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Sample records for rapidly repeated minimize

  1. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  2. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–based signaling pathway as a shared target of selection. This suggests evolutionary constraint on adaptive solutions to complex toxicant mixtures at each site. However, distinct molecular variants apparently contribute to adaptive pathway modification among tolerant populations. Selection also targets other toxicity-mediatinggenes and genes of connected signaling pathways; this indicates complex tolerance phenotypes and potentially compensatory adaptations. Molecular changes are consistent with selection on standing genetic variation. In killifish, high nucleotide diversityhas likely been a crucial substrate for selective sweeps to propel rapid adaptation. This manuscript describes genomic evaluations that contribute to our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary risks associated with chronic contaminant exposures to wildlife populations. Here, we assessed genetic patterns associated with long-term response to an important class of highly toxic environmental pollutants. Specifically, chemical-specific tolerance has rapidly and repeatedly evolved in an estuarine fish species resident to estuaries of the Atlantic U.S. coast. We used laboratory studies to ch

  3. Minimal energy interpolation of repeat orbit ground-track gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    If satellites of gravity-field missions are in an repeat orbit, their ground tracks do not sample the surface of the Earth uniformly, but leave large gaps. Usually, these gaps are interpolated by the representation of the gravitational field by surface spherical harmonics. Since surface spherical harmonics are algebraic/trigonometric polynomials, this interpolation tends to oscillate. This contribution starts from the observation, that the gravitational field is best known along the ground tracks. Therefore, a reasonable interpolation strategy should fulfill two requirements: i) Reproduce the measured values along the satellite tracks. ii) Be as smooth as possible between the satellite tracks. The concept of smoothness will be understood as the bending energy of an elastic membrane attached to the measured values along the satellite tracks. It will be shown, that such an interpolation is the solution of a boundary value problem for the biharmonic equation. A finite difference approximation for the biharmonic equation is developed and numerically tested. The biharmonic interpolation turns out to be more reasonable than the Gaussian smoothed spherical harmonics solution.

  4. Rapidly dissolving polymeric microneedles for minimally invasive intraocular drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Raghu Raj Singh; Tekko, Ismaiel A; Al-Shammari, Farhan; Ali, Ahlam A; McCarthy, Helen; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2016-12-01

    In this study, dissolving microneedles (MNs) were used to enhance ocular drug delivery of macromolecules. MNs were fabricated using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer of various molecular weights (MWs) containing three model molecules of increasing MW, namely fluorescein sodium and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans (with MW of 70 k and 150 k Da). Arrays (3 × 3) of PVP MNs with conical shape measuring about 800 μm in height with a 300 μm base diameter, containing the model drugs, were fabricated and characterized for their fracture forces, insertion forces (in the sclera and cornea), depth of penetration (using OCT and confocal imaging), dissolution time and in vitro permeation. The average drug content of the MNs (only in MN shafts) ranged from 0.96 to 9.91 μg, and the average moisture content was below 11 %. High MW PVP produced MNs that can withstand higher forces with minimal reduction in needle height. PVP MNs showed rapid dissolution that ranged from 10 to 180 s, which was dependent upon PVP's MW. In vitro studies showed significant enhancement of macromolecule permeation when MNs were used, across both the corneal and scleral tissues, in comparison to topically applied aqueous solutions. Confocal images showed that the macromolecules formed depots within the tissues, which led to sustained permeation. However, use of MNs did not significantly benefit the permeation of small molecules; nevertheless, MN application has the potential for drug retention within the selected ocular tissues unlike topical application for small molecules. The material used in the fabrication of the MNs was found to be biocompatible with retinal cells (i.e. ARPE-19). Overall, this study reported the design and fabrication of minimally invasive rapidly dissolving polymeric MN arrays which were able to deliver high MW molecules to the eye via the intrastromal or intrascleral route. Thus, dissolving MNs have potential applications in enhancing ocular delivery of both small

  5. Rapid local anesthesia in humans using minimally invasive microneedles.

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    Gupta, Jyoti; Denson, Donald D; Felner, Eric I; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2012-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that minimally invasive microneedles cause less pain during injection of lidocaine, but induce local anesthesia in humans with the same rapid onset and efficacy as intradermal lidocaine injection using hypodermic needles. This study was a randomized, single-blinded, within participants, controlled design. Hollow, 500-μm long microneedles were used to inject lidocaine to the forearm of 15 human participants. The associated pain was recorded using a visual analog (VAS) scale. The area and depth of numbness were determined at 0, 7.5, and 15 minutes after injection. Lidocaine was also injected to the dorsum of the hand near a vein, followed by placement of an intravenous catheter and measurement of associated pain. A 26-gauge intradermal bevel hypodermic needle similarly administered lidocaine on the opposite forearm/hand to serve as the positive control. VAS pain scores revealed that injection using microneedles was significantly less painful than hypodermic needles for both the forearm and dorsum of the hand injections. However, there was no significant difference in the area or depth of the resulting numbness between the 2 treatment methods at any time point (0, 7.5, and 15 min) indicating that microneedles had immediate onset and were as effective as hypodermic needles in inducing dermal anesthesia. Moreover, insertion of an intravenous catheter immediately after lidocaine injection on the dorsum of the hand led to comparable pain scores for the microneedle and hypodermic needle treated sites, further confirming efficacy of microneedles in inducing rapid local anesthesia. Lastly, 77% of the participants preferred microneedles and 80% indicated that they did not consider microneedles to be painful. This study demonstrates for the first time that microneedle-based lidocaine injection is as rapid and as effective as hypodermic injection in inducing local anesthesia while resulting in significantly less pain during injection.

  6. Early initiation of postpartum contraception: does it decrease rapid repeat pregnancy in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Lauren F; Gohari, Amir C; McEvoy, Anna K; Desale, Sameer Y; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2015-02-01

    Rapid repeat adolescent pregnancy is a significant public health concern. An effective and practical means of decreasing unintended second adolescent pregnancies needs to be identified. The objective of this study is to determine if early initiation of contraception, and in particular long acting reversible contraception (LARC), decreases rapid repeat pregnancy among first time adolescent mothers. Retrospective cohort study. Urban teaching hospital. 340 first-time adolescent mothers age ≤ 19. None, study was retrospective. Repeat pregnancy within 2 years. 340 first time adolescent mothers with a documented follow-up time of 2 years had a repeat pregnancy rate of 35%. Average time from delivery to repeat pregnancy was 9.9 ± 6.4 months. Logistic regression analysis comparing adolescents with and without repeat pregnancy revealed that leaving the hospital postpartum without initiating any contraception was associated with significant increase risk of repeat pregnancy (OR = 2.447, 95% CI 1.326-4.515). Follow-up within 8 weeks postpartum was associated with lower chance of repeat pregnancy (OR = 0.322, 95% CI 0.172-0.603). Initiation of a LARC method (either an intrauterine device or etonogestrel subdermal implant) by 8 weeks postpartum was also associated with decreased chance of rapid repeat pregnancy (OR = 0.118, 95% CI 0.035-0.397). Adolescent mothers who initiate a LARC method within 8 weeks of delivery are less likely to have a repeat pregnancy within 2 years than those who choose other methods or no method. First time adolescent mothers should be counseled about this advantage of using LARC. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' foods over rapidly repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Shimojo, R.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Köster, E.P.; Mojet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of the liking for salt reduced products was tested in a rapidly repeated exposure study using soup and bread (with ham). Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. First, 44 consumers performed 5 two-alternative forced choice tests to establish the exchange rate (ER) at

  8. Minimalism

    CERN Document Server

    Obendorf, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    The notion of Minimalism is proposed as a theoretical tool supporting a more differentiated understanding of reduction and thus forms a standpoint that allows definition of aspects of simplicity. This book traces the development of minimalism, defines the four types of minimalism in interaction design, and looks at how to apply it.

  9. Effects of Obstetric Complications on Adolescent Postpartum Contraception and Rapid Repeat Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Gianna L; Leung, Katherine; Kumaraswami, Tara; Barlow, Erin; Moore Simas, Tiffany A

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether complications during pregnancy or at delivery influence postpartum contraception choices and rapid repeat pregnancy rates in adolescent women. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This retrospective cohort study included 321 adolescents delivering at UMASS Memorial Healthcare. Complications during pregnancy and delivery along with subsequent contraception use were investigated. Postpartum contraception choice (long-acting reversible contraception [LARC] vs non-LARC) at either delivery, hospitalization discharge, or at postpartum outpatient appointment, and rapid repeat pregnancy rate (pregnancy confirmed within 12 months of index delivery), were analyzed according to pregnancy complications. Comparisons were made with χ2 and Fisher exact tests for categorical variables, and with Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables. Of the study population, 27.7% (n = 89/321) used LARC in the postpartum period. The LARC and non-LARC patient populations differed significantly regarding history of abortion (P = .029), with no differences in obstetric complications between the groups. Of the population, 16.6% (n = 53/320) became pregnant again within 1 year of their index delivery. Those with a rapid repeat pregnancy had significantly increased gravidity (P = .002), parity (P = .003), number of previous spontaneous or therapeutic abortions (P = .026); they were also more like to have nonlive birth as a complication (P = .028), compared with those without repeat pregnancy. No other obstetrical complications were statistically significantly different between the compared groups. Obstetrical complications seem to have little effect on postpartum contraception choice or repeat pregnancy rate with the notable exception of nonlive birth being associated with rapid repeat pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Minimizing carry-over PCR contamination in expanded CAG/CTG repeat instability applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbach, Lorène; Dion, Vincent

    2017-12-21

    Expanded CAG/CTG repeats underlie the aetiology of 14 neurological and neuromuscular disorders. The size of the repeat tract determines in large part the severity of these disorders with longer tracts causing more severe phenotypes. Expanded CAG/CTG repeats are also unstable in somatic tissues, which is thought to modify disease progression. Routine molecular biology applications involving these repeats, including quantifying their instability, are plagued by low PCR yields. This leads to the need for setting up more PCRs of the same locus, thereby increasing the risk of carry-over contamination. Here we aimed to reduce this risk by pre-treating the samples with a Uracil N-Glycosylase (Ung) and using dUTP instead of dTTP in PCRs. We successfully applied this method to the PCR amplification of expanded CAG/CTG repeats, their sequencing, and their molecular cloning. In addition, we optimized the gold-standard method for measuring repeat instability, small-pool PCR (SP-PCR), such that it can be used together with Ung and dUTP-containing PCRs, without compromising data quality. We performed SP-PCR on myotonic-dystrophy-derived samples containing an expansion as large as 1000 repeats, demonstrating the applicability to clinically-relevant material. Thus, we expect the protocols herein to be applicable for molecular diagnostics of expanded repeat disorders.

  11. Single-step blood direct PCR: A robust and rapid method to diagnose triplet repeat disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inder; Swarup, Vishnu; Shakya, Sunil; Goyal, Vinay; Faruq, Mohammed; Srivastava, Achal Kumar

    2017-08-15

    DNA extraction prior to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification in genetic diagnoses of triplet repeat disorders (TRDs) is tedious and labour-intensive and has the limitations of sample contamination with foreign DNA, including that from preceding samples. Therefore, we aimed to develop a rapid, robust, and cost-effective method for expeditious genetic investigation of TRDs from whole blood as a DNA template. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 70 clinically suspected patients of progressive ataxia. The conventional method using genomic DNA and single-step Blood-Direct PCR (BD-PCR) method with just 2μl of whole blood sample were tested to amplify triplet repeat expansion in genes related to spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 1, 2, 3, 12 and Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Post-PCR, the allele sizes were mapped and repeat numbers were calculated using GeneMapper and macros run in Microsoft Excel programmes. Successful amplification of target regions was achieved in all samples by both methods. The frequency of the normal and mutated allele was concordant between both methods, diagnosing 37% positive for a mutation in either of the candidate genes. The BD-PCR resulted in higher intensities of product peaks of normal and pathogenic alleles. The nearly-accurate sizing of the normal and expanded allele was achieved in a shorter time (4-5h), without DNA extraction and any risk of cross contamination, which suggests the BD-PCR to be a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid method to confirm TRDs. This technique can be introduced in routine diagnostic procedures of other tandem repeat disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preventing rapid repeat pregnancy and promoting positive parenting among young mothers in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Murray, Kantahyanee W; O'Connor, Julia M; Rushovich, Berenice R; Dixon, Desyree A; Barth, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Young mothers in foster care face considerable challenges above and beyond that of their non-foster care peers. Child welfare workers have few resources to guide them in the selection of evidence-informed programs, models, and strategies that address the unique risk factors and needs of youth in foster care who are at risk for rapid repeat pregnancy and inadequate parenting practices. Workers need knowledge of the evidence about which programs are most likely to improve key health and well-being outcomes. The article assesses the evidence-based programs identified and yields a list that reflects the best evidence for efficacy and effectiveness.

  13. Rapid and repeated limb loss in a clade of scincid lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Michael SY

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian scincid clade Lerista provides perhaps the best available model for studying limb reduction in squamates (lizards and snakes, comprising more than 75 species displaying a remarkable variety of digit configurations, from pentadactyl to entirely limbless conditions. We investigated the pattern and rate of limb reduction and loss in Lerista, employing a comprehensive phylogeny inferred from nucleotide sequences for a nuclear intron and six mitochondrial genes. Results The inferred phylogeny reveals extraordinary evolutionary mutability of limb morphology in Lerista. Ancestral state reconstructions indicate at least ten independent reductions in the number of digits from a pentadactyl condition, with a further seven reductions proceeding independently from a tetradactyl condition derived from one of these reductions. Four independent losses of all digits are inferred, three from pentadactyl or tetradactyl conditions. These conclusions are not substantially affected by uncertainty in assumed rates of character state transition or the phylogeny. An estimated age of 13.4 million years for Lerista entails that limb reduction has occurred not only repeatedly, but also very rapidly. At the highest rate, complete loss of digits from a pentadactyl condition is estimated to have occurred within 3.6 million years. Conclusion The exceptionally high frequency and rate of limb reduction inferred for Lerista emphasise the potential for rapid and substantial alteration of body form in squamates. An absence of compelling evidence for reversals of digit loss contrasts with a recent proposal that digits have been regained in some species of the gymnophthalmid clade Bachia, possibly reflecting an influence of differing environmental and genetic contexts on the evolution of limb morphology in these clades. Future study of the genetic, developmental, and ecological bases of limb reduction and loss in Lerista promises the elucidation of

  14. Rapid melting dynamics of an alpine glacier with repeated UAV photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Micol; Di Mauro, Biagio; Garzonio, Roberto; Baccolo, Giovanni; Cavallini, Giuseppe; Mattavelli, Matteo; De Amicis, Mattia; Colombo, Roberto

    2018-03-01

    Glacial retreat is a major problem in the Alps, especially over the past 40 years. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can provide an unparalleled opportunity to track the spatiotemporal variations in rapidly changing glacial morphological features related to glacial dynamics. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of commercial UAV platforms to detect the evolution of the surface topography and morphology of an alpine glacier over a short time scale through the repeated acquisition of high-resolution photogrammetric data. Two high-resolution UAV surveys were performed on the ablation region of the Morteratsch Glacier (Swiss Alps) in July and September 2016. First, structure-from-motion (SfM) techniques were applied to create orthophotos and digital surface models (DSMs) of the glacial surface from multi-view UAV acquisitions. The geometric accuracy of DSMs and orthophotos was checked using differential global navigation satellite system (dGNSS) ground measurements, and an accuracy of approximately 17 cm was achieved for both models. High-resolution orthophotos and DSMs made it possible to provide a detailed characterization of rapidly changing glacial environments. Comparing the data from the first and the second campaigns, the evolution of the lower part of the glacier in response to summer ablation was evaluated. Two distinct processes were revealed and accurately quantified: an average lowering of the surface, with a mean ice thinning of 4 m, and an average horizontal displacement of 3 m due to flowing ice. These data were validated through a comparison of different algorithms and approaches, which clearly showed the consistency of the results. The melt rate spatial patterns were then compared to the glacial brightness and roughness maps derived from the September UAV acquisition. The results showed that the DSM differences describing the glacial melt rates were inversely related to the glacial brightness. In contrast, a positive but weaker

  15. Lessons that Bear Repeating and Repeating that Bears Lessons: An Interdisciplinary Unit on Principles of Minimalism in Modern Music, Art, and Poetry (Grades 4-8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigel, Eric; McDonald, Nan L.

    2012-01-01

    This theory-to-practice article focuses on interdisciplinary classroom activities based on principles of minimalism in modern music, art, and poetry. A lesson sequence was designed for an inner-city Grades 4 and 5 general classroom of English language learners, where the unit was taught, assessed, and documented by the authors. Included in the…

  16. Delayed ischemic electrocortical suppression during rapid repeated cerebral ischemia and kainate-induced seizures in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Spulber, Stefan; Avramescu, Sinziana

    2006-01-01

    Global cerebral ischemia induces, within seconds, suppression of spontaneous electrocortical activity, partly due to alterations in synaptic transmission. In vitro studies have found that repeated brief hypoxic episodes prolong the persistence of synaptic transmission due to weakened adenosine...... hydrate anaesthesia. Repeated episodes of 1 min of ischemia were induced by transiently clamping the carotid arteries in a 'four-vessel occlusion' model. We devised an automatic method of T(ES) estimation based on the decay of the root mean square of two-channel electrocorticographic recordings...... in vitro....

  17. Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ballantyne (Kaye); A. Ralf (Arwin); R. Aboukhalid (Rachid); N.M. Achakzai (Niaz); T. Anjos (Tania); Q. Ayub (Qasim); J. Balažic (Jože); J. Ballantyne (Jack); D.J. Ballard (David); B. Berger (Burkhard); C. Bobillo (Cecilia); M. Bouabdellah (Mehdi); H. Burri (Helen); T. Capal (Tomas); S. Caratti (Stefano); J. Cárdenas (Jorge); F. Cartault (François); E.F. Carvalho (Elizeu); M. de Carvalho (Margarete); B. Cheng (Baowen); M.D. Coble (Michael); D. Comas (David); D. Corach (Daniel); M. D'Amato (Mauro); S. Davison (Sean); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.C.A. de Ungria (Maria Corazon); R. Decorte (Ronny); T. Dobosz (Tadeusz); B.M. Dupuy (Berit); S. Elmrghni (Samir); M. Gliwiński (Mateusz); S.C. Gomes (Sara); L. Grol (Laurens); C. Haas (Cordula); E. Hanson (Erin); J. Henke (Jürgen); L. Henke (Lotte); F. Herrera-Rodríguez (Fabiola); C.R. Hill (Carolyn); G. Holmlund (Gunilla); K. Honda (Katsuya); U.-D. Immel (Uta-Dorothee); S. Inokuchi (Shota); R. Jobling; M. Kaddura (Mahmoud); J.S. Kim (Jong); S.H. Kim (Soon); W. Kim (Wook); T.E. King (Turi); E. Klausriegler (Eva); D. Kling (Daniel); L. Kovačević (Lejla); L. Kovatsi (Leda); P. Krajewski (Paweł); S. Kravchenko (Sergey); M.H.D. Larmuseau (Maarten); E.Y. Lee (Eun Young); R. Lessig (Rüdiger); L.A. Livshits (Ludmila); D. Marjanović (Damir); M. Minarik (Marek); N. Mizuno (Natsuko); H. Moreira (Helena); N. Morling (Niels); M. Mukherjee (Meeta); P. Munier (Patrick); J. Nagaraju (Javaregowda); F. Neuhuber (Franz); S. Nie (Shengjie); P. Nilasitsataporn (Premlaphat); T. Nishi (Takeki); H.H. Oh (Hye); S. Olofsson (Sylvia); V. Onofri (Valerio); J. Palo (Jukka); H. Pamjav (Horolma); W. Parson (Walther); M. Petlach (Michal); C. Phillips (Christopher); R. Ploski (Rafal); S.P.R. Prasad (Samayamantri P.); D. Primorac (Dragan); G.A. Purnomo (Gludhug); J. Purps (Josephine); H. Rangel-Villalobos (Hector); K. Reogonekbała (Krzysztof); B. Rerkamnuaychoke (Budsaba); D.R. Gonzalez (Danel Rey); C. Robino (Carlo); L. Roewer (Lutz); A. de Rosa (Anna); A. Sajantila (Antti); A. Sala (Andrea); J.M. Salvador (Jazelyn); P. Sanz (Paula); C. Schmitt (Christian); A.K. Sharma (Anisha K.); D.A. Silva (Dayse); K.-J. Shin (Kyoung-Jin); T. Sijen (Titia); M. Sirker (Miriam); D. Siváková (Daniela); V. Škaro (Vedrana); C. Solano-Matamoros (Carlos); L. Souto (L.); V. Stenzl (Vlastimil); H. Sudoyo (Herawati); D. Syndercombe-Court (Denise); A. Tagliabracci (Adriano); D. Taylor (Duncan); A. Tillmar (Andreas); I.S. Tsybovsky (Iosif); C. Tyler-Smith (Chris); K. van der Gaag (Kristiaan); D. Vanek (Daniel); A. Völgyi (Antónia); D. Ward (Denise); P. Willemse (Patricia); E.P.H. Yap (Eric); Z-Y. Yong (Ze-Yie); I.Z. Pajnič (Irena Zupanič); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRelevant for various areas of human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used for testing close paternal relationships among individuals and populations, and for male lineage identification. However, even the widely used 17-loci Yfiler set cannot resolve

  18. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary adaptation to toxic pollution in wild fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl h...

  19. Fixing a fractured arthrodesed hip with rapid prototype templating and minimal invasive plate osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available CASE:: We present an elderly lady with an intertrochanteric fracture of a previously fused hip. A 3D printed model of her pelvis and femur was used for implant templating before surgery. Minimal invasive fixation was performed with a spanning reversed distal femur locking plate without the need for removal of the previous implant. Multiple long locking screws were placed in the supra-acetabular region. The patient had union in 4 months, return to function and no complication. Conclusion:: The technique allowed us to optimize implant selection and insert screws safely at difficult trajectories using minimal invasive surgery. Keywords: Hip fusion, Fracture, Plating, Minimal invasive, 3D printing

  20. Transthoracic impedance does not decrease with rapidly repeated countershocks in a swine cardiac arrest model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, James T; Garner, Daniel; Lewis, Roger J

    2003-01-01

    Successful defibrillation is dependent upon the delivery of adequate electrical current to the myocardium. One of the major determinant of current flow is transthoracic impedance. Prior work has suggested that impedance falls with repeated shocks during sinus rhythm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in transthoracic impedance with repeated defibrillation shocks in an animal model of cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation (VF). VF was electrically induced in anesthetized swine. After 5 min of untreated VF, monophasic or biphasic waveform defibrillation was attempted using a standard sequence of 'stacked shocks' (200, 300, then 360 J, if necessary) administered via adhesive electrodes. If one of the first three shocks failed to convert VF, conventional CPR was initiated and defibrillation (360 J) attempted 1 min later. Strength-duration curves for delivered voltage and current were measured during each shock and transthoracic impedance calculated. Animals requiring a minimum of four shocks were selected for study inclusion. Impedance data from sequential shocks were analyzed using mixed linear models to account for the repeated-measures design and the variability of the initial impedance of individual animals. Thirteen animals (monophasic waveform, n=7, biphasic waveform, n=6) required at least four shocks to terminate VF (range 4-6). Transthoracic impedance did not change from the first shock in the 13 animals (46+/-8 Omega) to the fourth shock (46+/-9 Omega). In animals receiving more than four shocks, transthoracic impedance likewise did not change significantly from the first to the last shock, which terminated VF. The lack of a significant change in impedance was also observed when animals were analyzed according to defibrillation waveform. Transthoracic impedance does not change significantly with repeated shocks in a VF cardiac arrest model. This is likely due to the lack of reactive skin and soft tissue hyperemia and edema observed in

  1. Rapid generation of long tandem DNA repeat arrays by homologous recombination in yeast to study their function in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouprina Natalay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe here a method to rapidly convert any desirable DNA fragment, as small as 100 bp, into long tandem DNA arrays up to 140 kb in size that are inserted into a microbe vector. This method includes rolling-circle phi29 amplification (RCA of the sequence in vitro and assembly of the RCA products in vivo by homologous recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The method was successfully used for a functional analysis of centromeric and pericentromeric repeats and construction of new vehicles for gene delivery to mammalian cells. The method may have general application in elucidating the role of tandem repeats in chromosome organization and dynamics. Each cycle of the protocol takes ~ two weeks to complete.

  2. Syncope and hyperCKemia as minimal manifestations of short CTG repeat expansions in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Gencik, Martin; Höftberger, Romana; Rahimi, Jasmin; Mokocki, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    Syncope and palpitations as the only initial manifestations of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1) due to a CTG expansion of 50-100 repeats have not been reported. In a 55-year-old female with a family history of MD1 and a personal history of a single syncope, palpitations, and hyperCKemia, 70 CTG repeats were detected in the DMPK gene. Her brother had presented atypical clinical, electromyographic, and muscle biopsy features since the age of 35 but had been diagnosed with MD1 after he later developed typical distal myotonia. He died suddenly during an episode of syncope at the age of 53. A sister with clinical myotonia died suddenly during sleep at the age of 45 and a second sister with quadriparesis died from complications of intestinal rupture at age 52. A third sister committed suicide at age 40 after developing recurrent syncopes, while a fourth sister had hyperCKemia and foot-extensor weakness. The mother of these five affected children died suddenly from myocardial rupture. MD1 with CTG repeats may exclusively manifest cardiologically. Family screening for MD1 is important even in asymptomatic patients. MD1 may initially manifest without typical features, while muscle biopsy may be misleading and indicate glycogenosis. Close cardiac follow-up is important if MD1 manifests cardiologically to prevent syncope or sudden cardiac death. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Chromosome-Specific DNA Repeats: Rapid Identification in Silico and Validation Using Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization

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    Heinz-Ulrich G. Weier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome enumeration in interphase and metaphase cells using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is an established procedure for the rapid and accurate cytogenetic analysis of cell nuclei and polar bodies, the unambiguous gender determination, as well as the definition of tumor-specific signatures. Present bottlenecks in the procedure are a limited number of commercial, non-isotopically labeled probes that can be combined in multiplex FISH assays and the relatively high price and effort to develop additional probes. We describe a streamlined approach for rapid probe definition, synthesis and validation, which is based on the analysis of publicly available DNA sequence information, also known as “database mining”. Examples of probe preparation for the human gonosomes and chromosome 16 as a selected autosome outline the probe selection strategy, define a timeline for expedited probe production and compare this novel selection strategy to more conventional probe cloning protocols.

  4. Concurrent repeated exposure to 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone and cocaine produce locomotor sensitization with minimal effects on brain monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Robert J; Perrine, Shane A; Baker, Lisa E

    2017-10-14

    Synthetic cathinones, known as "bath salts" on the illicit drug market, pose a significant public health concern. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of several popular constituents of illicit bath salts, produces similar pharmacological actions to cocaine, albeit with greater potency and efficacy. The present study sought to characterize behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated exposure to MDPV alone and in combination with cocaine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one the following four treatments, administered once daily for seven days: 1 mg/kg MDPV, 5 mg/kg cocaine, 1 mg/kg MDPV +5 mg/kg cocaine, or saline. Locomotor activity was assessed for 1 h immediately before and 1 h immediately after injections on days 1 and 6. Brains were harvested 20 min after the final injection on day 7 and brain tissue punches were obtained to determine monoamine content within the anterior striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Drug-induced increases in horizontal activity were significantly greater on treatment day 6 compared to treatment day 1 in all three drug treatment groups in comparison to the saline control group. MDPV produced significantly higher increases in activity compared to either saline or cocaine, although concurrent treatment with MDPV and cocaine produced sub-additive effects. Neurochemical analyses provided no evidence of alterations in total monoamine content following repeated administration of MDPV, cocaine, or the MDPV + COC mixture. Further investigations targeting possible changes in DA receptor sensitivity following repeated exposure to MDPV may help elucidate the mechanistic changes responsible for MDPV-induced behavioral sensitization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Implementation of Rapid Prototyping Tools for Power Loss and Cost Minimization of DC-DC Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta V. Kulkarni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, power loss and cost models of power electronic converters based on converter ratings and datasheet information are presented. These models aid in creating rapid prototypes which facilitate the component selection process. Through rapid prototyping, users can estimate power loss and cost which are essential in design decisions. The proposed approach treats main power electronic components of a converter as building blocks that can be arranged to obtain multiple topologies to facilitate rapid prototyping. In order to get system-level power loss and cost models, two processes are implemented. The first process automatically provides minimum power loss or cost estimates and identifies components for specific applications and ratings; the second process estimates power losses and costs of each component of interest as well as the whole system. Two examples are used to illustrate the proposed approaches—boost and buck converters in continuous conduction mode. Achieved cost and loss estimates are over 93% accurate when compared to measured losses and real cost data. This research presents derivations of the proposed models, experimental validation of the models and demonstration of a user friendly interface that integrates all the models. Tools presented in this paper are expected to be very useful for practicing engineers, designers, and researchers, and are flexible and adaptable with changing or new technologies and varying component prices.

  6. Tissue culture technique for rapid clonal propagation and storage under minimal growth conditions of musa (banana and plantain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, N.; De Langhe, E.

    1985-01-01

    A tissue culture technique for rapid clonal propagation and storage under minimal growth conditions is presented in this paper. Shoot-tip cultures of Musa cultivars (both banana and plantain) are induced by culturing small excised shoot apices on modified MS semisolid medium supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of auxins and cytokinins. The effects of cytokinin concentration in the medium as well as the genotypic configuration of the cultivars on the rate of shoot-bud proliferation have been tested. The established shoot-tip cultures grown on modified MS semisolid medium supplemented with IAA (0.18 mg/l) and Ba (2.30 mg/l) have been successfully stored at 15/sup 0/ C with 1000 lux light intensity up to 13-17 months depending on the cultivar. The cultivars tested in the present investigation seem to vary in their ability to withstand minimal growth temperature. 20 references.

  7. A randomized trial of motivational interviewing and facilitated contraceptive access to prevent rapid repeat pregnancy among adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack; Lutz, Robyn; Osuagwu, Ngozi; Rotz, Dana; Goesling, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Most interventions designed to reduce teen pregnancy rates have not focused on pregnant and/or parenting adolescents. Therefore, a large randomized controlled trial was conducted regarding a motivational interviewing program entitled Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy in a low-income sample of adolescent mothers. This program recommended monthly sessions between a participant and a registered nurse over 18 months. This program also featured facilitated birth control access through transportation assistance and a part-time contraceptive clinic. The impact of this program on rapid repeat pregnancies at 18 months after enrollment was evaluated. Five hundred ninety-eight adolescent females were enrolled from 7 obstetrics-gynecology clinics and 5 postpartum units of a large hospital system in a Midwestern city. Each participant was enrolled at least 28 weeks pregnant or less than 9 weeks postpartum. Each participant was randomized to either the Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy intervention or a usual-care control condition. Intervention participants averaged 4.5 hours of assistance. Participants were contacted by blinded research staff at 6 and 18 months to complete self-report surveys. Differences in outcomes between the intervention and control groups were assessed using ordinary least-squares regression. There was an 18.1% absolute reduction in self-reported repeat pregnancy in the intervention group relative to the control group (20.5% vs 38.6%%; P Pregnancy program represents one of the few evidence-based interventions to reduce rapid repeat teen pregnancy. This relatively brief intervention may be a viable alternative to more time-intensive programs that adolescent mothers may be unable or unwilling to receive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A minimal model for the mitochondrial rapid mode of Ca²+ uptake mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason N Bazil

    Full Text Available Mitochondria possess a remarkable ability to rapidly accumulate and sequester Ca²⁺. One of the mechanisms responsible for this ability is believed to be the rapid mode (RaM of Ca²⁺ uptake. Despite the existence of many models of mitochondrial Ca²⁺ dynamics, very few consider RaM as a potential mechanism that regulates mitochondrial Ca²⁺ dynamics. To fill this gap, a novel mathematical model of the RaM mechanism is developed herein. The model is able to simulate the available experimental data of rapid Ca²⁺ uptake in isolated mitochondria from both chicken heart and rat liver tissues with good fidelity. The mechanism is based on Ca²⁺ binding to an external trigger site(s and initiating a brief transient of high Ca²⁺ conductivity. It then quickly switches to an inhibited, zero-conductive state until the external Ca²⁺ level is dropped below a critical value (∼100-150 nM. RaM's Ca²⁺- and time-dependent properties make it a unique Ca²⁺ transporter that may be an important means by which mitochondria take up Ca²⁺ in situ and help enable mitochondria to decode cytosolic Ca²⁺ signals. Integrating the developed RaM model into existing models of mitochondrial Ca²⁺ dynamics will help elucidate the physiological role that this unique mechanism plays in mitochondrial Ca²⁺-homeostasis and bioenergetics.

  9. A GAA repeat expansion reporter model of Friedreich's ataxia recapitulates the genomic context and allows rapid screening of therapeutic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufino, Michele M P; Silva, Ana M; Németh, Andrea H; Alegre-Abarrategui, Javier; Russell, Angela J; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2013-12-20

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by large GAA expansions in intron 1 of the frataxin gene (FXN), which lead to reduced FXN expression through a mechanism not fully understood. Understanding such mechanism is essential for the identification of novel therapies for FRDA and this can be accelerated by the development of cell models which recapitulate the genomic context of the FXN locus and allow direct comparison of normal and expanded FXN loci with rapid detection of frataxin levels. Here we describe the development of the first GAA-expanded FXN genomic DNA reporter model of FRDA. We modified BAC vectors carrying the whole FXN genomic DNA locus by inserting the luciferase gene in exon 5a of the FXN gene (pBAC-FXN-Luc) and replacing the six GAA repeats present in the vector with an ∼310 GAA repeat expansion (pBAC-FXN-GAA-Luc). We generated human clonal cell lines carrying the two vectors using site-specific integration to allow direct comparison of normal and expanded FXN loci. We demonstrate that the presence of expanded GAA repeats recapitulates the epigenetic modifications and repression of gene expression seen in FRDA. We applied the GAA-expanded reporter model to the screening of a library of novel small molecules and identified one molecule which up-regulates FXN expression in FRDA patient primary cells and restores normal histone acetylation around the GAA repeats. These results suggest the potential use of genomic reporter cell models for the study of FRDA and the identification of novel therapies, combining physiologically relevant expression with the advantages of quantitative reporter gene expression.

  10. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH)-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Radke, Brittany; Findley, Seth; Abernathy, Brian; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-04-07

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2-4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species. Copyright © 2016 Iwata-Otsubo et al.

  11. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  12. Rapid ambulation and range of motion after minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanavalee, Aree; Thiengwittayaporn, Satit; Ngarmukos, Srihatach

    2004-09-01

    The authors evaluated the intraoperative data and early clinical results of 22 minimally invasive mini-incision total knee arthroplasties (mini-incision TKAs) performed between October 2002 and September 2003. Results were matched with 22 patients who underwent standard TKA in the same period. At a minimum 12-week follow up, results comparing the mini-incision TKA group and the standard TKA group were evaluated as follows: The average operative time was 137.1 vs 115.8min (p=0.02), the average wound length was 9.4 vs 13.7 cm, the average blood loss was 456 vs 512 ml (p=0.14) and the number of patients who could start to walk on postoperative day one was 17 vs 2. On postoperative day one, 82% of the mini-incision TKA group could do active knee extension meanwhile none of the standard group could. Postoperative pain score was not different at 24 hours or 48 hours. At 2 and6 weeks, the mini-incision TKA group had less pain with significant difference (p=0.002 and p=0.002). The postoperative range of motion in the mini-incision group was also significantly improved at 2 weeks (p=0.03). However, pain and range of motion were not different in both groups after 12 weeks. Early results of mini-incision TKA accelerated patient postoperative activity, ambulation and range of motion.

  13. The regeneration capacity of the flatworm Macrostomum lignano--on repeated regeneration, rejuvenation, and the minimal size needed for regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, B; Ladurner, P; Nimeth, K; Gschwentner, R; Rieger, R

    2006-10-01

    The lion's share of studies on regeneration in Plathelminthes (flatworms) has been so far carried out on a derived taxon of rhabditophorans, the freshwater planarians (Tricladida), and has shown this group's outstanding regeneration capabilities in detail. Sharing a likely totipotent stem cell system, many other flatworm taxa are capable of regeneration as well. In this paper, we present the regeneration capacity of Macrostomum lignano, a representative of the Macrostomorpha, the basal-most taxon of rhabditophoran flatworms and one of the most basal extant bilaterian protostomes. Amputated or incised transversally, obliquely, and longitudinally at various cutting levels, M. lignano is able to regenerate the anterior-most body part (the rostrum) and any part posterior of the pharynx, but cannot regenerate a head. Repeated regeneration was observed for 29 successive amputations over a period of almost 12 months. Besides adults, also first-day hatchlings and older juveniles were shown to regenerate after transversal cutting. The minimum number of cells required for regeneration in adults (with a total of 25,000 cells) is 4,000, including 160 neoblasts. In hatchlings only 1,500 cells, including 50 neoblasts, are needed for regeneration. The life span of untreated M. lignano was determined to be about 10 months.

  14. The regeneration capacity of the flatworm Macrostomum lignano—on repeated regeneration, rejuvenation, and the minimal size needed for regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladurner, P.; Nimeth, K.; Gschwentner, R.; Rieger, R.

    2006-01-01

    The lion’s share of studies on regeneration in Plathelminthes (flatworms) has been so far carried out on a derived taxon of rhabditophorans, the freshwater planarians (Tricladida), and has shown this group’s outstanding regeneration capabilities in detail. Sharing a likely totipotent stem cell system, many other flatworm taxa are capable of regeneration as well. In this paper, we present the regeneration capacity of Macrostomum lignano, a representative of the Macrostomorpha, the basal-most taxon of rhabditophoran flatworms and one of the most basal extant bilaterian protostomes. Amputated or incised transversally, obliquely, and longitudinally at various cutting levels, M. lignano is able to regenerate the anterior-most body part (the rostrum) and any part posterior of the pharynx, but cannot regenerate a head. Repeated regeneration was observed for 29 successive amputations over a period of almost 12 months. Besides adults, also first-day hatchlings and older juveniles were shown to regenerate after transversal cutting. The minimum number of cells required for regeneration in adults (with a total of 25,000 cells) is 4,000, including 160 neoblasts. In hatchlings only 1,500 cells, including 50 neoblasts, are needed for regeneration. The life span of untreated M. lignano was determined to be about 10 months. PMID:16604349

  15. Repeated Administration of Korea Red Ginseng Extract Increases Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep via GABAAergic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Il; Kim, Chung-Soo; Han, Jin-Yi; Oh, Eun-Hye; Oh, Ki-Wan; Eun, Jae Soon

    2012-10-01

    The current inquiry was conducted to assess the change in sleep architecture after long periods of administration to determine whether ginseng can be used in the therapy of sleeplessness. Following post-surgical recovery, red ginseng extract (RGE, 200 mg/ kg) was orally administrated to rats for 9 d. Data were gathered on the 1st, 5th, and 9th day, and an electroencephalogram was recorded 24 h after RGE administration. Polygraphic signs of unobstructed sleep-wake activities were simultaneously recorded with sleep-wake recording electrodes from 11:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. for 6 h. Rodents were generally tamed to freely moving polygraphic recording conditions. Although the 1st and 5th day of RGE treatment showed no effect on power densities in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the 9th day of RGE administration showed augmented α-wave (8.0 to 13.0 Hz) power densities in NREM and REM sleep. RGE increased total sleep and NREM sleep. The total percentage of wakefulness was only decreased on the 9th day, and the number of sleep-wake cycles was reduced after the repeated administration of RGE. Thus, the repeated administration of RGE increased NREM sleep in rats. The α-wave activities in the cortical electroencephalograms were increased in sleep architecture by RGE. Moreover, the levels of both α- and β-subunits of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor were reduced in the hypothalamus of the RGE-treated groups. The level of glutamic acid decarboxylase was over-expressed in the hypothalamus. These results demonstrate that RGE increases NREM sleep via GABAAergic systems.

  16. Rapid and repeatable fabrication of high A/R silk fibroin microneedles using thermally-drawn micromolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JiYong; Park, Seung Hyun; Seo, Il Ho; Lee, Kang Ju; Ryu, WonHyoung

    2015-08-01

    Thermal drawing is a versatile rapid prototyping method that can freely form microneedle (MN) structures with ultra-high aspect ratio without relying on any complex and expensive process. However, it is still challenging to repeatedly produce MNs with identical shapes using this thermal drawing due to small fluctuations in processing conditions such as temperatures, drawing speeds, drawing heights, or parallelism in the drawing setup. In addition, thermal drawing is only applicable to thermoplastic materials and most natural biomaterials are incompatible with this method. Thus, we propose use of thermal drawing to fabricate master molds with high aspect ratios and replicate the shape by micromolding. In this work, high A/R MNs with various body profiles were fabricated by thermal drawing and replicated to silk fibroin (SF) MNs multiple times using micromolding. The original MN shape was precisely copied to the SF MNs. Methanol treatment enhanced the mechanical strength of SF MNs up to about 113% more depending on the treatment duration. We also demonstrated that methanol exposure time could effectively control drug release rates from SF MNs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Is off-label repeat prescription of ketamine as a rapid antidepressant safe? Controversies, ethical concerns, and legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn W; Harris, Keith M; Ho, Roger C

    2016-01-14

    Depressive disorders are a common form of psychiatric illness and cause significant disability. Regulation authorities, the medical profession and the public require high safety standards for antidepressants to protect vulnerable psychiatric patients. Ketamine is a dissociative anaesthetic and a derivative of a hallucinogen (phencyclidine). Its abuse is a major worldwide public health problem. Ketamine is a scheduled drug and its usage is restricted due to its abuse liability. Recent clinical trials have reported that ketamine use led to rapid antidepressant effects in patients suffering from treatment-resistant depression. However, various flaws in study designs, and possible biased reporting of results, may have influenced those findings. Further analyses of ketamine use are needed to ensure patient safety. The use of ketamine in research and treatment of depressive disorders is controversial. Recently, mental health professionals raised ethical concerns about an ongoing ketamine trial in the UK. Also, a Canadian agency reviewed the existing evidence and did not recommend prescribing ketamine to treat depressive disorders. Findings obtained from tightly controlled research settings cannot be easily translated to clinical practice as substance abuse is commonly comorbid with depressive disorders. An effective antidepressant should reduce severity of depressive symptoms without liability problems. Although the US FDA has not approved the use of ketamine to treat depressive disorders, some psychiatrists offer off-label repeat prescription of ketamine. Prescribing ketamine for treating depressive disorders requires substantial empirical evidence. Clinicians should also consider research findings on ketamine abuse. Depressive disorders can be chronic conditions and the current evidence does not rule out the risk of substance abuse after repeat prescription of ketamine. Off-label ketamine use in treating depressive disorders may breach ethical and moral standards

  18. Geochemical effects of rapid sedimentation in aquatic systems: Minimal diagenesis and the preservation of historical metal signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, E.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid sedimentation exerts a pronounced influence on early sedimentary diagenesis in that there is insufficient time for a sediment particle to equilibrate in any one sediment layer before that layer may be displaced vertically by another layer. These sedimentation patterns are common in surface-water reservoirs whose sedimentation rates (1-10 cm yr-1) are several orders of magnitude greater than those for natural lakes (0.01-0.5 cm yr-1). Two examples of the effects of rapid sedimentation on geochemical metal signatures are presented here. Interstitial-water data (Fe) from two sites in the Cheyenne River Embayment of Lake Oahe on the Missouri River illustrate the effects of changing sedimentation rates on dissolved species. Rapid burial during high-flow yrs appears to limit early sedimentary diagenesis to aerobic respiration. Solid-phase metal data (Pb) from a site in Pueblo Reservoir on the upper Arkansas River in Colorado appear to record historical releases by flooding of abandoned mine sites upstream in Leadville, Colorado. Interstitial-water ammonia and ferrous Fe data indicate that at least one interval at depth in the sediment where solid metal concentrations peak is a zone of minimal diagenesis. The principal diagenetic reactions that occur in these sediments are aerobic respiration and the reduction of Mn and Fe oxides. Under slower sedimentation conditions, there is sufficient time for particulate organic matter to decompose and create a diagenetic environment where metal oxides may not be stable. The quasi-steady-state interstitial Fe profiles from Tidal Potomac River sediments are an example of such a situation. This occurs primarily because the residence time of particles in the surficial sediment column is long enough to allow benthic organisms and bacteria to perform their metabolic functions. When faster sedimentation prevails, there is less time for these metabolic reactions to occur since the organisms do not occupy a sediment layer for any

  19. Repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant whole blood and oral fluid rapid HIV test results: findings from post marketing surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G Wesolowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB, immunofluorescent assay (IFA or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result, repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. METHODOLOGY: Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6% were reactive: of these, 2417 (93% had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7% had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52% persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19% were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81% were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative (p<0.001 and having an initial oral fluid WB (vs. serum (p<0.001. Persons who had male-female sex (vs. male-male sex were at increased risk for not having a repeat test [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9]. CONCLUSIONS: Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for

  20. Form and function of damselfish skulls: rapid and repeated evolution into a limited number of trophic niches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W James; Westneat, Mark W

    2009-01-01

    biomechanically defined link between structure and the functional ecology of fish skulls, and indicate that certain mechanisms for transmitting motion through their jaw linkages may require particular anatomical configurations, a conclusion that contravenes the concept of "many-to-one mapping" for fish jaw mechanics. Damselfish trophic evolution is characterized by rapid and repeated shifts between a small number of eco-morphological states, an evolutionary pattern that we describe as reticulate adaptive radiation. PMID:19183467

  1. Form and function of damselfish skulls: rapid and repeated evolution into a limited number of trophic niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper W James

    2009-01-01

    data support a tight and biomechanically defined link between structure and the functional ecology of fish skulls, and indicate that certain mechanisms for transmitting motion through their jaw linkages may require particular anatomical configurations, a conclusion that contravenes the concept of "many-to-one mapping" for fish jaw mechanics. Damselfish trophic evolution is characterized by rapid and repeated shifts between a small number of eco-morphological states, an evolutionary pattern that we describe as reticulate adaptive radiation.

  2. Repeated injections of D-Amphetamine evoke rapid and dynamic changesin phase synchrony between the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNGWOO eAHN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Repeated drug use evokes a number of persistent alterations in oscillatory power and synchrony. How synchronous activity in cortico-hippocampal circuits is progressively modified with repeated drug exposure, however, remains to be characterized. Drugs of abuse induce both short-term and long-term adaptations in cortical and hippocampal circuits and these changes are likely important for the expression of the altered behavioral and neurobiological phenotype associated with addiction. The present study explores how the initial (up to one hour pharmacological response to D-Amphetamine (AMPH is altered with repeated injections in the rat. The methods employed herein allow for the progressive changes in synchronized dynamics with repeated intermittent AMPH exposure to be characterized over short time scales (minutes. Specifically, we examined the temporal variations of phase-locking strength in delta and theta bands within the prefrontal cortex (PFC and between PFC and hippocampus (HC shortly after drug injection. After the first injection of AMPH synchrony increased within the PFC in the delta band, which was followed, by an increase in theta synchrony between the PFC and HC several minutes later. This relationship switched after repeated AMPH injections, where increases in theta synchrony between the PFC and HC preceded increases in delta synchrony in the PFC. The time-course of increases in synchronous activity were negatively correlated between the PFC delta and the PFC-HC theta. Collectively these data highlight the potential role of PFC-HC circuits in the development of addiction and outline dynamic changes in the time-course that cortico-hippocampal circuits become synchronized with repeated AMPH exposure.

  3. Use of rapid HIV assays as supplemental tests in specimens with repeatedly reactive screening immunoassay results not confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Delaney, Kevin P; Meyer, William A; Blatt, Amy J; Bennett, Berry; Chavez, Pollyanna; Granade, Timothy C; Owen, Michele

    2013-09-01

    An alternate HIV testing algorithm has been proposed which includes a fourth-generation immunoassay followed by an HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation supplemental test for reactive specimens and a nucleic acid test (NAT) for specimens with discordant results. To evaluate the performance of five rapid tests (Alere Clearview, Bio-Rad Multispot, OraSure OraQuick, MedMira Reveal, and Trinity Biotech Unigold) as the supplemental antibody assay in the algorithm. A total of 3273 serum and plasma specimens that were third-generation immunoassay repeatedly reactive and Western blot (WB) negative or indeterminate were tested with rapid tests and NAT. Specimens were classified by NAT: (1) HIV-1 infected (NAT-reactive; n=184, 5.6%), (2) HIV-status unknown (NAT nonreactive; n=3078, 94.2%) or by Multispot, (3) HIV-2 positive (n=5), and (4) HIV-1 and HIV-2 positive (n=6). Excluding HIV-2 positive specimens, we calculated the proportion of reactive rapid tests among specimens with reactive and nonreactive NAT. The proportion of infected specimens with reactive rapid test results and negative or indeterminate WB ranged from 30.4% (56) to 47.8% (88) depending on the rapid test. From 1% to 2% of NAT-negative specimens had reactive rapid test results. In these diagnostically challenging specimens, all rapid tests identified infections that were missed by the Western blot, but only Multispot could differentiate HIV-1 from HIV-2. Regardless of which rapid test is used as a supplemental test in the alternative algorithm, false-positive algorithm results (i.e., reactive screening and rapid test in uninfected person) may occur, which will need to be resolved during the baseline medical evaluation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Rapid and Longer-Term Antidepressant Effects of Repeated Ketamine Infusions in Treatment-Resistant Major Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murrough, James W.; Perez, Andrew M.; Pillemer, Sarah; Stern, Jessica; Parides, Michael K.; aan het Rot, Marije; Collins, Katherine A.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Charney, Dennis S.; Iosifescu, Dan V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ketamine is reported to have rapid antidepressant effects; however, there is limited understanding of the time-course of ketamine effects beyond a single infusion. A previous report including 10 participants with treatment-resistant major depression (TRD) found that six ketamine

  5. When evolution is the solution to pollution: Key principles, and lessons from rapid repeated adaptation of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    For most species, evolutionary adaptation is not expected to be sufficiently rapid to buffer the effects of human-mediated environmental changes. Yet large persistent populations of small bodied fish residing in some of the most contaminated estuaries of the US have provided some...

  6. Cost-effectiveness of a motivational intervention to reduce rapid repeated childbearing in high-risk adolescent mothers: a rebirth of economic and policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnet, Beth; Rapp, Thomas; DeVoe, Margo; Mullins, C Daniel

    2010-04-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of an intervention that successfully reduced rapid repeated births within 2 years of an index birth to adolescent mothers. Randomized, controlled trial conducted from February 2003 to October 2007. Home-based intervention with participants recruited from 5 urban clinics that provide care to low-income African American communities. Two hundred thirty-five pregnant teenagers (n = 235) aged 18 years or younger who were at 24 or more weeks of gestation at recruitment were followed up for 27 months. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care (n = 68) or 1 of 2 home-based interventions conducted by community outreach workers: (1) computer-assisted motivational intervention (CAMI) conducted quarterly with additional visits (CAMI+ [n = 80]) or (2) CAMI only (n = 87), a single-component motivational intervention conducted quarterly. Additional births by 24 months post partum determined from birth certificates, total and weighted mean intervention costs, cost per participant, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, defined as cost per prevented repeated birth. Relative to usual care, CAMI significantly reduced repeated births (adjusted odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.97). Mean intervention costs per adolescent were $2064, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios per prevented repeated birth of $21 895 (unadjusted), $17 388 (adjusted), and $13 687 for a high-risk subgroup termed newly insured (eligible for but not enrolled in public insurance). The CAMI costs and cost-effectiveness compare favorably with other effective programs aimed at preventing repeated teenage births. Replication of these results in broader samples of adolescents would provide policy guidance for what works, for whom, and at what cost.

  7. When evolution is the solution to pollution: Key principles, and lessons from rapid repeated adaptation of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Andrew; Clark, Bryan W.; Reid, Noah M.; Hahn, Mark E.; Nacci, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract For most species, evolutionary adaptation is not expected to be sufficiently rapid to buffer the effects of human‐mediated environmental changes, including environmental pollution. Here we review how key features of populations, the characteristics of environmental pollution, and the genetic architecture underlying adaptive traits, may interact to shape the likelihood of evolutionary rescue from pollution. Large populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) persist in som...

  8. An active immune defense with a minimal CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) RNA and without the Cas6 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Stachler, Aris-Edda; Saunders, Sita J; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

    2015-02-13

    The prokaryotic immune system CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) is a defense system that protects prokaryotes against foreign DNA. The short CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are central components of this immune system. In CRISPR-Cas systems type I and III, crRNAs are generated by the endonuclease Cas6. We developed a Cas6b-independent crRNA maturation pathway for the Haloferax type I-B system in vivo that expresses a functional crRNA, which we termed independently generated crRNA (icrRNA). The icrRNA is effective in triggering degradation of an invader plasmid carrying the matching protospacer sequence. The Cas6b-independent maturation of the icrRNA allowed mutation of the repeat sequence without interfering with signals important for Cas6b processing. We generated 23 variants of the icrRNA and analyzed them for activity in the interference reaction. icrRNAs with deletions or mutations of the 3' handle are still active in triggering an interference reaction. The complete 3' handle could be removed without loss of activity. However, manipulations of the 5' handle mostly led to loss of interference activity. Furthermore, we could show that in the presence of an icrRNA a strain without Cas6b (Δcas6b) is still active in interference. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. An Active Immune Defense with a Minimal CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) RNA and without the Cas6 Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Stachler, Aris-Edda; Saunders, Sita J.; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic immune system CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) is a defense system that protects prokaryotes against foreign DNA. The short CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are central components of this immune system. In CRISPR-Cas systems type I and III, crRNAs are generated by the endonuclease Cas6. We developed a Cas6b-independent crRNA maturation pathway for the Haloferax type I-B system in vivo that expresses a functional crRNA, which we termed independently generated crRNA (icrRNA). The icrRNA is effective in triggering degradation of an invader plasmid carrying the matching protospacer sequence. The Cas6b-independent maturation of the icrRNA allowed mutation of the repeat sequence without interfering with signals important for Cas6b processing. We generated 23 variants of the icrRNA and analyzed them for activity in the interference reaction. icrRNAs with deletions or mutations of the 3′ handle are still active in triggering an interference reaction. The complete 3′ handle could be removed without loss of activity. However, manipulations of the 5′ handle mostly led to loss of interference activity. Furthermore, we could show that in the presence of an icrRNA a strain without Cas6b (Δcas6b) is still active in interference. PMID:25512373

  10. System for Rapid, Precise Modulation of Intraocular Pressure, toward Minimally-Invasive In Vivo Measurement of Intracranial Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Stockslager

    Full Text Available Pathologic changes in intracranial pressure (ICP are commonly observed in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and glaucoma. However, current ICP measurement techniques are invasive, requiring a lumbar puncture or surgical insertion of a cannula into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-filled ventricles of the brain. A potential alternative approach to ICP measurement leverages the unique anatomy of the central retinal vein, which is exposed to both intraocular pressure (IOP and ICP as it travels inside the eye and through the optic nerve; manipulating IOP while observing changes in the natural pulsations of the central retinal vein could potentially provide an accurate, indirect measure of ICP. As a step toward implementing this technique, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a system that is capable of manipulating IOP in vivo with <0.1 mmHg resolution and settling times less than 2 seconds. In vitro tests were carried out to characterize system performance. Then, as a proof of concept, we used the system to manipulate IOP in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri while video of the retinal vessels was recorded and the caliber of a selected vein was quantified. Modulating IOP using our system elicited a rapid change in the appearance of the retinal vein of interest: IOP was lowered from 10 to 3 mmHg, and retinal vein caliber sharply increased as IOP decreased from 7 to 5 mmHg. Another important feature of this technology is its capability to measure ocular compliance and outflow facility in vivo, as demonstrated in tree shrews. Collectively, these proof-of-concept demonstrations support the utility of this system to manipulate IOP for a variety of useful applications in ocular biomechanics, and provide a framework for further study of the mechanisms of retinal venous pulsation.

  11. 5′CAG and 5′CTG Repeats Create Differential Impediment to the Progression of a Minimal Reconstituted T4 Replisome Depending on the Concentration of dNTPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Delagoutte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Instability of repetitive sequences originates from strand misalignment during repair or replicative DNA synthesis. To investigate the activity of reconstituted T4 replisomes across trinucleotide repeats (TNRs during leading strand DNA synthesis, we developed a method to build replication miniforks containing a TNR unit of defined sequence and length. Each minifork consists of three strands, primer, leading strand template, and lagging strand template with a 5′ single-stranded (ss tail. Each strand is prepared independently, and the minifork is assembled by hybridization of the three strands. Using these miniforks and a minimal reconstituted T4 replisome, we show that during leading strand DNA synthesis, the dNTP concentration dictates which strand of the structure-forming 5′CAG/5′CTG repeat creates the strongest impediment to the minimal replication complex. We discuss this result in the light of the known fluctuation of dNTP concentration during the cell cycle and cell growth and the known concentration balance among individual dNTPs.

  12. Repeatability and Minimal Detectable Change in Longitudinal Median Nerve Excursion Measures During Upper Limb Neurodynamic Techniques in a Mixed Population: A Pilot Study Using Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Philippe; Lamontagne, Martin; Higgins, Johanne; Gagnon, Dany H

    2015-07-01

    This study determined test-retest reliability and minimum detectable change in longitudinal median nerve excursion during upper limb neurodynamic tests (ULNTs). Seven participants with unilateral or bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 healthy participants were randomly tested with two ULNTs (i.e., tensioner and slider). Each ULNT was performed three times each at 45° and 90° of shoulder abduction on two separate visits. Video sequences of median nerve excursion, recorded by a physical therapist using ultrasound imaging, were quantified using computer software. The generalizability theory, encompassing a G-Study and a D-study, measured the dependability coefficient (Φ) along with standard error of measurement (SEM) accuracy and allowed various testing protocols to be proposed. The highest reliability (Φ = 0.84) and lowest minimal measurement error (SEM = 0.58 mm) of the longitudinal median nerve excursion were reached during the ULNT-slider performed with 45° of shoulder abduction and when measures obtained from three different image sequences recorded during a single visit were averaged. It is recommended that longitudinal median nerve excursion measures computed from three separate image sequences recorded during a single visit be averaged in clinical practice. Ideally, adding a second visit (six image sequences) is also suggested in research protocols. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Coffee consumption rapidly reduces background DNA strand breaks in healthy humans: Results of a short-term repeated uptake intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuradze, Tamara; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas; Schipp, Dorothea; Galan, Jens; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2016-03-01

    Intervention studies provide evidence that long-term coffee consumption correlates with reduced DNA background damage in healthy volunteers. Here, we report on short-term kinetics of this effect, showing a rapid onset after normal coffee intake. In a short-term human intervention study, we determined the effects of coffee intake on DNA integrity during 8 h. Healthy male subjects ingested coffee in 200 mL aliquots every second hour up to a total volume of 800 mL. Blood samples were taken at baseline, immediately before the first coffee intake and subsequently every 2 h, prior to the respective coffee intake. DNA integrity was assayed by the comet assay. The results show a significant (p coffee intake. Continued coffee intake was associated with further decrements in background DNA damage within the 8 h intervention (p coffee consumption). Repeated coffee consumption was associated with reduced background DNA strand breakage, clearly measurable as early as 2 h after first intake resulting in a cumulative overall reduction by about one-third of the baseline value. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Minimizing the extra-oral time in autogeneous tooth transplantation: use of computer-aided rapid prototyping (CARP as a duplicate model tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Jong Lee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The maintenance of the healthy periodontal ligament cells of the root surface of donor tooth and intimate surface contact between the donor tooth and the recipient bone are the key factors for successful tooth transplantation. In order to achieve these purposes, a duplicated donor tooth model can be utilized to reduce the extra-oral time using the computer-aided rapid prototyping (CARP technique. Materials and Methods Briefly, a three-dimensional digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM image with the real dimensions of the donor tooth was obtained from a computed tomography (CT, and a life-sized resin tooth model was fabricated. Dimensional errors between real tooth, 3D CT image model and CARP model were calculated. And extra-oral time was recorded during the autotransplantation of the teeth. Results The average extra-oral time was 7 min 25 sec with the range of immediate to 25 min in cases which extra-oral root canal treatments were not performed while it was 9 min 15 sec when extra-oral root canal treatments were performed. The average radiographic distance between the root surface and the alveolar bone was 1.17 mm and 1.35 mm at mesial cervix and apex; they were 0.98 mm and 1.26 mm at the distal cervix and apex. When the dimensional errors between real tooth, 3D CT image model and CARP model were measured in cadavers, the average of absolute error was 0.291 mm between real teeth and CARP model. Conclusions These data indicate that CARP may be of value in minimizing the extra-oral time and the gap between the donor tooth and the recipient alveolar bone in tooth transplantation.

  15. Two populations of amphibole in dacite magmas at Volcan Aucanquilcha, Chile: A case for rapid and repeated mixing of a tiered magmatic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetti, E. W.; Grunder, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    hornblende are rapid and repeatable throughout the history of the volcano. This could be the result of a well- established magmatic conduit system in thermally matured continental crust.

  16. Disease-associated CAG·CTG triplet repeats expand rapidly in non-dividing mouse cells, but cell cycle arrest is insufficient to drive expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Pereira, Mário; Hilley, James D; Morales, Fernando; Adam, Berit; James, Helen E; Monckton, Darren G

    2014-06-01

    Genetically unstable expanded CAG·CTG trinucleotide repeats are causal in a number of human disorders, including Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy type 1. It is still widely assumed that DNA polymerase slippage during replication plays an important role in the accumulation of expansions. Nevertheless, somatic mosaicism correlates poorly with the proliferative capacity of the tissue and rates of cell turnover, suggesting that expansions can occur in the absence of replication. We monitored CAG·CTG repeat instability in transgenic mouse cells arrested by chemical or genetic manipulation of the cell cycle and generated unequivocal evidence for the continuous accumulation of repeat expansions in non-dividing cells. Importantly, the rates of expansion in non-dividing cells were at least as high as those of proliferating cells. These data are consistent with a major role for cell division-independent expansion in generating somatic mosaicism in vivo. Although expansions can accrue in non-dividing cells, we also show that cell cycle arrest is not sufficient to drive instability, implicating other factors as the key regulators of tissue-specific instability. Our data reveal that de novo expansion events are not limited to S-phase and further support a cell division-independent mutational pathway. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Low-pass shotgun sequencing of the barley genome facilitates rapid identification of genes, conserved non-coding sequences and novel repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graner Andreas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley has one of the largest and most complex genomes of all economically important food crops. The rise of new short read sequencing technologies such as Illumina/Solexa permits such large genomes to be effectively sampled at relatively low cost. Based on the corresponding sequence reads a Mathematically Defined Repeat (MDR index can be generated to map repetitive regions in genomic sequences. Results We have generated 574 Mbp of Illumina/Solexa sequences from barley total genomic DNA, representing about 10% of a genome equivalent. From these sequences we generated an MDR index which was then used to identify and mark repetitive regions in the barley genome. Comparison of the MDR plots with expert repeat annotation drawing on the information already available for known repetitive elements revealed a significant correspondence between the two methods. MDR-based annotation allowed for the identification of dozens of novel repeat sequences, though, which were not recognised by hand-annotation. The MDR data was also used to identify gene-containing regions by masking of repetitive sequences in eight de-novo sequenced bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones. For half of the identified candidate gene islands indeed gene sequences could be identified. MDR data were only of limited use, when mapped on genomic sequences from the closely related species Triticum monococcum as only a fraction of the repetitive sequences was recognised. Conclusion An MDR index for barley, which was obtained by whole-genome Illumina/Solexa sequencing, proved as efficient in repeat identification as manual expert annotation. Circumventing the labour-intensive step of producing a specific repeat library for expert annotation, an MDR index provides an elegant and efficient resource for the identification of repetitive and low-copy (i.e. potentially gene-containing sequences regions in uncharacterised genomic sequences. The restriction that a particular

  18. Rapid and Accurate Approach for Screening of Microsatellite Unstable Tumours Using Quasimonomorphic Mononucleotide Repeats and Denaturating High Performance Liquid Chromatography (DHPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašper Berginc

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available MSI analysis is becoming increasingly important for the detection of both hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and sporadic primary colorectal tumours with MSI high phenotype. The Bethesda panel of five microsatellite markers has been proposed to provide uniform criteria for MSI analysis. Here we report on an MSI analysis approach using quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeats and denaturating high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC. We analysed 595 newly diagnosed colorectal tumours and 145 normal samples. Microsatellite markers BAT-25, BAT-26, NR-21, NR-22, and NR-27 were amplified in multiplex reaction and analysed using DHPLC and capillary electrophoresis (CE. DHPLC conditions for analysis of MSI multiplex assay were evaluated and tested. Analysis and cross-examination of the results obtained from 96 samples using DHPLC and capillary electrophoresis showed the same sensitivity and specificity of the two approaches for detecting MSI-H tumours. Using our new approach we showed that the tested markers are quasimonomorphic in a Slovenian population, with frequencies of polymorphisms 0.07%, 1.4%, 2.1%, 1.4%, and 1.4% for BAT-25, BAT-26, NR-21, NR-22, and NR-27, respectively. Forty-three (7.2% new MSI-H tumours were identified, of which 84% showed instability in all 5 tested markers. Overall, we developed a high-throughput, robust, accurate and cost-effective approach for the detection of MSI-H tumours.

  19. Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-07-01

    Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (glass powder with clay mixes using sodium silicate as binder and borate salt as flux. Composition and processing were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) modeling, and specifically (i) a combined process-mixture dual RSM, and (ii) multiobjective optimization functions. The optimization considered raw materials and energy costs. Mineralogical and physical transformations occur during sintering and a cellular vesicular glass-ceramic composite microstructure is formed, with strong correlations existing between bloating/shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows.

  20. Taxonomic minimalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattle, A J; Oliver, I

    1994-12-01

    Biological surveys are in increasing demand while taxonomic resources continue to decline. How much formal taxonomy is required to get the job done? The answer depends on the kind of job but it is possible that taxonomic minimalism, especially (1) the use of higher taxonomic ranks, (2) the use of morphospecies rather than species (as identified by Latin binomials), and (3) the involvement of taxonomic specialists only for training and verification, may offer advantages for biodiversity assessment, environmental monitoring and ecological research. As such, formal taxonomy remains central to the process of biological inventory and survey but resources may be allocated more efficiently. For example, if formal Identification is not required, resources may be concentrated on replication and increasing sample sizes. Taxonomic minimalism may also facilitate the inclusion in these activities of important but neglected groups, especially among the invertebrates, and perhaps even microorganisms. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  2. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly...

  3. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  4. How to make a minimal genome for synthetic minimal cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liu-Yan; Chang, Su-Hua; Wang, Jing

    2010-05-01

    As a key focus of synthetic biology, building a minimal artificial cell has given rise to many discussions. A synthetic minimal cell will provide an appropriate chassis to integrate functional synthetic parts, devices and systems with functions that cannot generally be found in nature. The design and construction of a functional minimal genome is a key step while building such a cell/chassis since all the cell functions can be traced back to the genome. Kinds of approaches, based on bioinformatics and molecular biology, have been developed and proceeded to derive essential genes and minimal gene sets for the synthetic minimal genome. Experiments about streamlining genomes of model bacteria revealed genome reduction led to unanticipated beneficial properties, such as high electroporation efficiency and accurate propagation of recombinant genes and plasmids that were unstable in other strains. Recent achievements in chemical synthesis technology for large DNA segments together with the rapid development of the whole-genome sequencing, have transferred synthesis of genes to assembly of the whole genomes based on oligonucleotides, and thus created strong preconditions for synthesis of artificial minimal genome. Here in this article, we review briefly the history and current state of research in this field and summarize the main methods for making a minimal genome. We also discuss the impacts of minimized genome on metabolism and regulation of artificial cell.

  5. Constraints and consequences of the emergence of amino acid repeats in eukaryotic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Sreenivas; Chavali, Pavithra L; Chalancon, Guilhem; de Groot, Natalia Sanchez; Gemayel, Rita; Latysheva, Natasha S; Ing-Simmons, Elizabeth; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Balaji, Santhanam; Babu, M Madan

    2017-09-01

    Proteins with amino acid homorepeats have the potential to be detrimental to cells and are often associated with human diseases. Why, then, are homorepeats prevalent in eukaryotic proteomes? In yeast, homorepeats are enriched in proteins that are essential and pleiotropic and that buffer environmental insults. The presence of homorepeats increases the functional versatility of proteins by mediating protein interactions and facilitating spatial organization in a repeat-dependent manner. During evolution, homorepeats are preferentially retained in proteins with stringent proteostasis, which might minimize repeat-associated detrimental effects such as unregulated phase separation and protein aggregation. Their presence facilitates rapid protein divergence through accumulation of amino acid substitutions, which often affect linear motifs and post-translational-modification sites. These substitutions may result in rewiring protein interaction and signaling networks. Thus, homorepeats are distinct modules that are often retained in stringently regulated proteins. Their presence facilitates rapid exploration of the genotype-phenotype landscape of a population, thereby contributing to adaptation and fitness.

  6. Minimally invasive surgery for the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, S D; Anderson, D G

    2012-03-01

    Minimally invasive spine surgery is a rapidly developing field that has the potential to decrease surgical morbidity and improve recovery compared to traditional spinal approaches. Minimally invasive approaches have been developed for all regions of the spine, but have been best documented for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. Lumbar decompression and lumbar interbody fusion are two of the most well-studied minimally invasive surgical approaches. This article will review both the rationale and technique for minimally invasive lumbar decompression and for a minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF).

  7. Does Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery Minimize Surgical Site Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravish Shammi; Dutta, Shumayou

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Purpose To evaluate the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) in a cohort of patients and compare with available historical data on SSI in open spinal surgery cohorts, and to evaluate additional direct costs incurred due to SSI. Overview of Literature SSI can lead to prolonged antibiotic therapy, extended hospitalization, repeated operations, and implant removal. Small incisions and minimal dissection intrinsic to MISS may minimize the risk of postoperative infections. However, there is a dearth of literature on infections after MISS and their additional direct financial implications. Methods All patients from January 2007 to January 2015 undergoing posterior spinal surgery with tubular retractor system and microscope in our institution were included. The procedures performed included tubular discectomies, tubular decompressions for spinal stenosis and minimal invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The incidence of postoperative SSI was calculated and compared to the range of cited SSI rates from published studies. Direct costs were calculated from medical billing for index cases and for patients with SSI. Results A total of 1,043 patients underwent 763 noninstrumented surgeries (discectomies, decompressions) and 280 instrumented (TLIF) procedures. The mean age was 52.2 years with male:female ratio of 1.08:1. Three infections were encountered with fusion surgeries (mean detection time, 7 days). All three required wound wash and debridement with one patient requiring unilateral implant removal. Additional direct cost due to infection was $2,678 per 100 MISS-TLIF. SSI increased hospital expenditure per patient 1.5-fold after instrumented MISS. Conclusions Overall infection rate after MISS was 0.29%, with SSI rate of 0% in non-instrumented MISS and 1.07% with instrumented MISS. MISS can markedly reduce the SSI rate and can be an

  8. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  9. Correlates of minimal dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, Kira

    2006-10-01

    Researchers have associated minimal dating with numerous factors. The present author tested shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, performance evaluation, anxiety, social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness to determine the nature of their relationships with 2 measures of self-reported minimal dating in a sample of 175 college students. For women, shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, self-rated anxiety, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. For men, physical attractiveness, observer-rated social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. The patterns of relationships were not identical for the 2 indicators of minimal dating, indicating the possibility that minimal dating is not a single construct as researchers previously believed. The present author discussed implications and suggestions for future researchers.

  10. Minimally invasive orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Cory M; Kaban, Leonard B; Troulis, Maria J

    2009-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is defined as the discipline in which operative procedures are performed in novel ways to diminish the sequelae of standard surgical dissections. The goals of minimally invasive surgery are to reduce tissue trauma and to minimize bleeding, edema, and injury, thereby improving the rate and quality of healing. In orthognathic surgery, there are two minimally invasive techniques that can be used separately or in combination: (1) endoscopic exposure and (2) distraction osteogenesis. This article describes the historical developments of the fields of orthognathic surgery and minimally invasive surgery, as well as the integration of the two disciplines. Indications, techniques, and the most current outcome data for specific minimally invasive orthognathic surgical procedures are presented.

  11. Minimal Super Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antola, M.; Di Chiara, S.; Sannino, F.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce novel extensions of the Standard Model featuring a supersymmetric technicolor sector (supertechnicolor). As the first minimal conformal supertechnicolor model we consider N=4 Super Yang-Mills which breaks to N=1 via the electroweak interactions. This is a well defined, economical......, between unparticle physics and Minimal Walking Technicolor. We consider also other N =1 extensions of the Minimal Walking Technicolor model. The new models allow all the standard model matter fields to acquire a mass....

  12. A Rapid Coliform Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  13. Minimizing Mutual Couping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein are techniques, systems, and methods relating to minimizing mutual coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna.......Disclosed herein are techniques, systems, and methods relating to minimizing mutual coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna....

  14. Minimally invasive lumbar fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kevin T; Holly, Langston T; Schwender, James D

    2003-08-01

    Review article. To provide an overview of current techniques for minimally invasive lumbar fusion. Minimally invasive techniques have revolutionized the management of pathologic conditions in various surgical disciplines. Although these same principles have been used in the treatment of lumbar disc disease for many years, minimally invasive lumbar fusion procedures have only recently been developed. The goals of these procedures are to reduce the approach-related morbidity associated with traditional lumbar fusion, yet allow the surgery to be performed in an effective and safe manner. The authors' clinical experience with minimally invasive lumbar fusion was reviewed, and the pertinent literature was surveyed. Minimally invasive approaches have been developed for common lumbar procedures such as anterior and posterior interbody fusion, posterolateral onlay fusion, and internal fixation. As with all new surgical techniques, minimally invasive lumbar fusion has a learning curve. As well, there are benefits and disadvantages associated with each technique. However, because these techniques are new and evolving, evidence to support their potential benefits is largely anecdotal. Additionally, there are few long-term studies to document clinical outcomes. Preliminary clinical results suggest that minimally invasive lumbar fusion will have a beneficial impact on the care of patients with spinal disorders. Outcome studies with long-term follow-up will be necessary to validate its success and allow minimally invasive lumbar fusion to become more widely accepted.

  15. Minimally invasive biomarkers of general anesthetic-induced developmental neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Liu, F; Slikker, W; Wang, C; Paule, M G

    The association of general anesthesia with developmental neurotoxicity, while nearly impossible to study in pediatric populations, is clearly demonstrable in a variety of animal models from rodents to nonhuman primates. Nearly all general anesthetics tested have been shown to cause abnormal brain cell death in animals when administered during periods of rapid brain growth. The ability to repeatedly assess in the same subjects adverse effects induced by general anesthetics provides significant power to address the time course of important events associated with exposures. Minimally-invasive procedures provide the opportunity to bridge the preclinical/clinical gap by providing the means to more easily translate findings from the animal laboratory to the human clinic. Positron Emission Tomography or PET is a tool with great promise for realizing this goal. PET for small animals (microPET) is providing valuable data on the life cycle of general anesthetic induced neurotoxicity. PET radioligands (annexin V and DFNSH) targeting apoptotic processes have demonstrated that a single bout of general anesthesia effected during a vulnerable period of CNS development can result in prolonged apoptotic signals lasting for several weeks in the rat. A marker of cellular proliferation (FLT) has demonstrated in rodents that general anesthesia-induced inhibition of neural progenitor cell proliferation is evident when assessed a full 2weeks after exposure. Activated glia express Translocator Protein (TSPO) which can be used as a marker of presumed neuroinflammatory processes and a PET ligand for the TSPO (FEPPA) has been used to track this process in both rat and nonhuman primate models. It has been shown that single bouts of general anesthesia can result in elevated TSPO expression lasting for over a week. These examples demonstrate the utility of specific PET tracers to inform, in a minimally-invasive fashion, processes associated with general anesthesia-induced developmental

  16. Honesty through repeated interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Patricia; Zollman, Kevin J S

    2016-04-21

    In the study of signaling, it is well known that the cost of deception is an essential element for stable honest signaling in nature. In this paper, we show how costs for deception can arise endogenously from repeated interactions between individuals. Utilizing the Sir Philip Sidney game as an illustrative case, we show that repeated interactions can sustain honesty with no observable signal costs, even when deception cannot be directly observed. We provide a number of potential experimental tests for this theory which distinguish it from the available alternatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Minimalism. Clip and Save.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides background information on the art movement called "Minimalism" discussing why it started and its characteristics. Includes learning activities and information on the artist, Donald Judd. Includes a reproduction of one of his art works and discusses its content. (CMK)

  19. Repeated Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... he/she have ear tubes?What are the dangers of my child’s repeated infections?Should my child ... affect you or your baby through your breast milk.December 2017December 2017familydoctor.org editorial staffHip Problems in ...

  20. Quantitative analysis of technological innovation in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Hallett, A; Mayer, E K; Pratt, P J; Vale, J A; Darzi, A W

    2015-01-01

    In the past 30 years surgical practice has changed considerably owing to the advent of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). This paper investigates the changing surgical landscape chronologically and quantitatively, examining the technologies that have played, and are forecast to play, the largest part in this shift in surgical practice. Electronic patent and publication databases were searched over the interval 1980-2011 for ('minimally invasive' OR laparoscopic OR laparoscopy OR 'minimal access' OR 'key hole') AND (surgery OR surgical OR surgeon). The resulting patent codes were allocated into technology clusters. Technology clusters referred to repeatedly in the contemporary surgical literature were also included in the analysis. Growth curves of patents and publications for the resulting technology clusters were then plotted. The initial search revealed 27,920 patents and 95,420 publications meeting the search criteria. The clusters meeting the criteria for in-depth analysis were: instruments, image guidance, surgical robotics, sutures, single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) and natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Three patterns of growth were observed among these technology clusters: an S-shape (instruments and sutures), a gradual exponential rise (surgical robotics and image guidance), and a rapid contemporaneous exponential rise (NOTES and SILS). Technological innovation in MIS has been largely stagnant since its initial inception nearly 30 years ago, with few novel technologies emerging. The present study adds objective data to the previous claims that SILS, a surgical technique currently adopted by very few, represents an important part of the future of MIS. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Repeat spine imaging in transferred emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Kadakia, Rishin J; Kay, Harrison F; Zhang, Chi E; Casimir, Geoffrey E; Devin, Clinton J

    2014-02-15

    Retrospective study. Assess frequency of repeat spine imaging in patients transferred with known spine injuries from outside hospital (OSH) to tertiary receiving institution (RI). Unnecessary repeat imaging after transfer has started to become a recognized problem with the obvious issues related to repeat imaging along with potential for iatrogenic injury with movement of patients with spine problems. Consecutive adult patients presenting to a single 1-level trauma center with spine injuries during a 51-month period were reviewed (n = 4500), resulting in 1427 patients transferred from OSH emergency department. All imaging and radiology reports from the OSH were reviewed, as well as studies performed at RI. A repeat was the same imaging modality used on the same spine region as OSH imaging. The overall rate of repeat spine imaging for both OSH imaging sent and not sent was 23%, and 6% if repeat spine imaging via traumagram (partial/full-body computed tomography [CT]) was excluded as a repeat. The overall rate of repeat CT was 29% (7% dedicated spine CT scans and 22% part of nondedicated spine CT scan).An observation of only those patients with OSH imaging that was sent and viewable revealed that 23% underwent repeat spine imaging with 23% undergoing repeat spine CT and 41% repeat magnetic resonance imaging.In those patients with sent and viewable OSH imaging, a lack of reconstructions prompted 14% of repeats, whereas inadequate visualization of injury site prompted 8%. In only 8% of the repeats did it change management or provide necessary surgical information. This study is the first to investigate the frequency of repeat spine imaging in transfers with known spine injuries and found a substantially high rate of repeat spine CT with minimal alteration in care. Potential solutions include only performing scans at the OSH necessary to establish a diagnosis requiring transfer and improving communication between OSH and RI physicians. 4.

  2. Rapid bioassessment of the effects of repeated rotenone treatments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential collateral effects of eradicating invasive fishes in streams necessitate the monitoring of invertebrate communities during treatment. In an environmental rehabilitation programme, non-native smallmouth bass were removed from the lower reaches of the Rondegat River, Western Cape, South Africa, in 2012 and ...

  3. Allowing repeat winners

    OpenAIRE

    Marco D. Huesch; Richard Brady

    2010-01-01

    Unbiased lotteries seem the least unfair and simplest procedures to allocate scarce indivisible resources to those with equal claims. But, when lotteries are repeated, it is not immediately obvious whether prior winners should be included or excluded. As in design questions surrounding single-shot lotteries, considerations of self-interest and distributive social preferences may interact. We investigate preferences for allowing participation of earlier winners in sequential lotteries. We foun...

  4. Minimalism and Speakers’ Intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Gariazzo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Minimalism proposes a semantics that does not account for speakers’ intuitions about the truth conditions of a range of sentences or utterances. Thus, a challenge for this view is to offer an explanation of how its assignment of semantic contents to these sentences is grounded in their use. Such an account was mainly offered by Soames, but also suggested by Cappelen and Lepore. The article criticizes this explanation by presenting four kinds of counterexamples to it, and arrives at the conclusion that minimalism has not successfully answered the above-mentioned challenge.

  5. Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal

    2007-01-01

    I report on our construction and analysis of the effective low energy Lagrangian for the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) model. The parameters of the effective Lagrangian are constrained by imposing modified Weinberg sum rules and by imposing a value for the S parameter estimated from the under......I report on our construction and analysis of the effective low energy Lagrangian for the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) model. The parameters of the effective Lagrangian are constrained by imposing modified Weinberg sum rules and by imposing a value for the S parameter estimated from...

  6. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  7. Rapid, minimally invasive adult voluntary male circumcision: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare open surgical circumcision with suturing v. the Unicirc disposable instrument plus tissue adhesive. Methods. We conducted a non-blinded randomised controlled trial at an outpatient primary healthcare clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, with 2:1 allocation ratio of 150 male volunteers who were at least 18 years ...

  8. Minimal DBM Substraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Håkansson, John; G. Larsen, Kim

    In this paper we present an algorithm to compute DBM substractions with a guaranteed minimal number of splits and disjoint DBMs to avoid any redundance. The substraction is one of the few operations that result in a non-convex zone, and thus, requires splitting. It is of prime importance to reduce...

  9. Minimal constrained supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribiori, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dall' Agata, G., E-mail: dallagat@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Porrati, M. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.

  10. Minimally invasive periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannan, Aous

    2011-10-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that preserves dentition and supporting structures. However, minimally invasive procedures in periodontal treatment are supposed to be limited within periodontal surgery, the aim of which is to represent alternative approaches developed to allow less extensive manipulation of surrounding tissues than conventional procedures, while accomplishing the same objectives. In this review, the concept of minimally invasive periodontal surgery (MIPS) is firstly explained. An electronic search for all studies regarding efficacy and effectiveness of MIPS between 2001 and 2009 was conducted. For this purpose, suitable key words from Medical Subject Headings on PubMed were used to extract the required studies. All studies are demonstrated and important results are concluded. Preliminary data from case cohorts and from many studies reveal that the microsurgical access flap, in terms of MIPS, has a high potential to seal the healing wound from the contaminated oral environment by achieving and maintaining primary closure. Soft tissues are mostly preserved and minimal gingival recession is observed, an important feature to meet the demands of the patient and the clinician in the esthetic zone. However, although the potential efficacy of MIPS in the treatment of deep intrabony defects has been proved, larger studies are required to confirm and extend the reported positive preliminary outcomes.

  11. Minimal constrained supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cribiori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.

  12. Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal; A. Ryttov, T.

    2007-01-01

    , pseudoscalars, vector mesons and other fields predicted by the minimal walking theory. We construct their self-interactions and interactions with standard model fields. Using the Weinberg sum rules, opportunely modified to take into account the walking behavior of the underlying gauge theory, we find...

  13. Minimal Composite Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Channuie, Phongpichit; Jark Joergensen, Jakob; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We investigate models in which the inflaton emerges as a composite field of a four dimensional, strongly interacting and nonsupersymmetric gauge theory featuring purely fermionic matter. We show that it is possible to obtain successful inflation via non-minimal coupling to gravity, and that the u......We investigate models in which the inflaton emerges as a composite field of a four dimensional, strongly interacting and nonsupersymmetric gauge theory featuring purely fermionic matter. We show that it is possible to obtain successful inflation via non-minimal coupling to gravity......, and that the underlying dynamics is preferred to be near conformal. We discover that the compositeness scale of inflation is of the order of the grand unified energy scale....

  14. Minimally symmetric Higgs boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Models addressing the naturalness of a light Higgs boson typically employ symmetries, either bosonic or fermionic, to stabilize the Higgs mass. We consider a setup with the minimal amount of symmetries: four shift symmetries acting on the four components of the Higgs doublet, subject to the constraints of linearly realized SU(2)(L) x U(1)(Y) electroweak symmetry. Up to terms that explicitly violate the shift symmetries, the effective Lagrangian can be derived, irrespective of the spontaneously broken group G in the ultraviolet, and is universal among all models where the Higgs arises as a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. Very high energy scatterings of vector bosons could provide smoking gun signals of a minimally symmetric Higgs boson.

  15. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  16. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five Glenn Research Center (GRC) provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4% whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0%. A second group of 10 coupons has been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, the repeatability between coupons has been shown to be +/- 15-25%. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  17. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  18. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  19. Repeated judgment sampling: Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Muller-Trede

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the boundaries of the recent result that eliciting more than one estimate from the same person and averaging these can lead to accuracy gains in judgment tasks. It first examines its generality, analysing whether the kind of question being asked has an effect on the size of potential gains. Experimental results show that the question type matters. Previous results reporting potential accuracy gains are reproduced for year-estimation questions, and extended to questions about percentage shares. On the other hand, no gains are found for general numerical questions. The second part of the paper tests repeated judgment sampling's practical applicability by asking judges to provide a third and final answer on the basis of their first two estimates. In an experiment, the majority of judges do not consistently average their first two answers. As a result, they do not realise the potential accuracy gains from averaging.

  20. Allowing repeat winners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D. Huesch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Unbiased lotteries seem the least unfair and simplest procedures to allocate scarce indivisible resources to those with equal claims. But, when lotteries are repeated, it is not immediately obvious whether prior winners should be included or excluded. As in design questions surrounding single-shot lotteries, considerations of self-interest and distributive social preferences may interact. We investigate preferences for allowing participation of earlier winners in sequential lotteries. We found a strong preference for exclusion, both in settings where subjects were involved, and those where they were not. Subjects who answered questions about both settings did not differ in their tendency to prefer exclusion. Stated rationales significantly predicted choice but did not predict switching of choices between the two settings.

  1. The effectiveness of repeat lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Naveen S; Geske, Jennifer R; Shelerud, Randy A; Wald, John T; Diehn, Felix E; Thielen, Kent R; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Morris, Jonathan M; Lehman, Vance T; Amrami, Kimberly K; Carter, Rickey E; Maus, Timothy P

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine 1) if repeat lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs) resulted in recovery of pain relief, which has waned since an index injection, and 2) if cumulative benefit could be achieved by repeat injections within 3 months of the index injection. Retrospective observational study with statistical modeling of the response to repeat TFESI. Academic radiology practice. Two thousand eighty-seven single-level TFESIs were performed for radicular pain on 933 subjects. Subjects received repeat TFESIs >2 weeks and <1 year from the index injection. Hierarchical linear modeling was performed to evaluate changes in continuous and categorical pain relief outcomes after repeat TFESI. Subgroup analyses were performed on patients with <3 months duration of pain (acute pain), patients receiving repeat injections within 3 months (clustered injections), and in patients with both acute pain and clustered injections. Repeat TFESIs achieved pain relief in both continuous and categorical outcomes. Relative to the index injection, there was a minimal but statistically significant decrease in pain relief in modeled continuous outcome measures with subsequent injections. Acute pain patients recovered all prior benefit with a statistically significant cumulative benefit. Patients receiving clustered injections achieved statistically significant cumulative benefit, of greater magnitude in acute pain patients. Repeat TFESI may be performed for recurrence of radicular pain with the expectation of recovery of most or all previously achieved benefit; acute pain patients will likely recover all prior benefit. Repeat TFESIs within 3 months of the index injection can provide cumulative benefit. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee F. Starker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT. Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT.

  3. Minimally Actuated Serial Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Moshe P.; Damti, Lior; Zarrouk, David

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel type of serial robot with minimal actuation. The robot is a serial rigid structure consisting of multiple links connected by passive joints and of movable actuators. The novelty of this robot is that the actuators travel over the links to a given joint and adjust the relative angle between the two adjacent links. The joints passively preserve their angles until one of the actuators moves them again. This actuation can be applied to any serial robot with two o...

  4. Minimally invasive dentistry: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brostek, Andrew M; Bochenek, Andrew J; Walsh, Laurence J

    2006-06-01

    The term "Minimal Invasive (MI) Dentistry" can best be defined as the management of caries with a biological approach, rather than with a traditional (surgical) operative dentistry approach. Where operative dentistry is required, this is now carried out in the most conservative manner with minimal destruction of tooth structure. This new approach to caries management changes the emphasis from diagnosing carious lesions as cavities (and a repeating cycle of restorations), to one of diagnosing the oral ecological imbalance and effecting biological changes in the biofilm. The goal of MI is to stop the disease process and then to restore lost tooth structure and function, maximizing the healing potential of the tooth. The thought process which underpins this new minimal invasive approach can be organized into three main categories: (1) Recognize, which means identify patient caries risk, (2) Remineralize, which means prevent caries and reverse non-cavitated caries, and (3) Repair, which means control caries activity, maximize healing and repair the damage. The disease of dental caries is not just demineralization, but a process of repeated demineralization cycles caused by an imbalance in the ecological and chemical equilibrium of the biofilm /tooth interface (the ecological plaque hypothesis). Dietary and lifestyle patterns, especially carbohydrate frequency, water intake and smoking, play an important role in changing the biofilm ecology and pathogenicity. Tools for chairside assessment of saliva and plaque, allow risk to be assessed and patient compliance monitored. The remineralizing properties of saliva can be enhanced using materials which release biologically available calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions (CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP). Use of biocides can also alter the pathogenic properties of plaque. Use of these MI treatment protocols, can repair early lesions and improve patient understanding and compliance. This review article introduces some of the key concepts

  5. Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBeche-Adams, Teresa; Nassif, George

    2015-01-01

    Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) was first described in 2010 as a crossover between single-incision laparoscopic surgery and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to allow access to the proximal and mid-rectum for resection of benign and early-stage malignant rectal lesions. The TAMIS technique can also be used for noncurative intent surgery of more advanced lesions in patients who are not candidates for radical surgery. Proper workup and staging should be done before surgical decision-making. In addition to the TAMIS port, instrumentation and set up include readily available equipment found in most operating suites. TAMIS has proven its usefulness in a wide range of applications outside of local excision, including repair of rectourethral fistula, removal of rectal foreign body, control of rectal hemorrhage, and as an adjunct in total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. TAMIS is an easily accessible, technically feasible, and cost-effective alternative to TEM. PMID:26491410

  6. Minimal asymmetric dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane M. Boucenna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the early Universe, any particle carrying a conserved quantum number and in chemical equilibrium with the thermal bath will unavoidably inherit a particle–antiparticle asymmetry. A new particle of this type, if stable, would represent a candidate for asymmetric dark matter (DM with an asymmetry directly related to the baryon asymmetry. We study this possibility for a minimal DM sector constituted by just one (generic SU(2L multiplet χ carrying hypercharge, assuming that at temperatures above the electroweak phase transition an effective operator enforces chemical equilibrium between χ and the Higgs boson. We argue that limits from DM direct detection searches severely constrain this scenario, leaving as the only possibilities scalar or fermion multiplets with hypercharge y=1, preferentially quintuplets or larger SU(2 representations, and with a mass in the few TeV range.

  7. Minimally extended SILH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chala, Mikael [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y IFIC; Durieux, Gauthier; Matsedonskyi, Oleksii [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Grojean, Christophe [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Lima, Leonardo de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Teorica

    2017-03-15

    Higgs boson compositeness is a phenomenologically viable scenario addressing the hierarchy problem. In minimal models, the Higgs boson is the only degree of freedom of the strong sector below the strong interaction scale. We present here the simplest extension of such a framework with an additional composite spin-zero singlet. To this end, we adopt an effective field theory approach and develop a set of rules to estimate the size of the various operator coefficients, relating them to the parameters of the strong sector and its structural features. As a result, we obtain the patterns of new interactions affecting both the new singlet and the Higgs boson's physics. We identify the characteristics of the singlet field which cause its effects on Higgs physics to dominate over the ones inherited from the composite nature of the Higgs boson. Our effective field theory construction is supported by comparisons with explicit UV models.

  8. Minimal Reducts with Grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Iddaly Mendez Gurrola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The proper detection of patient level of dementia is important to offer the suitable treatment. The diagnosis is based on certain criteria, reflected in the clinical examinations. From these examinations emerge the limitations and the degree in which each patient is in. In order to reduce the total of limitations to be evaluated, we used the rough set theory, this theory has been applied in areas of the artificial intelligence such as decision analysis, expert systems, knowledge discovery, classification with multiple attributes. In our case this theory is applied to find the minimal limitations set or reduct that generate the same classification that considering all the limitations, to fulfill this purpose we development an algorithm GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure.

  9. Natural minimal dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbrichesi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We show how the Higgs boson mass is protected from the potentially large corrections due to the introduction of minimal dark matter if the new physics sector is made supersymmetric. The fermionic dark matter candidate (a 5-plet of $SU(2)_L$) is accompanied by a scalar state. The weak gauge sector is made supersymmetric and the Higgs boson is embedded in a supersymmetric multiplet. The remaining standard model states are non-supersymmetric. Non vanishing corrections to the Higgs boson mass only appear at three-loop level and the model is natural for dark matter masses up to 15 TeV--a value larger than the one required by the cosmological relic density. The construction presented stands as an example of a general approach to naturalness that solves the little hierarchy problem which arises when new physics is added beyond the standard model at an energy scale around 10 TeV.

  10. Training repeated effort ability in national team male volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Jeremy M; Gabbett, Tim; Borgeaud, Russell

    2008-09-01

    This case study evaluated the effect of repeated lateral movement and jumping training on repeated effort ability in a group of national team male volleyball players. Twelve volleyball players were assessed on their volleyball-specific repeated movement and jumping abilities using a volleyball-specific repeated effort test (RET) before and after 12 weeks of training. The athletes performed between 8 and 9 volleyball training sessions per week, with 5 to 6 of these sessions including specific training aimed at improving repeated effort ability. Typically these training sessions involved 8 to 12 repetitions of 2 to 3 block jumps over a 9-m lateral distance (ie, the athletes had to perform jumps and lateral movements, typical of front court play in volleyball). Population-specific repeatability data were used to determine whether any changes that may have occurred in this study were beyond the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for this testing procedure. Improvements in all variables of the RET were observed for each athlete involved in the study, with a small-to-moderate magnitude observed for the mean changes in each variable (Cohen's d, 0.21 to 0.59). All of the improvements in the results exceeded the MCID. These findings demonstrate that the RET is sensitive to training-induced changes. Lateral movement speed and repeated lateral movement speed, as well as jumping and repeated jumping ability are trainable qualities in high-performance volleyball players.

  11. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  12. Swarm robotics and minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Amanda J. C.

    2007-09-01

    Swarm Robotics (SR) is closely related to Swarm Intelligence, and both were initially inspired by studies of social insects. Their guiding principles are based on their biological inspiration and take the form of an emphasis on decentralized local control and communication. Earlier studies went a step further in emphasizing the use of simple reactive robots that only communicate indirectly through the environment. More recently SR studies have moved beyond these constraints to explore the use of non-reactive robots that communicate directly, and that can learn and represent their environment. There is no clear agreement in the literature about how far such extensions of the original principles could go. Should there be any limitations on the individual abilities of the robots used in SR studies? Should knowledge of the capabilities of social insects lead to constraints on the capabilities of individual robots in SR studies? There is a lack of explicit discussion of such questions, and researchers have adopted a variety of constraints for a variety of reasons. A simple taxonomy of swarm robotics is presented here with the aim of addressing and clarifying these questions. The taxonomy distinguishes subareas of SR based on the emphases and justifications for minimalism and individual simplicity.

  13. Minimal dilaton model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oda Kin-ya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC have reported the observation of the particle of mass around 125 GeV which is consistent to the Standard Model (SM Higgs boson, but with an excess of events beyond the SM expectation in the diphoton decay channel at each of them. There still remains room for a logical possibility that we are not seeing the SM Higgs but something else. Here we introduce the minimal dilaton model in which the LHC signals are explained by an extra singlet scalar of the mass around 125 GeV that slightly mixes with the SM Higgs heavier than 600 GeV. When this scalar has a vacuum expectation value well beyond the electroweak scale, it can be identified as a linearly realized version of a dilaton field. Though the current experimental constraints from the Higgs search disfavors such a region, the singlet scalar model itself still provides a viable alternative to the SM Higgs in interpreting its search results.

  14. Minimal Higgs inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debaprasad Maity

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose minimal Higgs inflation scenarios by non-polynomial modification of the Higgs potential. The modification is done in such a way that it creates a flat plateau for a huge range of field values at the inflationary energy scale μ≃(λ1/4α. Assuming the perturbative Higgs quartic coupling, λ≃O(1, our model prediction for all the cosmologically relevant quantities, (ns,r,dnsk, fit extremely well with observations made by PLANCK. For both the models the inflation energy scale turned out to be μ≃(1014,1015 GeV. Considering observed central value of the scalar spectral index, ns=0.968, models predict efolding number, N=(52,47. Within a wide range of viable parameter space, we found that the prediction of tensor to scalar ratio r(≤10−5 is far below the current experimental limit. The prediction for the running of scalar spectral index, dnsk, remains very small. We also computed the background field dependent unitarity scale Λ(h, which turned out to be much larger than the aforementioned inflationary energy scale.

  15. Research advances in minimally invasive treatment of infectious pancreatic necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Dongdong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN is a challenging complication of acute pancreatitis and can lead to poor prognosis. Over the years, open necrosectomy has become the main treatment modality for IPN, but it will cause high incidence rate of complications and mortality rate. In recent years, with the rapid development of minimally invasive surgery, many scholars have performed minimally invasive treatment for IPN patients and achieved good outcomes. This article introduces five minimally invasive treatment techniques, i.e., percutaneous catheter drainage, minimally invasive retroperitoneal necrosectomy, endoscopic drainage+necrosectomy, laparoscopic necrosectomy, and “advanced” therapeutic strategy, pointed out that different minimally invasive techniques had different indications, and minimally invasive therapies should be selected based on IPN patients′general conditions to improve their outcome.

  16. Minimally invasive spine technology and minimally invasive spine surgery: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Jeffrey H; DeCastro, Igor; McDonnell, Dennis E

    2009-09-01

    The trend of using smaller operative corridors is seen in various surgical specialties. Neurosurgery has also recently embraced minimal access spine technique, and it has rapidly evolved over the past 2 decades. There has been a progression from needle access, small incisions with adaptation of the microscope, and automated percutaneous procedures to endoscopically and laparoscopically assisted procedures. More recently, new muscle-sparing technology has come into use with tubular access. This has now been adapted to the percutaneous placement of spinal instrumentation, including intervertebral spacers, rods, pedicle screws, facet screws, nucleus replacement devices, and artificial discs. New technologies involving hybrid procedures for the treatment of complex spine trauma are now on the horizon. Surgical corridors have been developed utilizing the interspinous space for X-STOP placement to treat lumbar stenosis in a minimally invasive fashion. The direct lateral retroperitoneal corridor has allowed for minimally invasive access to the anterior spine. In this report the authors present a chronological, historical perspective of minimal access spine technique and minimally invasive technologies in the lumbar, thoracic, and cervical spine from 1967 through 2009. Due to a low rate of complications, minimal soft tissue trauma, and reduced blood loss, more spine procedures are being performed in this manner. Spine surgery now entails shorter hospital stays and often is carried out on an outpatient basis. With education, training, and further research, more of our traditional open surgical management will be augmented or replaced by these technologies and approaches in the future.

  17. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  18. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  19. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2018-01-01

    vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...

  1. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, A.; Chettri, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...

  2. Rapid development of fungicide resistance by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa on turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Ki; Chang, Seog Won; Boehm, Michael; Jung, Geunhwa

    2008-12-01

    Dollar spot, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, is the most prevalent and economically important turfgrass disease in North America. Increasing levels of fungicide resistance, coupled with tightening environmental scrutiny of existing fungicides, has left fewer options for managing dollar spot. More knowledge about S. homoeocarpa populations is needed to improve dollar spot management strategies, especially with respect to minimizing the development of fungicide resistance. Population diversity of S. homoeocarpa was examined using inter-simple sequence repeat markers and vegetative compatibility assays. Two subgroups were found in S. homoeocarpa field populations on both fairway and putting green turfgrass at a research field in Wisconsin. These subgroups were genetically different, vegetatively incompatible, and had different fungicide sensitivities. The frequency of the two genetic subgroups differed significantly between the fairway and putting green, but was uniform within the fairway or within the green. Population dynamics of S. homoeocarpa in response to two systemic fungicides (thiophanate-methyl and propiconazole) were assessed based on in vitro fungicide sensitivity. Dynamics of S. homoeocarpa populations depended on the presence of fungicide-resistant isolates in the initial populations before fungicide applications and changed rapidly after fungicide applications. Shifting of the population toward propiconazole resistance was gradual, whereas thiophanate-methyl resistance developed rapidly in the population. In conclusion, field populations of S. homoeocarpa containing genetically distinct, vegetatively incompatible groups were different on turfgrass that was managed differently, and they were changed rapidly after exposure to fungicides.

  3. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  4. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S.K.

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  5. Finite stage asymmetric repeated games: Both players' viewpoints

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lichun

    2017-01-05

    In asymmetric zero-sum games, one player has superior information about the game over the other. It is known that the informed players (maximizer) face the tradeoff of exploiting its superior information at the cost of revealing its superior information, but the basic point of the uninformed player (minimizer)\\'s decision making remains unknown. This paper studies the finite stage asymmetric repeated games from both players\\' viewpoints, and derives that not only security strategies but also the opponents\\' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player\\'s history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player\\'s security strategies are provided.

  6. Minimal massive 3D gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same 'minimal' bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new 'minimal massive gravity'

  7. Energy minimization of ferromagnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Heliang; Li, Jiangyu

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we present an energy-minimization theory of ferromagnetic particles to characterize the magnetization reversal and hysteresis loop of ferromagnetic polycrystals, with the inter-granular magneto-static interactions accounted for through the effective medium approximation. The energy-minimizing magnetization distribution is determined, and the remanence and coercivity are predicted.

  8. Rapid Measurement of Tectonic Deformation Using Structure-from-Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, A.; DeLong, S.; Lienkaemper, J. J.; Hecker, S.; Prentice, C. S.; Schwartz, D. P.; Sickler, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid collection and distribution of accurate surface slip data after earthquakes can support emergency response, help coordinate scientific response, and constrain coseismic slip that can be rapidly overprinted by postseismic slip, or eliminated as evidence of surface deformation is repaired or obscured. Analysis of earthquake deformation can be achieved quickly, repeatedly and inexpensively with the use of Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry. Traditional methods of measuring surface slip (e.g. manual measurement with tape measures) have proven inconsistent and irreproducible, and sophisticated methods such as laser scanning require specialized equipment and longer field time. Here we present a simple, cost-effective workflow for rapid, three-dimensional imaging and measurement of features affected by earthquake rupture. As part of a response drill performed by the USGS and collaborators on May 11, 2016, geologists documented offset cultural features along the creeping Hayward Fault in northern California, in simulation of a surface-rupturing earthquake. We present several photo collections from smart phones, tablets, and DSLR cameras from a number of locations along the fault collected by users with a range of experience. Using professionally calibrated photogrammetric scale bars we automatically and accurately scale our 3D models to 1 mm accuracy for precise measurement in three dimensions. We then generate scaled 3D point clouds and extract offsets from manual measurement and multiple linear regression for comparison with collected terrestrial scanner data. These results further establish dense photo collection and SfM processing as an important, low-cost, rapid means of quantifying surface deformation in the critical hours after a surface-rupturing earthquake and emphasize that researchers with minimal training can rapidly collect three-dimensional data that can be used to analyze and archive the surface effects of damaging earthquakes.

  9. Minimal Webs in Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2008-01-01

    For a given combinatorial graph $G$ a {\\it geometrization} $(G, g)$ of the graph is obtained by considering each edge of the graph as a $1-$dimensional manifold with an associated metric $g$. In this paper we are concerned with {\\it minimal isometric immersions} of geometrized graphs $(G, g......)$ into Riemannian manifolds $(N^{n}, h)$. Such immersions we call {\\em{minimal webs}}. They admit a natural 'geometric' extension of the intrinsic combinatorial discrete Laplacian. The geometric Laplacian on minimal webs enjoys standard properties such as the maximum principle and the divergence theorems, which...... are of instrumental importance for the applications. We apply these properties to show that minimal webs in ambient Riemannian spaces share several analytic and geometric properties with their smooth (minimal submanifold) counterparts in such spaces. In particular we use appropriate versions of the divergence...

  10. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  11. Minimal Surfaces for Hitchin Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiongling; Dai, Song

    2018-01-01

    . In this paper, we investigate the properties of immersed minimal surfaces inside symmetric space associated to a subloci of Hitchin component: $q_n$ and $q_{n-1}$ case. First, we show that the pullback metric of the minimal surface dominates a constant multiple of the hyperbolic metric in the same conformal...... class and has a strong rigidity property. Secondly, we show that the immersed minimal surface is never tangential to any flat inside the symmetric space. As a direct corollary, the pullback metric of the minimal surface is always strictly negatively curved. In the end, we find a fully decoupled system......Given a reductive representation $\\rho: \\pi_1(S)\\rightarrow G$, there exists a $\\rho$-equivariant harmonic map $f$ from the universal cover of a fixed Riemann surface $\\Sigma$ to the symmetric space $G/K$ associated to $G$. If the Hopf differential of $f$ vanishes, the harmonic map is then minimal...

  12. Minimal Poems Written in 1979 Minimal Poems Written in 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism. The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism.

  13. Minimal flows and their extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, J

    1988-01-01

    This monograph presents developments in the abstract theory of topological dynamics, concentrating on the internal structure of minimal flows (actions of groups on compact Hausdorff spaces for which every orbit is dense) and their homomorphisms (continuous equivariant maps). Various classes of minimal flows (equicontinuous, distal, point distal) are intensively studied, and a general structure theorem is obtained. Another theme is the ``universal'' approach - entire classes of minimal flows are studied, rather than flows in isolation. This leads to the consideration of disjointness of flows, w

  14. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge Heart disease - risk factors Heart pacemaker - discharge ...

  15. A minimal number of MELT repeats supports all functions of KNL1 in chromosome segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gang; Lischetti, Tiziana; Nilsson, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The Bub1-Bub3 and BubR1-Bub3 checkpoint complexes, or the Bubs, contribute to the accurate segregation of chromosomes during mitosis by promoting chromosome bi-orientation and halting exit from mitosis if this fails. The complexes associate with kinetochores during mitosis, which is required...

  16. Detection of interruptions in the GAA trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FXN gene of Friedreich ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Timothy P; Rowley, Simone M; Delatycki, Martin B; Sarsero, Joseph P

    2011-03-01

    Friedreich ataxia is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a GAA trinucleotide repeat sequence within the first intron of the FXN gene. Interruptions in the GAA repeat may serve to alleviate the inhibitory effects of the GAA expansion on FXN gene expression and to decrease pathogenicity. We have developed a simple and rapid PCR- and restriction enzyme-based assay to assess the purity of GAA repeat sequences.

  17. Efficiency of repeated network interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Judith B.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider a network with interactions by two users. Each of them repeatedly issues download requests on the network. These requests may be unsuccessful due to congestion or non-congestion related errors. A user decides when to cancel a request (that is, what his impatience threshold

  18. Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins and Cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.

    2009-10-16

    Cyanobacteria are unique in many ways and one unusual feature is the presence of a suite of proteins that contain at least one domain with a minimum of eight tandem repeated five-residues (Rfr) of the general consensus sequence A[N/D]LXX. The function of such pentapeptide repeat proteins (PRPs) are still unknown, however, their prevalence in cyanobacteria suggests that they may play some role in the unique biological activities of cyanobacteria. As part of an inter-disciplinary Membrane Biology Grand Challenge at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) and Washington University in St. Louis, the genome of Cyanothece 51142 was sequenced and its molecular biology studied with relation to circadian rhythms. The genome of Cyanothece encodes for 35 proteins that contain at least one PRP domain. These proteins range in size from 105 (Cce_3102) to 930 (Cce_2929) kDa with the PRP domains ranging in predicted size from 12 (Cce_1545) to 62 (cce_3979) tandem pentapeptide repeats. Transcriptomic studies with 29 out of the 35 genes showed that at least three of the PRPs in Cyanothece 51142 (cce_0029, cce_3083, and cce_3272) oscillated with repeated periods of light and dark, further supporting a biological function for PRPs. Using X-ray diffraction crystallography, the structure for two pentapeptide repeat proteins from Cyanothece 51142 were determined, cce_1272 (aka Rfr32) and cce_4529 (aka Rfr23). Analysis of their molecular structures suggests that all PRP may share the same structural motif, a novel type of right-handed quadrilateral β-helix, or Rfr-fold, reminiscent of a square tower with four distinct faces. Each pentapeptide repeat occupies one face of the Rfr-fold with four consecutive pentapeptide repeats completing a coil that, in turn, stack upon each other to form “protein skyscrapers”. Details of the structural features of the Rfr-fold are reviewed here together with a discussion for the possible role of end

  19. Minimally invasive operative care. I. Minimal intervention and concepts for minimally invasive cavity preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M C; McLean, M E

    2001-01-01

    From the mainly reparative dentistry of the 20th century, contemporary dentistry shifts towards a minimal intervention (MI) approach encompassing up-to-date caries diagnosis and risk assessment before arriving at a treatment decision. An overview is provided of incorporating MI philosophy into the field of operative dentistry. The ultimate goal of MI is to extend the lifetime of restored teeth with as little intervention as possible. When operative care is indicated, it should be aimed at "prevention of extension." Black's principles for cavity design are considered and put in the perspective of minimally invasive operative care. Guiding principles for contemporary adhesive cavities are reviewed. Contemporary operative care should be based on a minimally invasive approach. Minimal intervention is not just a technique, it is a philosophy!

  20. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  1. Minimally invasive cervical spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2017-06-01

    Degenerative disorders of the cervical spine requiring surgical intervention have become increasingly more common over the past decade. Traditionally, open surgical approaches have been the mainstay of surgical treatment. More commonly, minimally invasive techniques are being developed with the intent to decrease surgical morbidity and iatrogenic spinal instability. This study will review four minimally invasive cervical techniques that have been increasingly utilized in the treatment of degenerative cervical spine disease. A series of PubMed-National Library of Medicine searches were performed. Only articles in English journals or with published with English language translations were included. Level of evidence of the selected articles was assessed. The significant incidence of postoperative dysphagia following ACDF has led to the development and increased use of zero-profile, stand-alone anterior cervical cages. The currently available literature examining the safety and effectiveness of zero-profile interbody devices supports the use of these devices in patients undergoing single-level ACDF. A multitude of studies demonstrating the significant incidence and impact of axial neck pain following open posterior spine surgery have led to a wave of research and development of techniques aimed at minimizing posterior cervical paraspinal disruption while achieving appropriate neurological decompression and/or spinal fixation. The currently available literature supports the use of minimally invasive posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy for the treatment of single-level radiculopathy. The literature suggests that fluoroscopically-assisted percutaneous cervical lateral mass screw fixation appears to be a technically feasible, safe and minimally invasive technique. Based on the currently available literature it appears that the DTRAX® expandable cage system is an effective minimally invasive posterior cervical technique for the treatment of single-level cervical

  2. Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzola, Luca [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Racioppi, Antonio [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2016-10-07

    We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the rôle of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio r≈10{sup −3}, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index n{sub s}≃0.97 which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.

  3. Physiological Consequences of Repeated Exposures to Conditioned Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Thompson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the stress response evokes a cascade of physiological reactions that may be detrimental when repeated or chronic, and when triggered after exposure to psychological/emotional stressors. Investigation of the physiological mechanisms responsible for the health damaging effects requires animal paradigms that repeatedly evoke a response to psychological/emotional stressors. To this end, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed (2X per day for 20 days to a context that they were conditioned to fear (conditioned fear test, CFT. Repeated exposure to CFT produced body weight loss, adrenal hypertrophy, thymic involution, and basal corticosterone elevation. In vivo biotelemetry measures revealed that CFT evokes sympathetic nervous system driven increases in heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and core body temperature. Extinction of behavioral (freezing and physiological responses to CFT was prevented using minimal reinstatement footshock. MAP responses to the CFT did not diminish across 20 days of exposure. In contrast, HR and cardiac contractility responses declined by day 15, suggesting a shift toward vascular-dominated MAP (a pre-clinical marker of CV dysfunction. Flattened diurnal rhythms, common to stress-related mood/anxiety disorders, were found for most physiological measures. Thus, repeated CFT produces adaptations indicative of the health damaging effects of psychological/emotional stress.

  4. Minimally Invasive Video-Assisted versus Minimally Invasive Nonendoscopic Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Fík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT and minimally invasive nonendoscopic thyroidectomy (MINET represent well accepted and reproducible techniques developed with the main goal to improve cosmetic outcome, accelerate healing, and increase patient’s comfort following thyroid surgery. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective nonrandomized study of patients undergoing minimally invasive thyroid surgery was performed to compare advantages and disadvantages of the two different techniques. There were no significant differences in the length of incision to perform surgical procedures. Mean duration of hemithyroidectomy was comparable in both groups, but it was more time consuming to perform total thyroidectomy by MIVAT. There were more patients undergoing MIVAT procedures without active drainage in the postoperative course and we also could see a trend for less pain in the same group. This was paralleled by statistically significant decreased administration of both opiates and nonopiate analgesics. We encountered two cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies in the MIVAT group only. MIVAT and MINET represent safe and feasible alternative to conventional thyroid surgery in selected cases and this prospective study has shown minimal differences between these two techniques.

  5. Minimal Erythema Dose (MED) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Chandler, Rachel; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Benson, Amy; Rooney, Deborah; Munshi, Teja; Darlow, Susan D; Perlis, Clifford; Manne, Sharon L; Oslin, David W

    2013-05-28

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) therapy is sometimes used as a treatment for various common skin conditions, including psoriasis, acne, and eczema. The dosage of UV light is prescribed according to an individual's skin sensitivity. Thus, to establish the proper dosage of UV light to administer to a patient, the patient is sometimes screened to determine a minimal erythema dose (MED), which is the amount of UV radiation that will produce minimal erythema (sunburn or redness caused by engorgement of capillaries) of an individual's skin within a few hours following exposure. This article describes how to conduct minimal erythema dose (MED) testing. There is currently no easy way to determine an appropriate UV dose for clinical or research purposes without conducting formal MED testing, requiring observation hours after testing, or informal trial and error testing with the risks of under- or over-dosing. However, some alternative methods are discussed.

  6. Minimizing Costs Can Be Costly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A quite common practice, even in academic literature, is to simplify a decision problem and model it as a cost-minimizing problem. In fact, some type of models has been standardized to minimization problems, like Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAPs, where a maximization formulation would be treated as a “generalized” QAP and not solvable by many of the specially designed softwares for QAP. Ignoring revenues when modeling a decision problem works only if costs can be separated from the decisions influencing revenues. More often than we think this is not the case, and minimizing costs will not lead to maximized profit. This will be demonstrated using spreadsheets to solve a small example. The example is also used to demonstrate other pitfalls in network models: the inability to generally balance the problem or allocate costs in advance, and the tendency to anticipate a specific type of solution and thereby make constraints too limiting when formulating the problem.

  7. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  8. GLOBAL RISKS AND INSTRUMENTS OF ITS MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Havryliuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that economic globalization leads to the formation of macro-economic, political and other risks that are able to grow into global risks affecting, without exception, all national economies, creating a serious threat to national economic security. The emphasis is on the negative elements of a set of global risks, their development and minimize the possibility of using a number of tools. Ensuring firmness of the state to external risks demands continuous monitoring and forecasting of world processes and usage of economic instruments of rapid response for prevention of negative consequences. The essence of the category of "risk" is revealed and deepened. The global risks that can not affect the economic security of Ukraine is disclosed. It is shown that the emergence of these global risks has negative impact on the economic security of Ukraine.

  9. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  10. iQuant™ Analyser: A rapid quantitative immunoassay reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jayaraj; Vasan, Jayaraman Kiruthi; Shah, Malay; Sivaprakasam, Mohansankar; Mahajan, Lalit

    2017-07-01

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) used in rapid quantitative point of care testing require an accurate, reliable and easy to operate instrument to read the LFIA kit and calculate the quantitative result value. We present iQuant® Analyser, an immunoassay reader designed for reading the Quanti® range of LFIA test kits for key markers such as HbA1C, Vitamin D, TSH etc. The instrument utilizes a laser based confocal optics system to capture the test and control lines from the LFIA kit, digitizes the fluorescent signal with high spatiotemporal resolution, computes necessary peak area ratios, applies calibration curves and declares the final result in an automated manner with minimal operator input. The instrument uses kit specific calibration information embedded on each LFIA test kit, to compute the final clinical parameter without using any external calibration chip. An intuitive icon based interface enables easy operation with minimal key presses, suited for point of care applications. The technology is designed in a modular manner to enable the instrument to perform tests on various parameters such as HbA1C, TSH, and Vitamin D etc without any hardware changes, using test-specific LFIA kits. The functional performance of the iQuant Analyser was verified over the range of expected area ratio values with standard reference cartridges that provided stable fluorescent lines. Repeatability of the instrument was found to be excellent with coefficient of variation (CoV) of area ratios found to be less than 1%. The inter-instrument reproducibility was also found to be good with CoV less than 4 %. Tests using blood samples with Quanti LFIA kits verified the accuracy of HbA1C results to be acceptable as per international standards with errors <; 4 %. The iQuant Analyser is a portable, easy to use rapid quantitative immunoassay reader best suited for point of care applications.

  11. A repeating fast radio burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, L. G.; Scholz, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Madsen, E. C.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Seymour, A.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-03-01

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  12. (Efficient identification and analysis of low and medium frequency repeats)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurka, J.

    1991-08-28

    The effective starting date of this grant was May 15. In the first three months of this project we focused primarily on organizational and technical aspects of our research which included: organization of the database of repeats in primates; preparation of software for rapid and sensitive search of novel repetitive elements in GenBank; purchase and installation of the Sun workstation; and research on the mammal-specific MAR1 family of repetitive elements (to be communicated in October).

  13. [Theory and practice of minimally invasive endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H W

    2016-08-01

    The primary goal of modern endodontic therapy is to achieve the long-term retention of a functional tooth by preventing or treating pulpitis or apical periodontitis is. The long-term retention of endodontically treated tooth is correlated with the remaining amount of tooth tissue and the quality of the restoration after root canal filling. In recent years, there has been rapid progress and development in the basic research of endodontic biology, instrument and applied materials, making treatment procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Thus, minimally invasive endodontics(MIE)has received increasing attention at present. MIE aims to preserve the maximum of tooth structure during root canal therapy, and the concept covers the whole process of diagnosis and treatment of teeth. This review article focuses on describing the minimally invasive concepts and operating essentials in endodontics, from diagnosis and treatment planning to the access opening, pulp cavity finishing, root canal cleaning and shaping, 3-dimensional root canal filling and restoration after root canal treatment.

  14. Chemical basis for minimal cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin; Ikegami, Takashi

    -movement. Different from the mere physicalchemical process, any life system preserves its own identity and consistency with respect to the environment. This homeostasis, rooted on the sensory motor couplings, will organize minimal cognition (see also, Ikegami , T. et al., 2008, BioSys., 91, p.388 ]...

  15. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  16. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...

  17. Harm minimization among teenage drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Hulvej; Curtis, Tine; Christensen, Pia Haudrup

    2007-01-01

    . In regulating the social context of drinking they relied on their personal experiences more than on formalized knowledge about alcohol and harm, which they had learned from prevention campaigns and educational programmes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that teenagers may help each other to minimize alcohol...

  18. Minimal cut sets in biochemical reaction networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klamt, Steffen; Gilles, Ernst Dieter

    2004-01-01

    .... We introduce the concept of minimal cut sets for biochemical networks. A minimal cut set (MCS) is a minimal (irreducible) set of reactions in the network whose inactivation will definitely lead to a failure in certain network functions...

  19. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  20. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Minimalism and the Pragmatic Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Falcato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the debate between literalism and contextualism in semantics, Kent Bach’s project is often taken to stand on the latter side of the divide. In this paper I argue this is a misleading assumption and justify it by contrasting Bach’s assessment of the theoretical eliminability of minimal propositions arguably expressed by well-formed sentences with standard minimalist views, and by further contrasting his account of the division of interpretative processes ascribable to the semantics and pragmatics of a language with a parallel analysis carried out by the most radical opponent to semantic minimalism, i.e., by occasionalism. If my analysis proves right, the sum of its conclusions amounts to a refusal of Bach’s main dichotomies.

  2. Minimal universal quantum heat machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D.; Alicki, R.; Kurizki, G.

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed.

  3. Construction schedules slack time minimizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, Michał

    2017-07-01

    The article presents two copyright models for minimizing downtime working brigades. Models have been developed for construction schedules performed using the method of work uniform. Application of flow shop models is possible and useful for the implementation of large objects, which can be divided into plots. The article also presents a condition describing gives which model should be used, as well as a brief example of optimization schedule. The optimization results confirm the legitimacy of the work on the newly-developed models.

  4. Torsional Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We prove explicit upper bounds for the torsional rigidity of extrinsic domains of minimal submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian manifolds $N^n$ with a pole $p$. The upper bounds are given in terms of the torsional rigidities of corresponding Schwarz symmetrizations of the domains in warped...... for the torsional rigidity are actually attained and give conditions under which the geometric average of the stochastic mean exit time for Brownian motion at infinity is finite....

  5. Optimizing Processes to Minimize Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, David

    2017-01-01

    NASA, like the other hazardous industries, has suffered very catastrophic losses. Human error will likely never be completely eliminated as a factor in our failures. When you can't eliminate risk, focus on mitigating the worst consequences and recovering operations. Bolstering processes to emphasize the role of integration and problem solving is key to success. Building an effective Safety Culture bolsters skill-based performance that minimizes risk and encourages successful engagement.

  6. Large-Scale Atmospheric Step-and-Repeat UV Nanoimprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Ishibashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Step-and-repeat UV nanoimprinting for large-scale nanostructure fabrication under atmospheric pressure was realized using high-viscosity photocurable resin and a simple nanoimprinting system. In step-and-repeat UV nanoimprinting under atmospheric pressure using low-viscosity resin, large-scale nanostructure fabrication is very difficult, due to bubble defects and nonuniformity of the residual layer. To minimize bubble defects and nonuniformity of the residual layer, we focused on the damping effects of photocurable resin viscosity. Fabrication of 165 dies was successfully demonstrated in a 130×130 mm2 area on an 8 in silicon substrate by step-and-repeat UV nanoimprinting under atmospheric pressure using high-viscosity photocurable resin. Nanostructures with widths and spacing patterns from 80 nm to 3 μm and 200 nm depth were formed using a quartz mold. Bubble defects were not observed, and residual layer uniformity was within 30 nm ±10%. This study reports on simple step-and-repeat UV nanoimprinting under atmospheric pressure using high-viscosity photocurable resin, as a very widely available method for large-scale mass production of nanostructures.

  7. Minimally Invasive Heart Valve Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhout, Ismail; Morgant, Marie-Catherine; Bouchard, Denis

    2017-09-01

    Minimally invasive valve surgery represents a recent and significant advance in modern heart surgery. Indeed, many less invasive approaches for both the aortic and mitral valves have been developed in the past 2 decades. These procedures were hypothesized to result in less operative trauma, which might translate into better patient outcomes. However, this clinical benefit remains controversial in the literature. The aim of this review is to discuss the evidence surrounding minimally invasive heart valve surgery in the current era. A systematic search of the literature from 2006-2016 was performed looking for articles reporting early or late outcomes after minimally invasive valve surgery. Less invasive valve surgery is safe and provides long-term surgical outcomes similar to those of standard sternotomy. In addition, these approaches result in a reduction in overall hospital length of stay and may mitigate the risk of early morbidity-mainly postoperative bleeding, transfusions, and ventilation duration. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Attention dependency in implicit learning of repeated search context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausei, Valeria; Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2007-10-01

    How much attention is needed to produce implicit learning? Previous studies have found inconsistent results, with some implicit learning tasks requiring virtually no attention while others rely on attention. In this study we examine the degree of attentional dependency in implicit learning of repeated visual search context. Observers searched for a target among distractors that were either highly similar to the target or dissimilar to the target. We found that the size of contextual cueing was comparable from repetition of the two types of distractors, even though attention dwelled much longer on distractors highly similar to the target. We suggest that beyond a minimal amount, further increase in attentional dwell time does not contribute significantly to implicit learning of repeated search context.

  9. Repeated Witnessing of Conspecifics in Pain: Effects on Emotional Contagion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carrillo

    Full Text Available Witnessing of conspecifics in pain has been shown to elicit socially triggered freezing in rodents. It is unknown how robust this response is to repeated exposure to a cage-mate experiencing painful stimulation. To address this question, shock-experienced Observer rats repeatedly witnessed familiar Demonstrators receive painful footshocks (six sessions. Results confirm that Observers freeze during the first testing session. The occurrence of this behaviour however gradually diminished as the experimental sessions progressed, reaching minimal freezing levels by the end of the experiments. In contrast, the appearance and continuous increase in the frequency of yawning, a behavior that was inhibited by metyrapone (i.e,. a glucocorticoid synthesis blocker, might represent an alternative coping strategy, suggesting that the observer's reduced freezing does not necessarily indicate a disappearance in the affective response to the Demonstrator's distress.

  10. Repeated Witnessing of Conspecifics in Pain: Effects on Emotional Contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Maria; Migliorati, Filippo; Bruls, Rune; Han, Yingying; Heinemans, Mirjam; Pruis, Ilanah; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Witnessing of conspecifics in pain has been shown to elicit socially triggered freezing in rodents. It is unknown how robust this response is to repeated exposure to a cage-mate experiencing painful stimulation. To address this question, shock-experienced Observer rats repeatedly witnessed familiar Demonstrators receive painful footshocks (six sessions). Results confirm that Observers freeze during the first testing session. The occurrence of this behaviour however gradually diminished as the experimental sessions progressed, reaching minimal freezing levels by the end of the experiments. In contrast, the appearance and continuous increase in the frequency of yawning, a behavior that was inhibited by metyrapone (i.e,. a glucocorticoid synthesis blocker), might represent an alternative coping strategy, suggesting that the observer's reduced freezing does not necessarily indicate a disappearance in the affective response to the Demonstrator's distress.

  11. Minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonutti, Peter M; Mont, Michael A; McMahon, Margo; Ragland, Phillip S; Kester, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Currently, minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty is defined as an incision length of definition are: 1. The amount of soft-tissue dissection (including muscle, ligament, and capsular damage). 2. Patellar retraction or eversion. 3. Tibiofemoral dislocation. Minimally invasive surgery should not be considered to be a cosmetic procedure but rather one that addresses patients' concerns with regard to postoperative pain and slow rehabilitation. Standard total knee arthroplasties provide pain relief, but returning to activities of daily living remains a challenge for some individuals, who may take several weeks to recover. Several studies have demonstrated long-term success (at more than ten years) of standard total knee arthroplasties. However, many patients remain unsatisfied with the results of the surgery. In a study of functional limitations of patients with a Knee Society score of > or = 90 points after total knee arthroplasty, only 35% of patients stated that they had no limitations. This finding was highlighted in a study by Dickstein et al., in which one-third of the elderly patients who underwent knee replacement were unhappy with the outcome at six and twelve months postoperatively. Although many surgeons utilize objective functional scoring systems to evaluate outcome, it is likely that the criteria for a successful result of total knee arthroplasty differ between the patient and the surgeon. This was evident in a report by Bullens et al., who concluded that surgeons are more satisfied with the results of total knee arthroplasty than are their patients. Trousdale et al. showed that, in addition to concerns about long-term functional outcome, patients' major concerns were postoperative pain and the time required for recovery. Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty have specific functional goals, such as climbing stairs, squatting, kneeling, and returning to some level of low-impact sports after surgery. Our clinical investigations demonstrated that

  12. Solid-state power converter repeatability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dal Gobbo, Anthony; Aguglia, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating power converter repeatability. The focus is on solid-state switch mode power converter for which the most problematic non-repeatability sources are the jitter of the drivers and of the switches leading to output voltage pulses bad repeatability. Both driver and switch turn-on and turn-off delay dispersion have been measured. These measurements confirm that the delay is Gaussian distributed and that the repeatability prediction method is valid.

  13. Fixation of patella fractures with a minimally invasive tensioned wire method: compressive external fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardak, Mohammed Ismail; Siawash, Abdul Razaqu; Hayda, Roman

    2012-05-01

    Current fixation methods of patella fractures are associated with hardware prominence, infection, and failure of fixation. These complications necessitate repeat surgical treatment, increase costs, and limit function. We investigated whether a novel device can effectively treat patella fractures with few complications. A consecutive series of patients with displaced patella fractures with transverse and select other patterns were treated with the technique of compressive external fixation (CEF), a device based on an external tensioned wire construct. Patients were allowed unrestricted motion and weight bearing postoperatively. Patient outcomes were evaluated retrospectively. Eighty-four fractures (26 open) were treated with CEF with 23 performed percutaneously. All of the fractures attained union. The device was removed in the office at 6 weeks. Sixty-one patients regained excellent motion with a mean Insall knee score of 97 points, at an average follow-up of 4 years. Minor complications presented in 11% of patients but did not affect the overall outcome. Complications included minor wire irritation in 14 patients and one case of poor knee motion in a patient presenting with fibroankylosis of the joint. Treatment using the CEF technique is a safe and effective method of treatment of patella fractures with advantages over traditional forms of fixation particularly in cases with a poor soft tissue envelope, salvage situations, and in locations with limited resources. It allows for rapid recovery with minimal complications and no secondary surgery. Its use should be considered in the treatment of these injuries. V, therapeutic study.

  14. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  15. TREATMENT OF THORACOLUMBAR MULTIPLE FRACTURES WITH MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Dolorit Verdecia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To demonstrate that the extrapedicular unilateral percutaneous treatment in multiple thoracolumbar fractures is effective, minimally invasive and can treat several vertebrae at the same time in the same surgery. Method: From January 2007 to January 2015 306 patients with multiple vertebral fractures in the thoracolumbar junction of various etiologies were treated, of which 246 were women and 60 men. Results: The extrapedicular unilateral treatment shows good clinical results that are maintained over time, is performed on an outpatient basis with minimal complications, and enables rapid incorporation of patients to their daily activities. Conclusions: Our study shows that unilateral extrapedicular percutaneous kyphoplasty is an effective treatment for multiple thoracolumbar vertebral fractures. This method makes the procedure less invasive, allowing multiple levels are treated in the same surgical intervention, resulting in relief of pain and stability of the spine, minimal complications and immediate return of the patient to daily activities.

  16. The Construction Solid Waste Minimization Practices among Malaysian Contractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Ahmad A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of minimization of construction solid waste is to reduce or eliminates the adverse impacts on the environment and to human health. Due to the increase of population that leads to rapid development, there are possibilities of construction solid waste to be increased shortly from the construction works, demolition or renovation works. Materials such as wood, concrete, paint, brick, roofing, tiles, plastic and any other materials would contribute problem involving construction solid waste. Therefore, the proper waste minimization is needed to control the quantity of construction solid waste produced. This paper identifies the type of construction solid waste produced and discusses the waste minimization practice by the contractors at construction sites in Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia.

  17. Upper Eyelid Blepharoplasty: Evaluation, Treatment, and Complication Minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Patrick; Ko, Audrey C; Kikkawa, Don O; Korn, Bobby S

    2017-02-01

    Upper eyelid blepharoplasty is one of the most common procedures performed worldwide for both functional and cosmetic indications. There is a high rate of patient satisfaction; however, in this era of social media, patient expectations are higher than ever. Today's digitally savvy patients expect perfect outcomes with no complications and rapid recovery. To achieve optimal results, a careful preoperative evaluation and sound surgical technique is essential for minimizing complications. Here the authors review their approach to the management of the blepharoplasty patient.

  18. Minimally invasive (endoscopic-computer assisted) surgery: Technique and review

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Anand; Yadav, Nirma; Singh, Shipra; Chauhan, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic or minimally invasive surgery popular as keyhole surgery is a medical procedure in which endoscope (a camera) is used, and it has gained broad acceptance with popularity in several surgical specialties and has heightened the standard of care. Oral and maxillofacial surgery is a modern discipline in the field of dentistry in which endoscopy has developed as well as widely used in surgeries and is rapidly gaining importance. The use of different visual as well as standard instruments...

  19. Repeated expansion in burn sequela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanguy, Ivo; Gontijo de Amorim, Natale Ferreira; Radwanski, Henrique N; Lintz, José Eduardo

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents a retrospective study of the use of 346 expanders in 132 patients operated at the Ivo Pitanguy Clinic, between the period of 1985 and 2000. The expanders were used in the treatment of burn sequela. In the majority of cases, more than one expander was used at the same time. In 42 patients, repeated tissue expansion was done. The re-expanded flaps demonstrated good distension and viability. With the increase in area at each new expansion, larger volume expanders were employed, achieving an adequate advancement of the flaps to remove the injured tissue. The great advantage of using tissue re-expansion in the burned patient is the reconstruction of extensive areas with the same color and texture of neighboring tissues, without the addition of new scars.

  20. Minimal families of curves on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels

    2014-11-01

    A minimal family of curves on an embedded surface is defined as a 1-dimensional family of rational curves of minimal degree, which cover the surface. We classify such minimal families using constructive methods. This allows us to compute the minimal families of a given surface.The classification of minimal families of curves can be reduced to the classification of minimal families which cover weak Del Pezzo surfaces. We classify the minimal families of weak Del Pezzo surfaces and present a table with the number of minimal families of each weak Del Pezzo surface up to Weyl equivalence.As an application of this classification we generalize some results of Schicho. We classify algebraic surfaces that carry a family of conics. We determine the minimal lexicographic degree for the parametrization of a surface that carries at least 2 minimal families. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-07-01

    The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

  2. About the ZOOM minimization package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  3. The Troy Microneedle: A Rapidly Separating, Dissolving Microneedle Formed by Cyclic Contact and Drying on the Pillar (CCDP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroo Kim

    Full Text Available In dissolving microneedle (DMN-mediated therapy, complete and rapid delivery of DMNs is critical for the desired efficacy. Traditional patch-based DMN delivery, however, may fail due to incomplete delivery from insufficient skin insertion or rapid separation of microneedles due to their strong bond to the backing film. Here, we introduce the Troy microneedle, which was created by cyclic contact and drying on the pillar (CCDP, and which enabled simultaneous complete and rapid delivery of DMN. This CCDP process could be flexibly repeated to achieve a specific desired drug dose in a DMN. We evaluated DMN separation using agarose gel, and the Troy microneedle achieved more complete and rapid separation than other, more deeply dipped DMN, primarily because of the Troy's minimal junction between the DMN and pillar. When Troy microneedles were applied to pig cadaver skin, it took only 15 s for over 90% of encapsulated rhodamine B to be delivered, compared to 2 h with application of a traditional DMN patch. In vivo skin penetration studies demonstrated rapid DMN-separation of Troy microneedles still in solid form before dissolution. The Troy microneedle overcomes critical issues associated with the low penetration efficiency of flat patch-based DMN and provides an innovative route for DMN-mediated therapy, combining patient convenience with the desire drug efficacy.

  4. Next-to-minimal SOFTSUSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allanach, B. C.; Athron, P.; Tunstall, Lewis C.; Voigt, A.; Williams, A. G.

    2014-09-01

    We describe an extension to the SOFTSUSY program that provides for the calculation of the sparticle spectrum in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), where a chiral superfield that is a singlet of the Standard Model gauge group is added to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) fields. Often, a Z3 symmetry is imposed upon the model. SOFTSUSY can calculate the spectrum in this case as well as the case where general Z3 violating (denoted as =) terms are added to the soft supersymmetry breaking terms and the superpotential. The user provides a theoretical boundary condition for the couplings and mass terms of the singlet. Radiative electroweak symmetry breaking data along with electroweak and CKM matrix data are used as weak-scale boundary conditions. The renormalisation group equations are solved numerically between the weak scale and a high energy scale using a nested iterative algorithm. This paper serves as a manual to the NMSSM mode of the program, detailing the approximations and conventions used. Catalogue identifier: ADPM_v4_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPM_v4_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 154886 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1870890 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, fortran. Computer: Personal computer. Operating system: Tested on Linux 3.x. Word size: 64 bits Classification: 11.1, 11.6. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPM_v3_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 785 Nature of problem: Calculating supersymmetric particle spectrum and mixing parameters in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. The solution to the

  5. Intersession repeatability of acoustic rhinometry measurements in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ahmari, Mohammed Dhafer; Wedzicha, Jadwiga Anna; Hurst, John Robert

    2012-09-01

    Acoustic rhinometry is a rapid, reliable and non-invasive technique for the evaluation of conditions associated with impaired nasal patency. This study aimed to examine the intersession repeatability of acoustic rhinometry measurements of unilateral and combined nasal parameters in a group of healthy volunteers. Twenty healthy volunteers were studied. In each subject, acoustic rhinometry measurements were performed on five consecutive days, with multiple recordings. Five clinically relevant parameters were measured in each session and the intersession repeatability of these measurements was expressed in terms of mean coefficient of variation, intraclass correlation coefficient and inter-item correlations. Intraclass correlation coefficients showed a high, and greater repeatability over time for all the combined (mean) values compared to the unilateral values. All intraclass correlations for combined values were ≥0.80 confirming almost perfect agreement. All intraclass correlations and inter-item correlations were associated with Pmeasurements. Acoustic rhinometry provides highly repeatable measurements of nasal patency, which is best for combined (mean) nasal parameters. This property makes it suitable for use in the diagnosis and follow-up of conditions associated with nasal obstruction, either structural or functional.

  6. ProRepeat: an integrated repository for studying amino acid tandem repeats in proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, H.; Lin, K.; David, A.; Nijveen, H.; Leunissen, J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    ProRepeat (http://prorepeat.bioinformatics.nl/) is an integrated curated repository and analysis platform for in-depth research on the biological characteristics of amino acid tandem repeats. ProRepeat collects repeats from all proteins included in the UniProt knowledgebase, together with 85

  7. Laparoscopic colonic resection in inflammatory bowel disease: minimal surgery, minimal access and minimal hospital stay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2008-11-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is technically demanding but can offer improved short-term outcomes. The introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) as the default operative approach for IBD, however, may have inherent learning curve-associated disadvantages. We hypothesise that the establishment of MIS as the standard operative approach does not increase patient morbidity as assessed in the initial period of its introduction into a specialised unit, and that it confers earlier postoperative gastrointestinal recovery and reduced hospitalisation compared with conventional open resection.

  8. Repeated Maxima of Sunspot Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivodubskij, V.

    2015-12-01

    The explanation for the observed phenomenon of repeated maxima of sunspot cycles is proposed. Key roles in the proposed scenarioplay two tides of toroidal field from the lower base of the solar convection zone (SCZ) to the surface. Deep toroidal field is excited due to Ω-effectnear the bottom of the SCZ at the beginning of the cycle. Then this field is transported to the surface due to combined acting of magnetic buoyancy,magnetic ∇ρ-flow and turbulent diamagnetism in the equatorial domain. Over time the magnetic fragments can be seen as bipolar spots in themiddle latitudes in the "royal zone". This first wave of toroidal field, which is directed up, gives the main maximum activity spots. However, theunderlying toroidal field in the high-latitude polar domains at the beginning of the cycle is blocked by directed downward magnetic∇ρ-pumping and turbulent diamagnetism. Directed to the equator deep meridional flow replaces this field to the low latitudes (the equatorialdomain) during about 1 - 2 years. After that the turn of floating this "retarded" field to surface (second tide of toroidal field). Coming to the surfaceat low latitudes this second portion of toroidal field leads to second sunspot maximum.

  9. The minimal flavour violating axion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Aragón, F.; Merlo, L.

    2017-10-01

    The solution to the Strong CP problem is analysed within the Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) context. An Abelian factor of the complete flavour symmetry of the fermionic kinetic terms may play the role of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry in traditional axion models. Its spontaneous breaking, due to the addition of a complex scalar field to the Standard Model scalar spectrum, generates the MFV axion, which may redefine away the QCD theta parameter. It differs from the traditional QCD axion for its couplings that are governed by the fermion charges under the axial Abelian symmetry. It is also distinct from the so-called Axiflavon, as the MFV axion does not describe flavour violation, while it does induce flavour non-universality effects. The MFV axion phenomenology is discussed considering astrophysical, collider and flavour data.

  10. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  11. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hee Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST, clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care, the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing. The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  12. Strategies to minimize antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Cho, Ill Hwan; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2013-09-12

    Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  13. Repeats and EST analysis for new organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonassen Inge

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeat masking is an important step in the EST analysis pipeline. For new species, genomic knowledge is scarce and good repeat libraries are typically unavailable. In these cases it is common practice to mask against known repeats from other species (i.e., model organisms. There are few studies that investigate the effectiveness of this approach, or attempt to evaluate the different methods for identifying and masking repeats. Results Using zebrafish and medaka as example organisms, we show that accurate repeat masking is an important factor for obtaining a high quality clustering. Furthermore, we show that masking with standard repeat libraries based on curated genomic information from other species has little or no positive effect on the quality of the resulting EST clustering. Library based repeat masking which often constitutes a computational bottleneck in the EST analysis pipeline can therefore be reduced to species specific repeat libraries, or perhaps eliminated entirely. In contrast, substantially improved results can be achived by applying a repeat library derived from a partial reference clustering (e.g., from mapping sequences against a partially sequenced genome. Conclusion Of the methods explored, we find that the best EST clustering is achieved after masking with repeat libraries that are species specific. In the absence of such libraries, library-less masking gives results superior to the current practice of using cross-species, genome-based libraries.

  14. Prochlorococcus: Advantages and Limits of Minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is the key phytoplanktonic organism of tropical gyres, large ocean regions that are depleted of the essential macronutrients needed for photosynthesis and cell growth. This cyanobacterium has adapted itself to oligotrophy by minimizing the resources necessary for life through a drastic reduction of cell and genome sizes. This rarely observed strategy in free-living organisms has conferred on Prochlorococcus a considerable advantage over other phototrophs, including its closest relative Synechococcus, for life in this vast yet little variable ecosystem. However, this strategy seems to reach its limits in the upper layer of the S Pacific gyre, the most oligotrophic region of the world ocean. By losing some important genes and/or functions during evolution, Prochlorococcus has seemingly become dependent on co-occurring microorganisms. In this review, we present some of the recent advances in the ecology, biology, and evolution of Prochlorococcus, which because of its ecological importance and tiny genome is rapidly imposing itself as a model organism in environmental microbiology.

  15. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system. PMID:24313425

  16. UAVSAR: Airborne L-band Radar for Repeat Pass Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moes, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objectives of the UAVSAR Project were to: a) develop a miniaturized polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for use on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or piloted vehicle. b) develop the associated processing algorithms for repeat-pass differential interferometric measurements using a single antenna. c) conduct measurements of geophysical interest, particularly changes of rapidly deforming surfaces such as volcanoes or earthquakes. Two complete systems were developed. Operational Science Missions began on February 18, 2009 ... concurrent development and testing of the radar system continues.

  17. Cyclone Simulation via Action Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, D. A.; Weare, J.; Abbot, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    A postulated impact of climate change is an increase in intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs). This hypothesized effect results from the fact that TCs are powered subsaturated boundary layer air picking up water vapor from the surface ocean as it flows inwards towards the eye. This water vapor serves as the energy input for TCs, which can be idealized as heat engines. The inflowing air has a nearly identical temperature as the surface ocean; therefore, warming of the surface leads to a warmer atmospheric boundary layer. By the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship, warmer boundary layer air can hold more water vapor and thus results in more energetic storms. Changes in TC intensity are difficult to predict due to the presence of fine structures (e.g. convective structures and rainbands) with length scales of less than 1 km, while general circulation models (GCMs) generally have horizontal resolutions of tens of kilometers. The models are therefore unable to capture these features, which are critical to accurately simulating cyclone structure and intensity. Further, strong TCs are rare events, meaning that long multi-decadal simulations are necessary to generate meaningful statistics about intense TC activity. This adds to the computational expense, making it yet more difficult to generate accurate statistics about long-term changes in TC intensity due to global warming via direct simulation. We take an alternative approach, applying action minimization techniques developed in molecular dynamics to the WRF weather/climate model. We construct artificial model trajectories that lead from quiescent (TC-free) states to TC states, then minimize the deviation of these trajectories from true model dynamics. We can thus create Monte Carlo model ensembles that are biased towards cyclogenesis, which reduces computational expense by limiting time spent in non-TC states. This allows for: 1) selective interrogation of model states with TCs; 2) finding the likeliest paths for

  18. Mini-Med School Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Mini-Med Schools are public education programs now offered by more than 70 medical schools, universities, research institutions, and hospitals across the nation. There are even Mini-Med Schools in Ireland, Malta, and Canada! The program is typically a lecture series that meets once a week and provides "mini-med students" information on some of the…

  19. Minimalism context-aware displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yang

    2004-12-01

    Despite the rapid development of cyber technologies, today we still have very limited attention and communication bandwidth to process the increasing information flow. The goal of the study is to develop a context-aware filter to match the information load with particular needs and capacities. The functions include bandwidth-resolution trade-off and user context modeling. From the empirical lab studies, it is found that the resolution of images can be reduced in order of magnitude if the viewer knows that he/she is looking for particular features. The adaptive display queue is optimized with real-time operational conditions and user's inquiry history. Instead of measuring operator's behavior directly, ubiquitous computing models are developed to anticipate user's behavior from the operational environment data. A case study of the video stream monitoring for transit security is discussed in the paper. In addition, the author addresses the future direction of coherent human-machine vision systems.

  20. Against explanatory minimalism in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eThornton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticised both as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation respectively and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein’s Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein’s remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of level of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  1. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation.

  2. Minimalism through intraoperative functional mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M S

    1996-01-01

    Intraoperative stimulation mapping may be used to avoid unnecessary risk to functional regions subserving language and sensori-motor pathways. Based on the data presented here, language localization is variable in the entire population, with only certainty existing for the inferior frontal region responsible for motor speech. Anatomical landmarks such as the anterior temporal tip for temporal lobe language sites and the posterior aspect of the lateral sphenoid wing for the frontal lobe language zones are unreliable in avoiding postoperative aphasias. Thus, individual mapping to identify essential language sites has the greatest likelihood of avoiding permanent deficits in naming, reading, and motor speech. In a similar approach, motor and sensory pathways from the cortex and underlying white matter may be reliably stimulated and mapped in both awake and asleep patients. Although these techniques require an additional operative time and equipment nominally priced, the result is often gratifying, as postoperative morbidity has been greatly reduced in the process of incorporating these surgical strategies. The patients quality of life is improved in terms of seizure control, with or without antiepileptic drugs. This avoids having to perform a second costly operative procedure, which is routinely done when extraoperative stimulation and recording is done via subdural grids. In addition, an aggressive tumor resection at the initial operation lengthens the time to tumor recurrence and often obviates the need for a subsequent reoperation. Thus, intraoperative functional mapping may be best alluded to as a surgical technique that results in "minimalism in the long term".

  3. Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palep Jaydeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "robot" was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom′s Universal Robots. The word "robot" is from the check word robota which means forced labor.The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK, FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc. redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System ® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist ® . It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naοve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions.

  4. Radappertization of minimally processed carrots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, Juliana F.A.; Walder, Julio M.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: juwalder@gmail.com; jmwalder@cena.usp.br; Souza, Miriam C. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mcsouza@unimep.br; Spoto, Marta H.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ)]. E-mail: mhfspoto@esalq.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Full text: The goal of this work was to obtain shelf-stable irradiated carrots. It was evaluate the effect of high-doses (radappertization) of gamma radiation (Cobalt-60) on minimally processed carrots cv. Nantes. Before irradiation carrots were blanched, vacuum packaged in polyethylene film (52 {mu}m) and frozen (-80 deg C) prior to and during radiation processing. Used doses were 10, 20 and 30 kGy. After irradiation the carrot bags were kept at room conditions (25 - 28 deg C and RH 60-80 %) for 90 days period. Physical-chemical characteristics and microorganism population were determined at 1, 30 60 and 90 days after radiation process. Radappertization decreased total soluble solids (TSS), hardness and color. Radiation was responsible for reduction of 15,5% of total carotenoids content. By the other hand the storage period was responsible for 35 % losses. pH was not affected by radiation nor by storage period. Complete sterilization was achieved with doses of 20 kGy and 30 kGy. Radappertization affected negatively the sensorial characteristics of flavor, color and general appearance. Through sensorial analysis was possible to evaluate that polyethylene seal was inadequate for the purpose because allowed photo-chemical reactions in the carrots during the storage period. The metallized film kept best appearance of the irradiated carrots after 90 days storage. (author)

  5. Renormalization of minimally doubled fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Stefano; Creutz, Michael; Weber, Johannes; Wittig, Hartmut

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the renormalization properties of minimally doubled fermions, at one loop in perturbation theory. Our study is based on the two particular realizations of Boriçi-Creutz and Karsten-Wilczek. A common feature of both formulations is the breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry, which requires that the lattice actions are supplemented by suitable counterterms. We show that three counterterms are required in each case and determine their coefficients to one loop in perturbation theory. For both actions we compute the vacuum polarization of the gluon. It is shown that no power divergences appear and that all contributions which arise from the breaking of Lorentz symmetry are cancelled by the counterterms. We also derive the conserved vector and axial-vector currents for Karsten-Wilczek fermions. Like in the case of the previously studied Boriçi-Creutz action, one obtains simple expressions, involving only nearest-neighbour sites. We suggest methods how to fix the coefficients of the counterterms non-perturbatively and discuss the implications of our findings for practical simulations.

  6. Pain treatment with opioids : achieving the minimal effective and the minimal interacting dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppetti, Pierangelo; Benemei, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate and successful management of pain with opioid analgesics is based on tailoring pharmacologic treatment to the individual and identifying the minimal effective dose at which pain is controlled with minimal adverse effects. Morphine and morphine-like-agonists exhibit similar pharmacodynamic profiles, but substantially different receptor affinities and pharmacokinetic properties, which dictate the dosage, route and regimen required to achieve analgesic effect. Opioids exhibit differences in drug elimination resulting in marked variations in the plasma half-life value. Although fentanyl is more potent than morphine, with a shorter duration of action than parenteral morphine, its oral bioavailability is poor and it is administered transdermally. Morphine, with a short half-life and a time to steady-state plasma concentrations of 10-12 hours is better suited than transdermal fentanyl for initial opioid therapy and for the treatment of unstable pain, which requires a fluctuating opioid dose. International guidelines recommend normal-release morphine for initial optimization of individual dose because its pharmacokinetics allow 'real-time' dose regimen changes and rapid identification of the dose required for pain control. Once an effective normal-release morphine dosage is achieved, other administration routes, formulations and opioids can be considered as required. Despite guidelines advocating that transdermal fentanyl should only be used in patients who are shown to be tolerant to strong opioid therapy, in Italy and other European countries, controlled-release or transdermal opioids are often used when starting opioid therapy. Opioids are associated with a wide range of adverse reactions, but these can be minimized with careful drug titration and maintenance. A major challenge with pain control is polypharmacy and the risk of pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions. Prevention and management of interactions rely on careful and timely

  7. Minimally invasive surgery in pelvic floor repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwain, Omar; Aoun, Joelle; Eisenstein, David

    2017-08-01

    To review the use and efficacy of minimally invasive surgery in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair. This review summarizes surgical options for management of POP with special emphasis on minimally invasive surgical approach and discusses the recent experience and feasibility of integrating robot-assisted technology. Minimally invasive approaches have equal efficacy and less morbidity than laparotomy for POP repair, particularly apical prolapse. Robotics may facilitate the rate of minimally invasive surgery for POP repair with greater cost and as yet no proven superiority for conventional laparoscopy. Minimally invasive surgery is the preferred approach to POP repair. Conventional laparoscopic or robotic sacral colpopexy is recommended for apical defect and procidentia.

  8. Minimal complexity control law synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Dennis S.; Haddad, Wassim M.; Nett, Carl N.

    1989-01-01

    A paradigm for control law design for modern engineering systems is proposed: Minimize control law complexity subject to the achievement of a specified accuracy in the face of a specified level of uncertainty. Correspondingly, the overall goal is to make progress towards the development of a control law design methodology which supports this paradigm. Researchers achieve this goal by developing a general theory of optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback compensation, where here constrained-structure means that the dynamic-structure (e.g., dynamic order, pole locations, zero locations, etc.) of the output feedback compensation is constrained in some way. By applying this theory in an innovative fashion, where here the indicated iteration occurs over the choice of the compensator dynamic-structure, the paradigm stated above can, in principle, be realized. The optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problem is formulated in general terms. An elegant method for reducing optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problems to optimal static output feedback problems is then developed. This reduction procedure makes use of star products, linear fractional transformations, and linear fractional decompositions, and yields as a byproduct a complete characterization of the class of optimal constrained-structure dynamic output feedback problems which can be reduced to optimal static output feedback problems. Issues such as operational/physical constraints, operating-point variations, and processor throughput/memory limitations are considered, and it is shown how anti-windup/bumpless transfer, gain-scheduling, and digital processor implementation can be facilitated by constraining the controller dynamic-structure in an appropriate fashion.

  9. Minimal models of multidimensional computations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D Fitzgerald

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The multidimensional computations performed by many biological systems are often characterized with limited information about the correlations between inputs and outputs. Given this limitation, our approach is to construct the maximum noise entropy response function of the system, leading to a closed-form and minimally biased model consistent with a given set of constraints on the input/output moments; the result is equivalent to conditional random field models from machine learning. For systems with binary outputs, such as neurons encoding sensory stimuli, the maximum noise entropy models are logistic functions whose arguments depend on the constraints. A constraint on the average output turns the binary maximum noise entropy models into minimum mutual information models, allowing for the calculation of the information content of the constraints and an information theoretic characterization of the system's computations. We use this approach to analyze the nonlinear input/output functions in macaque retina and thalamus; although these systems have been previously shown to be responsive to two input dimensions, the functional form of the response function in this reduced space had not been unambiguously identified. A second order model based on the logistic function is found to be both necessary and sufficient to accurately describe the neural responses to naturalistic stimuli, accounting for an average of 93% of the mutual information with a small number of parameters. Thus, despite the fact that the stimulus is highly non-Gaussian, the vast majority of the information in the neural responses is related to first and second order correlations. Our results suggest a principled and unbiased way to model multidimensional computations and determine the statistics of the inputs that are being encoded in the outputs.

  10. Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palep, Jaydeep H

    2009-01-01

    The term “robot” was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom's Universal Robots. The word “robot” is from the check word robota which means forced labor. The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder) prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK), FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany) have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc.) redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist®. It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naïve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions. PMID:19547687

  11. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  12. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  13. Caffeine gum minimizes sleep inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rachel A; Kamimori, Gary H; Wesensten, Nancy J; Picchioni, Dante; Balkin, Thomas J

    2013-02-01

    Naps are an effective strategy for maintaining alertness and cognitive performance; however, upon abrupt wakening from naps, sleep inertia (temporary performance degradation) may ensue. In the present study, attenuation of post-nap sleep inertia was attempted by administration of caffeine gum. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 15 healthy, non-smoking adults were awakened at 1 hr. and again at 6 hr. after lights out (0100 and 0600, respectively) and were immediately administered a gum pellet containing 100 mg of caffeine or placebo. A 5-min. psychomotor vigilance task was administered at 0 min., 6 min., 12 min., and 18 min. post-awakening. At 0100, response speed with caffeine was significantly better at 12 min. and 18 min. post-awakening compared to placebo; at 0600, caffeine's effects were evident at 18 min. post-awakening. Caffeinated gum is a viable means of rapidly attenuating sleep inertia, suggesting that the adenosine receptor system is involved in sleep maintenance.

  14. Rapidly separating microneedles for transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan Dan; Wang, Qi Lei; Liu, Xu Bo; Guo, Xin Dong

    2016-09-01

    The applications of polymer microneedles (MNs) into human skin emerged as an alternative of the conventional hypodermic needles. However, dissolving MNs require many minutes to be dissolved in the skin and typically have difficulty being fully inserted into the skin, which may lead to the low drug delivery efficiency. To address these issues, we introduce rapidly separating MNs that can rapidly deliver drugs into the skin in a minimally invasive way. For the rapidly separating MNs, drug loaded dissolving MNs are mounted on the top of solid MNs, which are made of biodegradable polylactic acid which eliminate the biohazardous waste. These MNs have sufficient mechanical strength to be inserted into the skin with the drug loaded tips fully embedded for subsequent dissolution. Compared with the traditional MNs, rapidly separating MNs achieve over 90% of drug delivery efficiency in 30s while the traditional MNs needs 2min to achieve the same efficiency. With the in vivo test in mice, the micro-holes caused by rapidly separating MNs can heal in 1h, indicating that the rapidly separating MNs are safe for future applications. These results indicate that the design of rapidly separating dissolvable MNs can offer a quick, high efficient, convenient, safe and potentially self-administered method of drug delivery. Polymer microneedles offer an attractive, painless and minimally invasive approach for transdermal drug delivery. However, dissolving microneedles require many minutes to be dissolved in the skin and typically have difficulty being fully inserted into the skin due to the skin deformation, which may lead to the low drug delivery efficiency. In this work we proposed rapidly separating microneedles which can deliver over 90% of drug into the skin in 30s. The in vitro and in vivo results indicate that the new design of these microneedles can offer a quick, high efficient, convenient and safe method for transdermal drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  15. Restoration ecology: two-sex dynamics and cost minimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Molnár

    Full Text Available We model a spatially detailed, two-sex population dynamics, to study the cost of ecological restoration. We assume that cost is proportional to the number of individuals introduced into a large habitat. We treat dispersal as homogeneous diffusion in a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion system. The local population dynamics depends on sex ratio at birth, and allows mortality rates to differ between sexes. Furthermore, local density dependence induces a strong Allee effect, implying that the initial population must be sufficiently large to avert rapid extinction. We address three different initial spatial distributions for the introduced individuals; for each we minimize the associated cost, constrained by the requirement that the species must be restored throughout the habitat. First, we consider spatially inhomogeneous, unstable stationary solutions of the model's equations as plausible candidates for small restoration cost. Second, we use numerical simulations to find the smallest rectangular cluster, enclosing a spatially homogeneous population density, that minimizes the cost of assured restoration. Finally, by employing simulated annealing, we minimize restoration cost among all possible initial spatial distributions of females and males. For biased sex ratios, or for a significant between-sex difference in mortality, we find that sex-specific spatial distributions minimize the cost. But as long as the sex ratio maximizes the local equilibrium density for given mortality rates, a common homogeneous distribution for both sexes that spans a critical distance yields a similarly low cost.

  16. Retrograde Renal Cooling to Minimize Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Colli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During partial nephrectomy, renal hypothermia has been shown to decrease ischemia induced renal damage which occurs from renal hilar clamping. In this study we investigate the infusion rate required to safely cool the entire renal unit in a porcine model using retrograde irrigation of iced saline via dual-lumen ureteral catheter. Materials and Methods: Renal cortical, renal medullary, bowel and rectal temperatures during retrograde cooling in a laparoscopic porcine model were monitored in six renal units. Iced normal saline was infused at 300 cc/hour, 600 cc/hour, 1000 cc/hour and gravity (800 cc/hour for 600 seconds with and without hilar clamping. Results: Retrograde cooling with hilar clamping provided rapid medullary renal cooling and significant hypothermia of the medulla and cortex at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. With hilar clamping, cortical temperatures decreased at -0.9° C/min. reaching a threshold temperature of 26.9° C, and medullary temperatures decreased at -0.90 C/min. reaching a temperature of 26.1° C over 600 seconds on average for combined data at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. The lowest renal temperatures were achieved with gravity infusion. Without renal hilum clamping, retrograde cooling was minimal at all infusion rates. Conclusions: Significant renal cooling by gravity infusion of iced cold saline via a duel lumen catheter with a clamped renal hilum was achieved in a porcine model. Continuous retrograde irrigation with iced saline via a two way ureteral catheter may be an effective method to induce renal hypothermia in patients undergoing robotic assisted and/or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  17. Non-random distribution of homo-repeats: links with biological functions and human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Michail Yu; Klus, Petr; Sokolovsky, Igor V; Tartaglia, Gian Gaetano; Galzitskaya, Oxana V

    2016-06-03

    The biological function of multiple repetitions of single amino acids, or homo-repeats, is largely unknown, but their occurrence in proteins has been associated with more than 20 hereditary diseases. Analysing 122 bacterial and eukaryotic genomes, we observed that the number of proteins containing homo-repeats is significantly larger than expected from theoretical estimates. Analysis of statistical significance indicates that the minimal size of homo-repeats varies with amino acid type and proteome. In an attempt to characterize proteins harbouring long homo-repeats, we found that those containing polar or small amino acids S, P, H, E, D, K, Q and N are enriched in structural disorder as well as protein- and RNA-interactions. We observed that E, S, Q, G, L, P, D, A and H homo-repeats are strongly linked with occurrence in human diseases. Moreover, S, E, P, A, Q, D and T homo-repeats are significantly enriched in neuronal proteins associated with autism and other disorders. We release a webserver for further exploration of homo-repeats occurrence in human pathology at http://bioinfo.protres.ru/hradis/.

  18. Assessing the role of tandem repeats in shaping the genomic architecture of great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Farré

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ancestral reconstructions of mammalian genomes have revealed that evolutionary breakpoint regions are clustered in regions that are more prone to break and reorganize. What is still unclear to evolutionary biologists is whether these regions are physically unstable due solely to sequence composition and/or genome organization, or do they represent genomic areas where the selection against breakpoints is minimal. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present a comprehensive study of the distribution of tandem repeats in great apes. We analyzed the distribution of tandem repeats in relation to the localization of evolutionary breakpoint regions in the human, chimpanzee, orangutan and macaque genomes. We observed an accumulation of tandem repeats in the genomic regions implicated in chromosomal reorganizations. In the case of the human genome our analyses revealed that evolutionary breakpoint regions contained more base pairs implicated in tandem repeats compared to synteny blocks, being the AAAT motif the most frequently involved in evolutionary regions. We found that those AAAT repeats located in evolutionary regions were preferentially associated with Alu elements. SIGNIFICANCE: Our observations provide evidence for the role of tandem repeats in shaping mammalian genome architecture. We hypothesize that an accumulation of specific tandem repeats in evolutionary regions can promote genome instability by altering the state of the chromatin conformation or by promoting the insertion of transposable elements.

  19. A Comparison of DWI Repeaters and Non-repeaters Who Attended a Level I Rehabilitation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, James W.; Windham, Gerald O.

    1981-01-01

    Compares behavioral and demographic characteristics of drunk drivers with repeated arrests and drivers not having repeated arrests, after attending an alcohol education program. Previous public drunkeness and previous drunk driving arrests were strong predictors of repeat arrests and were judged useful in screening offenders for rehabilitation…

  20. [Minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang; Sun, Taicun; Huang, Yonghui

    2010-01-01

    To summarize the recent minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR). The recent literature at home and abroad concerning minimally invasive approach for CSR was reviewed and summarized. There were two techniques of minimally invasive approach for CSR at present: percutaneous puncture techniques and endoscopic techniques. The degenerate intervertebral disc was resected or nucleolysis by percutaneous puncture technique if CSR was caused by mild or moderate intervertebral disc herniations. The cervical microendoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy was an effective minimally invasive approach which could provide a clear view. The endoscopy techniques were suitable to treat CSR caused by foraminal osteophytes, lateral disc herniations, local ligamentum flavum thickening and spondylotic foraminal stenosis. The minimally invasive procedure has the advantages of simple handling, minimally invasive and low incidence of complications. But the scope of indications is relatively narrow at present.

  1. Minimal Cells-Real and Imagined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, John I; Merryman, Chuck; Wise, Kim S; Hutchison, Clyde A; Smith, Hamilton O

    2017-12-01

    A minimal cell is one whose genome only encodes the minimal set of genes necessary for the cell to survive. Scientific reductionism postulates the best way to learn the first principles of cellular biology would be to use a minimal cell in which the functions of all genes and components are understood. The genes in a minimal cell are, by definition, essential. In 2016, synthesis of a genome comprised of only the set of essential and quasi-essential genes encoded by the bacterium Mycoplasma mycoides created a near-minimal bacterial cell. This organism performs the cellular functions common to all organisms. It replicates DNA, transcribes RNA, translates proteins, undergoes cell division, and little else. In this review, we examine this organism and contrast it with other bacteria that have been used as surrogates for a minimal cell. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  2. Finding and Characterizing Repeats in Plant Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Jacques; Peterlongo, Pierre; Tempel, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Plant genomes contain a particularly high proportion of repeated structures of various types. This chapter proposes a guided tour of available software that can help biologists to look for these repeats and check some hypothetical models intended to characterize their structures. Since transposable elements are a major source of repeats in plants, many methods have been used or developed for this large class of sequences. They are representative of the range of tools available for other classes of repeats and we have provided a whole section on this topic as well as a selection of the main existing software. In order to better understand how they work and how repeats may be efficiently found in genomes, it is necessary to look at the technical issues involved in the large-scale search of these structures. Indeed, it may be hard to keep up with the profusion of proposals in this dynamic field and the rest of the chapter is devoted to the foundations of the search for repeats and more complex patterns. The second section introduces the key concepts that are useful for understanding the current state of the art in playing with words, applied to genomic sequences. This can be seen as the first stage of a very general approach called linguistic analysis that is interested in the analysis of natural or artificial texts. Words, the lexical level, correspond to simple repeated entities in texts or strings. In fact, biologists need to represent more complex entities where a repeat family is built on more abstract structures, including direct or inverted small repeats, motifs, composition constraints as well as ordering and distance constraints between these elementary blocks. In terms of linguistics, this corresponds to the syntactic level of a language. The last section introduces concepts and practical tools that can be used to reach this syntactic level in biological sequence analysis.

  3. Hepcidin level predicts hemoglobin concentration in individuals undergoing repeated phlebotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Alan E; Schlumpf, Karen S; Wright, David J; Johnson, Bryce; Glynn, Simone A; Busch, Michael P; Olbina, Gordana; Westerman, Mark; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2013-08-01

    Dietary iron absorption is regulated by hepcidin, an iron regulatory protein produced by the liver. Hepcidin production is regulated by iron stores, erythropoiesis and inflammation, but its physiology when repeated blood loss occurs has not been characterized. Hepcidin was assayed in plasma samples obtained from 114 first-time/reactivated (no blood donations in preceding 2 years) female donors and 34 frequent (≥3 red blood cell donations in preceding 12 months) male donors as they were phlebotomized ≥4 times over 18-24 months. Hepcidin levels were compared to ferritin and hemoglobin levels using multivariable repeated measures regression models. Hepcidin, ferritin and hemoglobin levels declined with increasing frequency of donation in the first-time/reactivated females. Hepcidin and ferritin levels correlated well with each other (Spearman's correlation of 0.74), but on average hepcidin varied more between donations for a given donor relative to ferritin. In a multivariable repeated measures regression model the predicted inter-donation decline in hemoglobin varied as a function of hepcidin and ferritin; hemoglobin was 0.51 g/dL lower for subjects with low (>45.7 ng/mL) or decreasing hepcidin and low ferritin (>26 ng/mL), and was essentially zero for other subjects including those with high (>45.7 ng/mL) or increasing hepcidin and low ferritin (>26 ng/mL) levels (P<0.001). In conclusion, hepcidin levels change rapidly in response to dietary iron needed for erythropoiesis. The dynamic regulation of hepcidin in the presence of a low levels of ferritin suggests that plasma hepcidin concentration may provide clinically useful information about an individual's iron status (and hence capacity to tolerate repeated blood donations) beyond that of ferritin alone. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00097006.

  4. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  5. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    suicidal behavior. The results showed that three fourths of the patients attempted suicide more than once (62% nonfatal and 14% fatal outcome). The sex distribution was about the same among the first-evers as among the repeaters. Most repeaters were younger people in their twenties and thirties...... that the psychological climate of the home may be more important than the rupture of early home life. It is noteworthy that the group of repeaters, as against the first-evers, could be characterized by personality disorders and abuse, especially of alcohol: disorders known to be precipitated by a discordant childhood...

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Repeated-Dose Intravenous Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    aan het Rot, Marije; Collins, Katherine A.; Murrough, James W.; Perez, Andrew M.; Reich, David L.; Charney, Dennis S.; Mathew, Sanjay J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A single subanesthetic (intravenous) IV dose of ketamine might have rapid but transient antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Here we tested the tolerability, safety, and efficacy of repeated-dose open-label IV ketamine (six infusions over 12 days)

  7. Quantifying aboveground forest carbon pools and fluxes from repeat LiDAR surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Eva K. Strand; Lee A. Vierling; John C. Byrne; Jan U. H. Eitel; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Michael J. Falkowski

    2012-01-01

    Sound forest policy and management decisions to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 depend upon accurate methodologies to quantify forest carbon pools and fluxes over large tracts of land. LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying aboveground biomass and thereby carbon pools; however, little work has evaluated the efficacy of repeat LiDAR...

  8. Surgical anatomy of the minimally invasive lateral lumbar approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Robert W; Zoccali, Carmine; Skoch, Jesse; Baaj, Ali A

    2015-03-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion approach (LLIF), which encompasses the extreme lateral interbody fusion or direct lateral interbody fusion techniques, has gained popularity as an alternative to traditional posterior approaches. With rapidly expanding applications, this minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approach is now utilized in basic degenerative pathologies as well as complex lumbar degenerative deformities and tumors. Given the intimate relationship of the psoas muscle, and hence the lumbar plexus, to this MIS approach, several authors have examined the surgical anatomy of this approach. Understanding this regional neural anatomy is imperative given the potential for serious injuries to both the motor and sensory nerves of the lumbar plexus. In this review, we critically and comprehensively discuss all published studies detailing the surgical anatomy of the lateral lumbar approach with respect to the MIS LLIF techniques. This is a timely review given the rapidly growing number of surgeons utilizing this technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole heart surgery - discharge; Coronary artery disease - MIDCAB discharge; CAD - ...

  10. Minimally invasive approaches to the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestre, Paul C; Pazmiño, Pablo R; Mikhael, Mark M; Wolf, Christopher F; Feldman, Lacey A; Lauryssen, Carl; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive approaches and operative techniques are becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of cervical spine disorders. Minimally invasive spine surgery attempts to decrease iatrogenic muscle injury, decrease pain, and speed postoperative recovery with the use of smaller incisions and specialized instruments. This article explains in detail minimally invasive approaches to the posterior spine, the techniques for posterior cervical foraminotomy and arthrodesis via lateral mass screw placement, and anterior cervical foraminotomy. Complications are also discussed. Additionally, illustrated cases are presented detailing the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel typing method for Listeria monocytogenes using high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) of tandem repeat regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Chihiro; Takahashi, Hajime; Iwakawa, Ai; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2017-07-17

    Listeria monocytogenes, which is responsible for causing food poisoning known as listeriosis, infects humans and animals. Widely distributed in the environment, this bacterium is known to contaminate food products after being transmitted to factories via raw materials. To minimize the contamination of products by food pathogens, it is critical to identify and eliminate factory entry routes and pathways for the causative bacteria. High resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a method that takes advantage of differences in DNA sequences and PCR product lengths that are reflected by the disassociation temperature. Through our research, we have developed a multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) using HRMA as a simple and rapid method to differentiate L. monocytogenes isolates. While evaluating our developed method, the ability of MLVA-HRMA, MLVA using capillary electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was compared for their ability to discriminate between strains. The MLVA-HRMA method displayed greater discriminatory ability than MLST and MLVA using capillary electrophoresis, suggesting that the variation in the number of repeat units, along with mutations within the DNA sequence, was accurately reflected by the melting curve of HRMA. Rather than relying on DNA sequence analysis or high-resolution electrophoresis, the MLVA-HRMA method employs the same process as PCR until the analysis step, suggesting a combination of speed and simplicity. The result of MLVA-HRMA method is able to be shared between different laboratories. There are high expectations that this method will be adopted for regular inspections at food processing facilities in the near future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... text version SOURCE: Adapted from Trussell J in Contraceptive Technology, 2011, and FDA Office of Women’s Health ... about how to avoid repeat births with both male and female teens. http://www.cdc.gov/teenpregnancy/ ...

  13. DNA repair in the trinucleotide repeat disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lesley; Houlden, Henry; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2017-01-01

    Inherited diseases caused by unstable repeated DNA sequences are rare, but together represent a substantial cause of morbidity. Trinucleotide repeat disorders are severe, usually life-shortening, neurological disorders caused by nucleotide expansions, and most have no disease-modifying treatments. Longer repeat expansions are associated with genetic anticipation (ie, earlier disease onset in successive generations), although the differences in age at onset are not entirely accounted for by repeat length. Such phenotypic variation within disorders implies the existence of additional modifying factors in pathways that can potentially be modulated to treat disease. A genome-wide association study detected genetic modifiers of age at onset in Huntington's disease. Similar findings were seen in the spinocerebellar ataxias, indicating an association between DNA damage-response and repair pathways and the age at onset of disease. These studies also suggest that a common genetic mechanism modulates age at onset across polyglutamine diseases and could extend to other repeat expansion disorders. Genetic defects in DNA repair underlie other neurodegenerative disorders (eg, ataxia-telangiectasia), and DNA double-strand breaks are crucial to the modulation of early gene expression, which provides a mechanistic link between DNA repair and neurodegeneration. Mismatch and base-excision repair are important in the somatic expansion of repeated sequences in mouse models of trinucleotide repeat disorders, and somatic expansion of the expanded CAG tract in HTT correlates with age at onset of Huntington's disease and other trinucleotide repeat disorders. WHERE NEXT?: To understand the common genetic architecture of trinucleotide repeat disorders and any further genetic susceptibilities in individual disorders, genetic analysis with increased numbers of variants and sample sizes is needed, followed by sequencing approaches to define the phenotype-modifying variants. The findings must

  14. Archaeal Nucleosome Positioning by CTG Repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Sandman, Kathleen; Reeve, John N.

    1999-01-01

    DNA shape recognition determines the preferred binding sites for sequence-independent DNA binding proteins, and here we document that archaeal histones assemble archaeal nucleosomes in vitro centered preferentially within (CTG)6 and (CTG)8 repeats, close to junctions with flanking mixed-sequence DNA. Archaeal nucleosomes were not positioned by (CTG)4-, (CTG)5-, or (CTG)3AA(CTG)3-containing DNA sequences. The features of CTG repeat-containing sequences that direct eucaryal nucleosome positioni...

  15. Blockwise Repeated Burst Error Correcting Linear Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Dass

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lower and an upper bound on the number of parity check digits required for a linear code that corrects a single sub-block containing errors which are in the form of 2-repeated bursts of length b or less. An illustration of such kind of codes has been provided. Further, the codes that correct m-repeated bursts of length b or less have also been studied.

  16. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  17. Vacuum grasping as a manipulation technique for minimally invasive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, R. H. M.; van Eijk, D. J.; de Hingh, I. H. J. T.; Jakimowicz, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic surgery requires specially designed instruments. Bowel tissue damage is considered one of the most serious forms of lesion, specifically perforation of the bowel. Methods An experimental setting was used to manipulate healthy pig bowel tissue via two vacuum instruments. During the experiments, two simple manipulations were performed for both prototypes by two experienced surgeons. Each manipulation was repeated 20 times for each prototype at a vacuum level of 60 kPa and 20 times for each prototype at a vacuum level of 20 kPa. All the manipulations were macroscopically assessed by two experienced surgeons in terms of damage to the bowel. Results In 160 observations, 63 ecchymoses were observed. All 63 ecchymoses were classified as not relevant and negligible. No serosa or seromuscular damages and no perforations were observed. Conclusion Vacuum instruments such as the tested prototypes have the potential to be used as grasper instruments in minimally invasive surgery. PMID:20195640

  18. Rapid self-healing hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hydrogel network with flexible-pendant side chains carrying an optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that allows the side chains to mediate hydrogen bonds across the hydrogel interfaces with minimal steric hindrance and hydrophobic collapse. The self-healing reported here is rapid, occurring within seconds of the insertion of a crack into the hydrogel or juxtaposition of two separate hydrogel pieces. The healing is reversible and can be switched on and off via changes in pH, allowing external control over the healing process. Moreover, the hydrogels can sustain multiple cycles of healing and separation without compromising their mechanical properties and healing kinetics. Beyond revealing how secondary interactions could be harnessed to introduce new functions to chemically cross-linked polymeric systems, we also demonstrate various potential applications of such easy-to-synthesize, smart, self-healing hydrogels. PMID:22392977

  19. Selection pressure on human STR loci and its relevance in repeat expansion disease

    KAUST Repository

    Shimada, Makoto K.

    2016-06-11

    Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) comprise repeats of one to several base pairs. Because of the high mutability due to strand slippage during DNA synthesis, rapid evolutionary change in the number of repeating units directly shapes the range of repeat-number variation according to selection pressure. However, the remaining questions include: Why are STRs causing repeat expansion diseases maintained in the human population; and why are these limited to neurodegenerative diseases? By evaluating the genome-wide selection pressure on STRs using the database we constructed, we identified two different patterns of relationship in repeat-number polymorphisms between DNA and amino-acid sequences, although both patterns are evolutionary consequences of avoiding the formation of harmful long STRs. First, a mixture of degenerate codons is represented in poly-proline (poly-P) repeats. Second, long poly-glutamine (poly-Q) repeats are favored at the protein level; however, at the DNA level, STRs encoding long poly-Qs are frequently divided by synonymous SNPs. Furthermore, significant enrichments of apoptosis and neurodevelopment were biological processes found specifically in genes encoding poly-Qs with repeat polymorphism. This suggests the existence of a specific molecular function for polymorphic and/or long poly-Q stretches. Given that the poly-Qs causing expansion diseases were longer than other poly-Qs, even in healthy subjects, our results indicate that the evolutionary benefits of long and/or polymorphic poly-Q stretches outweigh the risks of long CAG repeats predisposing to pathological hyper-expansions. Molecular pathways in neurodevelopment requiring long and polymorphic poly-Q stretches may provide a clue to understanding why poly-Q expansion diseases are limited to neurodegenerative diseases. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. Optimization PCR for Detection CTG/CCTG-Repeat Expansions in the Diagnosis of Myotonic Dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan-Xin; Shen, Hong-Rui; Zhao, Zhe; Bing, Qi; Li, Nan; Hu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophies (DMs) are a group of autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders which are caused by large CTG/CCTG-repeat expansions in untranslated regions of DMPK/ZNF9 gene. The "phenotypic overlap" in DMs creates complication in distinguishing patients with DM1 from patients with DM2 and underscores the need for these patients to undergo genetic test; therefore, detection and accurate sizing of the CTG/CCTG-repeat expansions are necessary. Templates with long CTG/CCTG tandem repeats are difficult to amplify by convention PCR. The aim of our study was to develop an efficient, economic amplification method which based on combination of primer design, modified annealing, and extension conditions in PCR amplification. We detected and analyzed the CTG-repeat expansions in patients having clinical, electrophysiological, and muscle pathology features indicative of DMs by optimization PCR. If no CTG-repeat expansions were detected, we subsequently analyzed the CCTG-repeat expansions in the remaining patients. 42 participants included 25 DMs patients and 17 family members. 22 patients showed CTG-repeat expansions, the CTG-repeat ranged from 53 to 683 and the average was 535; 3 patients showed CCTG-repeat expansions, the CCTG-repeat ranged from 400 to 450 and the average was 416. Molecular genetic tests are essential for DMs diagnosis; Optimization PCR under the optimal conditions of primer design, modified annealing, and extension conditions can be used for efficient PCR in DMs diagnosis; Optimization PCR can greatly improve the positive detection of DMs, provide an economic, accurate, and rapid method for routine diagnostic use. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  1. How do repeat suicide attempters differ from first timers? An exploratory record based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence indicates that repeat suicide attempters, as a group, may differ from 1st time attempters. The identification of repeat attempters is a powerful but underutilized clinical variable. Aims: In this research, we aimed to compare individuals with lifetime histories of multiple attempts with 1st time attempters to identify factors predictive of repeat attempts. Setting and Design: This was a retrospective record based study carried out at a teaching cum Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Methods: Relevant data was extracted from the clinical records of 1st time attempters (n = 362 and repeat attempters (n = 61 presenting to a single Tertiary Care Center over a 4½ year period. They were compared on various sociodemographic and clinical parameters. The clinical measures included Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Coping Strategies Inventory – Short Form, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Statistical Analysis Used: First time attempters and repeaters were compared using appropriate inferential statistics. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of repeat attempts. Results: The two groups did not significantly differ on sociodemographic characteristics. Repeat attempters were more likely to have given prior hints about their act (χ2 = 4.500, P = 0.034. In the final regression model, beck hopelessness score emerged as a significant predictor of repeat suicide attempts (odds ratio = 1.064, P = 0.020. Conclusion: Among suicide attempters presenting to the hospital, the presence of hopelessness is a predictor of repeat suicide attempts, independent of clinical depression. This highlights the importance of considering hopelessness in the assessment of suicidality with a view to minimize the risk of future attempts.

  2. Monitoring plant phenology using digital repeat photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Michael A; Crimmins, Theresa M

    2008-06-01

    Repeated observations of plant phenology have been shown to be important indicators of global change. However, capturing the exact date of key events requires daily observations during the growing season, making phenologic observations relatively labor intensive and costly to collect. One alternative to daily observations for capturing the dates of key phenologic events is repeat photography. In this study, we explored the utility of repeat digital photography for monitoring phenologic events in plants. We provide an illustration of this approach and its utility by placing observations made using repeat digital imagery in context with local meteorologic and edaphic variables. We found that repeat photography provides a reliable, consistent measurement of phenophase. In addition, digital photography offers advantages in that it can be mathematically manipulated to detect and enhance patterns; it can classify objects; and digital photographs can be archived for future analysis. In this study, an estimate of greenness and counts of individual flowers were extracted by way of mathematic algorithms from the photo time series. These metrics were interpreted using meteorologic measurements collected at the study site. We conclude that repeat photography, coupled with site-specific meteorologic measurements, could greatly enhance our understanding environmental triggers of phenologic events. In addition, the methods described could easily be adopted by citizen scientists and the general public as well as professionals in the field.

  3. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  4. Minimally Invasive Thoracic Corpectomy: Surgical Strategies for Malignancy, Trauma, and Complex Spinal Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan R. Lall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of minimally invasive techniques for corpectomy in the thoracic spine provides promise to redefine treatment options in this region. Techniques have evolved permitting anterior, lateral, posterolateral, and midline posterior corpectomy in a minimally invasive fashion. We review the numerous techniques that have been described, including thoracoscopy, tubular retraction, and various instrumentation techniques. Minimally invasive techniques are compared to their open predecessors from a technical and complication standpoint. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches are also considered, with an emphasis on surgical strategies and nuance.

  5. Making the Most of Minimalism in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiersbach, Frederick J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the minimalist movement in music. Discusses generations of minimalist musicians and, in general, the minimalist approach. Considers various ways that minimalist strategies can be integrated into the music classroom focusing on (1) minimalism and (2) student-centered composition and principles of minimalism for use with elementary band…

  6. The relative volume growth of minimal submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2002-01-01

    The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature.......The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature....

  7. Specialized minimal PDFs for optimized LHC calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrazza, Stefano; Forte, Stefano; Kassabov, Zahari; Rojo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    We present a methodology for the construction of parton distribution functions (PDFs) designed to provide an accurate representation of PDF uncertainties for specific processes or classes of processes with a minimal number of PDF error sets: specialized minimal PDF sets, or SM-PDFs. We construct

  8. A new model of Random Regret Minimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.

    2010-01-01

    A new choice model is derived, rooted in the framework of Random Regret Minimization (RRM). The proposed model postulates that when choosing, people anticipate and aim to minimize regret. Whereas previous regret-based discrete choice-models assume that regret is experienced with respect to only the

  9. Flattening the inflaton potential beyond minimal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Min

    2018-01-01

    We review the status of the Starobinsky-like models for inflation beyond minimal gravity and discuss the unitarity problem due to the presence of a large non-minimal gravity coupling. We show that the induced gravity models allow for a self-consistent description of inflation and discuss the implications of the inflaton couplings to the Higgs field in the Standard Model.

  10. Evolution of Determinant Factors of Repeated Sprint Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodríguez-Rosell, David; López-Segovia, Manuel; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Bachero-Mena, Beatriz; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the relationships between repeated sprint ability (RSA) and anthropometric measures as well as fitness qualities in soccer players. Twenty-one professional soccer players performed several anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs), a straight-line 30 m sprint (T30), an RSA test (6 x 20 + 20 m with 20 s recovery), a progressive isoinertial loading test in a full squat, a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (YYIRT-1) and a 20 m shuttle run test (20mSRT). The mean (RSAmean), the fastest (RSAbest), each single sprint time, and the percentage in a sprint decrease (%Dec) in the RSA test were calculated. RSAbest correlated significantly with RSAmean (r = .82) and with all single sprints (p < 0.05), showing a downward trend as the number of sprints performed increased. No significant relationship was observed between the %Dec and RSA performance. CMJs and the T30 also showed a correlation with RSA performance, whereas lower limb strength did not show any relationship with RSA performance. RSAmean showed significant (p < 0.05) relationships with body mass (r = .44), adiposity (r = .59) and the YYIRT-1 (r = -.62), increasing as the number of repeated sprints increased. The 20mSRT showed minimal relationships with RSA performance. In conclusion, maximal sprint capacity seems to be relevant for the RSA performance, mainly in the first sprints. However, high intermittent endurance capacity and low adiposity might help enhance the RSA performance when increasing the number of repeated sprints. PMID:28031763

  11. Evolution of Determinant Factors of Repeated Sprint Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pareja-Blanco Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the relationships between repeated sprint ability (RSA and anthropometric measures as well as fitness qualities in soccer players. Twenty-one professional soccer players performed several anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs, a straight-line 30 m sprint (T30, an RSA test (6 x 20 + 20 m with 20 s recovery, a progressive isoinertial loading test in a full squat, a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (YYIRT-1 and a 20 m shuttle run test (20mSRT. The mean (RSAmean, the fastest (RSAbest, each single sprint time, and the percentage in a sprint decrease (%Dec in the RSA test were calculated. RSAbest correlated significantly with RSAmean (r = .82 and with all single sprints (p < 0.05, showing a downward trend as the number of sprints performed increased. No significant relationship was observed between the %Dec and RSA performance. CMJs and the T30 also showed a correlation with RSA performance, whereas lower limb strength did not show any relationship with RSA performance. RSAmean showed significant (p < 0.05 relationships with body mass (r = .44, adiposity (r = .59 and the YYIRT-1 (r = -.62, increasing as the number of repeated sprints increased. The 20mSRT showed minimal relationships with RSA performance. In conclusion, maximal sprint capacity seems to be relevant for the RSA performance, mainly in the first sprints. However, high intermittent endurance capacity and low adiposity might help enhance the RSA performance when increasing the number of repeated sprints.

  12. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen prevents trinucleotide repeat expansions by promoting repeat deletion and hairpin removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Jill M.; Lai, Yanhao; Rolle, Shantell J.; Liu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    DNA base lesions and base excision repair (BER) within trinucleotide repeat (TNR) tracts modulate repeat instability through the coordination among the key BER enzymes DNA polymerase β, flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and DNA ligase I (LIG I). However, it remains unknown whether BER cofactors can also alter TNR stability. In this study, we discovered that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cofactor of BER, promoted CAG repeat deletion and removal of a CAG repeat hairpin during BER in a duplex CAG repeat tract and CAG hairpin loop, respectively. We showed that PCNA stimulated LIG I activity on a nick across a small template loop during BER in a duplex (CAG)20 repeat tract promoting small repeat deletions. Surprisingly, we found that during BER in a hairpin loop, PCNA promoted reannealing of the upstream flap of a double-flap intermediate, thereby facilitating the formation of a downstream flap and stimulating FEN1 cleavage activity and hairpin removal. Our results indicate that PCNA plays a critical role in preventing CAG repeat expansions by modulating the structures of dynamic DNA via cooperation with BER enzymes. We provide the first evidence that PCNA prevents CAG repeat expansions during BER by promoting CAG repeat deletion and removal of a TNR hairpin. PMID:27793507

  13. Visual Tracking Using L2 Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual tracking has been an active research topic in the computer vision applications. By modeling the target appearance with a sparse approximation over a template set, sparse representation has been applied to the visual tracker, which called L1 tracker. Due to the need to solve the L1 norm related minimization problem for many times, this L1 tracker is very computationally demanding. Although various fast numerical solver is developed to solve the resulting L1 norm related minimization problem, the framework is still a L1 norm related minimization model. Similar to the face recognition problem, sparse approximations may not deliver the desired robustness and a simple L2 approach to the visual tracking problem is not only robust, but also much faster. It may be possible to apply the L2 minimization, instead of L1 minimization, to the visual tracking problems, which has been verified by experiments on challenging sequences in the paper.

  14. A rapid, noninvasive immunoassay for frataxin: utility in assessment of Friedreich ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric C; Santani, Avni B; Perlman, Susan L; Farmer, Jennifer M; Stolle, Catherine A; Marusich, Michael F; Lynch, David R

    2010-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by reduced amounts of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Frataxin levels in research studies are typically measured via Western blot analysis from patient fibroblasts, lymphocytes, or muscle biopsies; none of these is ideal for rapid detection in large scale clinical studies. Recently, a rapid, noninvasive lateral flow immunoassay was developed to accurately measure picogram levels of frataxin protein and shown to distinguish lymphoblastoid cells from FRDA carriers, patients and controls. We expanded the immunoassay to measure frataxin directly in buccal cells and whole blood from a large cohort of controls, known carriers and patients typical of a clinical trial population. The assay in buccal cells shared a similar degree of variability with previous studies conducted in lymphoblastoid cells (~10% coefficient of variation in controls). Significant differences in frataxin protein quantity were seen between the mean group values of controls, carriers, and patient buccal cells (100, 50.2, and 20.9% of control, respectively) and in protein extracted from whole blood (100, 75.3, and 32.2%, respectively), although there was some overlap between the groups. In addition, frataxin levels were inversely related to GAA repeat length and correlated directly with age of onset. Subjects with one expanded GAA repeat and an identified frataxin point mutation also carried frataxin levels in the disease range. Some patients displaying an FRDA phenotype but carrying only a single identifiable mutation had frataxin levels in the FRDA patient range. One patient from this group has a novel deletion that included exons 2 and 3 of the FXN gene based on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of the FXN gene. The lateral flow immunoassay may be a useful means to noninvasively assess frataxin levels repetitively with minimal discomfort in FRDA patients in specific situations such

  15. Trends in the use of minimally invasive surgery in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovaranonte, Preechapon Pleay; Beasley, Spencer W; Maoate, Kiki; Blakelock, Russell; Skinner, Adrian

    2010-04-30

    To determine trends in the scope of use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques in children as a predictor of future operative workload and operating theatre requirements. A retrospective review was conducted of all paediatric patients less than 16 years of age who underwent minimally invasive surgical procedures at Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand between 1996 and 2007. There were 1693 children who received 1826 MIS procedures during a period in which 11,893 operative procedures were performed. MI case-weights, an indirect measure of the financial burden and technical difficulty of the procedures, represented 29% of the workload of the unit overall. There was a rapid rise of the number of MIS procedures from 1996 to 2000, but since then the scope and volume has changed little. Use of MIS in children increased rapidly until 2000 since which time it has remained relatively constant. Recent additional applications have involved a small number of rare low-volume and more complex procedures. These observations may assist in the planning of theatre allocation requirements for MIS in children.

  16. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  17. Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Ralf, Arwin; Aboukhalid, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    .9999985, regional: 0.99919-0.9999988). Haplotype sharing between populations was almost absent except for six (0.05%) of the 12,156 haplotypes. Haplotype sharing within populations was generally rare (0.8% non-unique haplotypes), significantly lower in urban (0.9%) than rural (2.1%) and highest in endogamous groups...

  18. Rapid Functional and Sequence Differentiation of a Tandemly Repeated Species-Specific Multigene Family in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Bryan D; Librado, Pablo; Yeh, Shu-Dan; Solares, Edwin S; Real, Daphne A; Jayasekera, Suvini U; Zhang, Wanting; Shi, Mijuan; Park, Ronni V; Magie, Robert D; Ma, Hsiu-Ching; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Marco, Antonio; Rozas, Julio; Ranz, José M

    2017-01-01

    Gene clusters of recently duplicated genes are hotbeds for evolutionary change. However, our understanding of how mutational mechanisms and evolutionary forces shape the structural and functional evolution of these clusters is hindered by the high sequence identity among the copies, which typically results in their inaccurate representation in genome assemblies. The presumed testis-specific, chimeric gene Sdic originated, and tandemly expanded in Drosophila melanogaster, contributing to increased male-male competition. Using various types of massively parallel sequencing data, we studied the organization, sequence evolution, and functional attributes of the different Sdic copies. By leveraging long-read sequencing data, we uncovered both copy number and order differences from the currently accepted annotation for the Sdic region. Despite evidence for pervasive gene conversion affecting the Sdic copies, we also detected signatures of two episodes of diversifying selection, which have contributed to the evolution of a variety of C-termini and miRNA binding site compositions. Expression analyses involving RNA-seq datasets from 59 different biological conditions revealed distinctive expression breadths among the copies, with three copies being transcribed in females, opening the possibility to a sexually antagonistic effect. Phenotypic assays using Sdic knock-out strains indicated that should this antagonistic effect exist, it does not compromise female fertility. Our results strongly suggest that the genome consolidation of the Sdic gene cluster is more the result of a quick exploration of different paths of molecular tinkering by different copies than a mere dosage increase, which could be a recurrent evolutionary outcome in the presence of persistent sexual selection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Rapid functional and sequence differentiation of a tandemly repeated species-specific multigene family in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifton, Bryan D.; Sanz, Pablo Librado; Yeh, Shu-Dan

    2017-01-01

    results in their inaccurate representation in genome assemblies. The presumed testis-specific, chimeric gene Sdic originated, and tandemly expanded in Drosophila melanogaster, contributing to increased male-male competition. Using various types of massively parallel sequencing data, we studied...

  20. Rapid, Quantitative Assessment of Submerged Cultural Resource Degradation Using Repeat Video Surveys and Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertes, J. R.; Zant, C. N.; Gulley, J. D.; Thomsen, T. L.

    2017-08-01

    Monitoring, managing and preserving submerged cultural resources (SCR) such as shipwrecks can involve time consuming detailed physical surveys, expensive side-scan sonar surveys, the study of photomosaics and even photogrammetric analysis. In some cases, surveys of SCR have produced 3D models, though these models have not typically been used to document patterns of site degradation over time. In this study, we report a novel approach for quantifying degradation and changes to SCR that relies on diver-acquired video surveys, generation of 3D models from data acquired at different points in time using structure from motion, and differencing of these models. We focus our study on the shipwreck S.S. Wisconsin, which is located roughly 10.2 km southeast of Kenosha, Wisconsin, in Lake Michigan. We created two digital elevation models of the shipwreck using surveys performed during the summers of 2006 and 2015 and differenced these models to map spatial changes within the wreck. Using orthomosaics and difference map data, we identified a change in degradation patterns. Degradation was anecdotally believed to be caused by inward collapse, but maps indicated a pattern of outward collapse of the hull structure, which has resulted in large scale shifting of material in the central upper deck. In addition, comparison of the orthomosaics with the difference map clearly shows movement of objects, degradation of smaller pieces and in some locations, an increase in colonization of mussels.

  1. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.

    2005-11-07

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  2. Theories of minimalism in architecture: Post scriptum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the period of intensive development in the last decade of XX century, architectural phenomenon called Minimalism in Architecture was remembered as the Style of the Nineties, which is characterized, morphologically speaking, by simplicity and formal reduction. Simultaneously with its development in practice, on a theoretical level several dominant interpretative models were able to establish themselves. The new millennium and time distance bring new problems; therefore this paper represents a discussion on specific theorization related to Minimalism in Architecture that can bear the designation of post scriptum, because their development starts after the constitutional period of architectural minimalist discourse. In XXI century theories, the problem of definition of minimalism remains important topic, approached by theorists through resolving on the axis: Modernism - Minimal Art - Postmodernism - Minimalism in Architecture. With regard to this, analyzed texts can be categorized in two groups: 1 texts of affirmative nature and historical-associative approach in which minimalism is identified with anything that is simple and reduced, in an idealizing manner, relied mostly on the existing hypotheses; 2 critically oriented texts, in which authors reconsider adequacy of the very term 'minimalism' in the context of architecture and take a metacritical attitude towards previous texts.

  3. Interactive seismic interpretation with piecewise global energy minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Hollt, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Increasing demands in world-wide energy consumption and oil depletion of large reservoirs have resulted in the need for exploring smaller and more complex oil reservoirs. Planning of the reservoir valorization usually starts with creating a model of the subsurface structures, including seismic faults and horizons. However, seismic interpretation and horizon tracing is a difficult and error-prone task, often resulting in hours of work needing to be manually repeated. In this paper, we propose a novel, interactive workflow for horizon interpretation based on well positions, which include additional geological and geophysical data captured by actual drillings. Instead of interpreting the volume slice-by-slice in 2D, we propose 3D seismic interpretation based on well positions. We introduce a combination of 2D and 3D minimal cost path and minimal cost surface tracing for extracting horizons with very little user input. By processing the volume based on well positions rather than slice-based, we are able to create a piecewise optimal horizon surface at interactive rates. We have integrated our system into a visual analysis platform which supports multiple linked views for fast verification, exploration and analysis of the extracted horizons. The system is currently being evaluated by our collaborating domain experts. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Shyam; Neupane, Shailes

    2013-01-01

    To examine the incidence of and risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal. Data were analyzed from a survey of 1172 women who had surgical abortions between December 2009 and March 2010 in 2 clinics in Kathmandu, Nepal. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to estimate odds ratios for the risk factors. Among the respondents, 32.3% (95% confidence interval, 29.6-34.9) had repeat abortions. This incidence rose sharply with age and parity, and was higher among those with no intention of having a future child, those attaining primary or secondary level education, and those attending the non-governmental sector clinic. Women with repeat abortion were similar to those with 1 abortion in terms of contraceptive practice. Among women not using contraceptives at the time of the unintended pregnancy, the 3 most commonly cited reasons were ill health, non-compliance with the method intended for use, and dislike of the method. Women with repeat abortion showed a pattern of contraceptive acceptance immediately after the procedure similar to that of women who had 1 abortion. Repeat abortion is emerging as a major public health issue in Nepal, with implications for counseling and provision of abortion, and for family planning services. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transience and capacity of minimal submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2003-01-01

    We prove explicit lower bounds for the capacity of annular domains of minimal submanifolds P-m in ambient Riemannian spaces N-n with sectional curvatures bounded from above. We characterize the situations in which the lower bounds for the capacity are actually attained. Furthermore we apply...... these bounds to prove that Brownian motion defined on a complete minimal submanifold is transient when the ambient space is a negatively curved Hadamard-Cartan manifold. The proof stems directly from the capacity bounds and also covers the case of minimal submanifolds of dimension m > 2 in Euclidean spaces....

  6. Adopting a new philosophy: minimal invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Joseph A

    2006-06-01

    Dentistry is a dynamic profession with new trends evolving. Minimally invasive dentistry is becoming not just a concept but a way of practicing. Creative people are finding ways, materials, and technology that enable patients to experience less hard-tissue or soft-tissue removal, improved prevention and maintenance, and increased attention to a philosophy of "less is more." The World Congress of Minimally Invasive Dentistry was formed to facilitate the sharing of these new concepts. The members embrace change, and dentistry offers the constant opportunity for such. As the standard of care moves toward minimally invasive dentistry, patients will benefit.

  7. Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmeli, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com [D.I.M.E., Università di Genova, Via Cadorna 2, I-17100 Savona (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d−4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.

  8. Minimal vertex covers of random trees

    OpenAIRE

    Coulomb, Stephane

    2004-01-01

    We study minimal vertex covers of trees. Contrarily to the number $N_{vc}(A)$ of minimal vertex covers of the tree $A$, $\\log N_{vc}(A)$ is a self-averaging quantity. We show that, for large sizes $n$, $\\lim_{n\\to +\\infty} _n/n= 0.1033252\\pm 10^{-7}$. The basic idea is, given a tree, to concentrate on its degenerate vertices, that is those vertices which belong to some minimal vertex cover but not to all of them. Deletion of the other vertices induces a forest of totally degenerate trees. We ...

  9. Rapid-fire improvement with short-cycle kaizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, E

    1999-05-01

    Continuous improvement is an attractive idea, but it is typically more myth than reality. SCK is no myth. It delivers dramatic improvements in traditional measures quickly. SCK accomplishes this via kaizens: rapid, repeated, time-compressed changes for the better in bite-sized chunks of the business.

  10. No impact of repeated extinction exposures on operant responding maintained by different reinforcer rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, John Y H; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2017-05-01

    Greater rates of intermittent reinforcement in the presence of discriminative stimuli generally produce greater resistance to extinction, consistent with predictions of behavioral momentum theory. Other studies reveal more rapid extinction with higher rates of reinforcers - the partial reinforcement extinction effect. Further, repeated extinction often produces more rapid decreases in operant responding due to learning a discrimination between training and extinction contingencies. The present study examined extinction repeatedly with training with different rates of intermittent reinforcement in a multiple schedule. We assessed whether repeated extinction would reverse the pattern of greater resistance to extinction with greater reinforcer rates. Counter to this prediction, resistance to extinction was consistently greater across twelve assessments of training followed by six successive sessions of extinction. Moreover, patterns of responding during extinction resembled those observed during satiation tests, which should not alter discrimination processes with repeated testing. These findings join others suggesting operant responding in extinction can be durable across repeated tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid response learning of brand logo priming: Evidence that brand priming is not dominated by rapid response learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Stephan G; Smith, Ciaran; Muench, Niklas; Noble, Kirsty; Atherton, Catherine

    2017-08-31

    Repetition priming increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Repetition priming can result from two complementary sources: rapid response learning and facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks. In conceptual classification tasks, rapid response learning dominates priming of object recognition, but it does not dominate priming of person recognition. This suggests that the relative engagement of network facilitation and rapid response learning depends on the stimulus domain. Here, we addressed the importance of the stimulus domain for rapid response learning by investigating priming in another domain, brands. In three experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions for brand logos. Strong priming was present, but it was not dominated by rapid response learning. These findings add further support to the importance of the stimulus domain for the relative importance of network facilitation and rapid response learning, and they indicate that brand priming is more similar to person recognition priming than object recognition priming, perhaps because priming of both brands and persons requires individuation.

  12. An L-band SAR for repeat pass deformation measurements on a UAV platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kevin; Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling

    2004-01-01

    We are proposing to develop a miniaturized polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for repeatpass differential interferometric measurements of deformation for rapidly deforming surfaces of geophysical interest such as volcanoes or earthquakes that is to be flown on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV or minimally piloted vehicle (MPV).

  13. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  14. Supersymmetric hybrid inflation with minimal and non-minimal Kaehler potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastero-Gil, M [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Andaluz de Fisica de Particulas Elementales, Universidad de Granada, E-19071 Granada (Spain)

    2007-06-22

    Minimal supersymmetric hybrid inflation based on a minimal Kaehler potential predicts a spectral index n{sub s} {approx}> 0.98. On the other hand, WMAP three-year data prefer a central value n{sub s} {approx} 0.95. We propose a class of supersymmetric hybrid inflation models based on the same minimal superpotential but with a non-minimal Kaehler potential. Including radiative corrections using the one-loop effective potential, we show that the prediction for the spectral index is sensitive to the small non-minimal corrections, and can lead to a significantly red-tilted spectrum, in agreement with WMAP.

  15. A minimal architecture for joint action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Butterfill, Stephen; Knoblich, Günther

    2010-01-01

    What kinds of processes and representations make joint action possible? In this paper we suggest a minimal architecture for joint action that focuses on representations, action monitoring and action prediction processes, as well as ways of simplifying coordination. The architecture spells out...... minimal requirements for an individual agent to engage in a joint action. We discuss existing evidence in support of the architecture as well as open questions that remain to be empirically addressed. In addition, we suggest possible interfaces between the minimal architecture and other approaches...... to joint action. The minimal architecture has implications for theorizing about the emergence of joint action, for human-machine interaction, and for understanding how coordination can be facilitated by exploiting relations between multiple agents’ actions and between actions and the environment....

  16. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  17. Minimally Invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Watch a Broward Health surgeon perform a minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Specialized minimal PDFs for optimized LHC calculations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carrazza, Stefano; Forte, Stefano; Kassabov, Zahari; Rojo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    We present a methodology for the construction of parton distribution functions (PDFs) designed to provide an accurate representation of PDF uncertainties for specific processes or classes of processes with a minimal number of PDF error sets...

  19. Minimally invasive spine surgery: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banczerowski, Péter; Czigléczki, Gábor; Papp, Zoltán; Veres, Róbert; Rappaport, Harry Zvi; Vajda, János

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures in spine surgery have undergone significant development in recent times. These procedures have the common aim of avoiding biomechanical complications associated with some traditional destructive methods and improving efficacy. These new techniques prevent damage to crucial posterior stabilizers and preserve the structural integrity and stability of the spine. The wide variety of reported minimally invasive methods for different pathologies necessitates a systematic classification. In the present review, authors first provide a classification system of minimally invasive techniques based on the location of the pathologic lesion to be treated, to help the surgeon in selecting the appropriate procedure. Minimally invasive techniques are then described in detail, including technical features, advantages, complications, and clinical outcomes, based on available literature.

  20. Minimally Invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Watch a Broward Health surgeon perform a minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. ...

  1. [Minimally invasive approaches for transanal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, W

    2017-06-09

    Since the introduction of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) in the 1980 s, the minimally invasive transanal approach has been a treatment option for selected patients with colorectal diseases. Recently, transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) was introduced as an alternative technique. TAMIS is a hybrid between TEM and single-port laparoscopy and was followed by introduction of transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME). Although the TaTME experience remains preliminary, it appears to be an attractive minimally invasive procedure for carefully selected patients with resectable rectal cancer. The objective of this review is to describe the latest technologies which enhanced progress of minimally invasive transanal approaches for endo- and extraluminal surgery in this area of colorectal surgery.

  2. Minimal Function Graphs are not Instrumented

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mycroft, Alan; Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    The minimal function graph semantics of Jones and Mycroft is a standard denotational semantics modified to include only `reachable' parts of a program. We show that it may be expressed directly in terms of the standard semantics without the need for instrumentation at the expression level and......, in doing so, bring out a connection with strictness. This also makes it possible to prove a stronger theorem of correctness for the minimal function graph semantics....

  3. Gravitino problem in minimal supergravity inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Hasegawa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We study non-thermal gravitino production in the minimal supergravity inflation. In this minimal model utilizing orthogonal nilpotent superfields, the particle spectrum includes only graviton, gravitino, inflaton, and goldstino. We find that a substantial fraction of the cosmic energy density can be transferred to the longitudinal gravitino due to non-trivial change of its sound speed. This implies either a breakdown of the effective theory after inflation or a serious gravitino problem.

  4. Gravitino problem in minimal supergravity inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Fuminori [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Mukaida, Kyohei [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Nakayama, Kazunori [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Terada, Takahiro, E-mail: terada@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study (KIAS), Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Yamada, Yusuke [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We study non-thermal gravitino production in the minimal supergravity inflation. In this minimal model utilizing orthogonal nilpotent superfields, the particle spectrum includes only graviton, gravitino, inflaton, and goldstino. We find that a substantial fraction of the cosmic energy density can be transferred to the longitudinal gravitino due to non-trivial change of its sound speed. This implies either a breakdown of the effective theory after inflation or a serious gravitino problem.

  5. Minimal genera of open 4-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Gompf, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    We study exotic smoothings of open 4-manifolds using the minimal genus function and its analog for end homology. While traditional techniques in open 4-manifold smoothing theory give no control of minimal genera, we make progress by using the adjunction inequality for Stein surfaces. Smoothings can be constructed with much more control of these genus functions than the compact setting seems to allow. As an application, we expand the range of 4-manifolds known to have exotic smoothings (up to ...

  6. Future of Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whealon, Matthew; Vinci, Alessio; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is slowly taking over as the preferred operative approach for colorectal diseases. However, many of the procedures remain technically difficult. This article will give an overview of the state of minimally invasive surgery and the many advances that have been made over the last two decades. Specifically, we discuss the introduction of the robotic platform and some of its benefits and limitations. We also describe some newer techniques related to robotics. PMID:27582647

  7. Flattening the inflaton potential beyond minimal gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hyun Min

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status of the Starobinsky-like models for inflation beyond minimal gravity and discuss the unitarity problem due to the presence of a large non-minimal gravity coupling. We show that the induced gravity models allow for a self-consistent description of inflation and discuss the implications of the inflaton couplings to the Higgs field in the Standard Model.

  8. Implementation of simulation in surgical practice: minimally invasive surgery has taken the lead: the Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Henk W. R.; Oei, Guid; Maas, Mario; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Schijven, Marlies P.

    2011-01-01

    Minimal invasive techniques are rapidly becoming standard surgical techniques for many surgical procedures. To develop the skills necessary to apply these techniques, box trainers and/or inanimate models may be used, but these trainers lack the possibility of inherent objective classification of

  9. Implementation of simulation in surgical practice : Minimally invasive surgery has taken the lead: The Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Henk W. R.; Oei, Guid; Maas, Mario; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Schijven, Marlies P.

    2011-01-01

    Minimal invasive techniques are rapidly becoming standard surgical techniques for many surgical procedures. To develop the skills necessary to apply these techniques, box trainers and/or inanimate models may be used, but these trainers lack the possibility of inherent objective classification of

  10. Introduction. Minimally invasive therapy in five European countries: diffusion, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is a field that has gained a great deal of attention since the mid-1980s. MIT is a new and rapidly growing area of medical treatment based on developments in endoscopy, vascular catheters, imaging devices, and related technologies. Although endoscopes have been in

  11. Surgery in reverse : Minimally invasive with minimum visibility: a virtual training simulator for keyhole surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Stassen, H.; Van der Graaf, A.

    2003-01-01

    From the patients point of view, keyhole surgery is the perfect solution. Recovery from the operation is more rapid, and scarring is minimal. For the surgeon,however, it remains a new and inconvenient way of working, having to watch a video monitor instead of being able to see directly what is going

  12. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  13. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  14. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-03-18

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures.

  15. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  16. CRISPR Recognition Tool (CRT): a tool for automatic detection ofclustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Charles; Ramsey, Teresa L.; Sabree, Fareedah; Lowe,Micheal; Brown, Kyndall; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2007-05-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) are a novel type of direct repeat found in a wide range of bacteria and archaea. CRISPRs are beginning to attract attention because of their proposed mechanism; that is, defending their hosts against invading extrachromosomal elements such as viruses. Existing repeat detection tools do a poor job of identifying CRISPRs due to the presence of unique spacer sequences separating the repeats. In this study, a new tool, CRT, is introduced that rapidly and accurately identifies CRISPRs in large DNA strings, such as genomes and metagenomes. CRT was compared to CRISPR detection tools, Patscan and Pilercr. In terms of correctness, CRT was shown to be very reliable, demonstrating significant improvements over Patscan for measures precision, recall and quality. When compared to Pilercr, CRT showed improved performance for recall and quality. In terms of speed, CRT also demonstrated superior performance, especially for genomes containing large numbers of repeats. In this paper a new tool was introduced for the automatic detection of CRISPR elements. This tool, CRT, was shown to be a significant improvement over the current techniques for CRISPR identification. CRT's approach to detecting repetitive sequences is straightforward. It uses a simple sequential scan of a DNA sequence and detects repeats directly without any major conversion or preprocessing of the input. This leads to a program that is easy to describe and understand; yet it is very accurate, fast and memory efficient, being O(n) in space and O(nm/l) in time.

  17. Photometric Repeatability of Scanned Imagery: UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Clare E.; McCullough, Peter; Baggett, Sylvia

    2017-08-01

    We provide the preliminary results of a study on the photometric repeatability of spatial scans of bright, isolated white dwarf stars with the UVIS channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze straight-line scans from the first pair of identical orbits of HST program 14878 to assess if sub 0.1% repeatability can be attained with WFC3/UVIS. This study is motivated by the desire to achieve better signal-to-noise in the UVIS contamination and stability monitor, in which observations of standard stars in staring mode have been taken from the installation of WFC3 in 2009 to the present to assess temporal photometric stability. Higher signal to noise in this program would greatly benefit the sensitivity to detect contamination, and to better characterize the observed small throughput drifts over time. We find excellent repeatability between identical visits of program 14878, with sub 0.1% repeatability achieved in most filters. These! results support the initiative to transition the staring mode UVIS contamination and photometric stability monitor from staring mode images to spatial scans.

  18. simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... repeats (EST-SSR) markers characterized by new bioinformatic criteria reveal high genetic similarity in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding lines. Kittipat Ukoskit1*, Penjun Thipmongkolcharoen1 and Prasert Chatwachirawong2. 1Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, ...

  19. FRB 121102: A Starquake-induced Repeater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiyang; Luo, Rui; Yue, Han; Chen, Xuelei; Lee, Kejia; Xu, Renxin

    2018-01-01

    Since its initial discovery, the fast radio burst (FRB) FRB 121102 has been found to be repeating with millisecond-duration pulses. Very recently, 14 new bursts were detected by the Green Bank Telescope during its continuous monitoring observations. In this paper, we show that the burst energy distribution has a power-law form which is very similar to the Gutenberg–Richter law of earthquakes. In addition, the distribution of burst waiting time can be described as a Poissonian or Gaussian distribution, which is consistent with earthquakes, while the aftershock sequence exhibits some local correlations. These findings suggest that the repeating FRB pulses may originate from the starquakes of a pulsar. Noting that the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) also exhibit such distributions, the FRB could be powered by some starquake mechanisms associated with the SGRs, including the crustal activity of a magnetar or solidification-induced stress of a newborn strangeon star. These conjectures could be tested with more repeating samples.

  20. [Preventive maintenance of repeated ischemic insults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilenko, A V; Kuklin, A V; Kravchenko, A A; Agafonov, I N

    2008-01-01

    In the review we offer analysis of the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy in treatment of post-functional apoplexy or stroke patients. Published results of the researches specify possible efficiency of carotid endarterectomy in preventive maintenance against repeated apoplectic attack or strokes. Yet the criteria of usage and execution of the carotid endarterectomy are still to be discussed.

  1. Early repeated maternal separation induces alterations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The long-term effects of repeated maternal separation (MS) during early postnatal life on reelin expression in the hippocampus of developing rats were investigated in the present study. MS was carried out by separating Wistar rat pups singly from their mothers for 3 h a day during postnatal days (PND) 2–14. Reelin mRNA ...

  2. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES... the time. Table I-2—Maximum ERP (Watts) Distance from the 4.8 km (3 mi) limit 30 meters (100 feet) 61...

  3. Repeated events and total time on test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2008-01-01

    We adopt the total time on test procedure to investigate monotone time trends in the intensity in a repeated event setting. The correct model is assumed to be a proportional hazards model, with a random effect to account for dependence within subjects. The method offers a simple routine for testi...... and a long-term Swiss clinical study on recurrence in affective disorder....

  4. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2006-12-18

    Dec 18, 2006 ... Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are the repetitive sequence motifs of 1–6 bp (Schlotterer 2000). They are scattered throughout the genomes of all the known organisms ranging from viruses to eukaryotes (Heller et al. 1982; Ellegren 2004). The origin, evolution and ubiquitous occurrence ...

  5. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  6. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads to s...... method involving differences between orthogonal projections onto subspaces generated by within-subject models....

  7. Minimalism in Art, Medical Science and Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okten, Ali Ihsan

    2018-01-01

    The word "minimalism" is a word derived from French the word "minimum". Whereas the lexical meaning of minimum is "the least or the smallest quantity necessary for something", its expression in mathematics can be described as "the lowest step a variable number can descend, least, minimal". Minimalism, which advocates an extreme simplicity of the artistic form, is a current in modern art and music whose origins go to 1960s and which features simplicity and objectivity. Although art, science and philosophy are different disciplines, they support each other from time to time, sometimes they intertwine and sometimes they copy each other. A periodic schools or teaching in one of them can take the others into itself, so, they proceed on their ways empowering each other. It is also true for the minimalism in art and the minimal invasive surgical approaches in science. Concepts like doing with less, avoiding unnecessary materials and reducing the number of the elements in order to increase the effect in the expression which are the main elements of the minimalism in art found their equivalents in medicine and neurosurgery. Their equivalents in medicine or neurosurgery have been to protect the physical integrity of the patient with less iatrogenic injury, minimum damage and the same therapeutic effect in the most effective way and to enable the patient to regain his health in the shortest span of time. As an anticipation, we can consider that the minimal approaches started by Richard Wollheim and Barbara Rose in art and Lars Leksell, Gazi Yaşargil and other neurosurgeons in neurosurgery in the 1960s are the present day equivalents of the minimalist approaches perhaps unconsciously started by Kazimir Malevich in art and Victor Darwin L"Espinasse in neurosurgery in the early 1900s. We can also consider that they have developed interacting with each other, not by chance.

  8. Minimal Invasive Urologic Surgery and Postoperative Ileus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative ileus (POI is the most common cause of prolonged length of hospital stays (LOS and associated healthcare costs. The advent of minimal invasive technique was a major breakthrough in the urologic landscape with great potential to progress in the future. In the field of gastrointestinal surgery, several studies had reported lower incidence rates for POI following minimal invasive surgery compared to conventional open procedures. In contrast, little is known about the effect of minimal invasive approach on the recovery of bowel motility after urologic surgery. We performed an overview of the potential benefit of minimal invasive approach on POI for urologic procedures. The mechanisms and risk factors responsible for the onset of POI are discussed with emphasis on the advantages of minimal invasive approach. In the urologic field, POI is the main complication following radical cystectomy but it is rarely of clinical significance for other minimal invasive interventions. Laparoscopy or robotic assisted laparoscopic techniques when studied individually may reduce to their own the duration and prevent the onset of POI in a subset of procedures. The potential influence of age and urinary diversion type on postoperative ileus is contradictory in the literature. There is some evidence suggesting that BMI, blood loss, urinary extravasation, existence of a major complication, bowel resection, operative time and transperitoneal approach are independent risk factors for POI. Treatment of POI remains elusive. One of the most important and effective management strategies for patients undergoing radical cystectomy has been the development and use of enhanced recovery programs. An optimal rational strategy to shorten the duration of POI should incorporate minimal invasive approach when appropriate into multimodal fast track programs designed to reduce POI and shorten LOS.

  9. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, Jay [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-07-29

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  10. Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-01-16

    Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine.

  11. Minimizing the postoperative complications of severe hypospadias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients (17.39%), including two cases of fistula and two cases of diverticula, needed redo surgery (P < 0.05). All other patients responded to repeated dilatation (four dilatations) in the follow-up. Discussion. Hypospadias is due to failure of the male urogenital fold to fuse in various regions, resulting in a proximally displaced.

  12. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanpere, Made; Ringmets, Inge; Part, Kai; Allvee, Kärt; Veerus, Piret; Karro, Helle

    2014-07-09

    The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996-2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996-2003 and 2004-2011. Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996-2003 to 58.0% during 2004-2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups--non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children--vulnerable with respect to repeat abortion.

  13. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children

  14. Inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation in repeated and non-repeated treatment with zoledronic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Toni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoledronic acid is used to treat bone metastases and has been shown to reduce skeletal-related events and exert antitumor activity. The present in vitro study investigates the mechanism of action of Zoledronic Acid on breast cancer cell lines with different hormonal and HER2 patterns. Furthermore, we investigated the efficacy of repeated versus non-repeated treatments. Methods The study was performed on 4 breast cancer cell lines (BRC-230, SkBr3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Non-repeated treatment (single exposure of 168 hrs’ duration with zoledronic acid was compared with repeated treatment (separate exposures, each of 48 hrs’ duration, for a total of 168 hrs at different dosages. A dose–response profile was generated using sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay and biomolecular characteristics were analyzed by western blot. Results Zoledronic acid produced a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in all cell lines. Anti-proliferative activity was enhanced with the repeated treatment, proving to be statistically significant in the triple-negative lines. In these lines repeated treatment showed a cytocidal effect, with apoptotic cell death caused by caspase 3, 8 and 9 activation and decreased RAS and pMAPK expression. Apoptosis was not observed in estrogen receptor-positive line: p21 overexpression suggested a slowing down of cell cycle. A decrease in RAS and pMAPK expression was seen in HER2-overexpressing line after treatment. Conclusions The study suggests that zoledronic acid has an antitumor activity in breast cancer cell lines. Its mechanism of action involves the decrease of RAS and RHO, as in osteoclasts. Repeated treatment enhances antitumor activity compared to non-repeated treatment. Repeated treatment has a killing effect on triple-negative lines due to apoptosis activation. Further research is warranted especially in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.

  15. Rapid seismic reflection imaging in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberty, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Subsurface characterization in urban areas is important for city planners, municipalities, and engineers to estimate groundwater resources, track contaminants, assess earthquake or landslide hazards, and many other similar objectives. Improving geophysical imaging methods and results, while minimizing costs, provides greater opportunities for city/project planners and geophysicists alike to take advantage of the improved characterization afforded by the particular method. Seismic reflection results can provide hydrogeologic constraints for groundwater models, provide slip rate estimates for active faults, or simply map stratigraphy to provide target depth estimates. While many traditional urban seismic transects have included the use of vibroseis sources to improve reflection signals and attenuate cultural noise, low cost and high quality near-surface seismic reflection data can be obtained within an urban environment using impulsive sources at a variety of scales and at production rates that can significantly exceed those of swept sources. Sledgehammers and hydraulically powered accelerated weight drops allow rapid acquisition rates through dense urban corridors where the objective is to image targets in the upper one km depth range. In addition permit and land access issues; culturally noisy urban environments can provide additional challenges to producing high quality seismic reflection results. Acquisition methods designed to address both coherent and random noises include recording redundant, unstacked, unfiltered field records. Processing steps that improve data quality in this setting include diversity stacking to attenuate large-amplitude coherent (non-repeatable) vehicle noise and subtraction of power line signals via match filters to retain reflection signals near alternating current frequencies. These acquisition and processing approaches allow for rapid and low cost data acquisition at the expense of moderately increased computing time and disk space. I

  16. Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-21

    In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

  17. Minimal vertex covers of random trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulomb, Stéphane

    2005-06-01

    We study minimal vertex covers of trees. In contrast to the number Nvc(A) of minimal vertex covers of the tree A, logNvc(A) is a self-averaging quantity. We show that, for large sizes n, \\lim_{n\\to+\\infty } \\langle \\log N_{\\mathrm {vc}}(A)\\rangle_n/n= 0.103\\,3252\\pm 10^{-7} . The basic idea is, given a tree, to concentrate on its degenerate vertices, that is those vertices which belong to some minimal vertex cover but not to all of them. Deletion of the other vertices induces a forest of totally degenerate trees. We show that the problem reduces to the computation of the size distribution of this forest, which we perform analytically, and of the average \\langle \\log N_{\\mathrm {vc}}\\rangle over totally degenerate trees of given size, which we perform numerically.

  18. Minimally invasive management of urological fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Bragayrac, Luciano A; Azhar, Raed A; Sotelo, Rene

    2015-03-01

    Urological fistulas are an underestimated problem worldwide and have devastating consequences for patients. Many urological fistulas result from surgical complications and/or inadequate perinatal obstetric healthcare. Surgical correction is the standard treatment. This article reviews minimally invasive surgical approaches to manage urological fistulas with a particular emphasis on the robotic techniques of fistula correction. In recent years, many surgeons have explored a minimally invasive approach for the management of urological fistulas. Several studies have demonstrated the feasibility of laparoscopic surgery and the reproducibility of reconstructive surgery techniques. Introduction of the robotic platform has provided significant advantages given the improved dexterity and exceptional vision that it confers. Fistulas are a concern worldwide. Laparoscopic surgery correction has been developed through the efforts of several authors, and difficulties such as the increased learning curve have been overcome with innovations, including the robotic platform. Although minimally invasive surgery offers numerous advantages, the most successful approach remains the one with the surgeon is most familiar.

  19. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  20. On Gauge Invariance and Minimal Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Elizabeth E; Trott, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The principle of minimal coupling has been used in the study of Higgs boson interactions to argue that certain higher dimensional operators in the low-energy effective theory generalization of the Standard Model are suppressed by loop factors, and thus smaller than others. It also has been extensively used to analyze beyond-the-standard-model theories. We show that in field theory, and even in quantum mechanics, the concept of minimal coupling is ill-defined and inapplicable as a general principle, and give many pedagogical examples which illustrate this fact. We also clarify some related misconceptions about the dynamics of strongly coupled gauge theories. Many arguments in the literature on Higgs boson interactions that use minimal coupling, particularly in pseudo-Goldstone Higgs theories, are inherently flawed.

  1. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  2. Incidence of Repeat Breeding Syndrome in Cattle from Four Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the incidence of repeat breeding syndrome in cattle and determined the progesterone profile of repeat breeders in four Local Government Areas of Adamawa State, Nigeria. One hundred herds were sampled during the study and fifty-seven repeat breeders were identified. The proportions of repeat ...

  3. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  4. Minimal-Change Disease Secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kwiatkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is a chronic illness caused by tick-transmitted spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Borreliosis can be extremely threatening if it is not diagnosed and treated in early stages. Kidneys are not typically involved in the disease. However, in infected dogs, Lyme nephritis is present in 5–10% of cases. It is associated with rapidly progressing renal failure. Histopathological examination shows mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with diffuse tubular necrosis, (Dambach et al. (1997. In available literature, there were reports of human's glomerulonephritis associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. These cases refer to membranous and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (Kirmizis and Chatzidimitriou (2010, Zachäus (2008, and Kirmizis et al. (2004. In this paper, we present the case of minimal-change disease (MCD as a result of Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

  5. Minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma: Benefits of flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtseva, I V; Davydova, Y O; Kapranov, N M; Julhakyan, H L; Mendeleeva, L P

    2017-10-23

    Over the last 20 years, the approaches to the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) have changed considerably, which led to an increase in remission rate. Using new diagnostic methods has made it possible to assess the response to treatment more reliably and forecast disease recurrence: allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, new-generation sequencing and multicolor flow cytometry enable minimal residual disease (MRD) detection of with sensitivity of 10(-5) to 10(-6) . MRD assessment with flow cytometry using is a rapidly developing area of research. The goal of multicenter groups that use flow cytometry as a tool to detect MRD in patients with MM is achieving standardization and increasing sensitivity and specificity of this method. This article provides data about the methods used for MRD monitoring and describes the advances in the field of flow cytometry. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Introduction: minimally invasive spine surgery video supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2013-07-01

    This video supplement of Neurosurgery Focus is devoted to minimally invasive spine surgery. Minimally invasive spine surgery has gained popularity amongst patients and physicians over the past decade because it has been shown in select instances to lower blood loss and reduce length of hospital stay for appropriately selected candidates. This supplement includes videos from many of the leaders in the field. Pioneers like Frank LaMarca, Paul Park, Cheerag Upadhyaya, Juan Uribe, and Mike Wang have all sent in videos depicting minimally invasive spinal deformity surgery options. The supplement also includes videos from several different countries, demonstrating how widespread and nuanced minimally invasive spinal procedures have become. Drs. Barbagallo, Certo, Sciacca, and Albanese from Italy; Drs. Gragnaniello and Seex from Australia; and Drs. Liao, Wu, Huang, Wang, Chang, Cheng, and Shih from Taiwan have all sent in nuanced surgical videos that will be of interest to many viewers. I personally enjoyed viewing videos on lumbar degenerative disease surgery depicting unique surgical nuances to treat common problems. Dr. Beejal Amin, Dr. Harel Deutsch, Dr. Daniel Lu, and Dr. Adam Kanter have each submitted videos depicting lumbar decompression and/or fusion for lumbar degenerative stenosis and spondylosis. This supplement also included videos depicting the minimally invasive treatment of uncommon spinal pathologies as well. Videos from Dr. Fred Geisler, Dr. John O'Toole, and Dr. Noel Perin covered topics as varied as sacroiliac joint dysfunction, spinal arteriovenous malformations, and sympathetic chain surgery. I hope that you enjoy this issue of Neurosurgical Focus devoted to videos depicting the surgical nuances of minimally invasive spinal surgery. This video supplement has international appeal, and it has been an honor to be a guest editor on this superb supplement.

  7. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  8. On Time with Minimal Expected Cost!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Jensen, Peter Gjøl; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    ) timed game essentially defines an infinite-state Markov (reward) decision proces. In this setting the objective is classically to find a strategy that will minimize the expected reachability cost, but with no guarantees on worst-case behaviour. In this paper, we provide efficient methods for computing...... reachability strategies that will both ensure worst case time-bounds as well as provide (near-) minimal expected cost. Our method extends the synthesis algorithms of the synthesis tool Uppaal-Tiga with suitable adapted reinforcement learning techniques, that exhibits several orders of magnitude improvements w...

  9. The concept of minimally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews Minimally Invasive Dentistry (MID) from a day-to-day dentistry perspective, focusing mostly on cariology and restorative dentistry, even though it embraces many aspects of dentistry. The concept of MID supports a systematic respect for the original tissue, including diagnosis, risk assessment, preventive treatment, and minimal tissue removal upon restoration. The motivation for MID emerges from the fact that fillings are not permanent and that the main reasons for failure are secondary caries and filling fracture. To address these flaws, there is a need for economical re-routing so that practices can survive on maintaining dental health and not only by operative procedures.

  10. Orbital minimization method with ℓ1 regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Thicke, Kyle

    2017-05-01

    We consider a modification of the orbital minimization method (OMM) energy functional which contains an ℓ1 penalty term in order to find a sparse representation of the low-lying eigenspace of self-adjoint operators. We analyze the local minima of the modified functional as well as the convergence of the modified functional to the original functional. Algorithms combining soft thresholding with gradient descent are proposed for minimizing this new functional. Numerical tests validate our approach. In addition, we also prove the unanticipated and remarkable property that every local minimum of the OMM functional without the ℓ1 term is also a global minimum.

  11. Minimally Invasive Treatment of Spine Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Jason E; Ricks, Christian B; Kanter, Adam S

    2017-01-01

    The role for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) continues to expand in the management of spinal pathology. In the setting of trauma, operative techniques that can minimize morbidity without compromising clinical efficacy have significant value. MIS techniques are associated with decreased intraoperative blood loss, operative time, and morbidity, while providing patients with comparable outcomes when compared with conventional open procedures. MIS interventions further enable earlier mobilization, decreased hospital stay, decreased pain, and an earlier return to baseline function when compared with traditional techniques. This article reviews patient selection and select MIS techniques for those who have suffered traumatic spinal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Roughly isometric minimal immersions into Riemannian manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    . In this talk we will mainly be concerned with {\\em{minimal}} isometric immersions of such geometrized approximations $(G, g)$ of $X$ into Riemannian manifolds $N$ with bounded curvature. When such an immersion exists, we will call it an $X$-web in $N$. Such webs admit a natural 'geometric' extension...... of the intrinsic combinatorial discrete Laplacian, and we will show that they share several analytic and geometric properties with their smooth (minimal submanifold) counterparts in $N$. The intrinsic properties thus obtained may hence serve as roughly invariant descriptors for the original metric space $X$....

  13. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis techniques of the femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski, Michael P

    2012-09-01

    Indirect reduction techniques and carefully planned and executed direct reduction techniques result in maximal preservation of the biology of the fracture site and bone fragments. These techniques, coupled with the use of small soft tissue windows for the insertion of instruments and implants, result in minimal additional trauma to the soft tissues and fracture fragments. Without direct visualization, minimally invasive osteosynthesis (MIO) techniques are more demanding than open reduction and internal fixation; however, the biologic advantages are vast. As such, MIO techniques represent a fascinating new armamentarium in fracture fixation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Minimal mass design of tensegrity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Kenji; Skelton, R. E.

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides a unified framework for minimal mass design of tensegrity systems. For any given configuration and any given set of external forces, we design force density (member force divided by length) and cross-section area to minimize the structural mass subject to an equilibrium condition and a maximum stress constraint. The answer is provided by a linear program. Stability is assured by a positive definite stiffness matrix. This condition is described by a linear matrix inequality. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate the proposed method.

  15. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  16. Repeated interactions in open quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.

  17. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  18. Using a Microscale Approach to Rapidly Separate and Characterize Three Photosynthetic Pigment Species from Fern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayudhya, Theppawut Israsena Na; Posey, Frederick T.; Tyus, Jessica C.; Dingra, Nin N.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid separation of three photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll "a" and "b" and xanthophyll) from fern ("Polystichum acrostichoides") is described using microscale solvent extraction and traditional thin layer chromatography that minimizes use of harmful chemicals and lengthy procedures. The experiment introduces…

  19. Hypoglycaemic hemiplegia: a repeat SPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, S; Tsuruoka, S; Shiigai, T

    1993-01-01

    During a hypoglycaemic right hemiplegia induced by a deliberate overdose of oral hypoglycaemics, brain CT and angiography revealed no abnormalities. SPECTs made one day and six days later showed relative hypoperfusion in the left hemisphere. Repeat SPECT study suggested that the left hemisphere was more vulnerable than the right in the cerebral blood perfusion. This vulnerability might provoke the right hemiplegia in a critical condition, such as severe hypoglycaemia. Images PMID:8509788

  20. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  1. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  3. Repeated Measurement of Divers’ Word Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    side if necessary and identify by block number) WORD FLUENCY MEASUREMENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY DIVING NAVSEA TASK NO. 86-54 SATURATION NEDU TEST...WORDS: <II Word Fluency--,, Neuropsychology’-" Diving Saturation Measurement Pyschology NAVSEA Task #86-54 NEDU Test Plan #86-10 v N. .,#7V REPEATED...function (Fillskov & Boll, -V 1981). One type of test with clinical significance reflects Word Fluency (Borkowski, Benton & Spreen, 1967; Lezak, 1983). Word

  4. Multiplexed Memory-Insensitive Quantum Repeaters

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, O. A.; Jenkins, S. D.; Kuzmich, A.; Kennedy, T. A. B.

    2006-01-01

    Long-distance quantum communication via distant pairs of entangled quantum bits (qubits) is the first step towards more secure message transmission and distributed quantum computing. To date, the most promising proposals require quantum repeaters to mitigate the exponential decrease in communication rate due to optical fiber losses. However, these are exquisitely sensitive to the lifetimes of their memory elements. We propose a multiplexing of quantum nodes that should enable the construction...

  5. Security of Quantum Repeater Network Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-03

    taxonomies for RFID tags, because both RFID tags and quantum links and nodes are sensitive to their local environment, and attacks at the physical level...vulnerable to being hacked . Thus, operation of the quantum repeater network is vulnerable to undetectable disruption of the network operation. This...Jogenfors, J., Elhassan, A. M., Ahrens, J., Bourennane, M., & Larsson, J. (2015). Hacking the Bell test using classical light in energy-time

  6. Inelastic scattering with Chebyshev polynomials and preconditioned conjugate gradient minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Burcin; Mills, Greg; Metiu, Horia

    2008-03-27

    We describe and test an implementation, using a basis set of Chebyshev polynomials, of a variational method for solving scattering problems in quantum mechanics. This minimum error method (MEM) determines the wave function Psi by minimizing the least-squares error in the function (H Psi - E Psi), where E is the desired scattering energy. We compare the MEM to an alternative, the Kohn variational principle (KVP), by solving the Secrest-Johnson model of two-dimensional inelastic scattering, which has been studied previously using the KVP and for which other numerical solutions are available. We use a conjugate gradient (CG) method to minimize the error, and by preconditioning the CG search, we are able to greatly reduce the number of iterations necessary; the method is thus faster and more stable than a matrix inversion, as is required in the KVP. Also, we avoid errors due to scattering off of the boundaries, which presents substantial problems for other methods, by matching the wave function in the interaction region to the correct asymptotic states at the specified energy; the use of Chebyshev polynomials allows this boundary condition to be implemented accurately. The use of Chebyshev polynomials allows for a rapid and accurate evaluation of the kinetic energy. This basis set is as efficient as plane waves but does not impose an artificial periodicity on the system. There are problems in surface science and molecular electronics which cannot be solved if periodicity is imposed, and the Chebyshev basis set is a good alternative in such situations.

  7. Craniocervical junction diseases treatment with a minimally invasive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To introduce a new minimally invasive surgical approach to anterior and lateral craniocervical junction diseases, preserving the midline posterior cervical spine stabilizing elements and reducing the inherent morbidity risk associated with traditional approaches. Methods: We describe a novel surgical technique in four cases of extra-medullary anterolateral compressive lesions located in the occipito-cervical junction, including infections and intra- and/or extradural tumor lesions. We used a paramedian trasmuscular approach through an anatomical muscle corridor using a micro MaXcess(r surgical expandable retractor, with the purpose of reducing morbidity and preserving the posterior muscle and ligamentous tension band. Results: This type of surgical approach provides adequate visualization and microsurgical resection of lesions and reduces muscle manipulation and devascularisation, preserving the tension of the ligament complex. There was minimal blood loss and a decrease in postoperative pain, with rapid start of rehabilitation and shorter hospitalization times. There were no intraoperative complications, and all patients recovered from their pre-operative symptoms. Conclusions: This novel surgical technique is feasible and adequate for the occipito-atlanto-axial complex, with better results than traditional procedures.

  8. Multiplexing schemes for quantum repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Luciano; Van Meter, Rodney

    2011-08-01

    When built, quantum repeaters will allow the distribution of entangled quantum states across large distances, playing a vital part in many proposed quantum technologies. Enabling multiple users to connect through the same network will be key to their real-world deployment. Previous work on repeater technologies has focussed only on simple entanglment production, without considering the issues of resource scarcity and competition that necessarily arise in a network setting. In this paper we simulated a thirteen-node network with up to five flows sharing different parts of the network, measuring the total throughput and fairness for each case. Our results suggest that the Internet-like approach of statistical multiplexing use of a congested link gives the highest aggregate throughput. Time division multiplexing and buffer space multiplexing were slightly less effective, but all three schemes allow the sum of multiple flows to substantially exceed that of any one flow, improving over circuit switching by taking advantage of resources that are forced to remain idle in circuit switching. All three schemes proved to have excellent fairness. The high performance, fairness and simplicity of implementation support a recommendation of statistical multiplexing for shared quantum repeater networks.

  9. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  10. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  11. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  12. [Efficient identification and analysis of low and medium frequency repeats]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurka, J.

    1991-08-28

    The effective starting date of this grant was May 15. In the first three months of this project we focused primarily on organizational and technical aspects of our research which included: organization of the database of repeats in primates; preparation of software for rapid and sensitive search of novel repetitive elements in GenBank; purchase and installation of the Sun workstation; and research on the mammal-specific MAR1 family of repetitive elements (to be communicated in October).

  13. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Manjari, E-mail: manjari@imsc.res.in [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc-HBNI), 4th Cross Road, CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  14. Stalled DNA Replication Forks at the Endogenous GAA Repeats Drive Repeat Expansion in Friedreich's Ataxia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Jeannine; Bhalla, Angela D; Butler, Jill Sergesketter; Puckett, James W; Dervan, Peter B; Rosenwaks, Zev; Napierala, Marek

    2016-08-02

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by the expansion of GAA repeats located in the Frataxin (FXN) gene. The GAA repeats continue to expand in FRDA patients, aggravating symptoms and contributing to disease progression. The mechanism leading to repeat expansion and decreased FXN transcription remains unclear. Using single-molecule analysis of replicated DNA, we detected that expanded GAA repeats present a substantial obstacle for the replication machinery at the FXN locus in FRDA cells. Furthermore, aberrant origin activation and lack of a proper stress response to rescue the stalled forks in FRDA cells cause an increase in 3'-5' progressing forks, which could enhance repeat expansion and hinder FXN transcription by head-on collision with RNA polymerases. Treatment of FRDA cells with GAA-specific polyamides rescues DNA replication fork stalling and alleviates expansion of the GAA repeats, implicating DNA triplexes as a replication impediment and suggesting that fork stalling might be a therapeutic target for FRDA. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Obtaining a minimal set of rewrite rules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors describe a new approach to rewrite rule extraction and analysis, using Minimal Representation Graphs. This approach provides a mechanism for obtaining the smallest possible rule set – within a context-dependent rewrite rule...

  16. Qualifying and quantifying minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Marsha Y; Amodio, Piero; Cook, Nicola A

    2016-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is the term applied to the neuropsychiatric status of patients with cirrhosis who are unimpaired on clinical examination but show alterations in neuropsychological tests exploring psychomotor speed/executive function and/or in neurophysiological variables. There is ......Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is the term applied to the neuropsychiatric status of patients with cirrhosis who are unimpaired on clinical examination but show alterations in neuropsychological tests exploring psychomotor speed/executive function and/or in neurophysiological variables...... analytical techniques may provide better diagnostic information while the advent of portable wireless headsets may facilitate more widespread use. A large number of other diagnostic tools have been validated for the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy including Critical Flicker Frequency......, the Inhibitory Control Test, the Stroop test, the Scan package and the Continuous Reaction Time; each has its pros and cons; strengths and weaknesses; protagonists and detractors. Recent AASLD/EASL Practice Guidelines suggest that the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy should be based on the PHES test...

  17. Infrared dynamics of Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2010-01-01

    We study the gauge sector of Minimal Walking Technicolor, which is an SU(2) gauge theory with nf=2 flavors of Wilson fermions in the adjoint representation. Numerical simulations are performed on lattices Nt x Ns^3, with Ns ranging from 8 to 16 and Nt=2Ns, at fixed \\beta=2.25, and varying...

  18. Higher-Order Minimal Functional Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Neil D; Rosendahl, Mads

    1994-01-01

    We present a minimal function graph semantics for a higher-order functional language with applicative evaluation order. The semantics captures the intermediate calls performed during the evaluation of a program. This information may be used in abstract interpretation as a basis for proving...

  19. Minimally processed fruit salad enriched with Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paula

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... 1Food Science and Technology Department, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Southeast of. Minas Gerais ... Minimal processing promotes browning of some vegetal tissues due to cell membrane disruption, which .... polypyrrolidone (PVPP), three drops of Triton X-100 and 20 mL of.

  20. Lateral minimal parathyroidectomy: safety and cosmetic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Ilan; Shpitzer, Thomas; Morgenshtern, Sara; Shvero, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Surgery has been the cornerstone of treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism for almost three decades. The recent application of state-of-the art imaging technologies to localize hyperfunctioning adenomas preoperatively has enabled surgeons to minimize the surgical procedure, reduce total operation time and improve cosmetic results without compromising the cure rate. Twenty-one patients with a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism were selected for treatment with the lateral minimal parathyroidectomy approach following preoperative imaging with ultrasonography, Tc-sestamibi scan, or both. All patients were followed during hospitalization and for three months after for calcium levels and cosmetic results. The procedure was performed by the same surgical team for all 21 patients; under general anesthesia in 20 patients and under deep sedation in 1 patient at high surgical risk. In all cases, parathyroid adenoma was accurately localized by at least one of the imaging modalities before surgery: ultrasonography in 16 patients (76%), Tc-sestamibi scan in 15 (71%), and both in 10 (48%). Average total operative time for the lateral minimal invasive approach was 46 minutes (range 30-65 minutes). Blood calcium levels returned to normal in all patients, and cosmetic results were graded good to excellent. With accurate preoperative localization of unilateral parathyroid adenoma by any imaging modality and careful patient selection, lateral minimal parathyroidectomy performed by a skilled surgeon may serve as a safe, effective procedure with good clinical and aesthetic outcomes.

  1. Minimal Mimicry: Mere Effector Matching Induces Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparenberg, Peggy; Topolinski, Sascha; Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Both mimicking and being mimicked induces preference for a target. The present experiments investigate the minimal sufficient conditions for this mimicry-preference link to occur. We argue that mere effector matching between one's own and the other person's movement is sufficient to induce preference, independent of which movement is actually…

  2. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowang

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical) description logic reasoning.

  3. An algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2013-12-01

    This is devoted to the consideration of a new algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, simplify this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. Results of computer experiments with decision tables from UCI ML Repository are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological model in the Einstein gravitational theory with a minimally coupled scalar field. We consider a non-interacting combination of scalar field and perfect fluid as the source of matter components which are separately conserved. The dynamics of cosmic scalar ...

  5. Waste minimization in a petrochemical company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan, Marcelo [Oxiteno S.A., Industria e Comercio, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A way to manage industrial effluents consists in reducing their generation or treating them when elimination or minimization is economically unachievable. This work aims to present the modifications adopted in a petrochemical plant to adequate and, or, reduce the generation of industrial effluent. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking in the minimal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking in the minimal supersymmetric standard model ... Supersymmetry breaking; MSSM; mechanisms. ... The essentials of gauge, gravity, anomaly and gaugino/higgsino mediation mechanisms are covered briefly and the phenomenology of the associated models is touched upon.

  7. Towards the assembly of a minimal oscillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourian, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Life must have started with lower degree of complexity and connectivity. This statement readily triggers the question how simple is the simplest representation of life? In different words and considering a constructive approach, what are the requirements for creating a minimal cell? This thesis sets

  8. Minimizing convex functions by continuous descent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Aizicovici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study continuous descent methods for minimizing convex functions, defined on general Banach spaces, which are associated with an appropriate complete metric space of vector fields. We show that there exists an everywhere dense open set in this space of vector fields such that each of its elements generates strongly convergent trajectories.

  9. An Introduction to Clique Minimal Separator Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Berry

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review which presents and explains the decomposition of graphs by clique minimal separators. The pace is leisurely, we give many examples and figures. Easy algorithms are provided to implement this decomposition. The historical and theoretical background is given, as well as sketches of proofs of the structural results involved.

  10. Mesonic spectroscopy of Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the structure and the novel emerging features of the mesonic non-singlet spectrum of the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) theory. Precision measurements in the nonsinglet pseudoscalar and vector channels are compared to the expectations for an IR-conformal field theory and a QCD-l...

  11. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowang

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical) description logic reasoning. PMID:28750030

  12. Block Coordinate Descent Only Converge to Minimizers

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Enbin; Shen, Zhubin; Shi, Qingjiang

    2017-01-01

    Given a non-convex twice continuously differentiable cost function with Lipschitz continuous gradient, we prove that all of block coordinate gradient descent, block mirror descent and proximal block coordinate descent converge to a local minimizer, almost surely with random initialization. Furthermore, we show that these results also hold true even for the cost functions with non-isolated critical points.

  13. New trends in minimally invasive urological surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Rajan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The perceived benefits of minimally-invasive surgery include less postoperative pain, shorter hospitalization, reduced morbidity and better cosmesis while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic outcome. We review the new trends in minimally-invasive urological surgery. Materials and method: We reviewed the English language literature using the National Library of Medicine database to identify the latest technological advances in minimally-invasive surgery with particular reference to urology. Results: Amongst other advances, studies incorporating needlescopic surgery, laparoendoscopic single-site surgery , magnetic anchoring and guidance systems, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery and flexible robots were considered of interest. The results from initial animal and human studies are also outlined. Conclusion: Minimally-invasive surgery continues to evolve to meet the demands of the operators and patients. Many novel technologies are still in the testing phase, whilst others have entered clinical practice. Further evaluation is required to confirm the safety and efficacy of these techniques and validate the published reports.

  14. Probabilistic inspection strategies for minimizing service failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brot, Abraham

    1994-01-01

    The INSIM computer program is described which simulates the 'limited fatigue life' environment in which aircraft structures generally operate. The use of INSIM to develop inspection strategies which aim to minimize service failures is demonstrated. Damage-tolerance methodology, inspection thresholds and customized inspections are simulated using the probability of failure as the driving parameter.

  15. Minimizing driver's irritation at a roadblock

    CERN Document Server

    Vleugels, C J J; Anthonissen, M J H; Seidman, T I

    2013-01-01

    Urban traffic is a logistic issue which can have many societal implications, especially when, due to a too high density of cars, the network of streets of a city becomes blocked, and consequently, pedestrians, bicycles, and cars start sharing the same traffic conditions potentially leading to high irritations (of people) and therefore to chaos. In this paper we focus our attention on a simple scenario: We model the driver's irritation induced by the presence of a roadblock. As a natural generalization, we extend the model for the two one-way crossroads traffic presented by M.E. Fouladvand and M. Nematollahi to that of a roadblock. Our discrete model defines and minimizes the total waiting time. The novelty lies in introducing the (total) driver's irritation and its minimization. Finally, we apply our model to a real-world situation: rush hour traffic in Hillegom, The Netherlands. We observe that minimizing the total waiting time and minimizing the total driver's irritation lead to different traffic light stra...

  16. Minimally invasive treatments of uterine fibroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341736341

    2012-01-01

    This thesis assesses clinical results and technical developments of two minimally invasive treatments for symptomatic uterine fibroids: uterine artery embolization (UAE) and magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU). Part I: Uterine artery embolization The results of a

  17. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Eric J.; Guy, T. Sloane; Smith, Robert L.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Shemin, Richard J.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Hummel, Brian W.; Khan, Junaid H.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Smith, J. Michael; Wolfe, J. Alan; Weldner, Paul W.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Minimally invasive mitral valve operations are increasingly common in the United States, but robotic-assisted approaches have not been widely adopted for a variety of reasons. This expert opinion reviews the state of the art and defines best practices, training, and techniques for developing a successful robotics program. PMID:27662478

  18. A Generalized Random Regret Minimization Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents, discusses and tests a generalized Random Regret Minimization (G-RRM) model. The G-RRM model is created by replacing a fixed constant in the attribute-specific regret functions of the RRM model, by a regret-weight variable. Depending on the value of the regret-weights, the G-RRM

  19. Minimally invasive surgery for Achilles tendon pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Maffulli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Maffulli1, Umile Giuseppe Longo2, Filippo Spiezia2, Vincenzo Denaro21Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, England; 2Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Minimally invasive trauma and orthopedic surgery is increasingly common, though technically demanding. Its use for pathologies of the Achilles tendon (AT hold the promise to allow faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, and improved functional outcomes when compared to traditional open procedures, which can lead to difficulty with wound healing because of the tenuous blood supply and increased chance of wound breakdown and infection. We present the recent advances in the field of minimally invasive AT surgery for tendinopathy, acute ruptures, chronic tears, and chronic avulsions of the AT. In our hands, minimally invasive surgery has provided similar results to those obtained with open surgery, with decreased perioperative morbidity, decreased duration of hospital stay, and reduced costs. So far, the studies on minimally invasive orthopedic techniques are of moderate scientific quality with short follow-up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-up are needed to justify the long-term advantages of these techniques over traditional ones.Keywords: tendinopathy, rupture, percutanous repair, less invasive

  20. DNA evolved to minimize frameshift mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Agoni, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Point mutations can surely be dangerous but what is worst than to lose the reading frame?! Does DNA evolved a strategy to try to limit frameshift mutations?! Here we investigate if DNA sequences effectively evolved a system to minimize frameshift mutations analyzing the transcripts of proteins with high molecular weights.

  1. Minimal theory of quasidilaton massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a quasidilaton scalar field to the minimal theory of massive gravity with the Minkowski fiducial metric, in such a way that the quasidilaton global symmetry is maintained and that the theory admits a stable self-accelerating de Sitter solution. We start with a precursor theory that contains three propagating gravitational degrees of freedom without a quasidilaton scalar and introduce Stückelberg fields to covariantize its action. This makes it possible for us to formulate the quasidilaton global symmetry that mixes the Stückelberg fields and the quasidilaton scalar field. By the Hamiltonian analysis we confirm that the precursor theory with the quasidilaton scalar contains 4 degrees of freedom, three from the precursor massive gravity and one from the quasidilaton scalar. We further remove one propagating degree of freedom to construct the minimal quasidilaton theory with three propagating degrees of freedom, corresponding to two polarizations of gravitational waves from the minimal theory of massive gravity and one scalar from the quasidilaton field, by carefully introducing two additional constraints to the system in the Hamiltonian language. Switching to the Lagrangian language, we find self-accelerating de Sitter solutions in the minimal quasidilaton theory and analyze their stability. It is found that the self-accelerating de Sitter solution is stable in a wide range of parameters.

  2. Microbial safety of minimally processed foods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Novak, John S; Sapers, Gerald M; Juneja, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    ...-course meals. All are expected to be portioned and minimally processed to balance the naturalness of unaltered foods with a concern for safety. Yet the responsibility for proper food preparation and handling remains with the naïve modern consumer, who may be less adept in food preparations than his or her less sophisticated ancestors. As a result,...

  3. Kundt spacetimes minimally coupled to scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahamtan, T. [Charles University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Svitek, O. [Charles University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-15

    We derive an exact solution belonging to the Kundt class of spacetimes both with and without a cosmological constant that are minimally coupled to a free massless scalar field. We show the algebraic type of these solutions and give interpretation of the results. Subsequently, we look for solutions additionally containing an electromagnetic field satisfying nonlinear field equations. (orig.)

  4. Fractality in selfsimilar minimal mass structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tommasi, D.; Maddalena, F.; Puglisi, G.; Trentadue, F.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we study the diffusely observed occurrence of Fractality and Self-organized Criticality in mechanical systems. We analytically show, based on a prototypical compressed tensegrity structure, that these phenomena can be viewed as the result of the contemporary attainment of mass minimization and global stability in elastic systems.

  5. Repeated buckling of composite shear panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Josef; Weller, Tanchum

    1990-01-01

    Failures in service of aerospace structures and research at the Technion Aircraft Structures Laboratory have revealed that repeatedly buckled stiffened shear panels might be susceptible to premature fatigue failures. Extensive experimental and analytical studies have been performed at Technion on repeated buckling, far in excess of initial buckling, for both metal and composite shear panels with focus on the influence of the surrounding structure. The core of the experimental investigation consisted of repeated buckling and postbuckling tests on Wagner beams in a three-point loading system under realistic test conditions. The effects of varying sizes of stiffeners, of the magnitude of initial buckling loads, of the panel aspect ratio and of the cyclic shearing force, V sub cyc, were studied. The cyclic to critical shear buckling ratios, (V sub cyc/V sub cr) were on the high side, as needed for efficient panel design, yet all within possible flight envelopes. The experiments were supplemented by analytical and numerical analyses. For the metal shear panels the test and numerical results were synthesized into prediction formulas, which relate the life of the metal shear panels to two cyclic load parameters. The composite shear panels studied were hybrid beams with graphite/epoxy webs bonded to aluminum alloy frames. The test results demonstrated that composite panels were less fatigue sensitive than comparable metal ones, and that repeated buckling, even when causing extensive damage, did not reduce the residual strength by more than 20 percent. All the composite panels sustained the specified fatigue life of 250,000 cycles. The effect of local unstiffened holes on the durability of repeatedly buckled shear panels was studied for one series of the metal panels. Tests on 2024 T3 aluminum panels with relatively small unstiffened holes in the center of the panels demonstrated premature fatigue failure, compared to panels without holes. Preliminary tests on two graphite

  6. Nucleotide sequence, DNA damage location and protein stoichiometry influence base excision repair outcome at CAG/CTG repeats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Agathi-Vasiliki; Pearson, Christopher E.; Della Maria, Julie; Trottier, Yvon; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Wilson, David M.; Merienne, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Expansion of CAG/CTG repeats is the underlying cause of >fourteen genetic disorders, including Huntington’s disease (HD) and myotonic dystrophy. The mutational process is ongoing, with increases in repeat size enhancing the toxicity of the expansion in specific tissues. In many repeat diseases the repeats exhibit high instability in the striatum, whereas instability is minimal in the cerebellum. We provide molecular insights as to how base excision repair (BER) protein stoichiometry may contribute to the tissue-selective instability of CAG/CTG repeats by using specific repair assays. Oligonucleotide substrates with an abasic site were mixed with either reconstituted BER protein stoichiometries mimicking the levels present in HD mouse striatum or cerebellum, or with protein extracts prepared from HD mouse striatum or cerebellum. In both cases, repair efficiency at CAG/CTG repeats and at control DNA sequences was markedly reduced under the striatal conditions, likely due to the lower level of APE1, FEN1 and LIG1. Damage located towards the 5’ end of the repeat tract was poorly repaired accumulating incompletely processed intermediates as compared to an AP lesion in the centre or at the 3’ end of the repeats or within a control sequences. Moreover, repair of lesions at the 5’ end of CAG or CTG repeats involved multinucleotide synthesis, particularly under the cerebellar stoichiometry, suggesting that long-patch BER processes lesions at sequences susceptible to hairpin formation. Our results show that BER stoichiometry, nucleotide sequence and DNA damage position modulate repair outcome, and suggest that a suboptimal LP-BER activity promotes CAG/CTG repeat instability. PMID:22497302

  7. The nucleotide sequence, DNA damage location, and protein stoichiometry influence the base excision repair outcome at CAG/CTG repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Agathi-Vasiliki; Pearson, Christopher E; Della Maria, Julie; Trottier, Yvon; Tomkinson, Alan E; Wilson, David M; Merienne, Karine

    2012-05-08

    Expansion of CAG/CTG repeats is the underlying cause of >14 genetic disorders, including Huntington's disease (HD) and myotonic dystrophy. The mutational process is ongoing, with increases in repeat size enhancing the toxicity of the expansion in specific tissues. In many repeat diseases, the repeats exhibit high instability in the striatum, whereas instability is minimal in the cerebellum. We provide molecular insights into how base excision repair (BER) protein stoichiometry may contribute to the tissue-selective instability of CAG/CTG repeats by using specific repair assays. Oligonucleotide substrates with an abasic site were mixed with either reconstituted BER protein stoichiometries mimicking the levels present in HD mouse striatum or cerebellum, or with protein extracts prepared from HD mouse striatum or cerebellum. In both cases, the repair efficiency at CAG/CTG repeats and at control DNA sequences was markedly reduced under the striatal conditions, likely because of the lower level of APE1, FEN1, and LIG1. Damage located toward the 5' end of the repeat tract was poorly repaired, with the accumulation of incompletely processed intermediates as compared to an AP lesion in the center or at the 3' end of the repeats or within control sequences. Moreover, repair of lesions at the 5' end of CAG or CTG repeats involved multinucleotide synthesis, particularly at the cerebellar stoichiometry, suggesting that long-patch BER processes lesions at sequences susceptible to hairpin formation. Our results show that the BER stoichiometry, nucleotide sequence, and DNA damage position modulate repair outcome and suggest that a suboptimal long-patch BER activity promotes CAG/CTG repeat instability.

  8. Formation of functional super-helical assemblies by constrained single heptad repeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudipta; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Lampel, Ayala; Bram, Yaron; Lipstman, Sophia; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-10-01

    Inspired by the key role of super-helical motifs in molecular self-organization, several tandem heptad repeat peptides were used as building blocks to form well-ordered supramolecular nano-assemblies. However, the need for stable helical structures limits the length of the smallest described units to three heptad repeats. Here we describe the first-ever self-assembling single heptad repeat module, based on the ability of the non-coded α-aminoisobutyric acid to stabilize very short peptides in helical conformation. A conformationally constrained peptide comprised of aromatic, but not aliphatic, residues, at the first and fourth positions formed helical fibrillar assemblies. Single crystal X-ray analysis of the peptide demonstrates super-helical packing in which phenylalanine residues formed an `aromatic zipper' arrangement at the molecular interface. The modification of the minimal building block with positively charged residues results in tight DNA binding ascribed to the combined factors of helicity, hydrophobicity and charge. The design of these peptides defines a new direction for assembly of super-helical nanostructures by minimal molecular elements.

  9. [Advances of minimally invasive technique in colorectal cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xishan

    2016-06-01

    Colorectal surgery is rapidly developing in the direction of minimally invasive surgery and functional surgery. New technology and ideas are constantly emerging recently. Laparoscopic colon surgery has already been recommended by NCCN guideline. However, laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery still needs to wait for survival and recurrence rates of long-term follow-up data for verification. In recent years, with the rapid progression of imaging equipment of laparoscope, the new 3D laparoscopic system will process image more quickly, and surgeons can get space depth feeling like open surgery only with a pair of glasses. The new 3D laparoscopic system has many advantages, and can also shorten the learning curve of the beginners. But it does not mean the traditional 2D laparoscopy has been out of date. It is admitted that dialectical view on the development of the technology and equipment is still required. New things also need the accumulation of time and validation, and the deficiency of imaging system remains to be improved. At present, the robotic colorectal cancer surgery is still in its infancy, and its application is relatively common in colon surgery. In respect of robotic rectal cancer surgery, it still lacks of long-term follow-up survival results for verification. To reduce physical and psychological trauma for patients is the goal of the surgeon. Surgeons are experiencing the change from minimally invasion to non-invasion. Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and natural orifice specimen extraction surgery (NOSES) arise at the historic moment. Among them, transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) incorporates the concepts of NOTES, anal minimally invasive surgery and total mesorectum excision, guaranteeing the radical cure and no scar of abdomen, but it still needs multicenter, large sample and long-term follow-up clinical data to prove its safety, efficacy and indication. Therefore, surgical procedure is transforming from conventional

  10. Computing security strategies in finite horizon repeated Bayesian games

    KAUST Repository

    Lichun Li

    2017-07-10

    This paper studies security strategies in two-player zero-sum repeated Bayesian games with finite horizon. In such games, each player has a private type which is independently chosen according to a publicly known a priori probability. Players\\' types are fixed all through the game. The game is played for finite stages. At every stage, players simultaneously choose their actions which are observed by the public. The one-stage payoff of player 1 (or penalty to player 2) depends on both players types and actions, and is not directly observed by any player. While player 1 aims to maximize the total payoff over the game, player 2 wants to minimize it. This paper provides each player two ways to compute the security strategy, i.e. the optimal strategy in the worst case. First, a security strategy that directly depends on both players\\' history actions is derived by refining the sequence form. Noticing that history action space grows exponentially with respect to the time horizon, this paper further presents a security strategy that depends on player\\'s fixed sized sufficient statistics. The sufficient statistics is shown to consist of the belief on one\\'s own type, the regret on the other player\\'s type, and the stage, and is independent of the other player\\'s strategy.

  11. Mutant WD-repeat protein in triple-A syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullio-Pelet, A; Salomon, R; Hadj-Rabia, S; Mugnier, C; de Laet, M H; Chaouachi, B; Bakiri, F; Brottier, P; Cattolico, L; Penet, C; Bégeot, M; Naville, D; Nicolino, M; Chaussain, J L; Weissenbach, J; Munnich, A; Lyonnet, S

    2000-11-01

    Triple-A syndrome (MIM 231550; also known as Allgrove syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-resistant adrenal insufficiency, achalasia of the oesophageal cardia and alacrima. Whereas several lines of evidence indicate that triple-A syndrome results from the abnormal development of the autonomic nervous system, late-onset progressive neurological symptoms (including cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy and mild dementia) suggest that the central nervous system may be involved in the disease as well. Using fine-mapping based on linkage disequilibrium in North African inbred families, we identified a short ancestral haplotype on chromosome 12q13 (<1 cM), sequenced a BAC contig encompassing the triple-A minimal region and identified a novel gene (AAAS) encoding a protein of 547 amino acids that is mutant in affected individuals. We found five homozygous truncating mutations in unrelated patients and ascribed the founder effect in North African families to a single splice-donor site mutation that occurred more than 2,400 years ago. The predicted product of AAAS, ALADIN (for alacrima-achalasia-adrenal insufficiency neurologic disorder), belongs to the WD-repeat family of regulatory proteins, indicating a new disease mechanism involved in triple-A syndrome. The expression of the gene in both neuroendocrine and cerebral structures points to a role in the normal development of the peripheral and central nervous systems.

  12. Repeated intraocular crystallization of ganciclovir in one eye after bilateral intravitreal injections: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iu, Lawrence P L; Fan, Michelle C Y; Lam, Wai-Ching; Wong, Ian Y H

    2018-02-09

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is an opportunistic infection that primarily affects immunocompromised individuals. Intravitreal ganciclovir injection monotherapy or in combination with systemic anti-CMV therapy are effective treatments for CMV retinitis. Crystallization of ganciclovir after intravitreal injection is extremely rare. Only two cases had been reported in literature. Crystallization in only one eye after bilateral injections had not been reported before. We hereby report a case of intraocular ganciclovir crystallization in one eye after bilateral intravitreal injections, and repeated crystallization in the same eye after repeated injections. A 79-year-old patient had bilateral cytomegalovirus retinitis and received bilateral intravitreal ganciclovir injections of 2.5 mg in 0.05 ml sterile water. Fundus examination after injection showed formation of needle-shaped, golden-yellow crystals in the vitreous of right eye but not in left eye. The crystals dissolved spontaneously. Repeated bilateral intravitreal ganciclovir injections 4 days later resulted in repeated crystallization of ganciclovir in right eye but not in left eye. The crystals dissolved spontaneously and completely after 5 minutes. Visual acuity remained unchanged and intraocular pressure was normal. Intraocular ganciclovir crystallization could occur after intravitreal injections. It is important to perform fundus examination after injection. The crystals may dissolve rapidly and vitrectomy may not be necessary. Our case suggested intraocular ganciclovir crystallization is an idiosyncratic phenomenon, subjects to distinctive intraocular environment which could be different between two eyes of the same patient. The susceptible intraocular environment could be persistent leading to repeated crystallization.

  13. Cloning and Characterization of a Human Genomic Sequence that Alleviates Repeat-Induced Gene Silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Fukuma

    Full Text Available Plasmids bearing a mammalian replication initiation region (IR and a nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR are spontaneously amplified in transfected mammalian cells, and such amplification generates chromosomal homogeneously staining regions (HSRs or extrachromosomal double minutes (DMs. This method provides a novel, efficient, and rapid way to establish cells that stably produce high levels of recombinant proteins. However, because IR/MAR plasmids are amplified as repeats, they are frequently targeted by repeat-induced gene silencing (RIGS, which silences a variety of repeated sequences in transgenes and the genome. To address this problem, we developed a novel screening system using the IR/MAR plasmid to isolate human genome sequences that alleviate RIGS. The screen identified a 3,271 bp sequence (B-3-31 that elevated transgene expression without affecting the amplification process. Neither non-B structure (i.e., the inverted repeats or bending nor known epigenetic modifier elements such as MARs, insulators, UCOEs, or STARs could explain the anti-silencing activity of B-3-31. Instead, the activity was distributed throughout the entire B-3-31 sequence, which was extremely A/T-rich and CpG-poor. Because B-3-31 effectively and reproducibly alleviated RIGS of repeated genes, it could be used to increase recombinant protein production.

  14. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  15. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  16. Preoperative and postoperative anesthetic and analgesic techniques for minimally invasive surgery of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvanendran, Asokumar; Thillainathan, Vijay

    2010-12-15

    A review of methods to optimize anesthesia and analgesia for minimally invasive spine procedures. To provide information to surgeons and anesthesiologists of methods to provide optimal anesthesia and pain control for minimally invasive spine surgery with an emphasis on preoperative planning. Postoperative pain management in patients undergoing minimally invasive spine surgery is a challenge for the perioperative anesthesiologist. In addition to the incisional pain, trauma to deeper tissues, such as ligaments, muscles, intervertebral discs, and periosteum are reasons for significant pain. The increasing number of minimally invasive surgeries and the need for improved and rapid return of the patient of functionality have brought the perioperative anesthesiologist and the surgeon closer. We undertook a review of the literature currently available on anesthesia and analgesia for minimally invasive spine surgery with an emphasis on preoperative planning. A large number of reports of randomized controlled clinical trials with respect to perioperative anesthetic and postoperative pain management for minimally invasive spine surgery are reviewed and the applicability of some of the principles and protocols used for other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures are placed in the context of spine surgery. It is important to understand and implement a multimodal analgesic therapy during a patient's preoperative visits. Perioperative multimodal analgesia with a fast-track anesthetic protocol is also important and provided in the manuscript. This protocol poses a challenge to the anesthesiologist with respect to neurophysiologic monitoring, which requires further study. The postoperative analgesic management should be a continuance of the multimodal analgesia provided before surgery. Some drugs are not appropriate for patients undergoing fusion surgery because of their effect on bone healing. An optimal preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative anesthesia and

  17. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  18. Repeated-sprint ability and aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Nicolas; Léger, Luc A; Passelergue, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to reinvestigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and fatigue indices of repeated-sprint ability (RSA), with special attention to methodological normalization. Soldiers were divided into low (n = 10) and high (n = 9) fitness groups according to a preset maximal aerobic speed (MAS) of 17 km·h(-1) (∼60 ml O2·kg(-1)·min) measured with the University of Montreal Track Test (UMTT). Subjects' assessment included the RSA test (3 sets of 5 40-m sprints with 1-minute rest between sprints and 1.5 minutes between sets), a 40-m sprint (criterion test used in the computation of fatigue indices for the RSA test), strength and power measurement of the lower limbs, and the 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT) and the UMTT, which are measures of maximal aerobic power. The highest correlation with the RSA fatigue indices was obtained with the 20-m SRT (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001, n = 19), a test with 180° direction changes and accelerations and decelerations. The lower correlation (r = 0.66, p tests better disclose the importance of aerobic fitness for RSA and that aerobic power is not the sole determinant of RSA. However, neither strength nor vertical jumping power was correlated to the RSA fatigue indices. Subjects with greater MAS were able to maintain almost constant level of speed throughout series of repeated sprints and achieved better recovery between series. A MAS of at least 17 km·h(-1) favors constant and high speed level during repeated sprints. From a practical point of view, a high aerobic fitness is a precious asset in counteracting fatigue in sports with numerous sprint repetitions.

  19. Identifying uniformly mutated segments within repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinalp, S Cenk; Eichler, Evan; Goldberg, Paul; Berenbrink, Petra; Friedetzky, Tom; Ergun, Funda

    2004-12-01

    Given a long string of characters from a constant size alphabet we present an algorithm to determine whether its characters have been generated by a single i.i.d. random source. More specifically, consider all possible n-coin models for generating a binary string S, where each bit of S is generated via an independent toss of one of the n coins in the model. The choice of which coin to toss is decided by a random walk on the set of coins where the probability of a coin change is much lower than the probability of using the same coin repeatedly. We present a procedure to evaluate the likelihood of a n-coin model for given S, subject a uniform prior distribution over the parameters of the model (that represent mutation rates and probabilities of copying events). In the absence of detailed prior knowledge of these parameters, the algorithm can be used to determine whether the a posteriori probability for n=1 is higher than for any other n>1. Our algorithm runs in time O(l4logl), where l is the length of S, through a dynamic programming approach which exploits the assumed convexity of the a posteriori probability for n. Our test can be used in the analysis of long alignments between pairs of genomic sequences in a number of ways. For example, functional regions in genome sequences exhibit much lower mutation rates than non-functional regions. Because our test provides means for determining variations in the mutation rate, it may be used to distinguish functional regions from non-functional ones. Another application is in determining whether two highly similar, thus evolutionarily related, genome segments are the result of a single copy event or of a complex series of copy events. This is particularly an issue in evolutionary studies of genome regions rich with repeat segments (especially tandemly repeated segments).

  20. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Virtual Subjective Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    To establish the repeatability and reproducibility of a virtual refraction process using simulated retinal images. With simulation software, aberrated images corresponding with each step of the refraction process were calculated following the typical protocol of conventional subjective refraction. Fifty external examiners judged simulated retinal images until the best sphero-cylindrical refraction and the best visual acuity were achieved starting from the aberrometry data of three patients. Data analyses were performed to assess repeatability and reproducibility of the virtual refraction as a function of pupil size and aberrometric profile of different patients. SD values achieved in three components of refraction (M, J0, and J45) are lower than 0.25D in repeatability analysis. Regarding reproducibility, we found SD values lower than 0.25D in the most cases. When the results of virtual refraction with different pupil diameters (4 and 6 mm) were compared, the mean of differences (MoD) obtained were not clinically significant (less than 0.25D). Only one of the aberrometry profiles with high uncorrected astigmatism shows poor results for the M component in reproducibility and pupil size dependence analysis. In all cases, vision achieved was better than 0 logMAR. A comparison between the compensation obtained with virtual and conventional subjective refraction was made as an example of this application, showing good quality retinal images in both processes. The present study shows that virtual refraction has similar levels of precision as conventional subjective refraction. Moreover, virtual refraction has also shown that when high low order astigmatism is present, the refraction result is less precise and highly dependent on pupil size.

  1. Mechanical processes with repeated attenuated impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaev, R F

    1999-01-01

    This book is devoted to considering in the general case - using typical concrete examples - the motion of machines and mechanisms of impact and vibro-impact action accompanied by a peculiar phenomenon called "impact collapse". This phenomenon is that after the initial collision, a sequence of repeated gradually quickening collisions of decreasing-to-zero intensity occurs, with the final establishment of protracted contact between the interacting bodies. The initiation conditions of the impact collapse are determined and calculation techniques for the quantitative characteristics of the corresp

  2. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...... that for every level of renegotiation cost, there exists a discount factor such that any collusive profit can be supported as an equilibrium outcome. Hence, any arbitrary small renegotiation cost will suffice to facilitate collusive outcomes for sufficiently patient firms. This result stands in stark contrast...

  3. Repeat Sequence Proteins as Matrices for Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummy, L.; Koerner, H; Phillips, D; McAuliffe, J; Kumar, M; Farmer, B; Vaia, R; Naik, R

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant protein-inorganic nanocomposites comprised of exfoliated Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) in a recombinant protein matrix based on silk-like and elastin-like amino acid motifs (silk elastin-like protein (SELP)) were formed via a solution blending process. Charged residues along the protein backbone are shown to dominate long-range interactions, whereas the SELP repeat sequence leads to local protein/MMT compatibility. Up to a 50% increase in room temperature modulus and a comparable decrease in high temperature coefficient of thermal expansion occur for cast films containing 2-10 wt.% MMT.

  4. Warm inflation with an oscillatory inflaton in the non-minimal kinetic coupling model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Parviz [University of Ayatollah Ozma Borujerdi, Department of Science, Boroujerd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadjadi, H.M. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    In the cold inflation scenario, the slow roll inflation and reheating via coherent rapid oscillation, are usually considered as two distinct eras. When the slow roll ends, a rapid oscillation phase begins and the inflaton decays to relativistic particles reheating the Universe. In another model dubbed warm inflation, the rapid oscillation phase is suppressed, and we are left with only a slow roll period during which the reheating occurs. Instead, in this paper, we propose a new picture for inflation in which the slow roll era is suppressed and only the rapid oscillation phase exists. Radiation generation during this era is taken into account, so we have warm inflation with an oscillatory inflaton. To provide enough e-folds, we employ the non-minimal derivative coupling model. We study the cosmological perturbations and compute the temperature at the end of warm oscillatory inflation. (orig.)

  5. Effect of repeated endoscopic screening on the incidence and treatment of gastric cancer in health screenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Su Youn; Choi, Il Ju; Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Lee, Jong Yeul; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Lee, Jong Seok; Park, Sook Ryun; Lee, Jun Ho; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Young-Woo

    2009-08-01

    Early gastric cancer (EGC) can be treated by minimally invasive endoscopic resection and has an excellent prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether repeated esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) screening is an effective method for detecting EGC that can be treated by endoscopic resection. For patients diagnosed with gastric cancer in the Korean National Cancer Center screening program, we analyzed the incidence of gastric cancer, clinicopathological characteristics, and treatment modality according to whether they had (repeated screening group) or not (infrequent screening group) undergone EGD screening within 2 years before diagnosis. Of the 18,414 patients who underwent EGD, 81 (0.44%) were found to have gastric cancer. Incidence of gastric cancer in repeated screening group was lower than that of infrequent screening group (multiple adjusted odds ratio=0.45, 95% confidence interval: 0.26-0.77, P=0.004). The proportion of EGCs was 96% (25 of 26) n the repeated screening group and 71% (34 of 48) in the infrequent screening group (P=0.01). Mean (SD) tumor size was smaller [1.9 (1.2) vs. 3.0 (1.6) cm, P=0.01] and the proportion of intramucosal cancer was higher [81% (21 of 26) vs. 50% (24 of 48), P=0.02] in the former than in the latter. Endoscopic resection was performed more frequently in the repeated screening group [54% (14 of 26) vs. 23% (11 of 48), P=0.007]. Repeated endoscopic screening within 2 years decreased the incidence of gastric cancer and endoscopic resection could be applied to more patients who underwent EGD screening within 2 years.

  6. Utility and necessity of repeat testing of critical values in the clinical chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Aijun; Yan, Xianxia; Wang, Lin; Min, Yan; Hu, Chengjin

    2013-01-01

    Routine repeat testing of critical values is a long-standing practice in many clinical laboratories; however, its usefulness and necessity remain to be empirically established and no regulatory requirements yet exist for verification of the critical value results obtained by repeat analysis. To determine whether repeat testing of critical values is useful and necessary in a clinical chemistry laboratory. A total of 601 chemistry critical values (potassium, n = 255; sodium, n = 132; calcium, n = 108; glucose, n = 106) obtained from 72,259 routine clinical chemistry specimens were repeat tested. The absolute value and the percentage of difference between the two testing runs were calculated for each of the four critical values and then compared with the allowable error limit put forth in the College of American Pathologists (CAP). Among the repeat data for the 601 critical values, a total of 24 showed large differences between the initial result and the repeated result which exceeded the CAP limits for allowable error. The number and rates (%) of large differences for within and outside the analytical measurement range (AMR) were 12 (2.1%) and 12 (41.4%), respectively. For the 572 critical values within the AMR for each test category, the mean absolute difference (mmol/L) and difference(%) between the two testing runs were: potassium, 0.1 mmol/L (2.7%); sodium, 2.1 mmol/L (1.7%); calcium, 0.05 mmol/L (3.0%); glucose, 0.18 mmol/L (2.6%). When the initial chemistry critical values are within the AMR, repeated testing does not improve accuracy and is therefore unnecessary. When the initial chemistry critical values are outside the AMR, however, the benefit of repeated testing justifies its performance and makes it necessary. Performing repeat clinical testing on a case-by-case, rather than routine, basis can improve patient care by delivering critical values more rapidly while providing savings on reagent costs associated with unnecessary repeat testing.

  7. Ultra-portable, wireless smartphone spectrometer for rapid, non-destructive testing of fruit ripeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anshuman J.; Wahi, Akshat; Kothari, Ishan; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a smartphone based spectrometer design that is standalone and supported on a wireless platform. The device is inherently low-cost and the power consumption is minimal making it portable to carry out a range of studies in the field. All essential components of the device like the light source, spectrometer, filters, microcontroller and wireless circuits have been assembled in a housing of dimensions 88 mm × 37 mm × 22 mm and the entire device weighs 48 g. The resolution of the spectrometer is 15 nm, delivering accurate and repeatable measurements. The device has a dedicated app interface on the smartphone to communicate, receive, plot and analyze spectral data. The performance of the smartphone spectrometer is comparable to existing bench-top spectrometers in terms of stability and wavelength resolution. Validations of the device were carried out by demonstrating non-destructive ripeness testing in fruit samples. Ultra-Violet (UV) fluorescence from Chlorophyll present in the skin was measured across various apple varieties during the ripening process and correlated with destructive firmness tests. A satisfactory agreement was observed between ripeness and fluorescence signals. This demonstration is a step towards possible consumer, bio-sensing and diagnostic applications that can be carried out in a rapid manner.

  8. Minimal intervention dentistry and older patients part 2: minimally invasive operative interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Martina; Allen, Edith; da Mata, Cristiane; McKenna, Gerald; Burke, Francis

    2014-01-01

    As described in the first paper of this two part series, the expansion of our older population and the concomitant reduction in levels of edentulism will result in an increase in the number of patients presenting in general practice with complex restorative challenges. The application of the concepts of minimal intervention dentistry and minimally invasive operative techniques may offer a powerful armamentarium to the general dentist to provide ethical and conservative treatment to older patients. When it is unavoidable, operative intervention should be as minimally invasive as practicable in older patients to preserve the longevity of their natural dentition.

  9. Revisiting the minimal chaotic inflation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harigaya, Keisuke, E-mail: keisukeharigaya@berkeley.edu [ICRR, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Ibe, Masahiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro [ICRR, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-05-10

    We point out that the prediction of the minimal chaotic inflation model is altered if a scalar field takes a large field value close to the Planck scale during inflation due to a negative Hubble induced mass. In particular, we show that the inflaton potential is effectively flattened at a large inflaton field value in the presence of such a scalar field. The scalar field may be identified with the standard model Higgs field or super partners of standard model fermions. With such Hubble-induced flattening, we find that the minimal chaotic inflation model, especially the model with a quadratic potential, is consistent with recent observations of the cosmic microwave background fluctuation without modifying the inflation model itself.

  10. Heavier Higgs particles: Indications from Minimal Supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiani, L.; Polosa, A. D.; Riquer, V.

    2012-12-01

    We use the most recent data on the Higgs-like resonance h observed at 125 GeV to derive information about the mass of the heavier Higgs particles predicted by Minimal Supersymmetry. We treat as independent parameters the couplings of h to top quark, beauty and massive vector bosons and, in this three-dimensional space, we locate the point realizing the best fit to data and compare it to the position of the Standard Model point and to the region of coupling values accommodating heavier Higgs particles in Minimal Supersymmetry. We conclude that mass values 320 ≲MH ≲ 360 GeV are compatible at 2σ with the best fit of couplings to present data, larger values being compatible at the 1σ level. Values of 1 ≲ tan β ≲ 6 are compatible with data.

  11. [Minimal invasive dentistry. A revolutionary concept?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creugers, N H J

    2003-06-01

    This article describes the mutual relations between three important dental concepts. 'Minimal invasive dentistry', 'adhesive dentistry' and the 'dynamic treatment concept' are concepts which have changed restorative dentistry substantially during the last decade. The ultimate goal of restorative dental care, which is the maintenance of a healthy and functional dentition for life, is unchanged and as applicable as ever. To achieve maximal results from applying minimal invasive dentistry, a clear understanding of adhesive dentistry as well as the implications and goals of the dynamic treatment concept is needed. Dentists must realize that as invasiveness of interventions is decreasing, the need for monitoring and aftercare of restorative work is increasing. It is important to involve the patient in this process by providing sufficient information and achieving informed consent.

  12. Matrix Factorizations, Minimal Models and Massey Products

    CERN Document Server

    Knapp, J; Knapp, Johanna; Omer, Harun

    2006-01-01

    We present a method to compute the full non-linear deformations of matrix factorizations for ADE minimal models. This method is based on the calculation of higher products in the cohomology, called Massey products. The algorithm yields a polynomial ring whose vanishing relations encode the obstructions of the deformations of the D-branes characterized by these matrix factorizations. This coincides with the critical locus of the effective superpotential which can be computed by integrating these relations. Our results for the effective superpotential are in agreement with those obtained from solving the A-infinity relations. We point out a relation to the superpotentials of Kazama-Suzuki models. We will illustrate our findings by various examples, putting emphasis on the E_6 minimal model.

  13. Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2012-06-01

    This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads to great interest in studying discrete surfaces. With the rich smooth surface theory in hand, one would hope that this elegant theory can still be applied to the discrete counter part. Such a generalization, however, is not always successful. While discrete surfaces have the advantage of being finite dimensional, thus easier to treat, their geometric properties such as curvatures are not well defined in the classical sense. Furthermore, the powerful calculus tool can hardly be applied. The methods in this thesis, including angular defect formula, cotangent formula, parallel meshes, relative geometry etc. are approaches based on offset meshes or generalized offset meshes. As an important application, we discuss discrete minimal surfaces and discrete Koenigs meshes.

  14. [Bilateral dependency and the minimal group paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, N; Yamagishi, T; Kiyonari, T

    1996-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of illusion of control on in-group favoritism found in the minimal group situation (Tajfel, Billig, Bundy, & Flament, 1971). In bilateral dependency condition, each member made allocation decisions for in-group as well as out-group participants. It was exactly the same situation used in the original studies under the minimal group paradigm, and the subjects knew that their reward allocation too depended on others' decisions. In contrast, in unilateral dependency condition, the subjects made allocation decisions knowing that theirs were not dependent on others' decisions. In Experiment 1, an in-group bias in reward distribution was found in the bilateral dependency condition, but not in the unilateral condition. In Experiment 2, it was found that only those who felt illusion of control exhibited such an in-group bias. Results of the experiments therefore confirmed that illusion of control explained in-group favoritism, as Karp, Jin, Yamagishi, and Shinotsuka (1993) originally hypothesized.

  15. Proof-graphs for Minimal Implicational Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Quispe-Cruz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the size of propositional classical proofs can be huge. Proof theoretical studies discovered exponential gaps between normal or cut free proofs and their respective non-normal proofs. The aim of this work is to study how to reduce the weight of propositional deductions. We present the formalism of proof-graphs for purely implicational logic, which are graphs of a specific shape that are intended to capture the logical structure of a deduction. The advantage of this formalism is that formulas can be shared in the reduced proof. In the present paper we give a precise definition of proof-graphs for the minimal implicational logic, together with a normalization procedure for these proof-graphs. In contrast to standard tree-like formalisms, our normalization does not increase the number of nodes, when applied to the corresponding minimal proof-graph representations.

  16. Responsiveness and minimal clinically important change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, David Høyrup; Frost, Poul; Falla, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    to assess shoulder outcomes. However, few studies have evaluated the measurement properties of the OSS and CS in terms of responsiveness and minimal clinically important change. Methods The study included 126 patients who reported having difficulty returning to usual activities 8 to 12 weeks after......Study Design A prospective cohort study nested in a randomized controlled trial. Objectives To determine and compare responsiveness and minimal clinically important change of the modified Constant score (CS) and the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS). Background The OSS and the CS are commonly used....... The change scores of the CS and the OSS were more strongly correlated with the external anchor (PGIC scale) than the change score of the EQ-5D-3L index. The areas under the ROC curves exceeded 0.80 for both shoulder scores, with no significant differences between them, and comparable effect-size estimates...

  17. Minimally invasive spine surgery in spinal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú-López, F; Vanaclocha-Vanaclocha, V; Gozalbes-Esterelles, L; Sánchez-Pardo, M

    2014-06-01

    Infections of the spine have been a constant throughout history. At present there are infections in the spine fostered in part by the same advances in medicine: there are a lot of immunocompromised patients, the life expectancy of patients with chronic diseases is augmented and the increasing number of complex spinal surgeries can result in secondary infection. In this review the main types of infection of the spine and its treatment highlighting techniques in minimally invasive surgery are discussed. Spontaneous pyogenic and nonpyogenic spine infections as well as iatrogenic infections can be treated in a different manner depending on its extension, location and microorganism involved. We will review the use and the indication of percutaneous image-guided techniques, endoscopic and microsurgical techniques with or without use of tubular retractors. We conclude that techniques in minimally invasive surgery in spine infections are safe, effective and have benefits in morbidity of the approach and subsequent patient recovery.

  18. Facets of the balanced minimal evolution polytope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcey, Stefan; Keefe, Logan; Sands, William

    2016-08-01

    The balanced minimal evolution (BME) method of creating phylogenetic trees can be formulated as a linear programming problem, minimizing an inner product over the vertices of the BME polytope. In this paper we undertake the project of describing the facets of this polytope. We classify and identify the combinatorial structure and geometry (facet inequalities) of all the facets in dimensions up to five, and classify even more facets in all dimensions. A full set of facet inequalities would allow a full implementation of the simplex method for finding the BME tree-although there are reasons to think this an unreachable goal. However, our results provide the crucial first steps for a more likely-to-be-successful program: finding efficient relaxations of the BME polytope.

  19. Revisiting the minimal chaotic inflation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Harigaya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We point out that the prediction of the minimal chaotic inflation model is altered if a scalar field takes a large field value close to the Planck scale during inflation due to a negative Hubble induced mass. In particular, we show that the inflaton potential is effectively flattened at a large inflaton field value in the presence of such a scalar field. The scalar field may be identified with the standard model Higgs field or super partners of standard model fermions. With such Hubble-induced flattening, we find that the minimal chaotic inflation model, especially the model with a quadratic potential, is consistent with recent observations of the cosmic microwave background fluctuation without modifying the inflation model itself.

  20. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo

    2017-08-01

    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  1. [Cardiopulmonary diversion in minimally invasive heart surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Guevara, Amalia; Pichardo y Cruz, Ma Cristina

    2002-01-01

    Cardiac surgery has evolved greatly in the last pears. New techniques for the treatment of cardiac patients, such as minimally invasive heart surgery, off-pump coronary surgery, limited or port access surgery, video-assisted and robotic cardiac surgery have been developed. Technology provides new instruments, such as heart stabilizers for off-pump coronary surgery, ventricular support devices or direct coronary bypass perfusion systems, all of them with the main goal of maintaining the patient's hemodynamics. Minimally invasive heart surgery contributes to a faster recovery and less suffering, and decreases costs. The perfusionist is involved in all these new techniques, the future is a challenge, he she must learn to use all these new devices without forgetting the human sede of his her specialty.

  2. Minimal mass solutions to inverse eigenvalue problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwell, G. M. L.

    2006-04-01

    One of the fundamental inverse problems in vibration theory is to construct an in-line system of masses and springs, fixed at one end, free at the other, so that it has a specified spectrum of natural frequencies. The solution, based on the work pioneered by Gantmacher and Krein, makes use of a second spectrum, that for the system fixed at both ends. We derive a closed form procedure to construct the system with a minimal mass for given overall stiffness from the first specified spectrum. The analogous problem of constructing a discrete model of a cantilever beam in flexural vibration having a specified spectrum uses two additional spectra corresponding to the previously free end being respectively pinned and sliding. We formulate the problem of finding a minimal mass solution for the given length and stiffness, and obtain explicit solutions in simple cases.

  3. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  4. Significant reduction of fluoroscopy repetition with lumbar localization system in minimally invasive spine surgery: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guoxin; Zhang, Hailong; Gu, Xin; Wang, Chuanfeng; Guan, Xiaofei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

    2017-05-01

    The conventional location methods for minimally invasive spinal surgery (MISS) were mainly based on repeated fluoroscopy in a trial-and-error manner preoperatively and intraoperatively. Localization system mainly consisted of preoperative applied radiopaque frame and intraoperative guiding device, which has the potential to minimize fluoroscopy repetition in MISS. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a novel lumbar localization system in reducing radiation exposure to patients.Included patients underwent minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MISTLIF) or percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED). Patients treated with novel localization system were regarded as Group A, and patients treated without novel localization system were regarded as Group B.For PTED, The estimated effective dose was 0.41 ± 0.13 mSv in Group A and 0.57 ± 0.14 mSv in Group B (P minimizing radiation hazards.

  5. Theories of minimalism in architecture: Post scriptum

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the period of intensive development in the last decade of XX century, architectural phenomenon called Minimalism in Architecture was remembered as the Style of the Nineties, which is characterized, morphologically speaking, by simplicity and formal reduction. Simultaneously with its development in practice, on a theoretical level several dominant interpretative models were able to establish themselves. The new millennium and time distance bring new problems; therefore this paper repr...

  6. Minimalism in architecture: Abstract conceptualization of architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilski Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in architecture contains the idea of the minimum as a leading creative tend to be considered and interpreted in working through phenomena of empathy and abstraction. In the Western culture, the root of this idea is found in empathy of Wilhelm Worringer and abstraction of Kasimir Malevich. In his dissertation, 'Abstraction and Empathy' Worringer presented his thesis on the psychology of style through which he explained the two opposing basic forms: abstraction and empathy. His concl...

  7. MINIMAL FUZZY MICROCONTROLLER IMPLEMENTATION FOR DIDACTIC APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    F. Lara-Rojo; E. N. Sánchez; D. Zaldívar-Navarro

    2003-01-01

    Fuzzy techniques have been successfully used in control in several fields, and engineers andresearchers are today considering fuzzy logic algorithms in order to implement intelligent functions inembedded systems. We have started to develop a set of teaching tools to support our courses onintelligent control. Low cost implementations of didactic systems are particularly important in developingcountries. In this paper we present the implementation of a minimal PD fuzzy four-rule algorithm in a ...

  8. Next to new minimal standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Kaneta, Kunio [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryo [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan)

    2014-06-27

    We suggest a minimal extension of the standard model, which can explain current experimental data of the dark matter, small neutrino masses and baryon asymmetry of the universe, inflation, and dark energy, and achieve gauge coupling unification. The gauge coupling unification can explain the charge quantization, and be realized by introducing six new fields. We investigate the vacuum stability, coupling perturbativity, and correct dark matter abundance in this model by use of current experimental data.

  9. Minimization of Tikhonov Functionals in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bonesky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tikhonov functionals are known to be well suited for obtaining regularized solutions of linear operator equations. We analyze two iterative methods for finding the minimizer of norm-based Tikhonov functionals in Banach spaces. One is the steepest descent method, whereby the iterations are directly carried out in the underlying space, and the other one performs iterations in the dual space. We prove strong convergence of both methods.

  10. Robots for minimally invasive diagnosis and intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Huda, Nazmul; YU, Hongnian; Cang, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive diagnosis and interventions provide many benefits such as higher efficiency, safer, minimum pain, quick recovery etc. over conventional way for many procedures. Large robots such as da-Vinci are being used in this purpose, whereas research of miniature robots for laparoscopic and endoscopic use, is growing in the recent years. A comprehensive literature search is performed using keywords’ laparoscopic robot, capsule endoscope, surgical medical robot etc. primarily for the t...

  11. Geometric Measure Theory and Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bombieri, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    W.K. ALLARD: On the first variation of area and generalized mean curvature.- F.J. ALMGREN Jr.: Geometric measure theory and elliptic variational problems.- E. GIUSTI: Minimal surfaces with obstacles.- J. GUCKENHEIMER: Singularities in soap-bubble-like and soap-film-like surfaces.- D. KINDERLEHRER: The analyticity of the coincidence set in variational inequalities.- M. MIRANDA: Boundaries of Caciopoli sets in the calculus of variations.- L. PICCININI: De Giorgi's measure and thin obstacles.

  12. [Minimally invasive spine surgery: past and present].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corniola, M V; Stienen, M N; Tessitore, E; Schaller, K; Gautschi, O P

    2015-11-18

    In the early twentieth century, the understanding of spine biomechanics and the advent of surgical techniques of the lumbar spine, led to the currently emerging concept of minimal invasive spine surgery, By reducing surgical access, blood loss, infection rate and general morbidity, functional prognosis of patients is improved. This is a real challenge for the spine surgeon, who has to maintain a good operative result by significantly reducing surgical collateral damages due to the relatively traumatic conventional access.

  13. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn

    2016-01-01

    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools....

  14. An algorithm for minimization of quantum cost

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Anindita; Pathak, Anirban

    2009-01-01

    A new algorithm for minimization of quantum cost of quantum circuits has been designed. The quantum cost of different quantum circuits of particular interest (eg. circuits for EPR, quantum teleportation, shor code and different quantum arithmetic operations) are computed by using the proposed algorithm. The quantum costs obtained using the proposed algorithm is compared with the existing results and it is found that the algorithm has produced minimum quantum cost in all cases.

  15. Minimally Invasive Diagnosis of Secondary Intracranial Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. McClement

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL are an aggressive group of non-Hodgkin lymphoid malignancies which have diverse presentation and can have high mortality. Central nervous system relapse is rare but has poor survival. We present the diagnosis of primary mandibular DLBCL and a unique minimally invasive diagnosis of secondary intracranial recurrence. This case highlights the manifold radiological contributions to the diagnosis and management of lymphoma.

  16. On minimalism in architecture - space as experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilski Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Architecture has to be experienced to be understood. The complexity of the experience is seen through a better understanding of the relationship between objectivity (architecture and subjectivity (our life. Being physically, emotionally and psychologically aware of the space we occupy is an experience that could be described as being present, which is a sensation that is personal and difficult to explicitly describe. Research into experience through perception and emotion positions architecture within scientific fields, in particular psychological disciplines. Relying on the standpoints of Immanuel Kant, the paper considers the juxtaposition between (minimalism in architecture and philosophy on the topic of experience. Starting from the basic aspects of perception and representation of the world around us, a thesis is presented in which the notions of silence and light as experienced in minimalism (in architecture are considered as adequate counterparts to Kant’s factors of experience - the awareness of the objective order of events and the impossibility to perceive time itself. Through a case study we verify the starting hypothesis on minimalism (in architecture whereby space becomes an experience of how the world touches us.

  17. Minimally invasive local therapies for liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David; Kang, Josephine; Golas, Benjamin J; Yeung, Vincent W; Madoff, David C

    2014-12-01

    Primary and metastatic liver tumors are an increasing global health problem, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) now being the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Systemic treatment options for HCC remain limited, with Sorafenib as the only prospectively validated agent shown to increase overall survival. Surgical resection and/or transplantation, locally ablative therapies and regional or locoregional therapies have filled the gap in liver tumor treatments, providing improved survival outcomes for both primary and metastatic tumors. Minimally invasive local therapies have an increasing role in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumors. For patients with low volume disease, these therapies have now been established into consensus practice guidelines. This review highlights technical aspects and outcomes of commonly utilized, minimally invasive local therapies including laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), irreversible electroporation (IRE), and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). In addition, the role of combination treatment strategies utilizing these minimally invasive techniques is reviewed.

  18. Opportunity Loss Minimization and Newsvendor Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the decision bias in newsvendor behavior, this paper introduces an opportunity loss minimization criterion into the newsvendor model with backordering. We apply the Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR measure to hedge against the potential risks from newsvendor’s order decision. We obtain the optimal order quantities for a newsvendor to minimize the expected opportunity loss and CVaR of opportunity loss. It is proven that the newsvendor’s optimal order quantity is related to the density function of market demand when the newsvendor exhibits risk-averse preference, which is inconsistent with the results in Schweitzer and Cachon (2000. The numerical example shows that the optimal order quantity that minimizes CVaR of opportunity loss is bigger than expected profit maximization (EPM order quantity for high-profit products and smaller than EPM order quantity for low-profit products, which is different from the experimental results in Schweitzer and Cachon (2000. A sensitivity analysis of changing the operation parameters of the two optimal order quantities is discussed. Our results confirm that high return implies high risk, while low risk comes with low return. Based on the results, some managerial insights are suggested for the risk management of the newsvendor model with backordering.

  19. Minimal intervention dentistry in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brostek, A M; Walsh, L J

    2014-06-01

    Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) is a modern approach to the management of caries, which emphasizes prevention and early interception of disease, underpinned by an understanding of the role of the dental plaque biofilm in disease initiation and progression, and how this is affected by lifestyle and behavioral factors. The MID approach should be the standard of care in modern restorative dentistry, as it avoids over-zealous restorative interventions as well as supervised neglect. Incorporating the principles of MID into general dental practice for the management of dental caries involves using Caries Risk Assessment (CRA), as well as a minimally invasive restorative approach utilizing conservative caries removal methods, minimal cavity designs and the use of adhesive restorative materials. A range of methods now exist for measuring the contribution of risk factors to dental caries risk, allowing the clinician to target their interventions at the factors operating in the individual patient, by applying the concepts of ecological change to modify the biofilm, and motivational interviewing to alter patient lifestyle and dietary behaviour. This review discusses how the principles of MID are used for individual patient care, and suggests methods for implementation of MID into general dental practice.

  20. Minimally invasive direct restorations: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, L; Banerjee, A

    2017-08-11

    The primary objectives of minimum intervention dentistry (MID) are to prevent or arrest active disease using non-operative management techniques. However, patients commonly present with cavitated caries lesions or failed restorations that are in need of operative intervention. Although much of clinical practice is devoted to preventing and managing the effects of caries and subsequent failure of the tooth-restoration complex, the clinical survival of restorations is often poor and becomes significantly worse as they increase in size and complexity. Minimally invasive (MI) restorative techniques present a range of well-documented advantages over more tissue-destructive traditional restorations by minimising unnecessary tooth tissue loss, insult to the dentine-pulp complex and reducing the risk of iatrogenic damage to adjacent hard and soft tissues. They also maximise the strength of the residual tooth structure by use of optimal adhesive restorative materials designed to restore function and aesthetics with durable, long-lasting restorations that are easy for the patient to maintain. In contemporary oral healthcare practice, if patients are to give valid consent for operative interventions, minimally invasive options must be offered, and may be expected to be the first choice of fully informed patients. This paper describes concepts of MID and provides an update of the latest materials, equipment and clinical techniques that are available for the minimally invasive restoration of anterior and posterior teeth with direct restorations.

  1. Minimally radiating sources for personal audio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen J; Cheer, Jordan; Murfet, Harry; Holland, Keith R

    2010-10-01

    In order to reduce annoyance from the audio output of personal devices, it is necessary to maintain the sound level at the user position while minimizing the levels elsewhere. If the dark zone, within which the sound is to be minimized, extends over the whole far field of the source, the problem reduces to that of minimizing the radiated sound power while maintaining the pressure level at the user position. It is shown analytically that the optimum two-source array then has a hypercardioid directivity and gives about 7 dB reduction in radiated sound power, compared with a monopole producing the same on-axis pressure. The performance of other linear arrays is studied using monopole simulations for the motivating example of a mobile phone. The trade-off is investigated between the performance in reducing radiated noise, and the electrical power required to drive the array for different numbers of elements. It is shown for both simulations and experiments conducted on a small array of loudspeakers under anechoic conditions, that both two and three element arrays provide a reasonable compromise between these competing requirements. The implementation of the two-source array in a coupled enclosure is also shown to reduce the electrical power requirements.

  2. Conscious visual memory with minimal attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R; Otten, Marte; Sligte, Ilja G; Seth, Anil K; Lamme, Victor A F

    2017-02-01

    Is conscious visual perception limited to the locations that a person attends? The remarkable phenomenon of change blindness, which shows that people miss nearly all unattended changes in a visual scene, suggests the answer is yes. However, change blindness is found after visual interference (a mask or a new scene), so that subjects have to rely on working memory (WM), which has limited capacity, to detect the change. Before such interference, however, a much larger capacity store, called fragile memory (FM), which is easily overwritten by newly presented visual information, is present. Whether these different stores depend equally on spatial attention is central to the debate on the role of attention in conscious vision. In 2 experiments, we found that minimizing spatial attention almost entirely erases visual WM, as expected. Critically, FM remains largely intact. Moreover, minimally attended FM responses yield accurate metacognition, suggesting that conscious memory persists with limited spatial attention. Together, our findings help resolve the fundamental issue of how attention affects perception: Both visual consciousness and memory can be supported by only minimal attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Direct energy functional minimization under orthogonality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Valéry; VandeVondele, Joost; Hutter, Jürg; Niklasson, Anders M. N.

    2008-02-01

    The direct energy functional minimization problem in electronic structure theory, where the single-particle orbitals are optimized under the constraint of orthogonality, is explored. We present an orbital transformation based on an efficient expansion of the inverse factorization of the overlap matrix that keeps orbitals orthonormal. The orbital transformation maps the orthogonality constrained energy functional to an approximate unconstrained functional, which is correct to some order in a neighborhood of an orthogonal but approximate solution. A conjugate gradient scheme can then be used to find the ground state orbitals from the minimization of a sequence of transformed unconstrained electronic energy functionals. The technique provides an efficient, robust, and numerically stable approach to direct total energy minimization in first principles electronic structure theory based on tight-binding, Hartree-Fock, or density functional theory. For sparse problems, where both the orbitals and the effective single-particle Hamiltonians have sparse matrix representations, the effort scales linearly with the number of basis functions N in each iteration. For problems where only the overlap and Hamiltonian matrices are sparse the computational cost scales as O(M2N ), where M is the number of occupied orbitals. We report a single point density functional energy calculation of a DNA decamer hydrated with 4003 water molecules under periodic boundary conditions. The DNA fragment containing a cis-syn thymine dimer is composed of 634 atoms and the whole system contains a total of 12 661 atoms and 103 333 spherical Gaussian basis functions.

  4. Repeating firing fields of CA1 neurons shift forward in response to increasing angular velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Stephen L; Nitz, Douglas A

    2014-01-01

    Self-motion information influences spatially-specific firing patterns exhibited by hippocampal neurons. Moreover, these firing patterns can repeat across similar subsegments of an environment, provided that there is similarity of path shape and head orientations across subsegments. The influence of self-motion variables on repeating fields remains to be determined. To investigate the role of path shape and angular rotation on hippocampal activity, we recorded the activity of CA1 neurons from rats trained to run on spiral-shaped tracks. During inbound traversals of circular-spiral tracks, angular velocity increases continuously. Under this condition, most neurons (74%) exhibited repeating fields across at least three adjacent loops. Of these neurons, 86% exhibited forward shifts in the angles of field centers relative to centers on preceding loops. Shifts were absent on squared-spiral tracks, minimal and less reliable on concentric-circle tracks, and absent on outward-bound runs on circular-spiral tracks. However, outward-bound runs on the circular-spiral track in the dark were associated with backward shifts. Together, the most parsimonious interpretation of the results is that continuous increases or decreases in angular velocity are particularly effective at shifting the center of mass of repeating fields, although it is also possible that a nonlinear integration of step counts contributes to the shift. Furthermore, the unexpected absence of field shifts during outward journeys in light (but not darkness) suggests visual cues around the goal location anchored the map of space to an allocentric reference frame.

  5. A Defective mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Complex Facilitates Expansions of Transcribed (GAAn Repeats Associated with Friedreich’s Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. McGinty

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of microsatellite repeats are responsible for numerous hereditary diseases in humans, including myotonic dystrophy and Friedreich’s ataxia. Whereas the length of an expandable repeat is the main factor determining disease inheritance, recent data point to genomic trans modifiers that can impact the likelihood of expansions and disease progression. Detection of these modifiers may lead to understanding and treating repeat expansion diseases. Here, we describe a method for the rapid, genome-wide identification of trans modifiers for repeat expansion in a yeast experimental system. Using this method, we found that missense mutations in the endoribonuclease subunit (Ysh1 of the mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation complex dramatically increase the rate of (GAAn repeat expansions but only when they are actively transcribed. These expansions correlate with slower transcription elongation caused by the ysh1 mutation. These results reveal an interplay between RNA processing and repeat-mediated genome instability, confirming the validity of our approach.

  6. The Perpetual Repeater: an Educative Musical Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Skriagina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Music Undergraduate Program of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional (National Pedagogic University, two musical events were planned: an original work written for choir, soloists and symphonic band, and an opera for children. As a result, the cantata ‘The Perpetual Repeater” has been created as an adaptation of a work named “50 Milions de Segons” (50 Millions of Seconds, staged by the CATANIA project of the Barcelona Servei Educatiu de L’Auditori. This work tells the story of those school teachers who, paradoxically enough repeat the same course year after year. After visiting L’Auditori of Barcelona to participate in the pedagogic musical work carried out with school children, we considered the possibility of developing an analogous project, in a similar sociocultural and educational environment, within our Music Undergraduate Program. So, this article deals with two fundamental moments which are essential to understand the educational work implemented with the ISPA students of sixth degree, as well as with a group of the program’s students: The Purpose, which describes in detail the planning of the musical work for children, and The Experience, in which the way the process of The Perpetual Repeater Cantatawas carried out is described.

  7. Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go

    2017-09-01

    The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.

  8. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  9. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  10. Repeatable assessment protocol for electromagnetic trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidegger, Tamas; Sirokai, Beáta; Fenyvesi, Gábor; Kovács, Levente; Benyó, Balázs; Benyó, Zoltán

    2012-02-01

    In the past decades, many new trends appeared in interventional medicine. One of the most groundbreaking ones is Image-Guided Surgery (IGS). The main benefit of IGS procedures is the reduction of the patient's pain and collateral damage through improved accuracy and targeting. Electromagnetic Tracking (EMT) has been introduced to medical applications as an effective tool for navigation. However, magnetic fields can be severely distorted by ferromagnetic materials and electronic equipment, which is a major barrier towards their wider application. The focus of the study is to determine and compensate the inherent errors of the different types of EMTs, in order to improve their accuracy. Our aim is to develop a standardized, simple and repeatable assessment protocol; to determine tracking errors with sub-millimeter accuracy, hence increasing the measurement precision and reliability. For initial experiments, the NDI Aurora and the Ascension medSAFE systems were used in a standard laboratory environment. We aim to advance to the state-of-the art by describing and disseminating an easily reproducible calibration method, publishing the CAD files of the accuracy phantom and the source of the evaluation data. This should allow the wider spread of the technique, and eventually lead to the repeatable and comparable assessment of EMT systems.

  11. TERRA: telomeric repeat-containing RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Brian; Lingner, Joachim

    2009-09-02

    Telomeres, the physical ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, consist of tandem arrays of short DNA repeats and a large set of specialized proteins. A recent analysis has identified telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a large non-coding RNA in animals and fungi, which forms an integral component of telomeric heterochromatin. TERRA transcription occurs at most or all chromosome ends and it is regulated by RNA surveillance factors and in response to changes in telomere length. TERRA functions that are emerging suggest important roles in the regulation of telomerase and in orchestrating chromatin remodelling throughout development and cellular differentiation. The accumulation of TERRA at telomeres can also interfere with telomere replication, leading to a sudden loss of telomere tracts. Such a phenotype can be observed upon impairment of the RNA surveillance machinery or in cells from ICF (Immunodeficiency, Centromeric region instability, Facial anomalies) patients, in which TERRA is upregulated because of DNA methylation defects in the subtelomeric region. Thus, TERRA may mediate several crucial functions at the telomeres, a region of the genome that had been considered to be transcriptionally silent.

  12. Arctic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) generated by Surface Extraction from TIN-Based Searchspace Minimization (SETSM) algorithm from RPCs-based Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, M. J.; Howat, I. M.; Porter, C. C.; Willis, M. J.; Morin, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic is undergoing rapid change associated with climate warming. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) provide critical information for change measurement and infrastructure planning in this vulnerable region, yet the existing quality and coverage of DEMs in the Arctic is poor. Low contrast and repeatedly-textured surfaces, such as snow and glacial ice and mountain shadows, all common in the Arctic, challenge existing stereo-photogrammetric techniques. Submeter resolution, stereoscopic satellite imagery with high geometric and radiometric quality, and wide spatial coverage are becoming increasingly accessible to the scientific community. To utilize these imagery for extracting DEMs at a large scale over glaciated and high latitude regions we developed the Surface Extraction from TIN-based Searchspace Minimization (SETSM) algorithm. SETSM is fully automatic (i.e. no search parameter settings are needed) and uses only the satellite rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs). Using SETSM, we have generated a large number of DEMs (> 100,000 scene pair) from WorldView, GeoEye and QuickBird stereo images collected by DigitalGlobe Inc. and archived by the Polar Geospatial Center (PGC) at the University of Minnesota through an academic licensing program maintained by the US National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). SETSM is the primary DEM generation software for the US National Science Foundation's ArcticDEM program, with the objective of generating high resolution (2-8m) topography for the entire Arctic landmass, including seamless DEM mosaics and repeat DEM strips for change detection. ArcticDEM is collaboration between multiple US universities, governmental agencies and private companies, as well as international partners assisting with quality control and registration. ArcticDEM is being produced using the petascale Blue Waters supercomputer at the National Center for Supercomputer Applications at the University of Illinois. In this paper, we introduce the SETSM

  13. Next generation sequencing (NGS database for tandem repeats with multiple pattern 2°-shaft multicore string matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinta Someswara Rao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS technologies have been rapidly applied in biomedical and biological research in recent years. To provide the comprehensive NGS resource for the research, in this paper , we have considered 10 loci/codi/repeats TAGA, TCAT, GAAT, AGAT, AGAA, GATA, TATC, CTTT, TCTG and TCTA. Then we developed the NGS Tandem Repeat Database (TandemRepeatDB for all the chromosomes of Homo sapiens, Callithrix jacchus, Chlorocebus sabaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta, Nomascus leucogenys, Pan troglodytes, Papio anubis and Pongo abelii genome data sets for all those locis. We find the successive occurence frequency for all the above 10 SSR (simple sequence repeats in the above genome data sets on a chromosome-by-chromosome basis with multiple pattern 2° shaft multicore string matching.

  14. Fuzzy tandem repeats containing p53 response elements may define species-specific p53 target genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Simeonova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary forces that shape regulatory networks remain poorly understood. In mammals, the Rb pathway is a classic example of species-specific gene regulation, as a germline mutation in one Rb allele promotes retinoblastoma in humans, but not in mice. Here we show that p53 transactivates the Retinoblastoma-like 2 (Rbl2 gene to produce p130 in murine, but not human, cells. We found intronic fuzzy tandem repeats containing perfect p53 response elements to be important for this regulation. We next identified two other murine genes regulated by p53 via fuzzy tandem repeats: Ncoa1 and Klhl26. The repeats are poorly conserved in evolution, and the p53-dependent regulation of the murine genes is lost in humans. Our results indicate a role for the rapid evolution of tandem repeats in shaping differences in p53 regulatory networks between mammalian species.

  15. Fuzzy tandem repeats containing p53 response elements may define species-specific p53 target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Iva; Lejour, Vincent; Bardot, Boris; Bouarich-Bourimi, Rachida; Morin, Aurélie; Fang, Ming; Charbonnier, Laure; Toledo, Franck

    2012-06-01

    Evolutionary forces that shape regulatory networks remain poorly understood. In mammals, the Rb pathway is a classic example of species-specific gene regulation, as a germline mutation in one Rb allele promotes retinoblastoma in humans, but not in mice. Here we show that p53 transactivates the Retinoblastoma-like 2 (Rbl2) gene to produce p130 in murine, but not human, cells. We found intronic fuzzy tandem repeats containing perfect p53 response elements to be important for this regulation. We next identified two other murine genes regulated by p53 via fuzzy tandem repeats: Ncoa1 and Klhl26. The repeats are poorly conserved in evolution, and the p53-dependent regulation of the murine genes is lost in humans. Our results indicate a role for the rapid evolution of tandem repeats in shaping differences in p53 regulatory networks between mammalian species.

  16. Probabilistic Properties of Rectilinear Steiner Minimal Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Salnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the properties of Steiner minimal trees for the manhattan plane in the context of introducing a probability measure. This problem is important because exact algorithms to solve the Steiner problem are computationally expensive (NP-hard and the solution (especially in the case of big number of points to be connected has a diversity of practical applications. That is why the work considers a possibility to rank the possible topologies of the minimal trees with respect to a probability of their usage. For this, the known facts about the structural properties of minimal trees for selected metrics have been analyzed to see their usefulness for the problem in question. For the small amount of boundary (fixed vertices, the paper offers a way to introduce a probability measure as a corollary of proved theorem about some structural properties of the minimal trees.This work is considered to further the previous similar activity concerning a problem of searching for minimal fillings, and it is a door opener to the more general (complicated task. The stated method demonstrates the possibility to reach the final result analytically, which gives a chance of its applicability to the case of the bigger number of boundary vertices (probably, with the use of computer engineering.The introducing definition of an essential Steiner point allowed a considerable restriction of the ambiguity of initial problem solution and, at the same time, comparison of such an approach with more classical works in the field concerned. The paper also lists main barriers of classical approaches, preventing their use for the task of introducing a probability measure.In prospect, application areas of the described method are expected to be wider both in terms of system enlargement (the number of boundary vertices and in terms of other metric spaces (the Euclidean case is of especial interest. The main interest is to find the classes of topologies with significantly

  17. Performance Comparisons of Improved Regular Repeat Accumulate (RA and Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA Turbo Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulkadhim Hamad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different techniques are used to improve the turbo decoding of regular repeat accumulate (RA and irregular repeat accumulate (IRA codes. The adaptive scaling of a-posteriori information produced by Soft-output Viterbi decoder (SOVA is proposed. The encoded pilots are another scheme that applied for short length RA codes. This work also suggests a simple and a fast method to generate a random interleaver having a free 4 cycle Tanner graph. Progressive edge growth algorithm (PEG is also studied and simulated to create the Tanner graphs which have a great girth.

  18. The Effects of Minimal Length, Maximal Momentum, and Minimal Momentum in Entropic Force

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong-Wen Feng; Shu-Zheng Yang; Hui-Ling Li; Xiao-Tao Zu

    2016-01-01

    The modified entropic force law is studied by using a new kind of generalized uncertainty principle which contains a minimal length, a minimal momentum, and a maximal momentum. Firstly, the quantum corrections to the thermodynamics of a black hole are investigated. Then, according to Verlinde’s theory, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) corrected entropic force is obtained. The result shows that the GUP corrected entropic force is related not only to the properties of the black holes...

  19. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  20. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  1. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  2. The absolute number of repeat operations for complex intra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal sepsis, questions about futility of treatment frequently arise. This study focuses specifically on patients who required two or more repeat laparotomies and describes the spectrum of disease necessitating multiple repeat laparotomies ...

  3. Constraints on pulsed emission model for repeating FRB 121102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisaka, Shota; Enoto, Teruaki; Shibata, Shinpei

    2017-12-01

    Recent localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 revealed the distance of its host galaxy and luminosities of the bursts. We investigated constraints on the young neutron star (NS) model, that (a) the FRB intrinsic luminosity is supported by the spin-down energy, and (b) the FRB duration is shorter than the NS rotation period. In the case of a circular cone emission geometry, conditions (a) and (b) determine the NS parameters within very small ranges, compared with that from only condition (a) discussed in previous works. Anisotropy of the pulsed emission does not affect the area of the allowed parameter region by virtue of condition (b). The determined parameters are consistent with those independently limited by the properties of the possible persistent radio counterpart and the circumburst environments such as surrounding materials. Since the NS in the allowed parameter region is older than the spin-down timescale, the hypothetical GRP (giant radio pulse)-like model expects a rapid radio flux decay of ≲1 Jy within a few years as the spin-down luminosity decreases. The continuous monitoring will provide constraints on the young NS models. If no flux evolution is seen, we need to consider an alternative model, e.g., the magnetically powered flare.

  4. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Triplet repeat DNA structures and human genetic disease: dynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of triplet repeats (Pearson and Sinden 1998a; Sinden. 1999). Expansions or deletions can occur by simple. Table 1. Trinucleotide repeats in human genetic disease. Repeat length. Disease. Gene. Locus. Repeata. Normal. Pre- mutation. Disease. Protein/possible biological effect of expansion. Fragile X syndrome. FMR1.

  6. Novel expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using different bioinformatic criteria, the SUCEST database was used to mine for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Among 42,189 clusters, 1,425 expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were identified in silico. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant SSRs detected. Of 212 primer pairs ...

  7. Triplet repeat DNA structures and human genetic disease: dynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Triplet repeat DNA structures and human genetic disease: dynamic mutations from dynamic DNA. Richard R Sinden Vladimir N ... Different models have been proposed for the expansion of triplet repeats, most of which presume the formation of alternative DNA structures in repeat tracts. One of the most likely structures, ...

  8. Repeat Testing Effects on Credentialing Exams: Are Repeaters Misinformed or Uninformed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Raymond, Mark R.; Haist, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate security concerns and unfair score gains, credentialing programs routinely administer new test material to examinees retesting after an initial failing attempt. Counterintuitively, a small but growing body of recent research suggests that repeating the identical form does not create an unfair advantage. This study builds upon and…

  9. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  10. Neuronavigation in minimally invasive spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Ziev B; Mayer, Rory R; Strickland, Benjamin A; Kretzer, Ryan M; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Baaj, Ali A

    2013-08-01

    Parallel advancements in image guidance technology and minimal access techniques continue to push the frontiers of minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS). While traditional intraoperative imaging remains widely used, newer platforms, such as 3D-fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, and intraoperative CT/MRI, have enabled safer, more accurate instrumentation placement with less radiation exposure to the surgeon. The goal of this work is to provide a review of the current uses of advanced image guidance in MISS. The authors searched PubMed for relevant articles concerning MISS, with particular attention to the use of image-guidance platforms. Pertinent studies published in English were further compiled and characterized into relevant analyses of MISS of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral regions. Fifty-two studies were included for review. These describe the use of the iso-C system for 3D navigation during C1-2 transarticular screw placement, the use of endoscopic techniques in the cervical spine, and the role of navigation guidance at the occipital-cervical junction. The authors discuss the evolving literature concerning neuronavigation during pedicle screw placement in the thoracic and lumbar spine in the setting of infection, trauma, and deformity surgery and review the use of image guidance in transsacral approaches. Refinements in image-guidance technologies and minimal access techniques have converged on spinal pathology, affording patients the ability to undergo safe, accurate operations without the associated morbidities of conventional approaches. While percutaneous transpedicular screw placement is among the most common procedures to benefit from navigation, other areas of spine surgery can benefit from advances in neuronavigation and further growth in the field of image-guided MISS is anticipated.

  11. Germ-line CAG repeat instability causes extreme CAG repeat expansion with infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Ek, Jakob; Duno, Morten; Skovby, Flemming; Hjermind, Lena E; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup

    2013-06-01

    The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by dominant inheritance, progressive cerebellar ataxia and diverse extracerebellar symptoms. A subgroup of the ataxias is caused by unstable CAG-repeat expansions in their respective genes leading to pathogenic expansions of polyglutamine stretches in the encoded proteins. In general, unstable CAG repeats have an uninterrupted CAG repeat, whereas stable CAG repeats are either short or interrupted by CAA codons, which - like CAG codons - code for glutamine. Here we report on an infantile SCA2 patient who, due to germ-line CAG repeat instability in her father, inherited an extremely expanded CAG repeat in the SCA2 locus. Surprisingly, the expanded allele of the father was an interrupted CAG repeat sequence. Furthermore, analyses of single spermatozoa showed a high frequency of paternal germ-line repeat sequence instability of the expanded SCA2 locus.

  12. The hidden price of repeated traumatic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2014-07-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated reduced hippocampal volume in trauma-exposed individuals without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the implications of such a deficit in this non-clinical population are still unclear. Animal and human models of PTSD suggest that hippocampal deficit may result in impaired learning and use of associations between contextual information and aversive events. Previous study has shown that individuals with PTSD have a selective impairment in reversing the negative outcome of context-related information. The aim of this study was to test whether non-PTSD individuals who are repeatedly exposed to traumatic events display similar impairment. To that end, we compared the performance of active-duty firefighters who are frequently exposed to traumatic events as part of their occupational routine and civilian matched-controls with no history of trauma-exposure. We used a novel cue-context reversal paradigm, which separately evaluates reversal of negative and positive outcomes of cue and context-related information. As predicted, we found that while both trauma-exposed firefighters and unexposed matched-controls were able to acquire and retain stimulus-outcome associations, firefighters struggled to learn that a previously negative context is later associated with a positive outcome. This impairment did not correlate with levels of PTSD, anxiety or depressive symptoms. The results suggest that similar to individuals with PTSD, highly exposed individuals fail to associate traumatic outcomes with their appropriate context. This impairment may reflect a possible hidden price of repeated traumatic exposure, which is not necessarily associated with PTSD diagnosis, and may affect the way highly exposed individuals interpret and react to their environment.

  13. Lowered ultraviolet minimal erythema dose in hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. H.; Williams, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    In view of recent reports of increased tanning in hemiplegic limbs, we have investigated ultraviolet (u.v.) minimal erythema dose (MED) in hemiplegia using the bilateral comparison technique. Seven of 10 patients had a lower MED in the hemiplegic arm compared to the normal side, the mean reduction being 16% (range 0-33%, P = 0.003). No patients had a higher MED in the hemiplegic arm. We review the literature regarding other non-neurological features of hemiplegia, in particular asymmetry of temperature, oedema, and finger clubbing, and we propose a vasomotor or trophic aetiology for these findings. PMID:4022889

  14. Waste Minimization Program. Air Force Plant 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    calculation of makeup requirements. 4. Coolant Recovery System. A centralized system for coolant recovery and reuse will employ a centrifugation system...acceptor and _ metal stabilizers. A maximum reuse program of this type would require additional solvent analyses to determine the necessary additive makeup ...34". OPERATOR:•6t DATE:" WASTE MINIMIZATION PROGRAM " DATA SHEET .. WAST"ES "- CHARACTERISTICS: . -.4 )/7YI. .7"R--e: e&-0l,)" fx ,/’-Z 𔄁S" (ATTACH ANALYSIS IF

  15. Minimally Invasive Approach of a Retrocaval Ureter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Fidalgo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrocaval ureter is a rare congenital entity, classically managed with open pyeloplasty techniques. The experience obtained with the laparoscopic approach of other more frequent causes of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ obstruction has opened the method for the minimally invasive approach of the retrocaval ureter. In our paper, we describe a clinical case of a right retrocaval ureter managed successfully with laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty. The main standpoints of the procedure are described. Our results were similar to others published by other urologic centers, which demonstrates the safety and feasibility of the procedure for this condition.

  16. Flocking with minimal cooperativity: The panic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkiewicz, Kevin R.; Eaves, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional lattice model of self-propelled spins that can change direction only upon collision with another spin. We show that even with ballistic motion and minimal cooperativity, these spins display robust flocking behavior at nearly all densities, forming long bands of stripes. The structural transition in this system is not a thermodynamic phase transition, but it can still be characterized by an order parameter, and we demonstrate that if this parameter is studied as a dynamical variable rather than a steady-state observable, we can extract a detailed picture of how the flocking mechanism varies with density.

  17. Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery in Small Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettlich, Bianca F

    2018-01-01

    Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) seems to have many benefits for human patients and is currently used for various minor and major spine procedures. For MISS, a change in access strategy to the target location is necessary and it requires intraoperative imaging, special instrumentation, and magnification. Few veterinary studies have evaluated MISS for canine patients for spinal decompression procedures. This article discusses the general requirements for MISS and how these can be applied to veterinary spinal surgery. The current veterinary MISS literature is reviewed and suggestions are made on how to apply MISS to different spinal locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. "Open" minimally invasive surgery in pediatric urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Tamola, Josephine; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Koyle, Martin A

    2009-06-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) offers alternative operative approaches to standard open surgical techniques. However, MIS has been defined primarily as substituting laparoendoscopic alternatives for the traditional open surgical approach. The concept of MIS methodology may also be applied to open surgery in an effort to decrease incision size, potentially reduce morbidity and enhance convalescence, without compromising 'gold standard' outcomes. Pediatric urological applications of open MIS include pediatric renal surgery, ureteral reimplantation, ureteral surgery, inguinal-scrotal and genital surgery. A thorough review of the pediatric urology literature was performed and studies were identified describing open MIS, including outcomes and complications.

  19. Two-Higgs leptonic minimal flavour violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, F. J.; Branco, G. C.; Nebot, M.; Rebelo, M. N.

    2011-10-01

    We construct extensions of the Standard Model with two Higgs doublets, where there are flavour changing neutral currents both in the quark and leptonic sectors, with their strength fixed by the fermion mixing matrices V CKM and V PMNS. These models are an extension to the leptonic sector of the class of models previously considered by Branco, Grimus and Lavoura, for the quark sector. We consider both the cases of Dirac and Majorana neutrinos and identify the minimal discrete symmetry required in order to implement the models in a natural way.

  20. Statistical quality control a loss minimization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Trietsch, Dan

    1999-01-01

    While many books on quality espouse the Taguchi loss function, they do not examine its impact on statistical quality control (SQC). But using the Taguchi loss function sheds new light on questions relating to SQC and calls for some changes. This book covers SQC in a way that conforms with the need to minimize loss. Subjects often not covered elsewhere include: (i) measurements, (ii) determining how many points to sample to obtain reliable control charts (for which purpose a new graphic tool, diffidence charts, is introduced), (iii) the connection between process capability and tolerances, (iv)

  1. Minimally invasive splenectomy: an update and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamme, Gary; Birch, Daniel W.; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has become an established standard of care in the management of surgical diseases of the spleen. The present article is an update and review of current procedures and controversies regarding minimally invasive splenectomy. We review the indications and contraindications for LS as well as preoperative considerations. An individual assessment of the procedures and outcomes of multiport laparoscopic splenectomy, hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy, robotic splenectomy, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic splenectomy and single-port splenectomy is included. Furthermore, this review examines postoperative considerations after LS, including the postoperative course of uncomplicated patients, postoperative portal vein thrombosis, infections and malignancy. PMID:23883500

  2. Minimal non-abelian supersymmetric Twin Higgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badziak, Marcin; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2017-10-01

    We propose a minimal supersymmetric Twin Higgs model that can accommodate tuning of the electroweak scale for heavy stops better than 10% with high mediation scales of supersymmetry breaking. A crucial ingredient of this model is a new SU(2) X gauge symmetry which provides a D-term potential that generates a large SU(4) invariant coupling for the Higgs sector and only small set of particles charged under SU(2) X , which allows the model to be perturbative around the Planck scale. The new gauge interaction drives the top yukawa coupling small at higher energy scales, which also reduces the tuning.

  3. Minimal model for spoof acoustoelastic surface states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Johan; Liang, Z.; Willatzen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Similar to textured perfect electric conductors for electromagnetic waves sustaining artificial or spoof surface plasmons we present an equivalent phenomena for the case of sound. Aided by a minimal model that is able to capture the complex wave interaction of elastic cavity modes and airborne...... sound radiation in perfect rigid panels, we construct designer acoustoelastic surface waves that are entirely controlled by the geometrical environment. Comparisons to results obtained by full-wave simu- lations confirm the feasibility of the model and we demonstrate illustrative examples...... such as resonant transmissions and waveguiding to show a few examples of many where spoof elastic surface waves are useful....

  4. Minimally doubled fermions at one loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Stefano; Weber, Johannes; Wittig, Hartmut

    2009-10-01

    Minimally doubled fermions have been proposed as a cost-effective realization of chiral symmetry at non-zero lattice spacing. Using lattice perturbation theory at one loop, we study their renormalization properties. Specifically, we investigate the consequences of the breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry, which is a typical feature of this class of fermionic discretizations. Our results for the quark self-energy indicate that the four-momentum undergoes a renormalization which is linearly divergent. We also compute renormalization factors for quark bilinears, construct the conserved vector and axial-vector currents and verify that at one loop the renormalization factors of the latter are equal to one.

  5. Hazardous Waste Minimization Assessment: Fort Meade, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    such as naptha. xylene, toluene, or hexane. Powder or water-based paints do not contain solvents. Solvent-based paints (e.g., acrylic lacquers) have the...W.H. Resy. ’Solvent Riocovery in the Paint Indust’y." Paints & Resin (March/April 1982). pp 41-44. SCS Engineers. Inc.. Waste A-.i Stdy • Ahomwive...They should also be located in such a way as to minimize patients/personnel exposure to the wastes. The containers must be cleaned and disinfected

  6. Reducing robotic prostatectomy costs by minimizing instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delto, Joan C; Wayne, George; Yanes, Rafael; Nieder, Alan M; Bhandari, Akshay

    2015-05-01

    Since the introduction of robotic surgery for radical prostatectomy, the cost-benefit of this technology has been under scrutiny. While robotic surgery professes to offer multiple advantages, including reduced blood loss, reduced length of stay, and expedient recovery, the associated costs tend to be significantly higher, secondary to the fixed cost of the robot as well as the variable costs associated with instrumentation. This study provides a simple framework for the careful consideration of costs during the selection of equipment and materials. Two experienced robotic surgeons at our institution as well as several at other institutions were queried about their preferred instrument usage for robot-assisted prostatectomy. Costs of instruments and materials were obtained and clustered by type and price. A minimal set of instruments was identified and compared against alternative instrumentation. A retrospective review of 125 patients who underwent robotically assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy for prostate cancer at our institution was performed to compare estimated blood loss (EBL), operative times, and intraoperative complications for both surgeons. Our surgeons now conceptualize instrument costs as proportional changes to the cost of the baseline minimal combination. Robotic costs at our institution were reduced by eliminating an energy source like the Ligasure or vessel sealer, exploiting instrument versatility, and utilizing inexpensive tools such as Hem-o-lok clips. Such modifications reduced surgeon 1's cost of instrumentation to ∼40% less compared with surgeon 2 and up to 32% less than instrumentation used by surgeons at other institutions. Surgeon 1's combination may not be optimal for all robotic surgeons; however, it establishes a minimally viable toolbox for our institution through a rudimentary cost analysis. A similar analysis may aid others in better conceptualizing long-term costs not as nominal, often unwieldy prices, but as percent changes in

  7. The minimal geometric deformation approach extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, R.; Ovalle, J.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2015-11-01

    The minimal geometric deformation approach was introduced in order to study the exterior spacetime around spherically symmetric self-gravitating systems, such as stars or similar astrophysical objects, in the Randall-Sundrum brane-world framework. A consistent extension of this approach is developed here, which contains modifications of both the time component and the radial component of a spherically symmetric metric. A modified Schwarzschild geometry is obtained as an example of its simplest application, and a new solution that is potentially useful to describe stars in the brane-world is also presented.

  8. Nonunity gain minimal-disturbance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Mišta, L.; Fiurášek, J.

    2007-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimal nonunity gain Gaussian scheme for partial measurement of an unknown coherent state that causes minimal disturbance of the state. The information gain and the state disturbance are quantified by the noise added to the measurement outcomes and to...... and to the output state, respectively. We derive the optimal trade-off relation between the two noises and we show that the tradeoff is saturated by nonunity gain teleportation. Optimal partial measurement is demonstrated experimentally using a linear optics scheme with feedforward....

  9. From topological strings to minimal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, Omar [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne,Royal Parade, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Wu, Jian-Feng [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Henan University,Minglun Street, Kaifeng city, Henan (China); Beijing Institute of Theoretical Physics and Mathematics,3rd Shangdi Street, Beijing (China)

    2015-07-24

    We glue four refined topological vertices to obtain the building block of 5D U(2) quiver instanton partition functions. We take the 4D limit of the result to obtain the building block of 4D instanton partition functions which, using the AGT correspondence, are identified with Virasoro conformal blocks. We show that there is a choice of the parameters of the topological vertices that we start with, as well as the parameters and the intermediate states involved in the gluing procedure, such that we obtain Virasoro minimal model conformal blocks.

  10. CRISPR Recognition Tool (CRT: a tool for automatic detection of clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Kyndall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs are a novel type of direct repeat found in a wide range of bacteria and archaea. CRISPRs are beginning to attract attention because of their proposed mechanism; that is, defending their hosts against invading extrachromosomal elements such as viruses. Existing repeat detection tools do a poor job of identifying CRISPRs due to the presence of unique spacer sequences separating the repeats. In this study, a new tool, CRT, is introduced that rapidly and accurately identifies CRISPRs in large DNA strings, such as genomes and metagenomes. Results CRT was compared to CRISPR detection tools, Patscan and Pilercr. In terms of correctness, CRT was shown to be very reliable, demonstrating significant improvements over Patscan for measures precision, recall and quality. When compared to Pilercr, CRT showed improved performance for recall and quality. In terms of speed, CRT proved to be a huge improvement over Patscan. Both CRT and Pilercr were comparable in speed, however CRT was faster for genomes containing large numbers of repeats. Conclusion In this paper a new tool was introduced for the automatic detection of CRISPR elements. This tool, CRT, showed some important improvements over current techniques for CRISPR identification. CRT's approach to detecting repetitive sequences is straightforward. It uses a simple sequential scan of a DNA sequence and detects repeats directly without any major conversion or preprocessing of the input. This leads to a program that is easy to describe and understand; yet it is very accurate, fast and memory efficient, being O(n in space and O(nm/l in time.

  11. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  12. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Psychological effects of rapid weight loss and attitudes towards eating among professional jockeys

    OpenAIRE

    Caulfield, MJ; Karageorghis, CI

    2008-01-01

    We examined the psychological effects of rapid weight loss among a sample of 41 professional jockeys (mean age 30.9 years, s¼7.0). Participants completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) to establish the relationships between rapid weight loss, mood, and attitudes towards eating. These instruments were administered on three occasions: at the jockeys’ minimal weight (achieved through rapid weight loss), their optimal riding weight (when they were not exce...

  14. Multiple Recurrences in Aggressive Forms of Dupuytren?s Disease?Can Patients Benefit from Repeated Selective Fasciectomy?

    OpenAIRE

    K?nneker, S?ren; Broelsch, G. Felix; Krezdorn, Nicco; Dastagir, Khaled; Kuhbier, J?rn W.; Paprottka, Felix J.; Peter M Vogt

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Dupuytren?s disease (DD), limited fasciectomy is the mainstay of surgical therapy in patients at risk of contractures and disease recurrences. New minimally invasive treatments such as injection of collagenase clostridium histolyticum have evolved as a common tool for the preliminary treatment of Dupuytren?s contractures. However, recurrences and their therapy remain controversial. In this study, we evaluate the benefit of repeated limited fasciectomy in patients with aggressiv...

  15. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  16. Minimalism in architecture: Abstract conceptualization of architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilski Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimalism in architecture contains the idea of the minimum as a leading creative tend to be considered and interpreted in working through phenomena of empathy and abstraction. In the Western culture, the root of this idea is found in empathy of Wilhelm Worringer and abstraction of Kasimir Malevich. In his dissertation, 'Abstraction and Empathy' Worringer presented his thesis on the psychology of style through which he explained the two opposing basic forms: abstraction and empathy. His conclusion on empathy as a psychological basis of observation expression is significant due to the verbal congruence with contemporary minimalist expression. His intuition was enhenced furthermore by figure of Malevich. Abstraction, as an expression of inner unfettered inspiration, has played a crucial role in the development of modern art and architecture of the twentieth century. Abstraction, which is one of the basic methods of learning in psychology (separating relevant from irrelevant features, Carl Jung is used to discover ideas. Minimalism in architecture emphasizes the level of abstraction to which the individual functions are reduced. Different types of abstraction are present: in the form as well as function of the basic elements: walls and windows. The case study is an example of Sou Fujimoto who is unequivocal in its commitment to the autonomy of abstract conceptualization of architecture.

  17. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a $U(3)_\\chi$ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter $\\chi$ which transforms as triplet under $U(3)_\\chi$, and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator $\\phi$ with a coupling $\\lambda$. We identify a number of "flavor-safe" scenarios for the structure of $\\lambda$ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. For dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of $b$-...

  18. The minimal curvaton-Higgs model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enqvist, Kari [Helsinki Univ. and Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland). Physics Dept.; Lerner, Rose N. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Helsinki Univ. and Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland). Physics Dept.; Takahashi, Tomo [Saga Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-10-15

    We present the first full study of the minimal curvaton-Higgs (MCH) model, which is a minimal interpretation of the curvaton scenario with one real scalar coupled to the standard model Higgs boson. The standard model coupling allows the dynamics of the model to be determined in detail, including effects from the thermal background and from radiative corrections to the potential. The relevant mechanisms for curvaton decay are incomplete non-perturbative decay (delayed by thermal blocking), followed by decay via a dimension-5 non-renormalisable operator. To avoid spoiling the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis, we find the ''bare'' curvaton mass to be m{sub {sigma}}{>=}8 x 10{sup 4} GeV. To match observational data from Planck there is an upper limit on the curvaton-higgs coupling g, between 10{sup -3} and 10{sup -2}, depending on the mass. This is due to interactions with the thermal background. We find that typically non-Gaussianities are small but that if f{sub NL} is observed in the near future then m{sub {sigma}}

  19. Power Minimization techniques for Networked Data Centers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Steven; Tang, Kevin

    2011-09-28

    Our objective is to develop a mathematical model to optimize energy consumption at multiple levels in networked data centers, and develop abstract algorithms to optimize not only individual servers, but also coordinate the energy consumption of clusters of servers within a data center and across geographically distributed data centers to minimize the overall energy cost and consumption of brown energy of an enterprise. In this project, we have formulated a variety of optimization models, some stochastic others deterministic, and have obtained a variety of qualitative results on the structural properties, robustness, and scalability of the optimal policies. We have also systematically derived from these models decentralized algorithms to optimize energy efficiency, analyzed their optimality and stability properties. Finally, we have conducted preliminary numerical simulations to illustrate the behavior of these algorithms. We draw the following conclusion. First, there is a substantial opportunity to minimize both the amount and the cost of electricity consumption in a network of datacenters, by exploiting the fact that traffic load, electricity cost, and availability of renewable generation fluctuate over time and across geographical locations. Judiciously matching these stochastic processes can optimize the tradeoff between brown energy consumption, electricity cost, and response time. Second, given the stochastic nature of these three processes, real-time dynamic feedback should form the core of any optimization strategy. The key is to develop decentralized algorithms that can be implemented at different parts of the network as simple, local algorithms that coordinate through asynchronous message passing.

  20. On the generalized minimal massive gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Setare

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity (GMMG in asymptotically AdS3 background. The generalized minimal massive gravity theory is realized by adding the CS deformation term, the higher derivative deformation term, and an extra term to pure Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant. We study the linearized excitations around the AdS3 background and find that at special point (tricritical in parameter space the two massive graviton solutions become massless and they are replaced by two solutions with logarithmic and logarithmic-squared boundary behavior. So it is natural to propose that GMMG model could also provide a holographic description for a 3-rank Logarithmic Conformal Field Theory (LCFT. We calculate the energy of the linearized gravitons in AdS3 background, and show that the theory is free of negative-energy bulk modes. Then we obtain the central charges of the CFT dual explicitly and show GMMG also avoids the aforementioned “bulk-boundary unitarity clash”. After that we show that General Zwei–Dreibein Gravity (GZDG model can reduce to GMMG model. Finally by a Hamiltonian analysis we show that the GMMG model has no Boulware–Deser ghosts and this model propagates only two physical modes.