature perturbation is not identically invariant, but is invariant on superhorizon scales for any theory that is disformally related to Horndeski's theory. The difference between disformally related curvature perturbations is found to be given in terms of the comoving density perturbation associated with a single canonical scalar field. In General Relativity it is well-known that this quantity vanishes on superhorizon scales through the Poisson equation that is obtained on combining the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints, and we confirm that a similar result holds for any theory that is disformally related to Horndeski's scalar-tensor theory so long as the invertibility condition for the disformal transformation is satisfied. We also consider the curvature perturbation at full nonlinear order in the unitary gauge, and find that it is invariant under a general disformal transformation if we assume that an attractor regime has been reached. Finally, we also discuss the counting of degrees of freedom in theories disformally related to Horndeski's.

  7. VHS Movies: Perturbations for Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Danny L.

    This paper discusses the concept of a family system in terms of an interactive system of interrelated, interdependent parts and suggests that VHS movies can act as perturbations, i.e., change promoting agents, for certain dysfunctional family systems. Several distinct characteristics of a family system are defined with particular emphasis on…

  8. Seven topics in perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buras, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics.

  9. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soper, D.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    1997-06-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs.

  10. Perturbative and Non-perturbative $N=8$ Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Massimo; Kallosh, Renata

    2010-01-01

    We study extremal black holes, their ADM mass and area of the horizon in N = 8 supergravity. Contrary to intuition gained from N = 2, 4 theories, in N = 8 supergravity BPS states may become massless only at the boundary of moduli space. We show that stringy states described in [1], which have no mass gap and survive in the toroidal compactification in addition to massless states of perturbative N = 8 supergravity, display a null singularity in four-dimensional space-time, when viewed as solutions of N = 8 Einstein equations. We analyze known methods of resolving such singularities and explain why they do not work in D=4, N = 8 supergravity. We discuss possible implications for the issue of UV finiteness of the four-dimensional N = 8 perturbation theory.

  11. Predicting community responses to perturbations in the face of imperfect knowledge and network complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Mark; Wootton, J. Timothy; Doak, Daniel F.; Emmerson, Mark; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Timothy

    2011-01-01

    How best to predict the effects of perturbations to ecological communities has been a long-standing goal for both applied and basic ecology. This quest has recently been revived by new empirical data, new analysis methods, and increased computing speed, with the promise that ecologically important insights may be obtainable from a limited knowledge of community interactions. We use empirically based and simulated networks of varying size and connectance to assess two limitations to predicting perturbation responses in multispecies communities: (1) the inaccuracy by which species interaction strengths are empirically quantified and (2) the indeterminacy of species responses due to indirect effects associated with network size and structure. We find that even modest levels of species richness and connectance (∼25 pairwise interactions) impose high requirements for interaction strength estimates because system indeterminacy rapidly overwhelms predictive insights. Nevertheless, even poorly estimated interaction strengths provide greater average predictive certainty than an approach that uses only the sign of each interaction. Our simulations provide guidance in dealing with the trade-offs involved in maximizing the utility of network approaches for predicting dynamics in multispecies communities.

  12. Dynamic Causal Modeling of the Cortical Responses to Wrist Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical perturbations applied to the wrist joint typically evoke a stereotypical sequence of cortical and muscle responses. The early cortical responses (<100 ms are thought be involved in the “rapid” transcortical reaction to the perturbation while the late cortical responses (>100 ms are related to the “slow” transcortical reaction. Although previous studies indicated that both responses involve the primary motor cortex, it remains unclear if both responses are engaged by the same effective connectivity in the cortical network. To answer this question, we investigated the effective connectivity cortical network after a “ramp-and-hold” mechanical perturbation, in both the early (<100 ms and late (>100 ms periods, using dynamic causal modeling. Ramp-and-hold perturbations were applied to the wrist joint while the subject maintained an isometric wrist flexion. Cortical activity was recorded using a 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG. We investigated how the perturbation modulated the effective connectivity for the early and late periods. Bayesian model comparisons suggested that different effective connectivity networks are engaged in these two periods. For the early period, we found that only a few cortico-cortical connections were modulated, while more complicated connectivity was identified in the cortical network during the late period with multiple modulated cortico-cortical connections. The limited early cortical network likely allows for a rapid muscle response without involving high-level cognitive processes, while the complexity of the late network may facilitate coordinated responses.

  13. Time-varying multiplex network: Intralayer and interlayer synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Sarbendu; Majhi, Soumen; Bera, Bidesh K.; Sinha, Sudeshna; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-12-01

    A large class of engineered and natural systems, ranging from transportation networks to neuronal networks, are best represented by multiplex network architectures, namely a network composed of two or more different layers where the mutual interaction in each layer may differ from other layers. Here we consider a multiplex network where the intralayer coupling interactions are switched stochastically with a characteristic frequency. We explore the intralayer and interlayer synchronization of such a time-varying multiplex network. We find that the analytically derived necessary condition for intralayer and interlayer synchronization, obtained by the master stability function approach, is in excellent agreement with our numerical results. Interestingly, we clearly find that the higher frequency of switching links in the layers enhances both intralayer and interlayer synchrony, yielding larger windows of synchronization. Further, we quantify the resilience of synchronous states against random perturbations, using a global stability measure based on the concept of basin stability, and this reveals that intralayer coupling strength is most crucial for determining both intralayer and interlayer synchrony. Lastly, we investigate the robustness of interlayer synchronization against a progressive demultiplexing of the multiplex structure, and we find that for rapid switching of intralayer links, the interlayer synchronization persists even when a large number of interlayer nodes are disconnected.

  14. The effect of input perturbations on swimming performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Andrea M.; Thornycroft, Patrick J. M.; Lauder, George V.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2014-11-01

    The influence of flexibility and fluid characteristics on the hydrodynamics of swimming has been investigated for a range of experimental systems. One investigative method is to use reduced-order physical models--pitching and heaving hydrofoils. Typically, a smooth, periodic, input signal is used to control foil motion in experiments that explore fundamental factors (aspect ratio, shape, etc.) in swimming performance. However, the significance of non-smooth input signals in undulating swimmers is non-trivial. Instead of varying external properties, we study the impact of perturbed input motions on swimming performance. A smooth sinusoid is overlaid with high frequency, low amplitude perturbations as the input signal for a heaving panel in a closed loop flow tank. Specifically, 1 cm heave amplitude base sinusoids are added to 0.1 cm heave perturbations with frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 13 Hz. Two thin foils with different stiffness are flapped with the combined input signals in addition to the individual high heave and low heave signals that were added to create the combined inputs. Results demonstrate that perturbations can increase thrust and that adding the perturbed signal to a base frequency alters wake structure.

  15. BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian [Physics Department, St. Lawrence University,Canton, NY 13617 (United States); Şengör, Gizem [Department of Physics, Syracuse University,Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

    2016-11-08

    BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas Dirac quantization, which amounts to quantization in synchronous gauge, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.

  16. Perturbative gadgets without strong interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yudong; Nagaj, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Perturbative gadgets are used to construct a quantum Hamiltonian whose low-energy subspace approximates a given quantum $k$-body Hamiltonian up to an absolute error $\\epsilon$. Typically, gadget constructions involve terms with large interaction strengths of order $\\text{poly}(\\epsilon^{-1})$. Here we present a 2-body gadget construction and prove that it approximates a target many-body Hamiltonian of interaction strength $\\gamma = O(1)$ up to absolute error $\\epsilon\\ll\\gamma$ using interact...

  17. Probabilistic infrasound propagation using realistic atmospheric perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, P.S.M.; Evers, L.G.; Näsholm, S.P.; Gibbons, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates probabilistic infrasound propagation modeling using realistic perturbations. The ensembles of perturbed analyses, provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), include error variances of both model and assimilated observations. Ensemble spread

  18. Perturbation theory and renormalisation group equations

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, Daniel F; Litim, Daniel F.; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the perturbative expansion of several one-loop improved renormalisation group equations. It is shown that in general the integrated renormalisation group flows fail to reproduce perturbation theory beyond one loop.

  19. FRW Cosmological Perturbations in Massive Bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Comelli, D; Pilo, L

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations of FRW solutions in ghost free massive bigravity, including also a second matter sector, are studied in detail. At early time, we find that sub horizon exponential instabilities are unavoidable and they lead to a premature departure from the perturbative regime of cosmological perturbations.

  20. Matrix perturbations: bounding and computing eigenvalues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis da Silva, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the somewhat negative connotation of the word, not every perturbation is a bad perturbation. In fact, while disturbing the matrix entries, many perturbations still preserve useful properties such as the orthonormality of the basis of eigenvectors or the Hermicity of the original matrix. In

  1. Investigating the role of vibrotactile noise in early response to perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Pilwon; Wan, Yao-Hung; Seo, Na Jin

    2014-06-01

    Timely reaction to perturbation is important in activities of daily living. Modulation of reaction time to and early recovery from perturbation via vibrotactile noise was investigated. It was hypothesized that subthreshold vibrotactile noise applied to the upper extremity can accelerate a person's reaction to and recovery from handle perturbation. This intervention was developed based on previous studies in which the earliest cue available for people to detect handle perturbation was somatosensation detecting changes in pressure on the hand whose sensitivity can improve with subthreshold vibrotactile noise. To induce a handle perturbation, a sudden upward load was applied to the handle that subjects were lightly grasping. Eighteen healthy subjects were instructed to stop the handle from moving up when they detected the perturbation. The muscle reaction time and handle stabilization time with and without vibrotactile noise were determined. The results showed that the muscle reaction time and handle stabilization time significantly decreased by 3 ms ( ) and 6 ms ( ), respectively, when vibrotactile noise was applied to the upper extremity, regardless of where the noise was applied among four different locations within the upper extremity ( p > 0.05). In conclusion, the application of subthreshold vibrotactile noise enhanced persons' muscle reaction time to handle perturbation and led to early recovery from the perturbation. Use of the vibrotactile noise may increase a person's ability to rapidly respond to perturbation of a grasped object in potentially dangerous situations such as holding onto ladder rungs from elevation or manipulating knives.

  2. Smoothly Varying Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alfen, Nicholas; Hindman, Lauren; Moody, Joseph Ward; Biancardi, Rochelle; Whipple, Parkes; Gaunt, Caleb

    2018-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that blazar light can vary sinusoidally with periods of hundreds of days to tens of years. Such behavior is expected of, among other things, jets coming from binary black holes. To look for general variability in lesser-known blazars and AGN, in 2015-2016 we monitored 182 objects with Johnson V-band magnitudes reported as being < 16. In all, this campaign generated 22,000 frames from 2,000 unique pointings. We find that approximately one dozen of these objects show evidence of smooth variability consistent with sinusoidal periods. We report on the entire survey sample, highlighting those that show sinusoidal variations.

  3. Vocal fundamental frequency and perturbation measurements of vowels by normal Malaysian Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Hua Nong; Chia, See Yan; Kim, Kang Soo; Sim, Siew Ling; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman

    2011-11-01

    The acoustic properties of vowel phonation vary across cultures. These specific characteristics, including vowel fundamental frequency (F(0)) and perturbation measures (Absolute Jitter [Jita], Jitter [Jitt], Relative Average Perturbation [RAP], five-point Period Perturbation Quotient [PPQ5], Absolute Shimmer [ShdB], Shimmer [Shim], and 11-point Amplitude Perturbation Quotient [APQ11]) are not well established for Malaysian Chinese adults. This article investigates the F(0) and perturbation measurements of sustained vowels in 60 normal Malaysian Chinese adults using acoustical analysis. Malaysian Chinese females had significantly higher F(0) than Malaysian males in all six vowels. However, there were no significant differences in F(0) across the vowels for each gender. Significant differences between vowels were observed for Jita, Jitt, PPQ5, ShdB, Shim, and APQ11 among Chinese males, whereas significant differences between vowels were observed for all the perturbation parameters among Chinese females. Chinese males had significantly higher Jita and APQ11 in the vowels than Chinese females, whereas no significant differences were observed between males and females for Jitt, RAP, PPQ5, and Shim. Cross-ethnic comparisons indicate that F(0) of vowel phonation varies within the Chinese ethnic group and across other ethnic groups. The perturbation measures cannot be simply compared, where the measures may vary significantly across different speech analysis softwares. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  4. Perturbed solitons in birefringent fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Horikis, T P

    2003-01-01

    A perturbation theory based on inverse scattering theory is developed for the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The theory finds useful application to the study of pulse propagation down a birefringent optical fibre and is used to examine features of the radiation field shed by a soliton pulse propagating down the fibre. The radiation field is linked to the scattering data through a transform pair which in the linear limit reduces to the forward and inverse Fourier transform pair. A complementary approach, which is in total agreement to these results, is also discussed.

  5. Resonant-state perturbation formalisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo, W.J. (Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Physics)

    1983-05-02

    Three different formalisms for determining bound-state, virtual-state, and resonant-state energies of a perturbed system are developed. Two of the formalisms are based on expansions of the unperturbed Green function in terms of bound-state, resonant-state and deformed-continuum-state contributions of the form developed by T. Berggren. The third formalism is based on a Mittag-Leffler expansion of the unperturbed Green function. The three formalisms are compared and the relative merits of calculation schemes based on them are examined.

  6. Theory of electromagnetic cyclotron wave growth in a time-varying magnetoplasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail, William B.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a time-dependent perturbation in the magnetoplasma on the wave and particle populations is investigated using the Kennel-Petchek (1966) approach. Perturbations in the cold plasma density, energetic particle distribution, and resonance condition are calculated on the basis of the ideal MHD assumption given an arbitrary compressional magnetic field perturbation. An equation is derived describing the time-dependent growth rate for parallel propagating electromagnetic cyclotron waves in a time-varying magnetoplasma with perturbations superimposed on an equilibrium configuration.

  7. Senescent intervertebral disc cells exhibit perturbed matrix homeostasis phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Kevin; Patil, Prashanti; McGowan, Sara J; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Robbins, Paul D; Kang, James; Sowa, Gwendolyn; Vo, Nam

    2017-09-01

    Aging greatly increases the risk for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) as a result of proteoglycan loss due to reduced synthesis and enhanced degradation of the disc matrix proteoglycan (PG). How disc matrix PG homeostasis becomes perturbed with age is not known. The goal of this study is to determine whether cellular senescence is a source of this perturbation. We demonstrated that disc cellular senescence is dramatically increased in the DNA repair-deficient Ercc1(-/Δ) mouse model of human progeria. In these accelerated aging mice, increased disc cellular senescence is closely associated with the rapid loss of disc PG. We also directly examine PG homeostasis in oxidative damage-induced senescent human cells using an in vitro cell culture model system. Senescence of human disc cells treated with hydrogen peroxide was confirmed by growth arrest, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, γH2AX foci, and acquisition of senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Senescent human disc cells also exhibited perturbed matrix PG homeostasis as evidenced by their decreased capacity to synthesize new matrix PG and enhanced degradation of aggrecan, a major matrix PG. of the disc. Our in vivo and in vitro findings altogether suggest that disc cellular senescence is an important driver of PG matrix homeostatic perturbation and PG loss. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. How life expectancy varies with perturbations in age-specific mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrycza, Tomasz F.; Baudisch, Annette

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A naturally arising question in demography is how a given change in mortality affects life expectancy. Scholars have targeted this question with different aims and from different perspectives. OBJECTIVE: We present and prove the central relationship between change in mortality...

  9. New Methods in Non-Perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Mithat [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-01-31

    In this work, we investigate the properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), by using newly developing mathematics and physics formalisms. Almost all of the mass in the visible universe emerges from a quantum chromodynamics (QCD), which has a completely negligible microscopic mass content. An intimately related issue in QCD is the quark confinement problem. Answers to non-perturbative questions in QCD remained largely elusive despite much effort over the years. It is also believed that the usual perturbation theory is inadequate to address these kinds of problems. Perturbation theory gives a divergent asymptotic series (even when the theory is properly renormalized), and there are non-perturbative phenomena which never appear at any order in perturbation theory. Recently, a fascinating bridge between perturbation theory and non-perturbative effects has been found: a formalism called resurgence theory in mathematics tells us that perturbative data and non-perturbative data are intimately related. Translating this to the language of quantum field theory, it turns out that non-perturbative information is present in a coded form in perturbation theory and it can be decoded. We take advantage of this feature, which is particularly useful to understand some unresolved mysteries of QCD from first principles. In particular, we use: a) Circle compactifications which provide a semi-classical window to study confinement and mass gap problems, and calculable prototypes of the deconfinement phase transition; b) Resurgence theory and transseries which provide a unified framework for perturbative and non-perturbative expansion; c) Analytic continuation of path integrals and Lefschetz thimbles which may be useful to address sign problem in QCD at finite density.

  10. Perturbativity in the seesaw mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Asaka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Standard Model extended by right-handed neutrinos to explain massive neutrinos through the seesaw mechanism. The new fermion can be observed when it has a sufficiently small mass and large mixings to left-handed neutrinos. If such a particle is the lightest right-handed neutrino, its contribution to the mass matrix of active neutrinos needs to be canceled by that of a heavier one. Yukawa couplings of the heavier one are then larger than those of the lightest one. We show that the perturbativity condition gives a severe upper bound on the mixing of the lightest right-handed neutrino, depending on the masses of heavier ones. Models of high energy phenomena, such as leptogenesis, can be constrained by low energy experiments.

  11. World-line perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    van Holten, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    The motion of a compact body in space and time is commonly described by the world line of a point representing the instantaneous position of the body. In General Relativity such a world-line formalism is not quite straightforward because of the strict impossibility to accommodate point masses and rigid bodies. In many situations of practical interest it can still be made to work using an effective hamiltonian or energy-momentum tensor for a finite number of collective degrees of freedom of the compact object. Even so exact solutions of the equations of motion are often not available. In such cases families of world lines of compact bodies in curved space-times can be constructed by a perturbative procedure based on generalized geodesic deviation equations. Examples for simple test masses and for spinning test bodies are presented.

  12. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2017-02-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose’s hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose’s hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.

  13. Quantum coherence of cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the degrees of quantum coherence of cosmological perturbations of different spins are computed in the large-scale limit and compared with the standard results holding for a single mode of the electromagnetic field in an optical cavity. The degree of second-order coherence of curvature inhomogeneities (and, more generally, of the scalar modes of the geometry) reproduces faithfully the optical limit. For the vector and tensor fluctuations, the numerical values of the normalized degrees of second-order coherence in the zero time-delay limit are always larger than unity (which is the Poisson benchmark value) but differ from the corresponding expressions obtainable in the framework of the single-mode approximation. General lessons are drawn on the quantum coherence of large-scale cosmological fluctuations.

  14. Cosmological perturbations for imperfect fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    Interacting fluids, endowed with bulk viscous stresses, are discussed in a unified perspective with the aim of generalizing the treatment of cosmological perturbation theory to the case where both fluctuating decay rates and fluctuating bulk viscosity coefficients are simultaneously present in the relativistic plasma. A gauge-invariant treatment of the qualitatively new phenomena arising in this context is provided. In a complementary approach, faithful gauge-fixed descriptions of the gravitational and hydrodynamical fluctuations are developed and exploited. To deepen the interplay between bulk viscous stresses and fluctuating decay rates, illustrative examples are proposed and discussed both analytically and numerically. Particular attention is paid to the coupled evolution of curvature and entropy fluctuations when, in the relativistic plasma, at least one of the interacting fluids possesses a fluctuating bulk viscosity coefficient. It is argued that this class of models may be usefully employed as an effec...

  15. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose's hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose's hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime \\emph{as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations}.

  16. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  17. Active System for Electromagnetic Perturbation Monitoring in Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoi, Adrian Marian; Helerea, Elena

    Nowadays electromagnetic environment is rapidly expanding in frequency domain and wireless services extend in terms of covered area. European electromagnetic compatibility regulations refer to limit values regarding emissions, as well as procedures for determining susceptibility of the vehicle. Approval procedure for a series of cars is based on determining emissions/immunity level for a few vehicles picked randomly from the entire series, supposing that entire vehicle series is compliant. During immunity assessment, the vehicle is not subjected to real perturbation sources, but exposed to electric/magnetic fields generated by laboratory equipment. Since current approach takes into account only partially real situation regarding perturbation sources, this paper proposes an active system for determining electromagnetic parameters of vehicle's environment, that implements a logical diagram for measurement, satisfying the imposed requirements. This new and original solution is useful for EMC assessment of hybrid and electrical vehicles.

  18. Closed form bound-state perturbation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollie J. Rose

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The perturbed Schrödinger eigenvalue problem for bound states is cast into integral form using Green's Functions. A systematic algorithm is developed and applied to the resulting equation giving rise to approximate solutions expressed as functions of the given perturbation parameter. As a by-product, convergence radii for the traditional Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theories emerge in a natural way.

  19. Perturbation Measurements on the Degree of Naturalness of Synthesized Vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Rosiane; Montagnoli, Arlindo; Murano, Emi Z; Gebrim, Eloisa; Hachiya, Adriana; Lopes da Silva, Jorge Vicente; Behlau, Mara; Tsuji, Domingos

    2017-05-01

    To determine the impact of jitter and shimmer on the degree of naturalness perception of synthesized vowels produced by acoustical simulation with glottal pulses (GP) and with solid model of the vocal tract (SMVT). Prospective study. Synthesized vowels were produced in three steps: 1. Eighty GP were developed (20 with jitter, 20 with shimmer, 20 with jitter+shimmer, 20 without perturbation); 2. A SMVT was produced based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from a woman during phonation-/ε/ and using rapid prototyping technology; 3. Acoustic simulations were performed to obtain eighty synthesized vowels-/ε /. Two experiments were performed. First Experiment: three judges rated 120 vowels (20 humans+80 synthesized+20% repetition) as "human" or "synthesized". Second Experiment: twenty PowerPoint slide sequences were created. Each slide had 4 synthesized vowels produced with the four perturbation condition. Evaluators were asked to rate the vowels from the most natural to the most artificial. First Experiment: all the human vowels were classified as human; 27 out of eighty synthesized vowels were rated as human, 15 of those were produced with jitter+shimmer, 10 with jitter, 2 without perturbation and none with shimmer. Second Experiment: Vowels produced with jitter+shimmer were considered as the most natural. Vowels with shimmer and without perturbation were considered as the most artificial. The association of jitter and shimmer increased the degree of naturalness of synthesized vowels. Acoustic simulations performed with GP and using SMVT demonstrated a possible method to test the effect of the perturbation measurements on synthesized voices. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perturbative spacetimes from Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, Andrés; Nicholson, Isobel; Ochirov, Alexander; O'Connell, Donal; Westerberg, Niclas; White, Chris D.

    2017-04-12

    The double copy relates scattering amplitudes in gauge and gravity theories. In this paper, we expand the scope of the double copy to construct spacetime metrics through a systematic perturbative expansion. The perturbative procedure is based on direct calculation in Yang-Mills theory, followed by squaring the numerator of certain perturbative diagrams as specified by the double-copy algorithm. The simplest spherically symmetric, stationary spacetime from the point of view of this procedure is a particular member of the Janis-Newman-Winicour family of naked singularities. Our work paves the way for applications of the double copy to physically interesting problems such as perturbative black-hole scattering.

  1. Black hole perturbation under a 2 +2 decomposition in the action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Justin L.; Yagi, Kent

    2018-01-01

    Black hole perturbation theory is useful for studying the stability of black holes and calculating ringdown gravitational waves after the collision of two black holes. Most previous calculations were carried out at the level of the field equations instead of the action. In this work, we compute the Einstein-Hilbert action to quadratic order in linear metric perturbations about a spherically symmetric vacuum background in Regge-Wheeler gauge. Using a 2 +2 splitting of spacetime, we expand the metric perturbations into a sum over scalar, vector, and tensor spherical harmonics, and dimensionally reduce the action to two dimensions by integrating over the two sphere. We find that the axial perturbation degree of freedom is described by a two-dimensional massive vector action, and that the polar perturbation degree of freedom is described by a two-dimensional dilaton massive gravity action. Varying the dimensionally reduced actions, we rederive covariant and gauge-invariant master equations for the axial and polar degrees of freedom. Thus, the two-dimensional massive vector and massive gravity actions we derive by dimensionally reducing the perturbed Einstein-Hilbert action describe the dynamics of a well-studied physical system: the metric perturbations of a static black hole. The 2 +2 formalism we present can be generalized to m +n -dimensional spacetime splittings, which may be useful in more generic situations, such as expanding metric perturbations in higher dimensional gravity. We provide a self-contained presentation of m +n formalism for vacuum spacetime splittings.

  2. Modeling of Perturbations in Mid-Ocean Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems are complex fluid circulation systems straddling the locations of formation of oceanic crust. Due to the dynamic nature of the crust building process, these systems are episodically subject to magmatic and seismic perturbations. Magma may be emplaced deep or shallow in the oceanic crust thereby changing the thermal structure and permeability of the system. Such events would enhance hydrothermal venting resulting in an increase in vent temperature and heat output along with a decrease in vent salinity in a phase separating system. Event plumes, which may be associated with dike intrusions into the shallow crust, are an important class of such perturbations. In this case, the formation of low salinity vapor may add to the thermal buoyancy flux and allow the plume to rise rapidly to a considerable height above the seafloor. Additionally, seismic or tectonic disturbances may occur both deep and shallow in the crust, changing the fluid-flow structure in the system. Upon knowledge of a major magmatic or seismotectonic event, temporary surveillance at the respective mid ocean ridge site is often increased as a result of rapid response cruises. One of the most common observations made after such events is the temperature of vent fluids, which is then correlated to time of observed activity and used to estimate the residence time of fluids in the system. However, our numerical results indicate that for deep-seated perturbations, surface salinity may show quicker response than temperature. This result serves as our motivation to seek better understanding of propagation mechanism of perturbations through hydrothermal systems. We construct analytical models for fluid flow, heat and salt transfer in both single cracks and through porous media to investigate how perturbations affect both heat and salt transfer to the surface. Our preliminary results for simplified fluid circulation systems tend to support the results from numerical modeling

  3. Climate model forecast biases assessed with a perturbed physics ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, David P.; Haines, Keith; Sparrow, Sarah N.; Wallom, David

    2017-09-01

    Perturbed physics ensembles have often been used to analyse long-timescale climate model behaviour, but have been used less often to study model processes on shorter timescales. We combine a transient perturbed physics ensemble with a set of initialised forecasts to deduce regional process errors present in the standard HadCM3 model, which cause the model to drift in the early stages of the forecast. First, it is shown that the transient drifts in the perturbed physics ensembles can be used to recover quantitatively the parameters that were perturbed. The parameters which exert most influence on the drifts vary regionally, but upper ocean mixing and atmospheric convective processes are particularly important on the 1-month timescale. Drifts in the initialised forecasts are then used to recover the `equivalent parameter perturbations', which allow identification of the physical processes that may be at fault in the HadCM3 representation of the real world. Most parameters show positive and negative adjustments in different regions, indicating that standard HadCM3 values represent a global compromise. The method is verified by correcting an unusually widespread positive bias in the strength of wind-driven ocean mixing, with forecast drifts reduced in a large number of areas as a result. This method could therefore be used to improve the skill of initialised climate model forecasts by reducing model biases through regional adjustments to physical processes, either by tuning or targeted parametrisation refinement. Further, such regionally tuned models might also significantly outperform standard climate models, with global parameter configurations, in longer-term climate studies.

  4. Perturbation theory in light-cone quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langnau, Alex [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A thorough investigation of light-cone properties which are characteristic for higher dimensions is very important. The easiest way of addressing these issues is by analyzing the perturbative structure of light-cone field theories first. Perturbative studies cannot be substituted for an analysis of problems related to a nonperturbative approach. However, in order to lay down groundwork for upcoming nonperturbative studies, it is indispensable to validate the renormalization methods at the perturbative level, i.e., to gain control over the perturbative treatment first. A clear understanding of divergences in perturbation theory, as well as their numerical treatment, is a necessary first step towards formulating such a program. The first objective of this dissertation is to clarify this issue, at least in second and fourth-order in perturbation theory. The work in this dissertation can provide guidance for the choice of counterterms in Discrete Light-Cone Quantization or the Tamm-Dancoff approach. A second objective of this work is the study of light-cone perturbation theory as a competitive tool for conducting perturbative Feynman diagram calculations. Feynman perturbation theory has become the most practical tool for computing cross sections in high energy physics and other physical properties of field theory. Although this standard covariant method has been applied to a great range of problems, computations beyond one-loop corrections are very difficult. Because of the algebraic complexity of the Feynman calculations in higher-order perturbation theory, it is desirable to automatize Feynman diagram calculations so that algebraic manipulation programs can carry out almost the entire calculation. This thesis presents a step in this direction. The technique we are elaborating on here is known as light-cone perturbation theory.

  5. Recycling perturbations of supershot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, S.D.; McCune, D.C.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.V.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Mansfield, H.K.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.E.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Towner, H.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Snipes, J.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Thermal heat transport in the core (r/a {le} 0.5) of beam-heated TFTR plasmas vanes by more than a factor of five between L-mode and supershot plasmas for the same I{sub p}, B{sub T}, and P{sub b}. Operationally, this variation is strongly correlated with the particle recycling coefficient of the carbon-carbon composite inner bumper limiter. The mechanisms underlying this correlation are not understood. This paper describes studies of the edge ion temperature, which is an important parameter if {tau}{sub E} is controlled by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. We find that a edge electron temperature scales simply with power per electron, irrespective of the recycling state of the limiter. By contrast, the scaling of edge ion temperature is strongly affected by the recycling state of the limiter. Much higher edge ion temperatures are attained in low-recycling plasmas for the same power per particle. In addition, perturbative studies of recycling effects on transport have been carried out by puffing in large amounts of helium into a supershot plasma. The local core transport coefficients increase on a transport time scale ({approximately}100 ms), much faster than the current relaxation time scale. This suggests that the current profile is not responsible for the favorable energy confinement of supershot plasmas relative to L-mode plasmas.

  6. Recycling perturbations of supershot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, S.D.; McCune, D.C.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.V.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Mansfield, H.K.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.E.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Towner, H.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Snipes, J.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Thermal heat transport in the core (r/a [le] 0.5) of beam-heated TFTR plasmas vanes by more than a factor of five between L-mode and supershot plasmas for the same I[sub p], B[sub T], and P[sub b]. Operationally, this variation is strongly correlated with the particle recycling coefficient of the carbon-carbon composite inner bumper limiter. The mechanisms underlying this correlation are not understood. This paper describes studies of the edge ion temperature, which is an important parameter if [tau][sub E] is controlled by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. We find that a edge electron temperature scales simply with power per electron, irrespective of the recycling state of the limiter. By contrast, the scaling of edge ion temperature is strongly affected by the recycling state of the limiter. Much higher edge ion temperatures are attained in low-recycling plasmas for the same power per particle. In addition, perturbative studies of recycling effects on transport have been carried out by puffing in large amounts of helium into a supershot plasma. The local core transport coefficients increase on a transport time scale ([approximately]100 ms), much faster than the current relaxation time scale. This suggests that the current profile is not responsible for the favorable energy confinement of supershot plasmas relative to L-mode plasmas.

  7. Haemorrhagic fevers and ecological perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guenno, B

    1997-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever is a clinical and imprecise definition for several different diseases. Their main common point is to be zoonoses. These diseases are due to several viruses which belong to different families. The Flaviviridae have been known for the longest time. They include the Amaril virus that causes yellow fever and is transported by mosquitoes. Viruses that have come to light more recently belong to three other families: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Filoviridae. They are transmitted by rodents (hantaviruses and arenaviruses) or from unknown reservoirs (Ebola Marburg). The primary cause of most outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever viruses is ecological disruption resulting from human activities. The expansion of the world population perturbs ecosystems that were stable a few decades ago and facilitates contacts with animals carrying viruses pathogenic to humans. Another dangerous human activity is the development of hospitals with poor medical hygiene. Lassa, Crimean-Congo or Ebola outbreaks are mainly nosocomial. There are also natural environmental changes: the emergence of Sin Nombre in the U.S. resulted from heavier than usual rain and snow during spring 1993 in the Four Corners. Biological industries also present risks. In 1967, collection of organs from monkeys allowed the discovery in Marburg of a new family of viruses, the Filoviridae. Hemorrhagic fever viruses are cause for worry, and the avenues to reduce their toll are still limited.

  8. Cosmological perturbations for imperfect fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo [Centro ' Enrico Fermi' , Compendio del Viminale, Via Panisperna 89/A, 00184 Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2005-12-21

    Interacting fluids, endowed with bulk viscous stresses, are discussed in a unified perspective with the aim of generalizing the treatment of cosmological perturbation theory to the case where both fluctuating decay rates and fluctuating bulk viscosity coefficients are simultaneously present in the relativistic plasma. A gauge-invariant treatment of the qualitatively new phenomena arising in this context is provided. In a complementary approach, faithful gauge-fixed descriptions of the gravitational and hydrodynamical fluctuations are developed and exploited. To deepen the interplay between bulk viscous stresses and fluctuating decay rates, illustrative examples are proposed and discussed both analytically and numerically. Particular attention is paid to the coupled evolution of curvature and entropy fluctuations when, in the relativistic plasma, at least one of the interacting fluids possesses a fluctuating bulk viscosity coefficient. It is argued that this class of models may be usefully employed as an effective description of the decay of the inflaton as well as of other phenomena involving imperfect relativistic fluids.

  9. Radial periodic perturbations of the Kepler problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, Alessandro; Gallo, Anna Chiara

    2017-11-01

    We consider radial periodic perturbations of a central force field and prove the existence of rotating periodic solutions, whose orbits are nearly circular. The proof is mainly based on the Implicit Function Theorem, and it permits to handle some small perturbations involving the velocity, as well. Our results apply, in particular, to the classical Kepler problem.

  10. Perturbation of operators and approximation of spectrum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    defined on a suitable subspace of L2(R) can be viewed as a perturbation of differential operator. If we consider the discretized version of this operator, we obtain a bounded operator on l2(Z), which can be seen as a perturbation of the difference operator, up to some scaling and translation by the identity as defined below:.

  11. Tokamak Transport Studies Using Perturbation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardozo, N. J. L.; Dehaas, J. C. M.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Orourke, J.; Sips, A.C.C.; Tubbing, B. J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the transport properties of tokamak plasmas using perturbation analysis are discussed. The focus is on experiments with not too large perturbations, such as sawtooth induced heat and density pulse propagation, power modulation and oscillatory gas-puff experiments. The approximations made

  12. Smooth rank one perturbations of selfadjoint operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassi, Seppo; Snoo, H.S.V. de; Willemsma, A.D.I.

    Let A be a selfadjoint operator in a Hilbert space aleph with inner product [.,.]. The rank one perturbations of A have the form A+tau [.,omega]omega, tau epsilon R, for some element omega epsilon aleph. In this paper we consider smooth perturbations, i.e. we consider omega epsilon dom \\A\\(k/2) for

  13. The recursion relation in Lagrangian perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampf, Cornelius, E-mail: rampf@physik.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2012-12-01

    We derive a recursion relation in the framework of Lagrangian perturbation theory, appropriate for studying the inhomogeneities of the large scale structure of the universe. We use the fact that the perturbative expansion of the matter density contrast is in one-to-one correspondence with standard perturbation theory (SPT) at any order. This correspondence has been recently shown to be valid up to fourth order for a non-relativistic, irrotational and dust-like component. Assuming it to be valid at arbitrary (higher) order, we express the Lagrangian displacement field in terms of the perturbative kernels of SPT, which are itself given by their own and well-known recursion relation. We argue that the Lagrangian solution always contains more non-linear information in comparison with the SPT solution, (mainly) if the non-perturbative density contrast is restored after the displacement field is obtained.

  14. Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: optimization of planning, scheduling, and manifesting; searching a discrete configuration space; heuristic algorithms used for optimization; use of heuristic methods on a sample scheduling problem; intelligent perturbation algorithms are iterative refinement techniques; properties of a good iterative search operator; dispatching examples of intelligent perturbation algorithm and perturbation operator attributes; scheduling implementations using intelligent perturbation algorithms; major advances in scheduling capabilities; the prototype ISF (industrial Space Facility) experiment scheduler; optimized schedule (max revenue); multi-variable optimization; Space Station design reference mission scheduling; ISF-TDRSS command scheduling demonstration; and example task - communications check.

  15. Modified Homotopy Perturbation Method for Solving Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Hemeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modified homotopy perturbation method is extended to derive the exact solutions for linear (nonlinear ordinary (partial differential equations of fractional order in fluid mechanics. The fractional derivatives are taken in the Caputo sense. This work will present a numerical comparison between the considered method and some other methods through solving various fractional differential equations in applied fields. The obtained results reveal that this method is very effective and simple, accelerates the rapid convergence of the series solution, and reduces the size of work to only one iteration.

  16. Effects of amplitude and predictability of perturbations to the arm on anticipatory and reactionary muscle responses to maintain balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani, Ali; Preuss, Richard; Milner, Theodore Edgar

    2017-08-01

    Disturbances to balance arising from forces applied to the upper limb have received relatively little attention compared to disturbances arising from support surface perturbations. In this study we applied fast ramp perturbations to the hand in anterior, posterior, medial and lateral directions. The effects of perturbation predictability and amplitude on the postural response of upper limb, trunk and lower limb muscles were investigated. Perturbations were applied either in blocks of constant amplitude and direction (predictable) or with direction and amplitude varying randomly (random) from trial to trial. The spatial-temporal patterns of anticipatory muscle activation under the predictable condition and the reactionary responses following the perturbation under both conditions were similarly organized. The size of the response increased systematically with the perturbation magnitude for both anticipatory and reactionary changes in muscle activation. However, the slope of the relation between perturbation amplitude and the magnitude of the change in muscle activation was greater when perturbations were predictable than when they were randomly selected. The timing of both the anticipatory and reactionary increases in muscle activation was invariant across perturbation amplitudes. The characteristics of the reactionary responses have a similar organization to the long latency muscle responses to support surface perturbations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel high-throughput multi-parameter flow cytometry based method for monitoring and rapid characterization of microbiome dynamics in anaerobic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoble, Abhishek S; Bekal, Sadia; Dolatowski, William; Yanz, Connor; Lambert, Kris N; Bhalerao, Kaustubh D

    2016-11-01

    A novel multidimensional flow cytometry based method has been demonstrated to monitor and rapidly characterize the dynamics of the complex anaerobic microbiome associated with perturbations in external environmental factors. While community fingerprinting provides an estimate of the meta genomic structure, flow cytometry provides a fingerprint of the community morphology including its autofluorescence spectrum in a high-throughput manner. Using anaerobic microbial consortia perturbed with the controlled addition of various carbon sources, it is possible to quantitatively discriminate between divergent microbiome analogous to community fingerprinting techniques using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). The utility of flow cytometry based method has also been demonstrated in a fully functional industry scale anaerobic digester to distinguish between microbiome composition caused by varying hydraulic retention time (HRT). This approach exploits the rich multidimensional information from flow cytometry for rapid characterization of the dynamics of microbial communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Singularly perturbed hyperbolic problems on metric graphs: asymptotics of solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovaty Yuriy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We are interested in the evolution phenomena on star-like networks composed of several branches which vary considerably in physical properties. The initial boundary value problem for singularly perturbed hyperbolic differential equation on a metric graph is studied. The hyperbolic equation becomes degenerate on a part of the graph as a small parameter goes to zero. In addition, the rates of degeneration may differ in different edges of the graph. Using the boundary layer method the complete asymptotic expansions of solutions are constructed and justified.

  19. Linear Perturbation Adaptive Control of Hydraulically Driven Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.O.; Hansen, M.R.; Conrad, Finn

    2004-01-01

    A method for synthesis of a robust adaptive scheme for a hydraulically driven manipulator, that takes full advantage of any known system dynamics to simplify the adaptive control problem for the unknown portion of the dynamics is presented. The control method is based on adaptive perturbation...... control.Using the Lyapunov approach, under slowly time-varying assumptions, it is shown that the tracking error and the parameter error remain bounded. This bound is a function of the ideal parameters and a bounded disturbance. The control algorithm decouples and linearizes the manipulator so that each...

  20. Adaptive time-varying detrended fluctuation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthouze, Luc; Farmer, Simon F

    2012-07-30

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a technique commonly used to assess and quantify the presence of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in neurophysiological time series. Convergence of the method is asymptotic only and therefore its application assumes a constant scaling exponent. However, most neurophysiological data are likely to involve either spontaneous or experimentally induced scaling exponent changes. We present a novel extension of the DFA method that permits the characterisation of time-varying scaling exponents. The effectiveness of the methodology in recovering known changes in scaling exponents is demonstrated through its application to synthetic data. The dependence of the method on its free parameters is systematically explored. Finally, application of the methodology to neurophysiological data demonstrates that it provides experimenters with a way to identify previously un-recognised changes in the scaling exponent in the data. We suggest that this methodology will make it possible to go beyond a simple demonstration of the presence of scaling to an appreciation of how it may vary in response to either intrinsic changes or experimental perturbations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analytic second derivatives from auxiliary density perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Venegas, Rogelio Isaac; Mejía-Rodríguez, Daniel; Flores-Moreno, Roberto; Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M.

    2016-12-01

    The working equations for the calculation of analytic second energy derivatives in the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT) are presented. The needed perturbations are calculated with auxiliary density perturbation theory (ADPT) which is extended to perturbation dependent basis and auxiliary functions sets. The obtained ADPT equation systems are solved with the Eirola-Nevanlinna algorithm. The newly developed analytic second ADFT energy derivative approach was implemented in deMon2k and validated with respect to the corresponding finite difference approach by calculating the harmonic frequencies of small molecules. Good agreement between these two methodologies is found. To analyze the scaling of the new analytic second ADFT energy derivatives with respect to the number of processors in parallel runs, the harmonic frequencies of the carbon fullerene C240 are calculated with varying numbers of processors. Fair scaling up to 720 processors was found. As showcase applications, symmetry unrestricted optimization and frequency analyses of icosahedral carbon fullerenes with up to 960 atoms are presented.

  2. Boundary layer response to periodic spanwise perturbation by an array of obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yan Ming; Longmire, Ellen

    2013-11-01

    Hot-wire and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements were performed on zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers perturbed by a single array of cylinders extending into the log region. The array spacing had a strong effect on the resulting vortex packet organization. With 0 . 6 δ array spacing, incoming vortex packets are frequently enhanced and remain stable over a downstream distance of 7 δ . On the other hand, a 0 . 2 δ spacing strongly disturbed incoming packets initially, but the incoming organization frequently reappeared by 2 δ downstream. Measurements indicate that the effect of the perturbation is strongest in the mid-span location between array elements. Furthermore, hot-wire measurements suggest that the strongest velocity perturbations migrate upwards with increasing downstream distance. SPIV results in streamwise-spanwise planes at different heights will be compared to show how structural aspects of the perturbation vary with downstream distance.

  3. Critical behaviors of gravity under quantum perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hongsheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Phase transition and critical phenomenon is a very interesting topic in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Gravity is believed to have deep and inherent relation to thermodynamics. Near the critical point,the perturbation becomes significant. Thus for ordinary matter (governed by interactions besides gravity the critical behavior will become very different if we ignore the perturbations around the critical point,such as mean field theory. We find that the critical exponents for RN-AdS spacetime keep the same values even when we consider the full quantum perturbations. This indicates a key difference between gravity and ordinary thermodynamic system.

  4. Numerical study of ionospheric response to perturbations and interaction with spacecraft instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Nadia

    This PhD thesis presents numerical studies of the ionosphere dynamics and of the interaction between ionospheric plasma and spacecraft instruments. The main results of my research are the following: A first study presents a simple model to account for magnetic field perturbations in response to geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes. Following an earthquake, large neutral density and velocity perturbations reach altitudes of 150 -- 350 km, where significant coupling between the neutral atmosphere and the ionosphere occurs. Photoionization and collisional friction between plasma and the neutral exosphere then results in a rapid variation in ionospheric plasma parameters. This in turn leads to the generation of two types of waves: shear Alfven and the compressional modes. Variations in the total electron content (TEC) are also computed for the ion acoustic mode and the compressional mode by considering density perturbations along and transverse to the magnetic field. The second part of my work considers the interaction between ionospheric plasma and spacecraft instruments under different plasma conditions. This is achieved by simulating space plasma interaction with two different particle sensors; namely, DEMETER's Segmented Langmuir probe (SLP) and JOULEII Suprathermal Ion imager (SII). The current characteristics of the SLP are computed with particle in cell (PIC) code, under different plasma conditions. The current collected by each segment varies with the orientation of the plasma flow velocity, the plasma composition and with the orientation of the magnetic field. For validation of the simulations, the computed characteristics are compared with DEMETER in situ measurements. Simulation results are found to be in good agreement with measurements. Finally, the impact of plasma flow on ion velocity distributions in the vicinity of the SII sensor aperture is numerically investigated. It is observed that the plasma flow modifies the electrostatic sheath and affects

  5. Cosmological perturbations in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Haro, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) could be studied from two totally different ways. The first one, called holonomy corrected LQC, is performed in the Hamiltonian framework, where the Asthekar connection is replaced by a suitable sinus function (holonomy correction), in order to have a well-defined quantum analogue. The alternative approach is based in the fact that isotropic LQC could be also obtained as a particular case of teleparallel $F(T)$ gravity (teleparallel LQC). Then, working in the Lagrangian framework and using the well-know perturbation equations in $F(T)$ gravity, we have obtained, in teleparallel LQC, the equations for scalar and tensor perturbations, and the corresponding Mukhanov-Sasaki equations. For scalar perturbations, our equation only differs from the one obtained by holonomy corrections in the velocity of sound, leading both formulations, essentially to the same scale invariant power spectrum when a matter-dominated universe is considered. However for tensor pe...

  6. Nonlinearly Perturbed Birth-Death-Type Models

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestrov, Dmitrii; Petersson, Mikael; Hössjer, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Asymptotic expansions for stationary and conditional quasi-stationary distributions of nonlinearly perturbed birth-death-type semi-Markov models are presented. Applications to models of population growth, epidemic spread and population genetics are discussed.

  7. 't Hooft loops and perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    De Forcrand, Philippe; Noth, D; Forcrand, Philippe de; Lucini, Biagio; Noth, David

    2005-01-01

    We show that high-temperature perturbation theory describes extremely well the area law of SU(N) spatial 't Hooft loops, or equivalently the tension of the interface between different Z_N vacua in the deconfined phase. For SU(2), the disagreement between Monte Carlo data and lattice perturbation theory for sigma(T)/T^2 is less than 2%, down to temperatures O(10) T_c. For SU(N), N>3, the ratios of interface tensions, (sigma_k/sigma_1)(T), agree with perturbation theory, which predicts tiny deviations from the ratio of Casimirs, down to nearly T_c. In contrast, individual tensions differ markedly from the perturbative expression. In all cases, the required precision Monte Carlo measurements are made possible by a simple but powerful modification of the 'snake' algorithm.

  8. On perturbation of eigenvalues embedded at thresholds in a two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present some results on the perturbation of eigenvalues embedded at thresholds in a two channel model Hamiltonian with a small off-diagonal perturbation. Examples are given of the various types of behavior of the eigenvalue under perturbation.

  9. Primordial magnetic fields from metric perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Maroto, A L

    2001-01-01

    We study the amplification of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations induced by the evolution of scalar metric perturbations at the end of inflation. Such perturbations break the conformal invariance of Maxwell equations in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds and allow the growth of magnetic fields on super-Hubble scales. We estimate the strength of the fields generated by this mechanism on galactic scales and compare the results with the present bounds on the galactic dynamo seed fields.

  10. Noise Perturbation Improves Supervised Speech Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    perturb a noise segment, we first apply short-time Fourier transform (STFT) to derive noise spectrogram, where a frame length of 20 ms and a frame...In addition, we show HIT−FA rate for voiced and unvoiced intervals in Table 4 and Table 5 respectively. We find that frequency perturbation is...effective for both voiced and unvoiced intervals. While classification accuracy and HIT−FA rate evaluate the estimated binary masks, STOI directly compares

  11. Simplifying quantum double Hamiltonians using perturbative gadgets

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Perturbative gadgets were originally introduced to generate effective k-local interactions in the low-energy sector of a 2-local Hamiltonian. Extending this idea, we present gadgets which are specifically suited for realizing Hamiltonians exhibiting non-abelian anyonic excitations. At the core of our construction is a perturbative analysis of a widely used hopping-term Hamiltonian. We show that in the low-energy limit, this Hamiltonian can be approximated by a certain ordered p...

  12. Nonequilibrium perturbation theory for complex scalar fields

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrie, I. D.; McKernan, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    Real-time perturbation theory is formulated for complex scalar fields away from thermal equilibrium in such a way that dissipative effects arising from the absorptive parts of loop diagrams are approximately resummed into the unperturbed propagators. Low order calculations of physical quantities then involve quasiparticle occupation numbers which evolve with the changing state of the field system, in contrast to standard perturbation theory, where these occupation numbers are frozen at their ...

  13. Tuning Leaky Nanocavity Resonances - Perturbation Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shlafman, Michael; Bayn, Igal; Salzman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Adiabatic frequency tuning of finite-lifetime-nanocavity electromagnetic modes affects also their quality-factor (Q). Perturbative Q change resulting from (real) frequency tuning, is a controllable parameter. Here, the influence of dielectric constant modulation (DCM) on cavity resonances is presented, by first order perturbation analysis for a 3D cavity with radiation losses. Semi-analytical expressions for DCM induced cavity mode frequency and Q changes are derived. The obtained results are...

  14. Alternative perturbation approaches in classical mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Raya, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Blvd. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-11-01

    We discuss two alternative methods, based on the Lindstedt-Poincare technique, for the removal of secular terms from the equations of perturbation theory. We calculate the period of an anharmonic oscillator by means of both approaches and show that one of them is more accurate for all values of the coupling constant. We believe that present discussion and comparison may be a suitable exercise for teaching perturbation theory in advanced undergraduate courses on classical mechanics.

  15. Tuning Leaky Nanocavity Resonances - Perturbation Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Shlafman, Michael; Salzman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Adiabatic frequency tuning of finite-lifetime-nanocavity electromagnetic modes affects also their quality-factor (Q). Perturbative Q change resulting from (real) frequency tuning, is a controllable parameter. Here, the influence of dielectric constant modulation (DCM) on cavity resonances is presented, by first order perturbation analysis for a 3D cavity with radiation losses. Semi-analytical expressions for DCM induced cavity mode frequency and Q changes are derived. The obtained results are in good agreement with numerical calculations.

  16. More evidence for a one-to-one correlation between Sprites and Early VLF perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldoupis, C.; Amvrosiadi, N.; Cotts, B. R. T.

    2010-01-01

    Past studies have shown a correlation between sprites and early VLF perturbations, but the reported correlation varies widely from ∼50% to 100%. The present study resolves these large discrepancies by analyzing several case studies of sprite and narrowband VLF observations, in which multiple tran...

  17. Introduction to non-perturbative heavy quark effective theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, R. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2010-08-15

    intrinsically is an expansion. In practise, carrying it out non-perturbatively beyond the order 1/m will be very difficult. In this context two observations are relevant. First, the expansion parameter for HQET applied to B-physics is {lambda}{sub QCD}/m{sub b} {proportional_to} 1/(r{sub 0}m{sub b})=1/10 and indeed recent computations of 1/m{sub b} corrections showed them to be very small. Second, since HQET yields the asymptotic expansion of QCD, it becomes more and more accurate the larger the mass is. It can therefore be used to constrain the large mass behavior of QCD computations done at finite, varying, quark masses. At some point, computers and computational strategies will be sufficient to simulate with lattice spacings which are small enough for a relativistic b-quark. One would then like to understand the full mass-behavior of observables and a combination of HQET and relativistic QCD will again be most useful. Already now, there is a strategy (de Divitiis et al. (2003), de Divitiis et al. (2003), Guazzini et al. (2008)), which, in its final version combines HQET and QCD in such a manner. For a short review of this aspect I refer to (Tantalo, 2008). (orig.)

  18. Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-09-01

    Solving the anisotropic acoustic wave equation numerically using finite-difference methods introduces many problems and media restriction requirements, and it rarely contributes to the ability to resolve the anisotropy parameters. Among these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing the solution of the anisotropic acoustic wave equation allows direct access to the desired limitation-free solutions, that is, solutions perturbed from the elliptical anisotropic background medium. It also provides a platform for parameter estimation because of the ability to isolate the wavefield dependency on the perturbed anisotropy parameters. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield to perturbations in the anisotropy parameters. The solutions of the perturbation equations represented the coefficients of a Taylor-series-type expansion of the wavefield as a function of the perturbed parameter, which is in this case η or the tilt of the symmetry axis. The expansion with respect to the symmetry axis allows use of an acoustic transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) kernel to estimate the background wavefield and the corresponding perturbation coefficients. The VTI extrapolation kernel is about one-fourth the cost of the transversely isotropic model with a tilt in the symmetry axis kernel. Thus, for a small symmetry axis tilt, the cost of migration using a first-order expansion can be reduced. The effectiveness of the approach was demonstrated on the Marmousi model.

  19. Power Flow in a Large-Core Multimode Fiber under External Perturbation and its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Sen; Xu, Yang; Zhong, Lisheng; Su, Lei

    2017-04-19

    Large core optical multimode fiber provides benefits such as a large light-coupling tolerance, easy handling, and delivery of higher light power without undesirable nonlinear effects. In this research, we exploit the effects of external perturbation on the power flow within the large core fiber and present two relevant applications, namely a perturbation sensor and a doughnut beam tuner. Since conventional multimode fiber power flow model does not take into consideration the perturbation effect, we modify the power flow model so that the influence of time varying perturbation can be theoretically analyzed. Based on our theory, we further conduct the numerical simulation and experiments on these two applications. For the fiber vibration sensor, the proposed numerical model shows that the sensor sensitivity depends on the intensity profile of the launched beam and also the higher-order harmonics that were not reported previously can become interferences to affect the signal. For the beam tuner application, we prove both theoretically and experimentally that the doughnut intensity profile at the fiber output can be tuned in real-time by applying external perturbations to the fiber. We expect that the results can be useful to further exploit the external perturbation on large core fiber in various applications.

  20. Cosmological perturbations on the Phantom brane

    CERN Document Server

    Bag, Satadru; Shtanov, Yuri; Sahni, Varun

    2016-01-01

    We obtain a closed system of equations for scalar perturbations in a multi-component braneworld. Our braneworld possesses a phantom-like equation of state at late times, $w_{\\rm eff} < -1$, but no big-rip future singularity. In addition to matter and radiation, the braneworld possesses a new effective degree of freedom - the 'Weyl fluid' or 'dark radiation'. Setting initial conditions on super-Hubble spatial scales at the epoch of radiation domination, we evolve perturbations of radiation, pressureless matter and the Weyl fluid until the present epoch. We observe a gradual decrease in the amplitude of the Weyl-fluid perturbations after Hubble-radius crossing, which results in a negligible effect of the Weyl fluid on the evolution of matter perturbations on spatial scales relevant for structure formation. Consequently, the quasi-static approximation of Koyama and Maartens provides a good fit to the exact results during the matter-dominated epoch. We find that the late-time growth of density perturbations on...

  1. Unique Fock quantization of scalar cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the ambiguities in the Fock quantization of the scalar perturbations of a Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker model with a massive scalar field as matter content. We consider the case of compact spatial sections (thus avoiding infrared divergences), with the topology of a three-sphere. After expanding the perturbations in series of eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the Hamiltonian of the system is written up to quadratic order in them. We fix the gauge of the local degrees of freedom in two different ways, reaching in both cases the same qualitative results. A canonical transformation, which includes the scaling of the matter field perturbations by the scale factor of the geometry, is performed in order to arrive at a convenient formulation of the system. We then study the quantization of these perturbations in the classical background determined by the homogeneous variables. Based on previous work, we introduce a Fock representation for the perturbations in which: (a) the co...

  2. Fluid dynamic propagation of initial baryon number perturbations on a Bjorken flow background

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Baryon number density perturbations offer a possible route to experimentally measure baryon number susceptibilities and heat conductivity of the quark gluon plasma. We study the fluid dynamical evolution of local and event-by-event fluctuations of baryon number density, flow velocity and energy density on top of a (generalized) Bjorken expansion. To that end we use a background-fluctuation splitting and a Bessel-Fourier decomposition for the fluctuating part of the fluid dynamical fields with respect to the azimuthal angle, the radius in the transverse plane and rapidity. We examine how the time evolution of linear perturbations depends on the equation of state as well as on shear viscosity, bulk viscosity and heat conductivity for modes with different azimuthal, radial and rapidity wave numbers. Finally we discuss how this information is accessible to experiments in terms of the transverse and rapidity dependence of correlation functions for baryonic particles in high energy nuclear collisions.

  3. Testing perturbative results with non-perturbative methods for the Hierarchical model

    OpenAIRE

    Meurice, Y.; Oktay, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    We present non-perturbative methods to calculate accurately the renormalized quantities for Dyson's Hierarchical Model. We apply this method and calculate the critical exponent gamma with 12 and 4 significant digits in the high and low temperature phases, respectively. We report accurate values for universal ratios of amplitudes and preliminary results concerning the comparison with perturbative results.

  4. Perturbative Saturation and the Soft Pomeron

    CERN Document Server

    Kovner, A; Kovner, Alex; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2002-01-01

    We show that perturbation theory provides two distinct mechanisms for the power like growth of hadronic cross sections at high energy. One, the leading BFKL effect is due to the growth of the parton density, and is characterized by the leading BFKL exponent. The other mechanism is due to the infrared diffusion, or the long range nature of the Coulomb field of perturbatively massless gluons. When perturbative saturation effects are taken into account, the first mechanism is rendered ineffective but the second one persists. We suggest that these two distinct mechanisms are responsible for the appearance of two pomerons. The density growth effects are responsible for the hard pomeron and manifest themselves in small systems (e.g. gamma^* or small size fluctuations in the proton wave function) where saturation effects are not important. The soft pomeron is the manifestation of the exponential growth of the black saturated regions which appear in typical hadronic systems. We point out that the nonlinear generaliza...

  5. Covariant perturbations in the gonihedric string model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Efraín

    2017-11-01

    We provide a covariant framework to study classically the stability of small perturbations on the so-called gonihedric string model by making precise use of variational techniques. The local action depends on the square root of the quadratic mean extrinsic curvature of the worldsheet swept out by the string, and is reparametrization invariant. A general expression for the worldsheet perturbations, guided by Jacobi equations without any early gauge fixing, is obtained. This is manifested through a set of highly coupled nonlinear differential partial equations where the perturbations are described by scalar fields, Φi, living in the worldsheet. This model contains, as a special limit, to the linear model in the mean extrinsic curvature. In such a case the Jacobi equations specialize to a single wave-like equation for Φ.

  6. Gravitino perturbations in Schwarzschild black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Piedra, Owen Pavel Fernández

    2010-01-01

    We consider the time evolution of massless gravitino perturbations in Schwarzschild black holes, and show that as in the case of fields of other values of spin, the evolution comes in three stages, after an initial outburst as a first stage, we observe the damped oscillations characteristic of the quasinormal ringing stage, followed by long time tails. Using the sixth order WKB method and Prony fitting of time domain data we determine the quasinormal frequencies. There is a good correspondence between the results obtained by the above two methods, and we obtain a considerable improvement with respect to the previously obtained third order WKB results. We also show that the response of a black hole depends crucially on the spin class of the perturbing field: the quality factor becomes a decreasing function of the spin for boson perturbations , whereas the opposite situation appears for fermion ones.

  7. One dimensional systems with singular perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, J J [Departamento de Informatica, E.U. de Informatica, Universidad de Valladolid, 40005 Segovia (Spain); Gadella, M; Nieto, L M [Departamento de FTAO, University of Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain); Glasser, L M [Department of Physics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5820 (United States); Lara, L P, E-mail: jjalvarez@infor.uva.es, E-mail: manuelgadella1@gmail.com, E-mail: laryg@clarkson.edu, E-mail: lplara@fceia.unr.edu.ar, E-mail: luismi@metodos.fam.cie.uva.es [Departamento de Sistemas, FRRO, Zevallos 1345, Rosario (Argentina)

    2011-03-01

    This paper discusses some one dimensional quantum models with singular perturbations. Eventually, a mass discontinuity is added at the points that support the singular perturbations. The simplest model includes an attractive singular potential with a mass jump both located at the origin. We study the form of the only bound state. Another model exhibits a hard core at the origin plus one or more repulsive deltas with mass jumps at the points supporting these deltas. We study the location and the multiplicity of these resonances for the case of one or two deltas and settle the basis for a generalization. Finally, we consider the harmonic oscillator and the infinite square well plus a singular potential at the origin. We see how the energy of bound states is affected by the singular perturbation.

  8. Chiral Perturbation Theory With Lattice Regularization

    CERN Document Server

    Ouimet, P P A

    2005-01-01

    In this work, alternative methods to regularize chiral perturbation theory are discussed. First, Long Distance Regularization will be considered in the presence of the decuplet of the lightest spin 32 baryons for several different observables. This serves motivation and introduction to the use of the lattice regulator for chiral perturbation theory. The mesonic, baryonic and anomalous sectors of chiral perturbation theory will be formulated on a lattice of space time points. The consistency of the lattice as a regulator will be discussed in the context of the meson and baryon masses. Order a effects will also be discussed for the baryon masses, sigma terms and magnetic moments. The work will close with an attempt to derive an effective Wess-Zumino-Witten Lagrangian for Wilson fermions at non-zero a. Following this discussion, there will be a proposal for a phenomenologically useful WZW Lagrangian at non-zero a.

  9. Learning about past catastrophes from the present perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, William

    2017-04-01

    The present perturbation of the climate system is dominated by injection of CO2 into the atmosphere, raisin its concentration from about 270ppm in 1800 to 400 ppm today. The rate of increase is about 300 times that which occurred during the last glacial termination. Predictions of the changes in response to this perturbation have been wrong. In 1982 it was proposed that the Arctic might become ice-free in summer in 2200. It is more likely to occur by 2020. The heating of the Earth's surface has paused from time to time, due to albedo changes induced by atmospheric pollutants and by heat storage in the ocean interior. Over the last decades, sea ice formation around Antarctica had expanded rather than contracted, counterintuitively due to warming of the Southern Ocean. In 2016-2017 the climate system may have experienced a jump to a new state, with winter growth of Arctic sea-ice inhibited and summer melting of circum-Antarctic sea ice greatly enhanced. Analysis of reconstructions of the Ronov (1993, Pliocene through Early Cambrian) and Hay (1994, Quaternary) databases on sedimentary rocks to estimate the amounts originally present suggest that the Holocene and Anthropocene may be unique episodes in geologic history. The Anthropocene climate was originally stabilized by human activity, then massively destabilized in recent centuries. However, Earth was already in a uniquely unstable state, more prone to rapid climate change than at any other time during the Phanerozoic. As the perturbation proceeds we will learn much about climate change from catastrophic events.

  10. Death to perturbative QCD in exclusive processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, R.; Hansper, J.; Gari, M.F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bochum (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The authors discuss the question of whether perturbative QCD is applicable in calculations of exclusive processes at available momentum transfers. They show that the currently used method of determining hadronic quark distribution amplitudes from QCD sum rules yields wave functions which are completely undetermined because the polynomial expansion diverges. Because of the indeterminacy of the wave functions no statement can be made at present as to whether perturbative QCD is valid. The authors emphasize the necessity of a rigorous discussion of the subject and the importance of experimental data in the range of interest.

  11. Unphysical states in staggered chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Christopher; Davila, George

    2015-01-01

    We study the extended phase diagram for staggered quarks using chiral perturbation theory. Recent beyond-the-standard-model simulations have shown that broken phases occur for coarse enough lattice spacing, so long as the number of quark flavors in the simulation is large enough (greater than eight). One of the phases seen in these simulations can be studied in depth using chiral perturbation theory. We also show that there are only three broken phases for staggered quarks that can arise, at least for lattice spacings in the regime a^2<< Lambda^2_{QCD}.

  12. Perturbations of C*-algebraic Invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.; Smith, Roger R.

    2010-01-01

    The setting of the article is the so-called theory of perturbations of algebras of operators. It is shown that several of the properties a C*-algebra may have are preseved under pertubations. The main result states that Pisier's concept finite length is a stasble property.......The setting of the article is the so-called theory of perturbations of algebras of operators. It is shown that several of the properties a C*-algebra may have are preseved under pertubations. The main result states that Pisier's concept finite length is a stasble property....

  13. Galilean invariant resummation schemes of cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloso, Marco; Pietroni, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Many of the methods proposed so far to go beyond Standard Perturbation Theory break invariance under time-dependent boosts (denoted here as extended Galilean Invariance, or GI). This gives rise to spurious large scale effects which spoil the small scale predictions of these approximation schemes. By using consistency relations we derive fully non-perturbative constraints that GI imposes on correlation functions. We then introduce a method to quantify the amount of GI breaking of a given scheme, and to correct it by properly tailored counterterms. Finally, we formulate resummation schemes which are manifestly GI, discuss their general features, and implement them in the so called Time-Flow, or TRG, equations.

  14. Conservative perturbation theory for nonconservative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tirth; Chattopadhyay, Rohitashwa; Vaidya, Kedar; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we show how to use canonical perturbation theory for dissipative dynamical systems capable of showing limit-cycle oscillations. Thus, our work surmounts the hitherto perceived barrier for canonical perturbation theory that it can be applied only to a class of conservative systems, viz., Hamiltonian systems. In the process, we also find Hamiltonian structure for an important subset of Liénard system-a paradigmatic system for modeling isolated and asymptotic oscillatory state. We discuss the possibility of extending our method to encompass an even wider range of nonconservative systems.

  15. A generalized perturbation program for CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Heon; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Won Sik [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A generalized perturbation program has been developed for the purpose of estimating zonal power variation of a CANDU reactor upon refueling operation. The forward and adjoint calculation modules of RFSP code were used to construct the generalized perturbation program. The numerical algorithm for the generalized adjoint flux calculation was verified by comparing the zone power estimates upon refueling with those of forward calculation. It was, however, noticed that the truncation error from the iteration process of the generalized adjoint flux is not negligible. 2 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  16. Perturbative and nonperturbative renormalization in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Perlt, H. [Leipzig Univ. (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2010-03-15

    We investigate the perturbative and nonperturbative renormalization of composite operators in lattice QCD restricting ourselves to operators that are bilinear in the quark fields (quark-antiquark operators). These include operators which are relevant to the calculation of moments of hadronic structure functions. The nonperturbative computations are based on Monte Carlo simulations with two flavors of clover fermions and utilize the Rome-Southampton method also known as the RI-MOM scheme. We compare the results of this approach with various estimates from lattice perturbation theory, in particular with recent two-loop calculations. (orig.)

  17. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  18. The Beauty of Lattice Perturbation Theory: the Role of Lattice Perturbation Theory in B Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    As new experimental data arrive from the LHC the prospect of indirectly detecting new physics through precision tests of the Standard Model grows more exciting. Precise experimental and theoretical inputs are required to test the unitarity of the CKM matrix and to search for new physics effects in rare decays. Lattice QCD calculations of non-perturbative inputs have reached a precision at the level of a few percent; in many cases aided by the use of lattice perturbation theory. This review examines the role of lattice perturbation theory in B physics calculations on the lattice in the context of two questions: how is lattice perturbation theory used in the different heavy quark formalisms implemented by the major lattice collaborations? And what role does lattice perturbation theory play in determinations of non-perturbative contributions to the physical processes at the heart of the search for new physics? Framing and addressing these questions reveals that lattice perturbation theory is a tool with a spectrum of applications in lattice B physics.

  19. Einstein Equations from Varying Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    A recent proposal equates the circuit complexity of a quantum gravity state with the gravitational action of a certain patch of spacetime. Since Einstein's equations follow from varying the action, it should be possible to derive them by varying complexity. I present such a derivation for vacuum solutions of pure Einstein gravity in three-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. The argument relies on known facts about holography and on properties of tensor network renormalization, an algorithm for coarse-graining (and optimizing) tensor networks.

  20. Un convoi exceptionnel perturbe la circulation

    CERN Multimedia

    Duraffourd, C

    2004-01-01

    "Le passage d'un convoi exceptionnel hier après-midi dans le secteur de Bellegarde en direction de Cessy aura causé d'importantes perturbations. Entre la deux fois deux voies obturée et les routes secondaires bouclées, les automobilistes ont dû prendre leur mal en patience" (1 page)

  1. Perturbation theory for intermolecular forces including exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Laidlaw, W.G.

    1970-01-01

    Generalized solutions to the Kisenschitz and London perturbation equations are derived. It is pointed out that the results obtained in the formalisms proposed by Hirschfelder (HAV), by Hirschfelder and Silbey, by Murrell and Shaw, and by Musher and Amos are special cases of the generalized

  2. Application of Lie transform perturbation method for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Three-dimensional non-Hermitian systems are investigated using classical perturbation theory based on Lie transformations. Analytic expressions for total energy in terms of action variables are derived. Both real and complex semiclassical eigenvalues are obtained by quantizing the action variables. It was found that ...

  3. Multiplicative perturbations of local C-semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lipschitz continuous) if S(·) is. Keywords. Local C-semigroup; generator; abstract Cauchy problem; perturbation. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 47D60, 47D62. 1. Introduction. Throughout this paper, we always assume that X is a Banach space with norm. ·, and L(X) denotes the set of all bounded linear operators ...

  4. Perturbations of ultralight vector field dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cembranos, J A R; Jareño, S J Núñez

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of cosmological perturbations in models of dark matter based on ultralight coherent vector fields. Very much as for scalar field dark matter, we find two different regimes in the evolution: for modes with $k^2\\ll {\\cal H}ma$, we have a particle-like behaviour indistinguishable from cold dark matter, whereas for modes with $k^2\\gg {\\cal H}ma$, we get a wave-like behaviour in which the sound speed is non-vanishing and of order $c_s^2\\simeq k^2/m^2a^2$. This implies that, also in these models, structure formation could be suppressed on small scales. However, unlike the scalar case, the fact that the background evolution contains a non-vanishing homogeneous vector field implies that, in general, the evolution of the three kinds of perturbations (scalar, vector and tensor) can no longer be decoupled at the linear level. More specifically, in the particle regime, the three types of perturbations are actually decoupled, whereas in the wave regime, the three vector field perturbations generate o...

  5. Geometric singular perturbation theory in biological practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hek, G.

    2010-01-01

    Geometric singular perturbation theory is a useful tool in the analysis of problems with a clear separation in time scales. It uses invariant manifolds in phase space in order to understand the global structure of the phase space or to construct orbits with desired properties. This paper explains

  6. Evolution of multimode perturbations in spherical implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaig, Markus; Thornber, Ben; Flud Group Team

    2017-10-01

    In this project, the growth of perturbations on the inner interface of a dense imploding shell is studied by means of high resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations using the AMR codes PLUTO and FLASH. We consider broadband and narrowband initial perturbations with mode numbers up to l = 200 . Perturbation growth happens as a consequence of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability seeded by the incident shock and subsequent reshocks, as well as Rayleigh-Taylor instability as the interface is decelerated near stagnation. We report on the evolution of the mix layer width, the atomic mix and the turbulent kinetic energy. For the case of broadband initial perturbations, a small-amplitude analysis that is valid beyond reshock is applied to predict the evolution of the mix layer width and to quantify the impact of RT/RM instabilities and convergence and compression effects on the mix layer growth. Finally, it is shown that the mix layer growth is well represented by a just-saturated mode model. This research was supported under the ARC Discovery Projects funding scheme (Project No. DP150101059) and used computational resources at the NCI provided through the NCMAS allocation scheme.

  7. Chiral perturbation theory and nucleon polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusci, D.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1996-10-01

    The available experimental data concerning the unpolarized cross section for the Compton scattering on the nucleon at low energy are compared with the predictions of the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT) at the order q{sup 3}.

  8. Perturbation of operators and approximation of spectrum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The known results, for a bounded self-adjoint operator, are translated into the case of a norm continuous family of operators. Also an attempt is made to predict the existence of spectral gaps that may occur between the bounds of essential spectrum of A ( 0 ) = A and study the effect of norm continuous perturbation of ...

  9. Application of Lie transform perturbation method for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Application of Lie transform perturbation method for multidimensional ..... tions of eqs (12) and (13), we can evaluate classical action integrals Ii = ∮ ηi dξi exactly ..... [7] C M Bender, S Boettcher and P N Meisinger, J. Math. Phys. 40, 2201 ...

  10. Gravitino Perturbations in Schwarzschild Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Piedra, Owen Pavel

    We consider the time-evolution of massless gravitino perturbations in Schwarzschild black holes, and show that as in the case of fields of other values of spin, the evolution comes in three stages. After an initial outburst as a first stage, we observe the damped oscillations characteristic of the quasinormal ringing stage, followed by long time tails. Using the sixth-order WKB method and Prony fitting of time domain data we determine the quasinormal frequencies. There is a good correspondence between the results obtained by the above two methods, and we obtain a considerable improvement with respect to the previously obtained third-order WKB results. We also show that the response of a black hole depends crucially on the spin class of the perturbing field: the quality factor becomes a decreasing function of the spin for boson perturbations, whereas the opposite situation appears for fermion ones. With respect to the late-time behavior, we found numerical evidence of a faster decay of gravitino perturbations, a result in constrast with what is known for other neutral fields.

  11. Cell cycle population effects in perturbation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Lijnzaad, Philip; Benschop, Joris J; Lenstra, Tineke L; van Leenen, Dik; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Margaritis, Thanasis; Brok, Mariel O; Kemmeren, Patrick; Holstege, Frank C P

    2014-06-21

    Growth condition perturbation or gene function disruption are commonly used strategies to study cellular systems. Although it is widely appreciated that such experiments may involve indirect effects, these frequently remain uncharacterized. Here, analysis of functionally unrelated Saccharyomyces cerevisiae deletion strains reveals a common gene expression signature. One property shared by these strains is slower growth, with increased presence of the signature in more slowly growing strains. The slow growth signature is highly similar to the environmental stress response (ESR), an expression response common to diverse environmental perturbations. Both environmental and genetic perturbations result in growth rate changes. These are accompanied by a change in the distribution of cells over different cell cycle phases. Rather than representing a direct expression response in single cells, both the slow growth signature and ESR mainly reflect a redistribution of cells over different cell cycle phases, primarily characterized by an increase in the G1 population. The findings have implications for any study of perturbation that is accompanied by growth rate changes. Strategies to counter these effects are presented and discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  12. Selection of perturbation experiments for model discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vatcheva, Ivayla; de Jong, Hidde; Mars, Nicolaas

    2000-01-01

    It often occurs that a system can be described by several competing models. In order to distinguish among the alternative models, further information about the behavior of the system is required. One way to obtain such information is to perform suitably chosen perturbation experiments. We introduce

  13. Perturbations of normally solvable nonlinear operators, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Ray

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X and Y be Banach spaces and let ℱ and be Gateaux differentiable mappings from X to Y In this note we study when the operator ℱ+ is surjective for sufficiently small perturbations of a surjective operator ℱ The methods extend previous results in the area of normal solvability for nonlinear operators.

  14. Privacy Is Become with, Data Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Er. Niranjan; Singhai, Niky

    2011-06-01

    Privacy is becoming an increasingly important issue in many data mining applications that deal with health care, security, finance, behavior and other types of sensitive data. Is particularly becoming important in counterterrorism and homeland security-related applications. We touch upon several techniques of masking the data, namely random distortion, including the uniform and Gaussian noise, applied to the data in order to protect it. These perturbation schemes are equivalent to additive perturbation after the logarithmic Transformation. Due to the large volume of research in deriving private information from the additive noise perturbed data, the security of these perturbation schemes is questionable Many artificial intelligence and statistical methods exist for data analysis interpretation, Identifying and measuring the interestingness of patterns and rules discovered, or to be discovered is essential for the evaluation of the mined knowledge and the KDD process as a whole. While some concrete measurements exist, assessing the interestingness of discovered knowledge is still an important research issue. As the tool for the algorithm implementations we chose the language of choice in industrial world MATLAB.

  15. Renormalized Perturbation Theory A Missing Chapter

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Renormalized perturbation theory à la BPHZ can be founded on causality as analyzed by H. Epstein and V. Glaser in the seventies. Here, we list and discuss a number of additional constraints of algebraic character some of which have to be considered as parts of the core of the BPHZ framework.

  16. Non-perturbative Heavy Quark Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Morte, Michele; Heitger, Jochen; Simma, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    We review a lattice strategy how to non-perturbatively determine the coefficients in the HQET expansion of all components of the heavy-light axial and vector currents, including 1/m_h-corrections. We also discuss recent preliminary results on the form factors parameterizing semi-leptonic B-decays...

  17. Covariant perturbation theory and chiral superpropagators

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, G

    1972-01-01

    The authors use a covariant formulation of perturbation theory for the non-linear chiral invariant pion model to define chiral superpropagators leading to S-matrix elements which are independent of the choice of the pion field coordinates. The relation to the standard definition of chiral superpropagators is discussed. (11 refs).

  18. Axiomatic approach to perturbative quantum field teory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmann, O. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    1995-10-01

    A derivation with axiomatic methods of a perturbative expansion for the Wightman functions of a relativistic field theory is described. The method gives also the correlation functions of the fields in KMS states. Using these results, a scattering formalism for QED is introduced, which does not involve any infrared divergent quantities. (orig.).

  19. Perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of heavy-quark fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, E; Gardi, Einan; Cacciari, Matteo

    2004-01-01

    We describe a new approach to heavy-quark fragmentation which is based on a resummed perturbative calculation and parametrization of power corrections, concentrating on the z -> 1 limit, where the heavy meson carries a large fraction of the momentum of the initial quark. It is shown that the leading power corrections in this region are controlled by the scale m(1-z). Renormalon analysis is then used to extend the perturbative treatment of soft and collinear radiation to the non-perturbative regime. Theoretical predictions are confronted with data on B-meson production in e+e- annihilation.

  20. Unique Fock quantization of scalar cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the ambiguities in the Fock quantization of the scalar perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model with a massive scalar field as matter content. We consider the case of compact spatial sections (thus avoiding infrared divergences), with the topology of a three-sphere. After expanding the perturbations in series of eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the Hamiltonian of the system is written up to quadratic order in them. We fix the gauge of the local degrees of freedom in two different ways, reaching in both cases the same qualitative results. A canonical transformation, which includes the scaling of the matter-field perturbations by the scale factor of the geometry, is performed in order to arrive at a convenient formulation of the system. We then study the quantization of these perturbations in the classical background determined by the homogeneous variables. Based on previous work, we introduce a Fock representation for the perturbations in which: (a) the complex structure is invariant under the isometries of the spatial sections and (b) the field dynamics is implemented as a unitary operator. These two properties select not only a unique unitary equivalence class of representations, but also a preferred field description, picking up a canonical pair of field variables among all those that can be obtained by means of a time-dependent scaling of the matter field (completed into a linear canonical transformation). Finally, we present an equivalent quantization constructed in terms of gauge-invariant quantities. We prove that this quantization can be attained by a mode-by-mode time-dependent linear canonical transformation which admits a unitary implementation, so that it is also uniquely determined.

  1. Growth of matter perturbation in quintessence cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulki, Fargiza A. M.; Wulandari, Hesti R. T.

    2017-01-01

    Big bang theory states that universe emerged from singularity with very high temperature and density, then expands homogeneously and isotropically. This theory gives rise standard cosmological principle which declares that universe is homogeneous and isotropic on large scales. However, universe is not perfectly homogeneous and isotropic on small scales. There exist structures starting from clusters, galaxies even to stars and planetary system scales. Cosmological perturbation theory is a fundamental theory that explains the origin of structures. According to this theory, the structures can be regarded as small perturbations in the early universe, which evolves as the universe expands. In addition to the problem of inhomogeneities of the universe, observations of supernovae Ia suggest that our universe is being accelerated. Various models of dark energy have been proposed to explain cosmic acceleration, one of them is cosmological constant. Because of several problems arise from cosmological constant, the alternative models have been proposed, one of these models is quintessence. We reconstruct growth of structure model following quintessence scenario at several epochs of the universe, which is specified by the effective equation of state parameters for each stage. Discussion begins with the dynamics of quintessence, in which exponential potential is analytically derived, which leads to various conditions of the universe. We then focus on scaling and quintessence dominated solutions. Subsequently, we review the basics of cosmological perturbation theory and derive formulas to investigate how matter perturbation evolves with time in subhorizon scales which leads to structure formation, and also analyze the influence of quintessence to the structure formation. From analytical exploration, we obtain the growth rate of matter perturbation and the existence of quintessence as a dark energy that slows down the growth of structure formation of the universe.

  2. Perturbation theory for cosmologies with nonlinear structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sophia R.; Gallagher, Christopher S.; Clifton, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    The next generation of cosmological surveys will operate over unprecedented scales, and will therefore provide exciting new opportunities for testing general relativity. The standard method for modelling the structures that these surveys will observe is to use cosmological perturbation theory for linear structures on horizon-sized scales, and Newtonian gravity for nonlinear structures on much smaller scales. We propose a two-parameter formalism that generalizes this approach, thereby allowing interactions between large and small scales to be studied in a self-consistent and well-defined way. This uses both post-Newtonian gravity and cosmological perturbation theory, and can be used to model realistic cosmological scenarios including matter, radiation and a cosmological constant. We find that the resulting field equations can be written as a hierarchical set of perturbation equations. At leading-order, these equations allow us to recover a standard set of Friedmann equations, as well as a Newton-Poisson equation for the inhomogeneous part of the Newtonian energy density in an expanding background. For the perturbations in the large-scale cosmology, however, we find that the field equations are sourced by both nonlinear and mode-mixing terms, due to the existence of small-scale structures. These extra terms should be expected to give rise to new gravitational effects, through the mixing of gravitational modes on small and large scales—effects that are beyond the scope of standard linear cosmological perturbation theory. We expect our formalism to be useful for accurately modeling gravitational physics in universes that contain nonlinear structures, and for investigating the effects of nonlinear gravity in the era of ultra-large-scale surveys.

  3. INFLUENCE OF SUPERPLASTICIZER AND VARYING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of the study on the influence of superplasticizer and varying aggregate size on the drying shrinkage and compressive strength of laterised concrete. Four different samples of laterised concrete were made from prescribed mix ratio of 1:1:2 which include; two control specimens made with ...

  4. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  5. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  6. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly...

  7. Eestlased Karlovy Varys / J. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"

  8. Analytical Treatment of the Two-Body Problem with Slowly Varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The present work is concerned with the two-body problem with varying mass in case of isotropic mass loss from both components of the binary systems. The law of mass variation used gives rise to a perturbed. Keplerian problem depending on two small parameters. The problem is treated analytically in the ...

  9. Dynamics of a stochastic tuberculosis model with constant recruitment and varying total population size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing; Shi, Ningzhong; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we develop a mathematical model for a tuberculosis model with constant recruitment and varying total population size by incorporating stochastic perturbations. By constructing suitable stochastic Lyapunov functions, we establish sufficient conditions for the existence of an ergodic stationary distribution as well as extinction of the disease to the stochastic system.

  10. Conformal invariant cosmological perturbations via the covariant approach

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Mingzhe

    2015-01-01

    It is known that some cosmological perturbations are conformal invariant. This facilitates the studies of perturbations within some gravitational theories alternative to general relativity, for example the scalar-tensor theory, because it is possible to do equivalent analysis in a certain frame in which the perturbation equations are simpler. In this paper we revisit the problem of conformal invariances of cosmological perturbations in terms of the covariant approach in which the perturbation variables have clear geometric and physical meanings. We show that with this approach the conformal invariant perturbations are easily identified.

  11. Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelev, N.A., E-mail: koshna71@inbox.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy str 42, 432970 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.

  12. Singular perturbation margin and generalised gain margin for linear time-invariant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Zhu, J. Jim; Scottedward Hodel, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a singular perturbation margin (SPM) and a generalised gain margin (GGM) as stability metrics for single input-single output (SISO) linear time-invariant (LTI) systems from the view of singular perturbations and regular perturbations, which have bijective correspondences with the classical phase margin (PM) and the gain margin (GM), respectively. Both of the numerical and analytical time-domain SPM and GGM assessment methods are provided, and relationships between the singular perturbation parameter, PM of the perturbed system, PM and SPM of the nominal system, and the (monotonically increasing) phase of the fast system are also revealed. These results make it possible to assess the PM of the nominal system in the time domain for SISO LTI systems using the SPM with a standardised testing system called 'PM-gauge,' as demonstrated by examples. The concepts of SPM and GGM can be used as metrics of stability margins for linear time-varying systems and nonlinear systems.

  13. Plasma Perturbations in High-Speed Probing of Hall Thruster Discharge Chambers: Quantification and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorns, Benjamin A.; Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental investigation is presented to quantify the effect of high-speed probing on the plasma parameters inside the discharge chamber of a 6-kW Hall thruster. Understanding the nature of these perturbations is of significant interest given the importance of accurate plasma measurements for characterizing thruster operation. An array of diagnostics including a high-speed camera and embedded wall probes is employed to examine in real time the changes in electron temperature and plasma potential induced by inserting a high-speed reciprocating Langmuir probe into the discharge chamber. It is found that the perturbations onset when the scanning probe is downstream of the electron temperature peak, and that along channel centerline, the perturbations are best characterized as a downstream shift of plasma parameters by 15-20% the length of the discharge chamber. A parametric study is performed to investigate techniques to mitigate the observed probe perturbations including varying probe speed, probe location, and operating conditions. It is found that the perturbations largely disappear when the thruster is operated at low power and low discharge voltage. The results of this mitigation study are discussed in the context of recommended methods for generating unperturbed measurements of the discharge chamber plasma.

  14. A non-perturbative operator product expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Cundy, N.; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2009-10-15

    Nucleon structure functions can be observed in Deep Inelastic Scattering experiments, but it is an outstanding challenge to confront them with fully non-perturbative QCD results. For this purpose we investigate the product of electromagnetic currents (with large photonmomenta) between quark states (of low momenta). By means of an Operator Product Expansion the structure function can be decomposed into matrix elements of local operators, and Wilson coefficients. For consistency both have to be computed non-perturbatively. Here we present precision results for a set of Wilson coefficients. They are evaluated from propagators for numerous quark momenta on the lattice, where the use of chiral fermions suppresses undesired operator mixing. This overdetermines the Wilson coefficients, but reliable results can be extracted by means of a Singular Value Decomposition. (orig.)

  15. Horizon dynamics in perturbed Kerr spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Tony; Cohen, Michael I

    2010-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of a Kerr black hole perturbed by a pulse of ingoing gravitational radiation. For strong perturbations we find up to five concentric marginally outer trapped surfaces. These trapped surfaces appear and disappear in pairs, so that the total number of such surfaces at any given time is odd. The world tubes traced out by the marginally outer trapped surfaces are found to be spacelike during the highly dynamical regime, approaching a null hypersurface at early and late times. We analyze the structure of these marginally trapped tubes in the context of the dynamical horizon formalism, computing the expansion of outgoing and incoming null geodesics, as well as evaluating the dynamical horizon flux law and the angular momentum flux law. Finally, we compute the event horizon. The event horizon is well-behaved and approaches the apparent horizon before and after the highly dynamical regime. No new generators enter the event horizon during the simulation.

  16. Cosmological perturbations in transient phantom inflation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richarte, Martin G. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 19044, Curitiba (Brazil); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria 1428, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kremer, Gilberto M. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 19044, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    We present a model of inflation where the inflaton is accommodated as a phantom field which exhibits an initial transient pole behavior and then decays into a quintessence field which is responsible for a radiation era. We must stress that the present unified model only deals with a single field and that the transition between the two eras is achieved in a smooth way, so the model does not suffer from the eternal inflation issue. We explore the conditions for the crossing of the phantom divide line within the inflationary era along with the structural stability of several critical points. We study the behavior of the phantom field within the slow-climb approximation along with the necessary conditions to have sufficient inflation. We also examine the model at the level of classical perturbations within the Newtonian gauge and determine the behavior of the gravitational potential, contrast density and perturbed field near the inflation stage and the subsequent radiation era. (orig.)

  17. Nonlinear Acoustics -- Perturbation Theory and Webster's Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, Rogério

    2013-01-01

    Webster's horn equation (1919) offers a one-dimensional approximation for low-frequency sound waves along a rigid tube with a variable cross-sectional area. It can be thought as a wave equation with a source term that takes into account the nonlinear geometry of the tube. In this document we derive this equation using a simplified fluid model of an ideal gas. By a simple change of variables, we convert it to a Schr\\"odinger equation and use the well-known variational and perturbative methods to seek perturbative solutions. As an example, we apply these methods to the Gabriel's Horn geometry, deriving the first order corrections to the linear frequency. An algorithm to the harmonic modes in any order for a general horn geometry is derived.

  18. SPT 2004: Symmetry and Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Prinari, Barbara; Rauch-Wojciechowski, Stefan; Terracini, Susanna

    2005-01-01

    This proceedings volume is a collection of papers presented at the International Conference on SPT2004 focusing on symmetry, perturbation theory, and integrability. The book provides an updated overview of the recent developments in the various different fields of nonlinear dynamics, covering both theory and applications. Special emphasis is given to algebraic and geometric integrability, solutions to the N-body problem of the “choreography” type, geometry and symmetry of dynamical systems, integrable evolution equations, various different perturbation theories, and bifurcation analysis. The contributors to this volume include some of the leading scientists in the field, among them: I Anderson, D Bambusi, S Benenti, S Bolotin, M Fels, W Y Hsiang, V Matveev, A V Mikhailov, P J Olver, G Pucacco, G Sartori, M A Teixeira, S Terracini, F Verhulst and I Yehorchenko.

  19. A primer for Chiral Perturbative Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Stefan [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Schindler, Matthias R. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics; George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-01

    Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques. (orig.)

  20. A primer for chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques.

  1. Molecular Cluster Perturbation Theory. I. Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Byrd, Jason N; Molt,, Robert W; Bartlett, Rodney J; Sanders, Beverly A; Lotrich, Victor F

    2014-01-01

    We present second-order molecular cluster perturbation theory (MCPT(2)), a methodology to calculate arbitrarily large systems with explicit calculation of individual wavefunctions in a coupled cluster framework. This new MCPT(2) framework uses coupled cluster perturbation theory and an expansion in terms of molecular dimer interactions to obtain molecular wavefunctions that are infinite order in both the electronic fluctuation operator and all possible dimer (and products of dimers) interactions. The MCPT(2) framework has been implemented in the new SIA/ACES parallel architecture, making use of the advanced dynamic memory control and fine grained parallelism to perform very large explicit molecular cluster calculations. To illustrate the power of this method, we have computed energy shifts and lattice site dipole moments for the polar and non-polar configurations of solid hydrogen fluoride by scaling an explicit lattice to the bulk limit. The explicit lattice size without periodic boundary conditions was scal...

  2. A Numerical, Literal, and Converged Perturbation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesel, William E.

    2017-09-01

    The KAM theorem and von Ziepel's method are applied to a perturbed harmonic oscillator, and it is noted that the KAM methodology does not allow for necessary frequency or angle corrections, while von Ziepel does. The KAM methodology can be carried out with purely numerical methods, since its generating function does not contain momentum dependence. The KAM iteration is extended to allow for frequency and angle changes, and in the process apparently can be successfully applied to degenerate systems normally ruled out by the classical KAM theorem. Convergence is observed to be geometric, not exponential, but it does proceed smoothly to machine precision. The algorithm produces a converged perturbation solution by numerical methods, while still retaining literal variable dependence, at least in the vicinity of a given trajectory.

  3. Polemic Notes on IR Perturbative Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Ilya L.

    Quantum gravity is an important and to great extent unsolved problem. There are many different approaches to the quantization of the metric field, both perturbative and nonperturbative. The current situation in the perturbative quantum gravity is characterized by a number of different models, some of them well elaborated but no one perfect nor mathematically neither phenomenologically, mainly because there are no theoretically derived observables which can be experimentally measured. A very interesting one is an effective approach which separates the low-energy quantum effects from the UV sector. In this way one can calculate quantities which are potentially relevant for establishing certain universal features of quantum gravity. In this presentation we give a polemic consideration of the effective approach to the infrared quantum gravity. We question the validity of the recent results in this area and also discuss how one can check the alleged universality of the effective approach.

  4. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  5. Perturbative Semiclassical Trace Formulae for Harmonic Oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob; Ögren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    U(D) to O(D) symmetry breaking. We derive the gross structure of the semiclassical spectrum from periodic orbit theory, in the form of a perturbative (ħ → 0) trace formula. We then show how to apply the results to even-order polynomial potentials, possibly including mean-field terms. We have drawn...... the conclusion that the gross structure of the quantum spectrum is determined from only classical circular and diameter orbits for this class of systems....

  6. Gravitino perturbations in Schwarzschild black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Piedra, Owen Pavel Fernández

    2010-01-01

    We consider the time evolution of massless gravitino perturbations in Schwarzschild black holes, and show that as in the case of fields of other values of spin, the evolution comes in three stages, after an initial outburst as a first stage, we observe the damped oscillations characteristic of the quasinormal ringing stage, followed by long time tails. Using the sixth order WKB method and Prony fitting of time domain data we determine the quasinormal frequencies. There is a good correspondenc...

  7. Geometric perturbation theory and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omohundro, S.M.

    1985-04-04

    Modern differential geometric techniques are used to unify the physical asymptotics underlying mechanics, wave theory and statistical mechanics. The approach gives new insights into the structure of physical theories and is suited to the needs of modern large-scale computer simulation and symbol manipulation systems. A coordinate-free formulation of non-singular perturbation theory is given, from which a new Hamiltonian perturbation structure is derived and related to the unperturbed structure. The theory of perturbations in the presence of symmetry is developed, and the method of averaging is related to reduction by a circle group action. The pseudo-forces and magnetic Poisson bracket terms due to reduction are given a natural asymptotic interpretation. Similar terms due to changing reference frames are related to the method of variation of parameters, which is also given a Hamiltonian formulation. These methods are used to answer a question about nearly periodic systems. The answer leads to a new secular perturbation theory that contains no ad hoc elements. Eikonal wave theory is given a Hamiltonian formulation that generalizes Whitham's Lagrangian approach. The evolution of wave action density on ray phase space is given a Hamiltonian structure using a Lie-Poisson bracket. The relationship between dissipative and Hamiltonian systems is discussed. A new type of attractor is defined which attracts both forward and backward in time and is shown to occur in infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with dissipative behavior. The theory of Smale horseshoes is applied to gyromotion in the neighborhood of a magnetic field reversal and the phenomenon of reinsertion in area-preserving horseshoes is introduced. The central limit theorem is proved by renormalization group techniques. A natural symplectic structure for thermodynamics is shown to arise asymptotically from the maximum entropy formalism.

  8. Hadron Structure in Chiral Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksejevs, A. [Grenfell campus of Memorial University, Newfoundland (Canada); Barkanova, S. [Acadia University, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    We present our predictions for meson form factors for the SU(3) octet and investigate their impact on the pion electroproduction cross sections. The electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the SU(3) octet of mesons and baryons are analyzed in detail. These extensive calculations are made possible by the recent implementation of semi-automatized calculations in fully-relativistic chiral perturbation theory, which allows evaluation of polarizabilities from Compton scattering up to next-to-the-leading order.

  9. Capillary and viscous perturbations to Helmholtz flows

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, M. R.

    2014-02-21

    Inspired by recent calculations by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, p. 264506) relating to droplet impact, this paper presents an analysis of the perturbations to the free surface caused by small surface tension and viscosity in steady Helmholtz flows. In particular, we identify the regimes in which appreciable vorticity can be shed from the boundary layer to the bulk flow. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

  10. Understanding Theoretical Uncertainties in Perturbative QCD Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenniches, Laura Katharina

    effective field theories and perturbative QCD to predict the effect of New Physics on measurements at the LHC and at other future colliders. We use heavy-quark, heavy-scalar and soft-collinear effective theory to calculate a three-body cascade decay at NLO QCD in the expansion-by-regions formalism...... discuss an extension of the Cacciari-Houdeau approach to observables with hadrons in the initial state....

  11. Development of a multiple-parameter nonlinear perturbation procedure for transonic turbomachinery flows: Preliminary application to design/optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahara, S. S.; Elliott, J. P.; Spreiter, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to continue the development of perturbation procedures and associated computational codes for rapidly determining approximations to nonlinear flow solutions, with the purpose of establishing a method for minimizing computational requirements associated with parametric design studies of transonic flows in turbomachines. The results reported here concern the extension of the previously developed successful method for single parameter perturbations to simultaneous multiple-parameter perturbations, and the preliminary application of the multiple-parameter procedure in combination with an optimization method to blade design/optimization problem. In order to provide as severe a test as possible of the method, attention is focused in particular on transonic flows which are highly supercritical. Flows past both isolated blades and compressor cascades, involving simultaneous changes in both flow and geometric parameters, are considered. Comparisons with the corresponding exact nonlinear solutions display remarkable accuracy and range of validity, in direct correspondence with previous results for single-parameter perturbations.

  12. Convergence of coupled cluster perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Janus J.; Kristensen, Kasper; Matthews, Devin A.; Jørgensen, Poul; Olsen, Jeppe

    2016-12-01

    The convergence of a recently proposed coupled cluster (CC) family of perturbation series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)], in which the energetic difference between two CC models—a low-level parent and a high-level target model—is expanded in orders of the Møller-Plesset (MP) fluctuation potential, is investigated for four prototypical closed-shell systems (Ne, singlet CH2, distorted HF, and F-) in standard and augmented basis sets. In these investigations, energy corrections of the various series have been calculated to high orders and their convergence radii have been determined by probing for possible front- and back-door intruder states, the existence of which would make the series divergent. In summary, we conclude how it is primarily the choice of the target state, and not the choice of the parent state, which ultimately governs the convergence behavior of a given series. For example, restricting the target state to, say, triple or quadruple excitations might remove intruders present in series which target the full configuration interaction limit, such as the standard MP series. Furthermore, we find that whereas a CC perturbation series might converge within standard correlation consistent basis sets, it may start to diverge whenever these become augmented by diffuse functions, similar to the MP case. However, unlike for the MP case, such potential divergences are not found to invalidate the practical use of the low-order corrections of the CC perturbation series.

  13. Inflationary perturbations in no-scale theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvio, Alberto [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    We study the inflationary perturbations in general (classically) scale-invariant theories. Such scenario is motivated by the hierarchy problem and provides natural inflationary potentials and dark matter candidates. We analyse in detail all sectors (the scalar, vector and tensor perturbations) giving general formulae for the potentially observable power spectra, as well as for the curvature spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. We show that the conserved Hamiltonian for all perturbations does not feature negative energies even in the presence of the Weyl-squared term if the appropriate quantisation is performed and argue that this term does not lead to phenomenological problems at least in some relevant setups. The general formulae are then applied to a concrete no-scale model, which includes the Higgs and a scalar, ''the planckion'', whose vacuum expectation value generates the Planck mass. Inflation can be triggered by a combination of the planckion and the Starobinsky scalar and we show that no tension with observations is present even in the case of pure planckion inflation, if the coefficient of the Weyl-squared term is large enough. In general, even quadratic inflation is allowed in this case. Moreover, the Weyl-squared term leads to an isocurvature mode, which currently satisfies the observational bounds, but it may be detectable with future experiments. (orig.)

  14. Supersymmetric perturbations of the M5 brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niarchos, Vasilis [Crete Center for Theoretical Physics & Crete Center for Quantum Complexity and Nanotechnology,Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71303 (Greece)

    2014-05-07

    We study long-wavelength supersymmetric deformations of brane solutions in supergravity using an extension of previous ideas within the general scheme of the blackfold approach. As a concrete example, we consider long-wavelength perturbations of the planar M2-M5 bound state solution in eleven-dimensional supergravity. We propose a specific ansatz for the first order deformation of the supergravity fields and explore how this deformation perturbs the Killing spinor equations. We find that a special part of these equations gives a projection equation on the Killing spinors that has the same structure as the κ-symmetry condition of the abelian M5 brane theory. Requiring a match between supergravity and gauge theory implies a specific non-linear gauge-gravity map between the bosonic fields of the abelian M5 brane theory and the gravity-induced fluid-like degrees of freedom of the blackfold equations that control the perturbative gravity solution. This observation sheds new light on the SUGRA/DBI correspondence.

  15. Multifrequency perturbations in matter-wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, A.; Rembold, A.; Schütz, G.; Stibor, A.

    2015-11-01

    High-contrast matter-wave interferometry is essential in various fundamental quantum mechanical experiments as well as for technical applications. Thereby, contrast and sensitivity are typically reduced by decoherence and dephasing effects. While decoherence accounts for a general loss of quantum information in a system due to entanglement with the environment, dephasing is due to collective time-dependent external phase shifts, which can be related to temperature drifts, mechanical vibrations, and electromagnetic oscillations. In contrast to decoherence, dephasing can, in principle, be reversed. Here, we demonstrate in experiment and theory a method for the analysis and reduction of the influence of dephasing noise and perturbations consisting of several external frequencies in an electron interferometer. This technique uses the high spatial and temporal resolution of a delay-line detector to reveal and remove dephasing perturbations by second-order correlation analysis. It allows matter-wave experiments under perturbing laboratory conditions and can be applied, in principle, to electron, atom, ion, neutron, and molecule interferometers.

  16. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  17. Models for Very Rapid High-Energy -Ray Variability in Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a family of models for rapid -ray variability in blazars based on a two-component jet. Fast variability occurs when relativistic electron–positron pairs interact with small-scale perturbations in the inner jet. These perturbations are produced by Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. We fit the minute-scale strong variability ...

  18. Improvement and performance evaluation of the perturbation source method for an exact Monte Carlo perturbation calculation in fixed source problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Toshihiro

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents improvement and performance evaluation of the ;perturbation source method;, which is one of the Monte Carlo perturbation techniques. The formerly proposed perturbation source method was first-order accurate, although it is known that the method can be easily extended to an exact perturbation method. A transport equation for calculating an exact flux difference caused by a perturbation is solved. A perturbation particle representing a flux difference is explicitly transported in the perturbed system, instead of in the unperturbed system. The source term of the transport equation is defined by the unperturbed flux and the cross section (or optical parameter) changes. The unperturbed flux is provided by an ;on-the-fly; technique during the course of the ordinary fixed source calculation for the unperturbed system. A set of perturbation particle is started at the collision point in the perturbed region and tracked until death. For a perturbation in a smaller portion of the whole domain, the efficiency of the perturbation source method can be improved by using a virtual scattering coefficient or cross section in the perturbed region, forcing collisions. Performance is evaluated by comparing the proposed method to other Monte Carlo perturbation methods. Numerical tests performed for a particle transport in a two-dimensional geometry reveal that the perturbation source method is less effective than the correlated sampling method for a perturbation in a larger portion of the whole domain. However, for a perturbation in a smaller portion, the perturbation source method outperforms the correlated sampling method. The efficiency depends strongly on the adjustment of the new virtual scattering coefficient or cross section.

  19. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  20. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  1. Perturbation Theory of the Cosmological Log-Density Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xin; Neyrinck, Mark; Szapudi, István

    2011-01-01

    , motivating an analytic study of it. In this paper, we develop cosmological perturbation theory for the power spectrum of this field. Our formalism is developed in the context of renormalized perturbation theory, which helps to regulate the convergence behavior of the perturbation series, and of the Taylor...

  2. Density Perturbations in the Brans-Dicke Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, J. P.; Fabris, J. C.; Goncalves, S. V. B.

    1996-01-01

    We analyse the fate of density perturbation in the Brans-Dicke Theory, giving a general classification of the solutions of the perturbed equations when the scale factor of the background evolves as a power law. We study with details the cases of vacuum, inflation, radiation and incoherent matter. We find, for the a negative Brans-Dicke parameter, a significant amplification of perturbations.

  3. New Approaches and Applications for Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufiero, Manuele; Bidaud, Adrien; Kotlyar, Dan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Sen, Sonat; Shwageraus, Eugene; Fratoni, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents some of the recent and new advancements in the extension of Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory methodologies and application. In particular, the discussed problems involve Brunup calculation, perturbation calculation based on continuous energy functions, and Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory in loosely coupled systems.

  4. The reconstruction property in Banach spaces and a perturbation theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, P.G.; Christensen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Perturbation theory is a fundamental tool in Banach space theory. However, the applications of the classical results are limited by the fact that they force the perturbed sequence to be equivalent to the given sequence. We will develop a more general perturbation theory that does not force equiva...

  5. First order normalization in the perturbed restricted three–body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper performs the first order normalization that will be employed in the study of the nonlinear stability of triangular points of the perturbed restricted three – body problem with variable mass. The problem is perturbed in the sense that small perturbations are given in the coriolis and centrifugal forces. It is with variable ...

  6. Adaptation of movement endpoints to perturbations of visual feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dobbelsteen, John; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B.J.

    We investigated the extent to which humans can quickly adapt their goal-directed arm movements to perturbed feedback. We predicted that the magnitude of adaptation to a changed relationship between vision and kinesthesia would depend on the type of perturbation, being largest when the perturbation

  7. Numerical Solutions of Singularly Perturbed Reaction Diffusion Equation with Sobolev Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Raza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical points related to the singular perturbed reaction diffusion models are calculated using weighted Sobolev gradient method in finite element setting. Performance of different Sobolev gradients has been discussed for varying diffusion coefficient values. A comparison is shown between the weighted and unweighted Sobolev gradients in two and three dimensions. The superiority of the method is also demonstrated by showing comparison with Newton's method.

  8. Cerebellar damage diminishes long-latency responses to multijoint perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautman, Paxson; Rasquinha, Russell J.; Bhanpuri, Nasir H.; Scott, Stephen H.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Damage to the cerebellum can cause significant problems in the coordination of voluntary arm movements. One prominent idea is that incoordination stems from an inability to predictively account for the complex mechanical interactions between the arm's several joints. Motivated by growing evidence that corrective feedback control shares important capabilities and neural substrates with feedforward control, we asked whether cerebellar damage impacts feedback stabilization of the multijoint arm appropriate for the arm's intersegmental dynamics. Specifically, we tested whether cerebellar dysfunction impacts the ability of posterior deltoid to incorporate elbow motion in its long-latency response (R2 = 45–75 ms and R3 = 75–100 ms after perturbation) to an unexpected torque perturbation. Healthy and cerebellar-damaged subjects were exposed to a selected pattern of shoulder-elbow displacements to probe the response pattern from this shoulder extensor muscle. The healthy elderly subjects expressed a long-latency response linked to both shoulder and elbow motion, including an increase/decrease in shoulder extensor activity with elbow flexion/extension. Critically, cerebellar-damaged subjects displayed the normal pattern of activity in the R3 period indicating an intact ability to rapidly integrate multijoint motion appropriate to the arm's intersegmental dynamics. However, cerebellar-damaged subjects had a lower magnitude of activity that was specific to the long-latency period (both R2 and R3) and a slightly delayed onset of multijoint sensitivity. Taken together, our results suggest that the basic motor pattern of the long-latency response is housed outside the cerebellum and is scaled by processes within the cerebellum. PMID:23390311

  9. Perturbations in the Urinary Exosome in Transplant Rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigdel, Tara K.; NG, Yolanda; Lee, Sangho; Nicora, Carrie D.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2015-01-05

    Background: Urine exosomes, vesicles exocytosed into urine by all renal epithelial cell types, occur under normal physiologic and disease states. Exosome contents may mirror disease-specific proteome perturbations in kidney injury. Analysis methodologies for the exosomal fraction of the urinary proteome were developed and for comparing the urinary exosomal fraction versus unfractionated proteome for biomarker discovery. Methods: Urine exosomes were isolated by centrifugal filtration from mid-stream, second morning void, urine samples collected from kidney transplant recipients with and without biopsy matched acute rejection. The proteomes of unfractionated whole urine (Uw) and urine exosomes (Uexo) underwent mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics analysis. The proteome data were analyzed for significant differential protein abundances in acute rejection (AR). Results: Identifications of 1018 and 349 proteins, Uw and Uexo fractions, respectively, demonstrated a 279 protein overlap between the two urinary compartments with 25%(70) of overlapping proteins unique to Uexoand represented membrane bound proteins (p=9.31e-7). Of 349 urine exosomal proteins identified in transplant patients 220 were not previously identified in the normal urine exosomal fraction. Uexo proteins (11), functioning in the inflammatory / stress response, were more abundant in patients with biopsy-confirmed acute rejection, 3 of which were exclusive to Uexo. Uexo AR-specific biomarkers (8) were also detected in Uw, but since they were observed at significantly lower abundances in Uw, they were not significant for AR in Uw. Conclusions: A rapid urinary exosome isolation method and quantitative measurement of enriched Uexo proteins was applied. Urine proteins specific to the exosomal fraction were detected either in unfractionated urine (at low abundances) or by Uexo fraction analysis. Perturbed proteins in the exosomal compartment of urine collected from kidney transplant patients were

  10. Perturbations in the Urinary Exosome in Transplant Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara eSigdel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine exosomes are small vesicles exocytosed into the urine by all renal epithelial cell types under normal physiologic and disease states. Urine exosomal proteins may mirror disease specific proteome perturbations in kidney injury. Analysis methodologies for the exosomal fraction of the urinary proteome were developed for comparing the urinary exosomal fraction versus unfractionated proteome for biomarker discovery. Urine exosomes were isolated by centrifugal filtration of urine samples collected from kidney transplant patients with and without acute rejection, which were biopsy matched. The proteomes of unfractionated whole urine (Uw and urine exosomes (Ue underwent mass spectroscopy-based quantitative proteonomics analysis. The proteome data were analyzed for significant differential protein abundances in acute rejection (AR. A total of 1018 proteins were identified in Uw and 349 proteins in Ue. 279 overlapped between the two urinary compartments and 70 proteins were unique to the Ue compartment. Of 349 exosomal proteins identified from transplant patients,220 had not been previously identified in the normal Ue fraction. 11 Ue proteins, functionally involved in an inflammatory and stress response, were more abundant in urine samples from patients with acute rejection, 3 of which are exclusive to the Ue fraction. Ue AR-specific biomarkers(8 were also detected in Uw, but since they were observed at significantly lower abundances in Uw, they were not significant for AR in Uw. A rapid urinary exosome isolation method and quantitative measurement of enriched Ue proteins was applied. Perturbed proteins in the exosomal compartment of urine collected from kidney transplant patients were specific to inflammatory responses, and were not observed in the Ue fraction from normal healthy subjects. Ue specific protein alterations in renal disease provide potential mechanistic insights and offer a unique panel of sensitive biomarkers for monitoring AR.

  11. Physiological Perturbation Reveals Modularity of Eyespot Development in the Painted Lady Butterfly, Vanessa cardui.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Connahs

    Full Text Available Butterfly eyespots are complex morphological traits that can vary in size, shape and color composition even on the same wing surface. Homology among eyespots suggests they share a common developmental basis and function as an integrated unit in response to selection. Despite strong evidence of genetic integration, eyespots can also exhibit modularity or plasticity, indicating an underlying flexibility in pattern development. The extent to which particular eyespots or eyespot color elements exhibit modularity or integration is poorly understood, particularly following exposure to novel conditions. We used perturbation experiments to explore phenotypic correlations among different eyespots and their color elements on the ventral hindwing of V. cardui. Specifically, we identified which eyespots and eyespot features are most sensitive to perturbation by heat shock and injection of heparin-a cold shock mimic. For both treatments, the two central eyespots (3 + 4 were most affected by the experimental perturbations, whereas the outer eyespot border was more resistant to modification than the interior color elements. Overall, the individual color elements displayed a similar response to heat shock across all eyespots, but varied in their response to each other. Graphical modeling also revealed that although eyespots differ morphologically, regulation of eyespot size and colored elements appear to be largely integrated across the wing. Patterns of integration, however, were disrupted following heat shock, revealing that the strength of integration varies across the wing and is strongest between the two central eyespots. These findings support previous observations that document coupling between eyespots 3 + 4 in other nymphalid butterflies.

  12. Local Varying-Alpha Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper we demonstrated how the simplest model for varying alpha may be interpreted as the effect of a dielectric material, generalized to be consistent with Lorentz invariance. Unlike normal dielectrics, such a medium cannot change the speed of light, and its dynamics obey a Klein-Gordon equation. This work immediately suggests an extension of the standard theory, even if we require compliance with Lorentz invariance. Instead of a wave equation, the dynamics may satisfy a local algebraic relation involving the permittivity and the properties of the electromagnetic field, in analogy with more conventional dielectric (but still preserving Lorentz invariance). We develop the formalism for such theories and investigate some phenomenological implications. The problem of the divergence of the classical self-energy can be solved, or at least softened, in this framework. Some interesting new cosmological solutions for the very early universe are found, including the possibility of a bounce, inflation and e...

  13. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  14. Diurnally-Varying Lunar Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Hurley, D.; Retherford, K. D.; Mandt, K.; Greathouse, T. K.; Farrell, W. M.; Vilas, F.

    2016-12-01

    Dayside, non-polar lunar hydration signatures have been observed by a handful of instruments and present insights into the lunar water cycle. In this study, we utilize the unique measurements from the current Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to study the phenomenon of diurnally-varying dayside lunar hydration. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) onboard LRO senses a strong far-ultraviolet water absorption edge indicating hydration in small abundances in the permanently shadowed regions as well as on the lunar dayside. We report on diurnal variability in hydration in different terrain types. We investigate the importance of different sources of hydration, including solar wind bombardment and meteoroid bombardment, by observing trends during magnetotail and meteor stream crossings.

  15. The impacts of oceanic deep temperature perturbations in the North Atlantic on decadal climate variability and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germe, Agathe; Sévellec, Florian; Mignot, Juliette; Fedorov, Alexey; Nguyen, Sébastien; Swingedouw, Didier

    2017-12-01

    Decadal climate predictability in the North Atlantic is largely related to ocean low frequency variability, whose sensitivity to initial conditions is not very well understood. Recently, three-dimensional oceanic temperature anomalies optimally perturbing the North Atlantic Mean Temperature (NAMT) have been computed via an optimization procedure using a linear adjoint to a realistic ocean general circulation model. The spatial pattern of the identified perturbations, localized in the North Atlantic, has the largest magnitude between 1000 and 4000 m depth. In the present study, the impacts of these perturbations on NAMT, on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), and on climate in general are investigated in a global coupled model that uses the same ocean model as was used to compute the three-dimensional optimal perturbations. In the coupled model, these perturbations induce AMOC and NAMT anomalies peaking after 5 and 10 years, respectively, generally consistent with the ocean-only linear predictions. To further understand their impact, their magnitude was varied in a broad range. For initial perturbations with a magnitude comparable to the internal variability of the coupled model, the model response exhibits a strong signature in sea surface temperature and precipitation over North America and the Sahel region. The existence and impacts of these ocean perturbations have important implications for decadal prediction: they can be seen either as a source of predictability or uncertainty, depending on whether the current observing system can detect them or not. In fact, comparing the magnitude of the imposed perturbations with the uncertainty of available ocean observations such as Argo data or ocean state estimates suggests that only the largest perturbations used in this study could be detectable. This highlights the importance for decadal climate prediction of accurate ocean density initialisation in the North Atlantic at intermediate and greater

  16. Forward dynamics simulation of human body under tilting perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, D.; Pasha Zanoosi, A. A.; Sadeghi-Mehr, M.

    2012-02-01

    Human body uses different strategies to maintain its stability and these strategies vary from fixed-foot strategies to strategies which foot is moved in order to increase the support base. Tilting movement of foot is one type of the perturbations usually is exposed to human body. In the presence of such perturbations human body must employ appropriate reactions to prevent threats like falling. But it is not clear that how human body maintains its stability by central nervous system (CNS). At present study it is tried that by presenting a musculoskeletal model of human lower extremity with four links, three degrees of freedom (DOF) and eight skeletal muscles, the level of muscle activations causes the maintenance of stability, be investigated. Using forward dynamics solution, leads to a more general problem, rather than inverse dynamics. Hence, forward dynamics solution by forward optimization has been used for solving this highly nonlinear problem. To this end, first the system's equations of motion has been derived using lagrangian dynamics. Eight Hill-type muscles as actuators of the system were modeled. Because determination of muscle forces considering their number is an undetermined problem, optimization of an appropriate goal function should be practiced. For optimization problem, the characteristics of genetic algorithms as a method based on direct search, and the direct collocation method, has been profited. Also by considering requirements of problem, some constraints such as conservation of model stability are entered into optimization procedure. Finally to investigate validation of model, the results from optimization and experimental data are compared and good agreements are obtained.

  17. Non-Axisymmetric Line Driven Disc Winds I - Disc Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyda, Sergei; Proga, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    We study mass outflows driven from accretion discs by radiation pressure due to spectral lines. To investigate non-axisymmetric effects, we use the ATHENA++ code and develop a new module to account for radiation pressure driving. In 2D, our new simulations are consistent with previous 2D axisymmetric solutions by Proga et al. who used the ZEUS 2D code. Specifically, we find that the disc winds are time dependent, characterized by a dense stream confined to ˜45° relative to the disc midplane and bounded on the polar side by a less dense, fast stream. In 3D we introduce a vertical, ϕ-dependent, subsonic velocity perturbation in the disc midplane. The perturbation does not change the overall character of the solution but global outflow properties such as the mass, momentum and kinetic energy fluxes are altered by up to 100%. Non-axisymmetric density structures develop and persist mainly at the base of the wind. They are relatively small, and their densities can be a few times higher that the azimuthal average. The structure of the non-axisymmetric and axisymmetric solutions differ also in other ways. Perhaps most importantly from the observational point of view are the differences in the so called clumping factors, that serve as a proxy for emissivity due to two body processes. In particular, the spatially averaged clumping factor over the entire fast stream, while it is of a comparable value in both solutions, it varies about 10 times faster in the non-axisymmetric case.

  18. The perturbative ghost propagator in Landau gauge from numerical stochastic perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Di Renzo, F; Perlt, H; Schiller, A; Torrero, C

    2008-01-01

    We present one- and two-loop results for the ghost propagator in Landau gauge calculated in Numerical Stochastic Perturbation Theory (NSPT). The one-loop results are compared with available standard Lattice Perturbation Theory in the infinite-volume limit. We discuss in detail how to perform the different necessary limits in the NSPT approach and discuss a recipe to treat logarithmic terms by introducing ``finite-lattice logs''. We find agreement with the one-loop result from standard Lattice Perturbation Theory and estimate, from the non-logarithmic part of the ghost propagator in two-loop order, the unknown constant contribution to the ghost self-energy in the RI'-MOM scheme in Landau gauge. That constant vanishes within our numerical accuracy.

  19. The contribution of lysosomotropism to autophagy perturbation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Ashoor

    Full Text Available Autophagy refers to the catabolic process in eukaryotic cells that delivers cytoplasmic material to lysosomes for degradation. This highly conserved process is involved in the clearance of long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. Consequently, autophagy is important in providing nutrients to maintain cellular function under starvation, maintaining cellular homeostasis, and promoting cell survival under certain conditions. Several pathways, including mTOR, have been shown to regulate autophagy. However, the impact of lysosomal function impairment on the autophagy process has not been fully explored. Basic lipophilic compounds can accumulate in lysosomes via pH partitioning leading to perturbation of lysosomal function. Our hypothesis is that these types of compounds can disturb the autophagy process. Eleven drugs previously shown to accumulate in lysosomes were selected and evaluated for their effects on cytotoxicity and autophagy using ATP depletion and LC3 assessment, respectively. All eleven drugs induced increased staining of endogenous LC3 and exogenous GFP-LC3, even at non toxic dose levels. In addition, an increase in the abundance of SQSTM1/p62 by all tested compounds denotes that the increase in LC3 is due to autophagy perturbation rather than enhancement. Furthermore, the gene expression profile resulting from in vitro treatment with these drugs revealed the suppression of plentiful long-lived proteins, including structural cytoskeletal and associated proteins, and extracellular matrix proteins. This finding indicates a retardation of protein turnover which further supports the notion of autophagy inhibition. Interestingly, upregulation of genes containing antioxidant response elements, e.g. glutathione S transferase and NAD(PH dehydrogenase quinone 1 was observed, suggesting activation of Nrf2 transcription factor. These gene expression changes could be related to an increase in SQSTM1/p62 resulting from autophagy deficiency. In

  20. The Contribution of Lysosomotropism to Autophagy Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Bart; Lu, Shuyan

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy refers to the catabolic process in eukaryotic cells that delivers cytoplasmic material to lysosomes for degradation. This highly conserved process is involved in the clearance of long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. Consequently, autophagy is important in providing nutrients to maintain cellular function under starvation, maintaining cellular homeostasis, and promoting cell survival under certain conditions. Several pathways, including mTOR, have been shown to regulate autophagy. However, the impact of lysosomal function impairment on the autophagy process has not been fully explored. Basic lipophilic compounds can accumulate in lysosomes via pH partitioning leading to perturbation of lysosomal function. Our hypothesis is that these types of compounds can disturb the autophagy process. Eleven drugs previously shown to accumulate in lysosomes were selected and evaluated for their effects on cytotoxicity and autophagy using ATP depletion and LC3 assessment, respectively. All eleven drugs induced increased staining of endogenous LC3 and exogenous GFP-LC3, even at non toxic dose levels. In addition, an increase in the abundance of SQSTM1/p62 by all tested compounds denotes that the increase in LC3 is due to autophagy perturbation rather than enhancement. Furthermore, the gene expression profile resulting from in vitro treatment with these drugs revealed the suppression of plentiful long-lived proteins, including structural cytoskeletal and associated proteins, and extracellular matrix proteins. This finding indicates a retardation of protein turnover which further supports the notion of autophagy inhibition. Interestingly, upregulation of genes containing antioxidant response elements, e.g. glutathione S transferase and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 was observed, suggesting activation of Nrf2 transcription factor. These gene expression changes could be related to an increase in SQSTM1/p62 resulting from autophagy deficiency. In summary, our data

  1. Visual Vection does not Perturb Squatting Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Gilles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vision contributes fundamentally to the control of the standing posture. The illusion of self motion falsely perceived (vection increases postural sway while standing. In this paper we examine the effect of vection on both standing and deep squatting with the hypothesis that the squatting posture should not be disturbed by the conflict of sensory information due to vection. The results show that standing posture only was affected by the visual stimuli. The widespread use of squatting for work as well as rest could be due in part to this lack of effect of sensory perturbation on postural stability.

  2. Exciton dynamics in perturbed vibronic molecular aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brüning

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A site specific perturbation of a photo-excited molecular aggregate can lead to a localization of excitonic energy. We investigate this localization dynamics for laser-prepared excited states. Changing the parameters of the electric field significantly influences the exciton localization which offers the possibility for a selective control of this process. This is demonstrated for aggregates possessing a single vibrational degree of freedom per monomer unit. It is shown that the effects identified for the molecular dimer can be generalized to larger aggregates with a high density of vibronic states.

  3. Homological Perturbation Theory for Nonperturbative Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Freyd, Theo

    2015-11-01

    We use the homological perturbation lemma to produce explicit formulas computing the class in the twisted de Rham complex represented by an arbitrary polynomial. This is a non-asymptotic version of the method of Feynman diagrams. In particular, we explain that phenomena usually thought of as particular to asymptotic integrals in fact also occur exactly: integrals of the type appearing in quantum field theory can be reduced in a totally algebraic fashion to integrals over an Euler-Lagrange locus, provided this locus is understood in the scheme-theoretic sense, so that imaginary critical points and multiplicities of degenerate critical points contribute.

  4. Polyakov loop correlator in perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwein, Matthias; Brambilla, Nora; Petreczky, Péter; Vairo, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    We study the Polyakov loop correlator in the weak coupling expansion and show how the perturbative series reexponentiates into singlet and adjoint contributions. We calculate the order g7 correction to the Polyakov loop correlator in the short distance limit. We show how the singlet and adjoint free energies arising from the reexponentiation formula of the Polyakov loop correlator are related to the gauge invariant singlet and octet free energies that can be defined in pNRQCD, namely we find that the two definitions agree at leading order in the multipole expansion, but differ at first order in the quark-antiquark distance.

  5. Tests of Chiral perturbation theory with COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Jan M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS experiment at CERN accesses pion-photon reactions via the Primakoff effect., where high-energetic pions react with the quasi-real photon field surrounding the target nuclei. When a single real photon is produced, pion Compton scattering is accessed and from the measured cross-section shape, the pion polarisability is determined. The COMPASS measurement is in contradiction to the earlier dedicated measurements, and rather in agreement with the theoretical expectation from ChPT. In the same experimental data taking, reactions with neutral and charged pions in the final state are measured and analyzed in the context of chiral perturbation theory.

  6. H(infinity) filtering for fuzzy singularly perturbed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Hong; Dong, Jiuxiang

    2008-10-01

    This paper considers the problem of designing H(infinity) filters for fuzzy singularly perturbed systems with the consideration of improving the bound of singular-perturbation parameter epsilon. First, a linear-matrix-inequality (LMI)-based approach is presented for simultaneously designing the bound of the singularly perturbed parameter epsilon, and H(infinity) filters for a fuzzy singularly perturbed system. When the bound of singularly perturbed parameter epsilon is not under consideration, the result reduces to an LMI-based design method for H(infinity) filtering of fuzzy singularly perturbed systems. Furthermore, a method is given for evaluating the upper bound of singularly perturbed parameter subject to the constraint that the considered system is to be with a prescribed H(infinity) performance bound, and the upper bound can be obtained by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  7. A revisão rápida de 100% é eficiente na detecção de resultados falsos-negativos dos exames citopatológicos cervicais e varia com a adequabilidade da amostra: uma experiência no Brasil The 100% rapid rescreening is efficient in the detection of false-negative results and varies according to the quality of the sample: a Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Joana Cláudio Manrique

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a eficiência da revisão rápida de 100% para detecção de resultados falsos-negativos dos exames citopatológicos cervicais e verificar se esses resultados variam com a adequabilidade da amostra e com a idade da mulher. MÉTODOS: para avaliar a eficiência da revisão rápida, os 5.530 esfregaços classificados como negativos pelo escrutínio de rotina, após serem submetidos à revisão rápida de 100%, foram comparados com as revisões dos esfregaços com base em critérios clínicos e aleatória de 10%. Para análise estatística, as variáveis foram estudadas de maneira descritiva e, quando houve comparação, foram aplicados o teste do chi2 e o teste Cochran-Armitage. RESULTADOS: dos 141 esfregaços suspeitos pela revisão rápida, 84 (59,6% foram confirmados pelo diagnóstico final; desses, 36 (25,5% foram classificados como células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado, cinco (3,5% como células escamosas atípicas, não podendo excluir lesão de alto grau, 34 (24,1% como lesão intra-epitelial escamosa de baixo grau, seis (4,3% como lesão intra-epitelial de alto grau e três (2,1% como células glandulares atípicas. Dos 84 esfregaços suspeitos e confirmados pelo diagnóstico final, 62 (73,8 foram classificados como satisfatórios e 22 (26,2% satisfatórios, porém com alguma limitação, mas não se observou diferença significativa com a idade da mulher. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados deste estudo mostraram que a revisão rápida é uma alternativa eficiente como método de controle interno da qualidade na detecção de resultados falsos-negativos dos exames citopatológicos cervicais. Observou-se, também, que a revisão rápida apresentou melhor desempenho quando a amostra foi classificada como satisfatória para análise, porém não variou com a idade da mulher.PURPOSE: to evaluate the efficiency of the 100% rapid rescreening in the detection of false-negative results and to verify whether the results

  8. Dark energy in perturbative string cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tom; Dine, Michael

    2001-10-01

    The apparent observation of dark energy poses problems for string theory. In de Sitter space, or in quintessence models, one cannot define a gauge-invariant S-matrix. We argue that eternal quintessence does not arise in weakly coupled string theory, but point out that it is difficult to define an S-matrix even in the presence of perturbative potentials for the moduli. The solutions of the Fischler-Susskind equations all have Big Bang or Big Crunch Singularities. We believe that an S-matrix (or S-vector) exists in this context but cannot be calculated by purely perturbative methods. We study the possibility of metastable de Sitter vacua in such weakly coupled scenarios, and conclude that the S-matrix of the extreme weak coupling region cannot probe de Sitter physics. We also consider proposed explanations of the dark energy from the perspective of string theory, and find that most are implausible. We note that it is possible that the axion constitutes both the dark matter and the dark energy.

  9. Asymptotic Behaviour of the QED Perturbation Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrish Huet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available I will summarize the present state of a long-term effort to obtain information on the large-order asymptotic behaviour of the QED perturbation series through the effective action. Starting with the constant-field case, I will discuss the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian in various dimensions and up to the three-loop level. This Lagrangian holds the information on the N-photon amplitudes in the low-energy limit, and combining it with Spinor helicity methods explicit all-N results can be obtained at the one-loop and, for the “all +” amplitudes, also at the two-loop level. For the imaginary part of the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian, an all-loop formula has been conjectured independently by Affleck, Alvarez, and Manton for Scalar QED and by Lebedev and Ritus for Spinor QED. This formula can be related through a Borel dispersion relation to the leading large-N behaviour of the N-photon amplitudes. It is analytic in the fine structure constant, which is puzzling and suggests a diagrammatic investigation of the large-N limit in perturbation theory. Preliminary results of such a study for the 1+1 dimensional case throw doubt on the validity of the conjecture.

  10. Fermion perturbations in string theory black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedra, Owen Pavel Fernandez; De Oliveira, Jeferson, E-mail: opavel@ucf.edu.cu, E-mail: jeferson@fma.if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-04-21

    In this paper we study fermion perturbations in four-dimensional black holes of string theory, obtained either from a non-extreme configuration of three intersecting five-branes with a boost along the common string or from a non-extreme intersecting system of two two-branes and two five-branes. The Dirac equation for the massless neutrino field, after conformal re-scaling of the metric, is written as a wave equation suitable to study the time evolution of the perturbation. We perform a numerical integration of the evolution equation, and with the aid of Prony fitting of the time-domain profile, we calculate the complex frequencies that dominate the quasinormal ringing stage, and also determine these quantities by the semi-analytical sixth-order WKB method. We also find numerically the decay factor of fermion fields at very late times, and show that the falloff is identical to those showing for massless fields in other four-dimensional black hole spacetimes.

  11. Fermion perturbations in string theory black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel Fernández Piedra, Owen; de Oliveira, Jeferson

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we study fermion perturbations in four-dimensional black holes of string theory, obtained either from a non-extreme configuration of three intersecting five-branes with a boost along the common string or from a non-extreme intersecting system of two two-branes and two five-branes. The Dirac equation for the massless neutrino field, after conformal re-scaling of the metric, is written as a wave equation suitable to study the time evolution of the perturbation. We perform a numerical integration of the evolution equation, and with the aid of Prony fitting of the time-domain profile, we calculate the complex frequencies that dominate the quasinormal ringing stage, and also determine these quantities by the semi-analytical sixth-order WKB method. We also find numerically the decay factor of fermion fields at very late times, and show that the falloff is identical to those showing for massless fields in other four-dimensional black hole spacetimes.

  12. Perturbative quantum gravity in double field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boels, Rutger H.; Horst, Christoph [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg,Luruper Chaussee 149, D- 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-04-19

    We study perturbative general relativity with a two-form and a dilaton using the double field theory formulation which features explicit index factorisation at the Lagrangian level. Explicit checks to known tree level results are performed. In a natural covariant gauge a ghost-like scalar which contributes even at tree level is shown to decouple consistently as required by perturbative unitarity. In addition, a lightcone gauge is explored which bypasses the problem altogether. Using this gauge to study BCFW on-shell recursion, we can show that most of the D-dimensional tree level S-matrix of the theory, including all pure graviton scattering amplitudes, is reproduced by the double field theory. More generally, we argue that the integrand may be reconstructed from its single cuts and provide limited evidence for off-shell cancellations in the Feynman graphs. As a straightforward application of the developed technology double field theory-like expressions for four field string corrections are derived.

  13. Nonlinearly perturbed semi-Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Silvestrov, Dmitrii

    2017-01-01

    The book presents new methods of asymptotic analysis for nonlinearly perturbed semi-Markov processes with a finite phase space. These methods are based on special time-space screening procedures for sequential phase space reduction of semi-Markov processes combined with the systematical use of operational calculus for Laurent asymptotic expansions. Effective recurrent algorithms are composed for getting asymptotic expansions, without and with explicit upper bounds for remainders, for power moments of hitting times, stationary and conditional quasi-stationary distributions for nonlinearly perturbed semi-Markov processes. These results are illustrated by asymptotic expansions for birth-death-type semi-Markov processes, which play an important role in various applications. The book will be a useful contribution to the continuing intensive studies in the area. It is an essential reference for theoretical and applied researchers in the field of stochastic processes and their applications that will cont...

  14. Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.

  15. Comparison of eigenvalue ratios in artificial boundary perturbation and Jacobi preconditioning for solving Poisson equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Gangjoon; Min, Chohong

    2017-11-01

    The Shortley-Weller method is a standard finite difference method for solving the Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary condition. Unless the domain is rectangular, the method meets an inevitable problem that some of the neighboring nodes may be outside the domain. In this case, an usual treatment is to extrapolate the function values at outside nodes by quadratic polynomial. The extrapolation may become unstable in the sense that some of the extrapolation coefficients increase rapidly when the grid nodes are getting closer to the boundary. A practical remedy, which we call artificial perturbation, is to treat grid nodes very near the boundary as boundary points. The aim of this paper is to reveal the adverse effects of the artificial perturbation on solving the linear system and the convergence of the solution. We show that the matrix is nearly symmetric so that the ratio of its minimum and maximum eigenvalues is an important factor in solving the linear system. Our analysis shows that the artificial perturbation results in a small enhancement of the eigenvalue ratio from O (1 / (h ṡhmin) to O (h-3) and triggers an oscillatory order of convergence. Instead, we suggest using Jacobi or ILU-type preconditioner on the matrix without applying the artificial perturbation. According to our analysis, the preconditioning not only reduces the eigenvalue ratio from O (1 / (h ṡhmin) to O (h-2), but also keeps the sharp second order convergence.

  16. Joint-level responses to counteract perturbations scale with perturbation magnitude and direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlutters, Mark; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, Herman; gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Ibanez, Jaime; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.; van der Kooij, Herman; Pons, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    To realize a lower extremity exoskeleton that can provide balance assistance in a natural way, an understanding of human balance control is a necessity. In this study, we investigated how the angle, torque and power of the ankle, knee and hip joints changed in response to balance perturbations

  17. Gait phase varies over velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan

    2014-02-01

    We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Robust Adaptive Sliding Mode Consensus of Multiagent Systems with Perturbed Communications and Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Zheng Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the asymptotic consensus problem for a class of multiagent systems with time-varying additive actuator faults and perturbed communications. The L2 performance of systems is also considered in the consensus controller designs. The upper and lower bounds of faults and perturbations in actuators and communications and controller gains are assumed to be unknown but can be estimated by designing some indirect adaptive laws. Based on the information from the adaptive estimation mechanism, the distributed robust adaptive sliding mode controllers are constructed to automatically compensate for the effects of faults and perturbations and to achieve any given level of L2 gain attenuation from external disturbance to consensus errors. Through Lyapunov functions and adaptive schemes, the asymptotic consensus of resulting adaptive multiagent system can be achieved with a specified performance criterion in the presence of perturbed communications and actuators. The effectiveness of the proposed design is illustrated via a decoupled longitudinal model of F-18 aircraft.

  19. Approximate Solution of Schrödinger Equation with Pseudo-Gaussian Potential Viewed as a Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacob Theodor-Felix

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Schrödinger equation with pseudo-Gaussian potential and point out that it is basically made up by a term representing the harmonic oscillator potential and an additional term, which is actually a power series that converges rapidly. Based on this observation the system can be considered as a perturbation of harmonic oscillator. The perturbation method is used to approximate the energy levels of pseudo- Gaussian oscillator. The results are compared with those obtained in the analytic and numeric case.

  20. Virtual substitution scan via single-step free energy perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ying-Chih; Wang, Yi

    2016-02-05

    With the rapid expansion of our computing power, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations ranging from hundreds of nanoseconds to microseconds or even milliseconds have become increasingly common. The majority of these long trajectories are obtained from plain (vanilla) MD simulations, where no enhanced sampling or free energy calculation method is employed. To promote the 'recycling' of these trajectories, we developed the Virtual Substitution Scan (VSS) toolkit as a plugin of the open-source visualization and analysis software VMD. Based on the single-step free energy perturbation (sFEP) method, VSS enables the user to post-process a vanilla MD trajectory for a fast free energy scan of substituting aryl hydrogens by small functional groups. Dihedrals of the functional groups are sampled explicitly in VSS, which improves the performance of the calculation and is found particularly important for certain groups. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we employ VSS to compute the solvation free energy change upon substituting the hydrogen of a benzene molecule by 12 small functional groups frequently considered in lead optimization. Additionally, VSS is used to compute the relative binding free energy of four selected ligands of the T4 lysozyme. Overall, the computational cost of VSS is only a fraction of the corresponding multi-step FEP (mFEP) calculation, while its results agree reasonably well with those of mFEP, indicating that VSS offers a promising tool for rapid free energy scan of small functional group substitutions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Lagrangian perturbation theory for modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles, Alejandro; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.

    2017-12-01

    We present a formalism to compute Lagrangian displacement fields for a wide range of cosmologies in the context of perturbation theory up to third order. We emphasize the case of theories with scale-dependent gravitational strengths, such as chameleons, but our formalism can be accommodated to other modified gravity theories. In the nonlinear regime, two qualitative features arise. One, as is well known, is that nonlinearities lead to a screening of the force mediated by the scalar field. The second is a consequence of the transformation of the Klein-Gordon equation from Eulerian to Lagrangian coordinates, producing frame lagging terms that are important especially at large scales, and if not considered, the theory does not reduce to the Λ CDM model in that limit. We apply our formalism to compute the one-loop power spectrum and the correlation function in f (R ) gravity by using different resummation schemes. We further discuss the IR divergences of these formalisms.

  2. Perturbative odderon in the dipole model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Szymanowski, Lech; Wallon, Samuel

    2004-04-29

    We show that, in the framework of Mueller's dipole model, the perturbative QCD odderon is described by the dipole model equivalent of the BFKL equation with a C-odd initial condition. The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the odderon solution are the same as for the dipole BFKL equation and are given by the functions E{sup n,{nu}} and {chi}(n,{nu}) correspondingly, where the C-odd initial condition allows only for odd values of n. The leading high-energy odderon intercept is given by {alpha}{sub odd}-1=((2{alpha}{sub s}N{sub c})/({pi})){chi}(n=1,{nu}=0)=0 in agreement with the solution found by Bartels, Lipatov and Vacca. We proceed by writing down an evolution equation for the odderon including the effects of parton saturation. We argue that saturation makes the odderon solution a decreasing function of energy.

  3. Chiral perturbation theory for lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Oliver

    2010-07-21

    The formulation of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) for lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is reviewed. We start with brief summaries of ChPT for continuum QCD as well as the Symanzik effective theory for lattice QCD. We then review the formulation of ChPT for lattice QCD. After an additional chapter on partial quenching and mixed action theories various concrete applications are discussed: Wilson ChPT, staggered ChPT and Wilson ChPT with a twisted mass term. The remaining chapters deal with the epsilon regime with Wilson fermions and selected results in mixed action ChPT. Finally, the formulation of heavy vector meson ChPT with Wilson fermions is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Perturbation theory for plasmonic modulation and sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Raman, Aaswath

    2011-05-25

    We develop a general perturbation theory to treat small parameter changes in dispersive plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials. We specifically apply it to dielectric refractive index and metallic plasma frequency modulation in metal-dielectric nanostructures. As a numerical demonstration, we verify the theory\\'s accuracy against direct calculations for a system of plasmonic rods in air where the metal is defined by a three-pole fit of silver\\'s dielectric function. We also discuss new optical behavior related to plasma frequency modulation in such systems. Our approach provides new physical insight for the design of plasmonic devices for biochemical sensing and optical modulation and future active metamaterial applications. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  5. Non-perturbative reheating and Nnaturalness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Edward

    2017-11-01

    We study models in which reheating happens only through non-perturbative processes. The energy transferred can be exponentially suppressed unless the inflaton is coupled to a particle with a parametrically small mass. Additionally, in some models a light scalar with a negative mass squared parameter leads to much more efficient reheating than one with a positive mass squared of the same magnitude. If a theory contains many sectors similar to the Standard Model coupled to the inflaton via their Higgses, such dynamics can realise the Nnaturalness solution to the hierarchy problem. A sector containing a light Higgs with a non-zero vacuum expectation value is dominantly reheated and there is little energy transferred to the other sectors, consistent with cosmological constraints. The inflaton must decouple from other particles and have a flat potential at large field values, in which case the visible sector UV cutoff can be raised to 10 TeV in a simple model.

  6. SMD-based numerical stochastic perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Brida, Mattia [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Luescher, Martin [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); AEC, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern (Switzerland)

    2017-05-15

    The viability of a variant of numerical stochastic perturbation theory, where the Langevin equation is replaced by the SMD algorithm, is examined. In particular, the convergence of the process to a unique stationary state is rigorously established and the use of higher-order symplectic integration schemes is shown to be highly profitable in this context. For illustration, the gradient-flow coupling in finite volume with Schroedinger functional boundary conditions is computed to two-loop (i.e. NNL) order in the SU(3) gauge theory. The scaling behaviour of the algorithm turns out to be rather favourable in this case, which allows the computations to be driven close to the continuum limit. (orig.)

  7. Perturbation analysis of nonlinear matrix population models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hal Caswell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Perturbation analysis examines the response of a model to changes in its parameters. It is commonly applied to population growth rates calculated from linear models, but there has been no general approach to the analysis of nonlinear models. Nonlinearities in demographic models may arise due to density-dependence, frequency-dependence (in 2-sex models, feedback through the environment or the economy, and recruitment subsidy due to immigration, or from the scaling inherent in calculations of proportional population structure. This paper uses matrix calculus to derive the sensitivity and elasticity of equilibria, cycles, ratios (e.g. dependency ratios, age averages and variances, temporal averages and variances, life expectancies, and population growth rates, for both age-classified and stage-classified models. Examples are presented, applying the results to both human and non-human populations.

  8. Formation of Voids from Negative Density Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, J. C. N.; Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se estudia la formaci6n de huecos a partir de un espectro negativo de perturbaciones, tomando en cuenta la expansi6n del Universo, arrastre por fotones, enfriamiento por fotones, fotoionizaci6n, ioniza- ci6n colisional, enfriamiento Lyman a y la formaci6n y enfriamiento de moleculas H2. Nuestros resultados predicen la existencia de regiones 1/10 de Ia densidad promedio para regiones de masa lO - 1O10M . ABSTRACT. In the present paer we study the formation of voids from a negative spectrum of perturbations taking into account the expansion of the Universe, photon-drag, photon-cooling, photoionization, collisional ionization, Lyman a cooling and the formation and cooling of 112 molecules. Our results predict the existence of regions 1/10 the average density for regions of mass 1O - 1O10M@ : CLUSTERS-GALAXIES - COSMOLOGY

  9. Perturbation metatranscriptomics for studying complex microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Rohan B.H.; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Arumugam, Krithika

    Studying the functional state of natural or engineered microbial communities presents substantial challenges due to both the complexities of field sampling, and, in the laboratory context, the inability of culture or reactor systems to maintain community composition ex situ over long periods. Here...... by studying nitrogen transformation in wastewater treatment using freshly sourced anoxic sludge, in combination with systematic oxygen perturbation that switches physiological state of the community from denitrification activity to nitrification activity. Sampling every 10 minutes we collected and analysed 20......ABCDEK genes in the aerobic phenylacetate catabolic pathway). We also sampled in situ from anoxic and aerobic source tanks in the field, and compared expression levels between anoxic and aerobic samples in each study: strongly down-regulated genes were preserved between both settings, and an overall good...

  10. Perturbative High Harmonic Wave Front Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengyan; Brown, Graham; Ko, Dong Hyuk; Kong, Fanqi; Arissian, Ladan; Corkum, P B

    2017-01-20

    We pattern the wave front of a high harmonic beam by intersecting the intense driving laser pulse that generates the high harmonic with a weak control pulse. To illustrate the potential of wave-front control, we imprint a Fresnel zone plate pattern on a harmonic beam, causing the harmonics to focus and defocus. The quality of the focus that we achieve is measured using the spectral wave-front optical reconstruction by diffraction method. We will show that it is possible to enhance the peak intensity by orders of magnitude without a physical optical element in the path of the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) beam. Through perturbative wave-front control, XUV beams can be created with a flexibility approaching what technology allows for visible and infrared light.

  11. A Perturbative Realization of Miransky Scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, O.; Di Chiara, S.; Mojaza, M.

    2012-01-01

    Near conformal dynamics is employed in different extensions of the standard model of particle interactions as well as in cosmology. Many of its interesting properties are either conjectured or determined using model computations. We introduce a relevant four dimensional gauge theory template...... allowing us to investigate such dynamics perturbatively. The gauge theory we consider is quantum chromodynamics with the addition of a meson-like scalar degree of freedom as well as an adjoint Weyl fermion. At the two-loop level, and in the Veneziano limit, we firmly establish the existence of several...... scaling and determine its properties. We are also able to determine the walking region of the theory which turns out to be, at large number of colors, about 12% of the conformal window. Furthermore, we determine highly relevant quantities for near conformal dynamics such as the anomalous dimension...

  12. Convergence of coupled cluster perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksen, Janus Juul; Matthews, Devin A; Jørgensen, Poul; Olsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of a recently proposed coupled cluster (CC) family of perturbation series [Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)], in which the energetic difference between a parent and a target CC model is expanded in orders of the M{\\o}ller-Plesset (MP) fluctuation potential, is investigated for four prototypical closed-shell systems (Ne, singlet methylene, distorted HF, and the fluoride anion) in standard and augmented basis sets. In these investigations, energy corrections of the various series have been calculated to high orders and their convergence radii determined by probing for possible front- and back-door intruder states. In summary, we conclude how it is primarily the choice of target state, and not the choice of parent state, which ultimately governs the convergence behavior of a given series. For example, restricting the target state to, say, triple or quadruple excitations might remove intruders present in series that target the full configuration interaction (FCI) limit, such as th...

  13. Non-perturbative description of quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Feranchuk, Ilya; Le, Van-Hoang; Ulyanenkov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces systematically the operator method for the solution of the Schrödinger equation. This method permits to describe the states of quantum systems in the entire range of parameters of Hamiltonian with a predefined accuracy. The operator method is unique compared with other non-perturbative methods due to its ability to deliver in zeroth approximation the uniformly suitable estimate for both ground and excited states of quantum system. The method has been generalized for the application to quantum statistics and quantum field theory.  In this book, the numerous applications of operator method for various physical systems are demonstrated. Simple models are used to illustrate the basic principles of the method which are further used for the solution of complex problems of quantum theory for many-particle systems. The results obtained are supplemented by numerical calculations, presented as tables and figures.

  14. NEXCADE: perturbation analysis for complex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Yadav

    Full Text Available Recent advances in network theory have led to considerable progress in our understanding of complex real world systems and their behavior in response to external threats or fluctuations. Much of this research has been invigorated by demonstration of the 'robust, yet fragile' nature of cellular and large-scale systems transcending biology, sociology, and ecology, through application of the network theory to diverse interactions observed in nature such as plant-pollinator, seed-dispersal agent and host-parasite relationships. In this work, we report the development of NEXCADE, an automated and interactive program for inducing disturbances into complex systems defined by networks, focusing on the changes in global network topology and connectivity as a function of the perturbation. NEXCADE uses a graph theoretical approach to simulate perturbations in a user-defined manner, singly, in clusters, or sequentially. To demonstrate the promise it holds for broader adoption by the research community, we provide pre-simulated examples from diverse real-world networks including eukaryotic protein-protein interaction networks, fungal biochemical networks, a variety of ecological food webs in nature as well as social networks. NEXCADE not only enables network visualization at every step of the targeted attacks, but also allows risk assessment, i.e. identification of nodes critical for the robustness of the system of interest, in order to devise and implement context-based strategies for restructuring a network, or to achieve resilience against link or node failures. Source code and license for the software, designed to work on a Linux-based operating system (OS can be downloaded at http://www.nipgr.res.in/nexcade_download.html. In addition, we have developed NEXCADE as an OS-independent online web server freely available to the scientific community without any login requirement at http://www.nipgr.res.in/nexcade.html.

  15. Different strategy of hand choice after learning of constant and incremental dynamical perturbation in arm reaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie eHabagishi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, we encounter situations where we must quickly decide which hand to use for a motor action. Here, we investigated whether the hand chosen for a motor action varied over a short timescale (i.e., hours with changes in arm dynamics. Participants performed a reaching task in which they moved a specified hand to reach a target on a virtual reality display. During the task, a resistive viscous force field was abruptly applied to only the dominant hand. To evaluate changes in hand choice caused by this perturbation, participants performed an interleaved choice test in which they could freely choose either hand for reaching. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of temporal changes on arm dynamics and hand choice, we exposed the same participants to another condition in which the force field was introduced gradually. When the abrupt force was applied, use of the perturbed hand significantly decreased and not changed during the training. In contrast, when the incremental force was applied, use of the perturbed hand gradually decreased as force increased. Surprisingly, even though the final amount of force was identical between the two conditions, hand choice was significantly biased toward the unperturbed hand in the gradual condition. These results suggest that time-varying changes in arm dynamics may have a greater influence on hand choice than the amplitude of the resistant force itself.

  16. Rapid regional perturbations to the recent global geomagnetic decay revealed by a new Hawaiian record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, L.V.; Biggin, A.J.; Dekkers, M.J.; Langereis, C.G.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2013-01-01

    The dominant dipolar component of the Earth’s magnetic field has been steadily weakening for at least the last 170 years. Prior to these direct measurements, archaeomagnetic records show short periods of significantly elevated geomagnetic intensity. These striking phenomena are not captured by

  17. Converting entropy to curvature perturbations after a cosmic bounce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertig, Angelika; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Mallwitz, Enno; Wilson-Ewing, Edward [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute,14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2016-10-04

    We study two-field bouncing cosmologies in which primordial perturbations are created in either an ekpyrotic or a matter-dominated contraction phase. We use a non-singular ghost condensate bounce model to follow the perturbations through the bounce into the expanding phase of the universe. In contrast to the adiabatic perturbations, which on large scales are conserved across the bounce, entropy perturbations can grow significantly during the bounce phase. If they are converted into adiabatic/curvature perturbations after the bounce, they typically form the dominant contribution to the observed temperature fluctuations in the microwave background, which can have several beneficial implications. For ekpyrotic models, this mechanism loosens the constraints on the amplitude of the ekpyrotic potential while naturally suppressing the intrinsic amount of non-Gaussianity. For matter bounce models, the mechanism amplifies the scalar perturbations compared to the associated primordial gravitational waves.

  18. Effective gravitational couplings for cosmological perturbations in generalized Proca theories

    CERN Document Server

    De Felice, Antonio; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li

    2016-01-01

    We consider the finite interactions of the generalized Proca theory including the sixth-order Lagrangian and derive the full linear perturbation equations of motion on the flat Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid. By construction, the propagating degrees of freedom (besides the matter perfect fluid) are two transverse vector perturbations, one longitudinal scalar, and two tensor polarizations. The Lagrangians associated with intrinsic vector modes neither affect the background equations of motion nor the second-order action of tensor perturbations, but they do give rise to non-trivial modifications to the no-ghost condition of vector perturbations and to the propagation speeds of vector and scalar perturbations. We derive the effective gravitational coupling $G_{\\rm eff}$ with matter density perturbations under a quasi-static approximation on scales deep inside the sound horizon. We find that the existence of intrinsic vector modes allows a possibility ...

  19. Scalar perturbations of nonsingular nonrotating black holes in conformal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshmatov, Bobir; Bambi, Cosimo; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2017-09-01

    We study scalar and electromagnetic perturbations of a family of nonsingular nonrotating black hole spacetimes that are solutions in a large class of conformally invariant theories of gravity. The effective potential for scalar perturbations depends on the exact form of the scaling factor. Electromagnetic perturbations do not feel the scaling factor, and the corresponding quasinormal mode spectrum is the same as in the Schwarzschild metric. We find that these black hole metrics are stable under scalar and electromagnetic perturbations. Assuming that the quasinormal mode spectrum for scalar perturbations is not too different from that for gravitational perturbations, we can expect that the calculation of the quasinormal mode spectrum and the observation with gravitational wave detectors of quasinormal modes from astrophysical black holes can constrain the scaling factor and test these solutions.

  20. Interaction between a low-frequency electrostatic mode and resonant magnetic perturbations in MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. R.; Hnat, B.; Dura, P.; Kirk, A.; Tamain, P.; the MAST Team

    2012-10-01

    A strong ≈10 kHz mode is detected in both potential and density fluctuations of the edge plasma of the MAST tokamak using a reciprocating probe. The mode is radially localized, with outer limit ≈2 cm inside the separatrix, and is affected on application of resonant magnetic perturbations generated by external coils. A shift in frequency with plasma rotation is found, and a rapid suppression of the mode is observed when it can couple to the imposed n = 3 magnetic perturbations in the rotating frame. Non-linear coupling to high wave number turbulence is evident, and an increase in power of turbulence fluctuations is seen after suppression. These observations are then interpreted in the context of known low-frequency plasma modes present in the toroidal configuration. A possibility that the observed mode is a geodesic acoustic mode is considered and motivated by observations.

  1. Prompt atmospheric neutrino fluxes: perturbative QCD models and nuclear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Atri [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute,Université de Liège,Bât. B5a, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Enberg, Rikard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Jeong, Yu Seon [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); National Institute of Supercomputing and Networking, KISTI,245 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S. [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Reno, Mary Hall [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa,Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Sarcevic, Ina [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona,933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stasto, Anna [Department of Physics, 104 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University,University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-11-28

    We evaluate the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux at high energies using three different frameworks for calculating the heavy quark production cross section in QCD: NLO perturbative QCD, k{sub T} factorization including low-x resummation, and the dipole model including parton saturation. We use QCD parameters, the value for the charm quark mass and the range for the factorization and renormalization scales that provide the best description of the total charm cross section measured at fixed target experiments, at RHIC and at LHC. Using these parameters we calculate differential cross sections for charm and bottom production and compare with the latest data on forward charm meson production from LHCb at 7 TeV and at 13 TeV, finding good agreement with the data. In addition, we investigate the role of nuclear shadowing by including nuclear parton distribution functions (PDF) for the target air nucleus using two different nuclear PDF schemes. Depending on the scheme used, we find the reduction of the flux due to nuclear effects varies from 10% to 50% at the highest energies. Finally, we compare our results with the IceCube limit on the prompt neutrino flux, which is already providing valuable information about some of the QCD models.

  2. Eigenspace perturbations for structural uncertainty estimation of turbulence closure models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, Lluis; Mishra, Aashwin; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    With the present state of computational resources, a purely numerical resolution of turbulent flows encountered in engineering applications is not viable. Consequently, investigations into turbulence rely on various degrees of modeling. Archetypal amongst these variable resolution approaches would be RANS models in two-equation closures, and subgrid-scale models in LES. However, owing to the simplifications introduced during model formulation, the fidelity of all such models is limited, and therefore the explicit quantification of the predictive uncertainty is essential. In such scenario, the ideal uncertainty estimation procedure must be agnostic to modeling resolution, methodology, and the nature or level of the model filter. The procedure should be able to give reliable prediction intervals for different Quantities of Interest, over varied flows and flow conditions, and at diametric levels of modeling resolution. In this talk, we present and substantiate the Eigenspace perturbation framework as an uncertainty estimation paradigm that meets these criteria. Commencing from a broad overview, we outline the details of this framework at different modeling resolution. Thence, using benchmark flows, along with engineering problems, the efficacy of this procedure is established. This research was partially supported by NNSA under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program (PSAAP) II, and by DARPA under the Enabling Quantification of Uncertainty in Physical Systems (EQUiPS) project (technical monitor: Dr Fariba Fahroo).

  3. Neural Network Spectral Robustness under Perturbations of the Underlying Graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rădulescu, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have been using graph-theoretical approaches to model complex networks (such as social, infrastructural, or biological networks) and how their hardwired circuitry relates to their dynamic evolution in time. Understanding how configuration reflects on the coupled behavior in a system of dynamic nodes can be of great importance, for example, in the context of how the brain connectome is affecting brain function. However, the effect of connectivity patterns on network dynamics is far from being fully understood. We study the connections between edge configuration and dynamics in a simple oriented network composed of two interconnected cliques (representative of brain feedback regulatory circuitry). In this article our main goal is to study the spectra of the graph adjacency and Laplacian matrices, with a focus on three aspects in particular: (1) the sensitivity and robustness of the spectrum in response to varying the intra- and intermodular edge density, (2) the effects on the spectrum of perturbing the edge configuration while keeping the densities fixed, and (3) the effects of increasing the network size. We study some tractable aspects analytically, then simulate more general results numerically, thus aiming to motivate and explain our further work on the effect of these patterns on the network temporal dynamics and phase transitions. We discuss the implications of such results to modeling brain connectomics. We suggest potential applications to understanding synaptic restructuring in learning networks and the effects of network configuration on function of regulatory neural circuits.

  4. Prompt atmospheric neutrino fluxes: perturbative QCD models and nuclear effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atri; Enberg, Rikard; Jeong, Yu Seon; Kim, C. S.; Reno, Mary Hall; Sarcevic, Ina; Stasto, Anna

    2016-11-01

    We evaluate the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux at high energies using three different frameworks for calculating the heavy quark production cross section in QCD: NLO perturbative QCD, k T factorization including low- x resummation, and the dipole model including parton saturation. We use QCD parameters, the value for the charm quark mass and the range for the factorization and renormalization scales that provide the best description of the total charm cross section measured at fixed target experiments, at RHIC and at LHC. Using these parameters we calculate differential cross sections for charm and bottom production and compare with the latest data on forward charm meson production from LHCb at 7 TeV and at 13 TeV, finding good agreement with the data. In addition, we investigate the role of nuclear shadowing by including nuclear parton distribution functions (PDF) for the target air nucleus using two different nuclear PDF schemes. Depending on the scheme used, we find the reduction of the flux due to nuclear effects varies from 10% to 50% at the highest energies. Finally, we compare our results with the IceCube limit on the prompt neutrino flux, which is already providing valuable information about some of the QCD models.

  5. Nonlinear Modeling of Forced Magnetic Reconnection with Transient Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidler, Matthew T.; Callen, James D.; Hegna, Chris C.; Sovinec, Carl R.

    2017-10-01

    Externally applied 3D magnetic fields in tokamaks can penetrate into the plasma and lead to forced magnetic reconnection, and hence magnetic islands, on resonant surfaces. Analytic theory has been reasonably successful in describing many aspects of this paradigm with regard to describing the time asymptotic-steady state. However, understanding the nonlinear evolution into a low-slip, field-penetrated state, especially how MHD events such as sawteeth and ELMs precipitate this transition, is in its early development. We present nonlinear computations employing the extended-MHD code NIMROD, building on previous work by incorporating a temporally varying external perturbation as a simple model for an MHD event that produces resonant magnetic signals. A parametric series of proof-of-principle computations and accompanying analytical theory characterize the transition into a mode-locked state with an emphasis on detailing the temporal evolution properties. Supported by DOE OFES Grants DE-FG02-92ER54139, DE-FG02-86ER53218, and the U.S. DOE FES Postdoctoral Research program administered by ORISE and managed by ORAU under DOE contract DE-SC0014664.

  6. Evolution of Dark Energy Perturbations in Scalar-Tensor Cosmologies

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, J. C. Bueno; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    2010-01-01

    We solve analytically and numerically the generalized Einstein equations in scalar-tensor cosmologies to obtain the evolution of dark energy and matter linear perturbations. We compare our results with the corresponding results for minimally coupled quintessence perturbations. Our results for natural (O(1)) values of parameters in the Lagrangian which lead to a background expansion similar to LCDM are summarized as follows: 1. Scalar-Tensor dark energy density perturbations are amplified by a...

  7. Scalar perturbations of nonsingular nonrotating black holes in conformal gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Toshmatov, Bobir; Bambi, Cosimo; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We study scalar and electromagnetic perturbations of a family of nonsingular nonrotating black hole spacetimes that are solutions in a large class of conformally invariant theories of gravity. The effective potential for scalar perturbations depends on the exact form of the scaling factor. Electromagnetic perturbations do not feel the scaling factor, and the corresponding quasinormal mode spectrum is the same as in the Schwarzschild metric. We find that these black hole metrics are stable und...

  8. Non-perturbative corrections in N=2 strings

    CERN Document Server

    Gregori, A

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the non-perturbative equivalence of some heterotic /type IIA dual pairs with N=2 supersymmetry. We compute R/sup 2/-like corrections, both on the type IIA and on the heterotic side. The coincidence of their perturbative part provides a test of duality. The type IIA result is then used to predict the full, non- perturbative correction to the heterotic effective action. We determine the instanton numbers and the Olive-Montonen duality groups. (34 refs).

  9. Manual physical therapy and perturbation exercises in knee osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Rhon, Daniel; Deyle, Gail; Gill, Norman; Rendeiro, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) causes disability among the elderly and is often associated with impaired balance and proprioception. Perturbation exercises may help improve these impairments. Although manual physical therapy is generally a well-tolerated treatment for knee OA, perturbation exercises have not been evaluated when used with a manual physical therapy approach. The purpose of this study was to observe tolerance to perturbation exercises and the effect of a manual physical th...

  10. Perturbation theory for the Fokker-Planck operator in chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heninger, Jeffrey M.; Lippolis, Domenico; Cvitanović, Predrag

    2018-02-01

    The stationary distribution of a fully chaotic system typically exhibits a fractal structure, which dramatically changes if the dynamical equations are even slightly modified. Perturbative techniques are not expected to work in this situation. In contrast, the presence of additive noise smooths out the stationary distribution, and perturbation theory becomes applicable. We show that a perturbation expansion for the Fokker-Planck evolution operator yields surprisingly accurate estimates of long-time averages in an otherwise unlikely scenario.

  11. Resolvent estimates for scalar fields with electromagnetic perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Tarulli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note we prove some estimates for the resolvent of the operator $-Delta$ perturbed by the differential operator $$ V(x,D=ia(xcdot abla+V(xquad hbox{in }mathbb{R}^3,. $$ This differential operator is of short range type and a compact perturbation of the Laplacian on $mathbb{R}^3$. Also we find estimates in the space-time norm for the solution of the wave equation with such perturbation.

  12. Resolvent estimates for scalar fields with electromagnetic perturbation

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Tarulli

    2004-01-01

    In this note we prove some estimates for the resolvent of the operator $-Delta$ perturbed by the differential operator $$ V(x,D)=ia(x)cdot abla+V(x)quad hbox{in }mathbb{R}^3,. $$ This differential operator is of short range type and a compact perturbation of the Laplacian on $mathbb{R}^3$. Also we find estimates in the space-time norm for the solution of the wave equation with such perturbation.

  13. Equation-of-motion coupled cluster perturbation theory revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Janus J; Jørgensen, Poul; Olsen, Jeppe; Gauss, Jürgen

    2014-05-07

    The equation-of-motion coupled cluster (EOM-CC) framework has been used for deriving a novel series of perturbative corrections to the coupled cluster singles and doubles energy that formally converges towards the full configuration interaction energy limit. The series is based on a Møller-Plesset partitioning of the Hamiltonian and thus size extensive at any order in the perturbation, thereby remedying the major deficiency inherent to previous perturbation series based on the EOM-CC ansatz.

  14. Variational perturbation treatment of the confined hydrogen atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, H E Jr, E-mail: ed.montgomery@centre.edu [Chemistry Program, Centre College, 600 West Walnut Street, Danville, KY 40422-1394 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The Schroedinger equation for the ground state of a hydrogen atom confined at the centre of an impenetrable cavity is treated using variational perturbation theory. Energies calculated from variational perturbation theory are comparable in accuracy to the results from a direct numerical solution. The goal of this exercise is to introduce the student to the effects of confinement on atomic systems using a tractable problem from which insight into variational perturbation theory may be gained.

  15. On the singular perturbations for fractional differential equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the possible extension of the singular perturbation differential equation to the concept of fractional order derivative. To achieve this, we presented a review of the concept of fractional calculus. We make use of the Laplace transform operator to derive exact solution of singular perturbation fractional linear differential equations. We make use of the methodology of three analytical methods to present exact and approximate solution of the singular perturbation fractional, nonlinear, nonhomogeneous differential equation. These methods are including the regular perturbation method, the new development of the variational iteration method, and the homotopy decomposition method.

  16. Primordial perturbations in a rainbow universe with running Newton constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, Francesco; Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, Joao

    2017-03-01

    We compute the spectral index of primordial perturbations in a rainbow universe. We allow the Newton constant G to run at (super-) Planckian energies and we consider both vacuum and thermal perturbations. If the rainbow metric is the one associated to a generalized Horava-Lifshitz dispersion relation, we find that only when G tends asymptotically to 0 can one match the observed value of the spectral index and solve the horizon problem, both for vacuum and thermal perturbations. For vacuum fluctuations the observational constraints imply that the primordial universe expansion can be both accelerating or decelerating, while in the case of thermal perturbations only decelerating expansion is allowed.

  17. Experimental Manipulation Shows a Greater Influence of Population than Dietary Perturbation on the Microbiome of Tyrophagus putrescentiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Tomas; Ledvinka, Ondrej; Nesvorna, Marta; Hubert, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae is inhabited by bacteria that differ among mite populations (strains) and diets. Here, we investigated how the microbiome and fitness of Tputrescentiae are altered by dietary perturbations and mite populations. Four T. putrescentiae populations, referred to as dog, Koppert, laboratory, and Phillips, underwent a perturbation, i.e., a dietary switch from a rearing diet to two experimental diets. The microbiome was investigated by sequencing the V1-V3 portion of the 16S rRNA gene, and selected bacterial taxa were quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using group/taxon-specific primers. The parameters observed were the changes in mite population growth and nutritional status, i.e., the total glycogen, lipid, saccharide, and protein contents in mites. The effect of diet perturbation on the variability of the microbiome composition and population growth was lower than the effect induced by mite population. In contrast, the diet perturbation showed a greater effect on nutritional status of mites than the mite population. The endosymbionts exhibited high variations among T. putrescentiae populations, including Cardinium in the laboratory population, Blattabacterium-like bacteria in the dog population, and Wolbachia in the dog and Phillips populations. Solitalea-like and Bartonella-like bacteria were present in the dog, Koppert, and Phillips populations in different proportions. The T. putrescentiae microbiome is dynamic and varies based on both the mite population and perturbation; however, the mites remain characterized by robust bacterial communities. Bacterial endosymbionts were found in all populations but represented a dominant portion of the microbiome in only some populations.IMPORTANCE We addressed the question of whether population origin or perturbation exerts a more significant influence on the bacterial community of the stored product mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae The microbiomes of four populations of T. putrescentiae insects subjected

  18. Towards understanding ELM mitigation by resonant magnetic perturbations in MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ian

    2012-10-01

    MAST is equipped with 18 in-vessel coils for use in Resonant Magnetic Perturbation (RMP) ELM control experiments. These coils give considerable flexibility since they allow a range of toroidal mode numbers (up to n=6) and also allow improved alignment of the magnetic perturbations with the plasma equilibrium by allowing the phase of the applied field to be varied during the shot. This is complemented by modelling advances to understand the plasma response to applied fields, the resultant torque and three-dimensional displacement. The application of n>=3 RMPs in MAST results in up to a factor of eight increase in ELM frequency and the released energy per ELM dropping four-fold. The benefits of high-n RMPs include reduced core rotation braking and reduced effect on the L-H transition power with RMPs. During ELM mitigation, lobe structures near the X-point are observed for the first time in visible-light imaging of the plasma edge. These lobes, that were previously predicted, are correlated with RMP penetration and only appear when enhanced particle transport or increased ELM frequency is observed. The number and location of the lobes is well described by vacuum modelling. The toroidal corrugation of the plasma edge due to n=3 RMPs is also measured and found to be 5% of the minor radius. The electron pressure gradient drops and the pedestal width increases when RMPs are applied, which would normally suggest improved stability to peeling-ballooning modes, yet the ELMs are more frequent, or destabilised. This dichotomy is resolved with a model which suggests that the critical pressure gradient to trigger an ELM is degraded by the RMPs, due to both the presence of the lobes and the non-axisymmetric plasma corrugation. A quasi-linear code, MARS-Q code has been used to investigate the effects of the penetration process and plasma response on the observed structures. These computations quantify several factors affecting the dynamics of the RMP field penetration, in

  19. Constituent quark masses from modified perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabo Montes de Oca, A. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, La Habana (Cuba); International Institute for Theoretical and Applied Physics (IITAP), UNESCO and Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Rigol Madrazo, M. [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    2002-03-01

    A recently proposed modified perturbative expansion for QCD incorporating gluon condensation is employed to evaluate the quark and gluon self-energy corrections in first approximation. The results predict mass values of 1/3 of the nucleon mass for the light quarks u, d, and s and a monotonously growing variation with the current mass. The only phenomenological input is that left angle G{sup 2} right angle is evaluated up to order g{sup 2} as a function of the unique parameter C defining the modified propagator, and then C is fixed to give a current estimate of left angle g{sup 2}G{sup 2} right angle. The light quarks u and d as a result are found to be confined and the s, c, b and t ones show damped propagation modes, suggesting a model for the large differences in stability between the nucleons and the higher resonances. The above properties of quark modes diverge from the fully confinement result following from the similar gluon propagator previously considered by Munczek and Nemirovski. On the other hand, the condensate effects on the gluon self-energy furnish a tachyonic mass shell as predicted by the Fukuda analysis of gluon condensation in QCD. (orig.)

  20. Singular perturbation in the physical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Neu, John C

    2015-01-01

    This book is the testimony of a physical scientist whose language is singular perturbation analysis. Classical mathematical notions, such as matched asymptotic expansions, projections of large dynamical systems onto small center manifolds, and modulation theory of oscillations based either on multiple scales or on averaging/transformation theory, are included. The narratives of these topics are carried by physical examples: Let's say that the moment when we "see" how a mathematical pattern fits a physical problem is like "hitting the ball." Yes, we want to hit the ball. But a powerful stroke includes the follow-through. One intention of this book is to discern in the structure and/or solutions of the equations their geometric and physical content. Through analysis, we come to sense directly the shape and feel of phenomena. The book is structured into a main text of fundamental ideas and a subtext of problems with detailed solutions. Roughly speaking, the former is the initial contact between mathematics and p...

  1. Anthropogenic perturbations of tropospheric ion composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, G.; Brasseur, G.

    This paper presents a simple model of the vertical distribution of the most abundant positive ions in the troposphere. The model is based on a simple ion chemical scheme, measured rate constants, and observed or calculated atmospheric densities of parent neutral compounds. It suggests that in many cases the most abundant gaseous ions are heavy protonated water cluster ions of pyridine, picoline and lutidine with ammonia molecules attached (pyridinated cluster ions) in the lower troposphere (below 7 km altitude), acetone cluster ions in the upper troposphere (between 7 and 15 km) and methyl cyanide cluster ions above 15 km. The relative abundance of heavy clustered aerosol ions is predicted to be highest near the surface. The model suggests that ion composition could be perturbed as a result of human activities (i.e., increasing emissions of parent neutral species including alkaline compounds), and that in particular, the relative atmospheric abundance of pyridinated water cluster ions is increasing dramatically and should further increase in the future.

  2. Genetic perturbation of the maize methylome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Eichten, Steven R; Hermanson, Peter J; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Song, Jawon; Wendt, Jennifer; Rosenbaum, Heidi; Madzima, Thelma F; Sloan, Amy E; Huang, Ji; Burgess, Daniel L; Richmond, Todd A; McGinnis, Karen M; Meeley, Robert B; Danilevskaya, Olga N; Vaughn, Matthew W; Kaeppler, Shawn M; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Springer, Nathan M

    2014-12-01

    DNA methylation can play important roles in the regulation of transposable elements and genes. A collection of mutant alleles for 11 maize (Zea mays) genes predicted to play roles in controlling DNA methylation were isolated through forward- or reverse-genetic approaches. Low-coverage whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-coverage sequence-capture bisulfite sequencing were applied to mutant lines to determine context- and locus-specific effects of these mutations on DNA methylation profiles. Plants containing mutant alleles for components of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway exhibit loss of CHH methylation at many loci as well as CG and CHG methylation at a small number of loci. Plants containing loss-of-function alleles for chromomethylase (CMT) genes exhibit strong genome-wide reductions in CHG methylation and some locus-specific loss of CHH methylation. In an attempt to identify stocks with stronger reductions in DNA methylation levels than provided by single gene mutations, we performed crosses to create double mutants for the maize CMT3 orthologs, Zmet2 and Zmet5, and for the maize DDM1 orthologs, Chr101 and Chr106. While loss-of-function alleles are viable as single gene mutants, the double mutants were not recovered, suggesting that severe perturbations of the maize methylome may have stronger deleterious phenotypic effects than in Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon content on perturbed wetlands of Yucatan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Ojeda, S. M.; Orellana, R.; Herrera Silveira, J.

    2013-05-01

    The north coast of Yucatan Peninsula is a karstic scenario where the water flows mainly underground through the so called "cenotes"-ring system ("sink holes") toward the coast. This underground water system enhances the connection between watershed condition and coastal ecosystem health. Inland activities such as livestock, agriculture and urban development produce changes in the landscape, hydrological connectivity and in the water quality that can decrease wetland coverage specially mangroves and seagrasses. We conducted studies on the description of structure, biomass and carbon content of the soil, above and below ground of four different types of wetland in a perturbed region. The wetland ecological types were freshwater (Typha domingensis), dwarf mangroves (Avicenia germinans), grassland (Cyperacea) and Seagrasses. Due to the area is mainly covered by mangroves, they represent the most important carbon storage nevertheless the condition of the structure determine the carbon content in soil. Through GIS tools we explore the relationships between land use and costal condition in order to determine priority areas for conservation within the watershed that could be efficient to preserve the carbon storage of this area.

  4. Lattice-motivated holomorphic nearly perturbative QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, César; Cvetič, Gorazd; Kögerler, Reinhart

    2017-07-01

    Newer lattice results indicate that, in the Landau gauge at low spacelike momenta, the gluon propagator and the ghost dressing function are finite nonzero. This leads to a definition of the QCD running coupling, in a specific scheme, that goes to zero at low spacelike momenta. We construct a running coupling which fulfills these conditions, and at the same time reproduces to a high precision the perturbative behavior at high momenta. The coupling is constructed in such a way that it reflects qualitatively correctly the holomorphic (analytic) behavior of spacelike observables in the complex plane of the squared momenta, as dictated by the general principles of quantum field theories. Further, we require the coupling to reproduce correctly the nonstrange semihadronic decay rate of tau lepton which is the best measured low-momentum QCD observable with small higher-twist effects. Subsequent application of the Borel sum rules to the V + A spectral functions of tau lepton decays, as measured by OPAL Collaboration, determines the values of the gluon condensate and of the V + A six-dimensional condensate, and reproduces the data to a significantly higher precision than the usual \\overline{{MS}} running coupling.

  5. Cosmological Perturbations Across an S-brane

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenberger, Robert H; Partouche, Herve; Patil, Subodh P; Toumbas, N

    2014-01-01

    Space-filling S-branes can mediate a transition between a contracting and an expanding universe in the Einstein frame. Following up on previous work that uncovered such bouncing solutions in the context of weakly coupled thermal configurations of a certain class of type II superstrings, we set up here the formalism in which we can study the evolution of metric fluctuations across such an S-brane. Our work shows that the specific nature of the S-brane, which is sourced by non-trivial massless thermal string states and appears when the universe reaches a maximal critical temperature, allows for a scale invariant spectrum of curvature fluctuations to manifest at late times via a stringy realization of the matter bounce scenario. The finite energy density at the transition from contraction to expansion provides calculational control over the propagation of the curvature perturbations through the bounce, furnishing a working proof of concept that such a stringy universe can result in viable late time cosmology.

  6. Hadronic Lorentz violation in chiral perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamand, Rasha; Altschul, Brett; Schindler, Matthias R.

    2017-03-01

    Any possible Lorentz violation in the hadron sector must be tied to Lorentz violation at the underlying quark level. The relationships between the theories at these two levels are studied using chiral perturbation theory. Starting from a two-flavor quark theory that includes dimension-4 Lorentz-violation operators, the effective Lagrangians are derived for both pions and nucleons, with novel terms appearing in both sectors. Since the Lorentz-violation coefficients for nucleons and pions are all related to a single set of underlying quark coefficients, one can compare the sensitivity of different types of experiments. Our analysis shows that atomic physics experiments currently provide constraints on the quark parameters that are stronger by about 10 orders of magnitude than astrophysical experiments with relativistic pions. Alternatively, it is possible to place approximate bounds on pion Lorentz violation using only proton and neutron observations. Under the assumption that the Lorentz-violating operators considered here are the only ones contributing to the relevant observables and taking the currently unknown hadronic low-energy constants to be of natural size, the resulting estimated bounds on four pion parameters are at the 10-23 level, representing improvements of 10 orders of magnitude.

  7. Simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation for tidal models

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, M.U.

    2011-05-12

    The Dutch continental shelf model (DCSM) is a shallow sea model of entire continental shelf which is used operationally in the Netherlands to forecast the storm surges in the North Sea. The forecasts are necessary to support the decision of the timely closure of the moveable storm surge barriers to protect the land. In this study, an automated model calibration method, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) is implemented for tidal calibration of the DCSM. The method uses objective function evaluations to obtain the gradient approximations. The gradient approximation for the central difference method uses only two objective function evaluation independent of the number of parameters being optimized. The calibration parameter in this study is the model bathymetry. A number of calibration experiments is performed. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated in terms of the accuracy of the final results as well as the computational costs required to produce these results. In doing so, comparison is made with a traditional steepest descent method and also with a newly developed proper orthogonal decompositionbased calibration method. The main findings are: (1) The SPSA method gives comparable results to steepest descent method with little computational cost. (2) The SPSA method with little computational cost can be used to estimate large number of parameters.

  8. Perturbing Streaming in Dictyostelium discoidium Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rericha, Erin; Garcia, Gene; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang

    2009-03-01

    The ability of cells to move towards environmental cues is a critical process allowing the destruction of intruders by the immune system, the formation of the vascular system and the whole scale remodeling of tissues during embryo development. We examine the initial transition from single cell to group migration in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoidium. Upon starvation, D. discoidium cells enter into a developmental program that triggers solitary cells to aggregate into a multicellular structure. The aggregation is mediated by the small molecule, cyclic-AMP, that cells sense, synthesize, secrete and migrate towards often in a head-to-tail fashion called a stream. Using experiment and numerical simulation, we study the sensitivity of streams to perturbations in the cyclic-AMP concentration field. We find the stability of the streams requires cells to shape the cyclic-AMP field through localized secretion and degradation. In addition, we find the streaming phenotype is sensitive to changes in the substrate properties, with slicker surfaces leading to longer more branched streams that yield large initial aggregates.

  9. Matching Value Propositions with Varied Customer Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Organizations seek to manage varied customer segments using varied value propositions. The ability of a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) provider to formulate value propositions into attractive offerings to varied customers becomes a competitive advantage. In this specific business bas...

  10. Spatially cascading effect of perturbations in experimental meta-ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Eric; Gounand, Isabelle; Ganesanandamoorthy, Pravin; Altermatt, Florian

    2016-09-14

    Ecosystems are linked to neighbouring ecosystems not only by dispersal, but also by the movement of subsidy. Such subsidy couplings between ecosystems have important landscape-scale implications because perturbations in one ecosystem may affect community structure and functioning in neighbouring ecosystems via increased/decreased subsidies. Here, we combine a general theoretical approach based on harvesting theory and a two-patch protist meta-ecosystem experiment to test the effect of regional perturbations on local community dynamics. We first characterized the relationship between the perturbation regime and local population demography on detritus production using a mathematical model. We then experimentally simulated a perturbation gradient affecting connected ecosystems simultaneously, thus altering cross-ecosystem subsidy exchanges. We demonstrate that the perturbation regime can interact with local population dynamics to trigger unexpected temporal variations in subsidy pulses from one ecosystem to another. High perturbation intensity initially led to the highest level of subsidy flows; however, the level of perturbation interacted with population dynamics to generate a crash in subsidy exchange over time. Both theoretical and experimental results show that a perturbation regime interacting with local community dynamics can induce a collapse in population levels for recipient ecosystems. These results call for integrative management of human-altered landscapes that takes into account regional dynamics of both species and resource flows. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Quantum radiation from superluminal refractive-index perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgiorno, F; Cacciatori, S L; Ortenzi, G; Sala, V G; Faccio, D

    2010-04-09

    We analyze in detail photon production induced by a superluminal refractive-index perturbation in realistic experimental operating conditions. The interaction between the refractive-index perturbation and the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field leads to the production of photon pairs.

  12. Variational Perturbation Treatment of the Confined Hydrogen Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, H. E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Schrodinger equation for the ground state of a hydrogen atom confined at the centre of an impenetrable cavity is treated using variational perturbation theory. Energies calculated from variational perturbation theory are comparable in accuracy to the results from a direct numerical solution. The goal of this exercise is to introduce the…

  13. Reconfigurable optical spectra from perturbations on elliptical whispering gallery resonances

    OpenAIRE

    Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Elastic strain, electrical bias, and localized geometric deformations were applied to elliptical whispering-gallery-mode resonators fabricated with lithium niobate. The resultant perturbation of the mode spectrum is highly dependant on the modal indices, resulting in a discretely reconfigurable optical spectrum. Breaking of the spatial degeneracy of the whispering-gallery modes due to perturbation is also observed.

  14. Singularly perturbed volterra integro-differential equations | Bijura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several investigations have been made on singularly perturbed integral equations. This paper aims at presenting an algorithm for the construction of asymptotic solutions and then provide a proof asymptotic correctness to singularly perturbed systems of Volterra integro-differential equations. Mathematics Subject

  15. Reliable finite element methods for self-adjoint singular perturbation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that the standard finite element method based on the space Vh of continuous piecewise linear functions is not reliable in solving singular perturbation problems. It is also known that the solution of a two-point boundaryvalue singular perturbation problem admits a decomposition into a regular part and a finite ...

  16. Hybridization of the probability perturbation method with gradient information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kent; Caers, J.; Suzuki, S.

    2007-01-01

    of the algorithm. It is the purpose of this paper to introduce a method that integrates qualitative gradient information into the probability perturbation method to improve convergence. The potential of the proposed method is demonstrated on a synthetic history-matching example. The results indicate that inclusion...... of qualitative gradient information improves the performance of the probability perturbation method....

  17. On stochastic perturbations of slowly changing dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidlin, M.; Koralov, L.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we consider a diffusion process obtained as a small random perturbation of a dynamical system attracted to a stable equilibrium point. The drift and the diffusive perturbation are assumed to evolve slowly in time. We describe the asymptotics of the time it takes the process to exit a given domain and the limiting distribution of the exit point.

  18. Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized Gardner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... Abstract. This paper is concerned with the existence of travelling wave solutions to a singularly perturbed gen- eralized Gardner equation with nonlinear terms of any order. By using geometric singular perturbation theory and based on the relation between solitary wave solution and homoclinic orbits of the ...

  19. Application of New Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... proposed method is very efficient, simple and is more user friendly. Keywords: Variational Iteration Method, Homotopy Perturbation Method, New Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method, Integro-Differential Equations Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 20 (March, 2012), pp 497 – 504 ...

  20. Application of New Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical comparisons are made between VIM/HPM and NVHPM results. Keywords: Painlevé Equations, Variational Iteration Method, Homotopy Perturbation Method, New Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method, Ordinary Differential Equations Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 19 ...

  1. A Remark on the Similarity and Perturbation Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, J.; Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this note we show that Kadison's similarity problem for C*-algebras is equivalent to a problem in perturbation theory: must close C*-algebras have close commutants?......In this note we show that Kadison's similarity problem for C*-algebras is equivalent to a problem in perturbation theory: must close C*-algebras have close commutants?...

  2. NONLINEAR PERTURBATION METHOD FOR CALCULATING AXISYMMETRIC CAVITATIONAL FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Buivol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a cavity under the influence of perturbations of various origins is evaluated. The model is based on hydrodynamics of flows with free boundaries and the theory of small perturbations. Specific analysis is provided for cavitational flows behind cones

  3. Perturbed period-doubling bifurcation. II. Experiments on Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Gert Friis; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev

    1990-01-01

    We present experimental results on the effect of periodic perturbations on a driven, dynamic system that is close to a period-doubling bifurcation. In the preceding article a scaling law for the change of stability of such a system was derived for the case where the perturbation frequency ω...

  4. Forecasting with the Standardized Self-Perturbed Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Nonejad, Nima; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    We propose and study the finite-sample properties of a modified version of the self-perturbed Kalman filter of Park and Jun (1992) for the on-line estimation of models subject to parameter instability. The perturbation term in the updating equation of the state covariance matrix is now weighted b...

  5. Effect of Hydrotherapy on Static and Dynamic Balance in Older Adults: Comparison of Perturbed and Non-Perturbed Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Azimzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Falling is a main cause of mortality in elderly. Balance training exercises can help to prevent falls in older adults. According to the principle of specificity of training, the perturbation-based trainings are more similar to the real world. So these training programs can improve balance in elderly. Furthermore, exercising in an aquatic environment can reduce the limitations for balance training rather than a non-aquatic on. The aim of this study is comparing the effectiveness of perturbed and non-perturbed balance training programs in water on static and dynamic balance in aforementioned population group. Methods & Materials: 37 old women (age 80-65, were randomized to the following groups: perturbation-based training (n=12, non-perturbation-based training (n=12 and control (n=13 groups. Static and dynamic balance had been tested before and after the eight weeks of training by the postural stability test of the Biodex balance system using dynamic (level 4 and static platform. The data were analyzed by one sample paired t-test, Independent t-test and ANOVA. Results: There was a significant improvement for all indexes of static and dynamic balance in perturbation-based training (P<0.05. However, in non-perturbed group, all indexes were improved except ML (P<0.05. ANOVA showed that perturbed training was more effective than non-perturbed training on both static and dynamic balances. Conclusion: The findings confirmed the specificity principle of training. Although balance training can improve balance abilities, these kinds of trainings are not such specific for improving balance neuromuscular activities.The perturbation-based trainings can activate postural compensatory responses and reduce falling risk. According to results, we can conclude that hydrotherapy especially with perturbation-based programs will be useful for rehabilitation interventions in elderly .

  6. The mass and angular momentum of reconstructed metric perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Meent, Maarten

    2017-06-01

    We prove a key result regarding the mass and angular momentum content of linear vacuum perturbations of the Kerr metric obtained through the formalism developed by Chrzarnowski, Cohen, and Kegeles (CCK). More precisely, we prove that the Abbott-Deser mass and angular momentum integrals of any such perturbation vanish when that perturbation was obtained from a regular Fourier mode of the Hertz potential. As a corollary we obtain a generalization of previous results on the completion of the ‘no string’ radiation gauge metric perturbation generated by a point particle. We find that for any bound orbit around a Kerr black hole, the mass and angular momentum perturbations completing the CCK metric are simply the energy and angular momentum of the particle ‘outside’ the orbit and vanish ‘inside’ the orbit.

  7. Gauge-Invariant Perturbations in Hybrid Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Gomar, Laura Castelló; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena

    2015-01-01

    We consider cosmological perturbations around homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes minimally coupled to a scalar field and present a formulation which is designed to preserve covariance. We truncate the action at quadratic perturbative order and particularize our analysis to flat compact spatial sections and a field potential given by a mass term, although the formalism can be extended to other topologies and potentials. The perturbations are described in terms of Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, linear perturbative constraints, and variables canonically conjugate to them. This set is completed into a canonical one for the entire system, including the homogeneous degrees of freedom. We find the global Hamiltonian constraint of the model, in which the contribution of the homogeneous sector is corrected with a term quadratic in the perturbations, that can be identified as the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian in our formulation. We then adopt a hybrid approach to quantize the model, combining a quantum representatio...

  8. Finslerian perturbation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xin; Chang, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    We present Finslerian perturbation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model, which breaks the isotropic symmetry of the universe. The analysis on the Killing vectors shows that the Randers-Finsler spacetime breaks the isotropic symmetry even if the scalar perturbations of the FRW metric vanish. In Randers-Finsler spacetime, the modified geodesic equation deduces a modified Boltzmann equation. We propose a perturbational version of the gravitational field equation in Randers-Finsler spacetime, where we have omitted the curvature tensor that does not belong to the base space of the tangent bundle. The gravitational field equations for the gravitational wave are also presented. The primordial power spectrum of the gravitational wave is investigated. We show that the primordial power spectrum for super-horizon perturbations is unchanged. For sub-horizon perturbations, however, the power spectrum is modified.

  9. Characterisation of hydrogen bond perturbations in aqueous systems using aquaphotomics and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, A A; Amigo, J M; Tsenkova, R

    2013-01-08

    Aquaphotomics is a new discipline that provides a framework for understanding changes in the structure of water caused by various perturbations, such as variations in temperature or the addition of solutes, using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). One of the main purposes of aquaphotomics is to identify water bands as main coordinates of future absorbance patterns to be used as biomarkers. These bands appear as consequence of perturbations in the NIR spectra. Curve resolution techniques may help to resolve and find new water bands or confirm already known bands. The aim of this study is to investigate the application of multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to characterise the effects of various perturbations on the NIR spectra of water in terms of hydrogen bonding. For this purpose, the perturbations created by temperature change and the addition of four solutions of different ionic strength and Lewis acidity were studied (NaCl, KCl, MgCl(2) and AlCl(3), with concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 1 mol L(-1) in steps of 0.2 mol L(-1)). Transmission spectra of all salt solutions and pure water were obtained at temperatures ranging from 28 to 45°C. We have found that three distinct components with varying temperature dependence are present in water perturbed by temperature. The salt solutions studied exhibited similar trends with respect to the temperature perturbation, while the peak locations of their MCR-ALS pure components varied according to the ionic strength of the salt used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of adomian decomposition method for singularly perturbed fourth order boundary value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Sinan; Bildik, Necdet

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we use Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) to solve the singularly perturbed fourth order boundary value problem. In order to make the calculation process easier, first the given problem is transformed into a system of two second order ODEs, with suitable boundary conditions. Numerical illustrations are given to prove the effectiveness and applicability of this method in solving these kinds of problems. Obtained results shows that this technique provides a sequence of functions which converges rapidly to the accurate solution of the problems.

  11. Proposal and implementation of a novel perturb and observe algorithm using embedded software

    OpenAIRE

    motahhir, saad; Ghzizal, Abdelaziz El; Sebti, Souad; Derouich, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this paper is to implement a modified Perturb and Observe algorithm (P&O), in order to solve the oscillations problem of photovoltaic (PV) power output generated by the conventional P&O algorithm. A comparison between the novel and the basic P&O algorithms is made. The first is implemented using embedded C language; the second is implemented using analog blocks. Next, the simulation study is made to present the response of the modified method to rapid temper...

  12. Bounded scalar perturbations in bouncing brane world cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Rodrigo; Pace, Francesco; Soares, Ivano Damião

    2013-11-01

    We examine the dynamics of scalar perturbations in closed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universes in the framework of brane world theory with a timelike extra dimension. In this scenario, the unperturbed Friedmann equations contain additional terms arising from the bulk-brane interaction that implement nonsingular bounces in the models with a cosmological constant and noninteracting perfect fluids. The structure of the phase space of the models allows for two basic configurations, namely, one bounce solutions and eternal universes. Assuming that the matter content of the model is given by dust and radiation, we derive the dynamical field equations for scalar hydrodynamical perturbations considering either a conformally flat (de Sitter) bulk or a perturbed bulk. The dynamical system built with these equations is extremely involved. Nevertheless, in this paper we perform a numerical analysis which can shed some light on the study of cosmological scalar perturbations in bouncing brane world models. From a mathematical point of view we show that although the bounce enhances the amplitudes of scalar perturbations for one bounce models in the case of a de Sitter bulk, the amplitudes of the perturbations remain sufficiently small and bounded relative to the background values up to a certain scale. For one bounce models in the case of a perturbed bulk the amplitudes of all perturbations (apart from the Weyl fluid energy density) remain sufficiently small and bounded relative to the background values for any scale of the perturbations. We also discuss and compare the stability and bounded behavior of the perturbations in the late accelerated phase of one bounce solutions. For eternal universes we argue that some of these features are maintained only for early times (typically of the order of the first bounce). In this sense we show that eternal solutions are highly unstable configurations considering the background model of this paper.

  13. Study of the early signal perturbations due to GJ and Elves using the LWPC code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Amor, Samir; Ghalila, Hassen; Bouderba, Yasmina

    2015-04-01

    the signal perturbation was negative (or decreasing) and sometimes positive (or increasing). It was also observed from the LWPC code results that the perturbation amplitude was maximum when the perturbed and unperturbed signals were in phase. Thus the main reason of these observations is the modal structure of the signal at the disturbed region and the receiver location. The electron density increases reached 104 cm-3 at 85 km independently on TLE kind. By the use of the signal perturbation parameters due to the long recovery event and the LWPC code, a recovery time profile of the electron density at each height below 87 km is obtained. The first order exponential decay fit gives different recovery constants depending on the height. This is in good agreement with the atmospheric model where the loss terms rates vary with altitude.

  14. Global Links to Local Carbon Cycling Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Montanez, I. P.; Wang, X.; Qi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon cycle perturbations recorded by stable carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) play an important role in understanding climate, oceanography, and the biosphere through time. Recent studies, however, reveal the influence of regional processes on apparent global CIEs. Deconvolving local/regional from global processes imprinted in the carbon isotopic records of sedimentary successions requires integrated sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study. Here we present coupled C and Sr isotopic records of diagenetically screened micrite and brachiopods from late Mississippian shallow-marine, carbonate platform and contemporaneous carbonate slope successions from the east Paleotethys Ocean region (South China). These records reveal distinctly different signatures of the depositional response to the onset of Carboniferous glaciation. C and Sr isotopic compositions of the platform carbonates exhibit systematic fluctuations in step with inferred sea-level changes captured by depositional cycles. CIEs in the platform succession can be correlated to the contemporaneous C isotope record from the Antler carbonate ramp (Idaho, USA). In contrast, slope carbonate and conodont isotopic records exhibit minimal variability interpreted to record the open-ocean seawater composition. The isotopic disparity between successions is interpreted to record the influence of local depositional, but not diagenetic, processes operating on the carbonate platform in response to glacioeustasy. Variability in the nature of coupled isotopic and inferred sea level fluctuations is interpreted to record stepwise onset of the late Paleozoic ice age in the late Mississippian. Initial large magnitude shifts in C and Sr isotopic compositions of late Visean to early Serpukhovian carbonates correspond to 1 to 2 myr-scale cycles driven by the buildup of continental glaciers. Subsequent decreased magnitude of isotopic shifts coincident with a shift to shorter duration and smaller magnitude sea

  15. Near-neutral centre-modes as inviscid perturbations to a trailing line vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. N.; Stewartson, K.

    1985-07-01

    Inviscid linear perturbations to a columnar trailing line vortex are found in the form of center-modes. These near-neutral modes, occurring at moderate values of the azimuthal wavenumber n, are the analogue of the ring modes for large n discussed by Stewartson and Capell (1985). The appearance and disappearance of these modes as the swirl parameter varies may partly explain the difficulties encountered by numerical analysts in the computation of such modes. In addition, instabilities are found at higher values of the swirl parameter than have previously been reported.

  16. Step length after discrete perturbation predicts accidental falls and fall-related injury in elderly people with a range of peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allet, Lara; Kim, Hogene; Ashton-Miller, James; De Mott, Trina; Richardson, James K

    2014-01-01

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy increases fall risk due to inability to cope with perturbations. We aimed to 1) identify the frontal plane lower limb sensorimotor functions which are necessary for robustness to a discrete, underfoot perturbation during gait; and 2) determine whether changes in the post-perturbed step parameters could distinguish between fallers and non fallers. Forty-two subjects (16 healthy old and 26 with diabetic PN) participated. Frontal plane lower limb sensorimotor functions were determined using established laboratory-based techniques. The subjects' most extreme alterations in step width or step length in response to a perturbation were measured. In addition, falls and fall-related injuries were prospectively recorded. Ankle proprioceptive threshold (APrT; p=.025) and hip abduction rate of torque generation (RTG; p=.041) independently predicted extreme step length after medial perturbation, with precise APrT and greater hip RTG allowing maintenance of step length. Injured subjects demonstrated greater extreme step length changes after medial perturbation than non-injured subjects (percent change = 18.5 ± 9.2 vs. 11.3 ± 4.57; p = .01). The ability to rapidly generate frontal plane hip strength and/or precisely perceive motion at the ankle is needed to maintain a normal step length after perturbation, a parameter which distinguishes between subjects sustaining a fall-related injury and those who did not. © 2014.

  17. VISAR fringe analysis under extreme spatially varying shock loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, David; Fratanduono, Dayne

    2017-06-01

    Many VISAR velocity interferometers employ a streak camera to record fringes along the spatial axis (Y) of a target, versus time. When the shock loading (thus velocity history) varies rapidly versus Y, the fringe analysis challenges traditional algorithms since the Y-spacing of fringes can vary strongly with Y, and be significantly different than the uniform pre-shock (bias) spacing. For traditional colum-by-column analysis the intensity signal shape would be a sinusoid with rapidly varying frequency (chirped), which can confuse a traditional algorithm expecting a monochromatic peak in Fourier space. And for a traditional push-pull row-by-row approach, the phase steps are irregular. We describe preliminary success in analyzing such data in simulation. We find it useful to (a) separate the nonfringing component from the data early; (b) maximize linearity of a plot of fringing magnitude versus nonfringing intensity to choose optimal weight values; (c) when using a row-by-row approach sampling 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees phase we add a fifth sample at 360 degrees, which is averaged with the 0 degree sample and replaces it. This increases the robustness to variable phase step (following P. Hariharan). The pre-shock and post-shock regions are separately processed/concatenated. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Robotic finger perturbation training improves finger postural steadiness and hand dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Yasuhide; Ikeda, Atsutoshi; Shinohara, Minoru

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand the effect of robotic finger perturbation training on steadiness in finger posture and hand dexterity in healthy young adults. A mobile robotic finger training system was designed to have the functions of high-speed mechanical response, two degrees of freedom, and adjustable loading amplitude and direction. Healthy young adults were assigned to one of the three groups: random perturbation training (RPT), constant force training (CFT), and control. Subjects in RPT and CFT performed steady posture training with their index finger using the robot in different modes: random force in RPT and constant force in CFT. After the 2-week intervention period, fluctuations of the index finger posture decreased only in RPT during steady position-matching tasks with an inertial load. Purdue pegboard test score improved also in RPT only. The relative change in finger postural fluctuations was negatively correlated with the relative change in the number of completed pegs in the pegboard test in RPT. The results indicate that finger posture training with random mechanical perturbations of varying amplitudes and directions of force is effective in improving finger postural steadiness and hand dexterity in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Females Exhibit Shorter Paraspinal Reflex Latencies than Males in Response to Sudden Trunk Flexion Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily M.; Slota, Gregory P.; Agnew, Michael J.; Madigan, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Females have a higher risk of experiencing low back pain or injury than males. One possible reason for this might be altered reflexes since longer paraspinal reflex latencies exist in injured patients versus healthy controls. Gender differences have been reported in paraspinal reflex latency, yet findings are inconsistent. The goal here was to investigate gender differences in paraspinal reflex latency, avoiding and accounting for potentially gender-confounding experimental factors. Methods Ten males and ten females underwent repeated trunk flexion perturbations. Paraspinal muscle activity and trunk kinematics were recorded to calculate reflex latency and maximum trunk flexion velocity. Two-way mixed model ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of gender on reflex latency and maximum trunk flexion velocity. Findings Reflex latency was 18.7% shorter in females than in males (P=0.02) when exposed to identical trunk perturbations, and did not vary by impulse (P=0.38). However, maximum trunk flexion velocity was 35.3% faster in females than males (P=0.01) when exposed to identical trunk perturbations, and increased with impulse (P<0.01). While controlling for differences in maximum trunk flexion velocity, reflex latency was 16.4% shorter in females than males (P=0.04). Implications The higher prevalence of low back pain and injury among females does not appear to result from slower paraspinal reflexes. PMID:20359800

  20. Effects of perturbation magnitude and voice F0 level on the pitch-shift reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanjun; Larson, Charles R

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the responsiveness of the pitch-shift reflex to small magnitude stimuli and voice fundamental frequency (F(0)) level. English speakers received pitch-shifted voice feedback (+/-10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 cents, 200 ms duration) during vowel phonations at a high and a low F(0) level. Mean pitch-shift response magnitude increased as a function of pitch-shift stimulus magnitude, but when expressed as a percent of stimulus magnitude, declined from 100% with +/-10 cents to 37% with +/-50 cents stimuli. Response magnitudes were larger and latencies were shorter with a high F(0) level (16 cents;130 ms) compared to a low F(0) level (13 cents;152 ms). Data from the present study demonstrate that vocal response magnitudes are equal to small perturbation magnitudes, and they are larger and faster with a high F(0) voice. These results suggest that the audio-vocal system is optimally suited for compensating for small pitch rather than larger perturbations. Data also suggest the sensitivity of the audio-vocal system to voice perturbation may vary with F(0) level.

  1. Large-scale genetic perturbations reveal regulatory networks and an abundance of gene-specific repressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmeren, Patrick; Sameith, Katrin; van de Pasch, Loes A L; Benschop, Joris J; Lenstra, Tineke L; Margaritis, Thanasis; O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Apweiler, Eva; van Wageningen, Sake; Ko, Cheuk W; van Heesch, Sebastiaan; Kashani, Mehdi M; Ampatziadis-Michailidis, Giannis; Brok, Mariel O; Brabers, Nathalie A C H; Miles, Anthony J; Bouwmeester, Diane; van Hooff, Sander R; van Bakel, Harm; Sluiters, Erik; Bakker, Linda V; Snel, Berend; Lijnzaad, Philip; van Leenen, Dik; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Holstege, Frank C P

    2014-04-24

    To understand regulatory systems, it would be useful to uniformly determine how different components contribute to the expression of all other genes. We therefore monitored mRNA expression genome-wide, for individual deletions of one-quarter of yeast genes, focusing on (putative) regulators. The resulting genetic perturbation signatures reflect many different properties. These include the architecture of protein complexes and pathways, identification of expression changes compatible with viability, and the varying responsiveness to genetic perturbation. The data are assembled into a genetic perturbation network that shows different connectivities for different classes of regulators. Four feed-forward loop (FFL) types are overrepresented, including incoherent type 2 FFLs that likely represent feedback. Systematic transcription factor classification shows a surprisingly high abundance of gene-specific repressors, suggesting that yeast chromatin is not as generally restrictive to transcription as is often assumed. The data set is useful for studying individual genes and for discovering properties of an entire regulatory system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Delineating social network data anonymization via random edge perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2012-01-01

    Social network data analysis raises concerns about the privacy of related entities or individuals. To address this issue, organizations can publish data after simply replacing the identities of individuals with pseudonyms, leaving the overall structure of the social network unchanged. However, it has been shown that attacks based on structural identification (e.g., a walk-based attack) enable an adversary to re-identify selected individuals in an anonymized network. In this paper we explore the capacity of techniques based on random edge perturbation to thwart such attacks. We theoretically establish that any kind of structural identification attack can effectively be prevented using random edge perturbation and show that, surprisingly, important properties of the whole network, as well as of subgraphs thereof, can be accurately calculated and hence data analysis tasks performed on the perturbed data, given that the legitimate data recipient knows the perturbation probability as well. Yet we also examine ways to enhance the walk-based attack, proposing a variant we call probabilistic attack. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that such probabilistic attacks can also be prevented under sufficient perturbation. Eventually, we conduct a thorough theoretical study of the probability of success of any}structural attack as a function of the perturbation probability. Our analysis provides a powerful tool for delineating the identification risk of perturbed social network data; our extensive experiments with synthetic and real datasets confirm our expectations. © 2012 ACM.

  3. Boundary Layer Instabilities Generated by Freestream Laser Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Amanda; Schneider, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    A controlled, laser-generated, freestream perturbation was created in the freestream of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT). The freestream perturbation convected downstream in the Mach-6 wind tunnel to interact with a flared cone model. The geometry of the flared cone is a body of revolution bounded by a circular arc with a 3-meter radius. Fourteen PCB 132A31 pressure transducers were used to measure a wave packet generated in the cone boundary layer by the freestream perturbation. This wave packet grew large and became nonlinear before experiencing natural transition in quiet flow. Breakdown of this wave packet occurred when the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations was approximately 10% of the surface pressure for a nominally sharp nosetip. The initial amplitude of the second mode instability on the blunt flared cone is estimated to be on the order of 10 -6 times the freestream static pressure. The freestream laser-generated perturbation was positioned upstream of the model in three different configurations: on the centerline, offset from the centerline by 1.5 mm, and offset from the centerline by 3.0 mm. When the perturbation was offset from the centerline of a blunt flared cone, a larger wave packet was generated on the side toward which the perturbation was offset. The offset perturbation did not show as much of an effect on the wave packet on a sharp flared cone as it did on a blunt flared cone.

  4. Hybrid stochastic-deterministic calculation of the second-order perturbative contribution of multireference perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garniron, Yann; Scemama, Anthony; Loos, Pierre-François; Caffarel, Michel

    2017-07-01

    A hybrid stochastic-deterministic approach for computing the second-order perturbative contribution E(2) within multireference perturbation theory (MRPT) is presented. The idea at the heart of our hybrid scheme—based on a reformulation of E(2) as a sum of elementary contributions associated with each determinant of the MR wave function—is to split E(2) into a stochastic and a deterministic part. During the simulation, the stochastic part is gradually reduced by dynamically increasing the deterministic part until one reaches the desired accuracy. In sharp contrast with a purely stochastic Monte Carlo scheme where the error decreases indefinitely as t-1/2 (where t is the computational time), the statistical error in our hybrid algorithm displays a polynomial decay ˜t-n with n = 3-4 in the examples considered here. If desired, the calculation can be carried on until the stochastic part entirely vanishes. In that case, the exact result is obtained with no error bar and no noticeable computational overhead compared to the fully deterministic calculation. The method is illustrated on the F2 and Cr2 molecules. Even for the largest case corresponding to the Cr2 molecule treated with the cc-pVQZ basis set, very accurate results are obtained for E(2) for an active space of (28e, 176o) and a MR wave function including up to 2 ×1 07 determinants.

  5. Perturbative and non-perturbative aspects in vector model/higher spin duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevicki, Antal; Jin, Kewang; Ye, Qibin

    2013-05-01

    We review some recent work on AdS/CFT duality involving the 3D O(N) vector model and AdS4 higher spin gravity. Our construction is based on bi-local collective field theory which provides an off-shell formulation of higher spin gravity with G = 1/N playing the role of a coupling constant. Consequently, perturbative and non-perturbative issues of the theory can be studied. For the correspondence based on free CFTs we discuss the nature of bulk 1/N interactions through an S-matrix which is argued to be equal to 1 (Coleman-Mandula theorem). As a consequence in this class of theories nonlinearities are removable, through a nonlinear field transformation which we show at the exact level. We also describe a geometric (Kähler space) framework for the bi-local theory which applies equally simply to Sp(2N) fermions and the de Sitter correspondence. We discuss in this framework the structure and size of the bi-local Hilbert space and the implementation of (finite N) exclusion principle. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  6. Perturbation series for the double cnoidal wave of the Korteweg-de Vries equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, John P.

    1984-12-01

    By means of the theorems proved earlier by the author, the problem of the double cnoidal wave of the Korteweg-de Vries equation is reduced to four algebraic equations in four unknowns. Two of the unknowns are the nonlinear phase speeds c1 and c2. Another is a physically irrelevant integration constant. The fourth unknown is the off-diagonal element of the symmetric, 2×2 theta matrix, which in turn gives the explicit coefficients of the Riemann theta function. The double cnoidal wave u(x,t) is then obtained by taking the second x-derivative of the logarithm of the theta function. Two separate forms of these four nonlinear ``residual'' equations are given. One is obtained from the Fourier series of the theta function and is useful for small wave amplitude. The other is based on the Gaussian series of the theta function and is highly efficient in the large amplitude regime where the double cnoidal wave is the sum of two solitary waves. Both sets of residual equations can be solved via perturbation theory and results are given to fourth order in the Fourier case and second order in the Gaussian case. The Gaussian-based perturbation series has the remarkable property that it converges more and more rapidly as the wave amplitude increases; the zeroth-order solution is the familiar double solitary wave. Numerical comparisons show that the two complementary perturbation series give accurate results in all the important regions of parameter space. (The ``unimportant'' regions are those in which the double cnoidal wave is an ordinary cnoidal wave subject to a very weak perturbation.) This is turn implies that even for moderate wave amplitude where the nonlinear interactions are not weak, and yet the solitary wave peaks are not well separated, at least to the eye, it is still qualitatively legitimate to describe the double cnoidal wave as either the sum of two sine waves or of two solitary waves of different heights.

  7. Neurons in red nucleus and primary motor cortex exhibit similar responses to mechanical perturbations applied to the upper-limb during posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Michael Herter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary motor cortex (M1 and red nucleus (RN are brain regions involved in limb motor control. Both structures are highly interconnected with the cerebellum and project directly to the spinal cord, although the contribution of RN is smaller than M1. It remains uncertain whether RN and M1 serve similar or distinct roles during posture and movement. Many neurons in M1 respond rapidly to mechanical disturbances of the limb, but it remains unclear whether RN neurons also respond to such limb perturbations. We have compared discharges of single neurons in RN (n = 49 and M1 (n = 109 of one monkey during a postural perturbation task. Neural responses to whole-limb perturbations were examined by transiently applying (300 ms flexor or extensor torques to the shoulder and/or elbow while the monkeys attempted to maintain a static hand posture. Relative to baseline discharges before perturbation onset, perturbations evoked rapid (<100 ms changes of neural discharges in many RN (28 of 49, 57% and M1 (43 of 109, 39% neurons. In addition to exhibiting a greater proportion of perturbation-related neurons, RN neurons also tended to exhibit higher peak discharge frequencies in response to perturbations than M1 neurons. Importantly, neurons in both structures exhibited similar response latencies and tuning properties (preferred torque directions and tuning widths in joint-torque space. Proximal arm muscles also displayed similar tuning properties in joint-torque space. These results suggest that RN is more sensitive than M1 to mechanical perturbations applied during postural control but both structures may play a similar role in feedback control of posture.

  8. Accretion processes in magnetically and tidally perturbed Schwarzschild black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, Zoltán; Vasúth, Mátyás

    2011-01-01

    We study the accretion process in the region of the Preston-Poisson space-time describing a Schwarzschild black hole perturbed by asymptotically uniform magnetic field and axisymmetric tidal structures. We find that the accretion disk shrinks and the marginally stable orbit shifts towards the black hole with the perturbation. The radiation intensity of the accretion disk increases, while the radius where radiation is maximal remains unchanged. The spectrum is blue-shifted. Finally, the conversion efficiency of accreting mass into radiation is decreased by both the magnetic and the tidal perturbations.

  9. Effects of small boundary perturbation on the MHD duct flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabaleshwar Ulavathi Shettar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of small boundary perturbation on the laminar motion of a conducting fluid in a rectangular duct under applied transverse magnetic field. A small boundary perturbation of magnitude Є is applied on cross-section of the duct. Using the asymptotic analysis with respect to Є, we derive the effective model given by the explicit formulae for the velocity and induced magnetic field. Numerical results are provided confirming that the considered perturbation has nonlocal impact on the asymptotic solution.

  10. Transition to perturbative QCD in two-photon collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Ron-Chou; Li, Hsiang-nan

    2004-01-01

    We propose that the different angular distributions in two-photon collisions observed at low and high center-of-mass energies $W_{\\gamma\\gamma}$ indicate the transition from nonperturbative to perturbative QCD. We calculate the differential cross sections of $\\gamma \\gamma\\to\\pi \\pi$, $KK$ in the angle $\\theta$ of one of the final-state mesons using QCD sum rules and the perturbative QCD approach based on $k_T$ factorization theorem. Our predictions from sum rules (perturbative QCD) decrease ...

  11. Numerical stochastic perturbation theory in the Schroedinger functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Michele; Di Renzo, Francesco; Hesse, Dirk [Parma Univ. (Italy); INFN, Parma (Italy); Dalla Brida, Mattia [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics; Sint, Stefan [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2013-11-15

    The Schroedinger functional (SF) is a powerful and widely used tool for the treatment of a variety of problems in renormalization and related areas. Albeit offering many conceptual advantages, one major downside of the SF scheme is the fact that perturbative calculations quickly become cumbersome with the inclusion of higher orders in the gauge coupling and hence the use of an automated perturbation theory framework is desirable. We present the implementation of the SF in numerical stochastic perturbation theory (NSPT) and compare first results for the running coupling at two loops in pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory with the literature.

  12. Extreme Value Analysis of Tidal Stream Velocity Perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, Samuel; Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian; Richmond, Marshall C.; Durgesh, Vibhav; Bryden, Ian

    2011-04-26

    This paper presents a statistical extreme value analysis of maximum velocity perturbations from the mean flow speed in a tidal stream. This study was performed using tidal velocity data measured using both an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) at the same location which allows for direct comparison of predictions. The extreme value analysis implements of a Peak-Over-Threshold method to explore the effect of perturbation length and time scale on the magnitude of a 50-year perturbation.

  13. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.H. Boozer and N. Pomphrey

    2010-10-10

    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  14. Perturbative Pions in Effective Field Theory for Nucleon Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehen, Thomas

    2001-12-01

    I discuss pions in effective field theory (EFT) for the nucleon interaction within the power counting scheme proposed by Kaplan-Savage-Wise (KSW). After explaining why KSW power counting demands perturbative treatment of pions, I present results of next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) calculations of nucleon-nucleon scattering in S-,P-, and D-wave channels. Perturbative treatment of pions fails in spin-triplet channels. The origin of large perturbative corrections is the piece of the spin-tensor force which survives in the chiral limit.

  15. Do aging and dual-tasking impair the capacity to store and retrieve visuospatial information needed to guide perturbation-evoked reach-to-grasp reactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Cheng

    Full Text Available A recent study involving young adults showed that rapid perturbation-evoked reach-to-grasp balance-recovery reactions can be guided successfully with visuospatial-information (VSI retained in memory despite: 1 a reduction in endpoint accuracy due to recall-delay (time between visual occlusion and perturbation-onset, PO and 2 slowing of the reaction when performing a concurrent cognitive task during the recall-delay interval. The present study aimed to determine whether this capacity is compromised by effects of aging. Ten healthy older adults were tested with the previous protocol and compared with the previously-tested young adults. Reactions to recover balance by grasping a small handhold were evoked by unpredictable antero-posterior platform-translation (barriers deterred stepping reactions, while using liquid-crystal goggles to occlude vision post-PO and for varying recall-delay times (0-10 s prior to PO (the handhold was moved unpredictably to one of four locations 2 s prior to vision-occlusion. Subjects also performed a spatial- or non-spatial-memory cognitive task during the delay-time in a subset of trials. Results showed that older adults had slower reactions than the young across all experimental conditions. Both age groups showed similar reduction in medio-lateral end-point accuracy when recall-delay was longest (10 s, but differed in the effect of recall delay on vertical hand elevation. For both age groups, engaging in either the non-spatial or spatial-memory task had similar (slowing effects on the arm reactions; however, the older adults also showed a dual-task interference effect (poorer cognitive-task performance that was specific to the spatial-memory task. This provides new evidence that spatial working memory plays a role in the control of perturbation-evoked balance-recovery reactions. The delays in completing the reaction that occurred when performing either cognitive task suggest that such dual-task situations in daily

  16. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Fermilab; Neill, Duff [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP

    2016-04-01

    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  17. EFFECTS OF LARGE-SCALE NON-AXISYMMETRIC PERTURBATIONS IN THE MEAN-FIELD SOLAR DYNAMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipin, V. V. [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kosovichev, A. G. [W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    We explore the response of a nonlinear non-axisymmetric mean-field solar dynamo model to shallow non-axisymmetric perturbations. After a relaxation period, the amplitude of the non-axisymmetric field depends on the initial condition, helicity conservation, and the depth of perturbation. It is found that a perturbation that is anchored at 0.9 R{sub ⊙} has a profound effect on the dynamo process, producing a transient magnetic cycle of the axisymmetric magnetic field, if it is initiated at the growing phase of the cycle. The non-symmetric, with respect to the equator, perturbation results in a hemispheric asymmetry of the magnetic activity. The evolution of the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric fields depends on the turbulent magnetic Reynolds number R{sub m}. In the range of R{sub m} = 10{sup 4}–10{sup 6} the evolution returns to the normal course in the next cycle, in which the non-axisymmetric field is generated due to a nonlinear α-effect and magnetic buoyancy. In the stationary state, the large-scale magnetic field demonstrates a phenomenon of “active longitudes” with cyclic 180° “flip-flop” changes of the large-scale magnetic field orientation. The flip-flop effect is known from observations of solar and stellar magnetic cycles. However, this effect disappears in the model, which includes the meridional circulation pattern determined by helioseismology. The rotation rate of the non-axisymmetric field components varies during the relaxation period and carries important information about the dynamo process.

  18. Anticipation of direction and time of perturbation modulates the onset latency of trunk muscle responses during sitting perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Matija; Shinya, Masahiro; Masani, Kei; Patel, Kramay; McConville, Kristiina M V; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Popovic, Milos R

    2016-02-01

    Trunk muscles are responsible for maintaining trunk stability during sitting. However, the effects of anticipation of perturbation on trunk muscle responses are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to identify the responses of trunk muscles to sudden support surface translations and quantify the effects of anticipation of direction and time of perturbation on the trunk neuromuscular responses. Twelve able-bodied individuals participated in the study. Participants were seated on a kneeling chair and support surface translations were applied in the forward and backward directions with and without direction and time of perturbation cues. The trunk started moving on average approximately 40ms after the perturbation. During unanticipated perturbations, average latencies of the trunk muscle contractions were in the range between 103.4 and 117.4ms. When participants anticipated the perturbations, trunk muscle latencies were reduced by 16.8±10.0ms and the time it took the trunk to reach maximum velocity was also reduced, suggesting a biomechanical advantage caused by faster muscle responses. These results suggested that trunk muscles have medium latency responses and use reflexive mechanisms. Moreover, anticipation of perturbation decreased trunk muscles latencies, suggesting that the central nervous system modulated readiness of the trunk based on anticipatory information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantum Field Theory with Varying Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Nardelli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A quantum scalar field theory with spacetime-dependent coupling is studied. Surprisingly, while translation invariance is explicitly broken in the classical theory, momentum conservation is recovered at the quantum level for some specific choice of the coupling's profile for any finite-order perturbative expansion. For one of these cases, some tree and one-loop diagrams are calculated. This is an example of a theory where violation of Lorentz symmetry is not enhanced at the quantum level. We draw some consequences for the renormalization properties of certain classes of fractional field theories.

  20. Coordinated Control of Multi-Agent Systems in Rapidly Varying Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this STTR project Scientific Systems Company, Inc. (SSCI) and Brigham Young University (BYU) propose to design, implement, and test an Autonomous Coordinated...

  1. A Method for Determining Autoignition Temperatures Resulting from Varying Rapid Rise Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Michael; McCardle, Kenneth; McDougle, Stephen; Saulsberry, Regor; Sipes, William

    2007-01-01

    Pyrotechnic and explosive devices are widely used in the aerospace industry to provide reliable, lightweight initiation components in ignition systems, cartridge actuated devices, escape and ejection systems, and many other applications. There are two major mechanisms for initiation of the pyrotechnic powders: heat and shock. Of powders initiated by heat, we have little information on the temperature required for ignition in the normal functioning time (milliseconds) of the device. The known autoignition temperatures obtained from standard tests provide data from days down to minutes with temperatures increasing as heating time decreases. In order to better understand this relationship, and to make computer models, improved data are needed.

  2. Spatially cascading effect of perturbations in experimental meta-ecosystems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, Eric; Gounand, Isabelle; Ganesanandamoorthy, Pravin; Altermatt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    ...s via increased/decreased subsidies. Here, we combine a general theoretical approach based on harvesting theory and a two-patch protist meta-ecosystem experiment to test the effect of regional perturbations on local community dynamics...

  3. Effective Hamiltonian approach to periodically perturbed quantum optical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, I. [Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara, Enrique Diaz de Leon, 47460 Lagos de Moreno, Jal. (Mexico)]. E-mail: isa@culagos.udg.mx; Klimov, A.B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44410 Guadalajara, Jal. (Mexico)]. E-mail: klimov@cencar.udg.mx; Saavedra, C. [Center for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)]. E-mail: csaaved@udec.cl

    2006-02-20

    We apply the method of Lie-type transformations to Floquet Hamiltonians for periodically perturbed quantum systems. Some typical examples of driven quantum systems are considered in the framework of this approach and corresponding effective time dependent Hamiltonians are found.

  4. Perturbation Theory of the Cosmological Log-Density Field

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xin; Szapudi, István; Szalay, Alex; Chen, Xuelei; Lesgourgues, Julien; Riotto, Antonio; Sloth, Martin; 10.1088/0004-637X/735/1/32

    2011-01-01

    The matter density field exhibits a nearly lognormal probability density distribution (PDF) after entering into the nonlinear regime. Recently, it has been shown that the shape of the power spectrum of a logarithmically transformed density field is very close to the linear density power spectrum, motivating an analytic study of it. In this paper, we develop cosmological perturbation theory for the power spectrum of this field. Our formalism is developed in the context of renormalized perturbation theory, which helps to regulate the convergence behavior of the perturbation series, and of the Taylor- series expansion we use of the logarithmic mapping. This approach allows us to handle the critical issue of density smoothing in a straightforward way. We also compare our perturbative results with simulation measurements.

  5. Gyroscope test of gravitation: An analysis of the important perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, R. F.

    1971-01-01

    Two perturbations, the earth's quadrupole moment and the earth's revolution around the sun, are discussed. Schiff's proposed gyroscope test of gravitation is analyzed, along with the capability of deciphering each separate contribution to the angular velocity of spin precession.

  6. Global terrestrial biogeochemistry: Perturbations, interactions, and time scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braswell, B.H. Jr.

    1996-12-01

    Global biogeochemical processes are being perturbed by human activity, principally that which is associated with industrial activity and expansion of urban and agricultural complexes. Perturbations have manifested themselves at least since the beginning of the 19th Century, and include emissions of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from fossil fuel combustion, agricultural emissions of reactive nitrogen, and direct disruption of ecosystem function through land conversion. These perturbations yield local impacts, but there are also global consequences that are the sum of local-scale influences. Several approaches to understanding the global-scale implications of chemical perturbations to the Earth system are discussed. The lifetime of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is an important concept for understanding the current and future commitment to an altered atmospheric heat budget. The importance of the terrestrial biogeochemistry relative to the lifetime of excess CO{sub 2} is demonstrated using dynamic, aggregated models of the global carbon cycle.

  7. Generalizing genetical genomics : getting added value from environmental perturbation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yang; Breitling, Rainer; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    2008-01-01

    Genetical genomics is a useful approach for studying the effect of genetic perturbations on biological systems at the molecular level. However, molecular networks depend on the environmental conditions and, thus, a comprehensive understanding of biological systems requires studying them across

  8. Cosmological perturbations of axion with a dynamical decay constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi [SISSA,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-08-25

    A QCD axion with a time-dependent decay constant has been known to be able to accommodate high-scale inflation without producing topological defects or too large isocurvature perturbations on CMB scales. We point out that a dynamical decay constant also has the effect of enhancing the small-scale axion isocurvature perturbations. The enhanced axion perturbations can even exceed the periodicity of the axion potential, and thus lead to the formation of axionic domain walls. Unlike the well-studied axionic walls, the walls produced from the enhanced perturbations are not bounded by cosmic strings, and thus would overclose the universe independently of the number of degenerate vacua along the axion potential.

  9. Perturbation theory for water with an associating reference fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bennett D.

    2017-11-01

    The theoretical description of the thermodynamics of water is challenged by the structural transition towards tetrahedral symmetry at ambient conditions. As perturbation theories typically assume a spherically symmetric reference fluid, they are incapable of accurately describing the liquid properties of water at ambient conditions. In this paper we address this problem by introducing the concept of an associated reference perturbation theory (APT). In APT we treat the reference fluid as an associating hard sphere fluid which transitions to tetrahedral symmetry in the fully hydrogen bonded limit. We calculate this transition in a theoretically self-consistent manner without appealing to molecular simulations. This associated reference provides the reference fluid for a second order Barker-Henderson perturbative treatment of the long-range attractions. We demonstrate that this approach gives a significantly improved description of water as compared to standard perturbation theories.

  10. Bounded Scalar Perturbations in Bouncing Brane World Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Rodrigo; Soares, Ivano Damião

    2013-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of scalar perturbations in closed Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson- Walker (FLRW) universes in the framework of Brane World theory with a timelike extra dimension. In this scenario, the unperturbed Friedmann equations contain additional terms arising from the bulk-brane interaction that implement non-singular bounces in the models with a cosmological constant and non-interacting perfect fluids. The structure of the phase-space of the models allows for two basic configurations, namely, one bounce solutions or eternal universes. Assuming that the matter content of the model is given by dust and radiation, we derive the dynamical field equations for scalar hydrodynamical perturbations considering either a conformally flat (de Sitter) bulk or a perturbed bulk. We perform a numerical analysis which can shed some light on the study of cosmological scalar perturbations in bouncing brane world models. From a mathematical point of view we show that although the bounce enhances the amplitudes of s...

  11. Combinatorial algorithms for perturbation theory and application on quantum computing

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    Quantum computing is an emerging area between computer science and physics. Numerous problems in quantum computing involve quantum many-body interactions. This dissertation concerns the problem of simulating arbitrary quantum many-body interactions using realistic two-body interactions. To address this issue, a general class of techniques called perturbative reductions (or perturbative gadgets) is adopted from quantum complexity theory and in this dissertation these techniques are improved fo...

  12. Massive renormalization scheme and perturbation theory at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul, E-mail: jean-paul.blaizot@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CNRS/URA2306, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wschebor, Nicolás [Instituto de Fìsica, Faculdad de Ingeniería, Universidade de la República, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2015-02-04

    We argue that the choice of an appropriate, massive, renormalization scheme can greatly improve the apparent convergence of perturbation theory at finite temperature. This is illustrated by the calculation of the pressure of a scalar field theory with quartic interactions, at 2-loop order. The result, almost identical to that obtained with more sophisticated resummation techniques, shows a remarkable stability as the coupling constant grows, in sharp contrast with standard perturbation theory.

  13. Excessive maps, "arrival times" and perturbation of dynamical semigroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.

    1995-12-01

    The notion of excessive map for dynamical semigroup is introduced, and it is shown that an excessive map defines an operation-valued measure describing the measurement of an "arrival time" related to the irreversible dynamics described by the semigroup. Any such arrival time determines a positive perturbation of the dynamical semigroup describing the dynamics after "arrivals". Generators of the relevant perturbations are characterized, and several examples, both commutative and a non-commutative, are discussed, elucidating the problem of standard representation.

  14. Perturbations from cosmic strings in cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert

    1992-01-01

    A systematic linear analysis of the perturbations induced by cosmic strings in cold dark matter is presented. The power spectrum is calculated and it is found that the strings produce a great deal of power on small scales. It is shown that the perturbations on interesting scales are the result of many uncorrelated string motions, which indicates a much more Gaussian distribution than was previously supposed.

  15. Perturbation Solutions of the Quintic Duffing Equation with Strong Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pakdemirli

    Full Text Available The quintic Duffing equation with strong nonlinearities is considered. Perturbation solutions are constructed using two different techniques: The classical multiple scales method (MS and the newly developed multiple scales Lindstedt Poincare method (MSLP. The validity criteria for admissible solutions are derived. Both approximate solutions are contrasted with the numerical solutions. It is found that MSLP provides compatible solution with the numerical solution for strong nonlinearities whereas MS solution fail to produce physically acceptable solution for large perturbation parameters.

  16. Modeling the Southwood Theory of Rotation-Period Perturbations of a Magnetized Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelson, M.; Jia, X.; Southwood, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Many of Saturn's plasma and field properties vary at approximately Saturn's rotation period. The periodic behavior is imposed by a system of rotating currents whose origin remains uncertain. Southwood has proposed an analytical mathematical model that shows that a uniformly magnetized plasma bounded by a rotating conducting plate at its base naturally develops MHD disturbances that produce the rotating currents and vary at the rotation period of the plate. Such rotationally driven MHD perturbations achieve a steady state and remain azimuthally symmetric, a conclusion consistent with the sinusoidal dependence on Saturn's rotation phase found in the data from Cassini spacecraft measurements. The model is designed to represent flux tubes from either polar cap of Saturn (N or S) that link magnetically to the solar wind. The transverse magnetic field component transmits angular momentum but a compressional component may also develop (as observed). To test this model, we have carried out magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a cylinder filled with a uniform plasma and a constant magnetic field bounded at the base by a conducting plate that is set into rotational motion. Magnetic perturbations develop and propagate through the system. However, results of the simulation are highly sensitive to boundary conditions and, with time, our models depart from the quasi-steady conditions that we desire to represent. We describe aspects of the theory that are reproduced by runs using different boundary conditions and where and why they differ. For all initial conditions and boundary conditions used in the simulation, we find that both transverse and compressional perturbations develop before the simulation becomes unstable or in other ways unrealistic. However, in order to set up a relatively stable oscillating system, we continue to test new boundary conditions that come increasingly close to representing the portion of a magnetosphere linked to the polar cap of a rotating planet.

  17. Postural and trunk responses to unexpected perturbations depend on the velocity and direction of platform motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, E; Kováčiková, Z; Jeleň, M; Neumannová, K; Janura, M

    2016-11-23

    This study compares postural and trunk responses to translating platform perturbations of varied velocities and directions. A group of 18 young and physically active subjects were exposed to a set of postural perturbations at varied velocities (5, 10, 15, and 20 cm/s) and directions of platform movement (forward, backward, left-lateral, and right-lateral). The center of pressure (CoP) displacement measurement, in addition to the trunk motion (representing the center of mass (CoM) displacement), were both monitored. Results identified that the CoP displacement increased from slow to faster velocities of platform motion more widely in both anterior and posterior directions (50.4 % and 48.4 %) as compared to the CoM displacement (17.8 % and 14.9 %). However a greater increase in the peak CoM velocity (70.3 % and 69.6 %) and the peak CoM acceleration (60.5 % and 53.1 %) was observed. The values in the anterior and posterior direction only differed significantly at the highest velocity of platform motion (i.e. 20 cm/s). A similar tendency was observed in the medio-lateral direction, but there were no significant differences in any parameter in the left-lateral and right-lateral direction. The velocity of the platform motion highly correlated with peak velocity (r=0.92-0.97, Pdisplacement (r=0.56-0.63, Pdisplacement. The effect of the direction of perturbations on the trunk response emerges only at a high velocity of platform motion, such that the peak CoM velocity and peak CoM acceleration are significantly greater in anterior than posterior direction.

  18. Correlations in double parton distributions: perturbative and non-perturbative effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Matteo; Scopetta, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università degli Studi di Perugia andIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Traini, Marco [Institut de Physique Théorique CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INFN - TIFPA, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Trento,Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Vento, Vicente [Departament de Física Teòrica, Universitat de València and Institut de Física Corpuscular,Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 46100 Carrer del Dr. Moliner 50 València (Spain)

    2016-10-12

    The correct description of Double Parton Scattering (DPS), which represents a background in several channels for the search of new Physics at the LHC, requires the knowledge of double parton distribution functions (dPDFs). These quantities represent also a novel tool for the study of the three-dimensional nucleon structure, complementary to the possibilities offered by electromagnetic probes. In this paper we analyze dPDFs using Poincaré covariant predictions obtained by using a Light-Front constituent quark model proposed in a recent paper, and QCD evolution. We study to what extent factorized expressions for dPDFs, which neglect, at least in part, two-parton correlations, can be used. We show that they fail in reproducing the calculated dPDFs, in particular in the valence region. Actually measurable processes at existing facilities occur at low longitudinal momenta of the interacting partons; to have contact with these processes we have analyzed correlations between pairs of partons of different kind, finding that, in some cases, they are strongly suppressed at low longitudinal momenta, while for other distributions they can be sizeable. For example, the effect of gluon-gluon correlations can be as large as 20 %. We have shown that these behaviors can be understood in terms of a delicate interference of non-perturbative correlations, generated by the dynamics of the model, and perturbative ones, generated by the model independent evolution procedure. Our analysis shows that at LHC kinematics two-parton correlations can be relevant in DPS, and therefore we address the possibility to study them experimentally.

  19. A hybrid perturbation-Galerkin technique for partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, James F.; Anderson, Carl M.

    1990-01-01

    A two-step hybrid perturbation-Galerkin technique for improving the usefulness of perturbation solutions to partial differential equations which contain a parameter is presented and discussed. In the first step of the method, the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion(s) of the solution about one or more values of the perturbation parameter are obtained using standard perturbation methods. In the second step, the perturbation functions obtained in the first step are used as trial functions in a Bubnov-Galerkin approximation. This semi-analytical, semi-numerical hybrid technique appears to overcome some of the drawbacks of the perturbation and Galerkin methods when they are applied by themselves, while combining some of the good features of each. The technique is illustrated first by a simple example. It is then applied to the problem of determining the flow of a slightly compressible fluid past a circular cylinder and to the problem of determining the shape of a free surface due to a sink above the surface. Solutions obtained by the hybrid method are compared with other approximate solutions, and its possible application to certain problems associated with domain decomposition is discussed.

  20. Nonperturbative Quantum Physics from Low-Order Perturbation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Héctor; Pedersen, Thomas G; Nikolić, Branislav K

    2015-10-02

    The Stark effect in hydrogen and the cubic anharmonic oscillator furnish examples of quantum systems where the perturbation results in a certain ionization probability by tunneling processes. Accordingly, the perturbed ground-state energy is shifted and broadened, thus acquiring an imaginary part which is considered to be a paradigm of nonperturbative behavior. Here we demonstrate how the low order coefficients of a divergent perturbation series can be used to obtain excellent approximations to both real and imaginary parts of the perturbed ground state eigenenergy. The key is to use analytic continuation functions with a built-in singularity structure within the complex plane of the coupling constant, which is tailored by means of Bender-Wu dispersion relations. In the examples discussed the analytic continuation functions are Gauss hypergeometric functions, which take as input fourth order perturbation theory and return excellent approximations to the complex perturbed eigenvalue. These functions are Borel consistent and dramatically outperform widely used Padé and Borel-Padé approaches, even for rather large values of the coupling constant.

  1. Modularity and the spread of perturbations in complex dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolchinsky, Artemy; Gates, Alexander J; Rocha, Luis M

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to decompose dynamical systems based on the idea that modules constrain the spread of perturbations. We find partitions of system variables that maximize "perturbation modularity," defined as the autocovariance of coarse-grained perturbed trajectories. The measure effectively separates the fast intramodular from the slow intermodular dynamics of perturbation spreading (in this respect, it is a generalization of the "Markov stability" method of network community detection). Our approach captures variation of modular organization across different system states, time scales, and in response to different kinds of perturbations: aspects of modularity which are all relevant to real-world dynamical systems. It offers a principled alternative to detecting communities in networks of statistical dependencies between system variables (e.g., "relevance networks" or "functional networks"). Using coupled logistic maps, we demonstrate that the method uncovers hierarchical modular organization planted in a system's coupling matrix. Additionally, in homogeneously coupled map lattices, it identifies the presence of self-organized modularity that depends on the initial state, dynamical parameters, and type of perturbations. Our approach offers a powerful tool for exploring the modular organization of complex dynamical systems.

  2. Modularity and the spread of perturbations in complex dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolchinsky, Artemy; Gates, Alexander J.; Rocha, Luis M.

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to decompose dynamical systems based on the idea that modules constrain the spread of perturbations. We find partitions of system variables that maximize "perturbation modularity," defined as the autocovariance of coarse-grained perturbed trajectories. The measure effectively separates the fast intramodular from the slow intermodular dynamics of perturbation spreading (in this respect, it is a generalization of the "Markov stability" method of network community detection). Our approach captures variation of modular organization across different system states, time scales, and in response to different kinds of perturbations: aspects of modularity which are all relevant to real-world dynamical systems. It offers a principled alternative to detecting communities in networks of statistical dependencies between system variables (e.g., "relevance networks" or "functional networks"). Using coupled logistic maps, we demonstrate that the method uncovers hierarchical modular organization planted in a system's coupling matrix. Additionally, in homogeneously coupled map lattices, it identifies the presence of self-organized modularity that depends on the initial state, dynamical parameters, and type of perturbations. Our approach offers a powerful tool for exploring the modular organization of complex dynamical systems.

  3. Dynamical Friction of Double Perturbers in a Gaseous Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosun; Kim, Woong-Tae; Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.

    2008-05-01

    In many astrophysical situations, as in the coalescence of supermassive black hole pairs at gas-rich galactic nuclei, the dynamical friction experienced by an object is a combination of its own wake as well as the wakes of its companion. Using a semianalytic approach, we investigate the composite wake due to, and the resulting drag forces on, double perturbers that are placed at the opposite sides of the orbital center and move on a circular orbit in a uniform gaseous medium. The circular orbit makes the wake of each perturber asymmetric, creating an overdense tail at the trailing side. The tail not only drags the perturber backward but it also exerts a positive torque on the companion. For equal-mass perturbers, the positive torque created by the companion wake is, on average, a fraction ~40%-50% of the negative torque created by its own wake, but this fraction may be even larger for perturbers moving subsonically. This suggests that the orbital decay of a perturber in a double system, especially in the subsonic regime, can take considerably longer than in isolation. We provide the fitting formulae for the forces due to the companion wake and discuss our results in light of recent numerical simulations of mergers of binary black holes.

  4. Unusual Low-frequency Magnetic Perturbations in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Takahashi; E.D. Fredrickson; M.S. Chance

    2001-02-12

    Low-frequency magnetic perturbations (less than or equal to 30 kHz) observed in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tokamak do not always conform to expectations from Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) modes. The discrepancy between observations and expectations arises from the existence of three classes of magnetic perturbations in TFTR: (1) 'Edge Originated Magnetic Perturbations' (EOMP's), (2) 'Kink-like Modes' (KLM's), and (3) Tearing Modes (TM's). The EOMP class has unusual magnetic phenomenon including up/down asymmetry in poloidal intensity variation that MHD modes alone cannot generate. The contributions of MHD modes in plasma edge regions are too small to explain the magnitude of observed EOMP perturbations. At least two-thirds, possibly nearly all, of magnetic perturbations in a typical EOMP originate from sources other than MHD modes. An EOMP has a unity toroidal harmonic number and a poloidal harmonic number close to a discharge's edge q-value. It produces little temperature fluctuations, except possibly in edge regions. The KLM class produces temperature fluctuations, mostly confined within the q=1 surface with an ideal-mode-like structure, but generates little external magnetic perturbations. The TM class conforms generally to expectations from MHD modes. We propose that current flowing in the Scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma is a possible origin of EOMP's.

  5. Balance Performance During Perturbed Standing Is Not Associated With Muscle Strength and Power in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika; Jeleň, Michal; Kováčiková, Zuzana; Miklovič, Peter; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Janura, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigate the ways in which varied postural responses to translating platform perturbations are associated with the variables of strength and power. Twenty-four physically active and 27 sedentary young adults were exposed to a set of postural perturbations at varied velocities (10 and 20 cm/s) and the respective accelerations (6.4 and 6.9 m/s(2)), constant distance (6 cm), and 4 directions of platform motion (forward, backward, left-lateral, and right-lateral). They also performed maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) and chair rising/chair jumping tests. The analysis of variance revealed significant interaction effect for peak center of pressure displacement, direction by velocity: F3,129 = 24.43, p = .002; and direction by acceleration: F3,129 = 34.18, p = .001. There were no significant correlations between peak center of pressure displacements and peak force and peak rate of force development measured during MVC in either standing (r = .27-57) or sitting positions (r = .12-51) and peak power during chair jumping (r = .47-.59) in all participants. As such, only a small proportion of variance was explained (9-39%, 3-23%, and 23-41%, respectively). In conclusion, interaction effects indicate that the composition of stimuli strongly influences compensatory responses and this effect is more pronounced in sedentary than in physically active young adults. Nevertheless, the dynamic balance is not associated with muscle strength and power in either group.

  6. Theory and experiments on the effects of perturbations on nonlinear chemical systems: Generation of multiple attractors and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmfelt, Allen; Harding, Robert H.; Tsujimoto, Kim K.; Ross, John

    1990-03-01

    Periodic perturbations are applied to the input fluxes of reactants in a system which exhibits autonomous oscillations, the combustion of acetaldehyde (ACH) and oxygen, and a system which exhibits damped oscillations, the combustion of methane and oxygen. The ACH system is studied by experiments and numerical analysis and the methane system is studied by numerical analysis. The periodic perturbations are in the form of a two-term Fourier series. Such perturbations may generate multiple attractors, which are either periodic or chaotic. We discuss two types of bistable responses: a new phase bistability, in which a subharmonic frequency is added to a sinusoidal perturbation at different phases relative to the periodic response; and jump phenomena, in which the resonant frequency of a nonlinear oscillator depends on the amplitude of the periodic perturbation. Both the ACH and the methane systems confirm the phase bistability. The additional complex behavior of bistability due to jump phenomena is seen only in calculations in the methane system. In both types of bistability a hysteresis loop is formed as we vary the form of the periodic perturbation. In the methane system, we find period doubling to chaos occuring on one branch of the hysteresis loop while the other branch remains periodic. The methane system has been studied in the context of the efficiency of power production. We calculate the efficiency corresponding to each bistable attractor and find one branch of each pair to be the more efficient mode of operation. In the case of the coexisting periodic and chaotic attractors the chaotic attractor is the more efficient mode of operation.

  7. Instability of low viscosity elliptic jets with varying aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varun

    2011-11-01

    In this work an analytical description of capillary instability of liquid elliptic jets with varying aspect ratio is presented. Linear stability analysis in the long wave approximation with negligible gravitational effects is employed. Elliptic cylindrical coordinate system is used and perturbation velocity potential substituted in the Laplace equation to yield Mathieu and Modified Mathieu differential equations. The dispersion relation for elliptical orifices of any aspect ratio is derived and validated for axisymmetric disturbances with m = 0, in the limit of aspect ratio, μ = 1 , i.e. the case of a circular jet. As Mathieu functions and Modified Mathieu function solutions converge to Bessel's functions in this limit the Rayleigh-Plateau instability criterion is met. Also, stability of solutions corresponding to asymmetric disturbances for the kink mode, m = 1 and flute modes corresponding to m >= 2 is discussed. Experimental data from earlier works is used to compare observations made for elliptical orifices with μ ≠ 1 . This novel approach aims at generalizing the results pertaining to cylindrical jets with circular cross section leading to better understanding of breakup in liquid jets of various geometries.

  8. Slowly Varying Dilaton Cosmologies and Their Field Theory Duals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel; /British U. in Egypt /Ain Shams U., Cairo; Das, Sumit R.; Ghosh, Archisman; Oh, Jae-Hyuk; /Kentucky U.; Trivedi, Sandip P.; /Tata Inst. /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-06-28

    We consider a deformation of the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} solution of IIB supergravity obtained by taking the boundary value of the dilaton to be time dependent. The time dependence is taken to be slowly varying on the AdS scale thereby introducing a small parameter {epsilon}. The boundary dilaton has a profile which asymptotes to a constant in the far past and future and attains a minimum value at intermediate times. We construct the sugra solution to first non-trivial order in {epsilon}, and find that it is smooth, horizon free, and asymptotically AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} in the far future. When the intermediate values of the dilaton becomes small enough the curvature becomes of order the string scale and the sugra approximation breaks down. The resulting dynamics is analysed in the dual SU(N) gauge theory on S{sup 3} with a time dependent coupling constant which varies slowly. When N{epsilon} << 1, we find that a quantum adiabatic approximation is applicable, and use it to argue that at late times the geometry becomes smooth AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} again. When N{epsilon} >> 1, we formulate a classical adiabatic perturbation theory based on coherent states which arises in the large N limit. For large values of the tHooft coupling this reproduces the supergravity results. For small 'tHooft coupling the coherent state calculations become involved and we cannot reach a definite conclusion. We argue that the final state should have a dual description which is mostly smooth AdS5 space with the possible presence of a small black hole.

  9. Tavatult jahe Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    1.-10. juulini toimunud Karlovy Vary 46. filmifestivalist (muusikafilmide alajaotuses näidati Marianne Kõrveri dokumentaalfilmi "Erkki-Sven Tüür: 7 etüüdi piltides" (2010) programmis "A Musical Odyssey")

  10. Eesti film võistleb Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastub Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  11. Rumor Detection over Varying Time Windows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sejeong Kwon; Meeyoung Cha; Kyomin Jung

    2017-01-01

      This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows--from the first three days to nearly two months...

  12. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part IV: Normal and Inverted Letter 'h' and 'H' Architecture.

  13. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part III: B-Shaped Architecture with Vertical Well in the Upper Layer.

  14. Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe August 2016 Print this issue Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint En español Send us ... joints have unique patterns of chemical tags—called epigenetic markers—that differ between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. ...

  15. Vision can recalibrate the vestibular reafference signal used to re-establish postural equilibrium following a platform perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Adam J; Harris, Laurence R; Zettel, John; Bent, Leah R

    2017-02-01

    Visuo-vestibular recalibration, in which visual information is used to alter the interpretation of vestibular signals, has been shown to influence both oculomotor control and navigation. Here we investigate whether vision can recalibrate the vestibular feedback used during the re-establishment of equilibrium following a perturbation. The perturbation recovery responses of nine participants were examined following exposure to a period of 11 s of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). During GVS in VISION trials, occlusion spectacles provided 4 s of visual information that enabled participants to correct for the GVS-induced tilt and associate this asymmetric vestibular signal with a visually provided 'upright'. NoVISION trials had no such visual experience. Participants used the visual information to assist in realigning their posture compared to when visual information was not provided (p vision had been provided during the preceding GVS, as determined by peak centre of mass and pressure deviations (p = 0.09). However, after using vision to reinterpret the vestibular signal during GVS, final centre of mass and pressure equilibrium positions were significantly shifted compared to trials in which vision was not available (p postural equilibrium following a perturbation. Our work is the first to highlight the capacity for visual feedback to recalibrate the vertical interpretation of vestibular reafference for re-establishing equilibrium following a perturbation. This demonstrates the rapid adaptability of the vestibular reafference signal for postural control.

  16. Manual physical therapy and perturbation exercises in knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhon, Daniel; Deyle, Gail; Gill, Norman; Rendeiro, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) causes disability among the elderly and is often associated with impaired balance and proprioception. Perturbation exercises may help improve these impairments. Although manual physical therapy is generally a well-tolerated treatment for knee OA, perturbation exercises have not been evaluated when used with a manual physical therapy approach. The purpose of this study was to observe tolerance to perturbation exercises and the effect of a manual physical therapy approach with perturbation exercises on patients with knee OA. Methods: This was a prospective observational cohort study of 15 patients with knee OA. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), global rating of change (GROC), and 72-hour post-treatment tolerance were primary outcome measures. Patients received perturbation balance exercises along with a manual physical therapy approach, twice weekly for 4 weeks. Follow-up evaluation was done at 1, 3, and 6 months after beginning the program. Results: Mean total WOMAC score significantly improved (P = 0.001) after the 4-week program (total WOMAC: initial, 105; 4 weeks, 56; 3 months, 54; 6 months, 57). Mean improvements were similar to previously published trials of manual physical therapy without perturbation exercises. The GROC score showed a minimal clinically important difference (MCID)≥+3 in 13 patients (87%) at 4 weeks, 12 patients (80%) at 3 months, and 9 patients (60%) at 6 months. No patients reported exacerbation of symptoms within 72 hours following each treatment session. Discussion: A manual physical therapy approach that also included perturbation exercises was well tolerated and resulted in improved outcome scores in patients with knee OA. PMID:24421635

  17. Biofeedback improves postural control recovery from multi-axis discrete perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sienko Kathleen H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-axis vibrotactile feedback has been shown to significantly reduce the root-mean-square (RMS sway, elliptical fits to sway trajectory area, and the time spent outside of the no feedback zone in individuals with vestibular deficits during continuous multidirectional support surface perturbations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of multidirectional vibrotactile biofeedback on postural stability during discrete multidirectional support surface perturbations. Methods The vibrotactile biofeedback device mapped tilt estimates onto the torso using a 3-row by 16-column tactor array. The number of columns displayed was varied to determine the effect of spatial resolution upon subject response. Torso kinematics and center of pressure data were measured in six subjects with vestibular deficits. Transient and steady state postural responses with and without feedback were characterized in response to eight perturbation directions. Four feedback conditions in addition to the tactors off (no feedback configuration were evaluated. Postural response data captured by both a force plate and an inertial measurement unit worn on the torso were partitioned into three distinct phases: ballistic, recovery, and steady state. Results The results suggest that feedback has minimal effects during the ballistic phase (body’s outbound trajectory in response to the perturbation, and the greatest effects during the recovery (return toward baseline and steady state (post-recovery phases. Specifically, feedback significantly decreases the time required for the body tilt to return to baseline values and significantly increases the velocity of the body’s return to baseline values. Furthermore, feedback significantly decreases root mean square roll and pitch sway and significantly increases the amount of time spent in the no feedback zone. All four feedback conditions produced comparable performance improvements. Incidences of delayed

  18. Biofeedback improves postural control recovery from multi-axis discrete perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienko, Kathleen H; Balkwill, M David; Wall, Conrad

    2012-08-03

    Multi-axis vibrotactile feedback has been shown to significantly reduce the root-mean-square (RMS) sway, elliptical fits to sway trajectory area, and the time spent outside of the no feedback zone in individuals with vestibular deficits during continuous multidirectional support surface perturbations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of multidirectional vibrotactile biofeedback on postural stability during discrete multidirectional support surface perturbations. The vibrotactile biofeedback device mapped tilt estimates onto the torso using a 3-row by 16-column tactor array. The number of columns displayed was varied to determine the effect of spatial resolution upon subject response. Torso kinematics and center of pressure data were measured in six subjects with vestibular deficits. Transient and steady state postural responses with and without feedback were characterized in response to eight perturbation directions. Four feedback conditions in addition to the tactors off (no feedback) configuration were evaluated. Postural response data captured by both a force plate and an inertial measurement unit worn on the torso were partitioned into three distinct phases: ballistic, recovery, and steady state. The results suggest that feedback has minimal effects during the ballistic phase (body's outbound trajectory in response to the perturbation), and the greatest effects during the recovery (return toward baseline) and steady state (post-recovery) phases. Specifically, feedback significantly decreases the time required for the body tilt to return to baseline values and significantly increases the velocity of the body's return to baseline values. Furthermore, feedback significantly decreases root mean square roll and pitch sway and significantly increases the amount of time spent in the no feedback zone. All four feedback conditions produced comparable performance improvements. Incidences of delayed and uncontrolled responses were significantly reduced

  19. A Weaker Sufficient Condition for the Chaoticity of Extended Perturbation-Based Updating System for Global Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Keiji

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the gradient method with perturbation (GP) was proposed for metaheuristic methods of solving continuous global optimization problems. Its updating system based on the steepest descent method is chaotic because of its perturbations along the standard basis vectors, which can strengthen the diversification of search. The sufficient condition for its chaoticity was theoretically shown, which implies that two kinds of influence degrees of the perturbations in the updating system should be greater than some constants. In this paper, we extend the updating system of the GP into a more general one for metaheuristic methods, which does not necessarily require the descent direction of the objective function, and which can have perturbations along appropriate orthogonal basis vectors for each problem. Furthermore, since the condition for the chaoticity shown in the previous work is too restricted for practical use, we theoretically show a weaker sufficient condition for the extended system, which is derived by varying the constant lower bounds for the two kinds of influence degrees.

  20. Singularly Perturbation Method Applied To Multivariable PID Controller Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashitah Che Razali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proportional integral derivative (PID controllers are commonly used in process industries due to their simple structure and high reliability. Efficient tuning is one of the relevant issues of PID controller type. The tuning process always becomes a challenging matter especially for multivariable system and to obtain the best control tuning for different time scales system. This motivates the use of singularly perturbation method into the multivariable PID (MPID controller designs. In this work, wastewater treatment plant and Newell and Lee evaporator were considered as system case studies. Four MPID control strategies, Davison, Penttinen-Koivo, Maciejowski, and Combined methods, were applied into the systems. The singularly perturbation method based on Naidu and Jian Niu algorithms was applied into MPID control design. It was found that the singularly perturbed system obtained by Naidu method was able to maintain the system characteristic and hence was applied into the design of MPID controllers. The closed loop performance and process interactions were analyzed. It is observed that less computation time is required for singularly perturbed MPID controller compared to the conventional MPID controller. The closed loop performance shows good transient responses, low steady state error, and less process interaction when using singularly perturbed MPID controller.

  1. Material strength measured by flyer-impact perturbation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojuan; Asimow, Paul; Fatyanov, Oleg; Liu, Fusheng

    2017-06-01

    Yield strength is one of the most important physical properties of a solid material, especially far from its melting line. The flyer-impact perturbation method measures material yield strength on the basis of correlation between the yield strength under shock compression and the damping of oscillatory perturbations in the shape of a shock front passing through the material. We used flyer-plate impacts experiments on targets with machined grooves on the impact surface to shock aluminum to between 32 and 71 GPa and recorded the evolution of the shock front perturbation amplitude in the sample with electric pins and fibers. Simulations using the elastic-plastic model can be matched to the experiments, explaining well the form of the perturbation decay and constraining the yield strength of aluminum to be 1.3-3.1 GPa. These results are in agreement with values obtained from reshock and release wave profiles as well as the result deduced from the SCG model. We conclude that the flyer-impact perturbation method is indeed a reliable means to measure material strength. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41674088) and the State Scholarship Fund of China Scholarship Council.

  2. Joint development in perturbed stress fields near faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, K. D.; Rives, T.; Petti, J.-P.; Hencher, S. R.; Lumsden, A. C.

    1992-09-01

    Field evidence is presented for complex spatial and temporal perturbations of an otherwise systematic joint pattern around faults from well exposed faulted rock platforms. Joints propagating in perturbed stress fields will curve to follow the directions of the stress field trajectories. A progressive change in joint direction is observed from unperturbed regions away from faults, to strongly perturbed zones adjacent to faults. This indicates that the joint pattern can reflect perturbations of the regional stress field around faults. In the examples, the stress field perturbations are probably due to points of high friction on the fault plane which concentrate stress and distort the stress field in the surrounding rock. The corresponding joints converge at these points and are sub-parallel to the fault along the remainder of the fault plane. The possibility that a fault plane acts as a free surface contained within an elastic body is considered. In this situation the fault plane induces a rotation of the principal stress axes to become either perpendicular or parallel to the fault. The free surface model seems to explain the metre-scale curvature of joints in the vicinity of existing joints, but at the kilometre scale of a large fault plane the model becomes unrealistic unless the fault is open at the Earth's surface. Two examples are investigated from the Lias of Great Britain; at Nash Point and Robin Hood's Bay. Both comprise sub-horizontal strata of relatively homogeneous lithology and bed thickness, which provide striking examples of joints developed near faults.

  3. Step Prediction During Perturbed Standing Using Center Of Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos R. Popovic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of a sensor that can measure balance during quiet standing and predict stepping response in the event of perturbation has many clinically relevant applica- tions, including closed-loop control of a neuroprothesis for standing. This study investigated the feasibility of an algorithm that can predict in real-time when an able-bodied individual who is quietly standing will have to make a step to compensate for an external perturbation. Anterior and posterior perturbations were performed on 16 able-bodied subjects using a pul- ley system with a dropped weight. A linear relationship was found between the peak center of pressure (COP velocity and the peak COP displacement caused by the perturbation. This result suggests that one can predict when a person will have to make a step based on COP velocity measurements alone. Another important feature of this finding is that the peak COP velocity occurs considerably before the peak COP displacement. As a result, one can predict if a subject will have to make a step in response to a perturbation sufficiently ahead of the time when the subject is actually forced to make the step. The proposed instability detection algorithm will be implemented in a sensor system using insole sheets in shoes with minitur- ized pressure sensors by which the COPv can be continuously measured. The sensor system will be integrated in a closed-loop feedback system with a neuroprosthesis for standing in the near future.

  4. Using perturbations to identify the brain circuits underlying active vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Robert H

    2015-09-19

    The visual and oculomotor systems in the brain have been studied extensively in the primate. Together, they can be regarded as a single brain system that underlies active vision--the normal vision that begins with visual processing in the retina and extends through the brain to the generation of eye movement by the brainstem. The system is probably one of the most thoroughly studied brain systems in the primate, and it offers an ideal opportunity to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the series of perturbation techniques that have been used to study it. The perturbations have been critical in moving from correlations between neuronal activity and behaviour closer to a causal relation between neuronal activity and behaviour. The same perturbation techniques have also been used to tease out neuronal circuits that are related to active vision that in turn are driving behaviour. The evolution of perturbation techniques includes ablation of both cortical and subcortical targets, punctate chemical lesions, reversible inactivations, electrical stimulation, and finally the expanding optogenetic techniques. The evolution of perturbation techniques has supported progressively stronger conclusions about what neuronal circuits in the brain underlie active vision and how the circuits themselves might be organized.

  5. Perturbation Biology: Inferring Signaling Networks in Cellular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Martin L.; Gauthier, Nicholas P.; Jing, Xiaohong; Kaushik, Poorvi; He, Qin; Mills, Gordon; Solit, David B.; Pratilas, Christine A.; Weigt, Martin; Braunstein, Alfredo; Pagnani, Andrea; Zecchina, Riccardo; Sander, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We present a powerful experimental-computational technology for inferring network models that predict the response of cells to perturbations, and that may be useful in the design of combinatorial therapy against cancer. The experiments are systematic series of perturbations of cancer cell lines by targeted drugs, singly or in combination. The response to perturbation is quantified in terms of relative changes in the measured levels of proteins, phospho-proteins and cellular phenotypes such as viability. Computational network models are derived de novo, i.e., without prior knowledge of signaling pathways, and are based on simple non-linear differential equations. The prohibitively large solution space of all possible network models is explored efficiently using a probabilistic algorithm, Belief Propagation (BP), which is three orders of magnitude faster than standard Monte Carlo methods. Explicit executable models are derived for a set of perturbation experiments in SKMEL-133 melanoma cell lines, which are resistant to the therapeutically important inhibitor of RAF kinase. The resulting network models reproduce and extend known pathway biology. They empower potential discoveries of new molecular interactions and predict efficacious novel drug perturbations, such as the inhibition of PLK1, which is verified experimentally. This technology is suitable for application to larger systems in diverse areas of molecular biology. PMID:24367245

  6. Acoustic wavefield evolution as a function of source location perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2010-12-01

    The wavefield is typically simulated for seismic exploration applications through solving the wave equation for a specific seismic source location. The direct relation between the form (or shape) of the wavefield and the source location can provide insights useful for velocity estimation and interpolation. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield shape to perturbations in the source location, especially along the Earth\\'s surface. These partial differential equations have the same structure as the wave equation with a source function that depends on the background (original source) wavefield. The similarity in form implies that we can use familiar numerical methods to solve the perturbation equations, including finite difference and downward continuation. In fact, we can use the same Green\\'s function to solve the wave equation and its source perturbations by simply incorporating source functions derived from the background field. The solutions of the perturbation equations represent the coefficients of a Taylor\\'s series type expansion of the wavefield as a function of source location. As a result, we can speed up the wavefield calculation as we approximate the wavefield shape for sources in the vicinity of the original source. The new formula introduces changes to the background wavefield only in the presence of lateral velocity variation or in general terms velocity variations in the perturbation direction. The approach is demonstrated on the smoothed Marmousi model.

  7. Nonspherical Szekeres models in the language of cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Roberto A.; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Delgado Gaspar, Ismael; Germán, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    We study the differences and equivalences between the nonperturbative description of the evolution of cosmic structure furnished by the Szekeres dust models (a nonspherical exact solution of Einstein's equations) and the dynamics of cosmological perturbation theory (C P T ) for dust sources in a Λ CDM background. We show how the dynamics of Szekeres models can be described by evolution equations given in terms of "exact fluctuations" that identically reduce (at all orders) to evolution equations of C P T in the comoving isochronous gauge. We explicitly show how Szekeres linearized exact fluctuations are specific (deterministic) realizations of standard linear perturbations of C P T given as random fields, but, as opposed to the latter perturbations, they can be evolved exactly into the full nonlinear regime. We prove two important results: (i) the conservation of the curvature perturbation (at all scales) also holds for the appropriate linear approximation of the exact Szekeres fluctuations in a Λ CDM background, and (ii) the different collapse morphologies of Szekeres models yields, at nonlinear order, different functional forms for the growth factor that follows from the study of redshift space distortions. The metric-based potentials used in linear C P T are computed in terms of the parameters of the linearized Szekeres models, thus allowing us to relate our results to linear C P T results in other gauges. We believe that these results provide a solid starting stage to examine the role of non-perturbative general relativity in current cosmological research.

  8. The accuracy of QCD perturbation theory at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dalla Brida, Mattia; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the determination of the strong coupling $\\alpha_\\mathrm{\\overline{MS}}^{}(m_\\mathrm{Z})$ or equivalently the QCD $\\Lambda$-parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in $\\alpha_s(\\mu)$ in some scheme, $s$, and at some energy scale $\\mu$. The higher the scale $\\mu$ the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the $\\Lambda$-parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme which allows us to non-perturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to $\\alpha_s = 0.1$ and below. We find that perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a three percent error in the $\\Lambda$-parameter, while data around $\\alpha_s \\approx 0.2$ is clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.

  9. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  10. Singular perturbations introduction to system order reduction methods with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shchepakina, Elena; Mortell, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    These lecture notes provide a fresh approach to investigating singularly perturbed systems using asymptotic and geometrical techniques. It gives many examples and step-by-step techniques, which will help beginners move to a more advanced level. Singularly perturbed systems appear naturally in the modelling of many processes that are characterized by slow and fast motions simultaneously, for example, in fluid dynamics and nonlinear mechanics. This book’s approach consists in separating out the slow motions of the system under investigation. The result is a reduced differential system of lesser order. However, it inherits the essential elements of the qualitative behaviour of the original system. Singular Perturbations differs from other literature on the subject due to its methods and wide range of applications. It is a valuable reference for specialists in the areas of applied mathematics, engineering, physics, biology, as well as advanced undergraduates for the earlier parts of the book, and graduate stude...

  11. Regular two-component bouncing cosmologies and perturbations therein

    CERN Document Server

    Bozza, V

    2005-01-01

    We present a full investigation of scalar perturbations in a rather generic model for a regular bouncing universe, where the bounce is triggered by an effective perfect fluid with negative energy density. Long before and after the bounce the universe is dominated by a source with positive energy density, which may be a perfect fluid, a scalar field, or any other source with an intrinsic isocurvature perturbation. Within this framework, we present an analytical method to accurately estimate the spectrum of large-scale scalar perturbations until their reentry, long after the bounce. We also propose a simple way to identify non-singular gauge-invariant variables through the bounce and present the results of extensive numerical tests in several possible realizations of the scenario. In no case do we find that the spectrum of the pre-bounce growing mode of the Bardeen potential can be transferred to a post-bounce constant mode.

  12. Toroidal Energy Principle (TEP) and perturbed equilibrium code STB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Leonid; Hu, Di

    2016-10-01

    The MHD energy principle TEP is presented in terms of perturbations of the vector potential, rather than plasma displacement. This form makes TEP capable to discribe both the ideal plasmas stability and the perturbed equilibria. The functional is expressed in two terms. The first one represents the energy of magnetic field and is calculated using working equilibrium coordinate system. The second term, containing plasma displacement is expressed in the compact form using Hamada coordinates. This representation uses the same combinations of metric coefficients as in the equilibrium calculations. The STB code implements the TEP for both ideal MHD and perturbed equilibria. In the first case, it uses the matching conditions of the ideal MHD. In the second case, the 2-D equilibrium islands are introduced in order to resolve the singularity and match the solutions across the resonant surfaces Partially by (a) US DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH11466, (b) General Fusion Inc.

  13. Streamer properties and associated x-rays in perturbed air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhn, C; Chanrion, O; Babich, L P

    2018-01-01

    profile of air parallel and perpendicular to the ambient electric field. We consider localsinusoidal perturbations of 5%–100%, as induced from discharge shock waves. We use acylindrically symmetric particle-in-cell code to simulate the evolution of bidirectional streamers andcompare the electron density......Streamers are ionization waves in electric discharges. One of the key ingredients of streamerpropagation is an ambient gas that serves as a source of free electrons. Here, we explore thedependence of streamer dynamics on different spatial distributions of ambient air molecules. We varythe spatial......, electric field, streamer velocity and electron energy of streamers inuniform air and in perturbed air. In all considered cases, the motion is driven along in decreasing airdensity and damped along increasing air density. Perturbations of at most 5%–10% change thevelocity differences by up to approximately...

  14. Metric Theories of Gravity: Perturbations and Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Alexander N.; Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Lompay, Robert R.; Tekin, Bayram

    2017-04-01

    By focusing on the mostly used variational methods, this monograph aspires to give a unified description and comparison of various ways of constructing conserved quantities for perturbations and to study symmetries in general relativity and modified theories of gravity. The main emphasis lies on the field-theoretical covariant formulation of perturbations, the canonical Noether approach and the Belinfante procedure of symmetrisation. The general formalism is applied to build the gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory, conserved currents and superpotentials to describe physically important solutions of gravity theories. Meticulous attention is given to the construction of conserved quantities in asymptotically-flat spacetimes as well as in asymptotically constant curvature spacetimes such as the Anti-de Sitter space. Significant part of the book can be used in graduate courses on conservation laws in general relativity.

  15. Two-scale approach to oscillatory singularly perturbed transport equations

    CERN Document Server

    Frénod, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the classical results of the two-scale convergence theory and explains – using several figures – why it works. It then shows how to use this theory to homogenize ordinary differential equations with oscillating coefficients as well as oscillatory singularly perturbed ordinary differential equations. In addition, it explores the homogenization of hyperbolic partial differential equations with oscillating coefficients and linear oscillatory singularly perturbed hyperbolic partial differential equations. Further, it introduces readers to the two-scale numerical methods that can be built from the previous approaches to solve oscillatory singularly perturbed transport equations (ODE and hyperbolic PDE) and demonstrates how they can be used efficiently. This book appeals to master’s and PhD students interested in homogenization and numerics, as well as to the Iter community.

  16. Discrete Symmetries and Neutrino Mass Perturbations for θ$_{13}$

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, L J

    2013-01-01

    The recent measurement of the third lepton mixing angle, \\theta_{13}, has shown that, although small compared to \\theta_{12} and \\theta_{23}, it is much larger than anticipated in schemes that generate Tri-Bi-Maximal (TBM) or Golden Ratio (GR) mixing. We develop a model-independent formalism for perturbations away from exact TBM or GR mixing in the neutrino sector. Each resulting perturbation scheme reflects an underlying symmetry structure and involves a single complex parameter. We show that such perturbations can readily fit the observed value of \\theta_{13}, which is then correlated with a change in the other mixing angles. We also determine the implication for the lepton CP violating phases. For comparison we determine the predictions for Bi-Maximal mixing corrected by charged lepton mixing and we discuss the accuracy that will be needed to distinguish between the various schemes.

  17. Perturbation method for probabilistic search for the traveling salesperson problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohoon, James P.; Karro, John E.; Martin, Worthy N.; Niebel, William D.; Nagel, Klaus

    1998-10-01

    The Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP), is an MP-complete combinatorial optimization problem of substantial importance in many scheduling applications. Here we show the viability of SPAN, a hybrid approach to solving the TSP that incorporates a perturbation method applied to a classic heuristic in the overall context of a probabilistic search control strategy. In particular, the heuristic for the TSP is based on the minimal spanning tree of the city locations, the perturbation method is a simple modification of the city locations, and the control strategy is a genetic algorithm (GA). The crucial concept here is that the perturbation of the problem allows variant solutions to be generated by the heuristic and applied to the original problem, thus providing the GA with capabilities for both exploration in its search process. We demonstrate that SPAN outperforms, with regard to solution quality, one of the best GA system reported in the literature.

  18. Experimental demonstration of perturbative anticrossing mitigation using nonuniform driver Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanting, Trevor; King, Andrew D.; Evert, Bram; Hoskinson, Emile

    2017-10-01

    Perturbative anticrossings have long been identified as a potential computational bottleneck for quantum annealing. This bottleneck can appear, for example, when a uniform transverse driver Hamiltonian is applied to each qubit. Previous theoretical research sought to alleviate such anticrossings by adjusting the transverse driver Hamiltonians on individual qubits according to a perturbative approximation. Here we apply this principle to a physical implementation of quantum annealing in a D-Wave 2000Q system. We use samples from the quantum annealing hardware and per-qubit anneal offsets to produce nonuniform driver Hamiltonians. On small instances with severe perturbative anticrossings, our algorithm yields an increase in minimum eigengaps, ground-state success probabilities, and escape rates from metastable valleys. We also demonstrate that the same approach can mitigate biased sampling of degenerate ground states.

  19. Perturbation analysis of transient population dynamics using matrix projection models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Non-stable populations exhibit short-term transient dynamics: size, growth and structure that are unlike predicted long-term asymptotic stable, stationary or equilibrium dynamics. Understanding transient dynamics of non-stable populations is important for designing effective population management...... strategies, predicting the responses of populations to environmental change or disturbance, and understanding population processes and life-history evolution in variable environments. Transient perturbation analyses are vital tools for achieving these aims. They assess how transient dynamics are affected...... of model being analysed, the perturbation structure, the population response of interest, nonlinear response to perturbation, standardization for asymptotic dynamics, the initial population structure, and the time frame of interest. I discuss these with reference to the application of transient...

  20. Supermassive black holes formed by direct collapse of inflationary perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Nakama, Tomohiro; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a mechanism of producing a new type of primordial perturbations which collapse to primordial black holes whose mass can be as large as necessary for them to grow to the supermassive black holes observed at high redshifts, without contradicting COBE/FIRAS upper limits on cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectral distortions. In our model, the observable Universe consists of two kinds of many small patches which experienced different expansion histories during inflation. Large amplitudes of primordial perturbations enough to form primordial black holes are realized on patches that experienced more Hubble expansion than the others. By making these patches the minor component, the rarity of supermassive black holes can be explained. On the other hand, most regions of the Universe experienced the standard history and hence have only standard almost scale-invariant adiabatic perturbations confirmed by observations of CMB or large-scale structures of the universe. Thus our mechanism can evade the constra...

  1. Statistical Mechanics of Node-perturbation Learning with Noisy Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazuyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Okada, Masato

    2017-02-01

    Node-perturbation learning is a type of statistical gradient descent algorithm that can be applied to problems where the objective function is not explicitly formulated, including reinforcement learning. It estimates the gradient of an objective function by using the change in the object function in response to the perturbation. The value of the objective function for an unperturbed output is called a baseline. Cho et al. proposed node-perturbation learning with a noisy baseline. In this paper, we report on building the statistical mechanics of Cho's model and on deriving coupled differential equations of order parameters that depict learning dynamics. We also show how to derive the generalization error by solving the differential equations of order parameters. On the basis of the results, we show that Cho's results are also apply in general cases and show some general performances of Cho's model.

  2. Waterfall field in hybrid inflation and curvature perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: jgong@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2011-03-01

    We study carefully the contribution of the waterfall field to the curvature perturbation at the end of hybrid inflation. In particular we clarify the parameter dependence analytically under reasonable assumptions on the model parameters. After calculating the mode function of the waterfall field, we use the δN formalism and confirm the previously obtained result that the power spectrum is very blue with the index 4 and is absolutely negligible on large scales. However, we also find that the resulting curvature perturbation is highly non-Gaussian and hence we calculate the bispectrum. We find that the bispectrum is at leading order independent of momentum and exhibits its peak at the equilateral limit, though it is unobservably small on large scales. We also present the one-point probability distribution function of the curvature perturbation.

  3. Perturbative algebraic quantum field theory at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Falk

    2013-08-15

    We present the algebraic approach to perturbative quantum field theory for the real scalar field in Minkowski spacetime. In this work we put a special emphasis on the inherent state-independence of the framework and provide a detailed analysis of the state space. The dynamics of the interacting system is constructed in a novel way by virtue of the time-slice axiom in causal perturbation theory. This method sheds new light in the connection between quantum statistical dynamics and perturbative quantum field theory. In particular it allows the explicit construction of the KMS and vacuum state for the interacting, massive Klein-Gordon field which implies the absence of infrared divergences of the interacting theory at finite temperature, in particular for the interacting Wightman and time-ordered functions.

  4. A Theory of the Perturbed Consumer with General Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McFadden, Daniel L; Fosgerau, Mogens

    We consider demand systems for utility-maximizing consumers facing general budget constraints whose utilities are perturbed by additive linear shifts in marginal utilities. Budgets are required to be compact but are not required to be convex. We define demand generating functions (DGF) whose...... subgradients with respect to these perturbations are convex hulls of the utility-maximizing demands. We give necessary as well as sufficient conditions for DGF to be consistent with utility maximization, and establish under quite general conditions that utility-maximizing demands are almost everywhere single......-valued and smooth in their arguments. We also give sufficient conditions for integrability of perturbed demand. Our analysis provides a foundation for applications of consumer theory to problems with nonlinear budget constraints....

  5. Non-perturbative effects and the refined topological string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Marino, Marcos [Geneve Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Section de Mathematiques; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst.; Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-06-15

    The partition function of ABJM theory on the three-sphere has non-perturbative corrections due to membrane instantons in the M-theory dual. We show that the full series of membrane instanton corrections is completely determined by the refined topological string on the Calabi-Yau manifold known as local P{sup 1} x P{sup 1}, in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit. Our result can be interpreted as a first-principles derivation of the full series of non-perturbative effects for the closed topological string on this Calabi-Yau background. Based on this, we make a proposal for the non-perturbative free energy of topological strings on general, local Calabi-Yau manifolds.

  6. Local polynomial Whittle estimation of perturbed fractional processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Per; Nielsen, Frank; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We propose a semiparametric local polynomial Whittle with noise (LPWN) estimator of the memory parameter in long memory time series perturbed by a noise term which may be serially correlated. The estimator approximates the spectrum of the perturbation as well as that of the short-memory component...... of the signal by two separate polynomials. Including these polynomials we obtain a reduction in the order of magnitude of the bias, but also in‡ate the asymptotic variance of the long memory estimate by a multiplicative constant. We show that the estimator is consistent for d 2 (0; 1), asymptotically normal...... for d ε (0, 3/4), and if the spectral density is infinitely smooth near frequency zero, the rate of convergence can become arbitrarily close to the parametric rate, pn. A Monte Carlo study reveals that the LPWN estimator performs well in the presence of a serially correlated perturbation term...

  7. Light propagation in linearly perturbed ΛLTB models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sven; Bartelmann, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    We apply a generic formalism of light propagation to linearly perturbed spherically symmetric dust models including a cosmological constant. For a comoving observer on the central worldline, we derive the equation of geodesic deviation and perform a suitable spherical harmonic decomposition. This allows to map the abstract gauge-invariant perturbation variables to well-known quantities from weak gravitational lensing like convergence or cosmic shear. The resulting set of differential equations can effectively be solved by a Green's function approach leading to line-of-sight integrals sourced by the perturbation variables on the backward lightcone. The resulting spherical harmonic coefficients of the lensing observables are presented and the shear field is decomposed into its E- and B-modes. Results of this work are an essential tool to add information from linear structure formation to the analysis of spherically symmetric dust models with the purpose of testing the Copernican Principle with multiple cosmological probes.

  8. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  9. Nonlinearly combined impacts of initial perturbation from human activities and parameter perturbation from climate change on the grassland ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human activities and climate change are important factors that affect grassland ecosystems. A new optimization approach, the approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP related to initial and parameter perturbations, is employed to explore the nonlinearly combined impacts of human activities and climate change on a grassland ecosystem using a theoretical grassland model. In our study, it is assumed that the initial perturbations and parameter perturbations are regarded as human activities and climate change, respectively. Numerical results indicate that the climate changes causing the maximum effect in the grassland ecosystem are different under disparate intensities of human activities. This implies the pattern of climate change is very critical to the maintenance or degradation of grassland ecosystem in light of high intensity of human activities and that the grassland ecosystem should be rationally managed when the moisture index decreases. The grassland ecosystem influenced by the nonlinear combination of human activities and climate change undergoes abrupt change, while the grassland ecosystem affected by other types of human activities and climate change fails to show the abrupt change under a certain range of perturbations with the theoretical model. The further numerical analyses also indicate that the growth of living biomass and the evaporation from soil surface shaded by the wilted biomass may be crucial factors contributing to the abrupt change of the grassland equilibrium state within the theoretical model.

  10. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...... to this paradox a qualitative study of working time regulation in the metal industry in Denmark and Germany was performed in the spring of 2005. In addition to five case studies of company-based agreements in Denmark and Germany (Baden-Württemberg) the study consisted of analysing statistical data, legislative...

  11. Varying G. [in Einstein gravitation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Owen, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the variation of the gravitational constant with cosmological time is critically analyzed. Since Einstein's equation does not allow G to vary on any time scale, no observational data can be analyzed within the context of the standard theory. The recently proposed scale covariant theory, which allows (but does not demand) G to vary, and which has been shown to have passed several standard cosmological tests, is employed to discuss some recent nonnull observational results which indicate a time variation of G.

  12. Singular Perturbation for the Discounted Continuous Control of Piecewise Deterministic Markov Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, O. L. V., E-mail: oswaldo@lac.usp.br [Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Engenharia de Telecomunicacoes e Controle (Brazil); Dufour, F., E-mail: dufour@math.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux I, IMB, Institut Mathematiques de Bordeaux, INRIA Bordeaux Sud Ouest, Team: CQFD (France)

    2011-06-15

    This paper deals with the expected discounted continuous control of piecewise deterministic Markov processes (PDMP's) using a singular perturbation approach for dealing with rapidly oscillating parameters. The state space of the PDMP is written as the product of a finite set and a subset of the Euclidean space Double-Struck-Capital-R {sup n}. The discrete part of the state, called the regime, characterizes the mode of operation of the physical system under consideration, and is supposed to have a fast (associated to a small parameter {epsilon}>0) and a slow behavior. By using a similar approach as developed in Yin and Zhang (Continuous-Time Markov Chains and Applications: A Singular Perturbation Approach, Applications of Mathematics, vol. 37, Springer, New York, 1998, Chaps. 1 and 3) the idea in this paper is to reduce the number of regimes by considering an averaged model in which the regimes within the same class are aggregated through the quasi-stationary distribution so that the different states in this class are replaced by a single one. The main goal is to show that the value function of the control problem for the system driven by the perturbed Markov chain converges to the value function of this limit control problem as {epsilon} goes to zero. This convergence is obtained by, roughly speaking, showing that the infimum and supremum limits of the value functions satisfy two optimality inequalities as {epsilon} goes to zero. This enables us to show the result by invoking a uniqueness argument, without needing any kind of Lipschitz continuity condition.

  13. Delayed postural control during self-generated perturbations in the frail older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubicki A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Kubicki1–3, François Bonnetblanc1,2, Geoffroy Petrement3, Yves Ballay1,2, France Mourey2,4¹UFR STAPS, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France; ²Motricité et Plasticité, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM, Dijon, France; ³SARL Fovea Interactive, Campus Industriel – Espace Entreprises, Chalon sur Saône, France; 4UFR Médecine, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, FrancePurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the coordination between posture and movement in pathological aging (frailty in comparison with normal aging, with the hypothesis that in pathological aging, postural control evolves towards a more reactive mode for which the perturbation induced by the movement is not anticipated and leads to delayed and late postural adjustments.Methods: Elderly subjects performed rapid focal arm-raising movements towards a target, from an upright standing position in two stimuli conditions: simple reaction time and choice reaction time (CRT. Hand and center of pressure (CoP kinematics were compared between a control group and a frail group of the same age.Results: In frail individuals, the entire movement was impaired and slowed down. In addition, postural adjustments that classically precede and accompany the focal arm movement were delayed and reduced, especially in the CRT condition in which the motor prediction is more limited. Finally, a correlation between the time to CoP maximal velocity and the timed up-and-go score was observed.Conclusion: In these patients, it was concluded that the control of the CoP displacement evolved from a proactive mode in which the perturbation associated with the arm movement is anticipated toward a more reactive mode in which the perturbation is compensated by late and delayed adjustments.Keywords: frailty, anticipatory postural adjustments, backward disequilibrium

  14. Non-Perturbative Nekrasov Partition Function from String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Hohenegger, Stefan; Narain, K S; Assi, Ahmad Zein

    2014-01-01

    We calculate gauge instanton corrections to a class of higher derivative string effective couplings introduced in [1]. We work in Type I string theory compactified on K3xT2 and realise gauge instantons in terms of D5-branes wrapping the internal space. In the field theory limit we reproduce the deformed ADHM action on a general {\\Omega}-background from which one can compute the non-perturbative gauge theory partition function using localisation. This is a non-perturbative extension of [1] and provides further evidence for our proposal of a string theory realisation of the {\\Omega}-background.

  15. On high-order perturbative calculations at finite density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghişoiu, Ioan, E-mail: ioan.ghisoiu@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Gorda, Tyler, E-mail: tyler.gorda@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Kurkela, Aleksi, E-mail: aleksi.kurkela@cern.ch [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger, Stavanger (Norway); Romatschke, Paul, E-mail: paul.romatschke@colorado.edu [Department of Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Center for Theory of Quantum Matter, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Säppi, Matias, E-mail: matias.sappi@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Vuorinen, Aleksi, E-mail: aleksi.vuorinen@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    We discuss the prospects of performing high-order perturbative calculations in systems characterized by a vanishing temperature but finite density. In particular, we show that the determination of generic Feynman integrals containing fermionic chemical potentials can be reduced to the evaluation of three-dimensional phase space integrals over vacuum on-shell amplitudes — a result reminiscent of a previously proposed “naive real-time formalism” for vacuum diagrams. Applications of these rules are discussed in the context of the thermodynamics of cold and dense QCD, where it is argued that they facilitate an extension of the Equation of State of cold quark matter to higher perturbative orders.

  16. Preheating and entropy perturbations in axion monodromy inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonough, Evan; Moghaddam, Hossein Bazrafshan [Department of Physics, McGill University,Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Brandenberger, Robert H. [Department of Physics, McGill University,Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zürich,CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-05-04

    We study the preheating of gauge fields in a simple axion monodromy model and compute the induced entropy perturbations and their effect on the curvature fluctuations. We find that the correction to the spectrum of curvature perturbations has a blue spectrum with index n{sub s}=5/2. Hence, these induced modes are harmless for the observed structure of the universe. Since the spectrum is blue, there is the danger of overproduction of primordial black holes. However, we show that the observational constraints are easily satisfied.

  17. On perturbations of magnetic field configurations. [in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.; Knobloch, E.

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of stationary equilibrium solutions to the MHD equations possessing a well-defined symmetry to perturbations lacking that symmetry is explored. Two distinct situations of astrophysical interest are considered: solutions of the magnetostatic equations and of the magnetoconvection equations. The results show that in these cases changes in solution topology are not accessible to small-parameter (epsilon) expansions, so that such expansions do not describe the full range of behavior. In particular, finite-amplitude perturbations can lead to new stationary solutions possessing different symmetries from the initial solution.

  18. Performance of Power Systems under Sustained Random Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Verdejo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies linear systems under sustained additive random perturbations. The stable operating point of an electric power system is replaced by an attracting stationary solution if the system is subjected to (small random additive perturbations. The invariant distribution of this stationary solution gives rise to several performance indices that measure how well the system copes with the randomness. These indices are introduced, showing how they can be used for the optimal tuning of system parameters in the presence of noise. Results on a four-generator two-area system are presented and discussed.

  19. Equatorial ionospheric electrodynamic perturbations during Southern Hemisphere stratospheric warming events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, M. E.; Fejer, B. G.; Stolle, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    We use ground-based and satellite measurements to examine, for the first time, the characteristics of equatorial electrodynamic perturbations measured during the 2002 major and 2010 minor Southern Hemisphere sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. Our data suggest the occurrence of enhanced...... quasi 2 day fluctuations during the 2002 early autumnal equinoctial warming. They also show a moderately large multi-day perturbation pattern, resembling those during arctic SSW events, during 2002 late equinox, as the major SSW was weakening. We also compare these data with extensive recent results...

  20. Charged scalar perturbations around Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yong Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the stability of the Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger (GHS black hole under charged scalar perturbations. Employing the appropriate numerical methods, we show that the GHS black hole is always stable against charged scalar perturbations. This is different from the results obtained in the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter black holes. Furthermore, we argue that in the GHS black hole background there is no amplification of the incident charged scalar wave to cause the superradiance, so that the superradiant instability cannot exist in this spacetime.

  1. Meson-meson scattering from U(3) chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Zhihui, E-mail: zhguo@ugr.e [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuente Nueva, E-18002 Granada (Spain); Prades, Joaquim [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuente Nueva, E-18002 Granada (Spain); Oller, Jose Antonio, E-mail: oller@um.e [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    A complete one loop calculation of all the meson-meson scattering amplitudes in the framework of U(3) chiral perturbation theory with explicit resonance states is presented in this article. By performing the unitarization of the perturbative scattering amplitudes using a variant of the N/D method, we show that the approach can describe well the various scattering data. In the end, we use the parameters from the fit to determine the masses, widths and the corresponding residue of the relevant resonances.

  2. Non-perturbative effects on seven-brane Yukawa couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesano, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    We analyze non-perturbative corrections to the superpotential of seven-brane gauge theories on type IIB and F-theory warped Calabi-Yau compactifications. We show in particular that such corrections modify the holomorphic Yukawa couplings by an exponentially suppressed contribution, generically solving the Yukawa rank-one problem present in F-theory local models. We provide explicit expressions for the non-perturbative correction to the seven-brane superpotential, and check that it is related to a non-commutative deformation to the tree-level superpotential via the Seiberg-Witten map.

  3. Alien calculus and non perturbative effects in Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Marc P.

    2016-12-01

    In many domains of physics, methods for dealing with non-perturbative aspects are required. Here, I want to argue that a good approach for this is to work on the Borel transforms of the quantities of interest, the singularities of which give non-perturbative contributions. These singularities in many cases can be largely determined by using the alien calculus developed by Jean Écalle. My main example will be the two point function of a massless theory given as a solution of a renormalization group equation.

  4. Analysis of noise in quartz crystal oscillators by using slowly varying functions method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, R; Ratier, N; Couteleau, L; Marianneau, G; Guillemot, P

    1999-01-01

    By using formal manipulation capability of commercially available symbolic calculation code, it is possible to automatically derive the characteristic polynomial describing the conditions for oscillation of a circuit. The analytical expression of the characteristic polynomial is obtained through an encapsulation process starting from the SPICE netlist description of the circuit: by using a limited number of simple transformations, the initial circuit is progressively transformed in a simplified standard form. In this method, the nonlinear component is described by its large signal admittance parameters obtained from a set of SPICE transient simulations of larger and larger amplitude. The encapsulation process involving linear and nonlinear components as well as noise sources leads to a perturbed characteristic polynomial. In the time domain, the perturbed characteristic polynomial becomes a nonlinear nonautonomous differential equation. By using an extension of the slowly varying functions method, this differential equation is transformed into a nonlinear differential system with perturbation terms as the right-hand side. Eventually, solving this system with classical algorithms allows one to obtain both amplitude and phase noise spectra of the oscillator.

  5. Õunpuu Karlovy Varys edukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    45. Karlovy Vary filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" märgiti ära Veiko Õunpuu film "Püha Tõnu kiusamine". Peaauhind läks rumeenlase Cristi Puiu filmile "Aurora". Grand prix´sai Augustĺ Vila film "La mosquitera". Teisi preemiasaajaid

  6. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Gradually varied flow computation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Jahandar Malekabadi

    The article ''Gradually varied flow computation in channel networks by adaptive algorithm'' (DOI 10.1007/s12046- · 017-0640-x) which has been published online has been retracted by Chief Editor of the journal Sadhana as per the. Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines on redundant publication.

  7. Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fenz; Lee, Christopher James; Chen, Juequan; Chen, J.; Louis, Eric; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Boller, Klaus J.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  8. Ellipsometry with random varying polarization state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fenz; van Albada, B.; Lee, c; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  9. "Mina olin siin" esilinastub Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil esilinastub Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West". Esitlema sõidavad R. Vilbre, R. Sildos, R. Kaljujärv, T. Tuisk

  10. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    2000-01-01

    is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...... are studied by simulation...

  11. Efficient Estimation in Heteroscedastic Varying Coefficient Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhua Wei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers statistical inference for the heteroscedastic varying coefficient model. We propose an efficient estimator for coefficient functions that is more efficient than the conventional local-linear estimator. We establish asymptotic normality for the proposed estimator and conduct some simulation to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  12. Filmihullu eluvesi voolab Karlovy Varys / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Filmidest "Mr. Nobody" (rež. Jaco Van Dormaeli), "Kasside ema Teresa" (rež. Pawel Sala) ja "The Arbor" (rež. Clio Barnardi). Nimekiri võitnud töödest ja viimastel aastatel festivalil näidatud Eesti mängufilmidest

  13. IUGR prevents IGF-1 upregulation in juvenile male mice by perturbing postnatal IGF-1 chromatin remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Camille M; Yang, Yueqin; Fu, Qi; Brown, Ashley S; Yu, Baifeng; Callaway, Christopher W; Li, Jicheng; Lane, Robert H; McKnight, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) offspring with rapid catch-up growth are at increased risk for early obesity especially in males. Persistent insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) reduction is an important risk factor. Using a mouse model of maternal hypertension-induced IUGR, we examined IGF-1 levels, promoter DNA methylation, and histone H3 covalent modifications at birth (D1). We additionally investigated whether prenatal perturbations could reset at preadolescence (D21). IUGR was induced via maternal thromboxane A2-analog infusion in mice. IUGR uniformly decreased D1 IGF-1 mRNA and protein levels with reduced promoter 1 (P1) transcription and increased P1 DNA methylation. IUGR males also had increased H3K4ac at exon 5 and 3' distal UTR. At D21, IUGR males continued to have decreased IGF-1 levels, originating from both P1 and P2 with reduced 1A variant. IUGR males also had decreased activation mark of H3K4me3 at P1 compared with sham males. In contrast, D21 IUGR females normalized their IGF-1 levels, in association with an increased activation mark of H3K4me3 at P1 compared with sham females. IUGR uniformly affected D1 hepatic IGF-1 epigenetic modifications in both sexes. However, at preadolescence, IUGR males are unable to correct for the prenatal reduction possibly due to a more perturbed IGF-1 chromatin structure.

  14. Herbivory, connectivity, and ecosystem resilience: response of a coral reef to a large-scale perturbation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Adam

    Full Text Available Coral reefs world-wide are threatened by escalating local and global impacts, and some impacted reefs have shifted from coral dominance to a state dominated by macroalgae. Therefore, there is a growing need to understand the processes that affect the capacity of these ecosystems to return to coral dominance following disturbances, including those that prevent the establishment of persistent stands of macroalgae. Unlike many reefs in the Caribbean, over the last several decades, reefs around the Indo-Pacific island of Moorea, French Polynesia have consistently returned to coral dominance following major perturbations without shifting to a macroalgae-dominated state. Here, we present evidence of a rapid increase in populations of herbivorous fishes following the most recent perturbation, and show that grazing by these herbivores has prevented the establishment of macroalgae following near complete loss of coral on offshore reefs. Importantly, we found the positive response of herbivorous fishes to increased benthic primary productivity associated with coral loss was driven largely by parrotfishes that initially recruit to stable nursery habitat within the lagoons before moving to offshore reefs later in life. These results underscore the importance of connectivity between the lagoon and offshore reefs for preventing the establishment of macroalgae following disturbances, and indicate that protecting nearshore nursery habitat of herbivorous fishes is critical for maintaining reef resilience.

  15. Snowmelt induced hydrologic perturbations drive dynamic microbiological and geochemical behaviors across a shallow riparian aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eDanczak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shallow riparian aquifers represent hotspots of biogeochemical activity in the arid western US. While these environments provide extensive ecosystem services, little is known of how natural environmental perturbations influence subsurface microbial communities and associated biogeochemical processes. Over a six-month period we tracked the annual snowmelt-driven incursion of groundwater into the vadose zone of an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, leading to increased dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations in the normally suboxic saturated zone. Strong biogeochemical heterogeneity was measured across the site, with abiotic reactions between DO and sulfide minerals driving rapid DO consumption and mobilization of redox active species in reduced aquifer regions. Conversely, extensive DO increases were detected in less reduced sediments. 16S rRNA gene surveys tracked microbial community composition within the aquifer, revealing strong correlations between increases in putative oxygen-utilizing chemolithoautotrophs and heterotrophs and rising DO concentrations. The gradual return to suboxic aquifer conditions favored increasing abundances of 16S rRNA sequences matching members of the Microgenomates (OP11 and Parcubacteria (OD1 that have been strongly implicated in fermentative processes. Microbial community stability measurements indicated that deeper aquifer locations were relatively less affected by geochemical perturbations, while communities in shallower locations exhibited the greatest change. Reactive transport modeling of the geochemical and microbiological results supported field observations, suggesting that a predictive framework can be applied to develop a greater understanding of such environments.

  16. Creation of quantized particles, gravitons and scalar perturbations by the expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Quantum creation processes during the very rapid early expansion of the universe are believed to give rise to temperature anisotropies and polarization patterns in the CMB radiation. These have been observed by satellites such as COBE, WMAP, and PLANCK, and by bolometric instruments placed near the South Pole by the BICEP collaborations. The expected temperature anisotropies are well-confirmed. The B-mode polarization patterns in the CMB are currently under measurement jointly by the PLANCK and BICEP groups to determine the extent to which the B-modes can be attributed to gravitational waves from the creation of gravitons in the earliest universe. It was during 1962 that I proved that quanta of the minimally-coupled scalar field were created by the general expanding FLRW universe. This was relevant also to the creation of quantized perturbations of the gravitational field, since these perturbations satisfied linear field equations that could be quantized in the same way as the minimally-coupled scalar field e...

  17. Components in time-varying graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis.

  18. Rapid Solidification of Magnetic Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonji, G.; Deguire, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The enhanced control over microstructural evolution inherent in rapid solidification processing techniques are exploited to create novel ceramic magnetic materials. The great sensitivity of magnetic properties to local structure provides a powerful probe both for the study of structure and of microscopic solidification mechanisms. The first system studied is the SrO-Fe2O3 binary, which contains the commercially important hard magnetic compound strontium hexaferrite. The products were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and differential thermal analysis. As-quenched ribbons contain high concentrations of super-paramagnetic particles, 80 to 250 Angstroms in diameter, in a glassy matrix. This suggests the possibility of crystallizing monodomain strontium hexaferrite during subsequent heat treatment, with a resulting increase in coercivity over conventionally processed ferrite magnets. That magnetic properties can be controlled in solidification processing by varying the quench rate is demonstrated.

  19. A perturbation-based balance training program for older adults: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Amy L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research investigating exercise as a means of falls prevention in older adults has shown mixed results. Lack of specificity of the intervention may be an important factor contributing to negative results. Change-in-support (CIS balance reactions, which involve very rapid stepping or grasping movements of the limbs, play a critical role in preventing falls; hence, a training program that improves ability to execute effective CIS reactions could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. This paper describes: 1 the development of a perturbation-based balance training program that targets specific previously-reported age-related impairments in CIS reactions, and 2 a study protocol to evaluate the efficacy of this new training program. Methods/Design The training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional moving-platform perturbations to evoke stepping and grasping reactions. Perturbation magnitude is gradually increased over the course of the 6-week program, and concurrent cognitive and movement tasks are included during later sessions. The program was developed in accordance with well-established principles of motor learning, such as individualisation, specificity, overload, adaptation-progression and variability. Specific goals are to reduce the frequency of multiple-step responses, reduce the frequency of collisions between the stepping foot and stance leg, and increase the speed of grasping reactions. A randomised control trial will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the training program. A total of 30 community-dwelling older adults (age 64–80 with a recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (flexibility/relaxation training, using a stratified randomisation that controls for gender, age and baseline stepping/grasping performance. CIS reactions will be tested immediately before and after the six

  20. What {pi}-{pi} scattering tells us about chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, J.; Sazdjian, H. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Fuchs, N.H. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-12-31

    A rearrangement of the standard expansion of the symmetry breaking part of the QCD effective Lagrangian is described that includes into each order additional terms which in the standard chiral perturbation theory {chi}PT, are relegated to higher orders. The new expansion represents a systematic and unambiguous generalization of the standard {chi}PT and is more likely to converge rapidly. It provides a consistent framework for a measurement of the importance of additional `higher order` terms whose smallness is usually assumed but has never been checked. A method of measuring, among other quantities, the QCD parameters m-circumflex(q-barq) and the quark mass ratio m{sub s}/m-circumflex is elaborated in detail. The method is illustrated using various sets of available data. The importance of new, more accurate, experimental information on low-energy {pi}-{pi} scattering is stressed. (author) 33 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs.

  1. Robust Adaptive Exponential Synchronization of Stochastic Perturbed Chaotic Delayed Neural Networks with Parametric Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the robust adaptive exponential synchronization in mean square of stochastic perturbed chaotic delayed neural networks with nonidentical parametric uncertainties. A robust adaptive feedback controller is proposed based on Gronwally’s inequality, drive-response concept, and adaptive feedback control technique with the update laws of nonidentical parametric uncertainties as well as linear matrix inequality (LMI approach. The sufficient conditions for robust adaptive exponential synchronization in mean square of uncoupled uncertain stochastic chaotic delayed neural networks are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The effect of nonidentical uncertain parameter uncertainties is suppressed by the designed robust adaptive feedback controller rapidly. A numerical example is provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. The Lamin B receptor is essential for cholesterol synthesis and perturbed by disease-causing mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Ling; Zhao, Chenguang; Turner, Elizabeth; Schlieker, Christian

    2016-06-23

    Lamin B receptor (LBR) is a polytopic membrane protein residing in the inner nuclear membrane in association with the nuclear lamina. We demonstrate that human LBR is essential for cholesterol synthesis. LBR mutant derivatives implicated in Greenberg skeletal dysplasia or Pelger-Huët anomaly fail to rescue the cholesterol auxotrophy of a LBR-deficient human cell line, consistent with a loss-of-function mechanism for these congenital disorders. These disease-causing variants fall into two classes: point mutations in the sterol reductase domain perturb enzymatic activity by reducing the affinity for the essential cofactor NADPH, while LBR truncations render the mutant protein metabolically unstable, leading to its rapid degradation at the inner nuclear membrane. Thus, metabolically unstable LBR variants may serve as long-sought-after model substrates enabling previously impossible investigations of poorly understood protein turnover mechanisms at the inner nuclear membrane of higher eukaryotes.

  3. In vivo total body electrical conductivity following perturbations of body fluid compartments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J J; Molnar, J A; Meara, P A; Bode, H H

    1986-06-01

    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) provides a rapid and safe noninvasive technique for the assessment of total body water in animals and man. An instrument employing this principle has been shown to measure body water in healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. With the exception of adult obesity in humans, alterations in body fluid compartments that could theoretically affect the utility of conductivity measurements have not been studied. We, therefore, applied the total body electrical conductivity measurement in rats following perturbations of body fluid/electrolyte spaces including obesity, furosemide diuresis, severe burn, and low protein diet. Our findings confirm that total body water can be accurately measured by TOBEC in conditions of abnormal body fluid distribution. However, when the ratio of intracellular to extracellular fluid is significantly reduced, such as the severe burn or low protein intake, TOBEC does not reflect the intracellular (potassium) space but does predict total water and extracellular (sodium) space.

  4. A path crossing lemma and applications to nonlinear second order equations under slowly varyng perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pascoletti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present some recent results on the existence of periodic solutions and chaotic like dynamics for second order scalar nonlinear ODEs. The equations under consideration belong to a simple class of perturbed planar Hamiltonian systems with slowly varying periodic coefficients, a typical example being given by the pendulum equation with moving support. Although there is already a broad literature on this subject, our approach, based on the concept of stretching along the paths, appears new in this context. In particular, our method is global in nature and stable with respect to small perturbations of the coefficients. Thus it applies even when some small friction terms are inserted into the equations. The main tool on which all our results are based is a topological lemma (that we call path crossing lemma which was already implicitly used by Poincaré (1883-1884 [51], as well as by Butler (1976 [8] and Conley (1975 [12] and subsequently “rediscovered” and applied in many different contexts. For this reason, the first part of this paper is devoted to a detailed exposition of the Crossing Lemma and its connections with other topological results.

  5. Occlusion effect on compensatory formant production and voice amplitude in response to real-time perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuya, Takashi; Purcell, David W

    2016-12-01

    The importance of auditory feedback for controlling speech articulation has been substantiated by the use of the real-time auditory perturbation paradigm. With this paradigm, speakers receive their own manipulated voice signal in real-time while they produce a simple speech segment. In response, they spontaneously compensate for the manipulation. In the case of vowel formant control, various studies have reported behavioral and neural mechanisms of how auditory feedback is processed for compensatory behavior. However, due to technical limitations such as avoiding an electromagnetic artifact or metal transducers near a scanner, some studies require foam tip insert earphones. These earphones occlude the ear canal, and may cause more energy of the unmanipulated first formant to reach the cochlea through bone conduction and thus confound the effect of formant manipulation. Moreover, amplification of lower frequencies due to occluded ear canals may influence speakers' voice amplitude. The current study examined whether using circumaural headphones and insert earphones would elicit different compensatory speech production when speakers' first formant was manipulated in real-time. The results of the current study showed that different headphones did not elicit different compensatory formant production. Voice amplitude results were varied across different vowels examined; however, voice amplitude tended to decrease with the introduction of F1 perturbation.

  6. Efferent Feedback in a Spinal-Like Controller: Reaching With Perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovic, Filip; Galiana, Henrietta L

    2016-01-01

    We use simulations of a controller that adopts a spinal-like network topology for goal-oriented reaching and assess its sensitivity to the dynamics of internal elements that allow context-independent performance. Such internal elements are often referred to as inverse or forward models of the periphery dynamics, depending on the proposed controller theory. Here, the "models" are used in a forward implementation, and we evaluate how the controller's performance would be affected by the nature of the model. For each point-to-point reaching motion experiment, we use forms of internal "efference models" (e.g., full mathematical representations of peripheral dynamics, simple spindle feedback, etc.) driven by motor reafference, then compare hand trajectories and hand path speeds in the presence or absence of external perturbations. It is demonstrated that a simple velocity-based model reduced the effects of dynamic perturbations by as much as 66%. In addition, the 2D hand trajectories varied from a biological reference by only 0.05 cm. Thus, the controller facilitated biological like motions while providing response to dynamic events which are omitted in earlier biomimetic controllers. This research suggests that these spinal-like systems are robust and tunable via gain-fields without the need of context dependent pre-planning.

  7. Oscillatory behavior of US -galactosidase enzyme activity in Escherichia coli during perturbed batch experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pih, N.P.; Dhurjat, P.

    1987-02-05

    The behaviour of a wild-type and mutant strain of Escherichia coli under batch aerobic conditions were studied. In these experiments the bacteria were initially grown with lactose as the sole carbon source. When exponential growth on lactose was achieved, the batch was perturbed with D-glucose. Periodic off-line samples were taken from the fermentor and analyzed for US -galactosidase enzyme activity, D-glucose, and lactose. Continuous on-line measurements of optical density of fermentation media were also made. Oscillations in the measured enzyme activity were observed. Oscillatory behavior of US -galactosidase enzyme in E. coli was previously reported by Knorre. In his study cells were grown in D-glucose, washed, and then grown on lactose. Oscillations were attributed to the varying enzyme synthesis rate. In the present study the cells were grown initally on lactose, thus assuring high synthesis rates of US -galactosidase from the start. The oscillations observed after perturbation with glucose are pronounced and appear to be the result of combined changes in the substrate transport system and enzyme activity in addition to possible changes in enzyme synthesis rate. 10 references.

  8. Pulsed Current-Voltage-Induced Perturbations of a Premixed Propane/Air Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob. B. Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of millisecond wide sub-breakdown pulsed voltage-current induced flow perturbation has been measured in premixed laminar atmospheric pressure propane/air flame. The flame equivalence ratios were varied from 0.8 to 1.2 with the flow speeds near 1.1 meter/second. Spatio-temporal flame structure changes were observed through collection of CH (A-X and OH (A-X chemiluminescence and simultaneous spontaneous Raman scattering from N2. This optical collection scheme allows us to obtain a strong correlation between the measured gas temperature and the chemiluminescence intensity, verifying that chemiluminescence images provide accurate measurements of flame reaction zone structure modifications. The experimental results suggest that the flame perturbation is caused by ionic wind originating only from the radial positive space-charge distribution in/near the cathode fall. A net momentum transfer acts along the annular space discharge distribution in the reaction zone at or near the cathode fall which modifies the flow field near the cathodic burner head. This radially inward directed body force appears to enhance mixing similar to a swirl induced modification of the flame structure. The flame fluidic response exhibit a strong dependence on the voltage pulse width ≤10 millisecond.

  9. Invariant Solutions for a Class of Perturbed Nonlinear Wave Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed A. Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Approximate symmetries of a class of perturbed nonlinear wave equations are computed using two newly-developed methods. Invariant solutions associated with the approximate symmetries are constructed for both methods. Symmetries and solutions are compared through discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  10. Perturbation for Frames for a Subspace of a Hilbert Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; deFlicht, C.; Lennard, C.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a classical result stating that a sufficiently small perturbation$\\{ g_i \\}$ of a Riesz sequence $\\{ f_i \\}$ in a Hilbert space $H$ is again a Riesz sequence. It turns out that the analog result for a frame does not holdunless the frame is complete. However, we are able to prove a very...

  11. Spectral properties and stability of perturbed Cartesian product

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash A Dabhi

    property, regularity, weak regularity as well as Ditkin's condition are stable with respect to this product. Keywords. Commutative Banach algebra; perturbed product; spectral extension property; unique uniform norm property; regularity; weak regularity; Ditkin's condition. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 46J05. 1.

  12. Pressure-driven amplification and penetration of resonant magnetic perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loizu, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Hudson, S. R.; Lazerson, S. A.; Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Helander, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    We show that a resonant magnetic perturbation applied to the boundary of an ideal plasma screw-pinch equilibrium with nested surfaces can penetrate inside the resonant surface and into the core. The response is significantly amplified with increasing plasma pressure. We present a rigorous verification of nonlinear equilibrium codes against linear theory, showing excellent agreement.

  13. Impact of environmental perturbation on a tropical fish community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Tissawewa is a tropical reservoir in which annually recurring water level fluctuations are the main source of environmental variations. Aspects of a major perturbation studied related to (i) a progressive water level decrease that ultimately caused the reservoir to (ii) dry completely and a radical

  14. Travelling waves in a singularly perturbed sine-Gordon equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Gianne; Doelman, Arjen; van Gils, Stephanus A.; Visser, T.P.P.

    2003-01-01

    We determine the linearised stability of travelling front solutions of a perturbed sine-Gordon equation. This equation models the long Josephson junction using the RCSJ model for currents across the junction and includes surface resistance for currents along the junction. The travelling waves

  15. Perturbative evolution: a different approach at small x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnachie, A. [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astromony, Manchester (United Kingdom); Landshoff, P.V. [DAMTP, Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-15

    We propose an approach to DGLAP evolution at small x that circumvents the usual problem that a perturbation expansion is not valid there. The data for the charm structure function are important to motivate the method, and it describes them much more successfully than the conventional approach. (orig.)

  16. Perturbation of near-field scan from connected cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    The perturbation of near-fields scan from connected cables are investigated and how to handle the cables is discussed. A connected cable induced small but theoretical detectable changes in the near-field. This change can be seen in Huygens’ box simulations (equivalent source currents on a box) at...

  17. Statistical dynamics of parametrically perturbed sine-square map

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For this purpose, a hybrid optical bistable system, which is a nonlinear ... In general, the perturbation techniques employed in recent times have shown both constructive and destructive impacts on ... report that the transition from conventional period doubling scenario to completely chaotic scenario are intervened by a few ...

  18. An analytical perturbation treatment of the rotating Morse oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga, Jose; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain)], E-mail: zuniga@um.es

    2008-05-28

    An analytical perturbation treatment to determine the energy levels of the rotating Morse oscillator is proposed. The method is based on making an exponential expansion of the rotational term about a suitably chosen internuclear distance r{sub b}, and on solving the equations obtained in this way using analytic perturbation theory. The value of the parameter r{sub b} is chosen as the minimum of the Morse-Pekeris oscillator or as the minimum of the third-order Morse-Pekeris expansion, both of which can be evaluated analytically. The resulting zero-order system is then a modified version of the original Morse-Pekeris oscillator model. The perturbation treatment is carried out using the hypervirial perturbation method and by rearranging the energy corrections in terms of inverse powers of dissociation energy of the zero-order system. The accuracy of the analytical expression derived for the energy levels of the rotating Morse oscillator is checked by making a numerical application to the H{sub 2} molecule.

  19. Adiabatic CMB perturbations in pre-big bang string cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2001-01-01

    We consider the pre-big bang scenario with a massive axion field which starts to dominate energy density when oscillating in an instanton-induced potential and subsequently reheats the universe as it decays into photons, thus creating adiabatic CMB perturbations. We find that the fluctuations in ...

  20. ORBITAL CONNECTIONS FOR PERTURBATION-DEPENDENT BASIS-SETS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jeppe; Bak, Keld L.; Ruud, K.

    1995-01-01

    The use of perturbation-dependent basis sets is analysed with emphasis on the connection between the basis sets at different values of the perturbation strength. A particular connection, the natural connection, that minimizes the change of the basis set orbitals is devised and the second quantiza......The use of perturbation-dependent basis sets is analysed with emphasis on the connection between the basis sets at different values of the perturbation strength. A particular connection, the natural connection, that minimizes the change of the basis set orbitals is devised and the second...... quantization realization of this connection is introduced. It is shown that the natural connection is important for the efficient evaluation of molecular properties and for the physical interpretation of the terms entering the calculated properties. For example, in molecular Hessian calculations the natural...... connection reduces the size of the relaxation term, leading to faster convergence of the response equations. The physical separation of the terms also means that first-order non-adiabatic coupling matrix elements can be obtained in a very simple way from a molecular Hessian calculation....

  1. Auditory feedback perturbation in children with developmental speech disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terband, H.R.; van Brenk, F.J.; van Doornik-van der Zee, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background/purpose: Several studies indicate a close relation between auditory and speech motor functions in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to compensate and adapt for perturbed auditory feedback in children with SSD compared to

  2. Transient Perturbations and their Effects in the Heliosphere, the Geo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In particular, transient perturbations in solar wind plasma, interplanetary magnetic field, and energetic charged ... ysed the cosmic ray, geomagnetic and interplanetary plasma/field data to understand the physical mechanisms of two ... shocks/sheath associated with them. Cosmic ray intensity, in general, is dramatically.

  3. On adiabatic perturbation theory for the energy eigenvalue problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.A.J.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    The adiabatic perturbation formalism is used to derive several alternative expressions for the effective Hamiltonian of a discrete energy level. In the nondegenerate case these expressions may be cast in the form of linked-cluster expansions. The connection between the energy shifts and the

  4. The Poincaré Map of Randomly Perturbed Periodic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitczenko, Pawel; Medvedev, Georgi S.

    2013-10-01

    A system of autonomous differential equations with a stable limit cycle and perturbed by small white noise is analyzed in this work. In the vicinity of the limit cycle of the unperturbed deterministic system, we define, construct, and analyze the Poincaré map of the randomly perturbed periodic motion. We show that the time of the first exit from a small neighborhood of the fixed point of the map, which corresponds to the unperturbed periodic orbit, is well approximated by the geometric distribution. The parameter of the geometric distribution tends to zero together with the noise intensity. Therefore, our result can be interpreted as an estimate of the stability of periodic motion to random perturbations. In addition, we show that the geometric distribution of the first exit times translates into statistical properties of solutions of important differential equation models in applications. To this end, we demonstrate three distinct examples from mathematical neuroscience featuring complex oscillatory patterns characterized by the geometric distribution. We show that in each of these models the statistical properties of emerging oscillations are fully explained by the general properties of randomly perturbed periodic motions identified in this paper.

  5. Breakdown of String Perturbation Theory for Many External Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudip; Raju, Suvrat

    2017-03-31

    We consider massless string scattering amplitudes in a limit where the number of external particles becomes very large, while the energy of each particle remains small. Using the growth of the volume of the relevant moduli space, and by means of independent numerical evidence, we argue that string perturbation theory breaks down in this limit. We discuss some remarkable implications for the information paradox.

  6. Survey of mathematical foundations of QFT and perturbative string theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sati, H.; Schreiber, U.

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen noteworthy progress in the mathematical formulation of quantum field theory and perturbative string theory. We give a brief survey of these developments. It serves as an introduction to the more detailed collection "Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory and

  7. Perturbative Gravity and Gauge Theory Relations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the amazing Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations, connecting perturbative gravity and gauge theories at tree level. The main focus is on n-point derivations and general properties both from a string theory and pure field theory point of view. In particular, the field theory part is based on some very recent developments.

  8. Snippets of Physics-Perturbing Coulomb to Avoid Accidents!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 6. Snippets of Physics - Perturbing Coulomb to Avoid Accidents! T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 14 Issue 6 June 2009 pp 622-629. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. History-Dependent Patterns in Randomly Perturbed Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ranjkesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the characteristics of nematic structures in a randomly perturbed nematic liquid crystal (LC phase. We focus on the impact of the samples history on the universal behavior. The obtained results are of interest for every randomly perturbed system exhibiting a continuous symmetry-breaking phase transition. A semimicroscopic lattice simulation is used where the LC molecules are treated as cylindrically symmetric, rod-like objects interacting via a Lebwohl-Lasher (LL interaction. Pure LC systems exhibit a first order phase transition into the orientationally ordered nematic phase at T=Tc on lowering the temperature T. The orientational ordering of LC molecules is perturbed by the quenched, randomly distributed rod-like impurities of concentration p. Their orientation is randomly distributed, and they are coupled with the LC molecules via an LL-type interaction. Only concentrations below the percolation threshold are considered. The key macroscopic characteristics of perturbed LC structures in the symmetry-broken nematic phase are analyzed for two qualitatively different histories at T≪Tc. We demonstrate that, for a weak enough interaction among the LC molecules and impurities, qualitatively different history-dependent states could be obtained. These states could exhibit either short-range, quasi-long-range, or even long-range order.

  10. Linear response to perturbation of nonexponential renewal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbi, Francesco; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2005-11-25

    We study the linear response of a two-state stochastic process, obeying the renewal condition, by means of a stochastic rate equation equivalent to a master equation with infinite memory. We show that the condition of perennial aging makes the response to coherent perturbation vanish in the long-time limit.

  11. Linear response to perturbation of non-exponential renewal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Barbi, Francesco; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    We study the linear response of a two-state stochastic process, obeying renewal condition, by means of a stochastic rate equation equivalent to a master equation with infinite memory. We show that the condition of perennial aging makes the response to coherent perturbation vanish in the long-time limit.

  12. Multimodal Perturbation Evolution in the Compressible Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Scott; Reckinger, Scott; Hamlington, Peter; Livescu, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Explorations of the miscible, compressible, and single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) have shown that the initial type and strength of the background stratification can have a wide range of effects on the growth of the RTI, such as exaggerated bubble and spike asymmetries and complete growth suppression. These effects arise, in part, because background stratification significantly alters the vorticity dynamics of the system in comparison to the incompressible regime. In order to further understand the effects of background stratification on RTI growth and dynamics, high fidelity wavelet-based direct numerical simulations (WDNS) have been performed for an initially isothermal background state at a variety of stratification strengths, where the RTI is initiated using a multimodal perturbation at low Atwood number (i.e., 0.04). The formulation of the multimodal perturbation is outlined and the temporal evolution of the system is described for different stratification strengths. Preliminary results show that, in addition to the effects seen in the single mode regime, background stratification dampens high frequency perturbations, resulting in only the lower wavelength perturbations surviving until late times.

  13. Perturbated rotational motion of weakly deformable celestial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    The rotation equations of weakly deformable celestial bodies (in canonical and non-canonical Andoyer variables) are developed in detail. A theory of the perturbed rotational motion of an isolated weakly deformable body has been developed. Applications to Earth's rotation theory are given.

  14. Perturbed segmented domain collocation Tau-method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper concerns the numerical solution of second order boundary value problems using a Perturbed segmented domain collocation-Tau method. The entire interval for which the problem is defined is partitioned into two segments and the solution technique is demonstrated on each of the segments. The Chebyshev ...

  15. On some perturbation techniques for quasi-linear parabolic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Malyshev

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a nonhomogeneous quasi-linear parabolic equation and introduce a method that allows us to find the solution of a nonlinear boundary value problem in “explicit” form. This task is accomplished by perturbing the original equation with a source function, which is then found as a solution of some nonlinear operator equation.

  16. Non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolaev, B.I. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Troyan, S.I. [St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Description of hadronic reactions at high energies is conventionally done in the framework of QCD factorization. All factorization convolutions comprise non-perturbative inputs mimicking non-perturbative contributions and perturbative evolution of those inputs. We construct inputs for the gluon-hadron scattering amplitudes in the forward kinematics and, using the optical theorem, convert them into inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons, embracing the cases of polarized and unpolarized hadrons. In the first place, we formulate mathematical criteria which any model for the inputs should obey and then suggest a model satisfying those criteria. This model is based on a simple reasoning: after emitting an active parton off the hadron, the remaining set of spectators becomes unstable and therefore it can be described through factors of the resonance type, so we call it the resonance model. We use it to obtain non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in unpolarized and polarized hadrons for all available types of QCD factorization: basic, K{sub T}-and collinear factorizations. (orig.)

  17. Diagrammatic perturbation methods in networks and sports ranking combinatorics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyong

    2010-04-01

    Analytic and computational tools developed in statistical physics are being increasingly applied to the study of complex networks. Here we present recent developments in the diagrammatic perturbation methods for the exponential random graph models, and apply them to the combinatoric problem of determining the ranking of nodes in directed networks that represent pairwise competitions.

  18. Dalgarno-Lewis perturbation theory for scattering states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx; Fernandez, Francisco M. [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar

    2007-07-23

    We apply the method of Dalgarno and Lewis to scattering states and discuss the choice of the unperturbed model in order to have a convergent perturbation series for the phase shift. We show that a recently proposed approach is a particular case of the method of Dalgarno and Lewis.

  19. Comparison of alternative improved perturbative methods for nonlinear oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico)]. E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx; Raya, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M. [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Diag. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-06-06

    We discuss and compare two alternative perturbation approaches for the calculation of the period of nonlinear systems based on the Lindstedt-Poincare technique. As illustrative examples we choose one-dimensional anharmonic oscillators and the Van der Pol equation. Our results show that each approach is better for just one type of model considered here.

  20. Perturbation method for calculating impurity binding energy in an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nilanjan Sil

    2017-12-18

    Dec 18, 2017 ... Abstract. In the present paper, we have studied the binding energy of the shallow donor hydrogenic impurity, which is confined in an inhomogeneous cylindrical quantum dot (CQD) of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs. Perturbation method is used to calculate the binding energy within the framework of effective mass ...