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Sample records for rapidly protects swine

  1. Characterisation of vaccine-induced, broadly cross-reactive IFN-γ secreting T cell responses that correlate with rapid protection against classical swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Simon P; Haines, Felicity J; Johns, Helen L; Sosan, Olubukola; La Rocca, S Anna; Lamp, Benjamin; Rümenapf, Till; Everett, Helen E; Crooke, Helen R

    2012-04-05

    Live attenuated C-strain classical swine fever viruses (CSFV) provide a rapid onset of protection, but the lack of a serological test that can differentiate vaccinated from infected animals limits their application in CSF outbreaks. Since immunity may precede antibody responses, we examined the kinetics and specificity of peripheral blood T cell responses from pigs vaccinated with a C-strain vaccine and challenged after five days with a genotypically divergent CSFV isolate. Vaccinated animals displayed virus-specific IFN-γ responses from day 3 post-challenge, whereas, unvaccinated challenge control animals failed to mount a detectable response. Both CD4(+) and cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells were identified as the cellular source of IFN-γ. IFN-γ responses showed extensive cross-reactivity when T cells were stimulated with CSFV isolates spanning the major genotypes. To determine the specificity of these responses, T cells were stimulated with recombinant CSFV proteins and a proteome-wide peptide library from a related virus, BVDV. Major cross-reactive peptides were mapped on the E2 and NS3 proteins. Finally, IFN-γ was shown to exert potent antiviral effects on CSFV in vitro. These data support the involvement of broadly cross-reactive T cell IFN-γ responses in the rapid protection conferred by the C-strain vaccine and this information should aid the development of the next generation of CSFV vaccines. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A multiplex RT-PCR assay for the rapid and differential diagnosis of classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Arce, Heidy; Pérez, Lester J; Frías, Maria T; Rosell, Rosa; Tarradas, Joan; Núñez, José I; Ganges, Llilianne

    2009-11-18

    Classical swine fever is a highly contagious viral disease causing severe economic losses in pig production almost worldwide. All pestivirus species can infect pigs, therefore accurate and rapid pestivirus detection and differentiation is of great importance to assure control measures in swine farming. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel multiplex, highly sensitive and specific RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and rapid differentiation between CSFV and other pestivirus infections in swine. The universal and differential detection was based on primers designed to amplify a fragment of the 5' non-coding genome region for the detection of pestiviruses and a fragment of the NS5B gene for the detection of classical swine fever virus. The assay proved to be specific when different pestivirus strains from swine and ruminants were evaluated. The analytical sensitivity was estimated to be as little as 0.89TCID(50). The assay analysis of 30 tissue homogenate samples from naturally infected and non-CSF infected animals and 40 standard serum samples evaluated as part of two European Inter-laboratory Comparison Tests conducted by the European Community Reference Laboratory, Hanover, Germany proved that the multiplex RT-PCR method provides a rapid, highly sensitive, and cost-effective laboratory diagnosis for classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections in swine.

  3. A novel gE-deleted pseudorabies virus (PRV) provides rapid and complete protection from lethal challenge with the PRV variant emerging in Bartha-K61-vaccinated swine population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Yuan, Jin; Qin, Hua-Yang; Luo, Yuzi; Cong, Xin; Li, Yongfeng; Chen, Jianing; Li, Su; Sun, Yuan; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2014-06-05

    The currently used Bartha-K61 strain is a very safe and effective vaccine against pseudorabies (PR) and has played a critical role in the control and eradication of PR worldwide. Since late 2011, however, PR reemerged among Bartha-K61-vaccinated pig population in many regions in China. Our previous studies demonstrated that the Bartha-K61 vaccine was unable to provide complete protection from the challenge with the PRV TJ strain (PRVTJ), a representative emerging PRV variant that was isolated from a Bartha-K61-immunized pig farm in Tianjin, China. Here, we generated a gE-deleted PRV, named as rPRVTJ-delgE, based on PRVTJ and evaluated its safety and immunogenicity in pigs. Our results showed that groups of piglets (n=5) immunized with 10(3), 10(4) or 10(5)TCID50 rPRVTJ-delgE did not exhibit clinical signs following immunization and challenge and were protected clinically and virologically from the lethal challenge with PRVTJ as early as 1 week post-immunization, in contrast with the incomplete protection provided by the Bartha-K61 vaccine. These indicate that rPRVTJ-delgE is a promising candidate vaccine for updating Bartha-K61 for the control of the currently epidemic PR in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Work-Related Health Effects in Swine Building Workers After Respiratory Protection Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Veillette, Marc; Mériaux, Anne

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To compare inflammation and lung function in swine workers after periods with and without respiratory protection during work. METHODS:Twenty-three workers were examined before and after two nonprotected work shifts. One shift was preceded by a period with diminished exposure by use...

  5. Association of the Host Immune Response with Protection Using a Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Virus Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jolene; O'Donnell, Vivian; Alfano, Marialexia; Velazquez Salinas, Lauro; Holinka, Lauren G; Krug, Peter W; Gladue, Douglas P; Higgs, Stephen; Borca, Manuel V

    2016-10-22

    African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV). There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4) virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus) is completely attenuated. Swine infected with Pret4Δ9GL virus and challenged with the virulent parental virus at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection (dpi) showed a progressive acquisition of protection (from 40% at 7 dpi to 80% at 21 and 28 dpi). This animal model was used to associate the presence of host immune response (ASFV-specific antibody and interferon (IFN)-γ responses, or specific cytokine profiles) and protection against challenge. With the exception of ASFV-specific antibodies in survivors challenged at 21 and 28 dpi, no association between the parameters assessed and protection could be established. These results, encompassing data from 65 immunized swine, underscore the complexity of the system under study, suggesting that protection relies on the concurrence of different host immune mechanisms.

  6. Association of the Host Immune Response with Protection Using a Live Attenuated African Swine Fever Virus Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Carlson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV. There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4 virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus is completely attenuated. Swine infected with Pret4Δ9GL virus and challenged with the virulent parental virus at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection (dpi showed a progressive acquisition of protection (from 40% at 7 dpi to 80% at 21 and 28 dpi. This animal model was used to associate the presence of host immune response (ASFV-specific antibody and interferon (IFN-γ responses, or specific cytokine profiles and protection against challenge. With the exception of ASFV-specific antibodies in survivors challenged at 21 and 28 dpi, no association between the parameters assessed and protection could be established. These results, encompassing data from 65 immunized swine, underscore the complexity of the system under study, suggesting that protection relies on the concurrence of different host immune mechanisms.

  7. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Replicon Particles Can Induce Rapid Protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Dias, Camila C. A.; Moraes, Mauro P.; Weiss, Marcelo; Perez-Martin, Eva; Owens, Gary; Custer, Max; Kamrud, Kurt; de los Santos, Teresa; Grubman, Marvin J.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that delivery of the porcine type I interferon gene (poIFN-α/β) with a replication-defective human adenovirus vector (adenovirus 5 [Ad5]) can sterilely protect swine challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 1 day later. However, the need of relatively high doses of Ad5 limits the applicability of such a control strategy in the livestock industry. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) empty replicon particles (VRPs) can induce rapid protection of mice a...

  8. Protective effects of simvastatin on coronary artery function in swine with acute infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liuba, Petru; Pesonen, Erkki; Forslid, Anders

    2006-01-01

    cholesterol) between the groups (p>0.2). CONCLUSION:: Acute infection is associated with impairment of the muscarinic and kinin-related reactivity of coronary circulation. These functional abnormalities are in part prevented by simvastatin through mechanisms unrelated to lipid lowering......BACKGROUND:: The risk for coronary events may rise during acute infection. Perturbation in coronary endothelial function emerges as one important link. We investigated whether simvastatin could protect the coronary arterial function from the adverse effects of acute infection in swine. METHODS......:: Coronary endothelium-dependent and -independent vasomotor responses were assessed by Doppler velocimetry in 12 Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected and 6 sham-infected swine 2 weeks after intratracheal inoculation. Half of animals from the infection group were pre-treated with simvastatin (80mg daily), while...

  9. African Swine Fever Virus Georgia 2007 with a Deletion of Virulence-Associated Gene 9GL (B119L), when Administered at Low Doses, Leads to Virus Attenuation in Swine and Induces an Effective Protection against Homologous Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Vivian; Holinka, Lauren G; Krug, Peter W; Gladue, Douglas P; Carlson, Jolene; Sanford, Brenton; Alfano, Marialexia; Kramer, Edward; Lu, Zhiqiang; Arzt, Jonathan; Reese, Bo; Carrillo, Consuelo; Risatti, Guillermo R; Borca, Manuel V

    2015-08-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of an often lethal disease of domestic pigs. Disease control strategies have been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines against ASFV. Since its introduction in the Republic of Georgia, a highly virulent virus, ASFV Georgia 2007 (ASFV-G), has caused an epizootic that spread rapidly into Eastern European countries. Currently no vaccines are available or under development to control ASFV-G. In the past, genetically modified ASFVs harboring deletions of virulence-associated genes have proven attenuated in swine, inducing protective immunity against challenge with homologous parental viruses. Deletion of the gene 9GL (open reading frame [ORF] B119L) in highly virulent ASFV Malawi-Lil-20/1 produced an attenuated phenotype even when administered to pigs at 10(6) 50% hemadsorption doses (HAD50). Here we report the construction of a genetically modified ASFV-G strain (ASFV-G-Δ9GLv) harboring a deletion of the 9GL (B119L) gene. Like Malawi-Lil-20/1-Δ9GL, ASFV-G-Δ9GL showed limited replication in primary swine macrophages. However, intramuscular inoculation of swine with 10(4) HAD50 of ASFV-G-Δ9GL produced a virulent phenotype that, unlike Malawi-Lil-20/1-Δ9GL, induced a lethal disease in swine like parental ASFV-G. Interestingly, lower doses (10(2) to 10(3) HAD50) of ASFV-G-Δ9GL did not induce a virulent phenotype in swine and when challenged protected pigs against disease. A dose of 10(2) HAD50 of ASFV-G-Δ9GLv conferred partial protection when pigs were challenged at either 21 or 28 days postinfection (dpi). An ASFV-G-Δ9GL HAD50 of 10(3) conferred partial and complete protection at 21 and 28 dpi, respectively. The information provided here adds to our recent report on the first attempts toward experimental vaccines against ASFV-G. The main problem for controlling ASF is the lack of vaccines. Studies on ASFV virulence lead to the production of genetically modified attenuated viruses that induce protection

  10. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Replicon Particles Can Induce Rapid Protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Dias, Camila C. A.; Moraes, Mauro P.; Weiss, Marcelo; Perez-Martin, Eva; Owens, Gary; Custer, Max; Kamrud, Kurt; de los Santos, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that delivery of the porcine type I interferon gene (poIFN-α/β) with a replication-defective human adenovirus vector (adenovirus 5 [Ad5]) can sterilely protect swine challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 1 day later. However, the need of relatively high doses of Ad5 limits the applicability of such a control strategy in the livestock industry. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) empty replicon particles (VRPs) can induce rapid protection of mice against either homologous or, in some cases, heterologous virus challenge. As an alternative approach to induce rapid protection against FMDV, we have examined the ability of VRPs containing either the gene for green fluorescent protein (VRP-GFP) or poIFN-α (VRP-poIFN-α) to block FMDV replication in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment of swine or bovine cell lines with either VRP significantly inhibited subsequent infection with FMDV as early as 6 h after treatment and for at least 120 h posttreatment. Furthermore, mice pretreated with either 107 or 108 infectious units of VRP-GFP and challenged with a lethal dose of FMDV 24 h later were protected from death. Protection was induced as early as 6 h after treatment and lasted for at least 48 h and correlated with induction of an antiviral response and production of IFN-α. By 6 h after treatment several genes were upregulated, and the number of genes and the level of induction increased at 24 h. Finally, we demonstrated that the chemokine IP-10, which is induced by IFN-α and VRP-GFP, is directly involved in protection against FMDV. PMID:23468490

  11. Recoding structural glycoprotein E2 in classical swine fever virus (CSFV) produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Risatti, Guillermo R; Holinka, Lauren G; O'Donnell, Vivian; Carlson, Jolene; Alfano, Marialexia; Rodriguez, Luis L; Carrillo, Consuelo; Gladue, Douglas P; Borca, Manuel V

    2016-07-01

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) mainly involves vaccination with live attenuated vaccines (LAV). Experimental CSFV LAVs has been lately developed through reverse genetics using several different approaches. Here we present that codon de-optimization in the major CSFV structural glycoprotein E2 coding region, causes virus attenuation in swine. Four different mutated constructs (pCSFm1-pCSFm4) were designed using various mutational approaches based on the genetic background of the highly virulent strain Brescia (BICv). Three of these constructs produced infectious viruses (CSFm2v, CSFm3v, and CSFm4v). Animals infected with CSFm2v presented a reduced and extended viremia but did not display any CSF-related clinical signs. Animals that were infected with CSFm2v were protected against challenge with virulent parental BICv. This is the first report describing the development of an attenuated CSFV experimental vaccine by codon usage de-optimization, and one of the few examples of virus attenuation using this methodology that is assessed in a natural host. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sinha

    Full Text Available Summary: The recent outbreak of human infection with a novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 virus is spreading rapidly through sustained human-to-human transmission in multiple countries. Human-to-human transmission occurs by inhalation of infectious droplets and droplet nuclei, and by direct contact, which is facilitated by air and land travel and social gatherings. The most frequently reported symptoms are fever, cough, myalgia, and sore throat. Detailed contact and travel histories and knowledge of viral activity in community are essential for prompt case detection by the health personnel. Real-time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis of throat swabs or lower respiratory samples is a sensitive means of diagnosis. Use of oral oseltamivir may be warranted for the treatment of severe illness. Keywords: Swine influenza, H1N1, Swine flu, Oseltamivir

  13. Efficacy of chimeric Pestivirus vaccine candidates against classical swine fever: protection and DIVA characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eblé, P L; Geurts, Y; Quak, S; Moonen-Leusen, H W; Blome, S; Hofmann, M A; Koenen, F; Beer, M; Loeffen, W L A

    2013-03-23

    Currently no live DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccines against classical swine fever (CSF) are available. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chimeric pestivirus vaccine candidates (CP7_E2alf, Flc11 and Flc9) are able to protect pigs against clinical signs, and to reduce virus shedding and virus transmission, after a challenge with CSF virus (CSFV), 7 or 14 days after a single intramuscular vaccination. In these vaccine candidates, either the E2 or the E(rns) encoding genome region of a bovine viral diarrhoea virus strain were combined with a cDNA copy of CSFV or vice versa. Furthermore, currently available serological DIVA tests were evaluated. The vaccine candidates were compared to the C-strain. All vaccine candidates protected against clinical signs. No transmission to contact pigs was detected in the groups vaccinated with C-strain, CP7_E2alf and Flc11. Limited transmission occurred in the groups vaccinated with Flc9. All vaccine candidates would be suitable to stop on-going transmission of CSFV. For Flc11, no reliable differentiation was possible with the current E(rns)-based DIVA test. For CP7_E2alf, the distribution of the inhibition percentages was such that up to 5% false positive results may be obtained in a large vaccinated population. For Flc9 vaccinated pigs, the E2 ELISA performed very well, with an expected 0.04% false positive results in a large vaccinated population. Both CP7_E2alf and Flc9 are promising candidates to be used as live attenuated marker vaccines against CSF, with protection the best feature of CP7_E2alf, and the DIVA principle the best feature of Flc9. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Early protection events in swine immunized with an experimental live attenuated classical swine fever marker vaccine, FlagT4G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren G Holinka

    Full Text Available Prophylactic vaccination using live attenuated classical swine fever (CSF vaccines has been a very effective method to control the disease in endemic regions and during outbreaks in previously disease-free areas. These vaccines confer effective protection against the disease at early times post-vaccination although the mechanisms mediating the protection are poorly characterized. Here we present the events occurring after the administration of our in-house developed live attenuated marker vaccine, FlagT4Gv. We previously reported that FlagT4Gv intramuscular (IM administered conferred effective protection against intranasal challenge with virulent CSFV (BICv as early as 7 days post-vaccination. Here we report that FlagT4Gv is able to induce protection against disease as early as three days post-vaccination. Immunohistochemical testing of tissues from FlagT4Gv-inoculated animals showed that tonsils were colonized by the vaccine virus by day 3 post-inoculation. There was a complete absence of BICv in tonsils of FlagT4Gv-inoculated animals which had been intranasal (IN challenged with BICv 3 days after FlagT4Gv infection, confirming that FlagT4Gv inoculation confers sterile immunity. Analysis of systemic levels of 19 different cytokines in vaccinated animals demonstrated an increase of IFN-α three days after FlagT4Gv inoculation compared with mock infected controls.

  15. Rapid Assessment of Protected area Pressures and Threats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular evaluation of protected area operations can enable policy makers develop strategic responses to pervasive management problems. Pressures and threats in seven National Parks of the National Park Service (NPS) were therefore assessed using the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area ...

  16. Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Na-Sheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV, that would carry larger transgene loads, and generate better immunity in the target animals with fewer adverse environmental effects. Methods We engineered the BaMV as a vaccine vector expressing the antigenic epitope(s of the capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. The recombinant BaMV plasmid (pBVP1 was constructed by replacing DNA encoding the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues of the BaMV coat protein with that encoding 37 amino acid residues (T128-N164 of FMDV VP1. Results The pBVP1 was able to infect host plants and to generate a chimeric virion BVP1 expressing VP1 epitopes in its coat protein. Inoculation of swine with BVP1 virions resulted in the production of anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies. Real-time PCR analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the BVP1-immunized swine revealed that they produced VP1-specific IFN-γ. Furthermore, all BVP1-immunized swine were protected against FMDV challenge. Conclusion Chimeric BaMV virions that express partial sequence of FMDV VP1 can effectively induce not only humoral and cell-mediated immune responses but also full protection against FMDV in target animals. This BaMV-based vector technology may be applied to other vaccines that require correct expression of antigens on chimeric viral particles.

  17. Swine dysentery: protection of pigs by oral and parenteral immunisation with attenuated Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M J; Alexander, T J; Lysons, R J; Prescott, J F

    1976-11-01

    An attenuated strain of Treponema hyodysenteriae was used to immunise 18 pigs in three experiments. Live attenuated spirochaetes were dosed orally and injected intra-peritoneally, and killed spirochaetes were injected intramuscularly with adjuvant. The vaccinated pigs, which developed high serum agglutination titres against T hyodysenteriae, and 18 unvaccinated litter-mates were repeatedly challenged with virulent T hyodysenteriae. Nine vaccinated pigs and 16 control pigs developed typical swine dysentery.

  18. Robust Protection against Highly Virulent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Swine by Combination Treatment with Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing Porcine Alpha and Gamma Interferons and Multiple Small Interfering RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Se-Kyung; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Taeseong; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Seo, Min-Goo; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because the currently available vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) provide no protection until 4 to 7 days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) during outbreaks is the application of antiviral agents. Combination treatment strategies have been used to enhance the efficacy of antiviral agents, and such strategies may be advantageous in overcoming viral mechanisms of resistance to antiviral treatments. We have developed recombinant adenoviruses (Ads) for the simultaneous expression of porcine alpha and gamma interferons (Ad-porcine IFN-αγ) as well as 3 small interfering RNAs (Ad-3siRNA) targeting FMDV mRNAs encoding nonstructural proteins. The antiviral effects of Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA expression were tested in combination in porcine cells, suckling mice, and swine. We observed enhanced antiviral effects in porcine cells and mice as well as robust protection against the highly pathogenic strain O/Andong/SKR/2010 and increased expression of cytokines in swine following combination treatment. In addition, we showed that combination treatment was effective against all serotypes of FMDV. Therefore, we suggest that the combined treatment with Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA may offer fast-acting antiviral protection and be used with a vaccine during the period that the vaccine does not provide protection against FMD. IMPORTANCE The use of current foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines to induce rapid protection provides limited effectiveness because the protection does not become effective until a minimum of 4 days after vaccination. Therefore, during outbreaks antiviral agents remain the only available treatment to confer rapid protection and reduce the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in livestock until vaccine-induced protective immunity can become effective. Interferons (IFNs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been reported to be effective antiviral agents against

  19. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  20. A rapid protection switching method in carrier ethernet ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; Ji, Meng

    2008-11-01

    Abstract: Ethernet is the most important Local Area Network (LAN) technology since more than 90% data traffic in access layer is carried on Ethernet. From 10M to 10G, the improving Ethernet technology can be not only used in LAN, but also a good choice for MAN even WAN. MAN are always constructed in ring topology because the ring network could provide resilient path protection by using less resource (fibre or cable) than other network topologies. In layer 2 data networks, spanning tree protocol (STP) is always used to protect transmit link and preventing the formation of logic loop in networks. However, STP cannot guarantee the efficiency of service convergence when link fault happened. In fact, convergent time of networks with STP is about several minutes. Though Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and Multi-Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) improve the STP technology, they still need a couple of seconds to achieve convergence, and can not provide sub-50ms protection switching. This paper presents a novel rapid ring protection method (RRPM) for carrier Ethernet. Unlike other link-fault detection method, it adopts distributed algorithm to detect link fault rapidly (sub-50ms). When networks restore from link fault, it can revert to the original working state. RRPM can provide single ring protection and interconnected ring protection without the formation of super loop. In normal operation, the master node blocks the secondary port for all non-RRPM Ethernet frames belonging to the given RRPM Ring, thereby avoiding a loop in the ring. When link fault happens, the node on which the failure happens moves from the "ring normal" state to the "ring fault" state. It also sends "link down" frame immediately to other nodes and blocks broken port and flushes its forwarding database. Those who receive "link down" frame will flush forwarding database and master node should unblock its secondary port. When the failure restores, the whole ring will revert to the normal state. That is

  1. A rapid method for assessing social versus independent interest in health issues: a case study of 'bird flu' and 'swine flu'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Ormerod, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Effective communication strategies regarding health issues are affected by the way in which the public obtain their knowledge, particularly whether people become interested independently, or through their social networks. This is often investigated through localized ethnography or surveys. In rapidly-evolving situations, however, there may also be a need for swift, case-specific assessment as a guide to initial strategy development. With this aim, we analyze real-time online data, provided by the new 'Google Trends' tool, concerning Internet search frequency for health-related issues. To these data we apply a simple model to characterise the effective degree of social transmission versus decisions made individually. As case examples, we explore two rapidly-evolved issues, namely the world-wide interest in avian influenza, or 'bird flu', in 2005, and in H1N1, or 'swine flu', from late April to early May 2009. The 2005 'bird flu' scare demonstrated almost pure imitation for two months initially, followed by a spike of independent decision that corresponded with an announcement by US president George Bush. For 'swine flu' in 2009, imitation was the more prevalent throughout. Overall, the results show how interest in health scares can spread primarily by social means, and that engaging more independent decisions at the population scale may require a dramatic announcement to push a populace over the 'tipping point'. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of the risk of African swine fever introduction into Finland using NORA-a rapid tool for semiquantitative assessment of the risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyyrö, J; Sahlström, L; Lyytikäinen, T

    2017-12-01

    The NORA rapid risk assessment tool was developed for situations where there is a change in the disease status of easily transmissible animal diseases in neighbouring countries or in countries with significant interactions with Finland. The goal was to develop a tool that is quick to use and will provide consistent results to support risk management decisions. The model contains 63 questions that define the potential for entry and exposure by nine different pathways. The magnitude of the consequences is defined by 23 statements. The weight of different pathways is defined according to the properties of the assessed disease. The model was built as an Excel spreadsheet and is intended for use by animal health control administrators. As an outcome, the model gives the possible pathways of disease entry into the country, an overall approximation for the probability of entry and the subsequent exposure, an overall estimate for the consequences and a combined overall risk estimate (probability multiplied by magnitude of consequences). Model validity was assessed by expert panels. Outside Africa, African swine fever is currently established in Russia and Sardinia. In addition, there have been cases in both wild boar and domestic pigs in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Estonia. Finland has frequent contacts with Russia and Estonia, especially through passengers. The risk of African swine fever (ASF) introduction into Finland was tested with NORA for the situation in December 2015, when ASF was endemic in many parts of Russia, Africa and Sardinia and was present in Baltic countries and in Poland. African swine fever was assessed to have a high probability of entry into Finland, with high consequences and therefore a high overall risk. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Immunization with the Haemophilus ducreyi hemoglobin receptor HgbA protects against infection in the swine model of chancroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonina, Galyna; Leduc, Isabelle; Nepluev, Igor; Jeter, Chrystina; Routh, Patty; Almond, Glen; Orndorff, Paul E; Hobbs, Marcia; Elkins, Christopher

    2006-04-01

    The etiologic agent of chancroid is Haemophilus ducreyi. To fulfill its obligate requirement for heme, H. ducreyi uses two TonB-dependent receptors: the hemoglobin receptor (HgbA) and a receptor for free heme (TdhA). Expression of HgbA is necessary for H. ducreyi to survive and initiate disease in a human model of chancroid. In this study, we used a swine model of H. ducreyi infection to demonstrate that an experimental HgbA vaccine efficiently prevents chancroid, as determined by several parameters. Histological sections of immunized animals lacked typical microscopic features of chancroid. All inoculated sites from mock-immunized pigs yielded viable H. ducreyi cells, whereas no viable H. ducreyi cells were recovered from inoculated sites of HgbA-immunized pigs. Antibodies from sera of HgbA-immunized animals bound to and initiated antibody-dependent bactericidal activity against homologous H. ducreyi strain 35000HP and heterologous strain CIP542 ATCC; however, an isogenic hgbA mutant of 35000HP was not killed, proving specificity. Anti-HgbA immunoglobulin G blocked hemoglobin binding to the HgbA receptor, suggesting a novel mechanism of protection through the limitation of heme/iron acquisition by H. ducreyi. Such a vaccine strategy might be applied to other bacterial pathogens with strict heme/iron requirements. Taken together, these data suggest continuing the development of an HgbA subunit vaccine to prevent chancroid.

  4. Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Núria; Segalés, Joaquim; Córdoba, Lorena; Mussá, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard E; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Pérez-Maíllo, Monica; Núñez, Jose I; Abad, Francesc X; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majó, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert; Domingo, Mariano; Montoya, María

    2010-01-01

    The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus currently have a high prevalence in commercial farms. To better assess the risk posed by the A(H1N1) 2009 in the actual situation of swine farms, we sought to analyze whether a previous infection with a circulating European avian-like swine A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as SwH1N1) generated or not cross-protective immunity against a subsequent infection with the new human pandemic A/Catalonia/63/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as pH1N1) 21 days apart. Pigs infected only with pH1N1 had mild to moderate pathological findings, consisting on broncho-interstitial pneumonia. However, pigs inoculated with SwH1N1 virus and subsequently infected with pH1N1 had very mild lung lesions, apparently attributed to the remaining lesions caused by SwH1N1 infection. These later pigs also exhibited boosted levels of specific antibodies. Finally, animals firstly infected with SwH1N1 virus and latter infected with pH1N1 exhibited undetectable viral RNA load in nasal swabs and lungs after challenge with pH1N1, indicating a cross-protective effect between both strains. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  5. Multiple linear B-cell epitopes of classical swine fever virus glycoprotein E2 expressed in E.coli as multiple epitope vaccine induces a protective immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jian-Chao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Classical swine fever is a highly contagious disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus, an OIE list A pathogen. Epitope-based vaccines is one of the current focuses in the development of new vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Two B-cell linear epitopes rE2-ba from the E2 glycoprotein of CSFV, rE2-a (CFRREKPFPHRMDCVTTTVENED, aa844-865 and rE2-b (CKEDYRYAISSTNEIGLLGAGGLT, aa693-716, were constructed and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as multiple epitope vaccine. Fifteen 6-week-old specified-pathogen-free (SPF piglets were intramuscularly immunized with epitopes twice at 2-week intervals. All epitope-vaccinated pigs could mount an anamnestic response after booster vaccination with neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256. At this time, the pigs were subjected to challenge infection with a dose of 1 × 106 TCID50 virulent CSFV strain. After challenge infection, all of the rE2-ba-immunized pigs were alive and without symptoms or signs of CSF. In contrast, the control pigs continuously exhibited signs of CSF and had to be euthanized because of severe clinical symptoms at 5 days post challenge infection. The data from in vivo experiments shown that the multiple epitope rE2-ba shown a greater protection (similar to that of HCLV vaccine than that of mono-epitope peptide(rE2-a or rE2-b. Therefore, The results demonstrated that this multiple epitope peptide expressed in a prokaryotic system can be used as a potential DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals vaccine. The E.coli-expressed E2 multiple B-cell linear epitopes retains correct immunogenicity and is able to induce a protective immune response against CSFV infection.

  6. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus induces cross-protective immunity against Eurasian 'avian-like' H1N1 swine viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Maria R; Facchini, Marzia; Di Mario, Giuseppina; Garulli, Bruno; Sciaraffia, Ester; Meola, Monica; Fabiani, Concetta; De Marco, Maria A; Cordioli, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Donatelli, Isabella

    2014-05-01

    To examine cross-reactivity between hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/California/7/09 (CA/09) virus and that derived from representative Eurasian "avian-like" (EA) H1N1 swine viruses isolated in Italy between 1999 and 2008 during virological surveillance in pigs. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the HA gene of CA/09 virus (MVA-HA-CA/09) was used as a vaccine to investigate cross-protective immunity against H1N1 swine viruses in mice. Two classical swine H1N1 (CS) viruses and four representative EA-like H1N1 swine viruses previously isolated during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pigs on farms in Northern Italy were used in this study. Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with MVA/HA/CA/09 and then challenged intranasally with H1N1 swine viruses. Cross-reactive antibody responses were determined by hemagglutination- inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralizing (MN) assays of sera from MVA-vaccinated mice. The extent of protective immunity against infection with H1N1 swine viruses was determined by measuring lung viral load on days 2 and 4 post-challenge. Systemic immunization of mice with CA/09-derived HA, vectored by MVA, elicited cross-protective immunity against recent EA-like swine viruses. This immune protection was related to the levels of cross-reactive HI antibodies in the sera of the immunized mice and was dependent on the similarity of the antigenic site Sa of H1 HAs. Our findings suggest that the herd immunity elicited in humans by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus could limit the transmission of recent EA-like swine HA genes into the influenza A virus gene pool in humans. © 2013 The Authors Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. An avirulent chimeric Pestivirus with altered cell tropism protects pigs against lethal infection with classical swine fever virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, Ilona; Depner, Klaus; Trapp, Sascha; Beer, Martin

    2004-01-01

    A chimeric Pestivirus was constructed using an infectious cDNA clone of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) [J. Virol. 70 (1996) 8606]. After deletion of the envelope protein E2-encoding region, the respective sequence of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain Alfort 187 was inserted in-frame resulting in plasmid pA/CP7 E 2alf. After transfection of in vitro-transcribed CP7 E 2alf RNA, autonomous replication of chimeric RNA in bovine and porcine cell cultures was observed. Efficient growth of chimeric CP7 E 2alf virus, however, could only be demonstrated on porcine cells, and in contrast to the parental BVDV strain CP7, CP7 E 2alf only inefficiently infected and propagated in bovine cells. The virulence, immunogenicity, and 'marker vaccine' properties of the generated chimeric CP7 E 2alf virus were determined in an animal experiment using 27 pigs. After intramuscular inoculation of 1 x 10 7 TCID 50 , CP7 E 2alf proved to be completely avirulent, and neither viremia nor virus transmission to contact animals was observed; however, CSFV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected from day 11 after inoculation. In addition, sera from all animals reacted positive in an E2-specific CSFV-antibody ELISA, but were negative for CSFV-E RNS -specific antibodies as determined with a CSFV marker ELISA. After challenge infection with highly virulent CSFV strain Eystrup, pigs immunized with CP7 E 2alf were fully protected against clinical signs of CSFV infection, viremia, and shedding of challenge virus, and almost all animals scored positive in a CSFV marker ELISA. From our results, we conclude that chimeric CP7 E 2alf may not only serve as a tool for a better understanding of Pestivirus attachment, entry, and assembly, but also represents an innocuous and efficacious modified live CSFV 'marker vaccine'

  8. Passive immunization with a polyclonal antiserum to the hemoglobin receptor of Haemophilus ducreyi confers protection against a homologous challenge in the experimental swine model of chancroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Isabelle; Fusco, William G; Choudhary, Neelima; Routh, Patty A; Cholon, Deborah M; Hobbs, Marcia M; Almond, Glen W; Orndorff, Paul E; Elkins, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has an obligate requirement for heme. Heme is acquired by H. ducreyi from its human host via TonB-dependent transporters expressed at its bacterial surface. Of 3 TonB-dependent transporters encoded in the genome of H. ducreyi, only the hemoglobin receptor, HgbA, is required to establish infection during the early stages of the experimental human model of chancroid. Active immunization with a native preparation of HgbA (nHgbA) confers complete protection in the experimental swine model of chancroid, using either Freund's or monophosphoryl lipid A as adjuvants. To determine if transfer of anti-nHgbA serum is sufficient to confer protection, a passive immunization experiment using pooled nHgbA antiserum was conducted in the experimental swine model of chancroid. Pigs receiving this pooled nHgbA antiserum were protected from a homologous, but not a heterologous, challenge. Passively transferred polyclonal antibodies elicited to nHgbA bound the surface of H. ducreyi and partially blocked hemoglobin binding by nHgbA, but were not bactericidal. Taken together, these data suggest that the humoral immune response to the HgbA vaccine is protective against an H. ducreyi infection, possibly by preventing acquisition of the essential nutrient heme.

  9. Passive Immunization with a Polyclonal Antiserum to the Hemoglobin Receptor of Haemophilus ducreyi Confers Protection against a Homologous Challenge in the Experimental Swine Model of Chancroid▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Isabelle; Fusco, William G.; Choudhary, Neelima; Routh, Patty A.; Cholon, Deborah M.; Hobbs, Marcia M.; Almond, Glen W.; Orndorff, Paul E.; Elkins, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has an obligate requirement for heme. Heme is acquired by H. ducreyi from its human host via TonB-dependent transporters expressed at its bacterial surface. Of 3 TonB-dependent transporters encoded in the genome of H. ducreyi, only the hemoglobin receptor, HgbA, is required to establish infection during the early stages of the experimental human model of chancroid. Active immunization with a native preparation of HgbA (nHgbA) confers complete protection in the experimental swine model of chancroid, using either Freund's or monophosphoryl lipid A as adjuvants. To determine if transfer of anti-nHgbA serum is sufficient to confer protection, a passive immunization experiment using pooled nHgbA antiserum was conducted in the experimental swine model of chancroid. Pigs receiving this pooled nHgbA antiserum were protected from a homologous, but not a heterologous, challenge. Passively transferred polyclonal antibodies elicited to nHgbA bound the surface of H. ducreyi and partially blocked hemoglobin binding by nHgbA, but were not bactericidal. Taken together, these data suggest that the humoral immune response to the HgbA vaccine is protective against an H. ducreyi infection, possibly by preventing acquisition of the essential nutrient heme. PMID:21646451

  10. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S

    2018-12-23

    The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing parvovirus VP2 gene: Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Guo, Wanzhu; Xu, Zhiwen; Yan, Qigui; Luo, Yan; Shi, Qian; Chen, Dishi; Zhu, Ling; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2011-06-16

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) VP2 gene has been successfully expressed in many expression systems resulting in self-assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) with similar morphology to the native capsid. Here, a pseudorabies virus (PRV) system was adopted to express the PPV VP2 gene. A recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 was obtained by homologous recombination between the vector PRV viral DNA and a transfer plasmid. Then recombinant virus was purified with plaque purification, and its identity confirmed by PCR amplification, Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) analyses. Electronic microscopy of PRV SA215/VP2 confirmed self-assembly of both pseudorabies virus and VLPs from VP2 protein. Immunization of piglets with recombinant virus elicited PRV-specific and PPV-specific humoral immune responses and provided complete protection against a lethal dose of PRV challenges. Gilts immunized with recombinant viruses induced PPV-specific antibodies, and significantly reduced the mortality rate of (1 of 28) following virulent PPV challenge compared with the control (7 of 31). Furthermore, PPV virus DNA was not detected in the fetuses of recombinant virus immunized gilts. In this study, a recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 virus expressing PPV VP2 protein was constructed using PRV SA215 vector. The safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of the recombinant virus were demonstrated in piglets and primiparous gilts. This recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 represents a suitable candidate for the development of a bivalent vaccine against both PRV and PPV infection.

  12. A novel recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing parvovirus VP2 gene: Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dishi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine parvovirus (PPV VP2 gene has been successfully expressed in many expression systems resulting in self-assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs with similar morphology to the native capsid. Here, a pseudorabies virus (PRV system was adopted to express the PPV VP2 gene. Methods A recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 was obtained by homologous recombination between the vector PRV viral DNA and a transfer plasmid. Then recombinant virus was purified with plaque purification, and its identity confirmed by PCR amplification, Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA analyses. Electronic microscopy of PRV SA215/VP2 confirmed self-assembly of both pseudorabies virus and VLPs from VP2 protein. Results Immunization of piglets with recombinant virus elicited PRV-specific and PPV-specific humoral immune responses and provided complete protection against a lethal dose of PRV challenges. Gilts immunized with recombinant viruses induced PPV-specific antibodies, and significantly reduced the mortality rate of (1 of 28 following virulent PPV challenge compared with the control (7 of 31. Furthermore, PPV virus DNA was not detected in the fetuses of recombinant virus immunized gilts. Conclusions In this study, a recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 virus expressing PPV VP2 protein was constructed using PRV SA215 vector. The safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of the recombinant virus were demonstrated in piglets and primiparous gilts. This recombinant PRV SA215/VP2 represents a suitable candidate for the development of a bivalent vaccine against both PRV and PPV infection.

  13. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...

  14. Induction of Robust Immune Responses in Swine by Using a Cocktail of Adenovirus-Vectored African Swine Fever Virus Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Shehnaz; Waghela, Suryakant D; Bray, Jocelyn; Martin, Cameron L; Sangewar, Neha; Charendoff, Chloe; Shetti, Rashmi; Ashley, Clay; Chen, Chang-Hsin; Berghman, Luc R; Mwangi, Duncan; Dominowski, Paul J; Foss, Dennis L; Rai, Sharath; Vora, Shaunak; Gabbert, Lindsay; Burrage, Thomas G; Brake, David; Neilan, John; Mwangi, Waithaka

    2016-11-01

    The African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine, and at present no treatment or vaccine is available. Natural and gene-deleted, live attenuated strains protect against closely related virulent strains; however, they are yet to be deployed and evaluated in the field to rule out chronic persistence and a potential for reversion to virulence. Previous studies suggest that antibodies play a role in protection, but induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) could be the key to complete protection. Hence, generation of an efficacious subunit vaccine depends on identification of CTL targets along with a suitable delivery method that will elicit effector CTLs capable of eliminating ASFV-infected host cells and confer long-term protection. To this end, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an adenovirus-vectored ASFV (Ad-ASFV) multiantigen cocktail formulated in two different adjuvants and at two immunizing doses in swine. Immunization with the cocktail rapidly induced unprecedented ASFV antigen-specific antibody and cellular immune responses against all of the antigens. The robust antibody responses underwent rapid isotype switching within 1 week postpriming, steadily increased over a 2-month period, and underwent rapid recall upon boost. Importantly, the primed antibodies strongly recognized the parental ASFV (Georgia 2007/1) by indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) assay and Western blotting. Significant antigen-specific gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ + ) responses were detected postpriming and postboosting. Furthermore, this study is the first to demonstrate induction of ASFV antigen-specific CTL responses in commercial swine using Ad-ASFV multiantigens. The relevance of the induced immune responses in regard to protection needs to be evaluated in a challenge study. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Comparison of the protective efficacy of recombinant pseudorabies viruses against pseudorabies and classical swine fever in pigs,, influence of different promoters on gene expression and on protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, van B.J.L.; Wind, de N.; Wensvoort, G.; Kimman, T.G.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The glycoprotein E (gE) locus in the genome of pseudorabies virus (PRV) was used as an insertion site for the expression of glycoprotein E1 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Transcription of E1 in the recombinants M401, M402 or M403 was regulated by the gD promoter of PRV, the immediate early

  16. Microneedle Vaccination Elicits Superior Protection and Antibody Response over Intranasal Vaccination against Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hyung Shin

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the critical infectious diseases globally and vaccination has been considered as the best way to prevent. In this study, immunogenicity and protection efficacy between intranasal (IN and microneedle (MN vaccination was compared using inactivated swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 virus vaccine. Mice were vaccinated by MN or IN administration with 1 μg of inactivated H1N1 virus vaccine. Antigen-specific antibody responses and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI titers were measured in all immunized sera after immunization. Five weeks after an immunization, a lethal challenge was performed to evaluate the protective efficacy. Furthermore, mice were vaccinated by IN administration with higher dosages (> 1 μg, analyzed in the same manner, and compared with 1 μg-vaccine-coated MN. Significantly higher antigen-specific antibody responses and HI titer were measured in sera in MN group than those in IN group. While 100% protection, slight weight loss, and reduced viral replication were observed in MN group, 0% survival rate were observed in IN group. As vaccine dose for IN vaccination increased, MN-immunized sera showed much higher antigen-specific antibody responses and HI titer than other IN groups. In addition, protective immunity of 1 μg-MN group was similar to those of 20- and 40 μg-IN groups. We conclude that MN vaccination showed more potential immune response and protection than IN vaccination at the same vaccine dosage.

  17. Reassortant H1N1 influenza virus vaccines protect pigs against pandemic H1N1 influenza virus and H1N2 swine influenza virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Shi, Jianzhong; Guo, Jing; Xin, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Hualan

    2011-09-28

    Influenza A (H1N1) virus has caused human influenza outbreaks in a worldwide pandemic since April 2009. Pigs have been found to be susceptible to this influenza virus under experimental and natural conditions, raising concern about their potential role in the pandemic spread of the virus. In this study, we generated a high-growth reassortant virus (SC/PR8) that contains the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from a novel H1N1 isolate, A/Sichuan/1/2009 (SC/09), and six internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus, by genetic reassortment. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of this reassortant virus were evaluated at different doses in a challenge model using a homologous SC/09 or heterologous A/Swine/Guangdong/1/06(H1N2) virus (GD/06). Two doses of SC/PR8 virus vaccine elicited high-titer serum hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies specific for the 2009 H1N1 virus and conferred complete protection against challenge with either SC/09 or GD/06 virus, with reduced lung lesions and viral shedding in vaccine-inoculated animals compared with non-vaccinated control animals. These results indicated for the first time that a high-growth SC/PR8 reassortant H1N1 virus exhibits properties that are desirable to be a promising vaccine candidate for use in swine in the event of a pandemic H1N1 influenza. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunization of Pigs by DNA Prime and Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Boost To Identify and Rank African Swine Fever Virus Immunogenic and Protective Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancovich, James K; Chapman, Dave; Hansen, Debra T; Robida, Mark D; Loskutov, Andrey; Craciunescu, Felicia; Borovkov, Alex; Kibler, Karen; Goatley, Lynnette; King, Katherine; Netherton, Christopher L; Taylor, Geraldine; Jacobs, Bertram; Sykes, Kathryn; Dixon, Linda K

    2018-04-15

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs, with high socioeconomic impact. No vaccine is available, limiting options for control. Although live attenuated ASFV can induce up to 100% protection against lethal challenge, little is known of the antigens which induce this protective response. To identify additional ASFV immunogenic and potentially protective antigens, we cloned 47 viral genes in individual plasmids for gene vaccination and in recombinant vaccinia viruses. These antigens were selected to include proteins with different functions and timing of expression. Pools of up to 22 antigens were delivered by DNA prime and recombinant vaccinia virus boost to groups of pigs. Responses of immune lymphocytes from pigs to individual recombinant proteins and to ASFV were measured by interferon gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays to identify a subset of the antigens that consistently induced the highest responses. All 47 antigens were then delivered to pigs by DNA prime and recombinant vaccinia virus boost, and pigs were challenged with a lethal dose of ASFV isolate Georgia 2007/1. Although pigs developed clinical and pathological signs consistent with acute ASFV, viral genome levels were significantly reduced in blood and several lymph tissues in those pigs immunized with vectors expressing ASFV antigens compared with the levels in control pigs. IMPORTANCE The lack of a vaccine limits the options to control African swine fever. Advances have been made in the development of genetically modified live attenuated ASFV that can induce protection against challenge. However, there may be safety issues relating to the use of these in the field. There is little information about ASFV antigens that can induce a protective immune response against challenge. We carried out a large screen of 30% of ASFV antigens by delivering individual genes in different pools to pigs by DNA immunization prime and recombinant vaccinia

  19. Rapid detection and subtyping of European swine influenza viruses in porcine clinical samples by haemagglutinin- and neuraminidase-specific tetra- and triplex real-time RT-PCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henritzi, Dinah; Zhao, Na; Starick, Elke

    2016-01-01

    diagnostic methods which allow for cost-effective large-scale analysis. Methods New SIV haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtype- and lineage-specific multiplex real-time RT-PCRs (RT-qPCR) have been developed and validated with reference virus isolates and clinical samples. Results A diagnostic....... Swine influenza viruses (SIV) are widespread in European domestic pig populations and evolve dynamically. Knowledge regarding occurrence, spread and evolution of potentially zoonotic SIV in Europe is poorly understood. Objectives Efficient SIV surveillance programmes depend on sensitive and specific......Background A diversifying pool of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses (IAV) with largely unknown zoonotic potential is maintained in domestic swine populations worldwide. The most recent human influenza pandemic in 2009 was caused by a virus with genes originating from IAV isolated from swine...

  20. The Haemophilus ducreyi trimeric autotransporter adhesin DsrA protects against an experimental infection in the swine model of chancroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, William G; Choudhary, Neelima R; Routh, Patty A; Ventevogel, Melissa S; Smith, Valerie A; Koch, Gary G; Almond, Glen W; Orndorff, Paul E; Sempowski, Gregory D; Leduc, Isabelle

    2014-06-24

    Adherence of pathogens to cellular targets is required to initiate most infections. Defining strategies that interfere with adhesion is therefore important for the development of preventative measures against infectious diseases. As an adhesin to host extracellular matrix proteins and human keratinocytes, the trimeric autotransporter adhesin DsrA, a proven virulence factor of the Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi, is a potential target for vaccine development. A recombinant form of the N-terminal passenger domain of DsrA from H. ducreyi class I strain 35000HP, termed rNT-DsrAI, was tested as a vaccine immunogen in the experimental swine model of H. ducreyi infection. Viable homologous H. ducreyi was not recovered from any animal receiving four doses of rNT-DsrAI administered with Freund's adjuvant at two-week intervals. Control pigs receiving adjuvant only were all infected. All animals receiving the rNT-DsrAI vaccine developed antibody endpoint titers between 3.5 and 5 logs. All rNT-DsrAI antisera bound the surface of the two H. ducreyi strains used to challenge immunized pigs. Purified anti-rNT-DsrAI IgG partially blocked binding of fibrinogen at the surface of viable H. ducreyi. Overall, immunization with the passenger domain of the trimeric autotransporter adhesin DsrA accelerated clearance of H. ducreyi in experimental lesions, possibly by interfering with fibrinogen binding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  2. Protective efficacy of an inactivated Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza vaccine against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jinyu; Yang, Dawei; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Huiyang; Xu, Bangfeng; Wu, Yunpu; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Chen, Hualan

    2016-07-19

    Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs in Europe and Asia, but occasionally cause human infection, which raises concern about their pandemic potential. Here, we produced a whole-virus inactivated vaccine with an EA H1N1 strain (A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011, SW/GX/18/11) and evaluated its efficacy against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 influenza viruses in mice. A strong humoral immune response, which we measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN), was induced in the vaccine-inoculated mice upon challenge. The inactivated SW/GX/18/11 vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with homologous SW/GX/18/11 virus in mice and provided effective protection against challenge with heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses with distinctive genomic combinations. Our findings suggest that this EA H1N1 vaccine can provide protection against both homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 or H1N2 virus infection. As such, it is an excellent vaccine candidate to prevent H1N1 swine influenza. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protection of human influenza vaccines against a reassortant swine influenza virus of pandemic H1N1 origin using a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunorat, Jirapat; Charoenvisal, Nataya; Woonwong, Yonlayong; Kedkovid, Roongtham; Jittimanee, Supattra; Sitthicharoenchai, Panchan; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Poolperm, Pariwat; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2017-10-01

    Since the pandemic H1N1 emergence in 2009 (pdmH1N1), many reassortant pdmH1N1 viruses emerged and found circulating in the pig population worldwide. Currently, commercial human subunit vaccines are used commonly to prevent the influenza symptom based on the WHO recommendation. In case of current reassortant swine influenza viruses transmitting from pigs to humans, the efficacy of current human influenza vaccines is of interest. In this study, influenza A negative pigs were vaccinated with selected commercial human subunit vaccines and challenged with rH3N2. All sera were tested with both HI and SN assays using four representative viruses from the surveillance data in 2012 (enH1N1, pdmH1N1, rH1N2 and rH3N2). The results showed no significant differences in clinical signs and macroscopic and microscopic findings among groups. However, all pig sera from vaccinated groups had protective HI titers to the enH1N1, pdmH1N1 and rH1N2 at 21DPV onward and had protective SN titers only to pdmH1N1and rH1N2 at 21DPV onward. SN test results appeared more specific than those of HI tests. All tested sera had no cross-reactivity against the rH3N2. Both studied human subunit vaccines failed to protect and to stop viral shedding with no evidence of serological reaction against rH3N2. SIV surveillance is essential for monitoring a novel SIV emergence potentially for zoonosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Protection of pigs against pandemic swine origin H1N1 influenza A virus infection by hemagglutinin- or neuraminidase-expressing attenuated pseudorabies virus recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, Katharina; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Teifke, Jens P; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2015-03-02

    Influenza is an important respiratory disease of pigs, and may lead to novel human pathogens like the 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus (SoIV). Therefore, improved influenza vaccines for pigs are required. Recently, we demonstrated that single intranasal immunization with a hemagglutinin (HA)-expressing pseudorabies virus recombinant of vaccine strain Bartha (PrV-Ba) protected pigs from H1N1 SoIV challenge (Klingbeil et al., 2014). Now we investigated enhancement of efficacy by prime-boost vaccination and/or intramuscular administration. Furthermore, a novel PrV-Ba recombinant expressing codon-optimized N1 neuraminidase (NA) was included. In vitro replication of this virus was only slightly affected compared to parental virus. Unlike HA, the abundantly expressed NA was efficiently incorporated into PrV particles. Immunization of pigs with the two PrV recombinants, either singly or in combination, induced B cell proliferation and the expected SoIV-specific antibodies, whose titers increased substantially after boost vaccination. After immunization of animals with either PrV recombinant H1N1 SoIV challenge virus replication was significantly reduced compared to PrV-Ba vaccinated or naïve controls. Protective efficacy of HA-expressing PrV was higher than of NA-expressing PrV, and not significantly enhanced by combination. Despite higher serum antibody titers obtained after intramuscular immunization, transmission of challenge virus to naïve contact animals was only prevented after intranasal prime-boost vaccination with HA-expressing PrV-Ba. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Emily

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.

  6. Rapid detection and subtyping of European swine influenza viruses in porcine clinical samples by haemagglutinin- and neuraminidase-specific tetra- and triplex real-time RT-PCRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henritzi, Dinah; Zhao, Na; Starick, Elke; Simon, Gaelle; Krog, Jesper S; Larsen, Lars Erik; Reid, Scott M; Brown, Ian H; Chiapponi, Chiara; Foni, Emanuela; Wacheck, Silke; Schmid, Peter; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Harder, Timm C

    2016-11-01

    A diversifying pool of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses (IAV) with largely unknown zoonotic potential is maintained in domestic swine populations worldwide. The most recent human influenza pandemic in 2009 was caused by a virus with genes originating from IAV isolated from swine. Swine influenza viruses (SIV) are widespread in European domestic pig populations and evolve dynamically. Knowledge regarding occurrence, spread and evolution of potentially zoonotic SIV in Europe is poorly understood. Efficient SIV surveillance programmes depend on sensitive and specific diagnostic methods which allow for cost-effective large-scale analysis. New SIV haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtype- and lineage-specific multiplex real-time RT-PCRs (RT-qPCR) have been developed and validated with reference virus isolates and clinical samples. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed for the combined detection in clinical samples and subtyping of SIV strains currently circulating in Europe that is based on a generic, M-gene-specific influenza A virus RT-qPCR. In a second step, positive samples are examined by tetraplex HA- and triplex NA-specific RT-qPCRs to differentiate the porcine subtypes H1, H3, N1 and N2. Within the HA subtype H1, lineages "av" (European avian-derived), "hu" (European human-derived) and "pdm" (human pandemic A/H1N1, 2009) are distinguished by RT-qPCRs, and within the NA subtype N1, lineage "pdm" is differentiated. An RT-PCR amplicon Sanger sequencing method of small fragments of the HA and NA genes is also proposed to safeguard against failure of multiplex RT-qPCR subtyping. These new multiplex RT-qPCR assays provide adequate tools for sustained SIV monitoring programmes in Europe. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles produced by a SUMO fusion protein system in Escherichia coli induce potent protective immune responses in guinea pigs, swine and cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. The format of FMD virus-like particles (VLP) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines. In this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the FMD VLP and validated the potential of VLP as an FMDV vaccine candidate. VLP composed entirely of FMDV (Asia1/Jiangsu/China/2005) capsid proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3) were simultaneously produced as SUMO fusion proteins by an improved SUMO fusion protein system in E. coli. Proteolytic removal of the SUMO moiety from the fusion proteins resulted in the assembly of VLP with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. Immunization of guinea pigs, swine and cattle with FMD VLP by intramuscular inoculation stimulated the FMDV-specific antibody response, neutralizing antibody response, T-cell proliferation response and secretion of cytokine IFN-γ. In addition, immunization with one dose of the VLP resulted in complete protection of these animals from homologous FMDV challenge. The 50% protection dose (PD50) of FMD VLP in cattle is up to 6.34. These results suggest that FMD VLP expressed in E. coli are an effective vaccine in guinea pigs, swine and cattle and support further development of these VLP as a vaccine candidate for protection against FMDV. PMID:23826638

  8. Azotemia protects the brain from osmotic demyelination on rapid correction of hyponatremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtaza F Dhrolia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS is a dreadful, irreversible and well-recognized clinical entity that classically occurs after rapid correction of hyponatremia. However, it has been observed that when hyponatremia is rapidly corrected in azotemic patients by hemodialysis (HD, patients do not necessarily develop ODS. We studied the effect of inadvertent rapid correction of hyponatremia with HD in patients with azotemia. Fifty-two azotemic patients, who underwent HD at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, having pre-HD serum sodium level <125 mEq/L and post-HD serum sodium levels that increased by ≥12 mEq/L from their pre-dialysis level, were studied. Serum sodium was analyzed before and within 24 h after a HD session. HD was performed using bicarbonate solution, with the sodium concentration being 140 meq/L. The duration of the dialysis session was based on the discretion of the treating nephrologist. Patients were examined for any neurological symptoms or signs before and after HD and for up to two weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in required cases. None of the 52 patients with azotemia, despite inadvertent rapid correction of hyponatremia with HD, developed ODS. This study suggests that patients with azotemia do not develop ODS on rapid correction of hyponatremia by HD, which suggests a possible protective role of azotemia on the brain from osmotic demyelination. However, the mechanism by which azotemia protects the brain from demyelination in humans is largely hypothetical and further studies are needed to answer this question.

  9. Rapid outer-surface protein C DNA tattoo vaccination protects against Borrelia afzelii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemakers, A; Mason, L M K; Oei, A; de Wever, B; van der Poll, T; Bins, A D; Hovius, J W R

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia afzelii is the predominant Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Currently there is no human vaccine against Lyme borreliosis, and most research focuses on recombinant protein vaccines against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. DNA tattooing is a novel vaccination method that can be applied in a rapid vaccination schedule. We vaccinated C3H/HeN mice with B. afzelii strain PKo OspC (outer-surface protein C) using a codon-optimized DNA vaccine tattoo and compared this with recombinant protein vaccination in a 0-2-4 week vaccination schedule. We also assessed protection by DNA tattoo in a 0-3-6 day schedule. DNA tattoo and recombinant OspC vaccination induced comparable total IgG responses, with a lower IgG1/IgG2a ratio after DNA tattoo. Two weeks after syringe-challenge with 5 × 10(5) B. afzelii spirochetes most vaccinated mice had negative B. afzelii tissue DNA loads and all were culture negative. Furthermore, DNA tattoo vaccination in a 0-3-6 day regimen also resulted in negative Borrelia loads and cultures after challenge. To conclude, DNA vaccination by tattoo was fully protective against B. afzelii challenge in mice in a rapid vaccination protocol, and induces a favorable humoral immunity compared to recombinant protein vaccination. Rapid DNA tattoo is a promising vaccination strategy against spirochetes.

  10. Protection of guinea pigs by vaccination with a recombinant swinepox virus co-expressing HA1 genes of swine H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiarong; Yang, Deji; Huang, Dongyan; Xu, Jiaping; Liu, Shichao; Lin, Huixing; Zhu, Haodan; Liu, Bao; Lu, Chengping

    2013-03-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory infectious disease of swine caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). SIV is not only an important respiratory pathogen in pigs but also a potent threat to human health. Here, we report the construction of a recombinant swinepox virus (rSPV/H3-2A-H1) co-expressing hemagglutinin (HA1) of SIV subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. Immune responses and protection efficacy of the rSPV/H3-2A-H1 were evaluated in guinea pigs. Inoculation of rSPV/H3-2A-H1 yielded neutralizing antibodies against SIV H1N1 and H3N2. The IFN-γ and IL-4 concentrations in the supernatant of lymphocytes stimulated with purified SIV HA1 antigen were significantly higher (P guinea pigs against SIV H1N1 or H3N2 challenge was observed. No SIV shedding was detected from guinea pigs vaccinated with rSPV/H3-2A-H1 after challenge. Most importantly, the guinea pigs immunized with rSPV/H3-2A-H1 did not show gross and micrographic lung lesions. However, the control guinea pigs experienced distinct gross and micrographic lung lesions at 7 days post-challenge. Our data suggest that the recombinant swinepox virus encoding HA1 of SIV H1N1 and H3N2 might serve as a promising candidate vaccine for protection against SIV H1N1 and H3N2 infections.

  11. Sinclair swine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, R.R.; Berkelhammer, J.; Hamby, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

  12. Effects of high latitude protected areas on bird communities under rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming one of the main threats to biodiversity, along with other threats triggered by human-driven land-use change. Species are already responding to climate change by shifting their distributions polewards. This shift may create a spatial mismatch between dynamic species distributions and static protected areas (PAs). As protected areas represent one of the main pillars for preserving biodiversity today and in the future, it is important to assess their contribution in sheltering the biodiversity communities, they were designated to protect. A recent development to investigate climate-driven impacts on biological communities is represented by the community temperature index (CTI). CTI provides a measure of the relative temperature average of a community in a specific assemblage. CTI value will be higher for assemblages dominated by warm species compared with those dominated by cold-dwelling species. We here model changes in the CTI of Finnish bird assemblages, as well as changes in species densities, within and outside of PAs during the past four decades in a large boreal landscape under rapid change. We show that CTI has markedly increased over time across Finland, with this change being similar within and outside PAs and five to seven times slower than the temperature increase. Moreover, CTI has been constantly lower within than outside of PAs, and PAs still support communities, which show colder thermal index than those outside of PAs in the 1970s and 1980s. This result can be explained by the higher relative density of northern species within PAs than outside. Overall, our results provide some, albeit inconclusive, evidence that PAs may play a role in supporting the community of northern species. Results also suggest that communities are, however, shifting rapidly, both inside and outside of PAs, highlighting the need for adjusting conservation measures before it is too late. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Protection Conferred by recombinant Yersinia pestis Antigens Produced by a Rapid and Highly Scalable Plant Expression System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santi, Luca; Giritch, Anatoli; Roy, Chad J; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Klimyuk, Victor; Gleba, Yuri; Webb, Robert; Arntzen, Charles J; Mason, Hugh S

    2006-01-01

    ... have highlighted the need for a safe, efficacious, and rapidly producible vaccine. The use of F1 and V antigens and the derived protein fusion F1-V has shown great potential as a protective vaccine in animal studies...

  14. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic.

  15. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved...

  16. Preparing for swine flu: 10 questions that all nurses need to ask themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Susan; Sutherland, Holly; Spooner, Daniel

    Human swine flu is spreading rapidly and it is timely to reflect on how well we as individuals are prepared for a pandemic. Being prepared includes nurses not only being confident they have a mask that fits but also being practised at putting on and removing personal protective equipment safely. It also involves being familiar with the latest guidance from the Department of Health, having an understanding of the processes in their workplace and an appreciation of some of the ethical challenges if numbers of affected patients overwhelm the health system's resources. This article suggests staff ask themselves 10 questions to assess their level of preparedness.

  17. Innate lymphoid cells: models of plasticity for immune homeostasis and rapid responsiveness in protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F F; Belz, G T

    2016-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have stormed onto the immune landscape as "newly discovered" cell types. These tissue-resident sentinels are enriched at mucosal surfaces and engage in complex cross talk with elements of the adaptive immune system and microenvironment to orchestrate immune homeostasis. Many parallels exist between innate cells and T cells leading to the initial partitioning of ILCs into rather rigid subsets that reflect their "adaptive-like" effector cytokines profiles. ILCs themselves, however, have unique attributes that are only just beginning to be elucidated. These features result in complementarity with, rather than complete duplication of, functions of the adaptive immune system. Key transcription factors determine the pathway of differentiation of progenitors towards an ILC1, ILC2, or ILC3 subset. Once formed, flexibility in the responses of these subsets to stimuli unexpectedly allows transdifferentation between the different subsets and the acquisition of altered phenotypes and function. This provides a mechanism for rapid innate immune responsiveness. Here, we discuss the models of differentiation for maintenance and activation of tissue-resident ILCs in maintaining immune homeostasis and protection.

  18. Protecting tropical forests from the rapid expansion of rubber using carbon payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Thomas, Eleanor M; Edwards, David P; Bebber, Daniel P; Chhang, Phourin; Diment, Alex N; Evans, Tom D; Lambrick, Frances H; Maxwell, James F; Nut, Menghor; O'Kelly, Hannah J; Theilade, Ida; Dolman, Paul M

    2018-03-02

    Expansion of Hevea brasiliensis rubber plantations is a resurgent driver of deforestation, carbon emissions, and biodiversity loss in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian rubber extent is massive, equivalent to 67% of oil palm, with rapid further expansion predicted. Results-based carbon finance could dis-incentivise forest conversion to rubber, but efficacy will be limited unless payments match, or at least approach, the costs of avoided deforestation. These include opportunity costs (timber and rubber profits), plus carbon finance scheme setup (transaction) and implementation costs. Using comprehensive Cambodian forest data, exploring scenarios of selective logging and conversion, and assuming land-use choice is based on net present value, we find that carbon prices of $30-$51 per tCO 2 are needed to break even against costs, higher than those currently paid on carbon markets or through carbon funds. To defend forests from rubber, either carbon prices must be increased, or other strategies are needed, such as corporate zero-deforestation pledges, and governmental regulation and enforcement of forest protection.

  19. Cross-protection against European swine influenza viruses in the context of infection immunity against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus: studies in the pig model of influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yu; De Hert, Karl; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2015-09-24

    Pigs are natural hosts for the same influenza virus subtypes as humans and are a valuable model for cross-protection studies with influenza. In this study, we have used the pig model to examine the extent of virological protection between a) the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus and three different European H1 swine influenza virus (SIV) lineages, and b) these H1 viruses and a European H3N2 SIV. Pigs were inoculated intranasally with representative strains of each virus lineage with 6- and 17-week intervals between H1 inoculations and between H1 and H3 inoculations, respectively. Virus titers in nasal swabs and/or tissues of the respiratory tract were determined after each inoculation. There was substantial though differing cross-protection between pH1N1 and other H1 viruses, which was directly correlated with the relatedness in the viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins. Cross-protection against H3N2 was almost complete in pigs with immunity against H1N2, but was weak in H1N1/pH1N1-immune pigs. In conclusion, infection with a live, wild type influenza virus may offer substantial cross-lineage protection against viruses of the same HA and/or NA subtype. True heterosubtypic protection, in contrast, appears to be minimal in natural influenza virus hosts. We discuss our findings in the light of the zoonotic and pandemic risks of SIVs.

  20. Swine brucellosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen SC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection

  1. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu? Treatment ? Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Th?ophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebu...

  2. Human interleukin-10 delivered intrathecally by self-complementary adeno-associated virus 8 induces xenogeneic transgene immunity without clinical neurotoxicity in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Mark D; Pleticha, Josef; Heilmann, Lukas F; Newman, Laura K; Maus, Timothy P; Beutler, Andreas S

    2018-05-25

    Intrathecal interleukin-10 delivered by plasmid or viral gene vectors has been proposed for clinical testing because it is effective for chronic pain in rodents, a potential therapeutic for various human diseases, and was found to be non-toxic in dogs, when the human interleukin-10 ortholog was tested. However, recent studies in swine testing porcine interleukin-10 demonstrated fatal neurotoxicity. To deliver vector-encoded human interleukin-10 in swine, measure expression of the transgene in cerebrospinal fluid, and monitor animals for signs of neurotoxicity. Human interleukin-10 levels peaked 2 weeks after vector administration followed by a rapid decline that occurred concomitant with the emergence of anti-human interleukin-10 antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Animals remained neurologically healthy throughout the study period. This study suggests that swine are not idiosyncratically sensitive to intrathecal interleukin-10 because, recapitulating previous reports in dogs, they suffered no clinical neurotoxicity from the human ortholog. These results strongly infer that toxicity of intrathecal interleukin-10 in large animal models was previously overlooked because of a species mismatch between transgene and host. The present study further suggests that swine were protected from interleukin-10 by a humoral immune response against the xenogeneic cytokine. Future safety studies of interleukin-10 or related therapeutics may require syngeneic large animal models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Technology of Anticorrosive Protection of Steel Constructions by Coatings Based on Rapid-Hardening Bitumen-Latex Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nykyforchyn, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recipes of rapid-hardening bitumen-latex emulsions and coatings on its base are created, in-laboratory tests of their physical, chemical and anticorrosive properties are carried out. The technology of anticorrosive protection and the installation technical documentation for making of aqueous bitumen-latex emulsion is developed, installation is mounted and a pilot lot of rapid-hardening emulsion is produced. Experimental-industrial approbation of the technology of coating formation on pipes in oil and gas industry is carried out.

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors for the presence of ruminant pestviruses in the Dutch swine population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Quak, J.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Swine can be infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV), as well as ruminant pestiviruses: bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Border disease virus (BDV). Cross-reactions between pestiviruses occur, both regarding protective immunity and in diagnostic tests. The presence of BVDV and BDV

  5. Intradermal immunization with inactivated swine influenza virus and adjuvant polydi(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene (PCEP) induced humoral and cell-mediated immunity and reduced lung viral titres in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiri, Royford; Lai, Ken; Chaffey, Alyssa; Zhou, Yan; Pyo, Hyun-Mi; Gerdts, Volker; Wilson, Heather L; Mutwiri, George

    2018-03-14

    Swine influenza virus is endemic worldwide and it is responsible for significant economic losses to the swine industry. A vaccine that stimulates a rapid and long-lasting protective immune response to prevent this infection is highly sought. Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)-phosphazene (PCEP) has demonstrated adjuvant activity when formulated as part of multiple vaccines in mice and pigs. In this study we examined the magnitude and type of immune response induced in pigs vaccinated via the intramuscular or intradermal routes with inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) H1N1 vaccine formulated with PCEP. Intradermal administration of PCEP-adjuvanted inactivated SIV vaccine stimulated significant anti-SIV antibody titres, increased neutralizing antibodies, and significantly reduced lung virus load with limited reduction of gross lung lesions after challenge with virulent H1N1 relative to control animals. These results indicate that PCEP may be effective as a vaccine adjuvant against swine influenza viruses in pigs and should be considered a potential candidate adjuvant for future swine intradermal influenza vaccines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Validation of a Rapid Bacteria Endospore Enumeration System for Planetary Protection Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Kern, Roger; Kazarians, Gayane; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    NASA monitors spacecraft surfaces to assure that the presence of bacterial endospores meets strict criteria at launch, to minimize the risk of inadvertent contamination of the surface of Mars. Currently, the only approved method for enumerating the spores is a culture based assay that requires three days to produce results. In order to meet the demanding schedules of spacecraft assembly, a more rapid spore detection assay is being considered as an alternate method to the NASA standard culture-based assay. The Millipore Rapid Microbiology Detection System (RMDS) has been used successfully for rapid bioburden enumeration in the pharmaceutical and food industries. The RMDS is rapid and simple, shows high sensitivity (to 1 colony forming unit [CFU]/sample), and correlates well with traditional culture-based methods. It combines membrane filtration, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence chemistry, and image analysis based on photon detection with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera. In this study, we have optimized the assay conditions and evaluated the use of the RMDS as a rapid spore detection tool for NASA applications. In order to select for spores, the samples were subjected to a heat shock step before proceeding with the RMDS incubation protocol. Seven species of Bacillus (nine strains) that have been repeatedly isolated from clean room environments were assayed. All strains were detected by the RMDS in 5 hours and these assay times were repeatedly demonstrated along with low image background noise. Validation experiments to compare the Rapid Sore Assay (RSA) and NASA standard assay (NSA) were also performed. The evaluation criteria were modeled after the FDA Guideline of Process Validation, and Analytical Test Methods. This body of research demonstrates that the Rapid Spore Assay (RSA) is quick, and of equivalent sensitivity to the NASA standard assay, potentially reducing the assay time for bacterial endospores from over 72 hours to less than 8 hours

  7. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  8. Protecting ecotourism resources in a time of rapid economic and environmental transformation in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Watson; Dave Ostergren; Peter Fix; Bill Overbaugh; Dan McCollum; Linda Kruger; Martha Madsen; He Yang

    2009-01-01

    In the Far East of Russia, similar to many places in Asia, ecotourism and the environment are in transition. A science team, cooperating with the United Nations Development Programme project "Demonstrating Sustainable Conservation of Biological Diversity in Four Protected Territories in the Kamchatka Region, Russian Federation," is working to provide vital...

  9. Assessment on the Impact of Arable Land Protection Policies in a Rapidly Developing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of arable land protection policies in China, a practical framework that integrates geographic information systems (GIS, soil quality assessment and landscape metrics analysis was employed to track and analyze arable land transformations and landscape changes in response to rampant urbanization within the Ningbo region (China from 2005 to 2013. The results showed that arable land loss and degradation have continued, despite the development of a comprehensive legal framework for arable land protection. The implementation of arable land protection policies is judged to be effective, but not entirely successful, because it guarantees the overall amount of arable land but does not consider soil quality and spatial distribution. In addition, there are distinct variations in arable land change dynamics between two temporal intervals. From 2005–2009, the transformation of arable land was diversified, with intensified conversion among arable land, built-up land, water and orchards. Moreover, many new arable land parcels were adjacent to built-up land, and are in danger of being occupied again through urban sprawl. By 2009–2013, most of the arable land was occupied by urban expansion, whereas a majority of newly increased arable land was reclaimed from coastal tideland. Although the newly increased arable land was contiguous and far from the urban area, it is of poor quality and has limited use. The permanent loss of high-quality arable land due to intensified urban sprawl may threaten sustainable development and food security on a larger scale.

  10. Ecosystem services in a peri-urban protected area in Cyprus: a rapid appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Manolaki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas around the world are increasingly being recognized for their potential to protect various ecosystem services in addition to biodiversity. We carried out an ecosystem services (ES assessment at the Rizoelia National Forest Park, a biodiversity hotspot in Cyprus. For ES assessment we used TESSA v.1.1 and an ES matrix-approach to map the capacity of habitat types in the area. According to TESSA the most important ES provided by the study area are aesthetic benefits, recreation/ tourism, biodiversity, global climate regulation, and environmental education. Total Carbon stock was estimated to 14247.327 tonnes and the total number of annual visits was 14471. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of visits among visitation periods but there were statistically significant differences among National Holidays, Weekends and Weekdays. We identified that plantations had the highest capacity for most groups of services particularly where their understory comprises semi-natural habitat types rich in biodiversity. This is the first study in Cyprus which provides a preliminary quantification of ES in a protected area context using widely employed tools. The paper discusses how these findings can help decision-makers to plan direct future restoration and management actions to the benefit of a wide range of stakeholders.

  11. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  12. Cross-protective efficacy of engineering serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine against the two pandemic strains in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haixue; Lian, Kaiqi; Yang, Fan; Jin, Ye; Zhu, Zixiang; Guo, Jianhong; Cao, Weijun; Liu, Huanan; He, Jijun; Zhang, Keshan; Li, Dan; Liu, Xiangtao

    2015-10-26

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious vesicular disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Recently, a series of outbreaks of type A FMDV occurred in Southeast Asian countries, China, the Russia Federation, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and South Korea. The FMD virus (A/GDMM/CHA/2013) from China's Guangdong province (2013) is representative of those responsible for the latest epidemic, and has low amino acid identity (93.9%) in VP1 protein with the epidemic strain A/WH/CHA/09 from Wuhan, China in 2009. Both of isolates belong to the Sea-97 genotype of ASIA topotype. Therefore, the application of a new vaccine strain with cross-protective efficacy is of fundamental importance to control the spread of the two described pandemic strains. A chimeric strain rA/P1-FMDV constructed by our lab previously through replacing the P1 gene in the vaccine strain O/CHA/99 with that from the epidemic stain A/WH/CHA/09, has been demonstrated to exhibit good growth characteristics in culture, and the rA/P1-FMDV inactivated vaccine can provide protection against epidemic strain A/WH/CHA/09 in cattle. However, it is still unclear whether the vaccine produces efficient protection against the new pandemic strain (A/GDMM/CHA/2013). Here, vaccine matching and pig 50% protective dose (PD50) tests were performed to assess the vaccine potency. The vaccine matching test showed cross-reactivity of sera from full dose vaccine vaccinated pigs with A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 isolates, with average r1 values of 0.94±0.12 and 0.68±0.06 (r1≥0.3), which indicates that the rA/P1-FMDV vaccine is likely to confer good cross-protection against the two isolates. When challenged with two pandemic isolates A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 strain, the vaccine achieved 12.51 PD50 and 10.05 PD50 per dose (2.8μg), respectively. The results indicated that the rA/P1-FMDV inactivated vaccine could protect pigs against both A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 pandemic isolates

  13. Physical examination of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, B J; Hamilton, M; Masters, P G

    1992-07-01

    Swine may be examined to evaluate a disease state or a lowered economic performance or as a herd health consultation. As much of the examination as possible should be performed without handling the animal. A thorough history, evaluation of herd records, environmental examination, and herd examination should be performed prior to the evaluation of an individual animal. All necessary equipment should be available when starting the individual examination. The animals is then restrained and examined, and necessary samples are taken. Post-mortem examinations or slaughter house evaluations are a very frequent part of a health examination on swine. All samples taken should be in accordance with the standards of the laboratory that you use. You should work closely with the laboratory to obtain the best results. Physical examination of swine can be rewarding for the veterinarian as well as the producer. The most important aspect to remember is to have enough information and the proper equipment available to handle the animals for the minimal amount of time to gain the maximum benefits. Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs are similar to domestic swine in terms of their diseases and health but are dissimilar in management; pot-bellied pigs are frequently brought to the veterinarian for individual examinations. History is the most valuable part of the examination, followed by observation. Pot-bellied pigs prefer to be held securely with a hand under the chin and rump. The examination is conducted similarly to the examination of any companion animal. Chemical restraint often is necessary for sampling or minor surgical procedures. Owners should be consulted prior to the use of any restraint. This will help win their approval and confidence when working on their pets. While performing the physical examination, look at the pig's overall health as well as specific breed characteristics. Try to stay abreast of swine vaccination recommendations; you may be consulted in this regard. Most

  14. Prospective surveillance for influenza. virus in Chinese swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin D; Ma, Mai-Juan; Wang, Guo-Lin; Bi, Zhen-Qiang; Lu, Bing; Wang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chuang-Xin; Chen, Shan-Hui; Qian, Yan-Hua; Song, Shao-Xia; Li, Min; Zhao, Teng; Wu, Meng-Na; Borkenhagen, Laura K; Cao, Wu-Chun; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-05-16

    Pork production in China is rapidly increasing and swine production operations are expanding in size and number. However, the biosecurity measures necessary to prevent swine disease transmission, particularly influenza. viruses (IAV) that can be zoonotic, are often inadequate. Despite this risk, few studies have attempted to comprehensively study IAV ecology in swine production settings. Here, we present environmental and animal sampling data collected in the first year of an ongoing five-year prospective epidemiological study to assess IAV ecology as it relates to swine workers, their pigs, and the farm environment. From March 2015 to February 2016, we collected 396 each of environmental swab, water, bioaerosol, and fecal/slurry samples, as well as 3300 pig oral secretion samples from six farms in China. The specimens were tested with molecular assays for IAV. Of these, 46 (11.6%) environmental swab, 235 (7.1%) pig oral secretion, 23 (5.8%) water, 20 (5.1%) bioaerosol, and 19 (4.8%) fecal/slurry specimens were positive for influenza. by qRT-PCR. Risk factors for IAV detection among collected samples were identified using bivariate logistic regression. Overall, these first year data suggest that IAV is quite ubiquitous in the swine production environment and demonstrate an association between the different types of environmental sampling used. Given the mounting evidence that some of these viruses freely move between pigs and swine workers, and that mixing of these viruses can yield progeny viruses with pandemic potential, it seems imperative that routine surveillance for novel IAVs be conducted in commercial swine farms.

  15. Combined administration of synthetic RNA and a conventional vaccine improves immune responses and protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Belén; Blanco, Esther; Rodríguez Pulido, Miguel; Mateos, Francisco; Lorenzo, Gema; Cardillo, Sabrina; Smitsaart, Eliana; Sobrino, Francisco; Sáiz, Margarita

    2017-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease and a major concern in animal health worldwide. We have previously reported the use of RNA transcripts mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the FMDV RNA as potent type-I interferon (IFN) inducers showing antiviral effect in vivo, as well as their immunomodulatory properties in combination with an FMD vaccine in mice. Here, we describe the enhancing effect of RNA delivery on the immunogenicity and protection induced by a suboptimal dose of a conventional FMD vaccine in pigs. Animals receiving the RNA developed earlier and higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against homologous and heterologous isolates, compared to those immunized with the vaccine alone, and had higher anti-FMDV titers at late times post-vaccination. RNA delivery also induced higher specific T-cell response and protection levels against FMDV challenge. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs inoculated with RNA and the vaccine had a higher IFN-γ specific response than those from pigs receiving the vaccine alone. When challenged with FMDV, all three animals immunized with the conventional vaccine developed antibodies to the non-structural viral proteins 3ABC and two of them developed severe signs of disease. In the group receiving the vaccine together with the RNA, two pigs were fully protected while one showed delayed and mild signs of disease. Our results support the immunomodulatory effect of these RNA molecules in natural hosts and suggest their potential use for improvement of FMD vaccines strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. African Swine Fever Virus Biology and Vaccine Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Yolanda; Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; Richt, Juergen A

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an acute and often fatal disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boar, with severe economic consequences for affected countries. ASF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Sardinia, Italy. Since 2007, the virus emerged in the republic of Georgia, and since then spread throughout the Caucasus region and Russia. Outbreaks have also been reported in Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Romania, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Poland, threatening neighboring West European countries. The causative agent, the African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that enters the cell by macropinocytosis and a clathrin-dependent mechanism. African Swine Fever Virus is able to interfere with various cellular signaling pathways resulting in immunomodulation, thus making the development of an efficacious vaccine very challenging. Inactivated preparations of African Swine Fever Virus do not confer protection, and the role of antibodies in protection remains unclear. The use of live-attenuated vaccines, although rendering suitable levels of protection, presents difficulties due to safety and side effects in the vaccinated animals. Several African Swine Fever Virus proteins have been reported to induce neutralizing antibodies in immunized pigs, and vaccination strategies based on DNA vaccines and recombinant proteins have also been explored, however, without being very successful. The complexity of the virus particle and the ability of the virus to modulate host immune responses are most likely the reason for this failure. Furthermore, no permanent cell lines able to sustain productive virus infection by both virulent and naturally attenuated African Swine Fever Virus strains exist so far, thus impairing basic research and the commercial production of attenuated vaccine candidates. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aerobic degradation of tylosin in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott Teeter, Jerold; Meyerhoff, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Tylosin, a fermentation-derived macrolide antibiotic, was tested to determine its aerobic degradation rate in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta. For chicken, excreta from a hen administered 14 C-tylosin as part of a metabolism study were used. For cattle and swine, 14 C-tylosin was added to control excreta. The formation of 14 C volatile breakdown products and 14 CO 2 was not observed throughout the study. Material balance for the cabon-14 label ranged between 94% and 104%. Initial, day-0, concentrations of tylosin-A averaged 119.52±4.39, 35.01±1.34, and 62.82±2.11 μg/g (dry weight basis) for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta samples, respectively. After 30 days, samples averaged 4.16±0.69 and 4.11±0.69 μg/g tylosin-A in cattle and swine excreta, respectively. No residues of tylosin-A or its factors were apparent in the chicken excreta samples after 30 days of incubation. In each case, tylosin declined to less than 6.5% of the initial level after 30 days. Calculated first-order half-lives under the test conditions were 6.2 days, <7.6 days, and 7.6 days for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta, respectively. The results indicate that tylosin residues degrade rapidly in animal excreta. Therefore, tylosin residues should not persist in the environment

  18. Interaction of CSFV E2 protein with swine host factors as detected by yeast two-hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    E2 is one of the envelope glycoproteins of pestiviruses, including classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). E2 is involved in several critical functions, including virus entry into target cells, induction of a protective immune response and virulence in swine. Howev...

  19. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I; Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-08-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil's swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009-2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance.

  20. Influenza A Viruses of Human Origin in Swine, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice Reis

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary origins of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus that caused the first outbreak of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico remain unclear, highlighting the lack of swine surveillance in Latin American countries. Although Brazil has one of the largest swine populations in the world, influenza was not thought to be endemic in Brazil’s swine until the major outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2009. Through phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequences of influenza viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes collected in swine in Brazil during 2009–2012, we identified multiple previously uncharacterized influenza viruses of human seasonal H1N2 and H3N2 virus origin that have circulated undetected in swine for more than a decade. Viral diversity has further increased in Brazil through reassortment between co-circulating viruses, including A(H1N1)pdm09. The circulation of multiple divergent hemagglutinin lineages challenges the design of effective cross-protective vaccines and highlights the need for additional surveillance. PMID:26196759

  1. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E in swine abattoir workers.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease poses economic ... III and IV infect both swine and humans; and are re- ... associated with transmission in swine abattoir workers in ..... tal evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis ... A novel virus in swine is closely.

  2. Yersinia pestis endowed with increased cytotoxicity is avirulent in a bubonic plague model and induces rapid protection against pneumonic plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Zauberman

    Full Text Available An important virulence strategy evolved by bacterial pathogens to overcome host defenses is the modulation of host cell death. Previous observations have indicated that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague disease, exhibits restricted capacity to induce cell death in macrophages due to ineffective translocation of the type III secretion effector YopJ, as opposed to the readily translocated YopP, the YopJ homologue of the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica Oratio8. This led us to suggest that reduced cytotoxic potency may allow pathogen propagation within a shielded niche, leading to increased virulence. To test the relationship between cytotoxic potential and virulence, we replaced Y. pestis YopJ with YopP. The YopP-expressing Y. pestis strain exhibited high cytotoxic activity against macrophages in vitro. Following subcutaneous infection, this strain had reduced ability to colonize internal organs, was unable to induce septicemia and exhibited at least a 10(7-fold reduction in virulence. Yet, upon intravenous or intranasal infection, it was still as virulent as the wild-type strain. The subcutaneous administration of the cytotoxic Y. pestis strain appears to activate a rapid and potent systemic, CTL-independent, immunoprotective response, allowing the organism to overcome simultaneous coinfection with 10,000 LD(50 of virulent Y. pestis. Moreover, three days after subcutaneous administration of this strain, animals were also protected against septicemic or primary pneumonic plague. Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship exists between the cytotoxic potential of Y. pestis and its virulence following subcutaneous infection. This appears to be associated with the ability of the engineered cytotoxic Y. pestis strain to induce very rapid, effective and long-lasting protection against bubonic and pneumonic plague. These observations have novel implications for the development of vaccines/therapies against Y. pestis and shed

  3. MANAGEMENT PATIENT OF SWINE INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Gunawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is an acute respiratory diseases caused by various influenza virus which infect the upper and lower respiratory tract and often accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, headache and muscle pain. Influenza spreads through the air. Swine influenza comes from swine and can cause an outbreaks in pig flocks. Even this is a kind of a rare case but the swine influenza could be transmitted to human by direct contact with infected swine or through environment that already being contaminated by swine influenza virus. There are 3 types of swine influenza virus namely H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. Type H1N1 swine-virus had been known since 1918. Avian influenza virus infection is transmitted from one person to another through secret containing virus. Virus is binded into the mucous cells of respiratory tract before it is finally infecting the cells itself. Management patients with H1N1 influenza is based on the complications and the risk. Besides, it is also need to consider the clinical criteria of the patient. Therapy medicamentosa is applied to the patients by giving an antiviral, antibiotics and symptomatic therapy. Prevention can be done by avoid contact with infected animal or environment, having antiviral prophylaxis and vaccination.

  4. Development of a swine specific 9-plex Luminex cytokine assay and assessment of immunity after porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination: Elevated serum IL-12 levels are not predictive of protect

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Luminex multiplex swine cytokine assay was developed to measure 9 cytokines simultaneously in pig serum and tested in a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine/challenge study. This assay detects innate (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IFNa, TNFa); regulatory (IL-10), Th1 (IL-12, I...

  5. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    , it is important to explore strategies that can effectively control an epidemic of ASF. In this study, the epidemiological and economic effects of strategies to control the spread of ASF between domestic swine herds were examined using a published model (DTU-DADS-ASF). The control strategies were the basic EU...... and national strategy (Basic), the basic strategy plus pre-emptive depopulation of neighboring swine herds, and intensive surveillance of herds in the control zones, including testing live or dead animals. Virus spread via wild boar was not modelled. Under the basic control strategy, the median epidemic......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning...

  6. Cave Conservation Priority Index to Adopt a Rapid Protection Strategy: A Case Study in Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Silva, Marconi; Martins, Rogério Parentoni; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Cave environments are characterized by possessing specialized fauna living in high environmental stability with limited food conditions. These fauna are highly vulnerable to impacts, because this condition can frequently be easily altered. Moreover, environmental determinants of the biodiversity patterns of caves remain poorly understood and protected. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to propose a cave conservation priority index (CCPi) for a rapid assessment for troglobiotic and troglophile protection. Furthermore, the troglobiotic diversity, distribution and threats have been mapped in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. To propose the CCPi, the human impacts and richness of troglobiotic and troglophile species of 100 caves were associated. Data related to troglomorphic/troglobiotic fauna from another 200 caves were used to map the troglobiotic diversity and distribution. The CCPi reveals extremely high conservation priority for 15 % of the caves, high for 36 % and average for 46 % of the caves. Fourteen caves with extremely high priorities should have urgent conservation and management actions. The geographical distribution of the 221 known troglobiotic/troglomorphic species allowed us to select 19 karst areas that need conservation actions. Seven areas were considered to have urgent priority for conservation actions. The two richest areas correspond to the "iron quadrangle" with iron ore caves (67 spp.) and the "Açungui limestone group" (56 spp.). Both areas have several caves and are important aquifers. The use of the CCPi can prevent future losses because it helps assessors to select caves with priorities for conservation which should receive emergency attention in relation to protection, management and conservation actions.

  7. Modeling livestock population structure: a geospatial database for Ontario swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salah Uddin; O'Sullivan, Terri L; Poljak, Zvonimir; Alsop, Janet; Greer, Amy L

    2018-01-30

    Infectious diseases in farmed animals have economic, social, and health consequences. Foreign animal diseases (FAD) of swine are of significant concern. Mathematical and simulation models are often used to simulate FAD outbreaks and best practices for control. However, simulation outcomes are sensitive to the population structure used. Within Canada, access to individual swine farm population data with which to parameterize models is a challenge because of privacy concerns. Our objective was to develop a methodology to model the farmed swine population in Ontario, Canada that could represent the existing population structure and improve the efficacy of simulation models. We developed a swine population model based on the factors such as facilities supporting farm infrastructure, land availability, zoning and local regulations, and natural geographic barriers that could affect swine farming in Ontario. Assigned farm locations were equal to the swine farm density described in the 2011 Canadian Census of Agriculture. Farms were then randomly assigned to farm types proportional to the existing swine herd types. We compared the swine population models with a known database of swine farm locations in Ontario and found that the modeled population was representative of farm locations with a high accuracy (AUC: 0.91, Standard deviation: 0.02) suggesting that our algorithm generated a reasonable approximation of farm locations in Ontario. In the absence of a readily accessible dataset providing details of the relative locations of swine farms in Ontario, development of a model livestock population that captures key characteristics of the true population structure while protecting privacy concerns is an important methodological advancement. This methodology will be useful for individuals interested in modeling the spread of pathogens between farms across a landscape and using these models to evaluate disease control strategies.

  8. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in swine and swine workplace environments on industrial and antibiotic-free hog operations in North Carolina, USA: A One Health pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Meghan F; Pisanic, Nora; Rhodes, Sarah M; Brown, Alexis; Keller, Haley; Nadimpalli, Maya; Christ, Andrea; Ludwig, Shanna; Ordak, Carly; Spicer, Kristoffer; Love, David C; Larsen, Jesper; Wright, Asher; Blacklin, Sarah; Flowers, Billy; Stewart, Jill; Sexton, Kenneth G; Rule, Ana M; Heaney, Christopher D

    2018-05-01

    type t337 among swine, worker surrogate personal air samplers and environmental air samples at the one IHO but none of the three AFHOs sampled in this study. Concurrent sampling of swine, personal swine worker surrogate air, and ambient airborne dust demonstrated that IHO workers may be exposed through both direct (animal contact) and indirect (airborne) routes of transmission. Investigation of the effectiveness of contact and respiratory protections is warranted to prevent IHO worker exposure to multidrug-resistant livestock-associated S. aureus and other pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  10. Rapid assessment of risks to a mobile marine mammal in an ecosystem-scale marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, A; Marsh, H

    2008-06-01

    Ecosystem-scale networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) are important conservation tools, but their effectiveness is difficult to quantify in a time frame appropriate to species conservation because of uncertainties in the data available. The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a mobile marine species that occurs in shallow inshore waters of an ecosystem-scale network of MPAs (the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area [GBRWHA]). We developed a rapid approach to assess risk to dugongs in the region and evaluate options to ameliorate that risk. We used expert opinion and a Delphi technique to identify and rank 5 human factors with the potential to adversely affect dugongs and their sea grass habitats: netting, indigenous hunting, trawling, vessel traffic, and poor-quality terrestrial runoff. We then quantified and compared the distribution of these factors with a spatially explicit model of dugong distribution. We estimated that approximately 96% of habitat of high conservation value for dugongs in the GBRWHA is at low risk from human activities. Using a sensitivity analysis, we found that to decrease risk, commercial netting or indigenous hunting had to be reduced in remote areas and the effects of vessel traffic, terrestrial runoff, and commercial netting had to be reduced in urban areas. This approach enabled us to compare and rank risks so as to identify the most severe risks and locate specific sites that require further management attention.

  11. African Swine Fever Virus, Siberia, Russia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, Denis; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Gogin, Andrey; Malogolovkin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.

  12. Baseline Levels of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep May Protect Against Excessive Activity in Fear-Related Neural Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Itamar; Lupkin, Shira M; Sinha, Neha; Tsai, Alan; Gluck, Mark A

    2017-11-15

    current study provides the first evidence in humans of such an effect. Specifically, the results of this study suggest that baseline rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may serve a protective function against enhanced fear encoding through the modulation of connectivity between the hippocampus, amygdala, and the ventromedial PFC. Building on this finding, baseline REM measurements may serve as a noninvasive biomarker for resilience to trauma or, conversely, to the potential development of posttraumatic stress disorder following trauma. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3711233-12$15.00/0.

  13. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  14. Antimicrobial use in Chinese swine and broiler poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Vikram; Otte, Joachim; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use for growth promotion in food animal production is now widespread. A major concern is the rise of antimicrobial resistance and the subsequent impact on human health. The antimicrobials of concern are used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) which are responsible for almost all meat production including swine and poultry in the US. With global meat consumption rising, the CAFO model has been adopted elsewhere to meet this demand. One such country where this has occurred is China, and evidence suggests 70% of poultry production now occurs outside of traditional small farms. Moreover, China is now the largest aggregate consumer of meat products in the world. With this rapid rise in consumption, the Chinese production model has changed along with the use of antimicrobials in feeds. However, the specific antibiotic use in the Chinese food animal production sector is unclear. Additionally, we are aware of high quantities of antimicrobial use because of reports of high concentrations of antimicrobials in animal waste and surface waters surrounding animal feeding operations. In this report, we estimate the volume of antibiotics used for swine and poultry production as these are the two meat sources with the highest levels of production and consumption in China. We adopt a model developed by Mellon et al. in the US for estimating drug use in feed for poultry and swine production to estimate overall antimicrobial use as well as antimicrobial use by class. We calculate that 38.5 million kg [84.9 million lbs] were used in 2012 in China's production of swine and poultry. By antibiotic class, the highest weights are tetracyclines in swine and coccidiostats in poultry. The volume of antimicrobial use is alarming. Although there are limitations to these data, we hope our report will stimulate further analysis and a sense of urgency in assessing the consequences of such high levels of utilization in terms of antibiotic resistance in the food supply

  15. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  16. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered...

  17. Prohibition of antibiotic growth promoters has affected the genomic profiles of Lactobacillus salivarius inhabiting the swine intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yeong Lee

    Full Text Available After the introduction of a ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs for livestock, the feeding environment, including the composition of animal intestinal microbiota, has changed rapidly. We hypothesized that the microbial genomes have also been affected by this legal prohibition, and investigated an important member of the swine gut microbiota, Lactobacillus salivarius, with a pan-genomic approach. Here, we isolated 21 L. salivarius strains composed of 6 strains isolated before the AGP prohibition (SBPs and 15 strains isolated after the AGP prohibition (SAPs at an interval of a decade, and the draft genomes were generated de novo. Several genomic differences between SBPs and SAPs were identified, although the number and function of antibiotic resistance genes were not different. SBPs showed larger genome size and a higher number of orthologs, as well as lower genetic diversity, than SAPs. SBPs had genes associated with the utilization of L-rhamnose and D-tagatose for energy production. Because these sugars are also used in exopolysaccharide (EPS synthesis, we tried to identify differences in biofilm formation-associated genes. The genes for the production of EPSs and extracellular proteins were different in terms of amino acid sequences. Indeed, SAPs formed dense biofilm and survived better than SBPs in the swine intestinal environment. These results suggest that SAPs have evolved and adapted to protect themselves from new selection pressure of the swine intestinal microenvironment by forming dense biofilms, adopting a distinct antibiotic resistance strategy. This finding is particularly important to understand the evolutionary changes in host-microbe interaction and provide detailed insight for the development of effective probiotics for livestock.

  18. Prohibition of antibiotic growth promoters has affected the genomic profiles of Lactobacillus salivarius inhabiting the swine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Yeong; Han, Geon Goo; Lee, Ho-Bin; Lee, Sang-Mok; Kang, Sang-Kee; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Park, Jongbin; Chae, Byung Jo; Choi, Yo Han; Kim, Eun Bae; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2017-01-01

    After the introduction of a ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) for livestock, the feeding environment, including the composition of animal intestinal microbiota, has changed rapidly. We hypothesized that the microbial genomes have also been affected by this legal prohibition, and investigated an important member of the swine gut microbiota, Lactobacillus salivarius, with a pan-genomic approach. Here, we isolated 21 L. salivarius strains composed of 6 strains isolated before the AGP prohibition (SBPs) and 15 strains isolated after the AGP prohibition (SAPs) at an interval of a decade, and the draft genomes were generated de novo. Several genomic differences between SBPs and SAPs were identified, although the number and function of antibiotic resistance genes were not different. SBPs showed larger genome size and a higher number of orthologs, as well as lower genetic diversity, than SAPs. SBPs had genes associated with the utilization of L-rhamnose and D-tagatose for energy production. Because these sugars are also used in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, we tried to identify differences in biofilm formation-associated genes. The genes for the production of EPSs and extracellular proteins were different in terms of amino acid sequences. Indeed, SAPs formed dense biofilm and survived better than SBPs in the swine intestinal environment. These results suggest that SAPs have evolved and adapted to protect themselves from new selection pressure of the swine intestinal microenvironment by forming dense biofilms, adopting a distinct antibiotic resistance strategy. This finding is particularly important to understand the evolutionary changes in host-microbe interaction and provide detailed insight for the development of effective probiotics for livestock.

  19. Classical swine fever in India: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinod Kumar; Rajak, Kaushal Kishore; Kumar, Amit; Yadav, Sharad Kumar

    2018-05-04

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a globally significant disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus. The virus affects the wild boars and pigs of all age groups, leading to acute, chronic, late-onset or in-apparent course of the disease. The disease causes great economic loss to the piggery industry due to mortality, stunted growth, poor reproductive performance, and by impeding the international trade of pig and pig products. In India, CSF outbreaks are reported from most of the states wherever pig rearing is practiced and more frequently from northeast states. In spite of the highly devastating nature and frequent outbreaks, CSF remained underestimated and neglected for decades in India. The country requires rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests for an early detection of infection to limit the spread of the disease. Also, effective prophylactics are required to help in control and eradication of the disease for the development of the piggery industry. This review looks into the economic impact; epidemiology of CSF highlighting the temporal and spatial occurrence of outbreaks in the last two decades, circulation, and emergence of the virus genotypes in and around the country; and the constraints in the disease control, with the aim to update the knowledge of current status of the disease in India. The article also emphasizes the importance of the disease and the need to develop rapid specific diagnostics and effective measures to eradicate the disease.

  20. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  1. Production system dynamism and parasitic interac- tion of swine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pasture and on swine with poor body condition compared to zero grazing, and on swine with ... Many countries practice different kinds of production approaches. ... farms with an average herd size of 29 swine were sampled by random sam-.

  2. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  3. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) class I allele typing of Danish swine herds and identification of commonly occurring haplotypes using sequence specific low and high resolution primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Maria Rathmann

    2014-01-01

    of such peptide-MHC complexes (pMHC) naïve T cells can become activated and respond to a given pathogen leading to its elimination and the generation of memory cells. Hence SLA plays a crucial role in maintaining overall adaptive immunologic resistance to pathogens. Knowing which SLA alleles that are commonly...... occurring can be of great importance in regard to future vaccine development and the establishment of immune protection in swine through broad coverage, highly specific, subunit based vaccination against viruses such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, vesicular...

  4. Luminescence screening of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues in swine liver after dispersive liquid - liquid microextraction cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid luminescence method was developed to screen residues of enrofloxacin (ENRO) and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), in swine liver. Target analytes were extracted in acetonitrile-2.5% trifluoroacetic acid-NaCl, cleaned up by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), and finally de...

  5. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically a...

  6. Antibody Repertoire Development in Swine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, FEB 17 (2017), s. 255-279 ISSN 2165-8102 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02274S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09296S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : swine * pre-immune antibody repertoire * ileal Peyer's patches Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.708, year: 2016

  7. A study of response time of pitot pressure probes designed for rapid response and protection of transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    An eight orifice probe, designed to protect the transducer without the use of a baffle, was compared to a standard orifice-baffle probe in the small shock tube and in the expansion tube under normal run conditions. In both facilities, the response time of eight orifice probe was considerable better than the standard probe design.

  8. Antibody levels to hepatitis E virus in North Carolina swine workers, non-swine workers, swine, and murids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mark R; Correa, Maria T; Morrow, Morgan; Stebbins, Martha E; Seriwatana, Jitvimol; Webster, W David; Boak, Marshall B; Vaughn, David W

    2002-04-01

    In a cross-sectional serosurvey, eastern North Carolina swine workers (n = 165) were compared with non-swine workers (127) for the presence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus as measured by a quantitative immunoglobulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using a cutoff of 20 Walter Reed U/ml, swine-exposed subjects had a 4.5-fold higher antibody prevalence (10.9%) than unexposed subjects (2.4%). No evidence of past clinical hepatitis E or unexplained jaundice could be elicited. Swine (84) and mice (61), from farm sites in the same region as exposed subjects, were also tested. Antibody prevalence in swine (overall = 34.5%) varied widely (10.0-91.7%) according to site, but no antibody was detected in mice. Our data contribute to the accumulating evidence that hepatitis E may be a zoonosis and specifically to the concept of it as an occupational infection of livestock workers.

  9. Protocol: Transmission and prevention of influenza in Hutterites: Zoonotic transmission of influenza A: swine & swine workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among swine, reassortment of influenza virus genes from birds, pigs, and humans could generate influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Humans with acute infection might also be a source of infection for swine production units. This article describes the study design and methods being used to assess influenza A transmission between swine workers and pigs. We hypothesize that transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans, transmission of human influenza viruses to swine, and reassortment of human and swine influenza A viruses is occurring. The project is part of a Team Grant; all Team Grant studies include active surveillance for influenza among Hutterite swine farmers in Alberta, Canada. This project also includes non-Hutterite swine farms that are experiencing swine respiratory illness. Methods/Design Nurses conduct active surveillance for influenza-like-illness (ILI, visiting participating communally owned and operated Hutterite swine farms twice weekly. Nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent sera are obtained from persons with any two such symptoms. Swabs are tested for influenza A and B by a real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab. Test-positive participants are advised that they have influenza. The occurrence of test-positive swine workers triggers sampling (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology of the swine herd by veterinarians. Specimens obtained from swine are couriered to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN for testing. Veterinarians and herd owners are notified if animal specimens are test-positive for influenza. If swine ILI occurs, veterinarians obtain samples from the pigs; test-positives from the animals trigger nurses to obtain specimens (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology from the swine workers. ProvLab cultures influenza virus from human specimens, freezes these cultures and

  10. The progressive adaptation of a georgian isolate of African swine fever virus to vero cells leads to a gradual attenuation of virulence in swine corresponding to major modifications of the viral genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Peter W; Holinka, Lauren G; O'Donnell, Vivian; Reese, Bo; Sanford, Brenton; Fernandez-Sainz, Ignacio; Gladue, Douglas P; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis; Risatti, Guillermo R; Borca, Manuel V

    2015-02-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a contagious and often lethal disease of feral and domestic swine. Experimental vaccines derived from naturally occurring, genetically modified, or cell culture-adapted ASFV have been evaluated, but no commercial vaccine is available to control African swine fever (ASF). We report here the genotypic and phenotypic analysis of viruses obtained at different passages during the process of adaptation of a virulent ASFV field isolate from the Republic of Georgia (ASFV-G) to grow in cultured cell lines. ASFV-G was successively passaged 110 times in Vero cells. Viruses obtained at passages 30, 60, 80, and 110 were evaluated in vitro for the ability to replicate in Vero cells and primary swine macrophages cultures and in vivo for assessing virulence in swine. Replication of ASFV-G in Vero cells increased with successive passages, corresponding to a decreased replication in primary swine macrophages cultures. In vivo, progressive loss of virus virulence was observed with increased passages in Vero cells, and complete attenuation of ASFV-G was observed at passage 110. Infection of swine with the fully attenuated virus did not confer protection against challenge with virulent parental ASFV-G. Full-length sequence analysis of each of these viruses revealed significant deletions that gradually accumulated in specific areas at the right and left variable ends of the genome. Mutations that result in amino acid substitutions and frameshift mutations were also observed, though in a rather limited number of genes. The potential importance of these genetic changes in virus adaptation/attenuation is discussed. The main problem in controlling ASF is the lack of vaccines. Attempts to produce vaccines by adaptation of ASFV to cultured cell lines have been made. These attempts led to the production of attenuated viruses that conferred only homologous protection. Specifics regarding adaptation of these isolates to cell cultures have been

  11. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  12. Recovery trajectories of kelp forest animals are rapid yet spatially variable across a network of temperate marine protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Caselle, JE; Rassweiler, A; Hamilton, SL; Warner, RR

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Oceans currently face a variety of threats, requiring ecosystem-based approaches to management such as networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). We evaluated changes in fish biomass on temperate rocky reefs over the decade following implementation of a network of MPAs in the northern Channel Islands, California. We found that the biomass of targeted (i.e. fished) species has increased consistently inside all MPAs in the network, with an e...

  13. Using minced horseradish roots and peroxides for the deodorization of swine manure: a pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govere, Ephraim M; Tonegawa, Masami; Bruns, Mary Ann; Wheeler, Eileen F; Kephart, Kenneth B; Voigt, Jean W; Dec, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    Enzymes that have proven to be capable of removing toxic compounds from water and soil may also be useful in the deodorization of animal manures. Considering that pork production in the US is a $40-billion industry with over half a million workers, odor control to protect air quality in the neighboring communities must be considered an essential part of managing livestock facilities. This pilot scale (20-120 L) study tested the use of minced horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) roots (1:10 roots to swine slurry ratio), with calcium peroxide (CaO(2) at 34 mM) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2) at 68 mM), to deodorize swine slurry taken from a 40,000-gallon storage pit at the Pennsylvania State University's Swine Center. Horseradish is known to contain large amounts of peroxidase, an enzyme that, in the presence of peroxides, can polymerize phenolic odorants and thus reduce the malodor. Twelve compounds commonly associated with malodor (seven volatile fatty acids or VFAs, three phenolic compounds and two indolic compounds) were used as odor indicators. Their concentration in swine slurry before and after treatment was determined by gas chromatography (GC) to assess the deodorization effect. The pilot scale testing demonstrated a complete removal of phenolic odorants (with a detection limit of 0.5 mg L(-1)) from the swine slurry, which was consistent with our previous laboratory experiments using 30-mL swine slurry samples. Horseradish could be recycled (reused) five times while retaining significant reduction in the concentration of phenolic odorants. In view of these findings, inexpensive plant materials, such as horseradish, represent a promising tool for eliminating phenolic odorants from swine slurry.

  14. Inactivated Influenza Vaccine That Provides Rapid, Innate-Immune-System-Mediated Protection and Subsequent Long-Term Adaptive Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Brendon Y; Wong, Chinn Yi; Mifsud, Edin J; Edenborough, Kathryn M; Sekiya, Toshiki; Tan, Amabel C L; Mercuri, Francesca; Rockman, Steve; Chen, Weisan; Turner, Stephen J; Doherty, Peter C; Kelso, Anne; Brown, Lorena E; Jackson, David C

    2015-10-27

    The continual threat to global health posed by influenza has led to increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccines for use in epidemics and pandemics. We show in this study that formulation of a low dose of inactivated detergent-split influenza vaccine with a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist-based lipopeptide adjuvant (R4Pam2Cys) provides (i) immediate, antigen-independent immunity mediated by the innate immune system and (ii) significant enhancement of antigen-dependent immunity which exhibits an increased breadth of effector function. Intranasal administration of mice with vaccine formulated with R4Pam2Cys but not vaccine alone provides protection against both homologous and serologically distinct (heterologous) viral strains within a day of administration. Vaccination in the presence of R4Pam2Cys subsequently also induces high levels of systemic IgM, IgG1, and IgG2b antibodies and pulmonary IgA antibodies that inhibit hemagglutination (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) activities of homologous but not heterologous virus. Improved primary virus nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8(+) T cell responses are also induced by the use of R4Pam2Cys and are associated with robust recall responses to provide heterologous protection. These protective effects are demonstrated in wild-type and antibody-deficient animals but not in those depleted of CD8(+) T cells. Using a contact-dependent virus transmission model, we also found that heterologous virus transmission from vaccinated mice to naive mice is significantly reduced. These results demonstrate the potential of adding a TLR2 agonist to an existing seasonal influenza vaccine to improve its utility by inducing immediate short-term nonspecific antiviral protection and also antigen-specific responses to provide homologous and heterologous immunity. The innate and adaptive immune systems differ in mechanisms, specificities, and times at which they take effect. The innate immune system responds within hours of

  15. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  16. The protective effect of rapid cold-hardening develops more quickly in frozen versus supercooled larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarasaki, Yuta; Teets, Nicholas M; Denlinger, David L; Lee, Richard E

    2013-10-15

    During the austral summer, larvae of the terrestrial midge Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae) experience highly variable and often unpredictable thermal conditions. In addition to remaining freeze tolerant year-round, larvae are capable of swiftly increasing their cold tolerance through the rapid cold-hardening (RCH) response. The present study compared the induction of RCH in frozen versus supercooled larvae. At the same induction temperature, RCH occurred more rapidly and conferred a greater level of cryoprotection in frozen versus supercooled larvae. Furthermore, RCH in frozen larvae could be induced at temperatures as low as -12°C, which is the lowest temperature reported to induce RCH. Remarkably, as little as 15 min at -5°C significantly enhanced larval cold tolerance. Not only is protection from RCH acquired swiftly, but it is also quickly lost after thawing for 2 h at 2°C. Because the primary difference between frozen and supercooled larvae is cellular dehydration caused by freeze concentration of body fluids, we also compared the effects of acclimation in dehydrated versus frozen larvae. Because slow dehydration without chilling significantly increased larval survival to a subsequent cold exposure, we hypothesize that cellular dehydration caused by freeze concentration promotes the rapid acquisition of cold tolerance in frozen larvae.

  17. The cholesterol system of the swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigueperse, Jocelyne

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the dynamic system of adult female Large White swine. The content of this system and its relationships with both the external environment and between the different parts of the system were explained. The analysis of these results in terms of compared physiology showed that the structure of the cholesterol system was the same in man and in the swine. Consequently, the swine constitutes a good biological tool to study human cholesterol indirectly and to foresee the changes that might be induced in various physio-pathological cases. (author) [fr

  18. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  19. The rapid suicide protection of mood stabilizers on patients with bipolar disorder: A nationwide observational cohort study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Jui; Cheng, Chin; Chou, Po-Han; Lin, Ching-Heng; McInnis, Melvin G; Chang, Chia-Li; Lan, Tsuo-Hung

    2016-05-15

    The suicide rate is high among bipolar disorder (BD) patients. Previous studies have focused on the anti-suicidal effect of long-term treatment with mood stabilizers but less on the immediate preventive effects of interventions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the short-term and immediate anti-suicidal effects of mood stabilizers on recent-onset BD patients. The National Health Insurance Database (NHID) of Taiwan was used to perform a nationwide cohort observation study of suicide behaviors in bipolar disorder. All the recent-onset BD patients (ICD-9-CM code 296 except 296.2 and 296.3) diagnosed between 2000-2005 were collected (n=5091) and followed through 2009. The primary endpoint was the presence of a suicide code or the end of observation; exposure to mood stabilizers in the final month of observation was the independent variable. The hazard ratios (HRs) of suicide-related events, completed suicide, and all-cause mortality were significantly lower for those treated with lithium, divalproex, or carbamazepine compared with no use in the last month (HRs of suicide-related events were 0.10, 0.14 and 0.10, respectively, and all-cause mortality HRs were 0.03; Pmood stabilizers. The NIHD does not provide information on the severity, mood status, or treatment adherence of BD patients. Neither substance-related disorder nor personality disorder were included in the analysis. We focused on the effect of the final prescription time period, not the long-term protective effect. The immediate recent use of any mood stabilizer significantly lowers the rate of death, suicide, or suicidal behavior in BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genotype I of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Virus-like Particles Elicit Sterilizing Immunity against Genotype I and III Viral Challenge in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi-Chin; Chen, Jo-Mei; Lin, Jen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Ying; Wu, Guan-Hong; Su, Kuan-Hsuan; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Wu, Shang-Rung; Yin, Ji-Hang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Chiou, Shyan-Song

    2018-05-10

    Swine are a critical amplifying host involved in human Japanese encephalitis (JE) outbreaks. Cross-genotypic immunogenicity and sterile protection are important for the current genotype III (GIII) virus-derived vaccines in swine, especially now that emerging genotype I (GI) JE virus (JEV) has replaced GIII virus as the dominant strain. Herein, we aimed to develop a system to generate GI JEV virus-like particles (VLPs) and evaluate the immunogenicity and protection of the GI vaccine candidate in mice and specific pathogen-free swine. A CHO-heparan sulfate-deficient (CHO-HS(-)) cell clone, named 51-10 clone, stably expressing GI-JEV VLP was selected and continually secreted GI VLPs without signs of cell fusion. 51-10 VLPs formed a homogeneously empty-particle morphology and exhibited similar antigenic activity as GI virus. GI VLP-immunized mice showed balanced cross-neutralizing antibody titers against GI to GIV viruses (50% focus-reduction micro-neutralization assay titers 71 to 240) as well as potent protection against GI or GIII virus infection. GI VLP-immunized swine challenged with GI or GIII viruses showed no fever, viremia, or viral RNA in tonsils, lymph nodes, and brains as compared with phosphate buffered saline-immunized swine. We thus conclude GI VLPs can provide sterile protection against GI and GIII viruses in swine.

  1. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... production system representative. In the event of oral notification, written confirmation shall be given as... within a swine production system. Swine moving within a swine production system to other than slaughter... identified in a valid swine production health plan for that swine production system. (2) The swine production...

  2. Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Sandbulte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health.

  3. Epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z.Q.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Swine trichinellosis has been reported in 26 provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities (P/A/M of China. The prevalence rate in swine varied from 0.12 % to 34.2 % in five P/A/M, from 0.01 % to 0.0001 % in other P/A/M. The seroepidemiological survey of swine trichinellosis was carried out by ELISA in seven P/A/M, the seroprevalence varied from 0.09 % to 29.63 %. The prevalence of Thchinella infection in pork sold at the market was from 0.29 % to 5.6 % in four provinces. The transmission of trichinellosis by garbage is the main features of epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China. Rat is an important reservoir in the domestic cycle of trichinellosis. The prevalence rates of T. spiralis infection in rats were from 1.98 % to 15.06 % in six provinces or autonomous regions. The treatment-prophylaxis with forage contained albendazole has been applied to the control of swine trichinellosis in Nanyang area of Henan province, the prevalence of swine trichinellosis had decreased from 32.2 % before prophylaxis to 0.12 % after prophylaxis.

  4. Feral Swine in the United States Have Been Exposed to both Avian and Swine Influenza A Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brigitte E; Sun, Hailiang; Carrel, Margaret; Cunningham, Fred L; Baroch, John A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Young, Sean G; Schmit, Brandon; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lutman, Mark W; Pedersen, Kerri; Lager, Kelly; Bowman, Andrew S; Slemons, Richard D; Smith, David R; DeLiberto, Thomas; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine can cause sporadic infections and pandemic outbreaks among humans, but how avian IAV emerges in swine is still unclear. Unlike domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have many opportunities for IAV exposure through contacts with various habitats and animals, including migratory waterfowl, a natural reservoir for IAVs. During the period from 2010 to 2013, 8,239 serum samples were collected from feral swine across 35 U.S. states and tested against 45 contemporary antigenic variants of avian, swine, and human IAVs; of these, 406 (4.9%) samples were IAV antibody positive. Among 294 serum samples selected for antigenic characterization, 271 cross-reacted with ≥1 tested virus, whereas the other 23 did not cross-react with any tested virus. Of the 271 IAV-positive samples, 236 cross-reacted with swine IAVs, 1 with avian IAVs, and 16 with avian and swine IAVs, indicating that feral swine had been exposed to both swine and avian IAVs but predominantly to swine IAVs. Our findings suggest that feral swine could potentially be infected with both avian and swine IAVs, generating novel IAVs by hosting and reassorting IAVs from wild birds and domestic swine and facilitating adaptation of avian IAVs to other hosts, including humans, before their spillover. Continued surveillance to monitor the distribution and antigenic diversities of IAVs in feral swine is necessary to increase our understanding of the natural history of IAVs. IMPORTANCE There are more than 5 million feral swine distributed across at least 35 states in the United States. In contrast to domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have unique opportunities for contact with wildlife, livestock, and their habitats. Our serological results indicate that feral swine in the United States have been exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs) consistent with those found in both domestic swine and wild birds, with the predominant infections consisting of swine-adapted IAVs

  5. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  6. Protecting Against Influenza (Flu): Advice for Caregivers of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Protecting Against Influenza (Flu): Advice for Caregivers of Young Children Language: English ( ... from the flu. Advice on How to Prevent Flu for Caregivers of Young Children 1. Take Time ...

  7. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Vienna R; Bevins, Sarah N

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar) densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation.

  9. A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vienna R. Brown

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV, which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation.

  10. Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lucas; Luo, Kaijian; Olivier, Alicia K; Cunningham, Fred L; Blackmon, Sherry; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Sun, Hailiang; Baroch, John; Lutman, Mark W; Quade, Bianca; Epperson, William; Webby, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Influenza D virus (IDV) has been identified in domestic cattle, swine, camelid, and small ruminant populations across North America, Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Our study investigated seroprevalence and transmissibility of IDV in feral swine. During 2012-2013, we evaluated feral swine populations in 4 US states; of 256 swine tested, 57 (19.1%) were IDV seropositive. Among 96 archived influenza A virus-seropositive feral swine samples collected from 16 US states during 2010-2013, 41 (42.7%) were IDV seropositive. Infection studies demonstrated that IDV-inoculated feral swine shed virus 3-5 days postinoculation and seroconverted at 21 days postinoculation; 50% of in-contact naive feral swine shed virus, seroconverted, or both. Immunohistochemical staining showed viral antigen within epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, including trachea, soft palate, and lungs. Our findings suggest that feral swine might serve an important role in the ecology of IDV.

  11. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate shall show that the entire region of origin is free of classical swine fever. (b) Swine from..., Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India...

  12. The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A S; Nolting, J M; Workman, J D; Cooper, M; Fisher, A E; Marsh, B; Forshey, T

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural fairs create an unconventional animal-human interface that has been associated with swine-to-human transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in recent years. Early detection of IAV-infected pigs at agricultural fairs would allow veterinarians to better protect swine and human health during these swine exhibitions. This study assessed the use of swine body temperature measurement, recorded by infrared and rectal thermometers, as a practical method to detect IAV-infected swine at agricultural fairs. In our first objective, infrared thermometers were used to record the body surface temperature of 1,092 pigs at the time of IAV nasal swab collection at the end of the exhibition period of 55 agricultural fairs. IAV was recovered from 212 (19.4%) pigs, and the difference in mean infrared body temperature measurement of IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs was 0.83°C. In a second objective, snout wipes were collected from 1,948 pigs immediately prior to the unloading of the animals at a single large swine exhibition. Concurrent to the snout wipe collection, owners took the rectal temperatures of his/her pigs. In this case, 47 (2.4%) pigs tested positive for IAV before they entered the swine barn. The mean rectal temperatures differed by only 0.19°C between IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs. The low prevalence of IAV among the pigs upon entry to the fair in the second objective provides evidence that limiting intraspecies spread of IAV during the fairs will likely have significant impacts on the zoonotic transmission. However, in both objectives, the high degree of similarity in the body temperature measurements between the IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs made it impossible to set a diagnostically meaningful cut point to differentiate IAV status of the individual animals. Unfortunately, body temperature measurement cannot be used to accurately screen exhibition swine for IAV. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Lindsay, A D

    2004-01-01

    Wastes generated from the production of cattle and swine in confined facilities create the potential for surface and groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, transmission of pathogens to food and water sources, and odor. It is our hypothesis that something which inhibits microbial fermentation in livestock wastes will be beneficial to solving some of the environmental problems. Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 L cattle or swine manure were used to evaluate the effect of thymol and eugenol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. Either oil at 0.2% in both wastes essentially stopped all production of gas and volatile fatty acids, and eliminated all fecal coliform bacteria. In cattle but not swine waste, thymol prevented the accumulation of lactate. However, eugenol stimulated lactate formation in cattle and swine wastes. Thus, eugenol may offer a distinct advantage over thymol, because lactate accumulation in the wastes causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. We conclude that plant oils may offer solutions to controlling various environmental problems associated with livestock wastes, assuming that they are cost-effective.

  14. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter...

  15. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies of...

  16. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a...

  17. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...

  18. Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure

    OpenAIRE

    Shou-Qing Ni; Ning Yang

    2014-01-01

    With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2 −–N and NH4 +–N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge...

  19. Uncovering of Classical Swine Fever Virus adaptive response to vaccination by Next Generation Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Orton, Richard; Höper, Dirk

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has rapidly become the preferred technology in nucleotide sequencing, and can be applied to unravel molecular adaptation of RNA viruses such as Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). However, the detection of low frequency variants within viral populations by NGS...... is affected by errors introduced during sample preparation and sequencing, and so far no definitive solution to this problem has been presented....

  20. Genetic and antigenic characterization of influenza A virus circulating in Danish swine during the past decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; Kirk, Isa Kristina; Breum, Solvej Østergaard

    Influenza A virus has been endemic in Danish swine for the last 30 years, with H1N1 and H1N2 being the dominating subtypes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic and antigenic evolution of the influenza viruses found in Danish swine during the last 10 years. A total of 78 samples...... to the complex epidemiology of circulating swine influenza virus in Denmark and indicates that vaccine development targeted against Danish H1N1 and H1N2 need only to include few components for the induction of cross protection against the predominant strains. The study was supported by grants from “European......-synonymous substitutions for H1, N1 and N2 were found to be in agreement with previously observed values for Eurasian swine lineages. Calculation of possible glycosylation sites in the hemagglutinin gene revealed that the H1N2 and H1N1 subtypes had three well conserved glycosylation sites in common. The results of the HI...

  1. Antigenic and genetic evolution of contemporary swine H1 influenza viruses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajao, Daniela S; Anderson, Tavis K; Kitikoon, Pravina; Stratton, Jered; Lewis, Nicola S; Vincent, Amy L

    2018-05-01

    Several lineages of influenza A viruses (IAV) currently circulate in North American pigs. Genetic diversity is further increased by transmission of IAV between swine and humans and subsequent evolution. Here, we characterized the genetic and antigenic evolution of contemporary swine H1N1 and H1N2 viruses representing clusters H1-α (1A.1), H1-β (1A.2), H1pdm (1A.3.3.2), H1-γ (1A.3.3.3), H1-δ1 (1B.2.2), and H1-δ2 (1B.2.1) currently circulating in pigs in the United States. The δ1-viruses diversified into two new genetic clades, H1-δ1a (1B.2.2.1) and H1-δ1b (1B.2.2.2), which were also antigenically distinct from the earlier H1-δ1-viruses. Further characterization revealed that a few key amino acid changes were associated with antigenic divergence in these groups. The continued genetic and antigenic evolution of contemporary H1 viruses might lead to loss of vaccine cross-protection that could lead to significant economic impact to the swine industry, and represents a challenge to public health initiatives that attempt to minimize swine-to-human IAV transmission. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Experimental TIPS with spiral Z-stents in swine with and without induced portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Saxon, Richard R.; Nishimine, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Norifumi; Uchida, Barry T.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the suitability of spiral Z-stents for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and the influence of portal hypertension on shunt patency in young swine. Methods. TIPS were established using spiral Z-stents in 14 domestic swine. In 7 animals, the portal venous pressure was normal; in the other 7, acute portal hypertension was induced by embolization of portal vein branches. Follow-up portal venography and histologic evaluations were done from 1 hr to 12 weeks after TIPS. Results. Follow-up transhepatic portal venograms showed progressive narrowing of the shunt, most priminent in the midportion of the tract. Ingrowth of liver parenchyma between the stent wires found after 3 weeks led to progressive shunt narrowing and shunt occlusion by 12 weeks. A pseudointima grew rapidly inside the stent, peaked in thickness around 4 weeks, and decreased later. Acutely created portal hypertension rapidly returned to normal and there was no difference in TIPS patency between the two groups of animals. Conclusion. Although the spiral Z-stent can be used as a device for creation of TIPS in patients with cirrhotic livers, it is associated with extensive liver ingrowth in swine that leads to rapid shunt occlusion. Portal hypertension was only transient in this model

  3. Estimation of the transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus within a swine house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. P.; Larsen, T. S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans......·00 (95% CI 0-1). Furthermore, we simulated the spread of ASFV within a pig house using a modified SEIR-model to establish the time from infection of one animal until ASFV is detected in the herd. Based on a chosen detection limit of 2·55% equivalent to 10 dead pigs out of 360, the disease would...

  4. Eugenol stimulates lactate accumulation yet inhibits volatile fatty acid production and eliminates coliform bacteria in cattle and swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D L

    2004-01-01

    To determine how eugenol affects fermentation parameters and faecal coliforms in cattle and swine waste slurries stored anaerobically. Waste slurries (faeces:urine:water, 50:35:15) were blended with and without additives and aliquoted to triplicate 1-l flasks. Faecal coliforms were eliminated in cattle and swine waste slurries within 1 or 2 days with additions of eugenol at 10.05 mm (0.15%) and 16.75 mm (0.25%). At these concentrations volatile fatty acids (VFA) were reduced ca 70 and 50% in cattle and swine waste, respectively, over 6-8 weeks. Additionally, in cattle waste, eugenol stimulated the accumulation of lactate (>180 mm) when compared with thymol treatment (20 mm lactate). In swine waste, lactate accumulation did not occur without additives; eugenol and thymol stimulated lactate accumulation to concentrations of 22 and 32 mm, respectively. Eugenol added to cattle waste may be more beneficial than thymol because not only does it effectively control faecal coliforms and odour (VFA production), it also stimulates lactate accumulation. This in turn, causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. Plant essential oils have the potential to solve some of the environmental problems associated with consolidated animal feeding operations. Thymol and eugenol reduce fermentative activity, thus, have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and odour, and curtail transmission of pathogens in cattle and swine wastes.

  5. Inhibitory effects on anaerobic digestion of swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, P.W.S.; Zhou, H. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: hzhou@uoguelph.ca; Hacker, R. [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Animal and Poultry Science, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    This paper presents a laboratory study using anaerobic digestion for swine manure under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, with emphasis on the effects of inhibitory chemicals on biogas production. A series of batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of various process parameters by varying temperature, pH, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations. As well, continuous anaerobic digestion tests were conducted using a completely stirred reactor system with a sludge retention time of 15 days. The results showed that at the initial stage, biogas was generated rapidly in the thermophilic reactor, but was more and more inhibited during the later stage with the presence of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. In contrast, the biogas production was initially delayed in the mesophilic reactor but afterwards had an even higher total gas production. In order to take advantages of both temperature effects in each reactor, the dual-stage system that consists of a thermophilic reactor followed by a mesophilic reactor was suggested. (author)

  6. Inhibitory effects on anaerobic digestion of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, P.W.S.; Zhou, H.; Hacker, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a laboratory study using anaerobic digestion for swine manure under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, with emphasis on the effects of inhibitory chemicals on biogas production. A series of batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of various process parameters by varying temperature, pH, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations. As well, continuous anaerobic digestion tests were conducted using a completely stirred reactor system with a sludge retention time of 15 days. The results showed that at the initial stage, biogas was generated rapidly in the thermophilic reactor, but was more and more inhibited during the later stage with the presence of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. In contrast, the biogas production was initially delayed in the mesophilic reactor but afterwards had an even higher total gas production. In order to take advantages of both temperature effects in each reactor, the dual-stage system that consists of a thermophilic reactor followed by a mesophilic reactor was suggested. (author)

  7. Detection of African swine fever, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine oral fluids by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Frederic R; Schroeder, Megan E; Mulhern, Erin L; McIntosh, Michael T; Bounpheng, Mangkey A

    2015-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. Pigs infected with ASF and CSF viruses (ASFV and CSFV) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. Likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability to perform herd-level surveillance for all 3 diseases rapidly and cost effectively using a single diagnostic sample and test is highly desirable. This study assessed the feasibility of simultaneous ASFV, CSFV, and FMDV detection by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) in swine oral fluids collected through the use of chewing ropes. Animal groups were experimentally infected independently with each virus, observed for clinical signs, and oral fluids collected and tested throughout the course of infection. All animal groups chewed on the ropes readily before and after onset of clinical signs and before onset of lameness or serious clinical signs. ASFV was detected as early as 3 days postinoculation (dpi), 2-3 days before onset of clinical disease; CSFV was detected at 5 dpi, coincident with onset of clinical disease; and FMDV was detected as early as 1 dpi, 1 day before the onset of clinical disease. Equivalent results were observed in 4 independent studies and demonstrate the feasibility of oral fluids and mRT-qPCR for surveillance of ASF, CSF, and FMD in swine populations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Characterization of influenza a outbreaks in Minnesota swine herds and measures taken to reduce the risk of zoonotic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A; Johnson, S; Davies, P; Bender, J; Gramer, M

    2012-03-01

    Influenza A virus infections commonly cause respiratory disease in swine and can be transmitted between people and pigs, with potentially novel strains introduced into herds and spilling back into the human population. The goals of this study were to characterize influenza infections in Minnesota pigs and assess biosecurity measures used by swine workers. Veterinarians submitting influenza-positive swine samples to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory between October 2007 and April 2009 were surveyed regarding disease-related information and biosecurity procedures at each farm. Influenza-positive samples were submitted year-round, peaking in spring and fall. H1N1 was the most commonly detected subtype (56%), followed by H3N2 (14%) and H1N2 (12%). Most positive submissions were associated with illness in growing pigs (median age 8.8 weeks, IQR 5-15). Median morbidity and mortality were 25% (IQR 10-48) and 2% (IQR 0.5-3.5), respectively. Vaccination of sows and growing pigs was conducted at 71% and 7.9% of the swine farms, respectively. Specialized footwear was reported as the most common form of protective equipment used by workers. Employee vaccination for seasonal influenza was 19%. The sow vaccination rate in this study is consistent with national data, although growing pig vaccination is lower than the national average. Seasonal and age trends identified here may provide diagnostic guidance when growing pigs experience respiratory disease. Inconsistent use of protective equipment and employee vaccination at swine farms indicates the need for further discussion and research of approaches to minimize interspecies influenza transmission on swine farms. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  10. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of swine with spontaneous influenza A infection in Brazil, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane T.N. Watanabe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Swine influenza (SI is caused by the type A swine influenza virus (SIV. It is a highly contagious disease with a rapid course and recovery. The major clinical signs and symptoms are cough, fever, anorexia and poor performance. The disease has been associated with other co-infections in many countries, but not in Brazil, where, however, the first outbreak has been reported in 2011. The main aim of this study was to characterize the histological features in association with the immunohistochemical (IHC results for influenza A (IA, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in lung samples from 60 pigs submitted to Setor de Patologia Veterinária at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS, Brazil, during 2009-2010. All of these lung samples had changes characterized by interstitial pneumonia with necrotizing bronchiolitis, never observed previously in the evaluation of swine lungs in our laboratory routine. Pigs in this study had showed clinical signs of a respiratory infection. Swine samples originated from Rio Grande do Sul 31 (52%, Santa Catarina 14 (23%, Paraná 11 (18%, and Mato Grosso do Sul 4 (7%. Positive anti-IA IHC labelling was observed in 45% of the cases, which were associated with necrotizing bronchiolitis, atelectasis, purulent bronchopneumonia and hyperemia. Moreover, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, alveolar and bronchiolar polyp-like structures, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT hyperplasia and pleuritis were the significant features in negative anti-IA IHC, which were also associated with chronic lesions. There were only two cases with positive anti-PCV2 IHC and none to PRRSV. Therefore, SIV was the predominant infectious agent in the lung samples studied. The viral antigen is often absent due to the rapid progress of SI, which may explain the negative IHC results for IA (55%; therefore, IHC should be performed at the beginning of the disease. This study

  11. Pandemic swine influenza virus: Preparedness planning | Ojogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread was declared a pandemic strain. The introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses often result in viruses of increased fitness ...

  12. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...-AB06 Swine Contract Library AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA... Library (SCL). The statutory authority for the library lapsed on September 30, 2005. On October 5, 2006... maintenance of a library of marketing contracts offered by certain packers to producers for the purchase of...

  13. Alternative risk financing instruments for swine epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Swine epidemics can have very large devastating financial consequences. Governments generally bear the direct losses, such as the value of destroyed animals. Consequential losses, such as the losses resulting from empty buildings and movement standstills, are completely borne by the farmers (and

  14. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  15. USMARC update on swine reproduction research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine research at USMARC has continued to focus on meat quality, improvement of genomic resources and reproduction, specifically estrus traits, sow longevity and lifetime productivity. This report will focus on research in behavioral anestrus in gilts. Gilts that reach puberty at an earlier age are ...

  16. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  17. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR...

  18. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L.

    2008-01-01

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the

  19. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and characterization of potential probiotic strains with antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán-Vega, Sandra Rayén; Villena, Julio; Valdebenito, José; Salas, María José; Parra, Cristian; Ruiz, Alvaro; Kitazawa, Haruki; García, Apolinaria

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are usually isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. The search of probiotics in human milk is a recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. To our knowledge, no reports regarding the potential probiotic effect of bacteria from swine milk have been published. In this work, we isolated several lactic acid bacteria from swine milk and evaluated them for them potential as probiotics. Among the isolated strains, Lactobacillus curvatus TUCO-5E showed antagonistic effects against swine-associated gastrointestinal pathogens. TUCO-5E was able to reduce the growth of enterotoxigenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains as well as pathogenic salmonella. In vitro exclusion and displacement assays in intestinal epithelial cells showed a remarkable antagonistic effect for L. curvatus TUCO-5E against Salmonella sp. strain TUCO-I7 and Salmonella enterica ATCC 13096. Moreover, by using a mouse model of Salmonella infection, we were able to demonstrate that preventative administration of L. curvatus TUCO-5E for 5 consecutive days was capable of decreasing the number of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the liver and spleen of treated mice, compared with the controls, and prevented dissemination of the pathogen to the blood stream. Therefore, we have demonstrated here that swine milk is an interesting source of beneficial bacteria. In addition, the results of this work suggest that L. curvatus TUCO-5E is a good candidate to study in vivo the protective effect of probiotics against intestinal infection and damage induced by Salmonella infection in the porcine host.

  20. Comparison of immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by fusion proteins using the swine IgG heavy chain constant region or β-galactosidase as a carrier of immunogenic epitopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangjin; Chen Weizao; Yan Weiyao; Zhao Kai; Liu Mingqiu; Zhang Jun; Fei Liang; Xu Quanxing; Sheng Zutian; Lu Yonggan; Zheng Zhaoxin

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that a fusion protein (Gal-FMDV) consisting of β-galactosidase and an immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160), of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 protein induced protective immune responses in guinea pigs and swine. We now designed a new potential recombinant protein vaccine against FMDV in swine. The immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160) from the VP1 protein of serotype O FMDV, was fused to the carboxy terminus of a swine immunoglobulin G single heavy chain constant region and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion protein (IgG-FMDV) was purified and emulsified with oil adjuvant. Vaccination twice at an interval of 3 weeks with the emulsified IgG-FMDV fusion protein induced an FMDV-specific spleen proliferative T-cell response in guinea pigs and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody in guinea pigs and swine. All of the immunized animals were efficiently protected against FMDV challenge. There was no significant difference between IgG-FMDV and Gal-FMDV in eliciting immunity after vaccination twice in swine. However, when evaluating the efficacy of a single inoculation of the fusion proteins, we found that IgG-FMDV could elicit a protective immune response in swine, while Gal-FMDV only elicited a weak neutralizing activity and could not protect the swine against FMDV challenge. Our results suggest that the IgG-FMDV fusion protein is a promising vaccine candidate for FMD in swine

  1. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential...

  2. Two genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza viruses appeared among pigs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuantian; Zhu, Qiyun; Yang, Huanliang; Zhang, Xiumei; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Yan; Xin, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hualan

    2009-10-01

    H1N2 is one of the main subtypes of influenza, which circulates in swine all over the world. To investigate the prevalence and genetic of H1N2 in swine of China. Two H1N2 swine influenza viruses were isolated from Tianjin and Guangdong province of China in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The molecular evolution of eight gene segments was analyzed. A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 has low identity with A/Swine/Guangdong/2006; in the phylogenetic tree of PA gene, A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2006 and A/Swine/Guangxi/1/2006 along with the H1N2 swine isolates of North America formed a cluster; and A/Swine/Tianjin/2004 and A/Swine/Zhejiang/2004, along with the classical H1N1 swine isolates formed another cluster; except that NA gene of A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 fell into the cluster of the H3N2 human influenza virus, indicating the reassortment between H3N2 human and H1N1 swine influenza viruses. Two different genotypes of H1N2 appeared among pigs in China. A/swine/Guangdong/1/06 was probably from H1N2 swine influenza viruses of North America; while A/swine/Tianjin/1/04 maybe come from reassortments of classical H1N1 swine and H3N2 human viruses prevalent in North America.

  3. [An overview on swine influenza viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Wen-Fei; Shu, Yue-Long

    2013-05-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory pathogens of pigs. They cause both economic bur den in livestock-dependent industries and serious global public health concerns in humans. Because of their dual susceptibility to human and avian influenza viruses, pigs are recognized as intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 circulate in swine populations around the world, with varied origin and genetic characteristics among different continents and regions. In this review, the role of pigs in evolution of influenza A viruses, the genetic evolution of SIVs and interspecies transmission of SIVs are described. Considering the possibility that pigs might produce novel influenza viruses causing more outbreaks and pandemics, routine epidemiological surveillance of influenza viruses in pig populations is highly recommended.

  4. Identification of a new genotype of African swine fever Virus in domestic pigs from Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achenbach, J.E.; Gallardo, C.; Nieto-Pelegrín, E.; Rivera-Arroyo, B.; Degefa-Negi, T.; Arias, M.; Jenberie, S.; Mulisa, D.D.; Gizaw, D.; Gelaye, E.; Chibssa, T.R.; Belaye, A.; Loitsch, A.; Forsa, M.; Yami, M.; Diallo, A.; Soler, A.; Lamien, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: African swine fever (ASF) is an important emerging transboundary animal disease (TAD), which currently has an impact on many countries in Africa, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Russian Federation. The current situation in Europe shows the ability of the virus to rapidly spread, which stands to threaten the global swine industry. At present, there is no viable vaccine to minimize spread of the disease and stamping out is the main source of control. In February 2011, Ethiopia had reported its first suspected outbreaks of ASF. Genomic analyses of the collected ASF virus (ASFV) strains were undertaken using 23 tissue samples collected from domestic swine in Ethiopia from 2011 to 2014. The analysis of Ethiopian ASFVs partial p72 gene sequence showed the identification of a new genotype, genotype XXIII that shares a common ancestor with genotypes IX and X, which comprise isolates circulating in Eastern African countries and the Republic of Congo. Analysis of the p54 gene also followed the p72 pattern and the deduced amino acid sequence of the central variable region (CVR) of the B602L gene showed novel tetramer repeats not previously characterized. (author)

  5. Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qing Ni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2−–N and NH4+–N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge deodorization reactor and anaerobic digestion-partial oxidation treatment process treating swine manure and its corresponding control artificial wastewaters. Ammonium removal dropped from 98.0 ± 0.6% to 66.9 ± 2.7% and nearly absent when the organic load in the feeding increased from 232 mg COD/L to 1160 mg COD/L and 2320 mg COD/L. The presence of organic carbon had limited effect on nitrite and total nitrogen removal. At a COD to N ratio of 0.9, COD inhibitory organic load threshold concentration was 727 mg COD/L. Mass balance indicated that denitrifiers played an important role in nitrite, nitrate and organic carbon removal. These results demonstrated that anammox system had the potential to effectively treat swine manure that can achieve high nitrogen standards at reduced costs.

  6. Simulating the epidemiological and economic effects of an African swine fever epidemic in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    to simulate the spread of ASF virus between domestic swine herds exemplified by the Danish swine population. ASF was simulated to spread via animal movement, low- or medium-risk contacts and local spread. Each epidemic was initiated in a randomly selected herd – either in a nucleus herd, a sow herd......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a considerable impact on animal health and is currently one of the most important emerging diseases of domestic pigs. ASF was introduced into Georgia in 2007 and subsequently spread to the Russian Federation and several Eastern...... European countries. Consequently, there is a non-negligible risk of ASF spread towards Western Europe. Therefore it is important to develop tools to improve our understanding of the spread and control of ASF for contingency planning. A stochastic and dynamic spatial spread model (DTU-DADS) was adjusted...

  7. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  8. History of Swine influenza viruses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huachen; Webby, Richard; Lam, Tommy T Y; Smith, David K; Peiris, Joseph S M; Guan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The pig is one of the main hosts of influenza A viruses and plays important roles in shaping the current influenza ecology. The occurrence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus demonstrated that pigs could independently facilitate the genesis of a pandemic influenza strain. Genetic analyses revealed that this virus was derived by reassortment between at least two parent swine influenza viruses (SIV), from the northern American triple reassortant H1N2 (TR) and European avian-like H1N1 (EA) lineages. The movement of live pigs between different continents and subsequent virus establishment are preconditions for such a reassortment event to occur. Asia, especially China, has the largest human and pig populations in the world, and seems to be the only region frequently importing pigs from other continents. Virological surveillance revealed that not only classical swine H1N1 (CS), and human-origin H3N2 viruses circulated, but all of the EA, TR and their reassortant variants were introduced into and co-circulated in pigs in this region. Understanding the long-term evolution and history of SIV in Asia would provide insights into the emergence of influenza viruses with epidemic potential in swine and humans.

  9. Comparison of Microbial Communities in Swine Manure at Various Temperatures and storage times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joung-Soo; Yang, Seung Hak; Kim, Bong-Soo; Lee, Eun Young

    2018-01-26

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of temperature and storage time on the evolution of bacterial communities in swine manure. Manure was stored at -20°C, 4°C, 20°C, or 37°C and sampled at 7-day intervals over 28 days of storage, for a total of 5 time points. To assess the bacterial species present, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences were analyzed using pyrosequencing. After normalization, 113,934 sequence reads were obtained, with an average length of 466.6 ± 4.4 bp. The diversity indices of the communities reduced as temperature and storage time increased, and the slopes of rarefaction curves decreased from the second week in samples stored at -20 °C and 4 °C. These results indicate that the richness of the bacterial community in the manure reduced as temperature and storage time increased. Firmicutes were the dominant phylum in all samples examined, ranging from 89.3% to 98.8% of total reads, followed by Actinobacteria, which accounted for 0.6% to 7.9%. A change in community composition was observed in samples stored at 37 °C during the first 7 days, indicating that temperature plays an important role in determining the microbiota of swine manure. Clostridium, Turicibacter, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus within Firmicutes, and Corynebacterium within Actinobacteria were the most dominant genera in fresh manure and all stored samples. Based on our findings, we propose Clostridium as an indicator genus of swine manure decomposition in an anaerobic environment. The proportions of dominant genera changed in samples stored at 20 °C and 37 °C during the fourth week. Based on these results, it was concluded that the microbial communities of swine manure change rapidly as storage time and temperature increase.

  10. Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment--comparative studies with Eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.

  11. Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment--comparative studies with Eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Duerrwald

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain in two independent trials. In each trial (i 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection, (ii another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.

  12. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu® Treatment – Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs. PMID:23630601

  13. Economic losses to Iberian swine production from forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Ramon Molina Martinez; Miguel Herrera Machuca; Ricardo Zamora Diaz; Fancisco Rodriguez y Silva; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2011-01-01

    Most forestry property in Andalusia is privately held. One of the most important possibilities for economic development of rural areas is the use of pasture lands (dehesa in Spanish). During the spring–summer season, swine grazing takes advantage of grasses between the trees, and during winter (harsher times), they use Quercus tree fruit. Swine production has a direct...

  14. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing

  15. Removal of nitrogen from anaerobically digested swine wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This result indicates that the sulfur-packed biofilter would be used as an efficient option for denitrification by autotrophic denitrifiers during swine wastewater treatment. Key words: Biological nitrogen removal, nitrification, denitrification, chemical oxygen demand (COD), intermittent aeration, sulfur-packed bed reactor, swine ...

  16. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to quarantine... of any import permit. The facilities occupied by swine should be kept clean and sanitary to the... described in paragraph (b) of this section. The importer, or his or her agent, shall request in writing such...

  17. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus in apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal and economically significant disease of domestic pigs in Uganda where outbreaks regularly occur. There is neither a vaccine nor treatment available for ASF control. Twenty two African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotypes (I - XXII) have been identified based on partial sequencing ...

  18. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683

  19. Construction of a recombinant baculovirus expressing swine hepatitis E Virus ORF2 and preliminary research on its immune effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Hu, Y; Yuan, P; Yang, Y; Wang, K; Xie, L Y; Huang, S L; Liu, J; Ran, L; Song, Z H

    2018-03-01

    In the swine hepatitis E virus (HEV), open reading frame 2 (ORF2) is rich in antigenic determinants and neutralizing epitopes that could induce immune protection. We chose the Bac-to-Bac® Baculovirus Expression System to express fragments containing the critical neutralizing antigenic sites within the HEV ORF2 protein of pigs to obtain a recombinant baculovirus. The fragment of swine HEV ORF2 region (1198-1881bp) was cloned into vector pFastBacTM. A recombinant baculovirus, rBacmid-ORF2, was obtained after transposition and transfection. The molecular mass of the recombinant protein was 26 kDa. Mice were immunized by the intraperitoneal and oral routes with cell lysates of recombinant baculovirus rBacmid-ORF2. Serum and feces of the mice were collected separately at 0, 14, 28, and 42 d after immunization and the antibody levels of IgG and secretory IgA against swine HEV were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results suggested that rBacmid-ORF2 induced antibodies of the humoral and mucosal immune responses in mice and that the oral route was significantly superior to the intraperitoneal route. This is the first study to demonstrate that that recombinant baculovirus swine HEV ORF2 could induce humoral and mucosal immune responses in mice. Copyright© by the Polish Academy of Sciences.

  20. [Swine influenza virus: evolution mechanism and epidemic characterization--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xian; Lu, Chengping

    2009-09-01

    Pigs may play an important role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A virus. The tracheal epithelium of pigs contain both SA alpha 2,6 Gal and SA alpha 2,3 Gal receptors and can be infected with swine, human and avian viruses, therefore, pigs have been considered as an intermediate host for the adaptation of avian influenza viruses to humans or as mixing vessels for the generation of genetically reassortant viruses. Evolution patterns among swine influenza viruses including evolution of host adaptation, antigenic drift and genetic reassortment, and the latter is the main one. Unlike human influenza viruses, swine viruses have different epizootiological patterns in different areas of world, which is enzootic and geographic dependence. Currently, three predominant subtypes of influenza virus are prevalent in pig populations worldwide: H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2, and these include classical swine H1N1, avian-like H1N1, human-like H3N2, reassortant H3N2 and various genotype H1N2 viruses. In Europe, North America and China, influenza A viruses circulating in pigs are distinct in the genetic characteristics and genetic sources. Since 1979, three subtypes, avian-like H1N1, reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, have been co-circulating in European swine. Before 1998, classical H1N1 viruses were the exclusive cause of swine influenza in North America. However, after that, three triple-reassortant H1N2, H3N2 and H1N1 viruses with genes of human, swine and avian virus began to emerge in pigs. Genetically, the pandemic viruses emerging in human, so called influenza A (H1N1) viruses, contain genes from both Europe and North American SIV lineages. SIV is not the same as Europe and the United States in the prevalence and genetic background in China, mainly classical swine H1N1 and human-like H3N2 type virus. However, in recent years, SIV from Europe and North America have been introduced into Chinese pig herds, so more attention should be given on the evolutionary of SIV in China

  1. Identification of cross-reacting T-cell epitopes in structural and non-structural proteins of swine and pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus strains in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baratelli, Massimiliano; Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Trebbien, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Heterologous protection against swine influenza viruses (SwIVs) of different lineages is an important concern for the pig industry. Cross-protection between 'avian-like' H1N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 lineages has been observed previously, indicating the involvement of cross-reacting T-cells. Here...

  2. Swine enteric coronavirus disease: A review of 4 years with porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus and porcine deltacoronavirus in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwerder, M C; Hesse, R A

    2018-06-01

    Swine enteric coronaviruses, including porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), have emerged and spread throughout the North American swine industry over the last four years. These diseases cause significant losses within the pork industry and within the first year after PEDV introduction, approximately 10% of the US herd died due to the disease. Similar to other enteric coronaviruses, such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), these emerging swine enteric coronavirus diseases (SECD) are age-dependent, with high morbidity and mortality in neonatal pigs. Since the introduction of SECD, research has focused on investigating viral pathogenesis through experimental inoculation, increasing maternal antibody for neonatal protection, understanding transmission risks through feed and transportation, and outlining the importance of biosecurity in preventing SECD introduction and spread. A survey of swine professionals conducted for this review revealed that the majority of respondents (75%) believe SECD can be eradicated and that most herds have been successful at long-term elimination of SECD after exposure (80%). However, unique properties of SECD, such as ineffective immunity through parenteral vaccination and a low oral infectious dose, play a major role in management of SECD. This review serves to describe the current knowledge of SECD and the characteristics of these viruses which provide both opportunities and challenges for long-term disease control and potential eradication from the US swine population. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Quantitative approach for the risk assessment of African swine fever and Classical swine fever introduction into the United States through legal imports of pigs and swine products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Herrera-Ibatá

    Full Text Available The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs. Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF and Classical swine fever (CSF introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10-3. Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10-3 for ASF, and 2.5*10-3 for CSF higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10-4 for ASF, and 1.56*10-3 for CSF. This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products. The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products, is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US.

  4. Irreversible Electroporation in a Swine Lung Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Damian E.; Aswad, Bassam; Ng, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety and tissue effects of IRE in a swine lung model. Methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. Nine anesthetized domestic swine underwent 15 percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) lesion creations (6 with bipolar and 3 with 3–4 monopolar electrodes) under fluoroscopic guidance and with pancuronium neuromuscular blockade and EKG gating. IRE electrodes were placed into the central and middle third of the right mid and lower lobes in all animals. Postprocedure PA and lateral chest radiographs were obtained to evaluate for pneumothorax. Three animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks and six at 4 weeks. Animals underwent high-resolution CT scanning and PA and lateral radiographs 1 h before sacrifice. The treated lungs were removed en bloc, perfused with formalin, and sectioned. Gross pathologic and microscopic changes after standard hematoxylin and eosin staining were analyzed within the areas of IRE lesion creation. Results: No significant adverse events were identified. CT showed focal areas of spiculated high density ranging in greatest diameter from 1.1–2.2 cm. On gross inspection of the sectioned lung, focal areas of tan discoloration and increased density were palpated in the areas of IRE. Histological analysis revealed focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrosis and inflammatory infiltration that respected the boundaries of the interlobular septae. No pathological difference could be discerned between the 2- and 4-week time points. The bronchioles and blood vessels within the areas of IRE were intact and did not show signs of tissue injury. Conclusion: IRE creates focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage without creating damage to the bronchioles or blood vessels. Short-term safety in a swine model appears to be satisfactory.

  5. Zeolites in poultry and swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Félix Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Zeolites are minerals that have intriguing properties such as water absorption, ion adsorption and cation exchange capacity. There are approximately 80 species of natural zeolites recognized and hundreds of artificial zeolites, which have been researched in several fields. Due to their chemical characteristics, zeolites have great potential for use in animal production, especially in poultry and swine farms, as food additives, litter amendment and treatment of residues, with direct and indirect effects on performance, yield and quality of carcass, ambience of farm sheds and reduction of environmental pollution.

  6. Propranolol Effects on Decompression Sickness in a Simulated DISSUB Rescue in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Angela S; Regis, David P; Hall, Aaron A; Mahon, Richard T; Cronin, William A

    2017-04-01

    Disabled submarine (DISSUB) survivors may face elevated CO2 levels and inert gas saturation, putting them at risk for CO2 toxicity and decompression sickness (DCS). Propranolol was shown to reduce CO2 production in an experimental DISSUB model in humans but its effects on DCS in a DISSUB rescue scenario are unknown. A 100% oxygen prebreathe (OPB) reduces DCS incidence and severity and is incorporated into some DISSUB rescue protocols. We used a swine model of DISSUB rescue to study the effect of propranolol on DCS incidence and mortality with and without an OPB. In Experiment 1, male Yorkshire Swine (70 kg) were pressurized to 2.8 ATA for 22 h. Propranolol 1.0 mg · kg-1 (IV) was administered at 21.25 h. At 22 h, the animal was rapidly decompressed and observed for DCS type, onset time, and mortality. Experimental animals (N = 21; 69 ± 4.1 kg), PROP1.0, were compared to PROP1.0-OPB45 (N = 8; 69 ± 2.8 kg) with the same dive profile, except for a 45 min OPB prior to decompression. In Experiment 2, the same methodology was used with the following changes: swine pressurized to 2.8 ATA for 28 h; experimental group (N = 25; 67 ± 3.3 kg), PROP0.5 bis, propranolol 0.5 mg · kg-1 bis (twice) (IV) was administered at 22 h and 26 h. Control animals (N = 25; 67 ± 3.9 kg) received normal saline. OPB reduced mortality in PROP1.0-OBP45 compared to PROP1.0 (0% vs. 71%). PROP0.5 bis had increased mortality compared to CONTROL (60-% vs. 4%). Administration of beta blockers prior to saturation decompression appears to increase DCS and worsen mortality in a swine model; however, their effects in bounce diving remain unknown.Forbes AS, Regis DP, HallAA, Mahon RT, Cronin WA. Propranolol effects on decompression sickness in a simulated DISSUB rescue in swine. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):385-391.

  7. A New Adjuvant Combined with Inactivated Influenza Enhances Specific CD8 T Cell Response in Mice and Decreases Symptoms in Swine Upon Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguyon, Edwige; Goncalves, Elodie; Shevtsov, Alexander; Maisonnasse, Pauline; Remyga, Stepan; Goryushev, Oleg; Deville, Sebastien; Bertho, Nicolas; Ben Arous, Juliette

    2015-11-01

    Vaccination is the most effective way to control swine influenza virus (SIV) in the field. Classical vaccines are based on inactivated antigens formulated with an oil emulsion or a polymeric adjuvant. Standard adjuvants enhance the humoral response and orient the immune response toward a Th2 response. An important issue is that current vaccines do not protect against new strains. One approach to improve cross-protection is to enhance Th1 and cytotoxic responses. The development of adjuvants orienting the immune response of inactivated vaccines toward Th1/Cytotoxic responses would be highly beneficial. This study shows that the water in oil in water emulsion adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 201 VG allows the induction of anti-influenza CD8 T cell in mice and induces homologous protection against an H1N1 challenge in swine. Such adjuvants that induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity could improve the protection conferred by SIV vaccines in the field.

  8. Tracing heavy metals in 'swine manure - maggot - chicken' production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanqiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Qizhi; Zhu, Fen

    2017-08-21

    With the development of large-scale livestock farming, manure pollution has drawn much attention. Conversion by insects is a rapid and cost-effective new method for manure management. Swine manure conversion with maggots (Musca domestica larvae) has developed, and the harvested maggots are often used as animal feed. However, the flow of heavy metals from manure to downstream processes cannot be ignored, and therefore, heavy metal content was measured in untreated raw manure, maggot-treated manure, harvested maggots and maggot-eating chickens (chest muscle and liver) to evaluate potential heavy metal risks. The levels of zinc, copper, chromium, selenium, cadmium and lead had significant differences between untreated raw manure and maggot-treated manure. The concentrations of all detected heavy metals, except for cadmium and selenium, in maggots met the limits established by the feed or feed additive standards of many countries. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals decreased with the increase of the maggot instar, indicating that heavy metals were discharged from the bodies of maggots with the growth of maggots. Also, the contents of overall heavy metals in chickens fed harvested maggots met the standards for food. In conclusion, regarding heavy metals, it is eco-safe to use maggots in manure management.

  9. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  10. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone on the swine reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive failure in swine is often a difficult diagnostic problem. If diagnoses of infectious disease or management related problems are not obtained, feed quality and safety may be questioned. Mycotoxins are often present in swine feed in the amount that can have detrimental impact on production and reproduction. Problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake, slow growth or impaired feed efficiency. In Serbia, generally speaking, high concentrations of mycotoxins were noticed, especially mycotoxin zearalenone. High presence of zearalenone in swine feed is probably due to climatic influence and should be monitored constantly. This paper includes field observations regarding the influence of moldy feed containing mycotoxin zearalenone on the occurrence of the reproductive failure in swine breeding categories (sows, gilts and boars. The material for this research was obtained from four swine farms where certain reproductive disorders and health problems in breeding animals were detected. Depending on the specificity of each evaluated case and available material, the applied research methods included: anamnestic and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, standard laboratory testing for detection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins by applying the method of thin layer chromatography. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that mycotoxin zearalenone was detected in all examined feed samples. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly related to the reproductive failures in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, endometritis, rebreeding, infertility. Swine reproduction represents the base for intensive swine production. The presence of mycotoxins in swine feed have influence on the reproduction and health status of pigs and under certain conditions may significantly

  11. Antigenically Diverse Swine Origin H1N1 Variant Influenza Viruses Exhibit Differential Ferret Pathogenesis and Transmission Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A; Jones, Joyce; Sun, Xiangjie; Jang, Yunho; Thor, Sharmi; Belser, Jessica A; Zanders, Natosha; Creager, Hannah M; Ridenour, Callie; Wang, Li; Stark, Thomas J; Garten, Rebecca; Chen, Li-Mei; Barnes, John; Tumpey, Terrence M; Wentworth, David E; Maines, Taronna R; Davis, C Todd

    2018-06-01

    Influenza A(H1) viruses circulating in swine represent an emerging virus threat, as zoonotic infections occur sporadically following exposure to swine. A fatal infection caused by an H1N1 variant (H1N1v) virus was detected in a patient with reported exposure to swine and who presented with pneumonia, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. To understand the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the virus, genome sequence analysis, antigenic characterization, and ferret pathogenesis and transmissibility experiments were performed. Antigenic analysis of the virus isolated from the fatal case, A/Ohio/09/2015, demonstrated significant antigenic drift away from the classical swine H1N1 variant viruses and H1N1 pandemic 2009 viruses. A substitution in the H1 hemagglutinin (G155E) was identified that likely impacted antigenicity, and reverse genetics was employed to understand the molecular mechanism of antibody escape. Reversion of the substitution to 155G, in a reverse genetics A/Ohio/09/2015 virus, showed that this residue was central to the loss of hemagglutination inhibition by ferret antisera raised against a prototypical H1N1 pandemic 2009 virus (A/California/07/2009), as well as gamma lineage classical swine H1N1 viruses, demonstrating the importance of this residue for antibody recognition of this H1 lineage. When analyzed in the ferret model, A/Ohio/09/2015 and another H1N1v virus, A/Iowa/39/2015, as well as A/California/07/2009, replicated efficiently in the respiratory tract of ferrets. The two H1N1v viruses transmitted efficiently among cohoused ferrets, but respiratory droplet transmission studies showed that A/California/07/2009 transmitted through the air more efficiently. Preexisting immunity to A/California/07/2009 did not fully protect ferrets from challenge with A/Ohio/09/2015. IMPORTANCE Human infections with classical swine influenza A(H1N1) viruses that circulate in pigs continue to occur in the United States following exposure to swine. To

  12. Extending the golden hour: Partial resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta in a highly lethal swine liver injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Rachel M; Williams, Timothy K; Grayson, John Kevin; Lamb, Christopher M; Cannon, Jeremy W; Clement, Nathan F; Galante, Joseph M; Neff, Lucas P

    2016-03-01

    Combat-injured patients may require rapid and sustained support during transport; however, the prolonged aortic occlusion produced by conventional resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) may lead to substantial morbidity. Partial REBOA (P-REBOA) may permit longer periods of occlusion by allowing some degree of distal perfusion. However, the ability of this procedure to limit exsanguination is unclear. We evaluated the impact of P-REBOA on immediate survival and ongoing hemorrhage in a highly lethal swine liver injury model. Fifteen Yorkshire-cross swine were anesthetized, instrumented, splenectomized, and subjected to rapid 10% total blood loss followed by 30% liver amputation. Coagulopathy was created through colloid hemodilution. Randomized swine received no intervention (control), P-REBOA, or complete REBOA (C-REBOA). Central mean arterial pressure (cMAP), carotid blood flow, and blood loss were recorded. Balloons remained inflated in the P-REBOA and C-REBOA groups for 90 minutes followed by graded deflation. The study ended at 180 minutes from onset of hemorrhage or death of the animal. Survival analysis was performed, and data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc pairwise comparisons. Mean survival times in the control, P-REBOA, and C-REBOA groups were, 25 ± 21, 86 ± 40, and 163 ± 20 minutes, respectively (p golden hour while maintaining cMAP and carotid flow at physiologic levels.

  13. Design and realization of a fast digital system for the protection of a linear accelerator; Conception et realisation d'un systeme numerique rapide pour la protection d'un accelerateur lineaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdi, A

    2004-07-01

    The new generation of light sources based on SASE Free-Electron-Lasers driven by LINACs operate with electron beams with high beam currents and duty cycles. This is especially true for the superconducting machines like TTF 2 and the X-RAY FEL, under construction or planning at DESY. Elaborate fast protections systems are required not only to protect the machine from electron beams hitting and destroying the vacuum chamber, but also to prevent the machine from running at high loss levels, dangerous for components like the FEL undulator. This document presents the different protection systems currently under construction for TTF 2. The very fast systems, based on transmission measurements and distributed loss detection monitors, are described in detail. This description includes the fast electronics to collect and to transmit the different interlock and status signals: analog to digital converters, DSP and FPGA, interfaces, toroid protection system (TPS) card. The implementation and validation (simulation and tests) of the TPS card at DESY is presented.

  14. Sensitive detection of African swine fever virus using real-time PCR with a 5' conjugated minor groove binding probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKillan, John; McMenamy, Michael; Hjertner, Bernt

    2010-01-01

    sensitive than the conventional PCR recommended by the OIE. Linear range was ten logs from 2 × 101 to 2 × 1010. The assay is rapid with an amplification time just over 2 h. The development of this assay provides a useful tool for the specific diagnosis of ASF in statutory or emergency testing programs......The design of a 5′ conjugated minor groove binder (MGB) probe real-time PCR assay is described for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA. The assay is designed against the 9GL region and is capable of detecting 20 copies of a DNA standard. It does...

  15. Immunologic mechanisms in the adaptation of swine farm workers to their work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Cormier, Yvon; Veillette, Marc

    2013-01-01

    workers at times with differences in exposure. Participants had blood sampling done before and after each of three work shifts-two in winter and one in summer. Before one of the winter visits they had avoided pulmonary exposure to the swine buildings by wearing respiratory protection for 4 d. The other......) were observed. BPI mRNA increased only over the work shift after the unprotected winter period (P = 0.039). BPI decreased from elevated levels across the shift after use of respiratory protection (P = 0.003), but was unchanged during the other two visits. The findings suggest possible roles...... visits were done after non-protected periods of work. Protein and mRNA concentrations were measured in blood. Mixed models were used for the statistics. During summer higher concentrations of mRNA to IL-8, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI...

  16. Classical Swine Fever—An Updated Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities. PMID:28430168

  17. Classical Swine Fever-An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-04-21

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities.

  18. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  19. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  20. Swine Influenza Virus PA and Neuraminidase Gene Reassortment into Human H1N1 Influenza Virus Is Associated with an Altered Pathogenic Phenotype Linked to Increased MIP-2 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugolenski, Daniel; Jones, Les; Howerth, Elizabeth; Wentworth, David; Tompkins, S Mark; Tripp, Ralph A

    2015-05-01

    Swine are susceptible to infection by both avian and human influenza viruses, and this feature is thought to contribute to novel reassortant influenza viruses. In this study, the influenza virus reassortment rate in swine and human cells was determined. Coinfection of swine cells with 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (huH1N1) and an endemic swine H1N2 (A/swine/Illinois/02860/09) virus (swH1N2) resulted in a 23% reassortment rate that was independent of α2,3- or α2,6-sialic acid distribution on the cells. The reassortants had altered pathogenic phenotypes linked to introduction of the swine virus PA and neuraminidase (NA) into huH1N1. In mice, the huH1N1 PA and NA mediated increased MIP-2 expression early postinfection, resulting in substantial pulmonary neutrophilia with enhanced lung pathology and disease. The findings support the notion that swine are a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortants independent of sialic acid distribution. These results show the potential for continued reassortment of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus with endemic swine viruses and for reassortants to have increased pathogenicity linked to the swine virus NA and PA genes which are associated with increased pulmonary neutrophil trafficking that is related to MIP-2 expression. Influenza A viruses can change rapidly via reassortment to create a novel virus, and reassortment can result in possible pandemics. Reassortments among subtypes from avian and human viruses led to the 1957 (H2N2 subtype) and 1968 (H3N2 subtype) human influenza pandemics. Recent analyses of circulating isolates have shown that multiple genes can be recombined from human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, leading to triple reassortants. Understanding the factors that can affect influenza A virus reassortment is needed for the establishment of disease intervention strategies that may reduce or preclude pandemics. The findings from this study show that swine cells provide a mixing vessel for influenza virus reassortment

  1. Analysis of Swine Movements in a Province in Northern Vietnam and Application in the Design of Surveillance Strategies for Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudon, E; Fournié, G; Hiep, D T; Pham, T T H; Duboz, R; Gély, M; Peiris, M; Cowling, B J; Ton, V D; Peyre, M

    2017-04-01

    While swine production is rapidly growing in South-East Asia, the structure of the swine industry and the dynamic of pig movements have not been well-studied. However, this knowledge is a prerequisite for understanding the dynamic of disease transmission in swine populations and designing cost-effective surveillance strategies for infectious diseases. In this study, we assessed the farming and trading practices in the Vietnamese swine familial farming sector, which accounts for most pigs in Vietnam, and for which disease surveillance is a major challenge. Farmers from two communes of a Red River Delta Province (northern Vietnam) were interviewed, along with traders involved in pig transactions. Major differences in the trade structure were observed between the two communes. One commune had mainly transversal trades, that is between farms of equivalent sizes, whereas the other had pyramidal trades, that is from larger to smaller farms. Companies and large familial farrow-to-finish farms were likely to act as major sources of disease spread through pig sales, demonstrating their importance for disease control. Familial fattening farms with high pig purchases were at greater risk of disease introduction and should be targeted for disease detection as part of a risk-based surveillance. In contrast, many other familial farms were isolated or weakly connected to the swine trade network limiting their relevance for surveillance activities. However, some of these farms used boar hiring for breeding, increasing the risk of disease spread. Most familial farms were slaughtering pigs at the farm or in small local slaughterhouses, making the surveillance at the slaughterhouse inefficient. In terms of spatial distribution of the trades, the results suggested that northern provinces were highly connected and showed some connection with central and southern provinces. These results are useful to develop risk-based surveillance protocols for disease detection in the swine familial

  2. The Romanian Swine Market in the EU Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is a traditional food product for Romania, representing more than half of the annual meat consumption per capita. Swine farming is an activity mainly at full time households, ensuring subsistence, representing a source for commercial exchanges, ensuring workforce stability in the rural areas. The Romanian pork production has presented a slightly fluctuating evolution in recent years. The paper proposes a review of the domestic production, consumption, origin and price of swine sold in the Romanian market. The comunity competitive conditions, the export limitation and food crisis (horse meat scandal, spoiled meat scandal, swine fever or swine flu affected domestic production and exports. Data used in this paper represent statistical information provided by specialized national, European or global institutions, information presented in the media, journals, food industry treatises/dissertations or official information submitted by the Ministry of Agriculture.

  3. 78 FR 27937 - Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ....m., Monday through Friday, except holidays. To be sure someone is there to help you, please call..., U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa. Feral swine can inflict...

  4. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  5. Controlled Cortical Impact in Swine: Pathophysiology and Biomechanics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manley, Geoffrey T; Rosenthal, Guy; Lam, Maggie; Morabito, Diane; Yan, Donghong; Derugin, Nikita; Bollen, Andrew; Knudson, M. M; Panter, S. S

    2005-01-01

    ...), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were collected for 10 hours after injury. Following injury, ICP and HR increased above baseline values in all swine with a more pronounced elevation in animals impacted to a depth of depression of 12 mm...

  6. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  7. Approaches and Perspectives for Development of African Swine Fever Virus Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Arias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a complex disease of swine, caused by a large DNA virus belonging to the family Asfarviridae. The disease shows variable clinical signs, with high case fatality rates, up to 100%, in the acute forms. ASF is currently present in Africa and Europe where it circulates in different scenarios causing a high socio-economic impact. In most affected regions, control has not been effective in part due to lack of a vaccine. The availability of an effective and safe ASFV vaccines would support and enforce control–eradication strategies. Therefore, work leading to the rational development of protective ASF vaccines is a high priority. Several factors have hindered vaccine development, including the complexity of the ASF virus particle and the large number of proteins encoded by its genome. Many of these virus proteins inhibit the host’s immune system thus facilitating virus replication and persistence. We review previous work aimed at understanding ASFV–host interactions, including mechanisms of protective immunity, and approaches for vaccine development. These include live attenuated vaccines, and “subunit” vaccines, based on DNA, proteins, or virus vectors. In the shorter to medium term, live attenuated vaccines are the most promising and best positioned candidates. Gaps and future research directions are evaluated.

  8. Regional patterns of genetic diversity in swine influenza A viruses in the United States from 2010 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Rasna R; Anderson, Tavis K; Vincent, Amy L

    2018-04-06

    Regular spatial and temporal analyses of the genetic diversity and evolutionary patterns of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine informs control efforts and improves animal health. Initiated in 2009, the USDA passively surveils IAV in U.S. swine, with a focus on subtyping clinical respiratory submissions, sequencing at minimum the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes, and sharing these data publicly. In this study, our goal was to quantify and describe regional and national patterns in the genetic diversity and evolution of IAV in U.S. swine from 2010 to 2016. A comprehensive phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of publicly available HA and NA genes generated by the USDA surveillance system collected from January 2010 to December 2016 was conducted. The dominant subtypes and genetic clades detected during the study period were H1N1 (H1-γ/1A.3.3.3, N1-classical, 29%), H1N2 (H1-δ1/1B.2.2, N2-2002, 27%), and H3N2 (H3-IV-A, N2-2002, 15%), but many other minor clades were also maintained. Year-round circulation was observed, with a primary epidemic peak in October-November and a secondary epidemic peak in March-April. Partitioning these data into 5 spatial zones revealed that genetic diversity varied regionally and was not correlated with aggregated national patterns of HA/NA diversity. These data suggest that vaccine composition and control efforts should consider IAV diversity within swine production regions in addition to aggregated national patterns. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid photolytic release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate from a protected analogue: utilization by the Na:K pump of human red blood cell ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, J.H.; Forbush, B. III; Hoffman, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    2-Nitrobenzyl phosphate and 1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl phosphate have been synthesized and demonstrated to be suitable as photolabile sources of inorganic phosphate. The same protecting groups were attached to the terminal phosphate of adenosine 5'-triphosphate. These caged ATP compounds released adenosine 5'-triphosphate on illumination at 340 nm in aqueous solution and P 3 -1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl-ATP gave about a 70 percent yield in under 30 s. The unphotolyzed caged ATP was neither a substrate nor inhibitor of purified renal Na,K-ATPase (EC 3.61.3). Following photolysis in the presence of the enzyme, the liberated ATP was hydrolyzed but at an inhibited rate. The photo-dependent inhibition could be eliminated by prior addition of glutathione or bisulfite to the irradiated solution. Caged ATP was incorporated into resealed human erythrocyte ghosts prepared from red blood cells depleted of internal energy stores. While the NA : K pump was unable to use incorporated caged ATP as a substrate, the ATP liberated by photolysis activated the pump as evidenced by measurements of K-dependent, ouabain-sensitive Na efflux. Thus the caged ATP can be used as a stable source of ATP unmetabolizable by intracellular ATPases until the ATP is released following photolytic irradiation

  10. Vector optimization and needle-free intradermal application of a broadly protective polyvalent influenza A DNA vaccine for pigs and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggren, Marie; Nielsen, Jens; Bragstad, Karoline

    2015-01-01

    such as the induction of cellular and humoral immunity, inherent safety and rapid production time. We have previously developed a DNA vaccine encoding selected influenza proteins of pandemic origin and demonstrated broad protective immune responses in ferrets and pigs. In this study, we evaluated our DNA vaccine......The threat posed by the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus emphasized the need for new influenza A virus vaccines inducing a broad cross-protective immune response for use in both humans and pigs. An effective and broad influenza vaccine for pigs would greatly benefit the pork industry and contribute...... to public health by diminishing the risk of emerging highly pathogenic reassortants. Current inactivated protein vaccines against swine influenza produce only short-lived immunity and have no efficacy against heterologous strains. DNA vaccines are a potential alternative with advantages...

  11. Genetic parameters in a Swine Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Popa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the variance-covariance components is a very important step in animal breeding because these components are necessary for: estimation of the genetic parameters, prediction of the breeding value and design of animal breeding programs. The estimation of genetic parameters is the first step in the development of a swine breeding program, using artificial insemination. Various procedures exist for estimation of heritability. There are three major procedures used for estimating heritability: analysis of variance (ANOVA, parents-offspring regression and restricted maximum likelihood (REML. By using ANOVA methodology or regression method it is possible to obtain aberrant values of genetic parameters (negative or over unit value of heritability coefficient, for example which can not be interpreting because is out of biological limits.

  12. Determining symptoms for chest radiographs in patients with swine flu (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nakshabandi, Nizar A.

    2011-01-01

    The question arises about the chest X-ray findings and clinical symptoms in swine flu and about the most important clinical finding when correlated with the chest radiograph. Should physicians order a chest X-ray in each patient suspected of having swine flu? There were 179 patients with a high suspicion of swine flu. All 179 patients had an initial chest radiograph. As many as 65 males (representing 56% of the projected study population) had a normal chest radiograph, while 35 males (representing 55.6% of the study population) had an abnormal chest X-ray. As many as 51 females (representing 44% of the population) had a normal chest X-ray, while 20 females (representing 44% of the study population) had abnormal chest X-rays. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal chest X-ray (CXR). Rapid antigen test was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Fever was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Cough appears to be a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Sore throat appears to be a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Chest pain was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Presence of cough with PCR was statistically significant. In my opinion, chest radiographs in patients with suspected H1N1 should only be obtained if there is a cough or sore throat. Other symptoms associated with H1N1 do not warrant a chest radiograph unless absolutely necessary

  13. A pilot study of chest tube versus pigtail catheter drainage of acute hemothorax in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Rachel M; Zakaluzny, Scott A; Neff, Lucas P; Grayson, J Kevin; Hight, Rachel A; Galante, Joseph M; Shatz, David V

    2015-12-01

    Evacuation of traumatic hemothorax (HTx) is typically accomplished with large-bore (28-40 Fr) chest tubes, often resulting in patient discomfort. Management of HTx with smaller (14 Fr) pigtail catheters has not been widely adopted because of concerns about tube occlusion and blood evacuation rates. We compared pigtail catheters with chest tubes for the drainage of acute HTx in a swine model. Six Yorkshire cross-bred swine (44-54 kg) were anesthetized, instrumented, and mechanically ventilated. A 32 Fr chest tube was placed in one randomly assigned hemithorax; a 14 Fr pigtail catheter was placed in the other. Each was connected to a chest drainage system at -20 cm H2O suction and clamped. Over 15 minutes, 1,500 mL of arterial blood was withdrawn via femoral artery catheters. Seven hundred fifty milliliters of the withdrawn blood was instilled into each pleural space, and fluid resuscitation with colloid was initiated. The chest drains were then unclamped. Output from each drain was measured every minute for 5 minutes and then every 5 minutes for 40 minutes. The swine were euthanized, and thoracotomies were performed to quantify the volume of blood remaining in each pleural space and to examine the position of each tube. Blood drainage was more rapid from the chest tube during the first 3 minutes compared with the pigtail catheter (348 ± 109 mL/min vs. 176 ± 53 mL/min), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.19). Thereafter, the rates of drainage between the two tubes were not substantially different. The chest tube drained a higher total percentage of the blood from the chest (87.3% vs. 70.3%), but this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.21). We found no statistically significant difference in the volume of blood drained by a 14 Fr pigtail catheter compared with a 32 Fr chest tube.

  14. Single-dose mucosal immunization with a candidate universal influenza vaccine provides rapid protection from virulent H5N1, H3N2 and H1N1 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme E Price

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The sudden emergence of novel influenza viruses is a global public health concern. Conventional influenza vaccines targeting the highly variable surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase must antigenically match the emerging strain to be effective. In contrast, "universal" vaccines targeting conserved viral components could be used regardless of viral strain or subtype. Previous approaches to universal vaccination have required protracted multi-dose immunizations. Here we evaluate a single dose universal vaccine strategy using recombinant adenoviruses (rAd expressing the conserved influenza virus antigens matrix 2 and nucleoprotein.In BALB/c mice, administration of rAd via the intranasal route was superior to intramuscular immunization for induction of mucosal responses and for protection against highly virulent H1N1, H3N2, or H5N1 influenza virus challenge. Mucosally vaccinated mice not only survived, but had little morbidity and reduced lung virus titers. Protection was observed as early as 2 weeks post-immunization, and lasted at least 10 months, as did antibodies and lung T cells with activated phenotypes. Virus-specific IgA correlated with but was not essential for protection, as demonstrated in studies with IgA-deficient animals.Mucosal administration of NP and M2-expressing rAd vectors provided rapid and lasting protection from influenza viruses in a subtype-independent manner. Such vaccines could be used in the interval between emergence of a new virus strain and availability of strain-matched vaccines against it. This strikingly effective single-dose vaccination thus represents a candidate off-the-shelf vaccine for emergency use during an influenza pandemic.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Swine Manure Lagoon Microbial and Antibiotic Resistant Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The differences in swine manure lagoon effluent based on differing management styles or approaches such as different stages of swine rearing determines the presence of variable antibiotic resistance determinants and functional microbial populations. These concerns determine the suitabil...

  16. Burden of pediatric influenza A virus infection post swine-flu H1N1 pandemic in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Adel; Shaheen, Malak; Kamel, Terez; El Faramay, Amel; El Rahman, Safaa Abd; Nabil, Dalia; Gouda, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    To screen children with influenza like illness or with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections for influenza A virus infection - post swine flu pandemic era - using rapid influenza diagnostic tests. During two years (2010 & 2011), 1 200 children with influenza like illness or acute respiratory tract infections (according to World Health Organization criteria) were recruited. Their ages ranged from 2-60 months. Nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens were collected from all children for rapid influenza A diagnostic test. Influenza A virus rapid test was positive in 47.5% of the children; the majority (89.6%) were presented with lower respiratory tract infections. Respiratory rate and temperature were significantly higher among positive rapid influenza test patients. Influenza A virus infection is still a major cause of respiratory tract infections in Egyptian children. It should be considered in all cases with cough and febrile episodes and influenza like symptoms even post swine flu pandemic. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunogenicity in Swine of Orally Administered Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum Expressing Classical Swine Fever Virus E2 Protein in Conjunction with Thymosin α-1 as an Adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Gang; Guan, Xue-Ting; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Tian, Chang-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever, caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is a highly contagious disease that results in enormous economic losses in pig industries. The E2 protein is one of the main structural proteins of CSFV and is capable of inducing CSFV-neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activities in vivo. Thymosin α-1 (Tα1), an immune-modifier peptide, plays a very important role in the cellular immune response. In this study, genetically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria expressing CSFV E2 protein alone (L. plantarum/pYG-E2) and in combination with Tα1 (L. plantarum/pYG-E2-Tα1) were developed, and the immunogenicity of each as an oral vaccine to induce protective immunity against CSFV in pigs was evaluated. The results showed that recombinant L. plantarum/pYG-E2 and L. plantarum/pYG-E2-Tα1 were both able to effectively induce protective immune responses in pigs against CSFV infection by eliciting immunoglobulin A (IgA)-based mucosal, immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based humoral, and CTL-based cellular immune responses via oral vaccination. Significant differences (P plantarum/pYG-E2-Tα1 and L. plantarum/pYG-E2, suggesting a better immunogenicity of L. plantarum/pYG-E2-Tα1 as a result of the Tα1 molecular adjuvant that can enhance immune responsiveness and augment specific lymphocyte functions. Our data suggest that the recombinant Lactobacillus microecological agent expressing CSFV E2 protein combined with Tα1 as an adjuvant provides a promising strategy for vaccine development against CSFV. PMID:25819954

  18. Electrochemical magneto immunosensor based on endogenous β-galactosidase enzyme to determine enterotoxicogenic Escherichia coli F4 (K88) in swine feces using square wave voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviana Tarditto, Lorena; Alicia Zon, María; García Ovando, Hugo; Roberto Vettorazzi, Nelio; Javier Arévalo, Fernando; Fernández, Héctor

    2017-11-01

    Diseases caused by enterotoxicogenic Escherichia coli F4 (K88) (ETEC F4) are a problem in swine production establishments. Due to the high rate of mortality and morbidity of E. coli infections, a rapid and accurate diagnosis is important in order to choose an appropriate treatment to reduce the economic impact. Therefore, an electrochemical magneto-immunosensor (EMI) was developed to detect and quantify ETEC F4 in swine feces samples through a direct non-competitive immunoassay. ETEC F4 was selectively captured by immunomagnetic separation. The detection principle was based on the activity of β-galactosidase endogenous enzyme (β-gal), which hydrolyses the p-aminophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (p-APG) producing p-aminophenol (p-AP), which was oxidized on a carbon screen printed electrode (CSPE) using square wave voltammetry (SWV). All parameters related to construction and electrochemical responses were optimized. The total analysis time to quantify ETEC F4 using the EMI was less than 2h and the limit of detection (LOD) was 33CFUmL -1 . The perceptual relative error (%E r ) was 20%. The magneto-immunosensor was validated versus conventional method of culture and plate count, obtaining a very good agreement. The EMI is simple, fast and economical to detect and quantify ETEC F4 in swine feces samples, being thus a valuable tool in swine production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Using full-scale duckweed ponds as the finish stage for swine waste treatment with a focus on organic matter degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, R A; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of swine has caused pronounced environmental impacts worldwide, especially on water resources. As an aggregate, smallholdings have an important role in South American pork production, contributing to the net diffusion of pollution. Thus, duckweed ponds have been successfully used for swine waste polishing, mainly for nutrient removal. Few studies have been carried out to assess organic matter degradation in duckweed ponds. Hence, the present study evaluated the efficiency of two full-scale duckweed ponds for organic matter reduction of swine waste on small pig farms. Duckweed ponds, in series, received the effluent after an anaerobic biodigester and storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3) day(-1). After 1 year of monitoring, an improvement in effluent quality was observed, with a reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), respectively, of 94.8 and 96.7%, operating at a loading rate of approximately 27 kgBOD ha(-1) day(-1) and 131 kgCOD ha(-1) day(-1). Algae inhibition due to duckweed coverage was strongly observed in the pond effluent, where chlorophyll a and turbidity remained below 25 μg L(-1) and 10 NTU. Using the study conditions described herein, duckweed ponds were shown to be a suitable technology for swine waste treatment, contributing to the environmental sustainability of rural areas.

  20. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  1. Farming styles and cooperatives disputes of swine farmers under economic pressure in southern France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, M.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In Southern France, the regression of swine farms and swine is ongoing. It involves reorientation of socio-professional networks, especially the farmers’ cooperatives. For understanding the various ways of maintaining swine production under the regressive circumstances, we focus on the farmers’

  2. 76 FR 29991 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...-0067] RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements AGENCY... testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such tests. This action will facilitate the exportation of goats and breeding swine by eliminating the need to conduct pre...

  3. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    .... APHIS-2009-0067] RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements... tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such tests. This action would facilitate the exportation of goats and breeding swine by...

  4. Comparative pathogenesis of an avian H5N2 and a swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annebel De Vleeschauwer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pigs are considered intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs to humans but the basic organ pathogenesis of AIVs in pigs has been barely studied. We have used 42 four-week-old influenza naive pigs and two different inoculation routes (intranasal and intratracheal to compare the pathogenesis of a low pathogenic (LP H5N2 AIV with that of an H1N1 swine influenza virus. The respiratory tract and selected extra-respiratory tissues were examined for virus replication by titration, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR throughout the course of infection. Both viruses caused a productive infection of the entire respiratory tract and epithelial cells in the lungs were the major target. Compared to the swine virus, the AIV produced lower virus titers and fewer antigen positive cells at all levels of the respiratory tract. The respiratory part of the nasal mucosa in particular showed only rare AIV positive cells and this was associated with reduced nasal shedding of the avian compared to the swine virus. The titers and distribution of the AIV varied extremely between individual pigs and were strongly affected by the route of inoculation. Gross lung lesions and clinical signs were milder with the avian than with the swine virus, corresponding with lower viral loads in the lungs. The brainstem was the single extra-respiratory tissue found positive for virus and viral RNA with both viruses. Our data do not reject the theory of the pig as an intermediate host for AIVs, but they suggest that AIVs need to undergo genetic changes to establish full replication potential in pigs. From a biomedical perspective, experimental LP H5 AIV infection of pigs may be useful to examine heterologous protection provided by H5 vaccines or other immunization strategies, as well as for further studies on the molecular pathogenesis and neurotropism of AIVs in mammals.

  5. In Vitro Testing of the Insecticide Reldan 22 on Swine Oocyte Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Miclea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos (Reldan 22 is an widely used insecticide for the control of insect pests in agricultureand in residential areas. It is classified as moderately toxic by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and has been quantified in human biological fluids. Given that the use of porcine and bovine models for testing chemicals has increased recently we designed an experiment to test the toxicity of several Chlorpyrifos concentrations and investigate its effects on maturation of swine oocytes. Swine oocytes from ovaries harvested in a commercial slaughterhouse were cultured for 44-45h in M199 supplemented with the following Reldan 22 concentrations: 0.1, 0.5, 1 or 2 µg/ml. Cumulus oophorous expansion was assessed and oocytes were denuded and stained with 1 µg/ml fluorescein diacetate to estimate viability. Afterwards, oocytes were fixed in a 60% methanol/DPBS solution and stained with 50 µg/ml propidium iodide to observe the DNA stage. Differences were analysed by the analysis of variance and interpreted using the Tuckey test. Our research shows that the insecticide Reldan 22® stimulated cumulus expansion to an extent but reduced oocyte viability which was accompanied by an increase in the number of immature oocytes and a decrease in the percentages of gametes that resumed meiosis. This leads us conclude that its presence in the oocyte environment is toxic for development at concentrations 0.5, 1 and 2 µg/ml.

  6. An analysis of water samples surrounding swine farms in Timis County – A practical guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin L. Ordodi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important role in biological soil pollution is allocated to the untreated waste water used to ground’s fertirigation from livestock farms, and in particular of swine units. Applying of arbitrary measures, and national and European legislation’s non-compliance are main factors that often makes from this issue a public health problem by the great impact it can generate and create in large agglomerations and animals. The diluted manures are able to affect the quality of the environment mainly by: nitrous oxide, ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulphide, volatile organic compounds, etc. and they, being administered in soils, may cause epizootic and epidemiological aspects and also those relating to environmental protection. In this respect it rise the need for all livestock farms to apply appropriate measures for certain manure treatment, different to species of animals and depending on the collection and discharge systems used. This paper is an original research work and it intends to be also a practical guide to follow for those interested in field research of environmental pollution. There are presented current investigation methodologies of water’s quality from swine farms vicinity in Timis County. In four chapters are presented: primary water analysis methodology, the determination of chlorides, nitrates and phosphates for each substance being presented methodology, kits and reagents necessary specific results and their interpretation and conclusions for each study. The last chapter was allocated to the description of the potentially polluting compounds determination by GC-MS technique.

  7. Milrinone and levosimendan administered after reperfusion improve myocardial stunning in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Itsuko; Cho, Sungsam; Yoshitomi, Osamu; Ureshino, Hiroyuki; Maekawa, Takuji; Hara, Tetsuya; Sumikawa, Koji

    2013-02-01

    We assessed the effect of milrinone application timing after reperfusion against myocardial stunning as compared with levosimendan in swine. Furthermore, we examined the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in the milrinone-induced cardioprotection. All swine were subjected to 12-minutes ischemia followed by 90-minutes reperfusion to generate stunned myocardium. Milrinone or levosimendan was administered intravenously either for 20 minutes starting just after reperfusion or for 70 minutes starting 20 minutes after reperfusion. In another group, SB203580, a selective p38 MAPK inhibitor, was administered with and without milrinone. Regional myocardial contractility was assessed by percent segment shortening (%SS). Milrinone starting just after reperfusion, but not starting 20 minutes after reperfusion, improved %SS at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after reperfusion compared with that in the control group. SB203580 abolished the beneficial effect of milrinone. On the other hand, levosimendan starting 20 minutes after reperfusion, but not for 20 minutes starting just after reperfusion, improved %SS at 60 and 90 minutes after reperfusion. Milrinone should be administered just after reperfusion to protect myocardial stunning through p38 MAPK, whereas levosimendan improvement of contractile function could be mainly dependent on its positive inotropic effect.

  8. A Multiscale Computational Model of the Response of Swine Epidermis After Acute Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events can lead to very high skin dose for astronauts on exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth s magnetic field [1]. Assessing the detrimental effects to human skin under such adverse conditions could be predicted by conducting territorial experiments on animal models. In this study we apply a computational approach to simulate the experimental data of the radiation response of swine epidermis, which is closely similar to human epidermis [2]. Incorporating experimentally measured histological and cell kinetic parameters into a multiscale tissue modeling framework, we obtain results of population kinetics and proliferation index comparable to unirradiated and acutely irradiated swine experiments [3]. It is noted the basal cell doubling time is 10 to 16 days in the intact population, but drops to 13.6 hr in the regenerating populations surviving irradiation. This complex 30-fold variation is proposed to be attributed to the shortening of the G1 phase duration. We investigate this radiation induced effect by considering at the sub-cellular level the expression and signaling of TGF-beta, as it is recognized as a key regulatory factor of tissue formation and wound healing [4]. This integrated model will allow us to test the validity of various basic biological rules at the cellular level and sub-cellular mechanisms by qualitatively comparing simulation results with published research, and should lead to a fuller understanding of the pathophysiological effects of ionizing radiation on the skin.

  9. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Felix

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork. We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu" in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180 or Europe (N = 148. Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation.

  10. Electricity generation of 100 kva using biogas from swine and poultry slaughterhouse in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melegari de Souza; Samuel Nelson; Lenz, Anderson Miguel; Werncke, Iván; Antonelli, Jhonatas

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, there is a wide availability of animal residues, since the growing of animals to slaughterhouse, which have been used in some, places the production of biogas and biofertilizers. Biogas is used for generating electricity for self-consumption and the surplus is inserted in the network of the local utility. The aim of the present work was to assess energetic efficiency and emissions of two engine-generator sets of 100 KVA running on biogas, produced from residues of a poultry slaughterhouse and swine fatten in. Load variation in the generators set was assessed in the SMCP system of protection and synchronism, by Woodword. The results showed an increase in the emission of nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide and exhaust gas temperature. The increase in the load of the generator led to a reduction in specific consumption and efficiency raise, with levels ranging from 6.12% with load of 10 kW to 20.91% with 70 kW. The average specific consumption was 0.76 m3.kWh-1 in the swine fattening biogas unit and 0.80 m3.kWh-1 in the slaughterhouse biogas unit with load of 70 kW. These results are important to the farmers and owners of slaughterhouse plan the electrical production itself from bio waste that are disposal in high quantities. (full text)

  11. Efficacy of a novel Pasteurella multocida vaccine against progressive atrophic rhinitis of swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Liao, Chih-Ming; Huang, Chienjin; Winton, James R.; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Chiou, Chwei-Jang; Yeh, Kuang-Sheng; Chien, Maw-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel vaccine composed of three short recombinant subunit Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) proteins in combination with a bi-valent P. multocida whole-cell bacterin (rsPMT–PM) was evaluated in field studies for prevention and control of progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) of swine at 15 conventional farrow-to-finish farms. Experimental piglets that were immunized twice with the rsPMT–PM vaccine developed detectable titers of neutralizing antibodies (greater than 1:8) that prevented the growth retardation and pathological lesions typically observed following challenge with authentic PMT. A total of 542 sows were vaccinated once or twice prior to parturition and serum neutralizing antibody titers were evaluated. Both single and double vaccination protocols induced neutralizing antibody titers of 1:16 or higher in 62% and 74% of sows, respectively. Notably, neither sows nor piglets at a farm experiencing a severe outbreak of PAR at the time of the vaccination trial had detectable antibody titers, but antibody titers increased significantly to 1:16 or higher in 40% of sows following double vaccination. During the year after vaccination, clinical signs of PAR decreased in fattening pigs and growth performance improved sufficiently to reduce the rearing period until marketing by 2 weeks. Collectively, these results indicate that the rsPMT–PM vaccine could be used to provide protective immunity for controlling the prevalence and severity of PAR among farm-raised swine.

  12. Molecular diagnostics of swine infection caused by Mycoplasma suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two types of haemoplasm can be established in the swine population. Pathogenic haemoplasm, named Mycoplasma suis (previously called Eperythrozoon suis is the cause of swine eperythrozoonosis or swine ichtheroanaemia. The cause of this disease can also infect humans. The disease has spread all over the world. The most frequent form is latent infection of swine caused by M. suis. The disease is clinically manifest following action by the stress factor. The acute course of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a febrile condition and ichtheroanaemia. The disease is usually diagnosed based on an epizootiological poll, a clinical examination, and a microscopic examination of a blood smear stained most often according to Giemsa. Contemporary methods of molecular biology have been developed, such as PCR, which are more sensitive and specific in making a diagnosis of swine infection caused by M. suis. In these investigations, the presence of M. suis on pig farms in the Republic of Serbia has been determined using the PCR test. .

  13. Swine farm wastewater and mineral fertilization in corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela A. M. Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the long run, swine wastewater can provide benefits to the soil-plant relationship, when its use is planned and the potential environmental impacts are monitored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous application of swine wastewater, associated with mineral fertilization, after six years of management in no-tillage and crop rotation (14 production cycles, on the chemical conditions of the soil and the corn crop. The doses of wastewater were 0, 100, 200, 300 m3 ha-1 during the cycle. The effects of the association between mineral fertilization at sowing and swine wastewater were evaluated simultaneously. Swine wastewater at the dose of 100 m3 ha-1 promoted availability and absorption of P, K+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ without causing toxicity to plants or damage to the soil, constituting a viable, low-cost alternative of water reuse and fertilization for farmers. The nutrients N, P, K+ and B must be complemented with mineral fertilization. Special attention should be directed to the accumulation of Zn2+ in the soil along the time of swine wastewater application.

  14. Near-complete genome sequencing of swine vesicular disease virus using the Roche GS FLX sequencing platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Bruhn, Christian Anders Wathne; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is an enterovirus that is both genetically and antigenically closely related to human coxsackievirus B5 within the Picornaviridae family. SVDV is the causative agent of a highly contagious (though rarely fatal) vesicular disease in pigs. We report a rapid method...... with significant genetic distances within the same species of viruses. All reference mappings used an iterative method to avoid bias. Further verification was achieved through phylogenetic analysis against published SVDV genomes and additional Enterovirus B sequences. This approach allows high confidence...

  15. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Problematic effects of antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D L; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Chang, S W; Nguyen, D D; Kumar, S Mathava; Du, B; Wei, Q; Wei, D

    2018-05-04

    Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes. Meanwhile, impacts on the structure of bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic processes are also discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, to better understand the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes, detailed information about antimicrobial mechanisms of antibiotics and microbial functions in anaerobic processes is also summarized. Future research on deeper knowledge of the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes are suggested to reduce their adverse environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel reassortant swine influenza viruses are circulating in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    of the reassortant viruses comprised a HA gene similar to H1 of H1N1 avian-like swine influenza virus (SIV) and a NA gene most closely related to N2 gene of human H3N2 influenza virus that circulated in humans in the mid 1990s. The internal genes of this reassortant virus with the subtype H1avN2hu all belonged...... to the H1N1 avian-like SIV lineages. Until now this novel virus H1avN2hu has only been detected in Danish swine. The other novel reassortant virus contained the HA gene from H1N1pdm09 virus and a NA gene similar to the N2 gene of H3N2 SIV that have been circulating in European swine since the mid 1980s...

  18. Swine influenza viruses isolated in 1983, 2002 and 2009 in Sweden exemplify different lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metreveli Giorgi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Swine influenza virus isolates originating from outbreaks in Sweden from 1983, 2002 and 2009 were subjected to nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The aim of the studies was to obtain an overview on their potential relatedness as well as to provide data for broader scale studies on swine influenza epidemiology. Nonetheless, analyzing archive isolates is justified by the efforts directed to the comprehension of the appearance of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Interestingly, this study illustrates the evolution of swine influenza viruses in Europe, because the earliest isolate belonged to 'classical' swine H1N1, the subsequent ones to Eurasian 'avian-like' swine H1N1 and reassortant 'avian-like' swine H1N2 lineages, respectively. The latter two showed close genetic relatedness regarding their PB2, HA, NP, and NS genes, suggesting common ancestry. The study substantiates the importance of molecular surveillance for swine influenza viruses.

  19. Effect of Irradiated Yeast Fermented Cassava on Performance of Starter and Growing Swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khammeng, Terdsak; Sanchisuriya, Pitcharat; Nontaso, Ngarmnit; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a supplementation of fermented cassava with Saccharomyces sp. KKU.1 on the swine diet. The fermented products were added in the rat in at 0, 3, 6, and 9%, respectively. Thirty-two (4 week-old) crossbreed swine (Large white x Land race x Duroc) were randomly allotted according to Completely Randomize Design in two periods. Four dietary treatments and four replications (1 male and 1 female) were tested in the starting swine. Four dietary treatments and two replications (2 male and 2 female) were tested in the growing swine. The swine were tested for 6 week (August 2006-September 2006) at the swine unit, Deparment of Animal Science, Khon Kaen University. The results revealed that the fermented cassava in the diet had no affect (P>0.05) on productive performance (growth rate and feed conversion ratio) of swine in both periods.

  20. Design and performance of the CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR swine flu panel for detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10(-1.3 - -0.7) 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation.

  1. Lumbricidae as transitory hosts in Metastrongylus infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastrongylidosis or lungworm disease in swine is a disease caused by several types of nematodes of the genus Metastrongylus. Metastrongylidae are biohelminths whose causes use transitory hosts for their development and maintaining their biological cycle, and in this case they are numerous species of Lumbricidae (earthworms. Depending on the geographic environment, numerous representatives of Lumbricidae persist as transitory hosts. In our environment, these are dominant earthworm species of the genus Eisenia spp, Dandreobena spp, Allopbophora spp, Lubricus spp, Octoiasium spp, Bimastus spp, and rarely those from the genus Heledrillus spp. Swine are infected perorally with Metastrongylidae when they ingest infected earthworms.

  2. Functional analysis of replication determinantsin classical swine fever virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadsbjerg, Johanne

    and animal pathogens should facilitate finding new approaches for efficient disease control. The principal aim of this thesis is to characterise determinants involved in the replication of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Classical swine fever is a highly contagious virus disease of domestic pigs and wild...... in cell culture. Knowledge of these sequence variations and putative long-range interactions will provide valuable insights into mechanisms underlying virustranslation and replication. In manuscript 3, a selection marker has been inserted into a CSFV-based replicon making it suitable for screening...

  3. [The present epidemiological status of African swine fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, G

    1986-01-01

    At present, African swine fever (ASF) persists as an enzootic infection both on the African continent and in Europe (Portugal, Spain, and Sardinia). The recent outbreaks of ASF in Belgium and in the Netherlands have again demonstrated the threat of this disease to the swine population in Germany. The main reasons for this threat are the great tenacity of this virus and its stability in meat and meat products together with an immense tourism into these enzootic areas. Epizootiological peculiarities, such as virus replication in ticks and inapparent infections in wild boars are the reason why eradication of the disease has failed so far, especially when pigs are allowed to roam the countryside.

  4. Pandemic H1N1 2009 ('swine flu'): diagnostic and other challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1 2009 ('swine flu') virus was 'the virus of the year 2009' because it affected the lives of many people in this year. H1N1 was first described in California in April 2009 and spread very rapidly all over the globe. The fast global penetration of the swine flu caused the WHO in Geneva to call the infection with H1N1 a new pandemic with a rapid escalation of the different pandemic phases that ended on 11 June 2009, with the declaration of phase 6 (full-blown pandemic). This had far-reaching consequences for the local health authorities in the different affected countries and created awareness in the public and fear in the experts and even more so in many lay people. The consequences were: setting up reliable diagnostic tests as soon as possible; enhanced production, distribution and stock creation of the few drugs that were available to treat newly infected persons; and development, production, distribution and stock creation of new and appropriate anti-H1N1 swine flu vaccines. This all resulted in enormous costs in the local healthcare systems and also required smart and diligent logistics, because demand for all this was, in most cases, much higher than availability. Fortunately, the pandemic ended quite quickly (there was no 'second wave' as had been anticipated by some experts) and the death toll was moderate, compared with other influenza pandemic in the past and even to the regular annual appearance of the seasonal flu. This favorable outcome, however, provoked some harsh criticism that the WHO and healthcare systems in general had over-reacted and by doing so, a lot of money was thrown out of the window. This article describes the history of the H1N1 pandemic, the diagnostic challenges and resolutions, touches on treatment and vaccination very briefly and also comments on the criticism and arguments that came up immediately at the end and following the termination of the pandemic situation.

  5. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease.

  6. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kuster

    Full Text Available Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively. Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest to 5 (highest. Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT, Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD, Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR. Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF, Enzootic Pneumonia (EP, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS, as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers

  7. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  8. A multiplex reverse transcription PCR and automated electronic microarray assay for detection and differentiation of seven viruses affecting swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, A; Fisher, M; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Ambagala, A; Hodko, D; Pasick, J; King, D P; Nfon, C; Ortega Polo, R; Lung, O

    2018-04-01

    Microarray technology can be useful for pathogen detection as it allows simultaneous interrogation of the presence or absence of a large number of genetic signatures. However, most microarray assays are labour-intensive and time-consuming to perform. This study describes the development and initial evaluation of a multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and novel accompanying automated electronic microarray assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of seven important viruses that affect swine (foot-and-mouth disease virus [FMDV], swine vesicular disease virus [SVDV], vesicular exanthema of swine virus [VESV], African swine fever virus [ASFV], classical swine fever virus [CSFV], porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus [PRRSV] and porcine circovirus type 2 [PCV2]). The novel electronic microarray assay utilizes a single, user-friendly instrument that integrates and automates capture probe printing, hybridization, washing and reporting on a disposable electronic microarray cartridge with 400 features. This assay accurately detected and identified a total of 68 isolates of the seven targeted virus species including 23 samples of FMDV, representing all seven serotypes, and 10 CSFV strains, representing all three genotypes. The assay successfully detected viruses in clinical samples from the field, experimentally infected animals (as early as 1 day post-infection (dpi) for FMDV and SVDV, 4 dpi for ASFV, 5 dpi for CSFV), as well as in biological material that were spiked with target viruses. The limit of detection was 10 copies/μl for ASFV, PCV2 and PRRSV, 100 copies/μl for SVDV, CSFV, VESV and 1,000 copies/μl for FMDV. The electronic microarray component had reduced analytical sensitivity for several of the target viruses when compared with the multiplex RT-PCR. The integration of capture probe printing allows custom onsite array printing as needed, while electrophoretically driven hybridization generates results faster than conventional

  9. Volatile organic compounds at swine facilities: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Robarge, Wayne P; Xiao, Changhe; Heber, Albert J

    2012-10-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are regulated aerial pollutants that have environmental and health concerns. Swine operations produce and emit a complex mixture of VOCs with a wide range of molecular weights and a variety of physicochemical properties. Significant progress has been made in this area since the first experiment on VOCs at a swine facility in the early 1960s. A total of 47 research institutions in 15 North American, European, and Asian countries contributed to an increasing number of scientific publications. Nearly half of the research papers were published by U.S. institutions. Investigated major VOC sources included air inside swine barns, in headspaces of manure storages and composts, in open atmosphere above swine wastewater, and surrounding swine farms. They also included liquid swine manure and wastewater, and dusts inside and outside swine barns. Most of the sample analyses have been focusing on identification of VOC compounds and their relationship with odors. More than 500 VOCs have been identified. About 60% and 10% of the studies contributed to the quantification of VOC concentrations and emissions, respectively. The largest numbers of VOC compounds with reported concentrations in a single experimental study were 82 in air, 36 in manure, and 34 in dust samples. The relatively abundant VOC compounds that were quantified in at least two independent studies included acetic acid, butanoic acid (butyric acid), dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, iso-valeric, p-cresol, propionic acid, skatole, trimethyl amine, and valeric acid in air. They included acetic acid, p-cresol, iso-butyric acid, butyric acid, indole, phenol, propionic acid, iso-valeric acid, and skatole in manure. In dust samples, they were acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, p-cresol, hexanal, and decanal. Swine facility VOCs were preferentially bound to smaller-size dusts. Identification and quantification of VOCs were restricted by using instruments based on

  10. Swine Influenza Virus Antibodies in Humans, Western Europe, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Kremer, Jacques R.; Charpentier, Emilie; Sausy, Aurélie; Olinger, Christophe M.; Weicherding, Pierre; Schuh, John; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2011-01-01

    Serologic studies for swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in humans with occupational exposure to swine have been reported from the Americas but not from Europe. We compared levels of neutralizing antibodies against 3 influenza viruses—pandemic (H1N1) 2009, an avian-like enzootic subtype H1N1 SIV, and a 2007–08 seasonal subtype H1N1—in 211 persons with swine contact and 224 matched controls in Luxembourg. Persons whose profession involved contact with swine had more neutralizing antibodies against SIV and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus than did the controls. Controls also had antibodies against these viruses although exposure to them was unlikely. Antibodies against SIV and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus correlated with each other but not with seasonal subtype H1N1 virus. Sequential exposure to variants of seasonal influenza (H1N1) viruses may have increased chances for serologic cross-reactivity with antigenically distinct viruses. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which serologic responses correlate with infection. PMID:21392430

  11. Comparative prevalence of immune evasion complex genes associated with beta-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates from swine, swine facilities, humans with swine contact, and humans with no swine contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genet...

  12. Screening of cellular proteins that interact with the classical swine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the current study, aiming to find more clues in understanding the molecular mechanisms of CSFV NS5A's function, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was adopted to screen for CSFV NS5A interactive proteins in the cDNA library of the swine umbilical vein endothelial cell (SUVEC). Alignment with the NCBI database ...

  13. Susceptibility Breakpoint for Enrofloxacin against Swine Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haihong; Pan, Huafang; Ahmad, Ijaz; Cheng, Guyue; Wang, Yulian; Dai, Menghong; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli

    2013-01-01

    Susceptibility breakpoints are crucial for prudent use of antimicrobials. This study has developed the first susceptibility breakpoint (MIC ≤ 0.25 μg/ml) for enrofloxacin against swine Salmonella spp. based on wild-type cutoff (COWT) and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) cutoff (COPD) values, consequently providing a criterion for susceptibility testing and clinical usage of enrofloxacin. PMID:23784134

  14. Heat Stress Effects on Growing-Finishing Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the factors that create heat stress, the response of the animals while under heat stress, and the signs of heat-stressed swine are essential to making rational decisions for the selection, design, and management of their environments. Heat stressors include combinations of environment...

  15. Composting swine manure from high rise finishing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  16. Detection of a Novel Porcine Parvovirus in Chinese Swine Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...

  17. Enzymes in Poultry and Swine Nutrition | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Enzymes in Poultry and Swine Nutrition. Auteur(s) : Ronald R. ... mechanisms. Such studies will enhance our understanding of the role of dietary enzymes in animal nutrition. ... Six équipes de chercheurs de classe mondiale étudieront comment surmonter la résistance au traitement des cancers les plus mortels.

  18. Accelerating vaccine development for African swine fever virus ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Photo: IDRC / Bartay The challenge African swine fever (ASF) is a highly infectious hemorrhagic viral disease that wipes out entire herds of infected pigs. ASF is widespread in at least half of sub-Saharan Africa, and threatens food security due to devastating economic losses.

  19. Odor control in swine buildings: recycle flush vs. automated scraper

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research project was conducted to compare odor concentrations in exhaust of traditional flush barns and barns equipped with automated scrapers. The study was conducted at commercial tunnel-ventilated swine barns in northwest Missouri. Odor samples were collected from the barn exhaust in polyvinyl ...

  20. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Humans and Swine, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Annalisa; Gonzales, José Luis; Bonelli, Sara Irene; Valda, Ybar; Pieri, Angela; Segundo, Higinio; Ibañez, Ramón; Mantella, Antonia; Bartalesi, Filippo; Tolari, Francesco; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in persons in 2 rural communities in southeastern Bolivia and the presence of HEV in human and swine fecal samples. HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. PMID:21801630

  1. Oxygen radical-scavenging capacities of peptides from swine blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... ... a basic factor in maintaining life and health (Stadtman and Levine, 2003). ... these problems, peptides from swine blood (PSB) was obtained by the ... (0.05 µm ceramic membrane), ultra-filtration (1000 Da), and spray-drying.

  2. Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza epidemcis: Lessons learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Koch, G.

    2012-01-01

    This publication is based on a talk which was held in the course of the spring symposium „Impfen statt Keulen“ of the Akademie für Tiergesundheit (AfT) 2011 in Wiesbaden-Naurod. Experience with recent large-scale epidemics of Classical Swine Fever and Avian Influenza – among others in the

  3. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

    The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

  4. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Loeffen, W.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic

  5. Screening of cellular proteins that interact with the classical swine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... to screen for CSFV NS5A interactive proteins in the cDNA library of the swine umbilical vein endothelial cell. (SUVEC). Alignment ... development. The finding of ..... were unknown, the results of the BLAST against the human.

  6. Composting swine slurry to reduce indicators and antibiotic resistance genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  7. Anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Inhibition by ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kaare Hvid; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1998-01-01

    A stable anaerobic degradation of swine manure with ammonia concentration of 6 g-N/litre was obtained in continuously stirred tank reactors with a hydraulic retention time of 15 days, at Four different temperatures. Methane yields of 188, 141, 67 and 22 ml-CH4/g-VS were obtained at 37, 45, 55...... and 60 degrees C, respectively. The yields were significantly lower than the potential biogas yield of the swine manure used (300 ml-CH4/g-VS). A free ammonia concentration of 1.1 g-N/litre or more was found to cause inhibition in batch cultures at pH 8.0 (reactor pH), and higher free ammonia...... concentrations resulted in a decreased apparent specific growth rate. Batch experiments with various mixtures of swine and cattle manure showed that the biogas process was inhibited when the swine-to-cattle manure ratio was higher than 25:75, corresponding to a free ammonia concentration of approximately 1.1 g...

  8. Antibiotic Resistant Microbiota in the Swine Intestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The healthy swine intestine is populated by upwards of 500 bacterial species, mainly obligate anaerobes. Our research focuses on the roles of these commensal bacteria in antimicrobial resistance and on interventions to reduce the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In comparisons of intes...

  9. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an APHIS employee alone. (b) The appraisal of swine will be based on the fair market value as determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided that where appraisal is by the head, each animal in the group is the same value per head, and where appraisal...

  10. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Hau

    Full Text Available Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage's absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates

  11. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Samantha J.; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R.; Frana, Timothy S.; Nicholson, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage’s absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates may harbor a

  12. A simple Pichia pastoris fermentation and downstream processing strategy for making recombinant pandemic Swine Origin Influenza a virus Hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaram, T N; Singh, Anil Kumar; Saraswat, Shweta; Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Princi; Kameswara Rao, M; Gopalan, N; Rao, P V L

    2013-02-01

    The present Influenza vaccine manufacturing process has posed a clear impediment to initiation of rapid mass vaccination against spreading pandemic influenza. New vaccine strategies are therefore needed that can accelerate the vaccine production. Pichia offers several advantages for rapid and economical bulk production of recombinant proteins and, hence, can be attractive alternative for producing an effective influenza HA based subunit vaccine. The recombinant Pichia harboring the transgene was subjected to fed-batch fermentation at 10 L scale. A simple fermentation and downstream processing strategy is developed for high-yield secretory expression of the recombinant Hemagglutinin protein of pandemic Swine Origin Influenza A virus using Pichia pastoris via fed-batch fermentation. Expression and purification were optimized and the expressed recombinant Hemagglutinin protein was verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot and MALDI-TOF analysis. In this paper, we describe a fed-batch fermentation protocol for the secreted production of Swine Influenza A Hemagglutinin protein in the P. pastoris GS115 strain. We have shown that there is a clear relationship between product yield and specific growth rate. The fed-batch fermentation and downstream processing methods optimized in the present study have immense practical application for high-level production of the recombinant H1N1 HA protein in a cost effective way using P. pastoris.

  13. Effect of soy protein on swine intestinal lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    Hypocholesterolemic effect of soy protein appears to be the result of reduced cholesterol absorption and enhanced cholesterol excretion. The objective of this study is to delineate the underlying mechanism of soy protein effect on cholesterol absorption. At the end of a 5-week soy-protein or casein diet, swine were subjected to cannulation of mesenteric lymph duct under halothane anesthesia. A single dose of 250 μCi [ 14 C]-cholesterol and 10 mCi [ 3 H]-leucine was infused into the upper jejunum two hours after one-fifth of daily food was given. Then lymph was collected hourly for three hours and the lipoprotein fractions were separated by ultracentrifugation. SDS-PAGE (5%) was used to measure the concentrations of individual apoproteins by densitometric scanning. The three-hour lymphatic transport of cholesterol in casein-fed swine was significantly higher than in those fed soy protein. Triglyceride transports were similar in two groups. The [ 3 H]-leucine incorporation study revealed that transport of apo B-48 bore a significant positive relationship to transport of cholesterol in both chylomicron and VLDL fractions of mesenteric lymph. A greater apo B-48 secretion with higher specific activity was probably responsible for the greater transport of cholesterol in chylomicrons in casein-fed swine. On the other hand, the lesser cholesterol transport in chylomicrons in soy protein-fed swine was probably caused by lower apo B-48 secretion. Similarly, the transport of lymph VLDL cholesterol in swine fed casein or soy protein paralleled the amount of accompanying apo B-48. Dietary proteins probably influence the intestinal synthesis of apo B-48 which in turn affects cholesterol transport into the lymphatics

  14. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices regarding Swine Flu among adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention is the most appropriate measure to control H1N1 flu pandemic and awareness of H1N1 flu is ranked very high in preventive measures. Keeping this in view, study was designed to assess the awareness level and to compare it among urban and rural participants. Aims and objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding swine flu among adult population, to assess whether there is any difference among rural and urban population and to assess the response generated by the media coverage and the Government efforts.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done from April to July 2015 on 300 houses from the urban area and 150 houses from rural area, chosen from study population by random sampling. Mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and percentages for categorical were calculated. Results: 94% of urban and 91.3% of the rural participants had previously heard about swine flu, main source being TV. 46% of urban and 74% of rural participants had myth about spread of swine flu by eating pork. 41.3% of urban and 8.7% of rural population thought that government measures are sufficient for controlling swine flu. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding swine flu pandemic is good among study participants but role of health care providers is minimal and requires more dedicated effort. Lack of awareness among study population regarding some key focus areas like health promoting habits, vaccination and myths regarding the spread is of serious concern and needs to be addressed by the media, health workers and the Government efforts

  15. Passive surveillance of Leptospira infection in swine in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutzberg-Minder, Katrin; Tschentscher, Astrid; Beyerbach, Martin; Homuth, Matthias; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2018-01-01

    As no current data are available on the prevalence of leptospiral infection in swine in Germany, we analysed laboratory data from diagnostic examinations carried out on samples from swine all over Germany from January 2011 to September 2016. A total of 29,829 swine sera were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibodies against strains of eleven Leptospira serovars. Overall, 20.2% (6025) of the total sample collection tested positive for leptospiral infection. Seropositivity ranged between 16.3% (964) in 2011 and 30.9% (941) in 2016 (January to September only). Of all samples, 11.6% (57.3% of the positives) reacted with only one Leptospira serovar, and only 8.6% (42.7% of the positives) reacted simultaneously with two or more serovars. The most frequently detected serovar was Bratislava, which was found in 11.6% (3448) of all samples, followed by the serovars Australis in 7.3% (2185), Icterohaemorrhagiae in 4.0% (1191), Copenhageni in 4.0% (1182), Autumnalis in 3.7% (1054), Canicola in 2.0% (585), and Pomona in 1.2% (368). Modelling shows that both the year and the reason for testing at the laboratory had statistically strong effects on the test results; however, no interactions were determined between those factors. The results support the suggestion that the seropositivities found may be considered to indicate the state of leptospiral infections in the German swine population. Although data from passive surveillance are prone to selection bias, stratified analysis by initial reason for examination and analyses by model approaches may correct for biases. A prevalence of about 20% for a leptospiral infection is most probable for sows with reproductive problems in Germany, with an increasing trend. Swine in Germany are probably a reservoir host for serovar Bratislava, but in contrast to other studies not for Pomona and Tarassovi.

  16. 76 FR 7721 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... for the 6 BIPs in Slovenia. BVIS veterinary inspectors are present at the BIPs during working hours, but do not conduct inspections outside normal working hours without prior notice. Slovenian road... Slovenia to the region of the European Union that we recognize as a low-risk region for classical swine...

  17. Hepatitis E virus infection in North Italy: high seroprevalence in swine herds and increased risk for swine workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, L; Angeloni, G; Salata, C; Vonesch, N; D'Amico, W; Campagna, G; Natale, A; Zuliani, F; Ceglie, L; Monne, I; Vascellari, M; Capello, K; DI Martino, G; Inglese, N; Palù, G; Tomao, P; Bonfanti, L

    2017-01-01

    We determined the hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence and detection rate in commercial swine herds in Italy's utmost pig-rich area, and assessed HEV seropositivity risk in humans as a function of occupational exposure to pigs, diet, foreign travel, medical history and hunting activities. During

  18. Hepatitis E virus infection in North Italy : high seroprevalence in swine herds and increased risk for swine workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413306046; Angeloni, Giorgia; Salata, C; Vonesch, N; D'Amico, W; Campagna, G; Natale, Alda; Zuliani, Federica; Ceglie, Letizia; Monne, Isabella; Vascellari, M; Capello, Katia; DI Martino, G; Inglese, N; Palù, G; Tomao, P; Bonfanti, L.

    2017-01-01

    We determined the hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence and detection rate in commercial swine herds in Italy's utmost pig-rich area, and assessed HEV seropositivity risk in humans as a function of occupational exposure to pigs, diet, foreign travel, medical history and hunting activities. During

  19. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-03-01

    The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest 'reverse zoonosis' of a pathogen documented to date. Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human viruses, rather than recipients, is key to understanding how the bidirectional nature of the human-animal interface produces influenza threats to both hosts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Isolation of a Reassortant H1N2 Swine Flu Strain of Type “Swine-Human-Avian” and Its Genetic Variability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Bai Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We isolated an influenza strain named A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2 from a pig suspected to be infected with swine flu. The results of electron microscopy, hemagglutination (HA assay, hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, and whole genome sequencing analysis suggest that it was a reassortant virus of swine (H1N1 subtype, human (H3N2 subtype, and avian influenza viruses. To further study the genetic evolution of A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2, we cloned its whole genome fragments using RT-PCR and performed phylogenetic analysis on the eight genes. As a result, the nucleotide sequences of HA, NA, PB1, PA, PB2, NP, M, and NS gene are similar to those of A/Swine/Shanghai/1/2007(H1N2 with identity of 98.9%, 98.9%, 99.0%, 98.6%, 99.0%, 98.9%, 99.3%, and 99.3%, respectively. Similar to A/Swine/Shanghai/1/2007(H1N2, we inferred that the HA, NP, M, and NS gene fragments of A/Swine/Fujian/F1/2010 (H1N2 strain were derived from classical swine influenza H3N2 subtype, NA and PB1 were derived from human swine influenza H3N2 subtype, and PB2 and PA genes were derived from avian influenza virus. This further validates the role of swine as a “mixer” for influenza viruses.

  1. Ventricular Effective Refraction Period and Ventricular Repolarization Analysis in Experimental Tachycardiomyopathy in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Pasławska, Urszula; Gajek, Jacek; Janiszewski, Adrian; Pasławski, Robert; Zyśko, Dorota; Nicpoń, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Swine are recognized animal models of human cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known on the CHF-associated changes in the electrophysiological ventricular parameters of humans and animals. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in the durations of ventricular effective refraction period (VERP), QT and QTc intervals of pigs with chronic tachycardia-induced tachycardiomyopathy (TIC). The study was comprised of 28 adult pigs (8 females and 20 males) of the Polish Large White breed. A one-chamber pacemaker was implanted in each of the 28 pigs. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and electrophysiological studies were carried out prior to the pacemaker implantation and at subsequent 4-week intervals. All electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and short electrophysiological study measurements in all swine were done under general anesthesia (propofol) after premedication with midazolam, medetomidine, and ketamine. No significant changes in the duration of QT interval and corrected QT interval (QTc) were observed during consecutive weeks of the experiment. The duration of the QTc interval of female pigs was shown to be significantly longer than that of the males throughout the whole study period. Beginning from the 12th week of rapid ventricular pacing, a significant increase in duration of VERP was observed in both male and female pigs. Males and females did not differ significantly in terms of VERP duration determined throughout the whole study period. Ventricular pacing, stimulation with 2 and 3 premature impulses at progressively shorter coupling intervals and an imposed rhythm of 130 bpm or 150 bpm induced transient ventricular tachycardia in one female pig and four male pigs. One episode of permanent ventricular tachycardia was observed. The number of induced arrhythmias increased proportionally to the severity of heart failure and duration of the experiment. However, relatively aggressive protocols of stimulation were required in order to induce

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mirajkar, Nandita S.; Davies, Peter R.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered “Brachyspira hampsonii,” have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determi...

  3. Market Concentration Rate and Market Performance of China’s Swine Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia ZHANG; Yucheng HE

    2016-01-01

    Empirical study on market concentration rate and market performance of China’s Swine Industry indicates that higher market concentration rate brings higher overall performance of swine industry. There exists no obvious causal relation between market concentration rate and market performance,but market performance is highly correlated with market concentration rate. The improvement in performance of swine industry is dependent on further optimization of market concentration rate and other factors.

  4. Development and Resuscitation of a Sedated, Mature Male Miniature Swine Severe Hemorrhage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    control. Results: Hemorrhage resulted in a characteristic hypotension and metabolic acidosis . Survival time for the control swine was 64 minutes...domestic swine4 and was characteristic of a hemorrhage- induced metabolic acidosis , with a decrease in blood HCO3, and BE and an increase in blood...Hammett M, Asher L, et al. Effects of bovine polymerized hemoglobin on coagulation in controlled hemorrhagic shock in swine. Shock. 2005;24:145–152

  5. [Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in swine in Costa Rica: epidemiologic importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A L; Chinchilla, M; Reyes, L

    1991-01-01

    On a three hundred swine sera sample collected from a Municipal Slaughter house and a Research Laboratory at the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería a 26% of positivity against T. gondii was found using the carbon immunoassay. A relationship between the age and swine race are made. The epidemiological significance of this findings are discussed focused mainly on the role of swine meat as a source of human infection in Costa Rica.

  6. Rapid Detection and Characterization of Emerging Foreign Animal Disease Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-18

    To best safeguard human and animal health requires early detection and characterization of disease events. This must include effective surveillance for emerging infectious diseases. Both deliberate and natural outbreaks have enormous economic and public health impacts, and can present serious threats to national security. In this project, we developed novel next generation detection technologies to protect the agricultural economy and biosecurity. The first technology is a multiplexed assay to simultaneously detection 10 swine viral and bacterial pathogens. The second one is the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA) which can detect more than 10,000 microbial species including 4219 viruses, 5367 bacteria, 265 fungi, 117 protozoa and 293 archaea. We analyzed a series of swine clinical samples from past disease events to demonstrate the utility of the assays for faster and cheaper detection of emerging and foreign animal disease pathogens, and their utility as s routine diagnosis and surveillance tool. A second goal of the study is to better understand mechanisms of African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection in pigs to aid the development of countermeasures and diagnostics. There is no vaccine available for ASF. ASF outbreak is on the rise on several European countries. Though ASF is not currently in the U.S., a potential outbreak in the U.S. would be detrimental to the swine industry and the US agricultural economy. We pursued a genome-wide approach to characterize the pig immune responses after ASFV infection. We used RNA sequencing and bioinformatics methods to identify genes and pathways that are affected during ASF infection. We have identified a list of most differentially expressed genes that are in the immune response pathways.

  7. EVIDENCE OF PSEUDORABIES VIRUS SHEDDING IN FERAL SWINE ( SUS SCROFA) POPULATIONS OF FLORIDA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Felipe A; Sayler, Katherine A; Bounds, Courtney; Milleson, Michael P; Carr, Amanda N; Wisely, Samantha M

    2018-01-01

    :  Feral swine ( Sus scrofa) are a pathogen reservoir for pseudorabies virus (PrV). The virus can be fatal to wildlife and contributes to economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. National surveillance efforts in the US use serology to detect PrV-specific antibodies in feral swine populations, but PrV exposure is not a direct indicator of pathogen transmission among conspecifics or to non-suid wildlife species. We measured antibody production and the presence of PrV DNA in four tissue types from feral swine populations of Florida, US. We sampled blood, nasal, oral, and genital swabs from 551 individuals at 39 sites during 2014-16. Of the animals tested for antibody production, 224 of 436 (51%) feral swine were antibody positive while 38 of 549 feral swine (7%) tested for viral shedding were quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-positive for PrV. The detection of PrV DNA across all the collected sample types (blood, nasal, oral, and genital [vaginal] swabs) suggested viral shedding via direct (oronasal or venereal), and potentially indirect (through carcass consumption), routes of transmission among infected and susceptible animals. Fourteen of 212 seronegative feral swine were qPCR-positive, indicating 7% false negatives in the serologic assay. Our findings suggest that serology may underestimate the actual infection risk posed by feral swine to other species and that feral swine populations in Florida are capable of shedding the virus through multiple routes.

  8. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure trea...

  9. Endogenous testosterone attenuates neointima formation after moderate coronary balloon injury in male swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Darla L; Masseau, Isabelle; Ivey, Jan; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Bowles, Douglas K

    2009-04-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that testosterone increases coronary smooth muscle protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) both in vivo and in vitro and inhibits coronary smooth muscle proliferation by inducing G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest in a PKC delta-dependent manner. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether endogenous testosterone limits coronary neointima (NI) formation in a porcine model of post-angioplasty restenosis. Sexually mature, male Yucatan miniature swine were either left intact (IM), castrated (CM), or castrated with testosterone replacement (CMT; Androgel, 10 mg/day). Angioplasty was performed in both the left anterior descending and left circumflex coronary arteries with balloon catheter overinflation to induce either moderate (1.25-1.3 x diameter; 3 x 30 s) or severe (1.4x diameter; 3 x 30 s) injury, and animals were allowed to recover for either 10 or 28 days. Injured coronary sections were dissected, fixed, stained (Verheoff-Van Gieson, Ki67, PKC delta, p27), and analysed. Vessels without internal elastic laminal rupture were excluded. Following moderate injury, intimal area, intima-to-media ratio (I/M), and I/M normalized to rupture index (RI) were increased in CM compared with IM and CMT. RI, medial area, and intimal/medial thickness (IMT) were not different between groups. NI formation was inversely related to serum testosterone concentration. Conversely, following severe injury, there were no significant differences between the groups. Testosterone inhibited proliferation and stimulated PKC delta and p27(kip1) expression during NI formation (10 days post-injury). These findings demonstrate that endogenous testosterone limits coronary NI formation in male swine and provides support for a protective role for testosterone in coronary vasculoproliferative diseases, such as restenosis and atherosclerosis.

  10. H1N1 influenza viruses varying widely in hemagglutinin stability transmit efficiently from swine to swine and to ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Russier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A pandemic-capable influenza virus requires a hemagglutinin (HA surface glycoprotein that is immunologically unseen by most people and is capable of supporting replication and transmission in humans. HA stabilization has been linked to 2009 pH1N1 pandemic potential in humans and H5N1 airborne transmissibility in the ferret model. Swine have served as an intermediate host for zoonotic influenza viruses, yet the evolutionary pressure exerted by this host on HA stability was unknown. For over 70 contemporary swine H1 and H3 isolates, we measured HA activation pH to range from pH 5.1 to 5.9 for H1 viruses and pH 5.3 to 5.8 for H3 viruses. Thus, contemporary swine isolates vary widely in HA stability, having values favored by both avian (pH >5.5 and human and ferret (pH ≤5.5 species. Using an early 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 virus backbone, we generated three viruses differing by one HA residue that only altered HA stability: WT (pH 5.5, HA1-Y17H (pH 6.0, and HA2-R106K (pH 5.3. All three replicated in pigs and transmitted from pig-to-pig and pig-to-ferret. WT and R106 viruses maintained HA genotype and phenotype after transmission. Y17H (pH 6.0 acquired HA mutations that stabilized the HA protein to pH 5.8 after transmission to pigs and 5.5 after transmission to ferrets. Overall, we found swine support a broad range of HA activation pH for contact transmission and many recent swine H1N1 and H3N2 isolates have stabilized (human-like HA proteins. This constitutes a heightened pandemic risk and underscores the importance of ongoing surveillance and control efforts for swine viruses.

  11. The Bordetella Bps polysaccharide is required for biofilm formation and persistence in the lower respiratory tract of swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is pervasive in swine populations and plays multiple roles in respiratory disease. Additionally, B. bronchiseptica is capable of establishing long-term or chronic infections in swine. Bacterial biofilms are increasingly recognized as important contributors to chronic bacter...

  12. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...... manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...... zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum....

  13. Biogas Initiative from Swine Farm in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damrongsak Det

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First biogas pipeline network has been well established in southern Thailand. About 1,273 households, accountable for about 87% of the total of 1,466 households in the district, get the benefits from biogas energy in many ways. Key success to this initiative is the collaboration between all parties, i.e., swine farm owners, households, and government officials. Swine farm owners are responsible for the design and construction of the biogas plants. Households pay some contributions regarding labor work and maintenance cost on biogas system and its pipeline network. Government officials are responsible for financial and technical supports to both parties. Indeed biogas energy offers an alternative source of heat energy for cooking fuel in this region.

  14. Antimicrobial potential of bacteriocins in poultry and swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lagha, Amel; Haas, Bruno; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2017-04-11

    The routine use of antibiotics in agriculture has contributed to an increase in drug-resistant bacterial pathogens in animals that can potentially be transmitted to humans. In 2000, the World Health Organization identified resistance to antibiotics as one of the most significant global threats to public health and recommended that the use of antibiotics as additives in animal feed be phased out or terminated, particularly those used to treat human infections. Research is currently being carried out to identify alternative antimicrobial compounds for use in animal production. A number of studies, mostly in vitro, have provided evidence indicating that bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin, may be promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics in poultry and swine production. This review provides an update on bacteriocins and their potential for use in the poultry and swine industries.

  15. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process......The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Twenty-two (22) large-scale biogas plants are currently under operation in Denmark. Most of these plants use manure as the primary......, production of regenerated cellulose fibers as an alternative to wood for cellulose-based materials and ethanol production. The advantage of exploiting wheat straw for various applications is that it is available in considerable quantity and at low-cost. In the present study, the codigestion of swine manure...

  16. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P. G.; Fotidis, I. A.; Zaganas, I. D.; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum.

  17. Rheumatoid arthritis and Swine influenza vaccine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basra, Gurjot; Jajoria, Praveen; Gonzalez, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Multiple scientific articles have documented that vaccinations for influenza, MMR, and HBV, to name a few, could be triggers of RA in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there is limited data regarding the association of swine flu vaccine (H1N1) and RA. We report the case of a Mexican American female who developed RA right after vaccination with H1N1 vaccine. Genetically, RA has consistently been associated with an epitope in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DR β chains, known as the "shared epitope", which is found primarily in DR4 and DR1 regions. The presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles is associated with susceptibility to RA in Mexican Americans. Hence, certain individuals with the presence of the "shared epitope" may develop RA following specific vaccinations. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RA following vaccination with the swine flu vaccine.

  18. Simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) analysis of cyanide and thiocyanate from swine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Raj K; Manandhar, Erica; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in swine plasma was developed and validated. Cyanide and thiocyanate were simultaneously analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode after rapid and simple sample preparation. Isotopically labeled internal standards, Na(13)C(15)N and NaS(13)C(15)N, were mixed with swine plasma (spiked and nonspiked), proteins were precipitated with acetone, the samples were centrifuged, and the supernatant was removed and dried. The dried samples were reconstituted in 10 mM ammonium formate. Cyanide was reacted with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde and taurine to form N-substituted 1-cyano[f]benzoisoindole, while thiocyanate was chemically modified with monobromobimane to form an SCN-bimane product. The method produced dynamic ranges of 0.1-50 and 0.2-50 μM for cyanide and thiocyanate, respectively, with limits of detection of 10 nM for cyanide and 50 nM for thiocyanate. For quality control standards, the precision, as measured by percent relative standard deviation, was below 8 %, and the accuracy was within ±10 % of the nominal concentration. Following validation, the analytical procedure successfully detected cyanide and thiocyanate simultaneously from the plasma of cyanide-exposed swine.

  19. The impact of communications about swine flu (influenza A H1N1v) on public responses to the outbreak: results from 36 national telephone surveys in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, G J; Potts, H W W; Michie, S

    2010-07-01

    respondents were very or fairly likely to accept the swine flu vaccine. The strongest predictors were being very worried about the possibility of oneself [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2 to 7.0] or one's child (aOR 8.0, 95% CI 4.6 to 13.9) catching swine flu. Overall, 33.1% of participants reporting carrying tissues with them, 9.5% had bought sanitising gel, 2.0% had avoided public transport and 1.6% had sought medical advice. Exposure to media coverage or advertising about swine flu increased tissue carrying or buying of sanitising hand gel, and reduced avoidance of public transport or consultation with health services during early May 2009. Path analyses showed that media coverage and advertising had these differential effects because they raised the perceived efficacy of hygiene behaviours but decreased the perceived efficacy of avoidance behaviours. During the swine flu outbreak, uptake rates for protective behaviours and likely acceptance rates for vaccination were low. One reason for this may in part be explained by was the low level of public worry about the possibility of catching swine flu. When levels of worry are generally low, acting to increase the volume of mass media and advertising coverage is likely to increase the perceived efficacy of recommended behaviours, which, in turn, is likely to increase their uptake.

  20. Impact of production systems on swine confinement buildings bioaerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Valérie; Nehmé, Benjamin; Mériaux, Anne; Massé, Daniel; Duchaine, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    Hog production has been substantially intensified in Eastern Canada. Hogs are now fattened in swine confinement buildings with controlled ventilation systems and high animal densities. Newly designed buildings are equipped with conventional manure handling and management systems, shallow or deep litter systems, or source separation systems to manage the large volumes of waste. However, the impacts of those alternative production systems on bioaerosol concentrations within the barns have never been evaluated. Bioaerosols were characterized in 18 modern swine confinement buildings, and the differences in bioaerosol composition in the three different production systems were evaluated. Total dust, endotoxins, culturable actinomycetes, fungi, and bacteria were collected with various apparatuses. The total DNA of the air samples was extracted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the total number of bacterial genomes, as a total (culturable and nonculturable) bacterial assessment. The measured total dust and endotoxin concentrations were not statistically different in the three studied production systems. In buildings with sawdust beds, actinomycetes and molds were found in higher concentrations than in the conventional barns. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Scopulariopsis species were identified in all the studied swine confinement buildings. A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. versicolor were abundantly present in the facilities with sawdust beds. Thermotolerant A. fumigatus and Mucor were usually found in all the buildings. The culturable bacteria concentrations were higher in the barns with litters than in the conventional buildings, while real-time PCR revealed nonstatistically different concentrations of total bacteria in all the studied swine confinement buildings. In terms of workers' respiratory health, barns equipped with a solid/liquid separation system may offer better air quality than conventional buildings or barns with

  1. Development of a Swine-Specific Fecal Pollution Marker Based on Host Differences in Methanogen mcrA Genes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Ufnar, David F.; Wang, Shiao Y.; Ellender, R. D.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate methanogen diversity in animal hosts to develop a swine-specific archaeal molecular marker for fecal source tracking in surface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of swine mcrA sequences compared to mcrA sequences from the feces of five animals (cow, deer, sheep, horse, and chicken) and sewage showed four distinct swine clusters, with three swine-specific clades. From this analysis, six sequences were chosen for molecular marker development and initial testin...

  2. In-feed antibiotic effects on the swine intestinal microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looft, Torey; Johnson, Timothy A.; Allen, Heather K.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Alt, David P.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Sul, Woo Jun; Stedtfeld, Tiffany M.; Chai, Benli; Cole, James R.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Tiedje, James M.; Stanton, Thad B.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics have been administered to agricultural animals for disease treatment, disease prevention, and growth promotion for over 50 y. The impact of such antibiotic use on the treatment of human diseases is hotly debated. We raised pigs in a highly controlled environment, with one portion of the littermates receiving a diet containing performance-enhancing antibiotics [chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and penicillin (known as ASP250)] and the other portion receiving the same diet but without the antibiotics. We used phylogenetic, metagenomic, and quantitative PCR-based approaches to address the impact of antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota. Bacterial phylotypes shifted after 14 d of antibiotic treatment, with the medicated pigs showing an increase in Proteobacteria (1–11%) compared with nonmedicated pigs at the same time point. This shift was driven by an increase in Escherichia coli populations. Analysis of the metagenomes showed that microbial functional genes relating to energy production and conversion were increased in the antibiotic-fed pigs. The results also indicate that antibiotic resistance genes increased in abundance and diversity in the medicated swine microbiome despite a high background of resistance genes in nonmedicated swine. Some enriched genes, such as aminoglycoside O-phosphotransferases, confer resistance to antibiotics that were not administered in this study, demonstrating the potential for indirect selection of resistance to classes of antibiotics not fed. The collateral effects of feeding subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics to agricultural animals are apparent and must be considered in cost-benefit analyses. PMID:22307632

  3. Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Chlorophyta fertilized in swine manure in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of swine manure media on the growth, total length, dry weight, and nutritional value of Ankistrodesmus gracilis microalgae. Two media were measured: “in natura” and biodigested. The growth rate peak for A. gracilis was highest with biodigester treatment (6.2 x 107 cells.mL-1 on the 5th day, at a volume of 2L. The highest percentage of lipids was verifi ed for “in natura” media. Protein was highest (p > 0.05 for the biodigested media at 2L. Biovolume, ash rate, and total length were different (p 0.05. Light demand was also different between media, with lesser intensity being required for biodigested media (13.5μE.cm-2.s-1. In fact, the biodigested media proved to be cheaper in terms of cost and benefit. Generally, the medium containing swine manure, both “in natura” and biodigested, showed better results in A. gracilis development, with water quality adequate for culture systems. Swine manure in both forms may also be used in high-density cultures in the laboratory.

  4. Recycling the Wastewater from Swine Farm for Soilless Culture Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadang, Nattayana; Vasanaand, Nimnuan; Intaravichai, Pantipa; Chattay, Patchariya; Thipvisaid Na Tawan

    2006-09-01

    Swine farm wastewater was used in solution for hydroponics. The solution comprised swine farm wastewater influent and chemical nutrients. Water spinaches were selected for planting in foam containers. The sizes of the container were 50 x 42 x 16 centimeters. In this experiment, the ratios of influent and chemical nutrient solution were 3:1 and 1:1. The result shows that the growth of water spinaches from both solutions are almost the same. The weight of them is 78.3 and 77.3 grams each, respectively. Consequently, the result was expanded to the experiment in the field. The solution comprised swine farm wastewater influent and chemical nutrients at the ratio 1:1 was used for planting 6 kinds of vegetables. They were planted in the area of 7.2 x 2.0 meters. it was found that the weight of Chinese cabbage and Chinese white cabbage are highly significant difference when growing in chemical nutrient solution compared with growing in the solution of wastewater influent and chemical nutrient at the ratio 1:1. Moreover, water spinaches which planted in chemical nutrient solution gave the significant difference while 3 kinds of as lads gave no significant difference.

  5. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  6. Swine manure composting by means of experimental turning equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumenti, A; Da Borso, F; Rodar, T; Chiumenti, R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of research was to test the effectiveness of a prototype of a turning machine and to evaluate the feasability of a farm-scale composting process of the solid fraction of swine manure. A qualitative evaluation of the process and final product was made by monitoring the following parameters: process temperature, oxygen concentration inside the biomass, gaseous emissions (CH4, CO2, NH3, N2O), respiration index, humification index, total and volatile solids, carbon and nitrogen, pH and microbial load. The prototype proved to be very effective from a technical-operational point of view. The composting process exhibited a typical time-history, characterised by a thermophilic phase followed by a curing phase [Chiumenti, A., Chiumenti, R., Diaz, L.F., Savage, G.M., Eggerth, L.L., Goldstein, N., 2005. Modern Composting Technologies. BioCycle-JG Press, Emmaus, PA, USA]. Gas emissions from compost the windrow were more intense during the active phase of the process and showed a decreasing trend from the thermophilic to the curing phase. The final compost was characterized by good qualitative characteristics, a significant level of humification [Rossi, L., Piccinini, S., 1999. La qualità agronomica dei compost derivanti da liquami suinicoli. (Agronomic quality of swine manure compost). L'informatore Agrario 38, 29-31] and no odor emissions. This method of managing manure represents an effective, low cost approach that could be an interesting opportunity for swine farms.

  7. Financial benefit from the eradication of swine dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E N; Lysons, R J

    1988-03-19

    Swine dysentery was eradicated from a 270 sow herd by using medication in conjunction with cleaning and disinfection, without reducing the herd size. The feed conversion efficiency, cost per kg liveweight gain and veterinary costs in the herd were compared with similar Meat and Livestock Commission recorded herds before swine dysentery entered the farm, while it was present and after its eradication. During the four years when the disease was endemic in the herd the feed conversion efficiency deteriorated by 0.58, equivalent to 7.31 pounds per pig, the cost per kg liveweight gain was 15 per cent higher and the costs of veterinary care and medicines were 1.38 pounds per pig greater. Although there were pigs with clinical swine dysentery in the herd during the four year period, the poor production figures were attributed mainly to subclinical disease. The cost of eradicating the disease was more than 20,000 pounds but this sum was recouped within 12 months by the improved production and reduced drug usage. The chances of success of such a programme have been estimated to be between 54 and 90 per cent.

  8. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  9. Alloxan-induced diabetes exacerbates coronary atherosclerosis and calcification in Ossabaw miniature swine with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badin, Jill K; Kole, Ayeeshik; Stivers, Benjamin; Progar, Victor; Pareddy, Anisha; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Sturek, Michael

    2018-03-09

    There is a preponderance of evidence implicating diabetes with increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and calcification (CAC) in human patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the effect of diabetes on CAD severity in animal models remains controversial. We investigated whether diabetes exacerbates CAD/CAC and intracellular free calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) dysregulation in the clinically relevant Ossabaw miniature swine model of MetS. Sixteen swine, eight with alloxan-induced diabetes, were fed a hypercaloric, atherogenic diet for 6 months. Alloxan-induced pancreatic beta cell damage was examined by immunohistochemical staining of insulin. The metabolic profile was confirmed by body weight, complete blood panel, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and meal tolerance test. CAD severity was assessed with intravascular ultrasound and histology. [Ca 2+ ] i handling in coronary smooth muscle (CSM) cells was assessed with fura-2 ratiometric imaging. Fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, total cholesterol, and serum triglycerides were elevated in MetS-diabetic swine. This group also exhibited hypoinsulinemia during IVGTT and less pancreatic beta cell mass when compared to lean and MetS-nondiabetic swine. IVUS analysis revealed that MetS-diabetic swine had greater percent wall coverage, percent plaque burden, and calcium index when compared to lean and MetS-nondiabetic swine. Fura-2 imaging of CSM [Ca 2+ ] i revealed that MetS-nondiabetic swine exhibited increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ store release and Ca 2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels compared to lean swine. MetS-diabetic swine exhibited impaired Ca 2+ efflux. Diabetes exacerbates coronary atherosclerosis and calcification in Ossabaw miniature swine with MetS, accompanied by progression of [Ca 2+ ] i dysregulation in advanced CAD/CAC. These results recapitulate increased CAD in humans with diabetes and establish Ossabaw miniature swine as an animal model for future Met

  10. Rapid Field-Usable Cyanide Sensor Development for Blood and Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    flexible which lead to tearing. This issue will be eliminated in the manufacturing process with the use of a plastic material (i.e., the use of...designed and manufactured by Falcon Plastics using their fused deposition modeling FDM Printing Technology (i.e., rapid prototyping or 3D printing). The...at low, medium, and high QC concentrations was 14%, 22%, and 27%, respectively. Acidification of the swine plasma before spiking in α-KgCN, did not

  11. The effects of digestion temperature and temperature shock on the biogas yields from the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, K J; Jang, Am; Yim, S K; Kim, In S

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain basic design criteria for anaerobic digesters of swine manure, the effects of different digesting temperatures, temperature shocks and feed loads, on the biogas yields and methane content were evaluated. The digester temperatures were set at 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, with four feed loads of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% (feed volume/digester volume). At a temperature of 30 degrees C, the methane yield was reduced by only 3% compared to 35 degrees C, while a 17.4% reduction was observed when the digestion was performed at 25 degrees C. Ultimate methane yields of 327, 389 and 403 mL CH(4)/g VS(added) were obtained at 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, respectively; with moderate feed loads from 5% to 20% (V/V). From the elemental analysis of swine manure, the theoretical biogas and methane yields at standard temperature and pressure were 1.12L biogas/g VS(destroyed) and 0.724 L CH(4)/g VS(destroyed), respectively. Also, the methane content increased with increasing digestion temperatures, but only to a small degree. Temperature shocks from 35 to 30 degrees C and again from 30 to 32 degrees C led to a decrease in the biogas production rate, but it rapidly resumed the value of the control reactor. In addition, no lasting damage was observed for the digestion performance, once it had recovered.

  12. Simultaneous determination of multicomponent of acetylkitasamycin and kitasamycin by LC-MS/MS in swine plasma and its application in a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanhu; Zhang, Heying; Xi, Chenglong; Huang, Lingli; Xie, Shuyu; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2018-05-02

    A simple and reliable LC-MS/MS method was established for simultaneous determination of twelve components from acetylkitasamycin and kitasamycin in swine plasma. The analytes were separated by a Shim-pack VP-ODS column with a 25 min gradient elution using 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Identification and quantification were accomplished by electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The LOQ S of acetylkitasamycin A 1 A 3 , A 13 and kitasamycin A 3 , A 13 were 3 μg/L, and that of the other 8 components were 5 μg/L. The mean recoveries of kitasamycin and acetylkitasamycin ranged from 85.3 to 103.5 %. The developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in swine after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration of acetylkitasamycin. The result showed that the plasma concentrations of acetylkitsamycin components were much higher than that of kitasamycin in swine after IV and PO, in which acetylkitsamycin A 4 A 5 was the highest component at each time point. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. CRISPR-Cas9, a tool to efficiently increase the development of recombinant African swine fever viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact on the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment ...

  14. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or were...

  15. Multigenic DNA vaccine induces protective cross-reactive T cell responses against heterologous influenza virus in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merika T Koday

    Full Text Available Recent avian and swine-origin influenza virus outbreaks illustrate the ongoing threat of influenza pandemics. We investigated immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a multi-antigen (MA universal influenza DNA vaccine consisting of HA, M2, and NP antigens in cynomolgus macaques. Following challenge with a heterologous pandemic H1N1 strain, vaccinated animals exhibited significantly lower viral loads and more rapid viral clearance when compared to unvaccinated controls. The MA DNA vaccine induced robust serum and mucosal antibody responses but these high antibody titers were not broadly neutralizing. In contrast, the vaccine induced broadly-reactive NP specific T cell responses that cross-reacted with the challenge virus and inversely correlated with lower viral loads and inflammation. These results demonstrate that a MA DNA vaccine that induces strong cross-reactive T cell responses can, independent of neutralizing antibody, mediate significant cross-protection in a nonhuman primate model and further supports development as an effective approach to induce broad protection against circulating and emerging influenza strains.

  16. Immunogenicity of Recombinant Classic Swine Fever Virus CD8+ T Lymphocyte Epitope and Porcine Parvovirus VP2 Antigen Coexpressed by Lactobacillus casei in Swine via Oral Vaccination ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yigang; Cui, Lichun; Tian, Changyong; Zhang, Guocai; Huo, Guicheng; Tang, Lijie; Li, Yijing

    2011-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) are highly contagious pathogens, resulting in enormous economic losses in pig industries worldwide. Because vaccines play an important role in disease control, researchers are seeking improved vaccines that could induce antiviral immune responses against CSFV and PPV at the mucosal and systemic levels simultaneously. In this study, a genetically engineered Lactobacillus strain coexpressing the CSFV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope 290 and the VP2 antigen of PPV was developed, and its immunopotentiating capacity as an oral vaccine in pigs was analyzed. The data demonstrated that in the absence of any adjuvant, the recombinant Lactobacillus strain can efficiently stimulate mucosal and systemic CSFV-specific CD8+ CTL responses to protect pigs against CSFV challenge. Moreover, anti-PPV-VP2 serum IgG and mucosal IgA were induced in pigs immunized orally with the recombinant Lactobacillus strain, showing a neutralizing effect on PPV infection. The results suggest that the recombinant Lactobacillus microecological agent may be a valuable component of a strategy for development of a vaccine against CSFV and PPV. PMID:21940406

  17. Genes indicative of zoonotic and swine pathogens are persistent in stream water and sediment following a swine manure spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Johnson, Heather E.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Focazio, Michael J.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Foreman, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Manure spills to streams are relatively frequent, but no studies have characterized stream contamination with zoonotic and veterinary pathogens, or fecal chemicals, following a spill. We tested stream water and sediment over 25 days and downstream for 7.6 km for: fecal indicator bacteria (FIB); the fecal indicator chemicals cholesterol and coprostanol; 20 genes for zoonotic and swine-specific bacterial pathogens by presence/absence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viable cells; one swine-specific Escherichia coli toxin gene (STII) by quantitative PCR (qPCR); and nine human and animal viruses by qPCR, or reverse-transcriptase qPCR. Twelve days post-spill, and 4.2 km downstream, water concentrations of FIB, cholesterol, and coprostanol were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those detected before, or above, the spill, and genes indicating viable zoonotic or swine-infectious Escherichia coli, were detected in water or sediment. STII increased from undetectable before, or above the spill, to 105 copies/100 mL water 12 days post-spill. Thirteen of 14 water (8/9 sediment) samples had viable STII-carrying cells post-spill. Eighteen days post-spill porcine adenovirus and teschovirus were detected 5.6 km downstream. Sediment FIB concentrations (per gram wet weight) were greater than in water, and sediment was a continuous reservoir of genes and chemicals post-spill. Constituent concentrations were much lower, and detections less frequent, in a runoff event (200 days post-spill) following manure application, although the swine-associated STII and stx2e genes were detected. Manure spills are an underappreciated pathway for livestock-derived contaminants to enter streams, with persistent environmental outcomes, and the potential for human and veterinary health consequences.

  18. Evaluation of Xstat and Combat Gauze in a Swine Model of Lethal Junctional Hemorrhage in Coagulopathic Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-19

    standards of ethical conduct for all DoD personnel and their interactions with other non-DoD entities. organizations , societies. conferences, etc...following examples are provided as a guideline: For presentations before professional societies and like organizations . the 59 MOW Public Affairs Office...swine were used in all experiments. Dilutional coagulopathy was induced by replacing 60% of the animal’s estimated blood volume with room

  19. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Gang–Jin [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Bioprocess Control AB, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Deng, Liang–Wei, E-mail: dengliangwei@caas.cn [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Southwest Collaborative Innovation Center of Swine for Quality & Safety, Chengdu 611130 (China); Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  20. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang–Jin; Deng, Liang–Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g −1 VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L −1 . Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L −1 . The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yield of 0.649 L g −1 VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s −1 when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield

  1. The quest for cross protective factors of Haemophilus parasuis using 2-D gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In swine, Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) infection causes polyserositis, arthritis, and meningitis. A range of virulent to nonvirulent strains exists between and within the 15 serovars. Because of this, the pathogenicity and subsequent protection from H. parasuis disease has yet to be elucidated...

  2. Interaction of CSFV E2 protein with swine host factors as detected by yeast two-hybrid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P Gladue

    Full Text Available E2 is one of the envelope glycoproteins of pestiviruses, including classical swine fever virus (CSFV and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV. E2 is involved in several critical functions, including virus entry into target cells, induction of a protective immune response and virulence in swine. However, there is no information regarding any host binding partners for the E2 proteins. Here, we utilized the yeast two-hybrid system and identified fifty-seven host proteins as positive binding partners which bound E2 from both CSFV and BVDV with the exception of two proteins that were found to be positive for binding only to CSFV E2. Alanine scanning of CSFV E2 demonstrated that the binding sites for these cellular proteins on E2 are likely non-linear binding sites. The possible roles of the identified host proteins are discussed as the results presented here will be important for future studies to elucidate mechanisms of host protein-virus interactions during pestivirus infection. However, due to the limitations of the yeast two hybrid system, the proteins identified is not exhaustive and each interaction identified needs to be confirmed by independent experimental approaches in the context of virus-infected cells before any definitive conclusion can be drawn on relevance for the virus life cycle.

  3. Characterization of Conserved and Non-conserved Imprinted Genes in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to increase our understanding of the role of imprinted genes in swine reproduction we used two complementary approaches, analysis of imprinting by pyrosequencing, and expression profiling of parthenogenetic fetuses, to carry out a comprehensive analysis of this gene family in swine. Using A...

  4. A wind tunnel study of air flow near model swine confinement buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most significant and persistent environmental concerns regarding swine production is the transport of odor constituents, trace gases, and particulates from animal production and manure storage facilities. The objectives of this study were to determine how swine housing unit orientation af...

  5. Identification of Wild Boar-Habitat Epidemiologic Cycle in African Swine Fever Epizootic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenais, Erika; Ståhl, Karl; Guberti, Vittorio; Depner, Klaus

    2018-04-01

    The African swine fever epizootic in central and eastern European Union member states has a newly identified component involving virus transmission by wild boar and virus survival in the environment. Insights led to an update of the 3 accepted African swine fever transmission models to include a fourth cycle: wild boar-habitat.

  6. Effects of repeated simulated removal activities on feral swine movements and space use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Justin W.; McMurtry , Dan; Blass, Chad R.; Walter, W. David; Beringer, Jeff; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Abundance and distribution of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the USA have increased dramatically during the last 30 years. Effective measures are needed to control and eradicate feral swine populations without displacing animals over wider areas. Our objective was to investigate effects of repeated simulated removal activities on feral swine movements and space use. We analyzed location data from 21 feral swine that we fitted with Global Positioning System harnesses in southern MO, USA. Various removal activities were applied over time to eight feral swine before lethal removal, including trapped-and-released, chased with dogs, chased with hunter, and chased with helicopter. We found that core space-use areas were reduced following the first removal activity, whereas overall space-use areas and diurnal movement distances increased following the second removal activity. Mean geographic centroid shifts did not differ between pre- and post-periods for either the first or second removal activities. Our information on feral swine movements and space use precipitated by human removal activities, such as hunting, trapping, and chasing with dogs, helps fill a knowledge void and will aid wildlife managers. Strategies to optimize management are needed to reduce feral swine populations while preventing enlarged home ranges and displacing individuals, which could lead to increased disease transmission risk and human-feral swine conflict in adjacent areas.

  7. Meta-analysis to define a core microbiota in the swine gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background The swine gut microbiota encompasses a large and diverse population of bacteria that play a significant role in pig health. As such, a number of recent studies have utilized high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition and structure of the swine gut micr...

  8. Characterization of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona isolated from swine in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miraglia, Fabiana; Moreno, Luisa Z.; Morais, Zenaide M.; Langoni, Helio; Shimabukuro, Fabio H.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Vasconcellos, Silvio A.; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2015-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans swine infection is a cause of serious economic loss and a potential human health hazard. In Brazil, the most common serovars associated with swine infections are Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagie and Tarassovi. Cross-reactions among serovars and the failure of infected animals to

  9. Microbial Ecology of Stored Swine Manure and Reduction of Emissions Using Condensed Tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management practices from large-scale swine production facilities have resulted in the increased collection and storage of manure for off-season fertilization use. Stored swine manure serves as a habitat for billions of microorganisms and is associated with the generation of odorous compounds and g...

  10. No evidence of African swine fever virus replication in hard ticks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Zúquete, S.T.; Wijnveld, M.; Weesendorp, E.; Jongejan, F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in

  11. No evidence of African swine fever virus replication in hard ticks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Tudela Zúquete, Sara; Wijnveld, Michiel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Jongejan, Frans; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie L A

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in

  12. Identification of Wild Boar–Habitat Epidemiologic Cycle in African Swine Fever Epizootic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Karl; Guberti, Vittorio; Depner, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The African swine fever epizootic in central and eastern European Union member states has a newly identified component involving virus transmission by wild boar and virus survival in the environment. Insights led to an update of the 3 accepted African swine fever transmission models to include a fourth cycle: wild boar–habitat. PMID:29553337

  13. A Novel Swine Model for Evaluation of Potential Intravascular Hemostatic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    bovine polymerized hemoglobin on coagulation in controlled hemorrhagic shock in swine. Shock 24:145–152. 2. Bellamy RF. 1984. The causes of death in...WZ, Pusateri AE, Uscilowicz JM, Delgado AV, Holcomb JB. 2005. Independent contributions of hypothermia and acidosis to coagulopathy in swine. J

  14. Effect of turning frequency and season on composting materials from swine high-rise facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composting of swine manure has several advantages, liquid slurries are converted to solid, the total volume of material is reduced and the stabilized product is more easily transported off-site. Despite this, swine waste is generally stored, treated and applied in its liquid form. The high-rise fini...

  15. Molucular Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses Circulating within European Swine between 2009 and 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, S.J.; Langat, P.; Reid, S.; Lam, T.; Cotten, M.; Kelly, M.; Reeth, Van K.; Qiu, Y.; Simon, G.; Bonin, E.; Foni, E.; Chiapponi, C.; Larsen, L.; Hjulsager, C.; Markowska-Daniel, I.; Urbaniak, K.; Durrwald, R.; Schlegel, M.; Huovilainen, A.; Davidson, I.; Dan, A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Edwards, S.; Bublot, M.; Vila, T.; Maldonado, J.; Valls, L.; Brown, I.H.; Pybus, O.G.; Kellam, P.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence in humans of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, a complex reassortant virus of swine origin, highlighted the importance of worldwide influenza virus surveillance in swine. To date, large-scale surveillance studies have been reported for southern China and North America, but such data

  16. Prevalence, serotype, virulence characteristics, clonality and antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from swine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Swine are the only known animal reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica (YE), a human pathogen. Since YE is a fecal organism of swine, the primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, serotype, virulence plasmid (pYV)-associated characteristics, clonality, and antibiotic su...

  17. Treatment with interferon-alpha delays disease in swine infected with a highly virulent CSFV strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically significant, highly contagious swine disease. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is an enveloped virus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, classified as a member of the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae (Becher et al.,...

  18. Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.

  19. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0....

  20. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  1. Design and Performance of the CDC Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Swine Flu Panel for Detection of 2009 A (H1N1) Pandemic Influenza Virus▿†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10−1.3∼−0.7 50% infectious doses (ID50) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation. PMID:21593260

  2. Onset of a pandemic: characterizing the initial phase of the swine flu (H1N1 epidemic in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendelson Ella

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The swine influenza H1N1 first identified in Mexico, spread rapidly across the globe and is considered the fastest moving pandemic in history. The early phase of an outbreak, in which data is relatively scarce, presents scientific challenges on key issues such as: scale, severity and immunity which are fundamental for establishing sound and rapid policy schemes. Our analysis of an Israeli dataset aims at understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of H1N1 in its initial phase. Methods We constructed and analyzed a unique dataset from Israel on all confirmed cases (between April 26 to July 7, 2009, representing most swine flu cases in this period. We estimated and characterized fundamental epidemiological features of the pandemic in Israel (e.g. effective reproductive number, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups, infections between sexes, and spatial dynamics. Contact data collected during this stage was used to estimate the generation time distribution of the pandemic. Results We found a low effective reproductive number (Re = 1.06, an age-class distribution of infected individuals (skewed towards ages 18-25, at-risk social groups (soldiers and ultra Orthodox Jews, and significant differences in infections between sexes (skewed towards males. In terms of spatial dynamics, the pandemic spread from the central coastal plain of Israel to other regions, with higher infection rates in more densely populated sub-districts with higher income households. Conclusions Analysis of high quality data holds much promise in reducing uncertainty regarding fundamental aspects of the initial phase of an outbreak (e.g. the effective reproductive number Re, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups. The formulation for determining the effective reproductive number Re used here has many advantages for studying the initial phase of the outbreak since it neither assumes exponential growth of infectives and is independent of the

  3. Vitamin E plasma kinetics in swine show low bioavailability and short half-life of -α-tocopheryl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, T A T G; Reijersen, M H; de Bruijn, C; De Smet, S; Michiels, J; Traber, M G; Lauridsen, C

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin E is important for animal production because of its effects on health and product quality, but the amount and form required remains controversial. Our objective was to quantify the absolute bioavailability of oral -α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TAc) in swine (22 ± 1 kg and 8 wk old, fitted with jugular catheters) adapted to a diet supplemented with 75 mg/kg -α-TAc; 75 mg/kg was chosen because this level represents the nonweighted average inclusion level in piglet diets across Western key swine-producing countries. For this, a 350-g test meal (6% fat) was supplied at time 0 containing 75 mg deuterated (D9) -α-TAc to 9 animals, and 8 animals received an intravenous () dose containing deuterated (D6) RRR-α-tocopherol (α-T) at one-eighth the oral dose and a test meal without supplemental vitamin E. Plasma samples (12 to 13 per animal) were obtained at incremental intervals over 75 h for analysis of deuterated α-T using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, the i.v. dose rapidly disappeared from plasma and then reappeared. The half-life for this first peak was only 1.7 ± 0.3 min. The second peak had an appearance rate (Ka) of 0.10 ± 0.06 d and a half-life of 5.9 ± 1.2 h. Oral dosing resulted, after a lag of 56 min, in a Ka of 0.91 ± 0.21 d and a half-life of 2.6 ± 0.8 h. The bioavailability for oral α-TAc was 12.5%, whereas the area under the curve was only 5.4%. This low bioavailability, small area under the curve, and short half-life are likely because of various factors, that is, the use of only 6% fat in the diet, the use of the acetate ester and , and the high dose relative to requirements. In conclusion, i.v. dosed vitamin E shows both a rapid and a very slow pool, whereas orally dosed vitamin E shows a single slow pool. The oral material has a very short half-live (44% of i.v. or 2.6 h), low bioavailability (12.5%), and a very small area under the curve (5.4%), bringing into question the efficacy of typical doses of vitamin

  4. Why is African swine fever still present in Sardinia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, C; Fernández-Carrión, E; Mur, L; Rolesu, S; Laddomada, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2018-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious disease of swine that has been present in Sardinia since 1978. Soon after introduction of the disease, several control and eradication programmes were established with limited success. Some researchers attributed the persistence of the disease in central and eastern areas to certain socio-economic factors, the existence of some local and traditional farming practices (i.e., unregistered free-ranging pigs known as brado animals) and the high density of wild boar in the region. In the past, scarcity of swine data in Sardinia complicated the evaluation and study of ASF on the island. More complete, accurate and reliable information on pig farms has become available as a result of the most recent eradication programmes. Here, we perform statistical modelling based on these data and the known distribution of domestic pig and wild boar to identify the main risk factors that have caused ASF persistence in Sardinia. Our results categorized, identified and quantified nine significant risk factors, six of which have not been previously described. The most significant factors were the number of medium-sized farms, the presence of brado animals and the combination of estimated wild boar density and mean altitude above sea level. Based on these factors, we identified regions in eastern and central Sardinia to be at greatest risk of ASF persistence; these regions are also where the disease has traditionally been endemic. Based on these risk factors, we propose specific control measures aimed at mitigating such risks and eradicating ASF from the island. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui

    2015-04-01

    A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiological relationship of human and swine Streptococcus suis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarradas, C; Luque, I; de Andrés, D; Abdel-Aziz Shahein, Y E; Pons, P; González, F; Borge, C; Perea, A

    2001-06-01

    Two cases of meningitis due to Streptococcus suis in humans are reported here. A butcher and an abattoir worker were referred to a health centre in Castellón (Spain) with fever and symptoms of meningitis. After adequate treatment, a slight hipoacusia persisted as sequelae in both cases. Colonies of S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ were isolated from cerebroespinal fluid. Epidemiological studies showed that both workers had in common the handling of pork meat of slaughtered healthy pigs from three closed farms. A study of the tonsils from apparently healthy, slaughtered pigs was carried out. A total of 234 tonsillar samples were obtained and 81 strains of S. suis were isolated from them. Serotype 2 appeared to be the most frequent (50.6%), and the analysis for phenotype showed a high percentage of tonsillar strains with the phenotype MRP+EF+ (35.9%). The humans and 28 tonsillar swine strains showed a similar profile (S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+). A total of 26 of the swine isolates were analysed by ribotyping using EcoRI. The human strains showed the same six-band hybridization pattern that shared five bands with the pattern most frequently shown by most of the tonsillar N. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ strains, differing only in the lightest, faintest band which was slightly less anodical in human (> or = 1.8 kb) than in swine (approximately 1.8 kb). From these results, both groups of strains, humans and porcine, showed differences; how can these differences in the pattern of ribotyping be explained if they should have the same origin? Is it possible that they have undergone an adaptation to the new host or perhaps the modification is due to other unknown causes? Further studies in this area are required in order to answer these questions.

  7. Interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Swine Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen L.; Thacker, Brad J.; Janke, Bruce H.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental respiratory model was used to investigate the interaction between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus (SIV) in the induction of pneumonia in susceptible swine. Previous studies demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae, which produces a chronic bronchopneumonia in swine, potentiates a viral pneumonia induced by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In this study, pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to inoculation with SIV. Clinical disease as characterized by the severity of cough and fever was evaluated daily. Percentages of lung tissue with visual lesions and microscopic lesions were assessed upon necropsy at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days following SIV inoculation. Clinical observations revealed that pigs infected with both SIV and M. hyopneumoniae coughed significantly more than pigs inoculated with a single agent. Macroscopic pneumonia on necropsy at days 3 and 7 was greatest in both SIV-infected groups, with minimal levels of pneumonia in the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected pigs. At 14 days post-SIV inoculation, pneumonia was significantly more severe in pigs infected with both pathogens. However, by 21 days postinoculation, the level of pneumonia in the dual-infected pigs was similar to that of the M. hyopneumoniae-only-infected group, and the pneumonia in the pigs inoculated with only SIV was nearly resolved. Microscopically, there was no apparent increase in the severity of pneumonia in pigs infected with both agents compared to that of single-agent-challenged pigs. The results of this study found that while pigs infected with both agents exhibited more severe clinical disease, the relationship between the two pathogens lacked the profound potentiation found with dual infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between mycoplasmas and viruses varies with the individual agent. PMID:11427564

  8. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae genetic variability within a swine operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Lucina Galina; Pettit, Kalie; Dos Santos, Lucas F; Tubbs, Rick; Pieters, Maria

    2016-03-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae genetic diversity within a swine operation comingling weaned pigs. Bronchial swabs and tracheal aspirates were collected from 3 nursery-to-finish farms. During the finishing production stages, samples were obtained from mortalities and from live coughing pigs in rooms where mortality was not observed. A total of 105 samples were examined by a M. hyopneumoniae real-time polymerase chain reaction and subjected to genetic typing using a multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) assay. The MLVA was used to identify genetic variants based on the number of repeats in 2 variable number tandem repeats loci, namely P97 and P146, thought to mediate adherence of M. hyopneumoniae to swine cilia. Four distinguishable M. hyopneumoniae variants were identified: MVLA variants 9-15, 11-21, 9-21, and 7-15. Variant 9-15 was the most prevalent, observed in 79% of rooms, and detected on all 3 farms. Variant 11-21 was present in 37% of the rooms on 2 of the 3 farms. Only one 9-21 variant was identified in 1 farm, and all samples of variant 7-15 were recovered from another farm. Based on the low prevalence and limited geographic distribution of the last 2 variants, it is hypothesized that they might be the result of in-situ recombination. All variants detected in this investigation appeared to belong to 3 clusters. Overall, a limited number of variants and clusters were identified in a system that comingles pigs from different sources, suggesting limited M. hyopneumoniae genetic variation within commercial swine production environments. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Development of rapid universal method for determination of Cs-137 in different environmental samples by means of inorganic ion exchangers. Part of a coordinated programme on radiological and environmental protection studies in the Danube river catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicheva, M.

    1983-02-01

    Using three synthetic inorganic ion exchangers of the same type - X 2 [YFe (CN) 6 ] (when X=alkali metal, Y=transition metal) one simple and universal rapid method for determination of Cs-137 in environmental samples was developed. The investigations carried out on synthesis, next preparation and practical use in routine analysis showed that K[CoFe(CN) 6 ] (abbr.KCFC-II) is the most suitable for analysis of low level activities of Cs-137 in different environmental samples. The optimum conditions for routine use of KCFC-II in different separation schemes were found. Repeated analysis of Cs-137 in different environmental samples as well as analysis of IAEA-Reference Materials using our rapid and one classical method showed good agreement of the results. The proposed rapid method can be used in emergency situations and in routine radiation control. (author)

  10. Influence of obesity gene in quantitative traits of swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Segantini do Nascimento Borges

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype data of 477 animals of several swine races (Landrace - LD, Large White - LW, Pietrain - PI, LWXLDXPI, Piau, Monteiro, and unknown race were obtained to determine the allele frequency of the obesity gene. Genotype data of 174 crossbred swine (LWXLDXPI were also obtained, in order to assess its correlation with carcass evaluation data (lean meat percentage, backfat thickness at P2, loin eye area, adjacent fat area, total fat and meat. Finally, genotype data of 96 pure swine (Landrace, Large White and Pietrain were collected, to establish its relation with meat quality (drip loss, meat color, texture analysis and intramuscular fat and carcass evaluation data (lean meat percentage; ham, loin, shoulder and belly weights; and backfat thickness at P2. This work also aimed associating EPDs (expected progeny differences for litter size, daily weight gain and backfat thickness with genotype data of 49 Large White males and 54 Landrace females. Genotyping was done on animal blood by PCR-RFLP, based on Stratil et al. (1997. Statistical analysis was done by using SAS software for variance analysis between genotypes and data for each cited class. For purebred animals, a mixed model was used, with sire within race as random effect. The allelic frequencies of alleles T and C were, respectively: 0.8142; 0.1857 (Landrace; 0.9125; 0.0875 (Large White; 0.9433; 0.0566 (Pietrain; 0.8333; 0.1666 (LWXLDXPI; 0.2500; 0.7500 (Piau; 0.8750; 0.1250 (Monteiro, and 0.8870; 0.1130 (unknown race. Since the highest allele C frequency occurred in Piau, we suggest that this allele could be associated with fat accumulation. In the Landrace race, a study was done separating the frequencies of 2 generations (great-grandfather and grandfather, and the differences confirmed by a Chi-square test, a higher frequency of allele C having been found in the grandparental generation. This suggests that this allele could be eliminated by selection from the great

  11. Two-wave propagation in in vitro swine distal ulna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Isao; Horii, Kaoru; Matsukawa, Mami; Otani, Takahiko

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic transmitted waves were obtained in an in vitro swine distal ulna specimen, which mimics a human distal radius, that consists of interconnected cortical bone and cancellous bone. The transmitted waveforms appeared similar to the fast waves, slow waves, and overlapping fast and slow waves measured in the specimen after removing the surface cortical bone (only cancellous bone). In addition, the circumferential waves in the cortical bone and water did not affect the fast and slow waves. This suggests that the fast-and-slow-wave phenomenon can be observed in an in vivo human distal radius.

  12. Pathogens gone wild? Medical anthropology and the "swine flu" pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Merrill

    2009-07-01

    Beginning in April 2009, global attention began focusing on the emergence in Mexico of a potentially highly lethal new influenza strain of porcine origin that has successfully jumped species barriers and is now being transmitted around the world. Reported on extensively by the mass media, commented on by public health and government officials across the globe, and focused on with nervous attention by the general public, the so-called swine flu pandemic raises important questions, addressed here, concerning the capacity of medical anthropology to respond usefully to such disease outbreaks and their health and social consequences.

  13. Effects of chronic 90Sr ingestion in miniature swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Hackett, P.L.; Lund, J.E.; McClanahan, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    Daily 90 Sr feeding of greater than 125 μCi/day resulted in pancytopenia with death usually due to hemorrhage. At 125 μCi, pancytopenia and myelolymphoproliferative disorders appeared. At less than 125 μCi/day a dose-related neutropenia was evident. There is an apparent increased incidence of both benign and malignant tumors of soft tissue in animals fed 25 μCi/day for their lifetime. Benign uterine tumors, dental defects and marked arthritis continued to be the major diseases necessitating euthanasia in aged animals from all groups, including control swine. (U.S.)

  14. Commercial bacterins did not induce detectable levels of antibodies in mice against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens strongly recognized by swine immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Fisch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic Pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae results in major economic losses to the swine industry. Hence, the identification of factors that provide protection against EP could help to develop effective vaccines. One such factor that provides partial protection are bacterins. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the induction of antibodies against fifteen M. hyopneumoniae antigens, strongly recognized by the swine immune system during natural infection, in mice vaccinated with six commercial bacterins. Each group of mice was inoculated with one bacterin, and seroconversion was assessed by indirect ELISA using recombinant antigens and M. hyopneumoniae 7448 whole cell extract. Sera from one inoculated group recognized antigen MHP_0067, and sera from four inoculated groups recognized antigens MHP_0513 and MHP_0580. None of the bacterins was able to induce seroconversion against the twelve remaining antigens. This absence of a serological response could be attributed to the lack of antigen expression in M. hyopneumoniae strains used in bacterin production. Additionally the partial protection provided by these vaccines could be due to low expression or misfolding of antigens during vaccine preparation. Therefore, the supplementation of bacterins with these recombinant antigens could be a potential alternative in the development of more effective vaccines.

  15. Obtaining classical swine fever virus E2 recombinant protein and DNA-vaccine on the basis of one subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deryabin, O.; Deryabina, O.; Verbitskiy, P.; Kordyum, V.

    2005-01-01

    Three forms of E2 recombinant protein were expressed in E. coli. Swine sera obtained against different forms of the recombinant protein were cross-studied with indirect ELISA. Using individual proteins as an antigen, only 15% of sera against other forms of protein reacted positively, while 100% of heterologous sera showed positive reaction with fused protein. Challenge experiments showed the existence of protective action only from the individual protein. Specificity and activity of sera obtained from the animals after control challenge was confirmed in a blocking variant of ELISA. Genetic construction used a eukaryotic vector that contained the E2 protein gene. Immunization of mice with the resulting DNA induced synthesis of specific antibodies, the titre of which increased considerably after additional single immunization with the E2 recombinant protein, expressed in E. coli. This demonstrated the effectiveness of animal priming by DNA vaccine, and the possibility of using the E2 recombinant protein in E. coli for booster vaccination. (author)

  16. Assessing the Risk of African Swine Fever Introduction into the European Union by Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, A; Bosch, J; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Mur, L; Martínez-López, B; Martínez, M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2015-06-01

    The presence of African swine fever (ASF) in the Caucasus region and Russian Federation has increased concerns that wild boars may introduce the ASF virus into the European Union (EU). This study describes a semi-quantitative approach for evaluating the risk of ASF introduction into the EU by wild boar movements based on the following risk estimators: the susceptible population of (1) wild boars and (2) domestic pigs in the country of origin; the outbreak density in (3) wild boars and (4) domestic pigs in the countries of origin, the (5) suitable habitat for wild boars along the EU border; and the distance between the EU border and the nearest ASF outbreak in (6) wild boars or (7) domestic pigs. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential risk estimators. The highest risk was found to be concentrated in Finland, Romania, Latvia and Poland, and wild boar habitat and outbreak density were the two most important risk estimators. Animal health authorities in at-risk countries should be aware of these risk estimators and should communicate closely with wild boar hunters and pig farmers to rapidly detect and control ASF. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Tetracycline resistance in semi-arid agricultural soils under long-term swine effluent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Inna E; Josue, Rosemarie D R; Deng, Shiping; Hattey, Jeffory A

    2017-05-04

    Annually, millions pounds of antibiotics are released unmetabolized into environment along with animal wastes. Accumulation of antibiotics in soils could potentially induce the persistence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Antibiotics such as tetracyclines and tetracycline-resistant bacteria have been previously detected in fields fertilized with animal manure. However, little is known about the accumulation of tetracyclines and the development of tetracycline resistance in semi-arid soils. Here we demonstrate that continuous land application with swine effluent, containing trace amounts of chlortetracycline, does not necessarily induce tetracycline resistance in soil bacteria. Based on the testing of more than 3,000 bacteria isolated from the amended soils, we found no significant increase in the occurrence and level of chlortetracycline resistant bacteria in soils after 15 years of continuous swine effluent fertilization. To account for a possible transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria originated from the swine effluent to soils, we analyzed two commonly found tetracycline resistant genes, tet(O) and tet(M), in the swine effluent and fertilized soils. Both genes were present in the swine effluent, however, they were not detectable in soils applied with swine effluent. Our data demonstrate that agronomic application of manure from antibiotic treated swine effluent does not necessarily result in the development of antibiotic bacterial resistance in soils. Apparently, concentrations of chlortetracycline present in manure are not significant enough to induce the development of antibiotic bacterial resistance.

  18. Metabonomic study of the biochemical profiles of heterozygous myostatin knockout swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiang XU,Dengke PAN,Jie ZHAO,Jianwu WANG,Xiaohong HE,Yuehui MA,Ning LI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin is a transforming growth factor-β family member that normally acts to limit skeletal muscle growth. Myostatin gene (MSTN knockout (KO mice show possible effects for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. We applied chromatography and mass spectrometry based metabonomics to assess system-wide metabolic response of heterozygous MSTN KO (MSTN+/- swine. Most of the metabolic data for MSTN+/- swine were similar to the data for wild type (WT control swine. There were, however, metabolic changes related to fatty acid metabolism, glucose utilization, lipid metabolism, as well as BCAA catabolism caused by monoallelic MSTN depletion.The statistical analyses suggested that: (1 most metabolic changes were not significant in MSTN+/- swine compared to WT swine; (2 only a few metabolic properties were significantly different between KO and WT swine, especially for lipid metabolism. Significantly, these minor changes were most evident in female KO swine and suggested differences in gender sensitivity to myostatin.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of chicken feather with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Massé, Daniel I; McAllister, Tim A; Beaulieu, Carole; Ungerfeld, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of chicken feathers with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge was assessed in two separate experiments. Ground feathers without any pre-treatment were added to 42-L digesters inoculated with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge, representing 37% and 23% of total solids, respectively and incubated at 25°C in batch mode. Compared to the control without feather addition, total CH(4) production increased by 130% (Pswine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters, respectively. Mixed liquor NH(4)N concentration increased (Pdigestion to 6.9 and 3.5 g/L at the end of digestion in the swine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters, respectively. The fraction of proteolytic microorganisms increased (Pdigestion from 12.5% to 14.5% and 11.3% to 13.0% in the swine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters with feather addition, respectively, but decreased in the controls. These results are reflective of feather digestion. Feather addition did not affect CH(4) yields of the swine manure digesters (P=0.082) and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters (P=0.21), indicating that feathers can be digested together with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge without negatively affecting the digestion of swine manure and slaughterhouse sludge. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preventive vaccination contributes to control classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, S; Pol, F; Forot, B; Masse-Provin, N; Rigaux, S; Bronner, A; Le Potier, M-F

    2010-04-21

    Over the last 20 years, oral vaccination implementing a live attenuated vaccine has been experimented in Europe in order to control classical swine fever (CSF) in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa sp.). This has generally led to an enhanced seroprevalence and a decreased viroprevalence at the scale of the whole vaccinated populations, but no quantitative analysis has demonstrated the protective effect of preventive vaccination or intensive baiting. In the present paper we conducted a retrospective analysis at the scale of the municipality, taking into account the local dynamics and possible covariates of infection to test the effect of preventive vaccination and of the baiting effort. To be efficient, vaccination was expected to increase seroprevalence above the level considered as suitable for preventing disease invasion (40-60%) independently of infection, to protect free areas from disease invasion or contribute to control subsequent disease intensity and duration. We also hypothesized that a better baiting effort would be correlated with an improvement of immunisation and disease control. In uninfected municipalities, seroprevalence increased up to 40% after 1 year, i.e., three vaccination campaigns. We observed a significant protective effect of preventive vaccination, especially within municipalities that had been vaccinated at least 1 year before disease emergence and where virus detection did not last more than one quarter. On the other hand, we did not detect a significant effect of the baiting effort on local seroprevalence or disease dynamics, suggesting that the baiting system could be improved. We discuss these results regarding the improvement of management measures and further research perspective. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  2. Zoonotic pathogens from feral swine that pose a significant threat to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V R; Bowen, R A; Bosco-Lauth, A M

    2018-06-01

    The natural fecundity of suids, great ability to adapt to new habitats and desire for local hunting opportunities leading to translocation of feral pigs to regions where they are not yet established have all been instrumental in the home range expansion of feral swine. Feral swine populations in the United States continue to expand, wreaking havoc on agricultural lands, further compromising threatened and endangered species, and posing a microbiological threat to humans, domestic livestock and companion animals. This manuscript thoroughly reviews zoonotic diseases of concern including brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, leptospirosis, enteric pathogens, both Salmonella spp. and shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and hepatitis E. These pathogens are not a comprehensive list of microbes that are capable of infecting both humans and feral swine, but rather have been selected as they are known to infect US feral swine, direct transmission between wild suids and humans has previously been documented, or they have been shown to be readily transmitted during processing or consumption of feral swine pork. Humans that interact directly or indirectly with feral swine are at much higher risk for the development of a number of zoonotic pathogens. Numerous case reports document transmission events from feral swine and wild boar to humans, and the resulting diseases may be mild and self-limiting, chronic or fatal. Individuals that interact with feral swine should take preventative measures to minimize the risk of disease transmission and all meat should be thoroughly cooked. Additionally, public health campaigns to increase knowledge of the risks associated with feral swine are imperative. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Early assessment of anxiety and behavioral response to novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Holland Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since late April, 2009, a novel influenza virus A (H1N1, generally referred to as the "swine flu," has spread around the globe and infected hundreds of thousands of people. During the first few days after the initial outbreak in Mexico, extensive media coverage together with a high degree of uncertainty about the transmissibility and mortality rate associated with the virus caused widespread concern in the population. The spread of an infectious disease can be strongly influenced by behavioral changes (e.g., social distancing during the early phase of an epidemic, but data on risk perception and behavioral response to a novel virus is usually collected with a substantial delay or after an epidemic has run its course. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the results from an online survey that gathered data (n = 6,249 about risk perception of the Influenza A(H1N1 outbreak during the first few days of widespread media coverage (April 28-May 5, 2009. We find that after an initially high level of concern, levels of anxiety waned along with the perception of the virus as an immediate threat. Overall, our data provide evidence that emotional status mediates behavioral response. Intriguingly, principal component analysis revealed strong clustering of anxiety about swine flu, bird flu and terrorism. All three of these threats receive a great deal of media attention and their fundamental uncertainty is likely to generate an inordinate amount of fear vis-a-vis their actual threat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that respondents' behavior varies in predictable ways. Of particular interest, we find that affective variables, such as self-reported anxiety over the epidemic, mediate the likelihood that respondents will engage in protective behavior. Understanding how protective behavior such as social distancing varies and the specific factors that mediate it may help with the design of epidemic control strategies.

  4. Anaerobic treatment of apple waste with swine manure for biogas production: Batch and continuous operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Apple waste (AW) was co-digested with swine manure (SM). ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield than SM only. ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield at 55 °C than at 36.5 °C. ► Modified Gompertz model best fitted to the substrates used. ► Positive synergetic effect up to 33% AW during continuous digestion. -- Abstract: This study evaluated the performance of anaerobic digesters using a mixture of apple waste (AW) and swine manure (SM). Tests were performed using both batch and continuous digesters. The batch test evaluated the gas potential, gas production rate of the AW and SM (Experiment I), and the effect of AW co-digestion with SM (33:67,% volatile solids (VSs) basis) (Experiment II) at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The first-order kinetic model and modified Gompertz model were also evaluated for methane yield. The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with different mixture ratios of AW and SM at mesophilic temperature. The ultimate biogas and methane productivity of AW in terms of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was determined to be 510 and 252 mL/g TCOD added, respectively. The mixture of AW and SM improved the biogas yield by approximately 16% and 48% at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, respectively, compared to the use of SM only, but no significant difference was found in the methane yield. The difference between the predicted and measured methane yield was higher with a first order kinetic model (4.6–18.1%) than with a modified Gompertz model (1.2–3.4%). When testing continuous digestion, the methane yield increased from 146 to 190 mL/g TCOD added when the AW content in the feed was increased from 25% to 33% (VS basis) at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.6 g VS/L/d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days. However, the total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) accumulation increased rapidly and the p

  5. Polymerase discordance in novel swine influenza H3N2v constellations is tolerated in swine but not human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Powell

    Full Text Available Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09 in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼ 80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection.

  6. Polymerase Discordance in Novel Swine Influenza H3N2v Constellations Is Tolerated in Swine but Not Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joshua D.; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Nagy, Tamas; Gabbard, Jon; Lee, Christopher; Tompkins, Stephen M.; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA) segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA) showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection. PMID:25330303

  7. DETECTION OF CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS BY RT-PCR IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.

  8. Nation-wide Salmonella enterica surveillance and control in Danish slaughter swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Jan; Jensen, P.T.; Halgaard, C.

    1997-01-01

    ranging from four to more than 60 swine are obtained quarterly at the abattoir. A meat sample from each pig is frozen, and meat juice (harvested after thawing) is examined for specific antibodies against S. enterica using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA combines several S...... during 1995 ranged from a mean of 2.9% in smaller herds (101-200 swine slaughtered per year) to 6.1% in relatively large herds (more than 5000 swine slaughtered per year)....

  9. SWINE MANURE SOLIDS SEPARATION AND THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TO HEAVY OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangning Xiu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Separation of solids from liquid swine manure and subsequent thermo-chemical conversion (TCC of the solids fraction into oil is one way of reducing the waste strength and odor emission. Such processing also provides a potential means of producing renewable energy from animal wastes. Gravity settling and mechanical separation techniques, by means of a centrifuge and belt press, were used to remove the solids from liquid swine manure. The solid fractions from the above separation processes were used as the feedstock for the TCC process for oil production. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor with a steady temperature 305 oC, and the corresponding pressure was 10.34 Mpa. Gravity settling was demonstrated to be capable of increasing the total solids content of manure from 1% to 9%. Both of the mechanical separation systems were able to produce solids with dry matter around 18% for manure, with 1% to 2% initial total solids. A significant amount of volatile solid (75.7% was also obtained from the liquid fraction using the belt press process. The oil yields of shallow pit manure solids and deep pit manure solids with belt press separation were 28.72% and 29.8% of the total volatile solids, respectively. There was no visible oil product obtained from the deep pit manure solids with centrifuge separation. It is believed that it is the volatile solid content and the other components in the manure chemical composition which mainly deter-mine the oil production.

  10. Anammox biofilm in activated sludge swine wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Ryu; Ishimoto, Chikako; Chikyu, Mikio; Aihara, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Uenishi, Hirohide; Yasuda, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Waki, Miyoko

    2017-01-01

    We investigated anammox with a focus on biofilm in 10 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that use activated sludge treatment of swine wastewater. In three plants, we found red biofilms in aeration tanks or final sedimentation tanks. The biofilm had higher anammox 16S rRNA gene copy numbers (up to 1.35 × 10 12 copies/g-VSS) and higher anammox activity (up to 295 μmoL/g-ignition loss/h) than suspended solids in the same tank. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Planctomycetes accounted for up to 17.7% of total reads in the biofilm. Most of them were related to Candidatus Brocadia or Ca. Jettenia. The highest copy number and the highest proportion of Planctomycetes were comparable to those of enriched anammox sludge. Thus, swine WWTPs that use activated sludge treatment can fortuitously acquire anammox biofilm. Thus, concentrated anammox can be detected by focusing on red biofilm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationships among and variation within rare breeds of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K S; Lamberson, W R

    2015-08-01

    Extinction of rare breeds of livestock threatens to reduce the total genetic variation available for selection in the face of the changing environment and new diseases. Swine breeds facing extinction typically share characteristics such as small size, slow growth rate, and high fat percentage, which limit them from contributing to commercial production. Compounding the risk of loss of variation is the lack of pedigree information for many rare breeds due to inadequate herd books, which increases the chance that producers are breeding closely related individuals. By making genetic data available, producers can make more educated breeding decisions to preserve genetic diversity in future generations, and conservation organizations can prioritize investments in breed preservation. The objective of this study was to characterize genetic variation within and among breeds of swine and prioritize heritage breeds for preservation. Genotypes from the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip (GeneSeek, Lincoln, NE) were obtained for Guinea, Ossabaw Island, Red Wattle, American Saddleback, Mulefoot, British Saddleback, Duroc, Landrace, Large White, Pietrain, and Tamworth pigs. A whole-genome analysis toolset was used to construct a genomic relationship matrix and to calculate inbreeding coefficients for the animals within each breed. Relatedness and average inbreeding coefficient differed among breeds, and pigs from rare breeds were generally more closely related and more inbred ( Guinea pigs. Tamworth, Duroc, and Mulefoot tended to not cluster with the other 7 breeds.

  12. Classical swine fever in pigs: recent developments and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Vishal; Nandi, S; Ravishankar, C; Upmanyu, V; Verma, Rishendra

    2014-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is one of the most devastating epizootic diseases of pigs, causing high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of clinical signs and similarity in disease manifestations to other diseases make CSF difficult to diagnose with certainty. The disease is further complicated by the presence of a number of different strains belonging to three phylogenetic groups. Advanced diagnostic techniques allow detection of antigens or antibodies in clinical samples, leading to implementation of proper and effective control programs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods, including portable real-time PCR, provide diagnosis in a few hours with precision and accuracy, even at the point of care. The disease is controlled by following a stamping out policy in countries where vaccination is not practiced, whereas immunization with live attenuated vaccines containing the 'C' strain is effectively used to control the disease in endemic countries. To overcome the problem of differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals, different types of marker vaccines, with variable degrees of efficacy, along with companion diagnostic assays have been developed and may be useful in controlling and even eradicating the disease in the foreseeable future. The present review aims to provide an overview and status of CSF as a whole with special reference to swine husbandry in India.

  13. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Swine Influenza Vaccine: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjot Basra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Multiple scientific articles have documented that vaccinations for influenza, MMR, and HBV, to name a few, could be triggers of RA in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there is limited data regarding the association of swine flu vaccine (H1N1 and RA. We report the case of a Mexican American female who developed RA right after vaccination with H1N1 vaccine. Genetically, RA has consistently been associated with an epitope in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DR chains, known as the “shared epitope”, which is found primarily in DR4 and DR1 regions. The presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles is associated with susceptibility to RA in Mexican Americans. Hence, certain individuals with the presence of the “shared epitope” may develop RA following specific vaccinations. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RA following vaccination with the swine flu vaccine.

  14. Endothelial cell proliferation in swine experimental aneurysm after coil embolization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Mitome-Mishima

    Full Text Available After coil embolization, recanalization in cerebral aneurysms adversely influences long-term prognosis. Proliferation of endothelial cells on the coil surface may reduce the incidence of recanalization and further improve outcomes after coil embolization. We aimed to map the expression of proliferating tissue over the aneurysmal orifice and define the temporal profile of tissue growth in a swine experimental aneurysm model. We compared the outcomes after spontaneous thrombosis with those of coil embolization using histological and morphological techniques. In aneurysms that we not coiled, spontaneous thrombosis was observed, and weak, easily detachable proliferating tissue was evident in the aneurysmal neck. In contrast, in the coil embolization group, histological analysis showed endothelial-like cells lining the aneurysmal opening. Moreover, immunohistochemical and morphological analysis suggested that these cells were immature endothelial cells. Our results indicated the existence of endothelial cell proliferation 1 week after coil embolization and showed immature endothelial cells in septal tissue between the systemic circulation and the aneurysm. These findings suggest that endothelial cells are lead to and proliferate in the former aneurysmal orifice. This is the first examination to evaluate the temporal change of proliferating tissue in a swine experimental aneurysm model.

  15. Occurrence and Diversity of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Underlying Two Swine Production Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Krapac, I.J.; Garrigues-Jeanjean, N.; Mackie, R.I.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we used PCR typing methods to assess the presence of tetracycline resistance determinants conferring ribosomal protection in waste lagoons and in groundwater underlying two swine farms. All eight classes of genes encoding this mechanism of resistance [tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tetB(P), tet(S), tet(T), and otrA] were found in total DNA extracted from water of two lagoons. These determinants were found to be seeping into the underlying groundwater and could be detected as far as 250 m downstream from the lagoons. The identities and origin of these genes in groundwater were confirmed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analyses. Tetracycline-resistant bacterial isolates from groundwater harbored the tet(M) gene, which was not predominant in the environmental samples and was identical to tet(M) from the lagoons. The presence of this gene in some typical soil inhabitants suggests that the vector of antibiotic resistance gene dissemination is not limited to strains of gastrointestinal origin carrying the gene but can be mobilized into the indigenous soil microbiota. This study demonstrated that tet genes occur in the environment as a direct result of agriculture and suggested that groundwater may be a potential source of antibiotic resistance in the food chain.

  16. A Mathematical Model that Simulates Control Options for African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike B Barongo

    Full Text Available A stochastic model designed to simulate transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus (ASFV in a free-ranging pig population under various intervention scenarios is presented. The model was used to assess the relative impact of the timing of the implementation of different control strategies on disease-related mortality. The implementation of biosecurity measures was simulated through incorporation of a decay function on the transmission rate. The model predicts that biosecurity measures implemented within 14 days of the onset of an epidemic can avert up to 74% of pig deaths due to ASF while hypothetical vaccines that confer 70% immunity when deployed prior to day 14 of the epidemic could avert 65% of pig deaths. When the two control measures are combined, the model predicts that 91% of the pigs that would have otherwise succumbed to the disease if no intervention was implemented would be saved. However, if the combined interventions are delayed (defined as implementation from > 60 days only 30% of ASF-related deaths would be averted. In the absence of vaccines against ASF, we recommend early implementation of enhanced biosecurity measures. Active surveillance and use of pen-side diagnostic assays, preferably linked to rapid dissemination of this data to veterinary authorities through mobile phone technology platforms are essential for rapid detection and confirmation of ASF outbreaks. This prediction, although it may seem intuitive, rationally confirms the importance of early intervention in managing ASF epidemics. The modelling approach is particularly valuable in that it determines an optimal timing for implementation of interventions in controlling ASF outbreaks.

  17. Molecular characterization of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from livestock (bovine and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asima Zehra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to figure the prevalence, phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance (AR pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine and swine nares. Materials and Methods: Colonies with typical morphology on Baird-Parker agar supplemented with egg-yolk tellurite emulsion were selected and biochemically/genotypically identified as S. aureus. These strains were further subjected to epsilometer test for their sensitivity to various clinically important antibiotics and antibiotic susceptibility testing for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and double-disk diffusion testing was performed by the standard disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. S. aureus strains were also tested for the presence of AR genes, viz., blaZ, mecA, aacA-aphD, erm (ermA, ermB, ermC, tet (efflux genes tetK and tetL, tetM and tetO of the ribosomal protection family, and vanA. Results: The nasal cavities of 17 out of 47 randomly selected bovine and 20 out of 28 randomly selected swine were positive for S. aureus, representing the prevalence of 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.5-49.9 and 71.4% (95% CI: 54.7-88.1, respectively. Most of the S. aureus strains showed higher resistance to penicillin (94.6%, minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] =1.5 μg/ml followed by ciprofloxacin (56.7%, MIC =32 μg/ml and tetracycline (18.9%, MIC =32 μg/ml. About 10-15% of the strains were resistant to gentamicin (MIC 16 μg/ml and oxacillin (MIC 6-8 μg/ml. None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin (MIC 0.25-1.5 μg/ml. In this study, 32.4% strains were resistant to three or more than three antibiotics and prevalence of this multi-drug resistant S. aureus was 45% (95% CI: 26.6-63.4 and 17.6% (95% CI: 6.7- 28.5 in swine and bovine nasal samples, respectively. Four strains from pigs were borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus MIC 6-8 μg/ml, but none were mecA positive. Two of these strains were β-lactamase hyperproducers. Among the resistance

  18. Prevalence of African swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus antibodies in pigs in Benue State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asambe, A; Sackey, A K B; Tekdek, L B

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) antibodies in pigs in Benue State, Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from a total of 460 pigs, including 416 from 74 piggeries and 44 from Makurdi slaughter slab. The samples were analysed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit to detect the presence of ASFV antibodies, while competitive ELISA test kit was used to detect antibodies to CSFV. Our findings showed a total ASF prevalence of 13 (2.8%), while prevalences of 7 (1.7%) and 6 (13.6%) were observed in piggeries and in Makurdi slaughter slab, respectively. However, no CSFV antibody sera were detected in this study. Relatively higher ASFV antibody-positive pigs were detected in the slaughter slab than in piggeries. The difference in prevalence of ASF between the two locations was significantly associated (p = 0.017). These findings suggest the presence of ASFV antibody-positive pig in Benue State, Nigeria. Continuous surveillance and monitoring of these diseases among pigs in Nigeria to prevent any fulminating outbreak are recommended.

  19. Whistleblower Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012 (WPA) and the Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 Enhanced by the Act of 2012 provides protection rights for Federal employees against retaliation for whistleblowing activities.

  20. Role of endothelin receptor activation in secondary pulmonary hypertension in awake swine after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Houweling (Birgit); D. Merkus (Daphne); O. Sorop (Oana); F. Boomsma (Frans); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe previously observed that pulmonary hypertension secondary to myocardial infarction (MI) in swine is characterized by elevated plasma endothelin (ET) levels and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that an increased ET-mediated vasoconstrictor

  1. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; Di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V.

    1983-01-01

    The virucidal effect of 60 Co γ-radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses, 20 and 30 kGy, were determined in preliminary experiments. At a radiation dose of 30 kGy, the activity of extracellular and cell-associated test viruses, except swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), was completely destroyed both in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure. The infectivity of SVDV decreased significantly (P 10 TCID 50 , both in cell culture medium and in liquid manure and this value corresponded to the international effectiveness demand for a disinfectant. The results showed that the safe disinfection virus in liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  2. Changes in the use of antimicrobials and the effects on productivity of swine farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    -Antimicrobial consumption by Danish swine farms from 1992 to 2008 was determined and evaluated in light of policies to regulate antimicrobial consumption, changes in disease patterns, and productivity data. Trend analyses of productivity data were conducted before and after a ban on use of antimicrobial growth promoters......Objective-To evaluate changes in antimicrobial consumption and productivity by Danish swine farms during 1992 to 2008. Sample Population-All Danish swine farms for antimicrobial consumption data and a representative sample of Danish swine herds for productivity data. Procedures...... of antimicrobials in 1994 and termination of AGP use by January 2000. Pig production increased from 18.4 to 271 million pigs, and the mean number of pigs per sow per year raised for slaughter increased from 21 in 1992 to 25 in 2007 Average daily gain for weaning ( 35 kg) pigs was higher...

  3. Identification of atypical porcine pestivirus infection in swine herds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K; Wu, K; Liu, J; Ge, S; Xiao, Y; Shang, Y; Ning, Z

    2017-08-01

    Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) have been detected in swine herds from the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and most recently in Austria, suggesting a wide geographic distribution of this novel virus. Here, for the first time, we reported APPV infection in swine herds in China. Newborn piglets from two separate swine herds in Guangdong province were found showing typical congenital tremors in July and August 2016. RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed APPV infection occurred. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Chinese APPV strains, GD1 and GD2, formed independent branch from the USA, Germany and the Netherlands. Nucleotide identities between members of the APPV ranged between 83.1% and 83.5%, and this showed APPV is highly diverse. It is apparent that this provides the first molecular evidence of APPV infection in swine herds in China. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Are Swine Workers in the United States at Increased Risk of Infection with Zoonotic Influenza Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kendall P.; Olsen, Christopher W.; Setterquist, Sharon F.; Capuano, Ana W.; Donham, Kelley J.; Thacker, Eileen L.; Merchant, James A.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza strains originate in nonhuman species. Pigs have an important role in interspecies transmission of the virus. We examined multiple swine-exposed human populations in the nation's number 1 swine-producing state for evidence of previous swine influenza virus infection. Methods We performed controlled, cross-sectional seroprevalence studies among 111 farmers, 97 meat processing workers, 65 veterinarians, and 79 control subjects using serum samples collected during the period of 2002–2004. Serum samples were tested using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against the following 6 influenza A virus isolates collected recently from pigs and humans: A/Swine/WI/238/97 (H1N1), A/Swine/WI/R33F/01 (H1N2), A/Swine/Minnesota/593/99 (H3N2), A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2), and A/Nanchang/933/95 (H3N2). Results Using multivariable proportional odds modeling, all 3 exposed study groups demonstrated markedly elevated titers against the H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus isolates, compared with control subjects. Farmers had the strongest indication of exposure to swine H1N1 virus infection (odds ratio [OR], 35.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.7–161.8), followed by veterinarians (OR, 17.8; 95% CI, 3.8–82.7), and meat processing workers (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.4–29.5). Similarly, farmers had the highest odds for exposure to swine H1N2 virus (OR, 13.8; 95% CI, 5.4–35.4), followed by veterinarians (OR, 9.5; 95% CI, 3.6–24.6) and meat processing workers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1–6.7). Conclusions Occupational exposure to pigs greatly increases workers' risk of swine influenza virus infection. Swine workers should be included in pandemic surveillance and in antiviral and immunization strategies. PMID:16323086

  5. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  6. Virulence determinants within the E2 glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, Camille Melissa; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Lohse, Louise

    Classical Swine Fever is a highly contagious disease of pigs caused by Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a member of the pestivirus genus within the family Flaviviridae. The E2 glycoprotein of CSFV has been shown to be an important factor for the virulence of the virus. In a recent study, we have......Kos (with the SL motif). The results indicate that the E2 residues 763-64 play an important role in CSFV virulence....

  7. Genetic Reassortment Among the Influenza Viruses (Avian Influenza, Human Influenza and Swine Influenza in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a hazardous virus and harm to respiratory tract. The virus infect birds, pigs, horses, dogs, mammals and humans. Pigs are important hosts in ecology of the influenza virus because they have two receptors, namely NeuAc 2,3Gal and NeuAc 2,6Gal which make the pigs are sensitive to infection of influenza virus from birds and humans and genetic reassortment can be occurred. Classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses had been circulated in pigs in North America and other countries for 80 years. In 1998, triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza viruses that contains genes of human influenza A virus (H3N2, swine influenza virus (H1N1 and avian influenza are reported as cause an outbreaks in pigs in North America. Furthermore, the circulation of triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus resulting reassortant H1N1 swine influenza and reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses cause infection in humans. Humans who were infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A virus (H1N1 usually made direct contact with pigs. Although without any clinical symptoms, pigs that are infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A (H1N1 can transmit infection to the humans around them. In June 2009, WHO declared that pandemic influenza of reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus (novel H1N1 has reached phase 6. In Indonesia until 2009, there were 1005 people were infected by H1N1 influenza A and 5 of them died. Novel H1N1 and H5N1 viruses have been circulated in humans and pigs in Indonesia. H5N1 reassortant and H1N1 viruses or the seasonal flu may could arise because of genetic reassortment between avian influenza and humans influenza viruses that infect pigs together.

  8. Arsenic residues in livers of swine, lamb and poultry and in eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoeppler, H O

    1975-01-01

    The arsenic content of 3651 swine, 180 lamb livers, 420 egg samples and poultry livers from 175 poultry farms were determined colorimetrically. The analyses samples were all derived from bavarian farms. According to the proposed legal standards (3), 1.23% of the swine liver samples and 1.67% of the egg samples were above the tolerated values of 0.5 resp. 0.1 mg/kg. 14 references, 4 tables.

  9. The action of certain antibiotics and ether on swine enzootic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, R G

    1971-01-01

    The susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to the action of three antibiotics and diethyl ether was determined. Infected swine were used in an in vivo sensitivity detection system. The parameter of susceptibility was lesion prophylaxis. In vivo, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae appeared to be resistant to diethyl ether, tylosin tartrate, and erythromycin, but was susceptible to the action of chlortetracycline. Chlortetracycline was effective in preventing the development of lesions when given at levels which would be practical in commercial swine operations.

  10. Serological and molecular evidence of hepadnavirus infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine R Vieira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Recently, investigations in a swine herd identified evidence of the existence of a novel member of the Hepadnavirus family endemic in swine. The aim of this study was to investigate the serological and molecular markers of Hepadnavirus circulation in Brazilian domestic swine and wild boar herds, and to evaluate the identity with HBV and other Hepadnaviruses reported previously. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. For the study, 376 swine were screened for hepatitis B virus serological markers. Analyses were performed in serum samples using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits (DiaSorin® for anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs. Reactive and undetermined swine serum samples were selected to perform DNA viral extraction (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, Qiagen®, partial genome amplification and genome sequencing. [b]Results[/b]. From 376 swine samples analysed, 28 (7.45% were reactive to anti-HBc, 3 (0.80% to HBsAg and 6 (1.6% to anti-HBs. Besides, more 17 (4.52% swine samples analyzed were classified in the grey zone of the EIA test to anti-HBc and 2 (0.53% to HBsAg. From 49 samples molecularly analyzed after serological trial, 4 samples showed a positive result for the qualitative PCR for Hepadnavirus. Phylogenetic reconstruction using partial genome sequencing (360 bp of 3 samples showed similarity with HBV with 90.8–96.3% of identity. [b]Conclusions.[/b] Serological and molecular data showed evidence of the circulation of a virus similar to hepatitis B virus in swine.

  11. ADM1-based modeling of anaerobic digestion of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers present challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal has been tested as a simple and cheap method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane potential and the biogas productivity of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was tested in CSTR-type digesters fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretrea...

  12. Live poultry market workers are susceptible to both avian and swine influenza viruses, Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidang; Ma, Jun; White, Sarah K; Cao, Zhenpeng; Zhen, Yun; He, Shuyi; Zhu, Wanjun; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yongbiao; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong

    2015-12-31

    Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinarians, and controls not exposed to animals were enrolled in this study and 11 (4 human, 3 swine, 3 avian, and 1 canine) influenza A viruses were used in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays (7 strains) and the cross-reactivity test (9 strains) in which 5 strains were used in both tests. Univariate analysis was performed to identify which variables were significantly associated with seropositivity. Odds ratios (OR) revealed that swine workers had a significantly higher risk of elevated antibodies against A/swine/Guangdong/L6/2009(H1N1), a classical swine virus, and A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2012(H1N1), a Eurasian avian-like swine virus than non-exposed controls. Poultry farm workers were at a higher risk of infection with avian influenza H7N9 and H9N2. LPM workers were at a higher risk of infection with 3 subtypes of avian influenza, H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2. Interestingly, the OR also indicated that LPM workers were at risk of H1N1 swine influenza virus infection, perhaps due to the presence of pigs in the LPM. While partial confounding by cross-reactive antibodies against human viruses or vaccines cannot be ruled out, our data suggests that animal exposed people as are more likely to have antibodies against animal influenza viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu, E-mail: triace@163.com; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  14. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels

  15. Intraintestinal drainage as a damage control surgery adjunct in a hypothermic traumatic shock swine model with multiple bowel perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wu; Ding, Weiwei; Liu, Xingdong; Kao, Xiaomin; Xu, Xingwei; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2014-11-01

    Temporary bowel ligation (TL) has been proposed to prevent contamination as a damage control procedure in multiple bowel perforations. However, bacteria translocation and intestinal ischemia may develop in a prolonged duration. We here hypothesized that intraintestinal drainage combined with temporary ligation (D-TL) would decrease intestinal injury and improve survivals in a gunshot multiple bowel perforation swine model in the setting of a damage control surgery. The abdomen was shot one time with an experimental modified gun whereas pigs were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure of 40 mm Hg and maintained in shock for 40 min. Cold lactated Ringer solution was gradually infused to induce hypothermia. Animals were randomized to primary anastomosis, TL and intraintestinal D-TL groups (n = 8). Animals were resuscitated for 12 h with the shed blood and lactated Ringer solution. Delayed anastomosis was performed in TL and D-TL animals after resuscitation. Surviving animals were humanely killed 24 h after operation. Systemic hemodynamic parameters were recorded and blood samples were obtained for biochemical assays. Intra-abdominal pressure, portal vein and peripheral vein bacterial cultures, small intestine hematoxylin-eosin staining, and transmission electron microscopy examination were performed at 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after the surgery. All animals suffered extreme physiologic conditions as follows: hypothermia, severe acidosis, hypotension, and depressed cardiac output. Compared with the primary anastomosis and TL group, D-TL animals required less resuscitation fluid, suffered a lower intra-abdominal hypertension and bacterial translocation, normalized lactate levels faster, had lower serum creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase levels and tissue TNF-α level, and nuclear factor-kB activations and thus had greater early survival. Compared with primary intestinal anastomosis and TL, rapid bowel ligation combined with intraintestinal drainage as a damage

  16. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential of Duckweed for Swine Wastewater Nutrient removal and Biomass Valorisation through Anaerobic Co-digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, phytodepuration has been considered an efficient technology to treat wastewaters. The present study reports a bench scale depuration assay of swine wastewater using Lemna minor. The highest observed growth rate obtained in swine wastewater was 3.1 ± 0.3 gDW m−2 day−1 and the highest nitrogen and phosphorus uptake were 140 mg N m−2 day−1 and 3.47 mg P m−2 day−1, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency in the swine wastewater assay was 58.9 ± 2.0%. Furthermore, the biomass valorisation by anaerobic co-digestion with swine wastewater was assessed. Results showed a clear improvement in specific methane production rate (around 40% when compared to mono-substrate anaerobic digestion. The highest methane specific production, 131.0 ± 0.8 mL CH4 g−1 chemical oxygen demand, was obtained with a mixture containing 100 g of duckweed per liter of pre-treated swine wastewater. The water-nutrients-energy nexus approach showed to be promising for swine waste management.

  18. Adaptive evolution during the establishment of European avian-like H1N1 influenza A virus in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Udayan; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J D; Su, Yvonne C F

    2018-04-01

    An H1N1 subtype influenza A virus with all eight gene segments derived from wild birds (including mallards), ducks and chickens, caused severe disease outbreaks in swine populations in Europe beginning in 1979 and successfully adapted to form the European avian-like swine (EA-swine) influenza lineage. Genes of the EA-swine lineage that are clearly segregated from its closest avian relatives continue to circulate in swine populations globally and represent a unique opportunity to study the adaptive process of an avian-to-mammalian cross-species transmission. Here, we used a relaxed molecular clock model to test whether the EA-swine virus originated through the introduction of a single avian ancestor as an entire genome, followed by an analysis of host-specific selection pressures among different gene segments. Our data indicated independent introduction of gene segments via transmission of avian viruses into swine followed by reassortment events that occurred at least 1-4 years prior to the EA-swine outbreak. All EA-swine gene segments exhibit greater selection pressure than avian viruses, reflecting both adaptive pressures and relaxed selective constraints that are associated with host switching. Notably, we identified key amino acid mutations in the viral surface proteins (H1 and N1) that play a role in adaptation to new hosts. Following the establishment of EA-swine lineage, we observed an increased frequency of intrasubtype reassortment of segments compared to the earlier strains that has been associated with adaptive amino acid replacements, disease severity and vaccine escape. Taken together, our study provides key insights into the adaptive changes in viral genomes following the transmission of avian influenza viruses to swine and the early establishment of the EA-swine lineage.

  19. Recovery of gastrointestinal swine parasites in anaerobic biodigester systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañon-Franco, William Alberto; Henao-Agudelo, Ricardo Andrés; Pérez-Bedoya, José Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Solid and liquid wastes from livestock operations represent important challenges for animal production regarding their impact in the environment and public health. Parasitological tests performed on 80 samples of affluent and effluent waters from three anaerobic biodigestors with flexible structure from swine farms of Caldas - Colombia, showed the presence of Isospora suis (45%), Eimeria suis (42.5%), E. espinosa (35%), Strongyloides ransomi (28.8%), E. perminuta (12.5%), E. cerdonis (3.8%), and E. porci (2.5%). The additional finding of eggs of Taenia spp. in 10% of the samples was probably caused by a connection between the human sewage system and the biodigester. Although we observed a mean decrease of 65.6% of parasites, these levels were insufficient to meet the minimum requirement set by Engelberg's guidelines regarding water quality. This study demonstrates the serious environmental impact that an inadequately treated animal wastewater represents, and has important implications for water resources and human health.

  20. Seroprevalence of African Swine Fever in Senegal, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, Ismaila; Grosbois, Vladimir; Jori, Ferran; Blanco, Esther; Vial, Laurence; Akakpo, Ayayi J.; Bada-Alhambedji, Rianatou; Kone, Philippe; Roger, Francois L.

    2011-01-01

    In Senegal, during 2002–2007, 11 outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) were reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health. Despite this, little was known of the epidemiology of ASF in the country. To determine the prevalence of ASF in Senegal in 2006, we tested serum specimens collected from a sample of pigs in the 3 main pig-farming regions for antibodies to ASF virus using an ELISA. Of 747 serum samples examined, 126 were positive for ASF, suggesting a prevalence of 16.9%. The estimated prevalences within each of the regions (Fatick, Kolda, and Ziguinchor) were 13.3%, 7.8%, and 22.1%, respectively, with statistical evidence to suggest that the prevalence in Ziguinchor was higher than in Fatick or Kolda. This regional difference is considered in relation to different farming systems and illegal trade with neighboring countries where the infection is endemic. PMID:21192854

  1. Modulation of Translation Initiation Efficiency in Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Belsham, Graham J.

    Modulation of translation initiation efficiency on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) RNA can be achieved by targeted mutations within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, the nucleotides 47 to 427, including the IRES region of the wt CSFV strain Paderborn, were amplified...... and inserted, under T7 promoter control, into mono- and dicistronic plasmids containing the reporter genes rLuc and fLuc. Mutant fragments of the IRES sequence were generated by overlap PCR and inserted into the reporter plasmids. To evaluate IRES functionality, translation of the rLUC was placed under...... viruses were obtained after one cell culture passage from constructs with more than 75 % translation efficiency compared to the wildtype IRES. cDNA was generated from these clones and sequenced to verify the maintenance of the changes in the IRES. These results show that full-length viable mutant viruses...

  2. Modulation of Translation Initiation Efficiency in Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of translation initiation efficiency on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) RNA can be achieved by targeted mutations within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, cDNAs corresponding to the wild type (wt) or mutant forms of the IRES of CSFV strain Paderborn were...... in vitro and electroporated into porcine PK15 cells. Rescued mutant viruses were obtained from RNAs that contained mutations within domain IIIf which retained more than 75% of wt translation efficiency. Sequencing of cDNA generated from these rescued viruses verified the maintenance of the introduced...... changes within the IRES. The growth characteristics of each rescued mutant virus were compared to that of the wt virus. It was shown that viable mutant viruses with reduced translation initiation efficiency can be designed and generated and that viruses containing mutations within domain IIIf of the IRES...

  3. Immunofluorescence Plaque Assay for African Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, J.; Hess, W. R.; Pan, I. C.; Trautman, R.

    1974-01-01

    Suitably diluted cell culture adapted African swine fever virus preparations were inoculated on VERO cell monolayers and grown on coverslips. Gum tragacanth was used as an overlay. After three days incubation at 37°C the infected cultures were fixed with acetone and stained with fluorescent antibody conjugate. Fluorescing plaques consisted of 20-30 infected cells. Three statistical criteria for a quantitatively reliable assay were met: the Poisson distribution for plaque counts, linearity of the relationship between the concentration of virus and the plaque count and reproducibility of replicate titrations. The method is suitable for counts up to at least 70 plaques per 5 cm2 coverslip and computed titers are reproducible within 0.16 log units with a total of 300 plaques enumerated. PMID:4279763

  4. Serological and molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus infections in swine herds in China, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chunxia; Wang, Qiao; Cao, Sanjie; Zhao, Qin; Wen, Yiping; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping; Wu, Rui

    2018-01-31

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing viral encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in swine. JEV is prevalent throughout China in human; however, spatiotemporal analysis of JEV in Chinese swine herds has not been reported previously. Herein, we present serological and molecular epidemiological results and estimates of prevalence of JEV infections among swine herds in various regions of China. The results suggest that JEV infections are widespread and genotype I and III strains co-exist in the same regions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to monitor JEV infection status among swine herds in China.

  5. Serological and molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus infections in swine herds in China, 2006–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chunxia; Wang, Qiao; Cao, Sanjie; Zhao, Qin; Wen, Yiping; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping

    2018-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne, zoonotic flavivirus causing viral encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorder in swine. JEV is prevalent throughout China in human; however, spatiotemporal analysis of JEV in Chinese swine herds has not been reported previously. Herein, we present serological and molecular epidemiological results and estimates of prevalence of JEV infections among swine herds in various regions of China. The results suggest that JEV infections are widespread and genotype I and III strains co-exist in the same regions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to monitor JEV infection status among swine herds in China. PMID:28693301

  6. Identification of swine influenza virus epitopes and analysis of multiple specificities expressed by cytotoxic T cell subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Riber, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptide binding and presentation are essential for antigen-specific activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and swine MHC class I molecules, also termed swine leukocyte antigens (SLA), thus play a crucial role in the process that leads...... to elimination of viruses such as swine influenza virus (SwIV). This study describes the identification of SLA-presented peptide epitopes that are targets for a swine CTL response, and further analyses multiple specificities expressed by SwIV activated CTL subsets. Findings: Four SwIV derived peptides were...

  7. ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM SWINE WASTEWATER USING MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimezie Jason Ogugbue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity generation from swine wastewater using microbial fuel cell (MFC was investigated. Swine wastewater was collected into dual-chambered (aerobic and anaerobic fuel cell. The maximum power output using copper and carbon electrodes were 250.54 and 52.33 µW, while 10.0 and 5.0 cm salt bridge length between the cathode and anode were 279.50 and 355.26 µW, respectively. Potassium permanganate and ordinal water gave a maximum power output of 1287.8 and 13 9.18 µW. MFCs utilize microbial communities to degrade organic materials found within wastewater and converted stored chemical energy to electrical energy in a single step. The initial bacterial and fungal counts were 7.4×106 and 1.1×103 CFU ml-1. Bacterial counts steadily increased with time to 1.40×107 CFU ml-1 while fungal count declined to 4.4×106 CFU ml-1 after day 60. The declined in microbial counts may be attributed to the time necessary for acclimatization of microbes to the anode. The genera identified were Bacillus, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas, Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus and Rhizopus. These microbes acted as primary and secondary utilizers, utilizing carbon and other organics of the wastewater. Chemical parameters indicated that the biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 91.4–23.2 mg/L, giving 75% while the chemical oxygen demand ranged from 243.1–235.2 mg/L, representing 3.3%. Although, the metabolic activities of microbes were responsible for the observed degradation, leading to electricity, the overall power output depended on the distance between the anode and cathode compartment, types of electrode materials and mediators and oxygen reaction at the cathode.

  8. Efficacy of tiamulin as a growth promotant for growing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, G L; Stahly, T S

    1985-01-01

    A study involving 244 pigs initially averaging 13 kg was conducted at two stations to evaluate tiamulin as a growth promotant for growing swine. In each experiment, four replicate pens of five (Exp. 1) or six (Exp. 2) pigs/pen were used to evaluate each treatment. In Exp. 1, pigs were fed 0, 11, 22 or 44 ppm tiamulin from 15 to 58 kg, then fed a nonmedicated control diet for the remainder of the experiment (to 95 kg). In Exp. 2, pigs were fed 0, 2.75, 5.5, 11 or 22 ppm tiamulin from 11 to 56 kg, followed by the nonmedicated control diet (to 95 kg). In each experiment, carbadox (55 ppm) was included as a positive control and was fed to an average weight of 35 kg, followed by the control diet. Averaged across all dietary levels, tiamulin resulted in a 14.1% improvement in gain and a 5.7% improvement in feed:gain ratio during the first 28 to 35 d of the experiment (to 30 kg). These improvements were slightly less than those resulting from the feeding of carbadox during the same period (21.5 and 6.9%, respectively). From 13 to 57 kg, pigs fed tiamulin gained 11.6% faster and 3.1% more efficiently than did controls. Over the entire experiment (13 to 95 kg), tiamulin-fed pigs gained 5.7% faster than did controls, even though the tiamulin was withdrawn at 57 kg body weight. Growth rate from 13 to 57 kg plateaued at the 11-ppm dietary level of tiamulin; whereas, feed:gain ratio plateaued at the 22-ppm level. The results indicate that tiamulin is an effective growth promotant for growing swine.

  9. Swine cortical and cancellous bone: histomorphometric and densitometric characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Andreis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Swine bone morphology, composition and remodelling are similar to humans’, therefore they are considered good models in bone-related research. They have been used for several studies involving bone growth, bone and cartilage fractures and femoral head osteonecrosis. Nevertheless, the literature about pig normal bone features is incomplete. This work aims to fill the literature gaps on the microarchitecture and Bone Mineral Density (BMD of swine femoral diaphysis and distal epiphysis and tibial plateau and diaphysis. Materials and methods: Five hind limbs were collected from slaughtered 80-100 kg pigs. Microscopic analysis of cortical and cancellous bone from middle/distal femur and proximal/middle tibia was performed to determine basic histomorphometric parameters at different sites. Dual-energy X-Rays Absorptiometry was also employed to evaluate BMD. ANOVA and correlation between BMD, bone area (BA and cortical thickness were performed. Results and discussion: Diaphyseal cortical bone was mostly plexiform both in the tibia and the femur; primary/secondary osteons without clear organization were also found. Mean values for bone area, bone perimeter, trabecular width, number and separation and BMD at different anatomical sites were defined. No significant difference was found for these values at different anatomical sites. BMD proved to be positively correlated with cortical thickness (r=0,80; p<0,01. Despite the small sample size, these results seem homogeneous. They could therefore represent reference values for normal bone parameters in pigs. Applied anatomy and regenerative medicine, in fact, demand very precise information about bone micromorphology, composition and density to provide reliable indication in bone substitutes building. Moreover, since the interpretation of bone abnormalities is based on mastering normal bone characteristics, the definition of reference parameters is mandatory to avoid misinterpretation and

  10. Ochratoxin A in serum of swine from different Brazilian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, César D; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Direito, Glória M; Keller, Kelly M; Dalcero, Ana M; da Rocha Rosa, Carlos A

    2010-09-01

    The aims of the current study were to monitor the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the serum of slaughtered swine and to investigate its distribution in 4 major geographical regions of Brazil. A total of 400 samples of serum were collected from 4 major states of Brazil (100 samples each). Ochratoxin A concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In Santa Catarina State, 60% of the samples had OTA concentrations ranging from 4.01 to 75.4 mg/l. In Mato Grosso State, 75% of the samples had OTA concentrations ranging from 0.17 to 46.79 mg/l. Bahia State samples had OTA concentrations ranging from 2.72 to 4.13 mg/l in 36% of the samples, whereas 68% of the samples from Rio de Janeiro State had OTA concentrations ranging from 0.16 to 115 mg/l. Only Santa Catarina State and Rio de Janeiro State had serum samples that exceeded 75 mg/l OTA in 20% and 2% of the samples, respectively. A direct relationship between the higher concentrations of OTA in serum from the States of Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro and the highest concentrations of OTA in food intended for animal consumption in the same 2 Brazilian states was found in the present study. Ochratoxin A distribution in foodstuffs is very heterogeneous, and an alternative method by which to monitor the presence of OTA in feed includes analyzing swine serum samples, which reflect the toxin content of the ingested feed. This strategy could prevent the occurrence of ochratoxicosis in animal production, reduce economic losses, and minimize hazards to human health.

  11. MicroRNA transcriptome profiles during swine skeletal muscle development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonstegard Tad S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miR are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of protein encoding transcripts. To evaluate the role of miR in skeletal muscle of swine, global microRNA abundance was measured at specific developmental stages including proliferating satellite cells, three stages of fetal growth, day-old neonate, and the adult. Results Twelve potential novel miR were detected that did not match previously reported sequences. In addition, a number of miR previously reported to be expressed in mammalian muscle were detected, having a variety of abundance patterns through muscle development. Muscle-specific miR-206 was nearly absent in proliferating satellite cells in culture, but was the highest abundant miR at other time points evaluated. In addition, miR-1 was moderately abundant throughout developmental stages with highest abundance in the adult. In contrast, miR-133 was moderately abundant in adult muscle and either not detectable or lowly abundant throughout fetal and neonate development. Changes in abundance of ubiquitously expressed miR were also observed. MiR-432 abundance was highest at the earliest stage of fetal development tested (60 day-old fetus and decreased throughout development to the adult. Conversely, miR-24 and miR-27 exhibited greatest abundance in proliferating satellite cells and the adult, while abundance of miR-368, miR-376, and miR-423-5p was greatest in the neonate. Conclusion These data present a complete set of transcriptome profiles to evaluate miR abundance at specific stages of skeletal muscle growth in swine. Identification of these miR provides an initial group of miR that may play a vital role in muscle development and growth.

  12. Development and evaluation of porous dental implants in miniature swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagianes, M T; Westerman, R E; Rasmussen, J J; Lodmell, A M

    1976-01-01

    Organized bone ingrowth in endosteal porous implants fabricated from VMC titanium alloy and surgically implanted with a tight interference fit, securely anchored the implants in fresh and healed mandibular premolar sites of miniature swine. This bone-implant union retained its integrity under high as well as slight masticatory stresses up to one-year after implantation. Bone invasion of the alumina porcelain implants was impeded by the lack of adequate interconnecting porosity; when the porosity was increased, insufficient ceramic strength prohibited a tight initial bone-implant fit. As a consequence, inadequate initial implant stability resulted in a soft tissue encapsulation of the majority of the ceramic implants. Histological examination and mechanical testing results were similar for bone-ingrown implants exposed to different experimental stresses for 4, 5, 8, and 12 months. Bone ingrowth and interface shear strengths were also similar in the different VMC pore sizes and shapes investigated. The design of intraoral attachments appeared critical, at least in swine where no postoperative treatment was administered. Gingival inflammation and alveolar bone resorption caused by calculus were severe around truncated cone-shaped devices. Slender transgingival posts, occlusal caps, and crown restorations were less susceptible to calculus accumulation, resulting in a more satisfactory gingival and subgingival response. Excessive epithelial invagination was a problem only in implants with transgingival truncated cones. Good adherence of soft tissue to metal under the gingival mucosa prevented epithelial migration around implants with other transgingival devices. Alveolar bone resportion around the tops of bone-ingrown implants was minimal at the time intervals examined (up to one year); however, a definite conclusion should be delayed until longer-term implants under full occlusion are evaluated.

  13. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Physical protection is defined and its function in relation to other functions of a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials is described. The need for a uniform minimum international standard for physical protection as well as the need for international cooperation in physical protection is emphasized. The IAEA's INFCIRC/225/Rev. 1 (Annex 1) is reviewed. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Annex 2) is discussed. Photographs show examples of typical physical protection technology (Annex 3)

  14. Diplomatic Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Režná, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Final thesis Topic: Diplomatic protection Thesis supervisor: JUDr. Vladimír Balaš, CSc. Student: Marek Čermák Thesis on the topic of diplomatic protection deals with the granting of exercise of diplomatic protection by the states and is divided into seven chapters which follow each other. The first chapter describes the diplomatic protection and its historical foundations. The second chapter focuses on the possibility of exercise of diplomatic protection in respect of natural persons and the ...

  15. Potential use of G-CSF for protection against Streptococcus suis infection in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of immunomodulators is a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics for therapeutic, prophylactic, and metaphylactic use to prevent and combat infectious disease. We developed a replication-defective adenovirus vector that expresses porcine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) ...

  16. A simplified model for assessing the impact to groundwater of swine farms at regional level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Viterbo, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Swine manure can be an excellent source of nutrients for crop production. Several swine farms are present in the territory of Regione Umbria and more than 200.000 of swine heads are present yearly in the whole territory while some municipalities host more than 30.000 heads over a relatively limited land. Municipality with elevated number of swine heads has registered particularly higher Nitrate concentration in groundwater that requires a management plan and intervention in order to determine the maximum allowed N loads in the specific region. Use of manure and fertilizers in agricultural field produce diffuse nitrogen (N) losses that are a major cause of excessive nitrate concentrations in ground and surface waters and have been of concern since decades. Excessive nitrate concentrations in groundwater can have toxic effects when used as drinking water and cause eutrophication in surface waters. For management and environmental planning purposes, it is necessary to assess the magnitude of diffuse N losses from agricultural fields and how they are influenced by factors such as management practices, type of fertilizers -organic or inorganic - climate and soil etc. There are several methods for assessing N leaching, they span from methods based on field test to complex models that require many input data. We use a simple index method that accounts for the type of fertilizer used - inorganic, swine or cattle manure- and hydrological and hydrogeological conditions. Hydrological conditions such as infiltration rates are estimated by a fully distributed hydrological model. Data on inorganic and organic fertilization are estimated at municipal level by using the nutrient crops needs and the statistics of swine and cattle heads within the municipality. The index method has been calibrated by using groundwater concentration as a proxy of N losses from agriculture. A time series of three years of data has been analyzed. The application of the simple index method allowed to

  17. Microbial ecology, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes in swine manure wastewater as influenced by three swine management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John P; Adeli, Ardeshir; McLaughlin, Michael R

    2014-06-15

    The environmental influence of farm management in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can yield vast changes to the microbial biota and ecological structure of both the pig and waste manure lagoon wastewater. While some of these changes may not be negative, it is possible that CAFOs can enrich antibiotic resistant bacteria or pathogens based on farm type, thereby influencing the impact imparted by the land application of its respective wastewater. The purpose of this study was to measure the microbial constituents of swine-sow, -nursery, and -finisher farm manure lagoon wastewater and determine the changes induced by farm management. A total of 37 farms were visited in the Mid-South USA and analyzed for the genes 16S rRNA, spaQ (Salmonella spp.), Camp-16S (Campylobacter spp.), tetA, tetB, ermF, ermA, mecA, and intI using quantitative PCR. Additionally, 16S rRNA sequence libraries were created. Overall, it appeared that finisher farms were significantly different from nursery and sow farms in nearly all genes measured and in 16S rRNA clone libraries. Nearly all antibiotic resistance genes were detected in all farms. Interestingly, the mecA resistance gene (e.g. methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was below detection limits on most farms, and decreased as the pigs aged. Finisher farms generally had fewer antibiotic resistance genes, which corroborated previous phenotypic data; additionally, finisher farms produced a less diverse 16S rRNA sequence library. Comparisons of Camp-16S and spaQ GU (genomic unit) values to previous culture data demonstrated ratios from 10 to 10,000:1 depending on farm type, indicating viable but not cultivatable bacteria were dominant. The current study indicated that swine farm management schemes positively and negatively affect microbial and antibiotic resistant populations in CAFO wastewater which has future "downstream" implications from both an environmental and public health perspective. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Airborne detection and quantification of swine influenza a virus in air samples collected inside, outside and downwind from swine barns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A Corzo

    Full Text Available Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m³ of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m³ of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m³. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions.

  19. Temporary targeted renal blood flow interruption using a reverse thermosensitive polymer to facilitate bloodless partial nephrectomy: a swine survival study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Niall J; Laskey, Daniel H; Moinzadeh, Alireza; Flacke, Sebastian; Benn, James A; Villani, Rosanna; Kalra, Aarti; Libertino, John A; Madras, Peter N

    2012-09-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Lumagel™ is a reverse thermosensitive polymer (RTP) that has previously been described in the literature as providing temporary vascular occlusion to allow for bloodless partial nephrectomy (PN) while maintaining blood flow to the untargeted portion of the kidney. At body temperature, Lumagel™ has the consistency of a viscous gel but upon cooling rapidly converts to a liquid state and does not reconstitute thereafter. This property has allowed for it to be used in situations requiring temporary vascular occlusion. Previous experience with similar RTPs in coronary arteries proved successful, with no detectable adverse events. We have previously described our technique for temporary vascular occlusion of the main renal artery, as well as segmental and sub-segmental renal branches, to allow for bloodless PN in either an open or minimally invasive approach. These experiments were performed in the acute setting. This study is a two-armed survival trial to assess whether this RTP is as safe as hilar clamping for bloodless PN. Surviving animals showed normal growth after using the RTP, absence of toxicity, no organ dysfunction, and no pathological changes attributable to the RTP. We conclude that Lumagel™ is as safe as conventional PN with hilar clamping, while adding the advantage of uninterrupted perfusion during renal resection. To examine whether randomly selected regions of the kidney could undergo temporary flow interruption with a reverse thermosensitive polymer (RTP), Lumagel™ (Pluromed, Inc., Woburn, MA, USA), followed by partial nephrectomy (PN), without adding risks beyond those encountered in the same procedure with the use of hilar clamping. A two-armed (RTP vs hilar clamp), 6-week swine survival study was performed. Four swine underwent PN using hilar clamps, while six underwent PN with flow interruption using the RTP. The RTP, administered angiographically, was used for intraluminal occlusion

  20. VIP protection from CBRN hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszeta, D.

    2009-01-01

    Protection of heads of state/government from CBRN threats requires flexibility and advanced planning. The best approach to CBRN countermeasures in a close protection context combine traditional close protection techniques, sound security practices, and a good understanding of the technical nature of the threat. Poor general security practices make for poor CBRN protection. This paper addresses a methodology for assessing the viability of threats to protected persons/VIPs and provides an overview of close protection in the CBRN environment. It is important to define the scope of CBRN response in the close protection context. Some threat agents are more applicable to a military environment than to the type of attack consistent with assassination. By focussing the scope of CBRN close protection more specifically on the more technically viable threats, appropriate concepts of operation can be developed. Concepts of operation, developed with an understanding of the threat, determine the requirement for advanced preparation and the training and equipping of protective details. Most of the responses required in CBRN incidents are well served by tactically sound close protection procedures. The fundamental principles are: rapid identification of hazard, speed, use of protective technology, and medical interventions, including rapid decontamination and basic and advanced life support measures. This paper does not contain confidential or classified information and represents only the opinion of its author. It does not represent any official policy or opinion of the authors present or previous employers.(author)

  1. Temperature modulation with an esophageal heat transfer device - a pediatric swine model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulstad, Erik B; Naiman, Melissa; Shanley, Patrick; Garrett, Frank; Haryu, Todd; Waller, Donald; Azarafrooz, Farshid; Courtney, Daniel Mark

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of conditions appear to benefit from control and modulation of temperature, but available techniques to control temperature often have limitations, particularly in smaller patients with high surface to mass ratios. We aimed to evaluate a new method of temperature modulation with an esophageal heat transfer device in a pediatric swine model, hypothesizing that clinically significant modulation in temperature (both increases and decreases of more than 1°C) would be possible. Three female Yorkshire swine averaging 23 kg were anesthetized with inhalational isoflurane prior to placement of the esophageal device, which was powered by a commercially available heat exchanger. Swine temperature was measured rectally and cooling and warming were performed by selecting the appropriate external heat exchanger mode. Temperature was recorded over time in order to calculate rates of temperature change. Histopathology of esophageal tissue was performed after study completion. Average swine baseline temperature was 38.3°C. Swine #1 exhibited a cooling rate of 3.5°C/hr; however, passive cooling may have contributed to this rate. External warming blankets maintained thermal equilibrium in swine #2 and #3, demonstrating maximum temperature decrease of 1.7°C/hr. Warming rates averaged 0.29°C/hr. Histopathologic analysis of esophageal tissue showed no adverse effects. An esophageal heat transfer device successfully modulated the temperature in a pediatric swine model. This approach to temperature modulation may offer a useful new modality to control temperature in conditions warranting temperature management (such as maintenance of normothermia, induction of hypothermia, fever control, or malignant hyperthermia).

  2. miR-26a suppresses autophagy in swine Sertoli cells by targeting ULK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, M; Li, Z; Cao, R; Weng, B; Peng, F; He, C; Chen, B

    2018-05-14

    A large number of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been detected from porcine testicular tissues thanks to the development of high-throughput sequencing technology. However, the regulatory roles of most identified miRNAs in swine testicular development or spermatogenesis are poorly understood. In our previous study, ULK2 (uncoordinated-51-like kinase 2) was predicted as a target gene of miR-26a. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-26a in swine Sertoli cell autophagy. The relative expression of miR-26a and ULK2 levels has a significant negative correlation (R 2  = .5964, p ≤ .01) in nine developmental stages of swine testicular tissue. Dual-luciferase reporter assay results show that miR-26a directly targets the 3'UTR of the ULK2 gene (position 618-624). In addition, both the mRNA and protein expression of ULK2 were downregulated by miR-26a in swine Sertoli cells. These results indicate that miR-26a targets the ULK2 gene and downregulates its expression in swine Sertoli cells. Based on the expression of marker genes (LC3, p62 and Beclin-1), overexpression of miR-26a or knock-down of ULK2 inhibits swine Sertoli cell autophagy. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-26a suppresses autophagy in swine Sertoli cells by targeting ULK2. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Carbon dioxide hepatic arterial DSA and CT angiography in swine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Huaqiao; Hu Hongjie; Huang Wenxin; Zhang Shizheng; Dong Yonghua; Zhou Dachun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging findings of carbon dioxide hepatic arterial DSA and CT angiography in normal swine. Methods: In general anaesthesia, hepatic arterial DSA was performed with 10 ml iodinated contrast medium (5 ml/s, 10 ml) in 5 normal swine, and then repeated hepatic arterial CO 2 -DSA was performed with a total of 30-50 ml CO 2 injected by manually operated syringe at the velocity of 5-8 ml/s, followed by CO 2 -CT angiography. All the swine were sacrificed after the procedure, the selective hepatic segments were removed, and pathological examination was carried out. The radiological features of hepatic arterial DSA with iodinated contrast medium and CO 2 and CT angiography with CO 2 were analyzed. The ability of showing the arterio-venous shunt was compared. Results: Hepatic arterio-portal shunt was found in the advanced arterial phase of CO 2 -DSA in three of five swine, which was furthermore demonstrated by CO 2 -CT angiography, but iodinated contrast medium DSA showed no arterio-portal shunt in all swine. The gaseous CO 2 in portal vein was absorbed within 1-3 minutes. No CO 2 shunted into the hepatic vein during CO 2 -DSA and CO 2 -CTA. Histology didn't reveal any abnormal changes caused by CO 2 shunt in the swine liver. Conclusion: (1) Hepatic arterial CO 2 -DSA and CO 2 -CTA can reveal arterio-portal shunt that isn't seen with iodinated contrast medium, the gaseous CO 2 in portal vein was absorbed within 1-3 minutes. (2) The gaseous CO 2 can't shunt into hepatic vein when the hepatic artery is perfused with CO 2 in normal swine. (authors)

  4. Reassortant swine influenza viruses isolated in Japan contain genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehira, Katsushi; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Uchida, Yuko; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

    2014-06-01

    In 2013, three reassortant swine influenza viruses (SIVs)-two H1N2 and one H3N2-were isolated from symptomatic pigs in Japan; each contained genes from the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus and endemic SIVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two H1N2 viruses, A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 and A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013, were reassortants that contain genes from the following three distinct lineages: (i) H1 and nucleoprotein (NP) genes derived from a classical swine H1 HA lineage uniquely circulating among Japanese SIVs; (ii) neuraminidase (NA) genes from human-like H1N2 swine viruses; and (iii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. The H3N2 virus, A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013, comprised genes from two sources: (i) hemagglutinin (HA) and NA genes derived from human and human-like H3N2 swine viruses and (ii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated that each of the reassortants may have arisen independently in Japanese pigs. A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 were found to have strong antigenic reactivities with antisera generated for some seasonal human-lineage viruses isolated during or before 2003, whereas A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 reactivities with antisera against viruses isolated after 2004 were clearly weaker. In addition, antisera against some strains of seasonal human-lineage H1 viruses did not react with either A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 or A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013. These findings indicate that emergence and spread of these reassortant SIVs is a potential public health risk. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of Faecalibacterium 16S rDNA genetic markers for accurate identification of swine faecal waste by quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chuanren; Cui, Yamin; Zhao, Yi; Zhai, Jun; Zhang, Baoyun; Zhang, Kun; Sun, Da; Chen, Hang

    2016-10-01

    A genetic marker within the 16S rRNA gene of Faecalibacterium was identified for use in a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect swine faecal contamination in water. A total of 146,038 bacterial sequences were obtained using 454 pyrosequencing. By comparative bioinformatics analysis of Faecalibacterium sequences with those of numerous swine and other animal species, swine-specific Faecalibacterium 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified and Polymerase Chain Okabe (PCR) primer sets designed and tested against faecal DNA samples from swine and non-swine sources. Two PCR primer sets, PFB-1 and PFB-2, showed the highest specificity to swine faecal waste and had no cross-reaction with other animal samples. PFB-1 and PFB-2 amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences from 50 samples of swine with positive ratios of 86 and 90%, respectively. We compared swine-specific Faecalibacterium qPCR assays for the purpose of quantifying the newly identified markers. The quantification limits (LOQs) of PFB-1 and PFB-2 markers in environmental water were 6.5 and 2.9 copies per 100 ml, respectively. Of the swine-associated assays tested, PFB-2 was more sensitive in detecting the swine faecal waste and quantifying the microbial load. Furthermore, the microbial abundance and diversity of the microbiomes of swine and other animal faeces were estimated using operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The species specificity was demonstrated for the microbial populations present in various animal faeces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel alphavirus replicon-vectored vaccine delivered by adenovirus induces sterile immunity against classical swine fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Li, Hong-Yu; Tian, Da-Yong; Han, Qiu-Ying; Zhang, Xin; Li, Na; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2011-10-26

    Low efficacy of gene-based vaccines due to inefficient gene delivery and expression has been major bottleneck of their applications. Efforts have been made to improve the efficacy, such as gene gun and electroporation, but the strategies are difficult to put into practical use. In this study, we developed and evaluated an adenovirus-delivered, alphavirus replicon-vectored vaccine (chimeric vector-based vaccine) expressing the E2 gene of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) (rAdV-SFV-E2). Rabbits immunized with rAdV-SFV-E2 developed CSFV-specific antibodies as early as 9 days and as long as 189 days and completely protected from challenge with C-strain. Pigs immunized with rAdV-SFV-E2 (n=5) developed robust humoral and cell-mediated responses to CSFV and were completely protected from subsequent lethal CSFV infection clinically and virologically. The level of immunity and protection induced by rAdV-SFV-E2 was comparable to that provided by the currently used live attenuated vaccine, C-strain. In contrast, both the conventional alphavirus replicon-vectored vaccine pSFV1CS-E2 and conventional adenovirus-vectored vaccine rAdV-E2 provided incomplete protection. The chimeric vector-based vaccine represents the first gene-based vaccine that is able to confer sterile immunity and complete protection against CSFV. The new-concept vaccination strategy may also be valuable in vaccine development against other pathogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Time series analysis based on two-part models for excessive zero count data to detect farm-level outbreaks of swine echinococcosis during meat inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yasumoto; Makita, Kohei

    2017-12-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a parasite that causes highly pathogenic zoonoses and is maintained in foxes and rodents on Hokkaido Island, Japan. Detection of E. multilocularis infections in swine is epidemiologically important. In Hokkaido, administrative information is provided to swine producers based on the results of meat inspections. However, as the current criteria for providing administrative information often results in delays in providing information to producers, novel criteria are needed. Time series models were developed to monitor autocorrelations between data and lags using data collected from 84 producers at the Higashi-Mokoto Meat Inspection Center between April 2003 and November 2015. The two criteria were quantitatively compared using the sign test for the ability to rapidly detect farm-level outbreaks. Overall, the time series models based on an autoexponentially regressed zero-inflated negative binomial distribution with 60th percentile cumulative distribution function of the model detected outbreaks earlier more frequently than the current criteria (90.5%, 276/305, ppart model with autoexponential regression can adequately deal with data involving an excessive number of zeros and that the novel criteria overcome disadvantages of the current criteria to provide an earlier indication of increases in the rate of echinococcosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 9 CFR 94.20 - Gelatin derived from horses or swine, or from ruminants that have not been in any region where...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gelatin derived from horses or swine... § 94.20 Gelatin derived from horses or swine, or from ruminants that have not been in any region where bovine spongiform encephalopathy exists. Gelatin derived from horses or swine, or from ruminants that...

  9. A phylogeny-based global nomenclature system and automated annotation tool for H1 hemagglutinin genes from swine influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H1 subtype of influenza A viruses (IAV) has been circulating in swine since the 1918 human influenza pandemic. Over time, and aided by further introductions from non-swine hosts, swine H1 have diversified into three genetic lineages. Due to limited global data, these H1 lineages were named based...

  10. Absence of human innate immune evasion complex in LA-MRSA ST5 strains isolated from pigs, swine facilities, and humans with swine contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Since its first ties to swine, livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has raised public health concerns because livestock may be the largest reservoir of MRSA outside the hospital setting. In contrast to Europe and Asia, where the primary sequence type...

  11. Alteration of a second putative fusion peptide of structural glycoprotein E2 of Classical Swine Fever Virus alters virus replication and virulence in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    E2, the major envelope glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), is involved in several critical virus functions including cell attachment, host range susceptibility, and virulence in natural hosts. Functional structural analysis of E2 based on Wimley-White interfacial hydrophobicity dis...

  12. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  13. Rapid typing of foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia 1 by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hao-tai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay was rapidly used to detect serotype Asia 1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV within 45 min at 61°C. All FMDV serotype Asia 1 reference strains were positive by RT-LAMP, while other viruses such as FMDV serotypes O, C, A and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Japanese encephalitis virus remained negative. Furthermore, FMDV sreotype Asia 1 positive samples were able to detect by RT-LAMP assay. This RT-LAMP assay may be suitable particularly for diagnosis of FMDV serotype Asia 1 infection in field stations.

  14. Deletion of the thymidine kinase gene induces complete attenuation of the Georgia isolate of African swine fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal viral disease of domestic pigs. There are no vaccines to control Africa swine fever (ASF). Experimental vaccines have been developed using genetically modified live attenuated ASFVs obtained by specifically de...

  15. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. In...

  16. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to the...

  17. Influenza A virus infection dynamics in swine farms in Belgium, France, Italy and Spain 2006-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakis, C.S.; Rose, N.; Foni, E.; Maldonado, J.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Madec, F.; Simon, G.; Reeth, K.

    2013-01-01

    Avian-like H1N1 and reassortant H3N2 and H1N2 influenza A viruses with a human-like haemagglutinin have been co-circulating in swine in Europe for more than a decade. We aimed to examine the infection dynamics of the three swine influenza virus (SIV) lineages at the farm level, and to identify

  18. Fermentative hydrogen production from liquid swine manure with glucose supplement using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao

    2009-12-01

    The idea of coupling renewable energy production and agricultural waste management inspired this thesis. The production of an important future fuel---hydrogen gas---from high strength waste stream-liquid swine manure---using anaerobic treatment processes makes the most sustainable sense for both wastewater utilization and energy generation. The objectives of this thesis were to develop a fermentation process for converting liquid swine manure to hydrogen and to maximize hydrogen productivity. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) systems were constructed to carry out this fermentation process, and seed sludge obtained from a dairy manure anaerobic digester and pretreated by nutrient acclimation, heat and pH treatment was used as inoculum. High system stability was indicated by a short startup period of 12 days followed by stable hydrogen production, and successful sludge granulation occurred within 23 days of startup at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 hours. Operation at a progressively decreasing HRT from 24 to 8h gave rise to an increasing biogas production rate from 15.2-34.4L/d, while good linear relationships were observed between both total biogas and hydrogen production rates correlated to HRT, with R2 values of 0.993 and 0.997, respectively. The maximum hydrogen yield of 1.63 mol-H 2/mol-hexose-feed occurred at HRT of 16h, while the HRT of 12h was highly suggested to achieve both high production rate and efficient yield. Hexose utilization efficiencies over 98%, considerable hydrogen production rate up to 14.3 L/d and hydrogen percentage of off-gas up to 43% (i.e., a CO 2/H2 ratio of 1.2) with the absence of CH4 production throughout the whole course of experiment at a pH of 5.0 strongly validated the feasibility of the fermentative H2 production from liquid swine manure using an ASBR system. Ethanol as well as acetic, butyric and valeric acids were produced in the system accompanying the hydrogen production, with acetic acid being the dominant

  19. LIMITED ANTIBODY EVIDENCE OF EXPOSURE TO MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS IN FERAL SWINE (SUS SCROFA) IN THE USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Miller, Ryan S; Anderson, Theodore D; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Lewis, Jonathan R; Mihalco, Rebecca L; Gortázar, Christian; Gidlewski, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of cattle ( Bos taurus ) caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis . Efforts have been made in the US to eradicate the disease in cattle, but spillover into wildlife and subsequent spillback have impeded progress in some states. In particular, infection in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) has been followed by infection in cattle in some Midwestern states. Infection has also been documented in feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) on the Hawaiian island of Molokai and in various European countries, but no large-scale survey of antibody exposure to the bacteria has been conducted in feral swine in the US. We tested 488 sera from feral swine collected near previously documented outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and captive cervids, in addition to 2,237 feral swine sera collected across the US from 1 October 2013 to 30 September 2014. While all but one of the samples were antibody negative, the results are important for establishing baseline negative data since feral swine are capable reservoirs and could be implicated in future outbreaks of the disease.

  20. Laboratory and in-situ reductions of soluble phosphorus in swine waste slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R T; Moody, L B; Walker, F R; Raman

    2001-11-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted using magnesium chloride (MgCl2) to force the precipitation of struvite (MgNH4PO4 x 6H2O) and reduce the concentration of soluble phosphorus (SP) in swine waste. In laboratory experiments, reductions of SP of 76% (572 to 135 mg P l(-1)) were observed in raw swine manure after addition of magnesium chloride (MgCl2) at a rate calculated to provide a 1.6:1 molar ratio of magnesium (Mg) to total phosphorus. Adjusting the pH of the treated manure to pH 9.0 with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) increased SP reduction to 91% (572 to 50 mg P l(-1)). X-ray diffraction of the precipitate recovered from swine waste slurry treated only with MgCl2 confirmed the presence ofstruvite. The molar N:P:Mg ratio of the recovered precipitate was 1:1.95:0.24, suggesting that compounds in addition to struvite were formed. In a field experiment conducted in a swine manure holding pond, a 90% reduction in SP concentration was observed in approximately 140,000 l of swine manure slurry treated before land application with 2,000 l MgCl2 (64% solution) at ambient slurry temperatures ranging from 5 to 10 degrees C.

  1. Surveillance programs in Denmark has revealed the circulation of novel reassortant influenza A viruses in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    avH1N1 and H3N2 which is different from the dominating European H1N2 subtype (1). The prevalence of the H1N1pdm09 virus in swine has increased since 2009 in some countries including Denmark. Here we present the results of the national passive surveillance program on influenza in swine performed from...... by the combination of the gene segments hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). In most European countries, the avian-like (av)H1N1, the 2009 pandemic variant (H1N1pdm09), H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes have constituted the dominating SIV subtypes during recent years. In Denmark, the H1N2 subtype is a reassortant between......Swine influenza is a respiratory disease caused by multiple subtypes of influenza A virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is enzootic in swine populations in Europe, Asia, North and South America. The influenza A virus genome consist of eight distinct gene segments and SIV subtypes are defined...

  2. Swine slurry application and soil management on double-cropped oat/maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo Adriano Bison Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The swine production in southern Brazil is concentrated in small farms that use residues as a nutrient source for crops of economic interest. This study aimed to evaluate the use of swine slurry associated with tillage systems on double-cropped oat/maize. The experiment was carried out in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons, in Taquaruçu do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of the interaction of four swine slurry doses (no swine slurry, 20 m3 ha-1, 40 m3 ha-1 and 80 m3 ha-1 and mineral fertilization, in three tillage systems (no-tillage, chiseling and chiseling + disking. The swine slurry application on doublecropped oat/maize increased the dry matter and grain yield. The 80 m3 ha-1 dose provided a response statistically similar to the mineral fertilization recommended for maize. The interaction between the 80 m3 ha-1 dose and the immediate incorporation of slurry into the soil reduced N losses by ammonia volatilization, promoting a significant increase in maize grain yield, when grown on a clayish soil.

  3. Educating youth swine exhibitors on influenza A virus transmission at agricultural fairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, J M; Midla, J; Whittington, M S; Scheer, S D; Bowman, A S

    2018-02-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major zoonotic pathogen that threatens global public health. Novel strains of influenza A viruses pose a significant risk to public health due to their pandemic potential, and transmission of influenza A viruses from animals to humans is an important mechanism in the generation and introduction of IAVs that threaten human health. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to develop real-life training scenarios to better inform swine exhibitors of the risks they may encounter when influenza A viruses are present in swine. Educational activities were implemented in five Ohio counties where exhibition swine had historically been shedding influenza A viruses during the county fair. A total of 146 youth swine exhibitors participated in the educational programme, and an increase in the knowledge base of these youth was documented. It is expected that educating youth exhibitors about exposure to influenza A virus infections in the swine they are exhibiting will result in altered behaviours and animal husbandry practices that will improve both human and animal health. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Codigestion of Taihu blue algae with swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Hengfeng; Wang, Shouquan; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Ren, Hongyan; Yan, Qun; Ruan, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Codigestion of blue algae with swine manure has the highest CH 4 yield at ISR 2.0. • pH, TAN, N-NH 3 and VFAs confirmed the appropriate stability of the codigestion. • 35.44% VS reduction was achieved by codigestion of blue algae with swine manure. • Three key enzyme characteristics demonstrated the higher efficiencies of codigestion. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of Taihu blue algae and its codigestion with swine manure was evaluated at different inoculum substrate ratios (ISRs) from 0.5 to 3.0. Results showed that codigestion of blue algae with swine manure led to the highest methane (CH 4 ) production of 212.7 mL g −1 VS at ISR 2.0, while digestion of blue algae inoculated with granular sludge brought out the optimized CH 4 production of 73.5 mL g −1 VS at ISR 3.0. The values of pH, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), free ammonia nitrogen (N-NH 3 ) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) showed no significant difference between the digestion and codigestion, confirming the appropriate stability of the two batch anaerobic processes. Closer examination of VS removal rates and key enzymes variation proved codigestion had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation, which demonstrated that AD of blue algae with swine manure was a promising technology for both solid wastes treatment and renewable-energy production

  5. Effect of temperature on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liangwei; Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Yang, Hongnan; Liu, Yi; Chen, Ziai

    2016-07-15

    Laboratory-scale experiments were performed on the dry digestion of solid swine manure in a semi-continuous mode using 4.5 L down plug-flow anaerobic reactors with an organic loading rate of 3.46 kg volatile solids (VS) m(-3) d(-1) to evaluate the effects of temperature (15, 25 and 35 °C). At 15 °C, biogas production was the poorest due to organic overload and acidification, with a methane yield of 0.036 L CH4 g(-1) VS added and a volumetric methane production rate of 0.125 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1). The methane yield and volumetric methane production rate at 25 °C (0.226 L CH4 g(-1) VS added and 0.783 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1), respectively) were 6.24 times higher than those at 15 °C. However, the methane yield (0.237 L CH4 g(-1) VS added) and the volumetric methane production rate (0.821 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1)) at 35 °C were only 4.86% higher than those at 25 °C, which indicated similar results were obtained at 25 °C and 35 °C. The lower biogas production at 35 °C in dry digestion compared with that in wet digestion could be attributed to ammonia inhibition. For a single pig farm, digestion of solid manure is accomplished in small-scale domestic or small-farm bioreactors, for which operating temperatures of 35 °C are sometimes difficult to achieve. Considering biogas production, ammonia inhibition and net energy recovery, an optimum temperature for dry digestion of solid swine manure is 25 °C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Mu Ji; Jung, Hae Sang

    1974-10-01

    This book is divided into two chapters, which deals with protective relay. The first chapter deals with the basic knowledge of relay on development of relay, classification of protective relay, rating of protective relay general structure of protective relay, detecting of ground protection, about point of contact, operating relay and trip relaying. The second chapter is about structure and explanation of relay on classification by structure such as motor type and moving-coil type, explanation of other relays over current relay, over voltage relay, short voltage relay, relay for power, relay for direction, test of over voltage relay, test of short voltage relay and test of directional circuit relay.

  7. Protecting knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....

  8. CRISPR-Cas9, a tool to efficiently increase the development of recombinant African swine fever viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borca, Manuel V; Holinka, Lauren G; Berggren, Keith A; Gladue, Douglas P

    2018-02-16

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly contagious disease called African swine fever. This disease is often lethal for domestic pigs, causing extensive losses for the swine industry. ASFV is a large and complex double stranded DNA virus. Currently there is no commercially available treatment or vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. Development of recombinant ASFV for producing live-attenuated vaccines or studying the involvement of specific genes in virus virulence has relied on the relatively rare event of homologous recombination in primary swine macrophages, causing difficulty to purify the recombinant virus from the wild-type parental ASFV. Here we present the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system as a more robust and efficient system to produce recombinant ASFVs. Using CRISPR-Cas9 a recombinant virus was efficiently developed by deleting the non-essential gene 8-DR from the genome of the highly virulent field strain Georgia07 using swine macrophages as cell substrate.

  9. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  10. PB1-F2 Protein Does Not Impact the Virulence of Triple-Reassortant H3N2 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs but Alters Pathogenicity and Transmission in Turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Kumar, Sandeep R P; Raghunath, Shobana; Leroith, Tanya; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2016-01-01

    PB1-F2 protein, the 11th influenza A virus (IAV) protein, is considered to play an important role in primary influenza virus infection and postinfluenza secondary bacterial pneumonia in mice. The functional role of PB1-F2 has been reported to be a strain-specific and host-specific phenomenon. Its precise contribution to the pathogenicity and transmission of influenza virus in mammalian host, such as swine, and avian hosts, such as turkeys, remain largely unknown. In this study, we explored the role of PB1-F2 protein of triple-reassortant (TR) H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) in pigs and turkeys. Using the eight-plasmid reverse genetics system, we rescued wild-type SIV A/swine/Minnesota/1145/2007 (H3N2) (SIV 1145-WT), a PB1-F2 knockout mutant (SIV 1145-KO), and its N66S variant (SIV 1145-N66S). The ablation of PB1-F2 in SIV 1145 modulated early-stage apoptosis but did not affect the viral replication in swine alveolar macrophage cells. In pigs, PB1-F2 expression did not affect nasal shedding, lung viral load, immunophenotypes, and lung pathology. On the other hand, in turkeys, SIV 1145-KO infected poults, and its in-contacts developed clinical signs earlier than SIV 1145-WT groups and also displayed more extensive histopathological changes in intestine. Further, turkeys infected with SIV 1145-N66S displayed poor infectivity and transmissibility. The more extensive histopathologic changes in intestine and relative transmission advantage observed in turkeys infected with SIV 1145-KO need to be further explored. Taken together, these results emphasize the host-specific roles of PB1-F2 in the pathogenicity and transmission of IAV. Novel triple-reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus emerged in 1998 and spread rapidly among the North American swine population. Subsequently, it showed an increased propensity to reassort, generating a range of reassortants. Unlike classical swine influenza virus, TR SIV produces a full-length PB1-F2 protein, which is considered an important

  11. Dietary fat and kinetics of chloesterol metabolism in miniature swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clow, D.J.; Butterfield, A.B.; Dupont, J.; Lumb, W.V.; Mahoney, T.A.; O'Deen, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Female, Hormel derived miniature swine were fed corn-soy rations containing 40% of energy as beef fat (SFA) or 8% beef fat and 32% safflower oil (PUFA) from a weight of 23 until 44 to 46 kg. At that time, surgery was performed to implant a cannula in the proximal jejunum. Two wk later, a second surgery was performed to implant cannulae in the portal vein and aorta. The pigs were fed sufficient ration to maintain weight in two meals per day. 4- 14 C-cholesterol was incubated with homologous serum and reinjected. Samples were withdrawn from the portal vein or aorta and the jejunal cannula at intervals. Specific activity of serum and jejunal cholesterol was determined. Bile acids were isolated, quantitated by enzymatic assay and specific activity was calculated. Diet did not affect T1/2 of serum cholesterol, but the fractional turnover rate from pool 2 to pool 1 was greater for SFA than PUFA. Pool 1 was larger for PUFA than SFA and the flow rate was greater between pools; there was greater net loss from PUFA than SFA fed pigs. Jejunal cholesterol kinetics were similar to serum from SFA but not PUFA pigs. Flow rates between pools were lower in jejunal than serum pools. Bile acid specific activity rose within 15 hr to a maximum, then exhibited a plateau for about two wk before beginning disappearance

  12. [Diagnostic serology of swine leptospirosis in Mexico 1995-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros Puebla, Miguel Angel; Moles Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Serranía, Nora Rojas; Torres Barranca, Jorge Isaac

    2002-01-01

    Results obtained from sample testing of 1970 swines from a number of Mexican farms were analyzed. Such samples had been received in the Leptospira Lab of Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana de Xochimilco from 1995 to 2000. Sera with titers equal to or higher than 1:1000 were considered positive; 39,8% of the animals were seropositive (784) and the most frequent serovarieties were bratislava, 22.5%; icterohaemorrhagiae strain Palo Alto, 14,5%; portland vere strain Sinaloa ACR, 13,8%; icterohaemorrhagiae, 11,1%; grippotyphosa, 8,9%; hardjo strain H89,7.2%; tarassovi,7.1%; panama, 5.8%, pomona and hardjo, 5.1%; wolffi, 3%; shermani, 2.4%; pyrogenes, 1.2%; canicola, 0.8%; hebdomadis, 0,5%. The bratislava serovariety has been reported as the cause of reproductive failure in several countries and it holds the first place in serological studies. Therefore, the present paper provides information for stating that this is one of the most significant serovarieties in Mexico.

  13. Self-made Palmaz stent: an experimental swine model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shicheng; Teng Gaojun; Guo Jinhe; Fang Wen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the histologic changes and physicochemical stability of self-made Palmaz stent placed in swine arteries. Methods: The self-made Palmaz stent was made of 316L stainless steel wire. Nine stents were respectively placed within internal carotid, renal and iliac arteries of six pigs. Pigs were euthanized at intervals of 0.5, 1 and 3 months respectively and angiography were performed. Immediately followed by light and electro scanning microscopy for the stent zones. Results: All stents were successfully implanted in the target arteries and were patent shown in the angiographic examination immediately after the stent placement. Eight stents (8/9) remained patent at the time before euthanasia. No migration of stent were shown in the follow-up angiography. Light and electron scanning microscopy showed that the surface of the stents was covered by a thin layer of endothelial cells 2 weeks after the procedure and completely covered after 4 weeks. No inflammation occurred. Conclusions: The self-made Palmaz stent has good physicochemical stability and histocompatibility with easy placement, rather long term patency, histopathologic stability and thus the promising for clinical application

  14. Onset and Duration of Intravenous and Intraosseous Rocuronium in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Loughren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The intraosseous (IO route has become a popular method to gain access to the peripheral circulation in emergency situations. Despite little supporting data, it is generally believed that IO absorption is immediate and equivalent to the intravenous (IV route. It is important to determine if rocuronium can effectively be administered by the IO route. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the onset and duration of rocuronium when administered via the IO and IV routes in a normovolemic pig model. Methods: We recorded electromyographic (EMG data following tibial IO and peripheral IV administration of rocuronium (1.2 mg/kg in 10 swine weighing between 56 and 71 Kg. We transformed data were transformed to percent of baseline, determined onset and recovery characteristics. Results: The onset EMG-time profiles for IO and IV administration were very similar: tibial IO compared to IV administration did not statistically alter the onset of paralysis. The IO group took statistically longer than the IV group to return to 50 (p=0.042, 75 (p=0.034 and 95 (p=0.036 percent of baseline activity. Conclusion: The duration of effect is statistically longer after IO administration but is more of an academic interest than a clinical concern. The results of this study suggest that rocuronium can effectively be administered via the IO route without the need for dose adjustments. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:241-245.

  15. Onset and Duration of Intravenous and Intraosseous Rocuronium in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughren, Michael; Banks, Sarah; Naluan, Carleo; Portenlanger, Paul; Wendorf, Arthur; Johnson, Don

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The intraosseous (IO) route has become a popular method to gain access to the peripheral circulation in emergency situations. Despite little supporting data, it is generally believed that IO absorption is immediate and equivalent to the intravenous (IV) route. It is important to determine if rocuronium can effectively be administered by the IO route. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the onset and duration of rocuronium when administered via the IO and IV routes in a normovolemic pig model. Methods We recorded electromyographic (EMG) data following tibial IO and peripheral IV administration of rocuronium (1.2 mg/kg) in 10 swine weighing between 56 and 71 Kg. We transformed data were transformed to percent of baseline, determined onset and recovery characteristics. Results The onset EMG-time profiles for IO and IV administration were very similar: tibial IO compared to IV administration did not statistically alter the onset of paralysis. The IO group took statistically longer than the IV group to return to 50 (p=0.042), 75 (p=0.034) and 95 (p=0.036) percent of baseline activity. Conclusion The duration of effect is statistically longer after IO administration but is more of an academic interest than a clinical concern. The results of this study suggest that rocuronium can effectively be administered via the IO route without the need for dose adjustments. PMID:24672619

  16. Integrated anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for intensive swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortone, Giuseppe

    2009-11-01

    Manure processing could help farmers to effectively manage nitrogen (N) surplus load. Many pig farms have to treat wastewater. Piggery wastewater treatment is a complex challenge, due to the high COD and N concentrations and low C/N ratio. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be a convenient pre-treatment, particularly from the energetic view point and farm income, but this causes further reduction of C/N ratio and makes denitrification difficult. N removal can only be obtained integrating anaerobic/aerobic treatment by taking into account the best use of electron donors. Experiences gained in Italy during development of integrated biological treatment approaches for swine manure, from bench to full scale, are reported in this paper. Solid/liquid separation as pre-treatment of raw manure is an efficient strategy to facilitate liquid fraction treatment without significantly lowering C/N ratio. In Italy, two full scale SBRs showed excellent efficiency and reliability. Current renewable energy policy and incentives makes economically attractive the application of AD to the separated solid fraction using high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) technology. Economic evaluation showed that energy production can reduce costs up to 60%, making sustainable the overall treatment.

  17. Microbial Source Tracking in a Watershed Dominated by Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice F. Lubbers

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of swine production in southeastern North Carolina generates public health concerns regarding the potential transport of pathogens from these production systems to nearby surface waters. The microbial source tracking (MST tool, antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA, was used to identify sources of E. coli in a segment of Six Runs Creek in Sampson County, North Carolina. Among 52 water samples, fecal coliform (FC counts averaged 272.1 ± 181.6 CFU/100 mL. Comparisons of isolates from water samples to an ARA library with an average rate of correct classification (ARCC of 94.3% indicated an average of 64% and 27.1% of 1,961 isolates from Six Runs Creek were associated with lagoon effluent and cattle manure respectively. The potential for aerosol transport of bacteria during lagoon spray events, as well as, the potential for wildlife to serve as a vehicle of transport for bacteria from fields and lagoons to nearby surface waters should be investigated further.

  18. Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates associated with septicemia in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Nadia; Corriveau, Jonathan; Letellier, Ann; Daigle, France; Quessy, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently isolated from pigs and may also cause enteric disease in humans. In this study, 33 isolates of S. Typhimurium associated with septicemia in swine (CS) were compared to 33 isolates recovered from healthy animals at slaughter (WCS). The isolates were characterized using phenotyping and genotyping methods. For each isolate, the phage type, antimicrobial resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) DNA profiles were determined. In addition, the protein profiles of each isolate grown in different conditions were studied by Coomassie Blue-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot. Various phage types were identified. The phage type PT 104 represented 36.4% of all isolates from septicemic pigs. Resistance to as many as 12 antimicrobial agents, including some natural resistances, was found in isolates from CS and WCS. Many genetic profiles were identified among the PT 104 phage types. Although it was not possible to associate one particular protein with septicemic isolates, several highly immunogenic proteins, present in all virulent isolates and in most isolates from clinically healthy animals, were identified. These results indicated that strains associated with septicemia belong to various genetic lineages that can also be recovered from asymptomatic animals at the time of slaughter. PMID:20357952

  19. Unravelling the transcriptome profile of the Swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale.

  20. Unravelling the Transcriptome Profile of the Swine Respiratory Tract Mycoplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale. PMID:25333523

  1. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker eMoennig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV are members of the family Suidae, i.e. Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0<1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar.

  2. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  3. Findings of bacterial microflora in piglets infected with conventional swine plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Piglets infected with the conventional swine plague virus as a result of secondary bacterial infections sometimes show an insufficiently clear clinical and pathoanatomical picture, which is why the very procedure of diagnosis is complex and the final diagnosis unreliable. That is why these investigations were aimed at examining the presence of bacterial microflora in diseased and dead pilgets which were found to have the viral antigen for CSP using the fluorescent antibody technique, in cases where the pathomorphological finding was not characteristic for conventional swine plague. Autopsies of dead piglets most often showed changes in the digestive tract and lungs, with resulting technopathy and diseases of infective nature. Such findings on knowledge of a present bacterial microflora are especially important in cases when conventional swine plague is controlled on farms and an announcement that the disease has been contained is in the offing.

  4. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    ingredients were composed. Both diets were based on triticale and barley and supplemented with either rape seed cake (Diet 1) or dried chicory root and sweet lupins (Diet 2). The study had a three-factorial design, with eight groups of pigs receiving Diet I or Diet 2, +/- B. hyodysenteriae, and +/- T suis......An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown....... Pigs fed Diet 2 and challenged with B. hyodysenteriae did not develop swine dysentery and B. hyodysenteriae was not demonstrated in any of the pigs during the study. In contrast, 94% of the B. hyodysenteriae challenged pigs fed Diet I showed clinical symptoms of swine dysentery and all the pigs were...

  5. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V.

    1983-01-01

    The virucidal effect of 60 Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  6. Assessment of zoonotic potential of four European swine influenza viruses in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; P. Fabrizio, Thomas; Yoon, Sun-Woo

    herds and enhanced focus on risk assessment of these new viruses. In this study, four European swine influenza viruses were assessed for their zoonotic potential. Of the four viruses, two were enzootic viruses of subtype H1N2 (with avian-like H1) and H3N2 and two were new reassortants, one with avian......The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into swine herds have drastically increased the diversity of reassortants throughout Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is unknown, hence necessitating enhanced surveillance of European swine...... to neuraminidase inhibitors. These findings suggest that the investigated viruses have the potential to infect humans and further underline the need for continued surveillance as well as pandemic and zoonotic assessment of new influenza reassortants....

  7. Finding a new drug and vaccine for emerging swine flu: What is the concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitWiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160Abstract: Influenza is a well known infection of the respiratory system. The main clinical manifestations of influenza include fever, sore throat, headache, cough, coryza, and malaise. Apart from the well known classical influenza, there are also groups of influenza virus infections that are called “atypical infection”. These infections are usually due to a novel influenza virus infection. In early 2009, an emerging novel influenza originating from Mexico called swine flu was reported. The World Health Organization noted a level VI precaution, the highest level precaution possible, for this newest influenza virus infection. As of June 2009, it is not known if this disease will be successfully controlled. Finding new drugs and vaccine for the emerging swine flu is still required to cope with this emerging worldwide problem.Keywords: swine flu, drug, vaccine, concept

  8. Viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Marcelo; Kunz, Airton; Seganfredo, Milton Antonio; Steinmetz, Ricardo [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: mmiele@cnpsa.embrapa.br; Bortoli, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The swine manure treatment is based on several technologies, such as pond systems, composting, biodigesters, and compact process like the EMBRAPA's Swine Manure Treatment System. The last one can reach high quality effluent with reduced pollution, although it demands higher investment and costs. For this reason it is necessary to manage revenues with byproducts and carbon credit markets. The aim of this study was to present a viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system considering its potential revenues facing higher costs. Using market prices and measured data from a prototype running in south Brazil, the study calculated costs, revenues, profit, net present value and internal rate return. It also estimated these indicators assuming scale economies. The results showed that the investment can pay its costs by its insertion in the carbon credit market and other revenues like the energy substitution. It also showed the importance to reach scale economies. (author)

  9. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J; Mocsari, E; di Gleria, M; Felkai, V [Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest [Hungary

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  10. Aerobic treatment of swine manure to enhance anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekoe, Dominic; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Bo; Scott Todd, Matthew; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2018-02-01

    Aerobic treatment of swine manure was coupled with anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation. A 14-day aerobic treatment reduced the total solid content of swine manure by >15%. Ammonia and carbon dioxide were stripped by the air supplied, and this off-gas was further used to aerate the culture of Chlorella vulgaris. The microalgal growth rates in Bristol medium and the wastewater with the off-gas increased from 0.08 to 0.22 g/L/d and from 0.15 to 0.24 g/L/d, respectively. Meanwhile, the aerobically treated swine manure showed a higher methane yield during anaerobic digestion. The experimental results were used to establish a demonstration unit consisting of a 100 L composter, a 200 L anaerobic digester, a 60 L tubular photobioreactor, and a 300 L micro-open raceway pond.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process....... Furthermore, it was found that methane productions rates during digestion of either swine manure alone or OME alone were much lower than the rates achieved when OME and manure were digested together. Admixing OME with manure at a concentration of 5 to 10% OME resulted in the highest methane production rates....... Using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, it was shown that codigestion of OME with swine manure (up to 50% OME) was successful with a COD reduction up to 75%. The process was adapted for degradation of OME with stepwise increase of the OME load to the UASB reactor. The results showed...

  12. Settling and survival profile of enteric pathogens in the swine effluent for water reuse purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Kunz, A; Magri, M E; Schissi, C D; Viancelli, A; Philippi, L S; Barardi, C R M

    2016-11-01

    The present study evaluated the pathogens persistence and settling profile in swine effluent. We determined the enteric pathogens settling characteristics, their survival and inactivation profile in swine effluent (for water reuse purpose) and in sludge (generated after aerobic treatment - during secondary settling process). The study was performed in laboratorial-scale and in full-scale (manure treatment plant). Enteric viruses and enteric bacteria were used as biomarkers. Results showed that these enteric pathogens were significantly reduced from swine effluent during secondary settling process, and enteric viruses removal was correlated with the suspended solids decantation. The design of secondary settlers can be adapted to improve pathogens removal, by diminishing the solids loading rate per area and time, ending in higher hydraulic retention times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  14. Shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of dusts from swine confinement and grain facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissy, Robert J; Romberger, Debra J; Roughead, William A; Weissenburger-Moser, Lisa; Poole, Jill A; LeVan, Tricia D

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of agricultural dusts causes inflammatory reactions and symptoms such as headache, fever, and malaise, which can progress to chronic airway inflammation and associated diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although in many agricultural environments feed particles are the major constituent of these dusts, the inflammatory responses that they provoke are likely attributable to particle-associated bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we performed shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of DNA from dusts from swine confinement facilities or grain elevators, with comparisons to dusts from pet-free households. DNA sequence alignment showed that 19% or 62% of shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic DNA sequence reads from swine facility or household dusts, respectively, were of swine or human origin, respectively. In contrast only 2% of such reads from grain elevator dust were of mammalian origin. These metagenomic shotgun reads of mammalian origin were excluded from our analyses of agricultural dust microbiota. The ten most prevalent bacterial taxa identified in swine facility compared to grain elevator or household dust were comprised of 75%, 16%, and 42% gram-positive organisms, respectively. Four of the top five swine facility dust genera were assignable (Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium, ranging from 4% to 19% relative abundance). The relative abundances of these four genera were lower in dust from grain elevators or pet-free households. These analyses also highlighted the predominance in swine facility dust of Firmicutes (70%) at the phylum level, Clostridia (44%) at the Class level, and Clostridiales at the Order level (41%). In summary, shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of agricultural dusts show that they differ qualitatively and quantitatively at the level of microbial taxa present, and that the bioinformatic analyses

  15. Shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of dusts from swine confinement and grain facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Boissy

    Full Text Available Inhalation of agricultural dusts causes inflammatory reactions and symptoms such as headache, fever, and malaise, which can progress to chronic airway inflammation and associated diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although in many agricultural environments feed particles are the major constituent of these dusts, the inflammatory responses that they provoke are likely attributable to particle-associated bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we performed shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of DNA from dusts from swine confinement facilities or grain elevators, with comparisons to dusts from pet-free households. DNA sequence alignment showed that 19% or 62% of shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic DNA sequence reads from swine facility or household dusts, respectively, were of swine or human origin, respectively. In contrast only 2% of such reads from grain elevator dust were of mammalian origin. These metagenomic shotgun reads of mammalian origin were excluded from our analyses of agricultural dust microbiota. The ten most prevalent bacterial taxa identified in swine facility compared to grain elevator or household dust were comprised of 75%, 16%, and 42% gram-positive organisms, respectively. Four of the top five swine facility dust genera were assignable (Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium, ranging from 4% to 19% relative abundance. The relative abundances of these four genera were lower in dust from grain elevators or pet-free households. These analyses also highlighted the predominance in swine facility dust of Firmicutes (70% at the phylum level, Clostridia (44% at the Class level, and Clostridiales at the Order level (41%. In summary, shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of agricultural dusts show that they differ qualitatively and quantitatively at the level of microbial taxa present, and that the

  16. Perfluorocarbon in Delayed Recompression with a Mixed Gender Swine Model of Decompression Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, William A; Hall, Aaron A; Auker, Charles R; Mahon, Richard T

    2018-01-01

    Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are fluorinated hydrocarbons that dissolve gases to a much greater degree than plasma and hold promise in treating decompression sickness (DCS). The efficacy of PFC in a mixed gender model of DCS and safety in recompression therapy has not been previously explored. Swine (25 kg; N = 104; 51 male and 53 female) were randomized into normal saline solution (NSS) or PFC emulsion treatment groups and subjected to compression on air in a hyperbaric chamber at 200 fsw for 31 min. Then the animals were decompressed and observed for signs of DCS. Afterwards, they were treated with oxygen and either PFC (4 cc · kg-1) or NSS (4 cc · kg-1). Surviving animals were observed for 4 h, at which time they underwent recompression therapy using a standard Navy Treatment Table 6. After 24 h the animals were assessed and then euthanized. Survival rates were not significantly different between NSS (74.04%) and PFC (66.67%) treatment groups. All swine that received recompression treatment survived to the end of the study and no seizures were observed in either PFC or NSS animals. Within the saline treated swine group there were no significant differences in DCS survival between male (75.00%, N = 24) and female (73.08%, N = 26) swine. Within the PFC treated swine, survival of females (51.85%, N = 27) was significantly lower than males (81.48%, N = 27). In this large animal mixed gender efficacy study in DCS, PFC did not improve mortality or spinal cord injury, but appears safe during recompressive therapy. Gender differences in DCS treatment with PFC will need further study.Cronin WA, Hall AA, Auker CR, Mahon RT. Perfluorocarbon in delayed recompression with a mixed gender swine model of decompression sickness. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):14-18.

  17. Molecular evolution of H1N1 swine influenza in Guangdong, China, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mengkai; Huang, Junming; Bu, Dexin; Yu, Zhiqing; Fu, Xinliang; Ji, Chihai; Zhou, Pei; Zhang, Guihong

    2018-06-01

    Swine are the main host of the H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV), however, H1N1 can also infect humans and occasionally cause serious respiratory disease. To trace the evolution of the SIV in Guangdong, China, we performed an epidemic investigation during the period of 2016-2017. Nine H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from swine nasal swabs. Antigenic analysis revealed that these viruses belonged to two distinct antigenic groups, represented by A/Swine/Guangdong/101/2016 and A/Swine/Guangdong/52/2017. Additionally, three genotypes, known as GD52/17-like, GD493/17-like and GD101/16-like, were identified by phylogenetic analysis. Importantly, the genotypes including a minimum of 4 pdm/09-origin internal genes have become prevalent in China in recent years. A total of 2966 swine serum samples were used to perform hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests, and the results showed that the seroprevalence values of SW/GD/101/16 (32.2% in 2016, 32.1% in 2017) were significantly higher than the seroprevalence values of SW/GD/52/17 (18.0% in 2016, 16.7% in 2017). Our study showed that the three reassortant genotypes of H1N1 SIV currently circulating in China are stable, but H1N1pdm09 poses challenges to human health by the introduction of internal genes into these reassortant genotypes. Strengthening SIV surveillance is therefore critical for SIV control and minimizing its potential threat to public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: laboratory-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Jackson, Michael A; Compton, David L; Yates, Scott R; Cantrell, Keri; Chang, SeChin

    2014-08-01

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in anaerobic digestion and land application of swine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Qianwen; Zhang, Junya; Chen, Meixue; Tong, Juan; Wang, Rui; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    Swine farm and the adjacent farmland are hot spots of ARGs. However, few studies have investigated the on-site occurrence of ARGs distributed in the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by land application of swine wastewater. Two typical swine farms, in southern and northern China respectively, with AD along with land application were explored on ARG distributions. ARGs were highly abundant in raw swine wastewater, AD effectively reduced the copy number of all detected ARGs (0.21–1.34 logs removal), but the relative abundance with different resistance mechanisms showed distinctive variation trends. The reduction efficiency of ARGs was improved by stable operational temperature and longer solid retention time (SRT) of AD. ARGs in soil characterized the contamination from the irrigation of the digested liquor. The total ARGs quantity in soil fell down by 1.66 logs in idle period of winter compared to application period of summer in the northern region, whereas the total amount was steady with whole-year application in south. Some persistent (sul1 and sul2) and elevated ARGs (tetG and ereA) in AD and land application need more attention. - Highlights: • Swine farm and the adjacent farmland are hot spots of ARGs. • Mesophilic anaerobic digestion reduced the most detected ARGs quantities. • ARG levels in soils varied with different land application procedures. • Persistent and elevated ARGs in AD and land application need more attention. - Anaerobic digestion reduced the copy number of ARGs in swine wastewater, and winter idle dissipated their quantities in soil.

  20. First reports of pseudorabies and winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) associated with an emerging feral swine (Sus scrofa) population in New Hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Anthony R; Pedersen, Kerri; Hall, Parker

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of feral swine (Sus scrofa) populations into new geographic regions is of concern not only due to increased range but also because they carry diseases and parasites that pose a threat to humans, livestock, and wildlife into new areas. Recently, emerging feral swine populations have been reported in the northeastern US and due to their adaptive nature will likely continue to spread. During 2009-2012, 49 feral swine were removed from three counties in New Hampshire. Of these, serum samples were submitted from 34 for disease surveillance testing. One of the feral swine was antibody-positive for pseudorabies virus (PRV) making it the first documented infection in feral swine in New Hampshire. Infestations of winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) were also documented on two of the feral swine which had only been reported previously on feral swine in Texas. Feral swine may not only serve as an important host for an economically important commercial swine pathogen like PRV, but they could also increase host diversity for parasites such as the winter tick, a species that can regionally impact moose (Alces alces) survival. These findings warrant further investigation of expanding and established feral swine populations in New Hampshire as pathogen hosts and support continued effort to reduce numbers or regionally eradicate feral swine.

  1. Application of the indirect enzyme-labeled antibody microtest to the detection and surveillance of animal diseases. [Brucellosis, cholera, and trichinosis in cattle and swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, G.C. Clinard, E.H.; Bartlett, M.L.; Sanders, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid, indirect enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microplate test has been developed as a diagnostic and surveillance tool to aid in the control of animal disease. Data are presented, which illustrate the application of the test to viral (hog cholera), parasitic (trichinosis), and bacterial (brucellosis) diseases of animals. A greater than 95 percent correlation was observed between the hog cholera ELA test and the hog cholera serum neutralization test performed on over 2000 mixed hog cholera positive and negative field samples obtained during the 1976 New Jersey epizootic. Of 56 swine naturally infected with Trichinella spiralis at a level considered dangerous to man, all were ELA positive, while only one of 360 T. spiralis negative packing house sera was ELA positive. Preliminary experiments with bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) indicate that the ELA test is more sensitive than other test methods currently in use. ELA procedures should soon become tests of choice for the detection of antibodies to animal disease agents.

  2. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  3. Prevalence and Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Swine Feces Recovered in the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Swine 2000 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratamico, Pina M.; Bagi, Lori K.; Bush, Eric J.; Solow, Barbara T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in swine feces in the United States as part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Swine 2000 study. Fecal samples collected from swine operations from 13 of the top 17 swine-producing states were tested for the presence of STEC. After enrichment of swine fecal samples in tryptic soy broth, the samples were tested for the presence of stx1 and stx2 by use of the TaqMan E. coli STX1 and STX2 PCR assays. Enrichments of samples positive for stx1 and/or stx2 were plated, and colony hybridization was performed using digoxigenin-labeled probes complementary to the stx1 and stx2 genes. Positive colonies were picked and confirmed by PCR for the presence of the stx1, stx2, or stx2e genes, and the isolates were serotyped. Out of 687 fecal samples tested using the TaqMan assays, 70% (484 of 687) were positive for Shiga toxin genes, and 54% (370 of 687), 64% (436 of 687), and 38% (261 of 687) were positive for stx1, stx2, and both toxin genes, respectively. Out of 219 isolates that were characterized, 29 (13%) produced stx1, 14 (6%) produced stx2, and 176 (80%) produced stx2e. Twenty-three fecal samples contained at least two STEC strains that had different serotypes but that had the same toxin genes or included a strain that possessed stx1 in addition to a strain that possessed stx2 or stx2e. The STEC isolates belonged to various serogroups, including O2, O5, O7, O8, O9, OX10, O11, O15, OX18, O20, O57, O65, O68, O69, O78, O91, O96, O100, O101, O120, O121, O152, O159, O160, O163, and O untypeable. It is noteworthy that no isolates of serogroup O157 were recovered. Results of this study indicate that swine in the United States harbor STEC that can potentially cause human illness. PMID:15574914

  4. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: a fatal complication of swine flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.; Maheshwari, P.K.; Haque, A.

    2010-01-01

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANEC) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of multifocal symmetrical brain lesions involving mainly thalami, brainstem, cerebellum and white matter. ANEC is a serious and life threatening complication of simple viral infections. We present a case of a young child who developed this condition with classical clinical and radiological findings consistent with ANEC, secondary to swine flu (H1N1). He needed ventilatory support and had profound motor and intellectual deficit on discharge. We report this case with aim of raising awareness about this fatal complication of swine flu which has become a global health care issue these days. (author)

  5. [Therapeutic qualities of a lente preparation of swine insulins manufactured by Pharmachem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, D; Bozadzhieva, E; Pampulov, L; Penchev, I; Uzunova, B

    1977-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of swine insulin preparation Lente, "Pharmachim" production was studied in 50 diabetics. Its hypoglycemizing activitis compared with that of standardized insulin Lente--"Novo", extract of bovine pancreas. The Bulgarian preparation was found to be very similar to the preparation Lente-Novo in its pharma-codynamic properties and could successfully be used in the diabetes melitus treatment. Insulin Lente Pharmachim is presumed to have lower antigenicity as an extract of swine pancreas, which is actually its great advantage for the therapeutic practice.

  6. The first Swedish H1N2 swine influenza virus isolate represents an uncommon reassortant

    OpenAIRE

    Renström Lena HM; Isaksson Mats; Berg Mikael; Zohari Siamak; Widén Frederik; Metreveli Giorgi; Bálint Ádám; Wallgren Per; Belák Sándor; Segall Thomas; Kiss István

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The European swine influenza viruses (SIVs) show considerable diversity comprising different types of H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2 strains. The intensifying full genome sequencing efforts reveal further reassortants within these subtypes. Here we report the identification of an uncommon reassortant variant of H1N2 subtype influenza virus isolated from a pig in a multisite herd where H1N2 swine influenza was diagnosed for the first time in Sweden during the winter of 2008-2009. The majority o...

  7. Bioinformatics prediction of swine MHC class I epitopes from Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole

    an effective CTL response against PRRSV, we have taken a bioinformatics approach to identify common PRRSV epitopes predicted to react broadly with predominant swine MHC (SLA) alleles. First, the genomic integrity and sequencing method was examined for 334 available complete PRRSV type 2 genomes leaving 104...... by the PopCover algorithm, providing a final list of 54 epitopes prioritized according to maximum coverage of PRRSV strains and SLA alleles. This bioinformatics approach provides a rational strategy for selecting peptides for a CTL-activating vaccine with broad coverage of both virus and swine diversity...

  8. Incidence, Diversity, and Molecular Epidemiology of Sapoviruses in Swine across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, G.; Zimsek-Mijovski, J.; Poljsak-Prijatelj, M.

    2010-01-01

    report on the incidence, genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of sapoviruses detected in domestic pigs in a comprehensive study conducted in six European countries (Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia and Spain) between 2004 and 2007. A total of 1,050 swine fecal samples from 88 pig farms......) to human sapovirus strains. Sapoviruses are commonly circulating and endemic agents in swine herds throughout Europe. Highly heterogenous and potential new genogroups of sapoviruses were found in pigs; however, no "human-like" sapoviruses were detected....

  9. Potential of low-temperature anaerobic digestion to address current environmental concerns on swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, D I; Masse, L; Xia, Y; Gilbert, Y

    2010-04-01

    Environmental issues associated with swine production are becoming a major concern among the general public and are thus an important challenge for the swine industry. There is now a renewed interest in environmental biotechnologies that can minimize the impact of swine production and add value to livestock by-products. An anaerobic biotechnology called psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) has been developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This very stable biotechnology recovers usable energy, stabilizes and deodorizes manure, and increases the availability of plant nutrients. Experimental results indicated that PAD of swine manure slurry at 15 to 25 degrees C in intermittently fed SBR reduces the pollution potential of manure by removing up to 90% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The process performs well under intermittent feeding, once to 3 times a week, and without external mixing. Bioreactor feeding activities can thus be easily integrated into the routine manure removal procedures in the barn, with minimal interference with other farm operations and use of existing manure-handling equipment. Process stability was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in manure. The PAD process was efficient in eliminating populations of zoonotic pathogens and parasites present in raw livestock manure slurries. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in SBR could also be used for swine mortality disposal. The addition of swine carcasses, at loading rates representing up to 8 times the normal mortality rates on commercial farms, did not affect the stability of SBR. No operational problems were related to the formation of foam and scum. The biotechnology was successfully operated at semi-industrial and full commercial scales. Biogas production rate exceeded 0.20 L of methane per gram of total chemical oxygen demand fed to the SBR. The biogas was of excellent quality, with a methane concentration ranging from 70 to 80%. The

  10. Tissue Disposition and Withdrawal Time of Fosfomycin in Swines after Oral and Intramuscular Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Denisa Soledad; Soraci, Alejandro Luis; Tapia, Maria Ofelia

    2016-01-01

    A HPLC-MS/MS method, which was suitable to be used in withdrawal time studies, was validated for the determination of fosfomycin in swine muscle, liver, kidney and skin-fat. Therefore, the withdrawal time of fosfomycin in swines, considering a MRL of 0.5 μg/mL was studied. Forty-eight pigs were assigned to two groups; in group one, fosfomycin was orally administered daily with 30 mg⁄kg bw and to the other group a dose of 15 mg⁄kg bw of the antibiotic was intramuscularly administered. Pigs wer...

  11. Treatment rates for injectable tiamulin and lincomycin as an estimate of morbidity in a swine herd with endemic swine dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Krysia; Friendship, Robert; Brockoff, Egan; Greer, Amy; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2017-05-01

    Treatment can be used as an indirect measure of morbidity, and treatment records can be used to describe disease patterns in a population. The aim of this study was to describe the rates of treatments with tiamulin and lincomycin by the intramuscular route in cohorts of pigs affected by swine dysentery. Data from treatment records from 19 cohorts of a 1500-head grower-finisher barn were analyzed using Poisson regression to determine factors associated with rates of treatment. Serial interval and reproductive numbers were extracted. Treatment rates displayed marked seasonality. The mean serial interval was estimated at 17 d with variability among batches. In the early period of most cohorts, the effective reproductive number did not exceed 1, and the highest estimate was 2.15 (95% CI: 1.46, 3.20). The average days-to-first treatment was 4.8 which suggests that pigs could have been infected at time of entry. The information about possible sources of infection and likely seasonality should be considered when developing disease and infection control measures in affected barns.

  12. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Single-Amino-Acid Substitution at Position 225 in Hemagglutinin Alters the Transmissibility of Eurasian Avian-Like H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Tao, Shiyu; Liu, Liling; Kong, Huihui; Ma, Shujie; Meng, Fei; Suzuki, Yasuo; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Hualan

    2017-11-01

    Efficient transmission from human to human is the prerequisite for an influenza virus to cause a pandemic; however, the molecular determinants of influenza virus transmission are still largely unknown. In this study, we explored the molecular basis for transmission of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EAH1N1) swine influenza viruses by comparing two viruses that are genetically similar but differ in their transmissibility in guinea pigs: the A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 virus (GX/18) is highly transmissible by respiratory droplet in guinea pigs, whereas the A/swine/Heilongjiang/27/2012 virus (HLJ/27) does not transmit in this animal model. We used reverse genetics to generate a series of reassortants and mutants in the GX/18 background and tested their transmissibility in guinea pigs. We found that a single-amino-acid substitution of glycine (G) for glutamic acid (E) at position 225 (E225G) in the HA1 protein completely abolished the respiratory droplet transmission of GX/18, whereas the substitution of E for G at the same position (G225E) in HA1 enabled HLJ/27 to transmit in guinea pigs. We investigated the underlying mechanism and found that viruses bearing 225E in HA1 replicated more rapidly than viruses bearing 225G due to differences in assembly and budding efficiencies. Our study indicates that the amino acid 225E in HA1 plays a key role in EAH1N1 swine influenza virus transmission and provides important information for evaluating the pandemic potential of field influenza virus strains. IMPORTANCE Efficient transmission among humans is a prerequisite for a novel influenza virus to cause a human pandemic. Transmissibility of influenza viruses is a polygenic trait, and understanding the genetic determinants for transmissibility will provide useful insights for evaluating the pandemic potential of influenza viruses in the field. Several amino acids in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza viruses have been shown to be important for transmissibility, usually by

  14. Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2002-01-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported

  15. Sun protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sun exposure. The start of summer is when UV rays can cause the most skin damage. Use sun protection, even on cloudy days. Clouds and haze don't protect you from the sun. Avoid surfaces that reflect light, such as water, sand, concrete, snow, and areas ...

  16. Modeling the Effects of Duration and Size of the Control Zones on the Consequences of a Hypothetical African Swine Fever Epidemic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2018-01-01

    control an epidemic of ASF. A previously published and well documented simulation model for ASF virus spread between herds was used to examine the epidemiologic and economic impacts of the duration and size of the control zones around affected herds. In the current study, scenarios were run, where......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease. The disease is endemic in certain regions in Eastern Europe constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning, it is important to continuously explore strategies that can effectively...... or clinical and serological surveillance of herds within the zones. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on influential input parameters in the model. The model predicts that reducing the duration of the protection and surveillance zones has no impact on the epidemiological consequences of the epidemics, while...

  17. Real-time laboratory exercises to test contingency plans for classical swine fever: experiences from two national laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, F; Uttenthal, A; Meindl-Böhmer, A

    2007-12-01

    In order to adequately and efficiently handle outbreaks of contagious diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza, competent authorities and the laboratories involved have to be well prepared and must be in possession of functioning contingency plans. These plans should ensure that in the event of an outbreak access to facilities, equipment, resources, trained personnel, and all other facilities needed for the rapid and efficient eradication of the outbreak is guaranteed, and that the procedures to follow are well rehearsed. It is essential that these plans are established during 'peace-time' and are reviewed regularly. This paper provides suggestions on how to perform laboratory exercises to test preparedness and describes the experiences of two national reference laboratories for CSF. The major lesson learnt was the importance of a well-documented laboratory contingency plan. The major pitfalls encountered were shortage of space, difficulties in guaranteeing biosecurity and sufficient supplies of sterile equipment and consumables. The need for a standardised laboratory information management system, that is used by all those involved in order to reduce the administrative load, is also discussed.

  18. Differential fate of erythromycin and beta-lactam resistance genes from swine lagoon waste under different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Charles W., E-mail: charles.knapp@strath.ac.u [David Livingstone Centre for Sustainability, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 50 Richmond Street, Glasgow, G1 1XN (United Kingdom); School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Zhang, Wen; Sturm, Belinda S.M. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Graham, David W. [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The attenuation and fate of erythromycin-resistance-methylase (erm) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamse (bla) genes were quantified over time in aquatic systems by adding 20-L swine waste to 11,300-L outdoor mesocosms that simulated receiving water conditions below intensive agricultural operations. The units were prepared with two different light-exposure scenarios and included artificial substrates to assess gene movement into biofilms. Of eleven genes tested, only erm(B), erm(F), bla{sub SHV} and bla{sub TEM} were found in sufficient quantity for monitoring. The genes disappeared rapidly from the water column and first-order water-column disappearance coefficients were calculated. However, detected gene levels became elevated in the biofilms within 2 days, but then disappeared over time. Differences were observed between sunlight and dark treatments and among individual genes, suggesting that ecological and gene-specific factors play roles in the fate of these genes after release into the environment. Ultimately, this information will aid in generating better predictive models for gene fate. - The disappearance and fate of erythromycin-resistance-methylase and beta-lactamase genes were monitored in outdoor mesocosms under different light conditions.

  19. Reactivation of organophosphate-inhibited human, Cynomolgus monkey, swine and guinea pig acetylcholinesterase by MMB-4: A modified kinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worek, Franz; Wille, Timo; Aurbek, Nadine; Eyer, Peter; Thiermann, Horst

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of poisoning by highly toxic organophosphorus compounds (OP, nerve agents) is a continuous challenge. Standard treatment with atropine and a clinically used oxime, obidoxime or pralidoxime is inadequate against various nerve agents. For ethical reasons testing of oxime efficacy has to be performed in animals. Now, it was tempting to investigate the reactivation kinetics of MMB-4, a candidate oxime to replace pralidoxime, with nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from human and animal origin in order to provide a kinetic basis for the proper assessment of in vivo data. By applying a modified kinetic approach, allowing the use of necessary high MMB-4 concentrations, it was possible to determine the reactivation constants with sarin-, cyclosarin-, VX-, VR- and tabun-inhibited AChE. MMB-4 exhibited a high reactivity and low affinity towards OP-inhibited AChE, except of tabun-inhibited enzyme where MMB-4 had an extremely low reactivity. Species differences between human and animal AChE were low (Cynomolgus) to moderate (swine, guinea pig). Due to the high reactivity of MMB-4 a rapid reactivation of inhibited AChE can be anticipated at adequate oxime concentrations which are substantially higher compared to HI-6. Additional studies are necessary to determine the in vivo toxicity, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of MMB-4 in humans in order to enable a proper assessment of the value of this oxime as an antidote against nerve agent poisoning.

  20. Gradual development of the interferon-γ response of swine to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection or vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, William A.; Galeota, Judy; Osorio, Fernando A.; Husmann, Robert J.; Schnitzlein, William M.; Zuckermann, Federico A.

    2003-01-01

    Infection of swine with virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus induced a rapid, robust antibody response that comprised predominantly nonneutralizing antibodies and waned after approximately 3 months. In contrast, the initial onset of virus-specific interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting cells (SC) in the pig lymphocyte population remained at a fairly low level during this period and then increased gradually in frequency, plateauing at 6 months postinfection. A similar polarization of the host humoral and cellular immune responses was also observed in pigs immunized with a PRRS-modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. Even coadministration of an adjuvant that enhanced the immune response to a pseudorabies (PR) MLV vaccine failed to alter the induction of PRRS virus-specific IFN-γ SC (comprising predominately CD4/CD8α double positive memory T cells with a minority being typical CD4 - /CD8αβ + T cells) and the generation of neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, unlike inactivated PR virus, nonviable PRRS virus did not elicit virus-neutralizing antibody production. Presumably, an intrinsic property of this pathogen delays the development of the host IFN-γ response and preferentially stimulates the synthesis of antibodies incapable of neutralization