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Sample records for rapidly progressive interstitial

  1. Disease progression in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Assessment with serial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, T.E.; Primack, S.L.; Kang, E.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To determine the outcome of areas of ground-glass attenuation and assess disease progression on serial high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of patients with biopsy specimen-proved usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). Materials and methods. Twelve patients with biopsy specimen-proved UIP and 11 patients with biopsy specimen-proved DIP who had initial and follow-up HRCT scans (median interval, 10 months) were reviewed. Eleven patients with UIP and 11 with DIP received treatment between the initial and follow-up CT scans. The scans were evaluated for the presence and extent of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacities and honeycombing, and overall extent of parenchymal involvement. Results. On initial CT scans, all 12 patients with UIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation (mean±SD extent, 30±16%) and irregular lines (mean±SD extent, 17±7%) and 10 patients had honeycombing (mean±SD extent, 10±6%). All 11 patients with DIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation on initial HRCT scans (mean±SD extent, 51±26%), 5 patients had irregular linear opacities (mean±SD extent, 5±5%), and 1 patient had honeycombing. Nine of the 12 patients with UIP showed increase in the extent of ground-glass attenuation (n=6) or progression to irregular lines (n=2) or honeycombing (n=4) on follow-up as compared with only 2 patients with DIP who showed progression to irregular lines (n=1) or honeycombing (n=1) (p 2 test). Conclusion. In patients with UIP, areas of ground-glass attenuation usually increase in extent or progress to fibrosis despite treatment. Areas of ground-glass attenuation in most patients with DIP remain stable or improve with treatment. (authors)

  2. Rapidly Progressive Quadriplegia and Encephalopathy.

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    Wynn, DonRaphael; McCorquodale, Donald; Peters, Angela; Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, Gordon; Ansari, Safdar

    2016-11-01

    A woman aged 77 years was transferred to our neurocritical care unit for evaluation and treatment of rapidly progressive motor weakness and encephalopathy. Examination revealed an ability to follow simple commands only and abnormal movements, including myoclonus, tongue and orofacial dyskinesias, and opsoclonus. Imaging study findings were initially unremarkable, but when repeated, they demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina nerve roots, trigeminal nerve, and pachymeninges. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mildly elevated white blood cell count and protein levels. Serial electrodiagnostic testing demonstrated a rapidly progressive diffuse sensory motor axonopathy, and electroencephalogram findings progressed from generalized slowing to bilateral periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. Critical details of her recent history prompted a diagnostic biopsy. Over time, the patient became completely unresponsive with no further abnormal movements and ultimately died. The differential diagnosis, pathological findings, and diagnosis are discussed with a brief review of a well-known yet rare diagnosis.

  3. Interstitial fluid flow in cancer: implications for disease progression and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, Jennifer M; Shieh, Adrian C

    2014-01-01

    As cancer progresses, a dynamic microenvironment develops that creates and responds to cellular and biophysical cues. Increased intratumoral pressure and corresponding increases in interstitial flow from the tumor bulk to the healthy stroma is an observational hallmark of progressing cancers. Until recently, the role of interstitial flow was thought to be mostly passive in the transport and dissemination of cancer cells to metastatic sites. With research spanning the past decade, we have seen that interstitial flow has a promigratory effect on cancer cell invasion in multiple cancer types. This invasion is one mechanism by which cancers can resist therapeutics and recur, but the role of interstitial flow in cancer therapy is limited to the understanding of transport of therapeutics. Here we outline the current understanding of the role of interstitial flow in cancer and the tumor microenvironment through cancer progression and therapy. We also discuss the current role of fluid flow in the treatment of cancer, including drug transport and therapeutic strategies. By stating the current understanding of interstitial flow in cancer progression, we can begin exploring its role in therapeutic failure and treatment resistance

  4. Rapidly Progressive Corticobasal Degeneration Syndrome

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    Ana Herrero Valverde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with no specific pathologic substratum. Its accurate diagnosis is a challenge for neurologists; in order to establish CBS definitively, postmortem confirmation is required. Some clinical and radiological features can help to distinguish it from other neurodegenerative conditions, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Clinical Case: A 74-year-old woman presented with language impairment, difficulty in walking and poor attentiveness that had begun 10 days before. Other symptoms, such as asymmetrical extra-pyramidal dysfunction, limb dystonia and ‘alien limb’ phenomena, were established over the next 2 months, with rapid progression. Death occurred 3 months after symptom onset. Laboratory results were normal. Initially, imaging only showed restricted diffusion with bilateral parieto-occipital gyri involvement on DWI-MRI, with unspecific EEG changes. An autopsy was performed. Brain neuropathology confirmed sporadic CJD (sCJD. Conclusions: CBS is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome whose differential diagnosis is extensive. CJD can occasionally present with clinical characteristics resembling CBS. MRI detection of abnormalities in some sequences (FLAIR, DWI, as previously reported, has high diagnostic utility for sCJD diagnosis – especially in early stages – when other tests can still appear normal. Abnormalities on DWI sequencing may not correlate with neuropathological findings, suggesting a functional basis to explain the changes found.

  5. Progression of Common Variable Immunodeficiency Interstitial Lung Disease Accompanies Distinct Pulmonary and Laboratory Findings.

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    Maglione, Paul J; Overbey, Jessica R; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency may be complicated by interstitial lung disease, which leads to worsened morbidity and mortality in some. Although immunomodulatory treatment has efficacy, choice of patient, duration of treatment, and long-term follow-up are not available. Interstitial lung disease appears stable in certain instances, so it is not known whether all patients will develop progressive disease or require immunomodulatory therapy. This study aims to determine if all common variable immunodeficiency patients with interstitial lung disease have physiological worsening, and if clinical and/or laboratory parameters may correlate with disease progression. A retrospective review of medical records at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York was conducted for referred patients with common variable immunodeficiency, CT scan-confirmed interstitial lung disease, and periodic pulmonary function testing covering 20 or more months before immunomodulatory therapy. Fifteen patients were identified from the retrospective review and included in this study. Of the 15 patients with common variable immunodeficiency, 9 had physiological worsening of interstitial lung disease adapted from consensus guidelines, associated with significant reductions in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. Those with progressive lung disease also had significantly lower mean immunoglobulin G levels, greater increases and highest levels of serum immunoglobulin M (IgM), and more significant thrombocytopenia. Interstitial lung disease resulted in physiological worsening in many, but not all subjects, and was associated with suboptimal immunoglobulin G replacement. Those with worsening pulmonary function tests, elevated IgM, and severe thrombocytopenic episodes appear to be at highest risk for progressive disease. Such patients may benefit from immunomodulatory treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy

  6. The role of interstitial changes in the progression of chronic kidney disease

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    Beata Sulikowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interstitium – the renal tubulointerstitial compartment – is located between the renal tubule basement membrane and microcirculation vessels. Interstitial fibroblasts produce the extracellular matrix and constitute the structure’s cellular skeleton, regulating spatial relationships between its components (microenvironment.The tubular epithelium and endothelium cooperate within an integrated microenvironment. Structural or functional impairment of the extracellular matrix, microcirculation vessels or tubular epithelium results in disturbances of tubulointerstitial compartment components.In the course of glomerular kidney diseases, the intrarenal RAA system becomes activated and inflammatory mediators are released. Interstitial inflammation and microcirculatory disorders develop, inducing adverse consequences, manifested mainly through the process of hypoxia and inflammation.Inflammation-induced increase in interleukin-1 (TNF-α expression leads to increased concentrations of VEGF, ICAM-1, angiotensin II, IL-6 and IL-8. Cytokines activate fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells. Fibrosis is also triggered by HIF-1alpha pathway activation, resulting in vascular growth and fibroblast proliferation. This reaction likewise occurs through activation of NF-ĸβ, EPO, GLUT-1, IGF-1 and INOS.Interstitial fibrosis is one of the factors determining the clinical course of kidney diseases. Apart from inducing fibrosis, microcirculatory disorders lead to the progression of hypoxia.Angiogenesis is a part of the repair process accompanying fibrosis. Its determinant is the normal function and structure of endothelial cells manifested by their ability to migrate and proliferate in response to, inter alia, angiopoietins, VEGF and nitric oxide synthase.Administering a three-drug RAAS-inhibiting therapy to patients with chronic glomerulopathies improves tubular function, measured by the decrease in excretion of NAG and propeptide of type III

  7. An Unusual Case of Rapidly Progressive Hyperbilirubinemia

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    Kimberly M. Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of hyperbilirubinemia with rapid early progression leading to bilirubin encephalopathy in a term neonate. Despite early recognition and intervention, the total serum bilirubin reached a maximum level of 39 mg/dL at 32 hours of life. Prior to an emergent exchange transfusion, the patient’s diagnostic evaluation was significant for Coombs-negative microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Further testing revealed a deficiency of ADAMTS13 protein, or von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease, a finding diagnostic of congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, or Upshaw-Schulman syndrome. This rare disease is often misdiagnosed, especially in the newborn period.

  8. Rapidly Progressive Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Abscess

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    Abdurrahman Aycan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess (SEA is a rare disease which is often rapidly progressive. Delayed diagnosis of SEA may lead to serious complications and the clinical findings of SEA are generally nonspecific. Paraspinal abscess should be considered in the presence of local low back tenderness, redness, and pain with fever, particularly in children. In case of delayed diagnosis and treatment, SEA may spread to the epidural space and may cause neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI remains the method of choice in the diagnosis of SEA. Treatment of SEA often consists of both medical and surgical therapy including drainage with percutaneous entry, corpectomy, and instrumentation.

  9. Gradual progression of intrapulmonary lymph nodes associated with usual interstitial pneumonia in progressive systemic sclerosis on chest radiographs and CT

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    Ohm, Joon Young; Chung, Myung Hee; Kim, Seon Mun [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Hyun [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A 40 year old female visited the clinic for evaluation of Raynaud's phenomenon for a period of four years. The initial chest radiograph showed a fine reticular density and ground glass opacity with lower lobe predominance. These findings are consistent interstitial fibrosis. Additionally, high resolution CT showed multiple, small, coexisting nodular opacities, ranging from 3 to 7 mm in size in both lungs. These nodules grew up to 1.5 cm and showed moderate enhancement. Because of the rareness of intrapulmonary lymph node in patient of progressive systemic sclerosis, we couldn't exclude the possibility of malignancy. These nodules are turned out to be intrapulmonary lymph nodes on video assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy.

  10. A Swellable Microneedle Patch to Rapidly Extract Skin Interstitial Fluid for Timely Metabolic Analysis.

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    Chang, Hao; Zheng, Mengjia; Yu, Xiaojun; Than, Aung; Seeni, Razina Z; Kang, Rongjie; Tian, Jingqi; Khanh, Duong Phan; Liu, Linbo; Chen, Peng; Xu, Chenjie

    2017-10-01

    Skin interstitial fluid (ISF) is an emerging source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Microneedle (MN) patch has been identified as an ideal platform to extract ISF from the skin due to its pain-free and easy-to-administrated properties. However, long sampling time is still a serious problem which impedes timely metabolic analysis. In this study, a swellable MN patch that can rapidly extract ISF is developed. The MN patch is made of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) and further crosslinked through UV irradiation. Owing to the supreme water affinity of MeHA, this MN patch can extract sufficient ISF in a short time without the assistance of extra devices, which remarkably facilitates timely metabolic analysis. Due to covalent crosslinked network, the MN patch maintains the structure integrity in the swelling hydrated state without leaving residues in skin after usage. More importantly, the extracted ISF metabolites can be efficiently recovered from MN patch by centrifugation for the subsequent offline analysis of metabolites such as glucose and cholesterol. Given the recent trend of easy-to-use point-of-care devices for personal healthcare monitoring, this study opens a new avenue for the development of MN-based microdevices for sampling ISF and minimally invasive metabolic detection. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Evidence for chronic inflammation as a component of the interstitial lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, G.A.; Bitterman, P.B.; Rennard, S.I.; Ferrans, V.J.; Crystal, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) is a generalized disorder characterized by fibrosis of many organs including the lung parenchyma. Unlike most other interstitial disorders, traditional concepts of the interstitial lung disease associated with PSS have held it to be a ''pure'' fibrotic disorder without a significant inflammatory component. To directly evaluate whether an active alveolitis is associated with this disorder, patients with chronic interstitial lung disease and PSS were studied by open lung biopsy, gallium-67 scanning, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Histologic evaluation of the biopsies demonstrated that the interstitial fibrosis of PSS is clearly associated with the presence of macrophages, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, both in the interstitium and on the alveolar epithelial surface. Gallium-67 scans were positive in 77% of the patients, showing diffuse, primarily lower zone uptake, suggestive of active inflammation. Consistent with the histologic findings, bronchoalveolar lavage studies demonstrated a mild increase in the proportions of neutrophils and eosinophils with occasional increased numbers of lymphocytes. Importantly, alveolar macrophages from patients with PSS showed increased release of fibronectin and alveolar-macrophage-derived growth factor, mediators that together stimulate lung fibroblasts to proliferate, thus suggesting at least one mechanism modulating the lung fibrosis of these patients

  12. Acute lyme infection presenting with amyopathic dermatomyositis and rapidly fatal interstitial pulmonary fibrosis: a case report

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    Nguyen Hanh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dermatomyositis has been described in the setting of lyme infection in only nine previous case reports. Although lyme disease is known to induce typical clinical findings that are observed in various collagen vascular diseases, to our knowledge, we believe that our case is the first presentation of acute lyme disease associated with amyopathic dermatomyositis, which was then followed by severe and fatal interstitial pulmonary fibrosis only two months later. Case presentation We present a case of a 64-year-old African-American man with multiple medical problems who was diagnosed with acute lyme infection after presenting with the pathognomonic rash and confirmatory serology. In spite of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for lyme infection, he developed unexpected amyopathic dermatomyositis and then interstitial lung disease. Conclusions This case illustrates a potential for lyme disease to produce clinical syndromes that may be indistinguishable from primary connective tissue diseases. An atypical and sequential presentation (dermatomyositis and interstitial lung disease of a common disease (lyme infection is discussed. This case illustrates that in patients who are diagnosed with lyme infection who subsequently develop atypical muscular, respiratory or other systemic complaints, the possibility of severe rheumatological and pulmonary complications should be considered.

  13. Frosted branch angiitis associated with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.

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    Gupta Amod

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous occurrence of frosted branch angiitis and immune-mediated rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is reported. The two diseases possibly share a common immune mechanism. Patients of frosted branch angiitis should undergo complete systemic evaluation including renal function tests even if the patient is systemically asymptomatic.

  14. Chylothorax in dermatomyositis complicated with interstitial pneumonia.

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    Isoda, Kentaro; Kiboshi, Takao; Shoda, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Chylothorax is a disease in which chyle leaks and accumulates in the thoracic cavity. Interstitial pneumonia and pneumomediastinum are common thoracic manifestations of dermatomyositis, but chylothorax complicated with dermatomyositis is not reported. We report a case of dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia complicated by chylothorax. A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed as dermatomyositis with Gottron's papules, skin ulcers, anti-MDA5 antibody and rapid progressive interstitial pneumonia. Treatment with betamethasone, tacrolimus and intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide was initiated, and her skin symptoms and interstitial pneumonia improved once. However, right-sided chylothorax began to accumulate and gradually increase, and at the same time, her interstitial pneumonia began to exacerbate, and skin ulcers began to reappear on her fingers and auricles. Although her chylothorax improved by fasting and parenteral nutrition, she died due to further exacerbations of dermatomyositis and interstitial pneumonia in spite of steroid pulse therapy, increase in the betamethasone dosage, additional intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide and plasma pheresis. An autopsy showed no lesions such as malignant tumors in the thoracic cavity. This is the first report of chylothorax complicated by dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia.

  15. Acute interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuervo M, Francisco; Carrillo Bayona, Jorge; Ojeda, Paulina

    2004-01-01

    The paper refers to a 71 year-old patient, to who is diagnosed acute interstitial pneumonia; with square of 20 days of evolution of cough dry emetizant, fever, general uneasiness, migraine, progressive dyspnoea and lost of weight

  16. Syndromes of rapidly progressive cognitive decline-our experience

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    Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dementias are fairly slowly progressive degenerative diseases of brain for which treatment options are very less and carry a lot of burden on family and society. A small percentage of them are rapidly progressive and mostly carry a different course outcome. However, there are no definite criteria other than the time line for these patients. Aims: The aim of this was to identify and categorize the causes and course of rapidly progressive dementias seen in our center. Settings and Design: Patients who presented with rapid deterioration of cognitive functions within weeks to 1 year between 2011 and December 2016 were evaluated. Patients and Methods: All patients underwent all mandatory tests for dementia including brain imaging. Complete vasculitis workup, autoimmune encephalitis profile including Voltage Gated Potassium Channel, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor, glutamic acid-decarboxylase, thyroid-peroxidase antibody, cerebrospinal fluid, and other special tests such as duodenal biopsy and paraneoplastic workup were done based on clinical indications. Results and Conclusions: Out of 144 patients 42 had immune-mediated encephalopathy, 18 had Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 3 had Vitamin B12 deficiency, 63 had infection with neurocysticercosis, 7 had tuberculosis, 2 had HIV, 1 had herpes simplex encephalitis, 1 had neurosyphilis, 1 Whipples disease, 1 had Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, 1 had Mass lesion, 3 had Frontotemporal dementia, and 3 had small vessel disease. Good majority of these patients have infective and immune-mediated causes and less number belong to degenerative group. Therefore, caution is needed to look for treatable cause as it carries a different treatment options and outcome.

  17. Adult-onset phenylketonuria with rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism.

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    Tufekcioglu, Zeynep; Cakar, Arman; Bilgic, Basar; Hanagasi, Hasmet; Gurvit, Hakan; Emre, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, which converts phenylalanine (PHE) to tyrosine. Although it is principally a childhood disorder, in rare cases, the first signs of PKU may develop in late adulthood resembling common neurological diseases. Here we report a 59-year-old, previously normal functioning man who was admitted with blurred vision, cognitive problems, and gait difficulty that began 8 months before. He had brisk reflexes and left side dominant parkinsonism. His Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 25/30, and neuropsychological evaluation revealed a dysexecutive syndrome with simultanagnosia and constructional apraxia. His Clinical Dementia Rating score (CDR) was 1. Cranial MRI revealed bilateral diffuse hyperintense lesions in parietal and occipital white matter in T2, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and diffusion weighted images. Diagnostic workup for rapidly progressive dementias was all normal except PHE level which was found to be highly elevated (1075 μmol/L, normal 39-240 μmol/L) with normal tyrosine level (61.20 μmol/L, normal 35-100 μmol/L). Three months after PHE-restricted diet, his cognitive impairment and signs of parkinsonism significantly improved, with MRI scan unchanged. This case demonstrates that late-onset PKU is a rare, treatable cause of rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism with certain constellations such as consanguinity and white matter abnormalities (WMAs) in imaging.

  18. Interstitial nephritis.

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    Papper, S

    1980-01-01

    There are many causes of interstitial nephritis other than pyelonephritis. The term interstitial nephritis does not connote a single etiologic or pathogenetic mechanism; it rather arbitrarily places together a wider variety of renal diseases that have a predilection for early and major involvement of the renal interstitium. The prototype of acute interstitial nephritis is acute pyelonephritis. In addition, there is a drug-related acute interstitial disease that is probably of immunological nature and usually reverses with discontinuance of the offending drug. Chronic interstitial nephritis includes many diverse illnesses. Nonobstructive pyelonephritis occurs but its prevalence is debated. Analgesic abuse nephropathy is not rare and is potentially reversible. Papillary necrosis has many causes and a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Heavy metals, such as lead, cause interstitial nephritis. Balkan nephropathy occurs in an endemic area and although not bacterial in origin is of unknown cause.

  19. Rapidly progressive cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting as a lung mass

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    Akram, Saeed; Irfan, Muhammad; Aftab, Kanwal

    2009-01-01

    A very rare case of a rapidly progressive variant of cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) presenting as a focal mass-like lesion with compression of the large airways leading to respiratory failure is described. A 60-year-old lady presented to the Aga Khan University Hospital Emergency Department in hypoxaemic respiratory failure with a 6-day history of dyspnoea, productive cough and fever. Chest x ray showed a right upper lobe mass-like lesion compressing the large airways and right pleural effusion. She deteriorated in the Emergency Department and was intubated due to worsening hypoxaemic respiratory failure. The pleural fluid and bronchoscopic specimens were negative on microbiological and cytological examination. CT-guided right lung biopsy revealed chronic non-specific inflammation without granuloma and malignancy. COP was diagnosed on video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lung biopsy. She was successfully treated with high dose steroids and discharged in a stable condition; her 3-month follow-up chest x rays showed complete resolution of the lung lesion with some residual fibrosis. PMID:21686529

  20. Improved pulmonary function following pirfenidone treatment in a patient with progressive interstitial lung disease associated with systemic sclerosis

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    Zarir F Udwadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pirfenidone is an anti-fibrotic drug which has been approved for the management of patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF. However, its role in interstitial lung disease (ILD due to other causes such as systemic sclerosis (SSc is not clear. We present a case of a patient with SSc associated ILD who showed a subjective as well as objective improvement in lung function with pirfenidone.

  1. Case of Rapid Progression of Hemiatrophy on the Face: A New Clinical Entity?

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    Hisashi Nomura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of diseases, including lupus profundus, morphea, lipodystrophy, and Parry-Romberg syndrome, may manifest progressive hemifacial atrophy. These diseases usually progress slowly and rapid progression of atrophy is extremely rare. We report a case of elderly-onset rapid progression of hemifacial atrophy only in three weeks. Our case did not meet variable differential diagnoses. We discuss the clinical character of the patient against the past of literature and suppose it may be a new clinical entity.

  2. Interstitial cystitis

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    ... symptoms get better. Reduce or stop consuming caffeine, chocolate, carbonated beverages, citrus drinks, and foods with a ... rarely done anymore Support Groups Some people may benefit from taking part in interstitial cystitis support groups . ...

  3. Interstitial Cystitis

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    ... relieve symptoms. Diet. Alcohol, tomatoes, spices, carbonated drinks, chocolate, caffeine, citrus fruits and drinks, pickled foods, artificial ... at scheduled times and using relaxation techniques. Physical therapy. People who have interstitial cystitis may have painful ...

  4. [Rapidly progressive compromise of cranial pairs as neurosyphilis manifestation].

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    Baccaro, Fernando; Moldes, Sofía; Novelli Poisson, Paola; Arduin, Julieta; Valerga, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Syphilis remains a common disease throughout the world, being neurosyphilis a relatively common manifestation. A case of a 34 years old male with HIV and neurosyphilis is presented, characterized by a clinical course evidenced by progressive palsy of cranial nerves. This case is unusual and a rare presentation of progressive cranial involvement with swallowing deficit, have found no similar data in the literature.

  5. Progress on high-performance rapid prototype aluminum mirrors

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    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Myrick, Bruce H.

    2017-05-01

    Near net shape parts can be produced using some very old processes (investment casting) and the relatively new direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process. These processes have significant advantages for complex blank lightweighting and costs but are not inherently suited for producing high performance mirrors. The DMLS process can provide extremely complex lightweight structures but the high residual stresses left in the material results in unstable mirror figure retention. Although not to the extreme intricacy of DMLS, investment casting can also provide complex lightweight structures at considerably lower costs than DMLS and even conventional wrought mirror blanks but the less than 100% density for casting (and also DMLS) limits finishing quality. This paper will cover the progress that has been made to make both the DMLS and investment casting processes into viable near net shape blank options for high performance aluminum mirrors. Finish and figure results will be presented to show performance commensurate with existing conventional processes.

  6. Acute HIV infection with rapid progression to AIDS

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    Marcio de Oliveira Silva

    Full Text Available Acute HIV infection is rarely recognized as the signs and symptoms are normally unspecific and can persist for days or weeks. The normal HIV course is characterized by a progressive loss of CD4+ cells, which normally leads to severe immunodeficiency after a variable time interval. The mean time from initial infection to development of clinical AIDS is approximately 8-10 years, but it is variable among individuals and depends on a complex interaction between virus and host. Here we describe an extraordinary case of a man who developed Pneumocisits jiroveci pneumonia within one month after sexual exposure to HIV-1, and then presented with 3 consecutive CD4 counts bellow 200 cells/mm³ within 3 months, with no other opportunistic disease. Although antiretroviral therapy (AZT+3TC+ATZ/r was started, with full adherence of the patient, and genotyping indicating no primary antiretroviral resistance mutations, he required more than six months to have a CD4 restoration to levels above 200 cells/mm³ and 10 months to HIV-RNA to become undetectable.

  7. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamara, David A; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90ml/min/1.73m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data...

  8. Chronic interstitial lung disease in children

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    Matthias Griese

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children's interstitial lung diseases (chILD are increasingly recognised and contain many lung developmental and genetic disorders not yet identified in adult pneumology. Worldwide, several registers have been established. The Australasian Registry Network for Orphan Lung Disease (ARNOLD has identified problems in estimating rare disease prevalence; focusing on chILD in immunocompetent patients, a period prevalence of 1.5 cases per million children and a mortality rate of 7% were determined. The chILD-EU register highlighted the workload to be covered per patient included and provided protocols for diagnosis and initial treatment, similar to the United States chILD network. Whereas case reports may be useful for young physicians to practise writing articles, cohorts of patients can catapult progress, as demonstrated by recent studies on persistent tachypnoea of infancy, hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children and interstitial lung disease related to interferonopathies from mutations in transmembrane protein 173. Translational research has linked heterozygous mutations in the ABCA3 transporter to an increased risk of interstitial lung diseases, not only in neonates, but also in older children and adults. For surfactant dysfunction disorders in infancy and early childhood, lung transplantation was reported to be as successful as in adult patients. Mutual potentiation of paediatric and adult pneumologists is mandatory in this rapidly extending field for successful future development. This brief review highlights publications in the field of paediatric interstitial lung disease as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session presented at the 2017 European Respiratory Society (ERS Annual Congress in Milan, Italy. It was commissioned by the ERS and critically presents progress made as well as drawbacks.

  9. Serum metabolomics of slow vs. rapid motor progression Parkinson's disease: a pilot study.

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    James R Roede

    Full Text Available Progression of Parkinson's disease (PD is highly variable, indicating that differences between slow and rapid progression forms could provide valuable information for improved early detection and management. Unfortunately, this represents a complex problem due to the heterogeneous nature of humans in regards to demographic characteristics, genetics, diet, environmental exposures and health behaviors. In this pilot study, we employed high resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling to investigate the metabolic signatures of slow versus rapidly progressing PD present in human serum. Archival serum samples from PD patients obtained within 3 years of disease onset were analyzed via dual chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, with data extraction by xMSanalyzer and used to predict rapid or slow motor progression of these patients during follow-up. Statistical analyses, such as false discovery rate analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis, yielded a list of statistically significant metabolic features and further investigation revealed potential biomarkers. In particular, N8-acetyl spermidine was found to be significantly elevated in the rapid progressors compared to both control subjects and slow progressors. Our exploratory data indicate that a fast motor progression disease phenotype can be distinguished early in disease using high resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling and that altered polyamine metabolism may be a predictive marker of rapidly progressing PD.

  10. Serum metabolomics of slow vs. rapid motor progression Parkinson's disease: a pilot study.

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    Roede, James R; Uppal, Karan; Park, Youngja; Lee, Kichun; Tran, Vilinh; Walker, Douglas; Strobel, Frederick H; Rhodes, Shannon L; Ritz, Beate; Jones, Dean P

    2013-01-01

    Progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) is highly variable, indicating that differences between slow and rapid progression forms could provide valuable information for improved early detection and management. Unfortunately, this represents a complex problem due to the heterogeneous nature of humans in regards to demographic characteristics, genetics, diet, environmental exposures and health behaviors. In this pilot study, we employed high resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling to investigate the metabolic signatures of slow versus rapidly progressing PD present in human serum. Archival serum samples from PD patients obtained within 3 years of disease onset were analyzed via dual chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, with data extraction by xMSanalyzer and used to predict rapid or slow motor progression of these patients during follow-up. Statistical analyses, such as false discovery rate analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis, yielded a list of statistically significant metabolic features and further investigation revealed potential biomarkers. In particular, N8-acetyl spermidine was found to be significantly elevated in the rapid progressors compared to both control subjects and slow progressors. Our exploratory data indicate that a fast motor progression disease phenotype can be distinguished early in disease using high resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling and that altered polyamine metabolism may be a predictive marker of rapidly progressing PD.

  11. Rapid progression of gliomatosis cerebri to secondary glioblastoma, factors that affects the progression rate: A case report

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    Kim, Hee Kyung; Yu, In Kyu; Kim, Seung Min; Kim, Joo Heon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeon [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Glioblastomas may develop de novo or through progression from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytomas. The term 'primary glioblastoma' refers to a glioblastoma that lacks a precursor lesion and has a clinical history of less than three months. On the other hand, the term 'secondary glioblastoma' indicates that the glioblastoma has progressed from a low-grade tumor after a long latency period and often manifests in younger patients. These subtypes of glioblastoma develop via different genetic pathways, and they differ in prognosis and response to therapy. Thus, differential diagnosis of these subtypes and prediction of the factors that affect the progression from low-grade diffuse astrocytoma to secondary glioblastoma would be clinically very important. We present a rare case of secondary glioblastoma, which developed only three months after the follow up imaging evaluations, with a history of low grade glioma, and present the factors that cause rapid progression.

  12. Interstitial radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardino, P.T.; Bretas, F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors now have 20 years of experience with modern techniques of brachytherapy. The large number of patients treated in medical centers around the world and the widespread use of this type of radiotherapy have provided us with substantial information about the indications and contraindications, advantages and disadvantages, pitfalls and complications, as well as the results of these techniques. Although the focus of this review is the experience at Baylor using the combined technique of gold seed implantation plus external beam irradiation, the alternative forms of brachytherapy will be described and compared. The authors' intention is to provide the busy clinician with a succinct and informative review indicating the status of modern interstitial radiotherapy and describing day-to-day approach and results

  13. Procollagen Type I and III Aminoterminal Propeptide Levels and Severity of Interstitial Lung Disease in Mexican Women With Progressive Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto D; Olivas-Flores, Eva M; Garcia-Gonzalez, Araceli; Peguero-Gómez, Ana R; Flores-Navarro, Juan; Villa-Manzano, Alberto I; Zavaleta-Muñiz, Soraya A; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Mejía, Mayra; Juárez-Contreras, Pablo; Vazquez-Del Mercado, Monica; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto G; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamin; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo H; Gamez-Nava, Jorge I

    2015-09-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a frequent complication in progressive systemic sclerosis (SSc), being present in 25% to 90% of cases. To evaluate whether serum levels of procollagen typei and iii aminoterminal propeptide (PINP and PIIINP) correlate with severity and patterns of ILD in Mexican women with SSc. Thirty three SSc patients were assessed for disease characteristics and anti-topoisomerase antibodies (topoi), and also underwent pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Nineteen patients had ILD+SSc, and 14 had no lung involvement (no ILD-SSc); data were compared with those from 45 healthy controls. PINP and PIIINP were assessed in all 3 groups. Patients with SSc had higher PINP and PIIINP vs controls (P=.001, P<.001, respectively). Compared to no ILD-SSc patients, those with ILD+SSc had longer disease duration in years (P=.005), higher modified Rodnan skin score (P<.001), higher Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability-Index scores (P<.001), higher topoi U/mL (P<.001), PINP (49.28±28.63 vs. 32.12±18.58μg/L, P=.05), and PIIINP (4.33±1.03 vs. 2.67±1.26μg/L, P<.001) levels. ILD severity based on total HRCT correlated with PINP (r=.388, P=.03) and PIIINP (P=.594, P<.001). On adjusted analysis, ILD severity was associated with disease duration (P=.037), PIIINP (P=.038), and topoi (P=.045). PINP and PIIINP are useful markers for severe ILD+SSc, suggesting they could play a role in the follow-up of this complication in SSc. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. [Rapidly progressive puberty in a patient with mosaic Turner syndrome: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Wei, H; Yu, X; Huang, W; Luo, X P

    2017-02-02

    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of diagnosis and treatment in patients with Turner syndrome and rapidly progressive puberty. Method: A rare case of rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome with a mosaic karyotype of 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21)(80%/20%)was diagnosed at Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in January. 2015. Clinical characteristics and the related literature were reviewed. Original papers on precocious puberty or rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome, published until Apr. 2016 were retrieved at PubMed and CNKI databases by the use of the key words "Turner syndrome" , "precocious puberty" and "rapidly progressive puberty" . Result: The patient was born at term with birth weight of 2 450 g and was diagnosed with SGA at 3 years of age for the first evaluating of growth and development. Then recombined human growth hormone (rhGH )was given at 4 years of age due to short stature (heightTurner syndrome is reported. Although short stature and ovarian dysgenesis are common in TS, precocious puberty may occur in TS, which is liable to cause delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Careful examination is recommended for patients with unusual growth pattern, even though girls have normal height in accord with standard growth curve or spontaneous puberty. Evaluation for TS and subsequent investigation should be prompted.

  15. Early depletion of proliferating B cells of germinal center in rapidly progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiqiang; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Schleif, William A.; Chen, Minchun; Citron, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Burns, Janine; Liang, Xiaoping; Fu, Tong-Ming; Handt, Larry; Emini, Emilio A.; Shiver, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Lack of virus specific antibody response is commonly observed in both HIV-1-infected humans and SIV-infected monkeys with rapid disease progression. However, the mechanisms underlying this important observation still remain unclear. In a titration study of a SIVmac239 viral stock, three out of six animals with viral inoculation rapidly progressed to AIDS within 5 months. Unexpectedly, there was no obvious depletion of CD4 + T cells in both peripheral and lymph node (LN) compartments in these animals. Instead, progressive depletion of proliferating B cells and disruption of the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network in germinal centers (GC) was evident in the samples collected at as early as 20 days after viral challenge. This coincided with undetectable, or weak and transient, virus-specific antibody responses over the course of infection. In situ hybridization of SIV RNA in the LN samples revealed a high frequency of SIV productively infected cells and large amounts of accumulated viral RNA in the GCs in these animals. Early severe depletion of GC proliferating B cells and disruption of the FDC network may thus result in an inability to mount a virus-specific antibody response in rapid progressors, which has been shown to contribute to accelerated disease progression of SIV infection

  16. Clinicopathological Correlates in a PRNP P102L Mutation Carrier with Rapidly Progressing Parkinsonism-dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chizoba C.; Kalakoti, Piyush; Greenberg, Michael K; Notari, Silvio; Cohen, Yvonne; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Oblak, Adrian L.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Mari, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    Parkinsonism-dystonia is rare in carriers of PRNP P102L mutation. Severity and distribution of prion protein (PrP) deposition may influence the clinical presentation. We present such clinic-pathological correlation in a 56-year-old male with a PRNP P102L mutation associated with a phenotype characterized by rapidly progressing parkinsonism-dystonia. The patient was studied clinically (videotaped exams, brain MRIs); molecular genetically (gene sequence analysis); and neuropathologically (histology, immunohistochemistry) during his 7-month disease course. The patient had parkinsonism, apraxia, aphasia, and dystonia, which progressed rapidly. Molecular genetic analysis revealed PRNP P102L mutation carrier status. Brain MRIs revealed progressive global volume loss and T2/FLAIR hyperintensity in neocortex and basal ganglia. Postmortem examination showed neuronal loss, gliosis, spongiform changes, and PrP deposition in the striatum. PrP immunohistochemistry revealed widespread severe PrP deposition in the thalamus and cerebellar cortex. Based on the neuropathological and molecular-genetic analysis, the rapidly progressing parkinsonism-dystonia correlated with nigrostriatal, thalamic, and cerebellar pathology. PMID:27617269

  17. Interstitial lung disease: Diagnostic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a final common pathway of a broad heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders. It is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lung leading to restriction and diminished oxygen transfer. Clinically, the presenting symptoms of ILD are non-specific (cough and progressive dyspnea on exertion) and are often attributed to other diseases, thus delaying diagnosis and timely therapy. Clues from the medical history along with the clinical context and radiolo...

  18. Successful autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for a patient with rapidly progressive localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Velu; Sharma, Ajay; Sharma, Sanjeevan; Das, Satyaranjan; Bhakuni, Darshan S; Narayanan, Krishnan; Nair, Vivek; Shankar, Subramanian

    2015-03-01

    Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for rapidly progressive disease has not been reported in localized scleroderma. Our patient, a 16-year-old girl had an aggressive variant of localized scleroderma, mixed subtype (linear-generalized) with Parry Romberg syndrome, with no internal organ involvement, that was unresponsive to immunosuppressive therapy and was causing rapid disfigurement. She was administered autologous HSCT in June 2011 and has maintained drug-free remission with excellent functional status at almost 3.5 years of follow-up. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. [Autopsy case of Lissauer's general paresis with rapidly progressive left hemiparesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroko; Yoshida, Mari; Ando, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Makoto; Hashizume, Yoshio

    2009-06-01

    A 48-years-old man presented with slowly progressive bradykinesia, personality change and rapidly progressive left hemiparesis. On admission, he presented dementia, poor judgment, left hemiparesis. MRI revealed a widespread high intensity area in right hemisphere and MRA was almost normal. Serological tests of serum and CSF demonstrated high titers of antibodies to Treponema pallidum. He was treated for syphilis with daily penicillin injections without improvement. He died of sepsis eight months after admission. At autopsy, the brain weighed 1,100 g and the right cerebral hemisphere was atrophic, especially in frontal base, temporal, parietal, angular, and posterior regions covered by thickened, fibrotic leptomeninges. Microscopically, chronic meningoencephalitis was observed. Severe neuronal loss with gliosis was seen in the right cerebral cortices. Scattered rod-shaped microglia and inflammatory cell infiltration were visible in the cerebral parenchyma. The dorsal column of the spinal cord was not involved and meningovascular syphilis was unclear. The distribution of the encephalitic lesions was well correlated with the clinical and neuroradiological findings. This was a rare autopsy case presenting Lissauer's general paresis, clinically manifesting as rapidly progressive stroke-like episode.

  20. Research progress on the pathogenesis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-yang JIANG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD is a sleep disorder characterized by the disappearance of muscle relaxation and enacting one's dreams during rapid eye movement (REM, with most of the dreams being violent or aggressive. Prevalence of RBD, based on population, is 0.38%-2.01%, but it becomes much higher in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, especially α - synucleinopathies. RBD may herald the emergence of α-synucleinopathies by decades, thus it may be used as an effective early marker of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarized the progress on the pathogenesis of RBD and its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.10.003

  1. Plasmablastic myeloma presenting as rapidly progressive renal failure in a young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Srija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a condition where there is malignant proliferation of plasma cells. There is a strong correlation with age, peaking at 60-70 years. The clinical course in adolescents and young individuals is generally indolent and the survival is longer. We report a case of a 28-year-old male, who was diagnosed to have plasmablastic myeloma, an atypical variant of MM with a poor prognosis, presenting as rapidly progressive renal failure. He was given induction chemotherapy and then underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

  2. Self-interstitials, vacancies and their clusters in silicon and germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, A.; Foell, H.; Frank, W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper begins with a survey of knowledge about swirl defects in silicon. In particular, it is shown that recent identification of the A-swirls as dislocation loops of interstitial type strongly supports a previous suggestion that the predominant equilibrium defects controlling self-diffusion in silicon at high temperatures are self-interstitials. This is followed by a brief state-of-the-art report on self-interstitials in silicon, a field in which rapid progress has been made during the past half a decade. The discussion of vacancy-type defects, which stood in the limelight of the preceding conferences, is confined to some examples of recent interest, such as the interaction of vacancy-type defects with hydrogen atoms, positrons and positive muons. (author)

  3. [Outcome of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis post-streptococcal disease in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellouli, Manel; Maghraoui, Sondos; Abidi, Kamel; Hammi, Yosra; Goucha, Rim; Naija, Ouns; Zarrouk, Chokri; Gargah, Tahar

    2015-11-01

    Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is a rare form of postinfectious glomerulonephritis. The aim of this study was to describe the outcome of our patients with severe post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. This retrospective study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in Charles-Nicolle Hospital during a period of 13 years (1997-2009). Twenty-seven children were identified. The mean age was 8.7 years. All patients presented renal failure at presentation. The mean serum creatinine at presentation was 376.9 μmol/L. Six patients presented nephrotic syndrome. Twenty-six children had renal biopsies. Renal biopsies showed crescents in 24 cases. Eighteen children received pulse dose of corticosteroids (66.6%) and 6 children (22%) received pulse dose of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide. Eleven patients required dialysis. At last follow-up, 22 patients (81.5%) had normal kidney function, 2 had renal dysfunction and 3 reached end stage renal disease. The only significant determinant for renal survival was the supportive dialysis (P=0.015). Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is uncommon. There have been significant advancements in supportive, as well as specific therapy, but the outcome continues to be poor. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with rapid progression in a young man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Koji; Ishiyama, Tomoharu; Takeshita, Akiko; Matsumoto, Hidekazu; Jingu, Akira; Kikuchi, Jiro; Yamaya, Hideyuki; Ohe, Rintaro; Ishizawa, Tetsuya

    2018-04-16

    Pancreatic cancer in young adults is very rare. We report a case of young-onset poorly differentiated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with rapid progression and poor prognosis in a 31-year-old Japanese man with no obvious family history of malignancy. Preoperative examinations revealed a mass lesion in the body of the pancreas, accompanied by a slightly dilated main pancreatic duct distal to the mass lesion. Pancreatic cancer with acute pancreatitis was suspected because of an elevation of serum pancreatic enzyme and tumor marker, along with imaging findings. Distal pancreatectomy with resection of the common hepatic artery and splenectomy along with lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopically, the tumor was mainly composed of poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma. The postoperative course was uneventful, but the patient had multiple liver metastases 2 months postoperatively, in spite of adjuvant chemotherapy, and died 8 months postoperatively. This case may represent a rare instance of young-onset poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma with rapid progression and may indicate potential risk factors of pancreatic cancer in young adults.

  5. Comprehensive and Methodical: Diagnostic and Management Approaches to Rapidly Progressive Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Supriya; Appleby, Brian S

    2017-09-30

    Purpose of review The sudden emergence of a change in cognitive abilities or behavior is an important symptom that warrants medical evaluation and may represent the early stages of a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). To correctly ascertain the cause of RPD in a given patient, the clinician must be methodical and knowledgeable about the range of potential causes and must move forward with supportive treatment, and in some cases empiric treatment, based on clinical features alone. Recent findings Significant advances in prion disease biomarkers, the molecular features of rapidly progressive Alzheimer's disease, and new detection of autoimmune limbic encephalitis disease entities have caused a shift in the diagnostic and treatment framework of RPD. Additionally, in the past decade, emerging retrospective data have led to suggested treatments in autoimmune encephalitis that, if instituted early, can protect patients against residual deficits and disease relapse. Summary Here, we provide an integrative clinical and diagnostic treatment approach that is applicable to the various forms of RPD. We have highlighted the clinical features of selected types of RPD that have experienced advances in the last 10-15 years.

  6. An unusual case of rapidly progressive contractures: Case report and brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subasree R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old boy, diagnosed as cervical dystonia, was referred to our tertiary center. After a trivial trauma he had developed painful lumps in the axial region, which was followed by restricted movements of neck, shoulder, and abdominal muscles over 4 months. He had kyphoscoliosis, torticollis, rigid abdomen, and multiple muscle contractures. He also had short great toes. A detailed skeletal survey showed calcification in the soft tissues surrounding the shoulder anterior chest wall, thorax, and paraspinal muscles; there was also beaking of vertebrae, which was confirmed by CT thorax. This report showcases the diagnostic challenge posed by myositis ossificans progressiva, which can rarely cause rapidly progressing muscle contractures. A brief review of literature is also presented.

  7. Male patients presenting with rapidly progressive puberty associated with malignant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jung Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In males, precocious puberty (PP is defined as the development of secondary sexual characteristics before age 9 years. PP is usually idiopathic; though, organic abnormalities including tumors are more frequently found in male patients with PP. However, advanced puberty in male also can be an important clinical manifestation in tumors. We report 2 cases of rapidly progressive puberty in males, each associated with a germ-cell tumor. First, an 11-year-old boy presented with mild fever and weight loss for 1 month. Physical examination revealed a pubertal stage of G3P3 with 10-mL testes. Investigations revealed advanced bone age (16 years with elevated basal luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels. An anterior mediastinal tumor was identified by chest radiography and computed tomography, and elevated α-fetoprotein (AFP and β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG levels were noted. Histopathologic analysis confirmed a yolk-sac tumor. Second, a 12-year-old boy presented with diplopia, polydipsia, and polyuria for 4 months. Physical examination revealed a pubertal stage of G3P3 with 8-mL testes. Bone age was advanced (16 years and laboratory tests indicated panhypopituitarism with elevated testosterone level. A mixed germ-cell tumor was diagnosed with elevated AFP and β-hCG levels. Of course, these patients also have other symptoms of suspecting tumors, however, rapidly progressive puberty can be the more earlier screening sign of tumors. Therefore, in male patients with accelerated or advanced puberty, malignancy should be considered, with evaluation of tumor markers. In addition, advanced puberty in male should be recognized more widely as a unique sign of neoplasm.

  8. Peranan Terapi Awal dan Terapi Pemeliharaan pada Rapidly Progressive Periodontitis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita H. Joedo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly Progressive Periodontitis (RPP is a severe form of a periodontal disease which starts since a puberty age. The disease if a generalized periodontal destruction without a specific distribution mode: it develops more progressively but does not in accordance to local factors. The first step to the RPP treatment is initial therapy: i.e. DHE, scaling and root planing, and eliminating predisposing local factors and continued with a maintence therapy which will support the success of a surgery later. A study case: a 21-year old RPP woman showed hyperaemia, an abscess, a 10 mm mesial pocket depth, a 5 mm distal pocker depth, a 5 mm buccal pocket depth, a 2nd degree tooth mobility and a 3 mm buccal recession on 25. In the initial therapy she was given an amoxicillin, a metronidazole for killing a supra and subgingival baterial, vitamins B and C, and also a chlorhexidine 0.2% mouth wash for a week. After a week the abscess and the inflammation decreased, but the mobility was still in the same condition and the DHE was still evaluated because of the patient's social factor, the FO was delayed. The next visit was done every 2 monts for a year for maintenance care. The clinical result showed the gingival inflammation and the tooth mobility disappeared. Radiographically, the alveolar bone showed more radiopaque and the lamina dura was seen. In conclusio, the initial and the maintenance therapy was seen to heal the RPP.

  9. Tc-99m-bicisate (ECD)-brain-SPECT in rapidly progressive dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marienhagen, J.; Eilles, C.; Weingaertner, U.; Blaha, L.; Zerr, I.; Poser, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present a 61-year-old male patient with progressive dementia. A brain SPECT with Tc-99m-bicisate was performed for confirmation of clinically suspected Alzheimer-dementia. At the time of the SPECT-investigation marked apraxia and aphasia besides severe dementia were present. Electrophysiological as well as anatomical neuroimaging findings showed non-diagnostic alterations. SPECT revealed distinct perfusion defects, which made Alzheimer Dementia unlikely. The further course of the patient was determined by rapidly progressive deterioration with development of akinetic mutism. Thereafter, increased levels of neuron-specific enolase as well as 14-3-3 proteins were found in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF). The patient finally died with signs of cerebral decortication. Due to the clinical course and the CSF-findings the patient's final diagnosis was Creutzfeld-Jakob-disease, nevertheless no autopsy was performed. The presented case report underscores the clinical utility of perfusion brain SPECT in the differential diagnosis of dementias. (orig.) [de

  10. Severe hyponatraemia with absence of hyperkalaemia in rapidly progressive Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael D; Kalmar, Eileen; Bowden, Sasigarn A

    2015-05-28

    We present a case of rapidly progressing Addison's disease in adrenal crisis with severe hyponatraemia and absence of hyperkalaemia in a 10-year-old girl. She presented with 2 weeks of vomiting, fatigue and weight loss. Her serum electrolytes obtained 1 week prior to presentation were normal, except for mild hyponatraemia at 131 mmol/L, which dropped to 112 mmol/L on admission. She had normal serum potassium, low-serum osmolality, with elevated urine sodium and osmolality, indistinguishable from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Subsequently, Addison's disease was diagnosed on the basis of gingival hyperpigmentation and undetectable cortisol on adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test. She rapidly responded to stress dose hydrocortisone, followed by hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone replacement therapy. The absence of hyperkalaemia in the presence of severe hyponatraemia cannot rule out Addison's disease in children. The mechanism of hypo-osmolar hyponatraemia in primary adrenal insufficiency and clinical clues to differentiate it from SIADH are discussed. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Microbiological characteristics of subgingival microbiota in adult periodontitis, localized juvenile periodontitis and rapidly progressive periodontitis subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnenmacher, C; Mutters, R; de Jacoby, L F

    2001-04-01

    To describe the prevalence of the cultivable subgingival microbiota in periodontal diseases and to draw attention to the polymicrobial nature of periodontic infections. The study population consisted of 95 patients, 51 females and 44 males, aged 14-62 years. Twenty-nine patients exhibited adult periodontitis (AP), six localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP), and 60 rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP). Two to four pooled bacterial samples were obtained from each patient. Samples were collected with sterile paper points from the deepest periodontal pockets. The samples were cultured under anaerobic and microaerophilic conditions using selective and non-selective media. Isolates were characterized to species level by conventional biochemical tests and by a commercial rapid test system. Prevotella intermedia and Capnocytophaga spp. were the most frequently detected microorganisms in all diagnostic groups. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Peptostreptococcus micros were found more frequently in AP and RPP patients, while Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Eikenella corrodens were associated with AP, LJP and RPP patients. The other bacterial species, including Actinomyces spp., Streptococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp., were detected at different levels in the three disease groups. The data show the complexity of the subgingival microbiota associated with different periodontal disease groups, indicating that the detection frequency and levels of recovery of some periodontal pathogens are different in teeth affected by different forms of periodontal disease.

  12. Rapidly progressive polyneuropathy due to dry beriberi in a man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekwuwa Godwin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We describe a case of rapidly progressive and severely debilitating polyneuropathy in a patient with confirmed hypovitaminosis B1, consistent with dry beriberi. Crucially, this is a treatable condition, although sometimes with incomplete recovery, but it is probably under-recognized yet increasingly common given increasing levels of alcohol abuse in the western world. Case presentation A 49-year-old Caucasian British man presented with progressive weakness of both lower limbs of approximately seven months' duration. He noted difficulty climbing stairs. He also complained of lethargy, and loss of muscle bulk, including his thighs. He had a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and admitted prior alcohol abuse but denied excessive alcohol intake in the five years prior to presentation. Initial clinical and neurophysiological examinations were consistent with a mild peripheral neuropathy and probable proximal myopathy. However, over the subsequent four months he evolved a marked tetraparesis, with profound sensory disturbance of all limbs. Repeat neurophysiology revealed a widespread polyneuropathy with extensive acute and sub-acute denervation changes in all four limbs, and reduced or absent sensory nerve action potentials. Hypovitaminosis B1 was confirmed (45 nmol/L, reference range 66-200 nmol/L. His rapid clinical deterioration was in keeping with dry beriberi. He was treated with thiamine. Subsequent follow-up revealed slow but significant improvement, such that by 15-16 months from the initial onset of symptoms, and approximately six months after the onset of his marked tetraparesis, he was able to stand independently and was gradually gaining confidence in walking pending a period of in-patient neurorehabilitation. Conclusion A potentially wide differential diagnosis exists for this type of presentation. Confirming hypovitaminosis B1 by requesting the assay prior to vitamin replacement ensures accurate diagnosis and

  13. Rapidly Progressive Osteoarthritis: a Review of the Clinical and Radiologic Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Donald J; Gustas-French, Cristy N

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the distinct clinical and radiographic features that may lead to prompt diagnosis of rapidly progressive osteoarthritis (RPOA) and thus obviate unnecessary and costly diagnostic workup. RPOA is uncommon but is more frequently seen in practice because of the aging population. RPOA is a destructive arthropathy that occurs most commonly in elderly women but can also be seen in patients that have sustained trauma. The dramatic radiologic manifestations of RPOA can lead to diagnostic confusion with other arthropathies, infection, and osteonecrosis. RPOA was originally described in the hip but may also involve the shoulder. The etiology of RPOA is not well understood, but subchondral fracture probably plays a role in the development of dramatic destruction of the joint that is seen in affected patients. Early diagnosis may reduce the complexity of surgical management. RPOA is an uncommon condition that occurs most frequently in elderly woman or in patients who have sustained trauma. Prompt recognition of the clinical and radiologic features of this arthropathy can reduce unnecessary diagnostic workup and complexity of surgical intervention.

  14. The effectiveness of electromagnetic terahertz radiation use in the treatment of patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenova A.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to increase the efficiency of treatment of patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP using electromagnetic radiation at terahertz frequencies of molecular spectrum of radiation and absorption of nitric oxide 150,176-150,664 GHz. Material and methods. The study involved 50 patients with RPP, which according to the method of therapy were divided into 2 groups: group 1 included patients receiving conventional therapy, group 2 consisted of patients who, along with traditional therapy received EHF-therapy device "Orbit" YAKUL.941526.001. The control group consisted of 20 healthy subjects with intact periodontium. For the non-invasive study of tissue blood flow in the periodontal tissue Doppler ultrasound was used MiniMax-Doppler-Phono. The study of the microvasculature of periodontitis has been conducted. To determine the reactivity of microvascular periodontal tissue reflex functional tests on the indirect effect of the cold were performed. Results. Reductions achieved values of periodontal indices, especially important index PMA, a significant increase in the linear blood flow indices, decreased pulse pressure gradient and the index followed appropriate reduction to their cold test. Conclusion. The proposed complex therapy can accelerate the relief of inflammation in the periodontal tissues of the complex, to improve the elastic properties of blood vessels, reduce their tone and restore microcirculation in periodontal tissues.

  15. HPLC method for rapidly following biodiesel fuel transesterification reaction progress using a core-shell column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Samuel J; Ott, Lisa S

    2012-07-01

    There are a wide and growing variety of feedstocks for biodiesel fuel. Most commonly, these feedstocks contain triglycerides which are transesterified into the fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) which comprise biodiesel fuel. While the tranesterification reaction itself is simple, monitoring the reaction progress and reaction products is not. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is useful for assessing the FAAE products, but does not directly address either the tri-, di-, or monoglycerides present from incomplete transesterification or the free fatty acids which may also be present. Analysis of the biodiesel reaction mixture is complicated by the solubility and physical property differences among the components of the tranesterification reaction mixture. In this contribution, we present a simple, rapid HPLC method which allows for monitoring all of the main components in a biodiesel fuel transesterification reaction, with specific emphasis on the ability to monitor the reaction as a function of time. The utilization of a relatively new, core-shell stationary phase for the HPLC column allows for efficient separation of peaks with short elution times, saving both time and solvent.

  16. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-01-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells

  17. Intracranial interstitial radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.; Rittenmeyer, H.; Hitchon, P.

    1986-01-01

    Primary malignant brain tumors are fatal, with 90% of patients having these tumors dying within two years following diagnosis. Cranial interstitial radiation therapy, a technique under investigation to control these tumors, involves implantation of radioactive iodine 125 seeds into the tumor bed by stereotaxic technique. The interstitial radiation technique, monitoring of radiation, and nursing care of patients are discussed. Case histories are presented, along with discussion of results attained using this therapy, and its future

  18. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in adolescents – aetiology and treatment based on case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Banaszak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is a disease characterised by an abrupt drop in glomerular filtration rate in a short period of time, which is caused by crescent formation seen in at least 50% of glomeruli. Two cases presented below illustrate rapid progressive glomerulonephritis in adolescents as a disease of heterogeneous aetiology that can develop both in the course of primary glomerulopathies and glomerulopathies secondary to systemic vasculitis. In the first case of an 11-year-old girl, nephritic syndrome with renal failure was accompanied by the presence of anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies in the serum, which in combination with the histopathological picture of the kidneys indicating pauci-immune rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis was the basis for the diagnosis of renal limited vasculitis. In the second case of a 16-year-old boy, an adverse course of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis with features of severe and persistent glomerular filtration impairment was an indication for the verification of the diagnosis and identification of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis based on a biopsy examination. Prompt diagnosis and inclusion of combined immunosuppressive therapy provided the chance to preserve renal function.

  19. Contribution of Interstitial Deletion of 21q22.2-3 per se to Prostate Cancer Progression in Tumors Harboring TMPRSS2-ERG Translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    harboring TMPRSS2- ERG translocations PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yan Dong CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Tulane University New Orleans, LA 70112...0485 to prostate cancer progression in tumors harboring TMPRSS2- ERG translocations 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0485 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT TMPRSS2- ERG gene fusions are present in close to 50% of human prostate cancers. Approximately half of the

  20. Suppression of Rapidly Progressive Mouse Glomerulonephritis with the Non-Steroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist BR-4628.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Frank Y; Han, Yingjie; Nikolic-Paterson, David J; Kolkhof, Peter; Tesch, Greg H

    2015-01-01

    Steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) are effective in the treatment of kidney disease; however, the side effect of hyperkalaemia, particularly in the context of renal impairment, is a major limitation to their clinical use. Recently developed non-steroidal MRAs have distinct characteristics suggesting that they may be superior to steroidal MRAs. Therefore, we explored the benefits of a non-steroidal MRA in a model of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis was induced in groups of C57BL/6J mice which received no treatment, vehicle or a non-steroidal MRA (BR-4628, 5mg/kg/bid) from day 0 until being killed on day 15 of disease. Mice were examined for renal injury. Mice with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis which received no treatment or vehicle developed similar disease with severe albuminuria, impaired renal function, glomerular tuft damage and crescents in 40% of glomeruli. In comparison, mice which received BR-4628 displayed similar albuminuria, but had improved renal function, reduced severity of glomerular tuft lesions and a 50% reduction in crescents. The protection seen in BR-4628 treated mice was associated with a marked reduction in glomerular macrophages and T-cells and reduced kidney gene expression of proinflammatory (CCL2, TNF-α, IFN-γ) and profibrotic molecules (collagen I, fibronectin). In addition, treatment with BR-4626 did not cause hyperkalaemia or increase urine Na+/K+ excretion (a marker of tubular dysfunction). The non-steroidal MRA (BR-4628) provided substantial suppression of mouse crescentic glomerulonephritis without causing tubular dysfunction. This finding warrants further investigation of non-steroidal MRAs as a therapy for inflammatory kidney diseases.

  1. Suppression of Rapidly Progressive Mouse Glomerulonephritis with the Non-Steroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist BR-4628.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Y Ma

    Full Text Available Steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs are effective in the treatment of kidney disease; however, the side effect of hyperkalaemia, particularly in the context of renal impairment, is a major limitation to their clinical use. Recently developed non-steroidal MRAs have distinct characteristics suggesting that they may be superior to steroidal MRAs. Therefore, we explored the benefits of a non-steroidal MRA in a model of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.Accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM glomerulonephritis was induced in groups of C57BL/6J mice which received no treatment, vehicle or a non-steroidal MRA (BR-4628, 5mg/kg/bid from day 0 until being killed on day 15 of disease. Mice were examined for renal injury.Mice with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis which received no treatment or vehicle developed similar disease with severe albuminuria, impaired renal function, glomerular tuft damage and crescents in 40% of glomeruli. In comparison, mice which received BR-4628 displayed similar albuminuria, but had improved renal function, reduced severity of glomerular tuft lesions and a 50% reduction in crescents. The protection seen in BR-4628 treated mice was associated with a marked reduction in glomerular macrophages and T-cells and reduced kidney gene expression of proinflammatory (CCL2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and profibrotic molecules (collagen I, fibronectin. In addition, treatment with BR-4626 did not cause hyperkalaemia or increase urine Na+/K+ excretion (a marker of tubular dysfunction.The non-steroidal MRA (BR-4628 provided substantial suppression of mouse crescentic glomerulonephritis without causing tubular dysfunction. This finding warrants further investigation of non-steroidal MRAs as a therapy for inflammatory kidney diseases.

  2. Rapid Progression of Metastatic Pulmonary Calcification and Alveolar Hemorrhage in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure and Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eun Joo; Kim, Dong Hun; Yoon, Seong Ho; Suk, Eun Ha

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic pulmonary calcification (MPC) is common in patients with chronic renal failure. The authors experienced a patient with chronic renal failure and primary hyperparathyroidism by parathyroid adenoma accompanied with rapid progressions of MPC and alveolar hemorrhage. Recent chest radiographs, compared with previous chest radiographs, showed rapid accumulation of calcification in both upper lungs. Following up on the high-resolution CT scan after five years demonstrates more increased nodules in size and ground glass opacity. The patient was diagnosed with MPC and alveolar hemorrhage by transbronchial lung biopsy. We assumed rapid progression of MPC and alveolar hemorrhage in underlying chronic renal failures could be a primary hyperparathyroidism which may be caused by parathyroid adenoma detected incidentally. Therefore parathyroid adenoma was treated with ethanol injections. Herein, we have reported on CT findings of MPC with alveolar hemorrhage and reviewed our case along with other articles.

  3. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-12-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, three times daily) on March 1, 2013. One month after treatment initiation, the patient complained of continuous dry cough and rapid progressive dyspnea. Forty one days after icotinib treatment, icotinib associated ILD was suspected when the patient became increasingly dyspnoeic despite of treatment of pericardial effusion, left pleural effusion and lower respiratory tract infection, and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed multiple effusion shadows and ground-glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Then, icotinib was discontinued and intravenous corticosteroid was started (methylprednisolone 40 mg once daily, about 1 mg per kilogram) respectively. Forty three days after icotinib treatment, the patient died of hypoxic respiratory failure. ILD should be considered as a rare, but often fatal side effect associated with icotinib treatment.

  4. Connexin 43 astrocytopathy linked to rapidly progressive multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhisa Masaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS and neuromyelitis optica (NMO occasionally have an extremely aggressive and debilitating disease course; however, its molecular basis is unknown. This study aimed to determine a relationship between connexin (Cx pathology and disease aggressiveness in Asian patients with MS and NMO. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples included 11 autopsied cases with NMO and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD, six with MS, and 20 with other neurological diseases (OND. Methods of analysis included immunohistochemical expression of astrocytic Cx43/Cx30, oligodendrocytic Cx47/Cx32 relative to AQP4 and other astrocytic and oligodendrocytic proteins, extent of demyelination, the vasculocentric deposition of complement and immunoglobulin, and lesion staging by CD68 staining for macrophages. Lesions were classified as actively demyelinating (n=59, chronic active (n=58 and chronic inactive (n=23. Sera from 120 subjects including 30 MS, 30 NMO, 40 OND and 20 healthy controls were examined for anti-Cx43 antibody by cell-based assay. Six NMO/NMOSD and three MS cases showed preferential loss of astrocytic Cx43 beyond the demyelinated areas in actively demyelinating and chronic active lesions, where heterotypic Cx43/Cx47 astrocyte oligodendrocyte gap junctions were extensively lost. Cx43 loss was significantly associated with a rapidly progressive disease course as six of nine cases with Cx43 loss, but none of eight cases without Cx43 loss regardless of disease phenotype, died within two years after disease onset (66.7% vs. 0%, P=0.0090. Overall, five of nine cases with Cx43 loss and none of eight cases without Cx43 loss had distal oligodendrogliopathy characterized by selective myelin associated glycoprotein loss (55.6% vs. 0.0%, P=0.0296. Loss of oligodendrocytic Cx32 and Cx47 expression was observed in most active and chronic lesions from all MS and NMO/NMOSD cases. Cx43-specific antibodies were absent in NMO/NMOSD and MS patients. CONCLUSIONS

  5. Complicated acute appendicitis presenting as a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerle, Corinne; Gelpke, Hans; Breitenstein, Stefan; Staerkle, Ralph F

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of a rare complication of acute appendicitis with perforation through the abdominal wall. The case points out that an intraabdominal origin should be considered in patients presenting with rapidly spreading soft tissue infections of the trunk. A 58-year-old European woman presented to our hospital with a 1-week history of severe abdominal pain accompanied by rapidly spreading erythema and emphysema of the lower abdomen. On admission, the patient was in septic shock with leukocytosis and elevation of C-reactive protein. Among other diagnoses, necrotizing fasciitis was suspected. Computed tomography showed a large soft tissue infection with air-fluid levels spreading through the lower abdominal wall. During the operation, we found a perforated appendicitis breaking through the fascia and causing a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall. Appendicitis was the origin of the soft tissue infection. The abdominal wall was only secondarily involved. Even though perforated appendicitis as an etiology of a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall is very rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal wall cellulitis. The distinction between rapidly spreading subcutaneous infection with abscess formation and early onset of necrotizing fasciitis is often difficult and can be confirmed only by surgical intervention.

  6. ANCA-GBM dot-blot : Evaluation of an assay in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Damoiseaux, Jan; Roozendaal, Caroline; Limburg, Pieter C; Stegeman, Coen A; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen

    Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is characterized by rapid and progressive loss of renal function and the presence of crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN). Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is mandatory to prevent death and/or renal failure. We have evaluated an ANCA-GBM dot-blot

  7. Rapid instrumental and separation methods for monitoring radionuclides in food and environmental samples. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, I.S.; Shukla, V.K.; Singh, A.N.; Nair, C.K.G.; Hingorani, S.B.; Dey, N.N.; Jha, S.K.; Rao, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    surface barrier detector, in close agreement. Presently the liquid scintillation counter is used with discriminator settling adjusted to count Pu alpha pulses and also the output from the liquid scintillator is connected to a 2K MCA to see the alpha spectrum. The unit at present does not have the Pulse Shape Analyser (PSA) unit which is being planned to be incorporated in the system to improve the resolution. The work is in progress for direct extraction to a liquid scintillation cocktail containing extracting reagents like high mol. amine (TIOA) and Di2 ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid and then count by liquid scintillation counting. Solvent extraction using specific reagent and then direct liquid scintillation counting is being investigated as a general rapid method for beta and alpha emitters in environmental samples

  8. Interstitial irradiation for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlas, O.; Bayindir, C.; Can, M.

    2000-01-01

    The results of interstitial irradiation treatment for craniopharyngioma in two patients with six year follow-ups are presented. Stereotactic interstitial irradiation with iodine-125 sources as sole therapy was employed in two adult patients who refused surgical resection. The diagnoses were confirmed by stereotactic biopsy. The first tumour which underwent interstitial irradiation was solid and 4 cm in diameter, and the second, 2.7 cm in diameter, had both cystic and solid components. The implanted iodine-125 seeds delivered 67 Gy and 60 Gy to tumour periphery at the rate of 12 and 14 cGy/h, respectively, were removed at the end of designated radiation periods. Tumour shrinkage and central hypo density, first observed 3 months after irradiation, continued until one tumour shrank to less than 1 cm at 12 months, and the other disappeared completely at 24 months. In both cases functional integrity was restored, and neither radiation induced toxicity nor recurrence has occurred six years after treatment. The results in these two cases suggest that solid craniopharyngiomas are sensitive to interstitial irradiation. (author)

  9. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...

  10. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tebeica, Tiberiu; Voicu, Cristiana; Patterson, James W.; Mangarov, Hristo; Lotti, T.; Wollina, Uwe; Lotti, Jacopo; França, Katlein; Batashki, Atanas; Tchernev, Georgi

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 42 years old male patient suffering from skin changes, which appeared in the last 7-8 years. Two biopsies were performed during the evolution of the lesion. Both showed similar findings that consisted in a busy dermis with interstitial, superficial and deep infiltrates of

  11. Rapid Disease Progression With Delay in Treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Nasiruddin; Kestin, Larry Llyn; Grills, Inga Siiner; Battu, Madhu; Fitch, Dwight Lamar; Wong, Ching-yee Oliver; Margolis, Jeffrey Harold; Chmielewski, Gary William; Welsh, Robert James

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess rate of disease progression from diagnosis to initiation of treatment for Stage I-IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Forty patients with NSCLC underwent at least two sets of computed tomography (CT) and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scans at various time intervals before treatment. Progression was defined as development of any new lymph node involvement, site of disease, or stage change. Results: Median time interval between first and second CT scans was 13.4 weeks, and between first and second PET scans was 9.0 weeks. Median initial primary maximum tumor dimension (MTD) was 3.5 cm (0.6-8.5 cm) with a median standardized uptake value (SUV) of 13.0 (1.7-38.5). The median MTD increased by a median of 1.0 cm (mean, 1.6 cm) between scans for a median relative MTD increase of 35% (mean, 59%). Nineteen patients (48%) progressed between scans. Rate of any progression was 13%, 31%, and 46% at 4, 8, and 16 weeks, respectively. Upstaging occurred in 3%, 13%, and 21% at these intervals. Distant metastasis became evident in 3%, 13%, and 13% after 4, 8, and 16 weeks, respectively. T and N stage were associated with progression, whereas histology, grade, sex, age, and maximum SUV were not. At 3 years, overall survival for Stage III patients with vs. without progression was 18% vs. 67%, p = 0.05. Conclusions: With NSCLC, treatment delay can lead to disease progression. Diagnosis, staging, and treatment initiation should be expedited. After 4-8 weeks of delay, complete restaging should be strongly considered.

  12. Successful Surgical Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity Showing Rapid Progression despite Extensive Retinal Photocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Salil S; Kulkarni, Sucheta R; Kamdar, Rushita R; Deshpande, Madan

    2015-01-01

    The management of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can be challenging in preterm babies with a gestational age premature infant presented with "hybrid" zone 1 disease in the right eye and aggressive posterior ROP in the left eye. Both eyes were adequately treated with laser photocoagulation; however, the eyes deteriorated and progressed to stage 4 ROP. Both eyes eventually underwent intravitreal bevacizumab followed by lens sparing vitrectomy with good anatomical and visual outcome. Anticipation of progression despite laser photocoagulation in certain clinical scenarios, frequent follow-up and timely surgical intervention is paramount.

  13. Increased common carotid artery wall thickness is associated with rapid progression of asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomedi, Marina; Scacciatelli, Daria; Misaggi, Giulia; Balestrini, Simona; Balucani, Clotilde; Sallustio, Fabrizio; Di Legge, Silvia; Stanzione, Paolo; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify clinical and ultrasound imaging predictors of progression of carotid luminal narrowing in subjects with asymptomatic moderate internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. A total of 571 subjects with asymptomatic moderate (50-69%) ICA stenoses were enrolled. They underwent ultrasound examination at baseline and after 12 months. Demographics, vascular risk factors, medications, plaque characteristics (surface and echogenicity) and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were collected. At the follow-up examination, any change of ICA stenosis was graded in three categories (i) ≥70% to near occlusion, (ii) near occlusion, and (iii) occlusion. Progression of stenosis was defined as an increase in the stenosis degree by at least one category from baseline to follow-up. At 12 months, progression occurred in 142 subjects (prevalence rate 25%). At the multivariable logistic model, pathological IMT values (considered as binary variable: normal: ≤1 mm vs. pathologic: >1 mm) significantly predicted the risk for plaque progression after adjusting the model for possible confounders (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.18-4.43, P = .014, multivariable logistic model). Our results confirm the role of carotid wall thickening as a marker of atherosclerosis. Carotid IMT measurement should be considered to implement risk stratification in patients with asymptomatic carotid disease.

  14. Constriction of juxta-ductal aorta and rapid progression of obstruction in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awasthy Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-day-old baby girl presenting with features of congestive cardiac failure was found to have coarctation of the aorta (CoA and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA by echocardiography. Doppler spectral display revealed moderate CoA. Echocardiogram, 12 hours later, showed severe juxtaductal aortic coarctation with spontaneous closure of PDA. This case emphasises the need to keep a close watch on the progress of CoA in the neonatal period, even if the duct has narrowed to a small size thus demonstrating the role of constriction of juxtaductal aorta in pathogenesis of coaractation. Closure of even asmall PDA can cause acute progression CoA in the presence of posterior shelf.

  15. Constriction of juxta-ductal aorta and rapid progression of obstruction in a newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Tomar, Munesh; Radhakrishnan, Sitaraman; Iyer, Krishna Subramoney

    2010-01-01

    A 13-day-old baby girl presenting with features of congestive cardiac failure was found to have coarctation of the aorta (CoA) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) by echocardiography. Doppler spectral display revealed moderate CoA. Echocardiogram, 12 hours later, showed severe juxtaductal aortic coarctation with spontaneous closure of PDA. This case emphasises the need to keep a close watch on the progress of CoA in the neonatal period, even if the duct has narrowed to a small size thus demonstrating the role of constriction of juxtaductal aorta in pathogenesis of coaractation. Closure of even asmall PDA can cause acute progression CoA in the presence of posterior shelf

  16. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovrenski Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is one of the rarest idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and the rarest form of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. It was first described by Liebow in 1965. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of eosinophilic macrophages uniformly filling airspaces which often contain a finely granular light-brown pigment that does not stain for hemosiderin. The alveolar walls are usually mildly thickened by fibrous tissue and infiltrated by a moderate number of lymphocytes. Case Outline. Our patient was a 56-year-old male, heavy smoker, with bilateral lung infiltrations of unknown etiology and several months of discomfort in the form of dry cough and shortness of breath. Lung function tests showed a moderate restrictive ventilation disorder and a severe reduction of diffusing capacity. Since bronchoscopic specimens did not reveal lung lesion etiology, an open lung biopsy of the lower left pulmonary lobe was performed, and based on the obtained surgical material the pathohistologically diagnosis of desquamative interstitial pneumonia was established. The patient was started on corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy, and he ceased smoking. At the last control examination, two years after the onset of symptoms, the patient was feeling well, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of the thorax showed regression of pathological changes. Conclusion. Although, as in our case, the majority of DIP patients improve on treatment, some patients still develop progressive irreversible fibrosis despite therapy.

  17. Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis (IGD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Tebeica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 42 years old male patient suffering from skin changes , which appeared in the last 7-8 years.  Two biopsies were performed during the evolution of the lesion. Both showed similar findings that consisted in a busy dermis with interstitial, superficial and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes and histiocytes dispersed among collagen bundles, with variable numbers of neutrophils scattered throughout. Some histiocytes were clustered in poorly formed granuloma that included rare giant cells, with discrete Palisades and piecemeal collagen degeneration, but without mucin deposition or frank necrobiosis of collagen. The clinical and histologic findings were supportive for interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD is a poorly understood entity that was regarded by many as belonging to the same spectrum of disease or even synonym with palisaded and neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis (PNGD. Although IGD and PNGD were usually related to connective tissue disease, mostly rheumatoid arthritis, some patients with typical histologic findings of IGD never develop autoimmune disorders, but they have different underlying conditions, such as metabolic diseases, lymphoproliferative disorders or other malignant tumours. These observations indicate that IGD and PNGD are different disorders with similar manifestations.

  18. Rapidly progressive effusive constrictive pericarditis caused by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). samraakhtar@hotmail.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naveed; Khalid, Ayesha; Ahmed, Waqas; Rasheed, Khalid

    2010-04-01

    Effusive-constrictive pericarditis is a clinical syndrome characterized by concurrent pericardial effusion and pericardial constriction, where constrictive hemodynamics are persistent after effusion is drained. It may present at any point along the clinical course, from the occurrence of an effusion to the development of chronic pericardial constriction. We refer an unusual case of effusive constrictive pericarditis developing rapidly within days, following purulent pericarditis secondary to chest trauma.

  19. Mixing and matching Bevalac programs: Rapid-switching of ions and other operations highlights: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothrop, F.; Alonso, J.; Krebs, G.; Miller, R.; Stevenson, R.

    1987-03-01

    Rapid switching of ion, energy, and beam line has been accomplished on a routine basis; typical transfer time is 1 to 2 minutes in worst case situations. Operational efficiency has been improved by substantial reduction of inter-experiment tune time and improved optics in the external beam area installed in 1985. A comparison of current research efficiency and previous year efficiency is given. It is shown that compatibility and productivity for two simultaneous, independent research programs are not mutually exclusive

  20. Rapid progression of mediastinal tumor within a few days: A case report of T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Tae Ran; Lee, Young Kyung; Jun, Hyun Jung; Jung, Eun Ah; Son, Jin Sung [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma is a highly aggressive tumor derived from lymphocyte of the thymus, which accounts for 2% of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease occurs most commonly in adolescent and young adult males. It often results in respiratory emergency because of high proliferation rate. In this case, we confirmed the rapid progression of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma through the chest CT scan with one week interval. Three days of empirical chemotherapy resulted in substantial reduction of mediastinal mass, pleural thickening and pleural effusion.

  1. A Simple Diet- and Chemical-Induced Murine NASH Model with Rapid Progression of Steatohepatitis, Fibrosis and Liver Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Takuma; Lee, Youngmin A; Fujiwara, Naoto; Ybanez, Maria; Allen, Brittany; Martins, Sebastiao; Fiel, M Isabel; Goossens, Nicolas; Chou, Hsin-I; Hoshida, Yujin; Friedman, Scott L

    2018-03-20

    Although the majority of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have only steatosis without progression, a sizable fraction develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Many established diet-induced mouse models for NASH require 24-52 weeks, which makes testing for drug response costly and time consuming. We have sought to establish a murine NASH model with rapid progression of extensive fibrosis and HCC by using a western diet (WD), which is high-fat, high-fructose and high-cholesterol, combined with low dose weekly intraperitoneal carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), which served as an accelerator. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal chow diet (ND) ± CCl 4 or WD ± CCl 4 for 12 and 24 weeks. Addition of CCl 4 exacerbated histological features of NASH, fibrosis, and tumor development induced by WD, which resulted in stage 3 fibrosis at 12 weeks and HCC development at 24 weeks. Furthermore, whole liver transcriptomic analysis indicated that dysregulated molecular pathways in WD/CCl 4 mice and immunologic features were closely similar to those of human NASH. Our mouse NASH model exhibits rapid progression of advanced fibrosis and HCC, and mimics histological, immunological and transcriptomic features of human NASH, suggesting that it will be a useful experimental tool for preclinical drug testing. A carefully characterized model has been developed in mice that recapitulates the progressive stages of human fatty liver disease, from simple steatosis, to inflammation, fibrosis and cancer. The functional pathways of gene expression and immune abnormalities in this model closely resemble human disease. The ease and reproducibility of this model makes it ideal to study disease pathogenesis and test new treatments. Copyright © 2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CRF19_cpx is an Evolutionary fit HIV-1 Variant Strongly Associated With Rapid Progression to AIDS in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, Vivian; Khouri, Ricardo; Alemán, Yoan; Abrahantes, Yeissel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Pineda-Peña, Andrea-Clemencia; Theys, Kristof; Megens, Sarah; Moutschen, Michel; Pfeifer, Nico; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Pérez, Ana B; Pérez, Jorge; Pérez, Lissette; Van Laethem, Kristel; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2015-03-01

    Clinicians reported an increasing trend of rapid progression (RP) (AIDS within 3 years of infection) in Cuba. Recently infected patients were prospectively sampled, 52 RP at AIDS diagnosis (AIDS-RP) and 21 without AIDS in the same time frame (non-AIDS). 22 patients were sampled at AIDS diagnosis (chronic-AIDS) retrospectively assessed as > 3 years infected. Clinical, demographic, virological, epidemiological and immunological data were collected. Pol and env sequences were used for subtyping, transmission cluster analysis, and prediction of resistance, co-receptor use and evolutionary fitness. Host, immunological and viral predictors of RP were explored through data mining. Subtyping revealed 26 subtype B strains, 6 C, 6 CRF18_cpx, 9 CRF19_cpx, 29 BG-recombinants and other subtypes/URFs. All patients infected with CRF19 belonged to the AIDS-RP group. Data mining identified CRF19, oral candidiasis and RANTES levels as the strongest predictors of AIDS-RP. CRF19 was more frequently predicted to use the CXCR4 co-receptor, had higher fitness scores in the protease region, and patients had higher viral load at diagnosis. CRF19 is a recombinant of subtype D (C-part of Gag, PR, RT and nef), subtype A (N-part of Gag, Integrase, Env) and subtype G (Vif, Vpr, Vpu and C-part of Env). Since subtypes D and A have been associated with respectively faster and slower disease progression, our findings might indicate a fit PR driving high viral load, which in combination with co-infections may boost RANTES levels and thus CXCR4 use, potentially explaining the fast progression. We propose that CRF19 is evolutionary very fit and causing rapid progression to AIDS in many newly infected patients in Cuba.

  3. Advanced and rapidly progressing head and neck cancer: good palliation following intralesional bleomycin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quintyne, Keith Ian

    2011-09-01

    The authors herein report the case of a 61-year-old man undergoing adjuvant therapy for locally advanced laryngeal cancer, who developed parastomal recurrence in his radiation field around his tracheotomy site, while he was undergoing radiation therapy, and compromised the secure placement of his tracheotomy tube and maintenance of his upper airway. MRI restaging and biopsy confirmed recurrence and progressive disease in his mediastinum. He underwent local therapy with intralesional bleomycin with good palliation, and ability to maintain the patency of his upper airway.

  4. Progress in Rapidly-Tunable External Cavity Quantum Cascade Lasers with a Frequency-Shifted Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiy Lyakh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent demonstration of external cavity quantum cascade lasers with optical feedback, controlled by an acousto-optic modulator, paves the way to ruggedized infrared laser systems with the capability of tuning the emission wavelength on a microsecond scale. Such systems are of great importance for various critical applications requiring ultra-rapid wavelength tuning, including combustion and explosion diagnostics and standoff detection. In this paper, recent research results on these devices are summarized and the advantages of the new configuration are analyzed in the context of practical applications.

  5. Rapid in situ gamma spectrometric determination of fallout radioactivity in the environment. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zombori, Peter

    1995-01-01

    The main aim of the present CRP is to identify the existing analytical methods and develop new ones, if possible, which provide rapid, reliable, and detailed information on the radioactive contamination of the environment after a major nuclear accident. Gamma spectrometry has long been regarded as one of the most applicable radioanalytical techniques but its use for environmental studies requires some further considerations. There are two possible approaches to measure environmental radioactivity: (a) taking samples of the different environmental media and measuring them in a laboratory or (b) taking the spectrometer to the place of interest and making in situ measurements. In the former case sampling is a crucial factor hindering the rapid analysis while the latter case is not always reliable due to the problems and uncertainties of the measurement interpretation. The application of in situ gamma spectrometry for the determination of environmental radioactivity has become increasingly attractive since the advent of the high resolution semiconductor gamma detectors, especially, more recently, portable high purity Ge diodes (HpGe). The applicability of this technique was very well proved after the Chernobyl reactor accident when in situ spectrometry played an important role in the rapid evaluation of the fall-out situation. Our measurements provided information on the amount and composition of the radioactive contamination of the ground surface already in the first hours. These measurements enabled us to predict the time variation of the environmental radioactivity after the stabilization of the situation. The portability of the system was an important factor in performing a rapid and efficient survey in different parts of the country. A serious disadvantage of this method is, however, that it requires some knowledge about the radionuclide distribution in the soil, which is normally determined by tedious and time consuming sample analysis of the different soil

  6. Successful recovery of infective endocarditis-induced rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis by steroid therapy combined with antibiotics: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikkawa Ryuichi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mortality rate among patients with infective endocarditis, especially associated with the presence of complications or coexisting conditions such as renal failure and the use of combined medical and surgical therapy remains still high. Prolonged parenteral administration of a bactericidal antimicrobial agent or combination of agents is usually recommended, however, the optimal therapy for infective endocarditis associated with renal injury is not adequately defined. Case presentation Patient was a 24-years old man who presented to our hospital with fever, fatigue, and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. He had a history of ventricular septum defect (VSD. A renal biopsy specimen revealed crescentic glomerulonephritis and echocardiogram revealed VSD with vegetation on the tricuspid valve. Specimens of blood demonstrated Propionibacterium Acnes. The intensive antibiotic therapy with penicillin G was started without clinical improvement of renal function or resolution of fever over the next 7 days. After the short-term treatment of low dose of corticosteroid combined with continuous antibiotics, high fever and renal insufficiency were dramatically improved. Conclusion Although renal function in our case worsened despite therapy with antibiotics, a short-term and low dose of corticosteroid therapy with antibiotics was able to recover renal function and the patient finally underwent tricuspid valve-plasty and VSD closure. We suggest that the patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis associated with infective endocarditis might be treated with a short-term and low dose of corticosteroid successfully.

  7. MM1+2C sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presenting as rapidly progressive nonfluent aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegri, Ricardo F; Bartoloni, Leonardo; Iturry, Mónica; Romero, Carlos; Begué, Christián; Sevlever, Gustavo; Taratuto, Ana Lía

    2014-01-01

    We report a 77-year-old man, presenting with progressive aphasia as an initial symptom, who developed severe dementia over the course of 20 months. Frontal cortex PrPSc western blot was type 2 and codon 129 was MM; brain neuropathology showed cortical vacuoles with perivacuolar PrP immunostaining characteristic of MM2C. Cerebellum showed focal coarse, patchy staining in different sections of the molecular layer, diffuse fine punctuate and coarse PrP immunopositive deposits in the granule cell layer, and focal synaptic immunostaining in the molecular layer, suggestive of MM1+2C by histotyping. This clinical presentation has not yet been described in an MM1+2C subtype by histotyping.

  8. Cobalamin C Deficiency Shows a Rapidly Progressing Maculopathy With Severe Photoreceptor and Ganglion Cell Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Lucas; Ficicioglu, Can H.; Serrano, Leona; Han, Grace; Morgan, Jessica I. W.; Mills, Monte D.; Forbes, Brian J.; Davidson, Stefanie L.; Binenbaum, Gil; Kaplan, Paige B.; Nichols, Charles W.; Verloo, Patrick; Leroy, Bart P.; Maguire, Albert M.; Aleman, Tomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe in detail the retinal structure and function of a group of patients with cobalamin C (cblC) disease. Methods Patients (n = 11, age 4 months to 15 years) with cblC disease (9/11, early onset) diagnosed by newborn screening underwent complete ophthalmic examinations, fundus photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed in a subset of patients. Results Patients carried homozygous or compound heterozygote mutations in the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C (MMACHC) gene. Late-onset patients had a normal exam. All early-onset patients showed a maculopathy; older subjects had a retina-wide degeneration (n = 4; >7 years of age). In general, retinal changes were first observed before 1 year of age and progressed within months to a well-established maculopathy. Pseudocolobomas were documented in three patients. Measurable visual acuities ranged from 20/200 to 20/540. Nystagmus was present in 8/11 patients; 5/6 patients had normal ERGs; 1/6 had reduced rod-mediated responses. Spectral-domain OCT showed macular thinning, with severe ganglion cell layer (GCL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) loss. Inner retinal thickening was observed in areas of total GCL/ONL loss. A normal lamination pattern in the peripapillary nasal retina was often seen despite severe central and/or retina-wide disease. Conclusions Patients with early-onset cblC and MMACHC mutations showed an early-onset, unusually fast-progressing maculopathy with severe central ONL and GCL loss. An abnormally thickened inner retina supports a remodeling response to both photoreceptor and ganglion cell degeneration and/or an interference with normal development in early-onset cblC. PMID:26658511

  9. Regulation of tumor invasion by interstitial fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Adrian C; Swartz, Melody A

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression is undisputed, yet the significance of biophysical forces in the microenvironment remains poorly understood. Interstitial fluid flow is a nearly ubiquitous and physiologically relevant biophysical force that is elevated in tumors because of tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, as well as changes in the tumor stroma. Not only does it apply physical forces to cells directly, but interstitial flow also creates gradients of soluble signals in the tumor microenvironment, thus influencing cell behavior and modulating cell–cell interactions. In this paper, we highlight our current understanding of interstitial fluid flow in the context of the tumor, focusing on the physical changes that lead to elevated interstitial flow, how cells sense flow and how they respond to changes in interstitial flow. In particular, we emphasize that interstitial flow can directly promote tumor cell invasion through a mechanism known as autologous chemotaxis, and indirectly support tumor invasion via both biophysical and biochemical cues generated by stromal cells. Thus, interstitial fluid flow demonstrates how important biophysical factors are in cancer, both by modulating cell behavior and coupling biophysical and biochemical signals

  10. Modeling of interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Knyazheva, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron during rapid thermal annealing of silicon layers previously amorphized by implantation of germanium has been proposed. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created continuously during annealing due to generation, dissolution, or rearrangement of the clusters of impurity atoms which are formed in the ion-implanted layers with impurity concentration above the solubility limit. The local elastic stresses arising due to the difference of boron atomic radius and atomic radius of silicon also contribute to the generation of boron interstitials. A simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 60 s at a temperature of 850 C has been carried out. The calculated profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters of interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 12 nm. It was also obtained that approximately 1.94% of boron atoms were converted to the interstitial sites, participated in the fast interstitial migration, and then became immobile again transferring into a substitutional position or forming the electrically inactive complexes with crystal lattice defects. (authors)

  11. Interstitial pregnancy: role of MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filhastre, M.; Lesnik, A.; Dechaud, H.; Taourel, P.

    2005-01-01

    We report the MRI features of two cases of interstitial pregnancy. In both cases, MRI was able to localize the ectopic pregnancy by showing a gestational structure surrounded by a thick wall in the upper part of the uterine wall separated from the endometrium by an uninterrupted junctional zone. Because US may confuse angular and interstitial pregnancies and because interstitial pregnancy has a particular evolutive course, MR imaging may play a key role in the diagnosis and management of women with interstitial pregnancy. (orig.)

  12. Acute gouty arthritis and rapidly progressive renal failure as manifestation of multiple myeloma: clinical case description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Gudym

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a clinical case of multiple myeloma in 78-year-old man, its clinical onset was as an acute attack of gout. The patient was admitted to hospital due to the development of the first acute attack of gout. The attack was characterized by polyarthricular joint lesion of the upper and lower extremities, pronounced inflammatory reaction, insufficient response to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and a high level of hyperuricemia. The serum uric acid concentration ranged from 636 to 712 μmol/l. The study of the synovial fluid of the inflamed knee joint made it possible to reveal uric acid crystals and to confirm the diagnosis of acute gouty arthritis. Simultaneously, the patient had significant renal impairment: creatinine was 574 μmol/l, urea — 39.9 mmol/l, glomerular filtration rate according to CKD-EPI — 8 ml/min. The daily proteinuria was 1.8 g. A retrospective assessment of laboratory parameters allowed to reveal completely normal indicators of renal function 6 months ago. Considering the development of acute gouty arthritis, its polyarticular nature, persistent course, rapid involvement of new joints, high uric acid levels during an acute attack exceeding 600 μmol/l (10 mg/dL, rapid development of renal failure within 6 months until the terminal stage, it was suggested the secondary nature of gout on the background of kidney damage by another pathological process. Further clinical, laboratory and instrumental studies allowed verifying multiple myeloma with renal damage. Bence Jones protein in the urine was not detected, there was also no evidence of hyperproteinemia. However, pain in the spine, ribs and chest was the basis for carrying out an X-ray study of the bones of the skeleton. Changes in the skeleton typical for multiple myeloma have been identified. Myelogram showed a high content of plasma cells (21.1 %, electrophoresis of blood proteins showed a high M-gradient (30.42 %, and a cytochemical

  13. Large cross-sectional study of presbycusis reveals rapid progressive decline in auditory temporal acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeral, Erol J; Eddins, Ann C; Frisina, D Robert; Eddins, David A

    2016-07-01

    The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1.05 ms (15%) per decade. Age was a significant predictor of TGDT when controlling for audibility (partial correlation) and when restricting analyses to persons with normal-hearing sensitivity (n = 434). The TGDTs were significantly better for males (3.5 ms; 51%) than females when averaged across the life span. These results highlight the need for indices of temporal processing in diagnostics, as treatment targets, and as factors in models of aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Primary pleural leiomyosarcoma with rapid progression and fatal outcome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais Ghizlane

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Leiomyosarcomas are neoplasms of smooth muscles that most commonly arise from the uterus, gastrointestinal tract, or soft tissue. Primary pleural leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only nine cases have been published to date. Because of the rarity of pleural leiomyosarcoma and its similarity (clinical and histological to other pleural neoplasms, particularly sarcomatous mesothelioma, diagnosis is often difficult. Case presentation A 58-year-old North African man was admitted with complaints of dyspnea and chest pain to our hospital. Chest computed tomography revealed right pleural effusion and pleural thickening. A transthoracic needle biopsy yielded a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma, and tumor cells were strongly and uniformly positive for vimentin, a smooth muscle actin at immunohistochemical analysis. A general examination did not show any metastatic lesions in other areas. One month after diagnosis, the tumor grew rapidly, with pulmonary invasion, and therefore he was treated only by palliative care. He died from respiratory failure one month later. Because no organ of origin of the leiomyosarcoma, other than the pleura, was detected, this case was diagnosed as a primary pleural leiomyosarcoma. Conclusions Although leiomyosarcoma originating from the pleura is rare, this entity is increasingly described. The purpose of presenting this case report is to raise awareness among clinicians to consider this clinical entity as a differential diagnosis when a pleural mass is identified.

  15. Final Progress Report: Isotope Identification Algorithm for Rapid and Accurate Determination of Radioisotopes Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Bounds, John Alan; Brumby, Steven P.; Prasad, Lakshman; Sullivan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the final report of the project titled, 'Isotope Identification Algorithm for Rapid and Accurate Determination of Radioisotopes,' PMIS project number LA10-HUMANID-PD03. The goal of the work was to demonstrate principles of emulating a human analysis approach towards the data collected using radiation isotope identification devices (RIIDs). It summarizes work performed over the FY10 time period. The goal of the work was to demonstrate principles of emulating a human analysis approach towards the data collected using radiation isotope identification devices (RIIDs). Human analysts begin analyzing a spectrum based on features in the spectrum - lines and shapes that are present in a given spectrum. The proposed work was to carry out a feasibility study that will pick out all gamma ray peaks and other features such as Compton edges, bremsstrahlung, presence/absence of shielding and presence of neutrons and escape peaks. Ultimately success of this feasibility study will allow us to collectively explain identified features and form a realistic scenario that produced a given spectrum in the future. We wanted to develop and demonstrate machine learning algorithms that will qualitatively enhance the automated identification capabilities of portable radiological sensors that are currently being used in the field.

  16. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons : the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, David A; Ryom, Lene; Ross, Michael; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Morlat, Philippe; Moranne, Olivier; Fux, Christoph A; Mocroft, Amanda; Sabin, Caroline; Lundgren, Jens D; Smith, Colette J; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the

  17. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons: the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, David A.; Ryom, Lene; Ross, Michael; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Morlat, Philippe; Moranne, Olivier; Fux, Christoph A.; Mocroft, Amanda; Sabin, Caroline; Lundgren, Jens D.; Smith, Colette J.; Powderly, B.; Shortman, N.; Moecklinghoff, C.; Reilly, G.; Franquet, X.; Ryom, L.; Sabin, C. A.; Kamara, D.; Smith, C.; Phillips, A.; Mocroft, A.; Tverland, J.; Mansfeld, M.; Nielsen, J.; Raben, D.; Lundgren, J. D.; Brandt, R. Salbøl; Rickenbach, M.; Fanti, I.; Krum, E.; Hillebregt, M.; Geffard, S.; Sundström, A.; Prins, J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Godfried, M. H.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Grijsen, M. L.; Wiersinga, W. J.; Goorhuis, A.; Hovius, J. W. R.

    2014-01-01

    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data

  18. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons: the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, D.A.; Ryom, L.; Ross, M.; Kirk, O.; Reiss, P.; Morlat, P.; Moranne, O.; Fux, C.A.; Mocroft, A.; Sabin, C.; Lundgren, J.D.; Smith, C.J.; Koopmans †, P.P.; Keuter, M.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Hofstede, H.J.M. ter; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Warris, A.; Crevel, R. van; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the

  19. Effect of intensive plasma exchange (PE) in rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis (RPCGN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, G; Sinico, R; Fornasieri, A; Ferrario, F; Colasanti, G; Porri, M T; Paracchini, M L; Gibelli, A

    1983-07-01

    Ten adult patients with RPCGN (crescents in greater than 70% of glomeruli), primary in 6 and associated with systemic diseases in 4, were treated with PE, associated with oral steroids (P) and cyclophosphamide (C) in all cases and with intravenous methylprednisolone pulses (MP) in 7 cases. Four out of ten patients were anuric and needed dialysis treatment at the start of treatment. Therapeutic benefit, i.e. reversal of the trend to further deterioration and substantial improvement of GFR, was achieved in 8 out of 10 patients (80%), including 2 of 4 anuric patients, and in 7 of those (8) who had still active cellular crescents (87.5%). Similar therapeutic benefit had been achieved only in 10% of a comparable population of 10 patients with RPCGN treated before 1980 with P and C, without PE or MP pulses. It is difficult to establish whether the better therapeutic results in the more recently treated group were due to PE or to MP pulses of to both the new approaches, even though the clinical improvement obtained in all the 3 patients treated with PE without concomitant MP suggest a specific beneficial role for PE. RPCGN is a catastrophic illness characterized by progressive deterioration of kidney function, resulting in oliguria and uremia, usually within weeks or months. The most consistent histopathologic finding is the presence of extensive glomerular crescents resulting from proliferation of the extracapillary epithelial cell lining of Bowman's capsule. It is apparent that RPCGN is not a homogeneous entity, clinically, histologically or immunohistologically, but rather a clinicopathologic syndrome, the features of which may be seen in a variety of systemic disorders, including SLE, polyarteritis nodosa, Wegener's granulomatosis, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, cryoglobulinemia, and subacute bacterial endocarditis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Unilaterally and rapidly progressing white matter lesion and elevated cytokines in a patient with Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Tomomi; Shimizu, Jun; Goto, Tamako; Nozaki, Yasuyuki; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Naoto; Namba, Eiji; Yamagata, Takanori; Momoi, Mariko Y

    2010-03-01

    We report the case of a girl with Tay-Sachs disease who had convulsions and deteriorated rapidly after an upper respiratory infection at the age of 11 months. At the age of 16 months, her seizures became intractable and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and marked swelling in the white matter and basal nucelei of the right hemisphere. Her seizures and right hemisphere lesion improved with glycerol and dexamethasone treatment. When dexamethasone was discontinued, her symptoms worsened and lesions later appeared in the left hemisphere. Her cerebrospinal fluid showed elevated levels of the cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-5. It is considered that inflammation contributes to disease progression in Tay-Sachs disease.

  1. Combined MYC and P53 defects emerge at medulloblastoma relapse and define rapidly progressive, therapeutically targetable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rebecca M; Kuijper, Sanne; Lindsey, Janet C; Petrie, Kevin; Schwalbe, Ed C; Barker, Karen; Boult, Jessica K R; Williamson, Daniel; Ahmad, Zai; Hallsworth, Albert; Ryan, Sarra L; Poon, Evon; Robinson, Simon P; Ruddle, Ruth; Raynaud, Florence I; Howell, Louise; Kwok, Colin; Joshi, Abhijit; Nicholson, Sarah Leigh; Crosier, Stephen; Ellison, David W; Wharton, Stephen B; Robson, Keith; Michalski, Antony; Hargrave, Darren; Jacques, Thomas S; Pizer, Barry; Bailey, Simon; Swartling, Fredrik J; Weiss, William A; Chesler, Louis; Clifford, Steven C

    2015-01-12

    We undertook a comprehensive clinical and biological investigation of serial medulloblastoma biopsies obtained at diagnosis and relapse. Combined MYC family amplifications and P53 pathway defects commonly emerged at relapse, and all patients in this group died of rapidly progressive disease postrelapse. To study this interaction, we investigated a transgenic model of MYCN-driven medulloblastoma and found spontaneous development of Trp53 inactivating mutations. Abrogation of p53 function in this model produced aggressive tumors that mimicked characteristics of relapsed human tumors with combined P53-MYC dysfunction. Restoration of p53 activity and genetic and therapeutic suppression of MYCN all reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival. Our findings identify P53-MYC interactions at medulloblastoma relapse as biomarkers of clinically aggressive disease that may be targeted therapeutically. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tumorous interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Meyer, E.; Mundinger, A.; Helwig, A.; Blum, U.; Wuertemberger, G.

    1990-01-01

    The radiological findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis and in leukemic pulmonary infiltrates mirror the tumor-dependent monomorphic interstitial pathology of lung parenchyma. It is a proven fact that pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is caused by hematogenous tumor embolization to the lungs; pathogenesis by contiguous lymphangitic spread is the exception. High-resolution CT performed as a supplement to the radiological work-up improves the sensitivity for pulmonary infiltrates in general and thus makes the differential diagnosis decided easier. Radiological criteria cannot discriminate the different forms of leukemia. Plain chest X-ray allows the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in leukemia due to tumorous infiltrates and of tumor- or therapy-induced complications. It is essential that the radiological findings be interpreted with reference to the stage of tumor disease and the clinical parameters to make the radiological differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections more reliable. (orig.) [de

  3. Immunological Basis for Rapid Progression of Diabetes in Older NOD Mouse Recipients Post BM-HSC Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang

    Full Text Available Type I diabetes (T1D, mediated by autoreactive T cell destruction of insulin-producing islet beta cells, has been treated with bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cell (BM-HSC transplantation. Older non-obese diabetic (NOD mice recipients (3m, at disease-onset stage receiving syngeneic BM-HSC progressed more rapidly to end-stage diabetes post-transplantation than younger recipients (4-6w, at disease-initiation stage. FACS analyses showed a higher percentage and absolute number of regulatory T cells (Treg and lower proportion of proliferating T conventional cells (Tcon in pancreatic lymph nodes from the resistant mice among the younger recipients compared to the rapid progressors among the older recipients. Treg distribution in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, blood and thymus between the two groups was similar. However, the percentage of thymic Tcon and the proliferation of Tcon in MLN and blood were lower in the young resistants. These results suggest recipient age and associated disease stage as a variable to consider in BM-HSC transplantation for treating T1D.

  4. An approach to interstitial lung disease in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J N Pande

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung diseases are common and have varied etiology, clinical presentation, clinical course and outcome. They pose a diagnostic challenge to physicians and pulmonologists. Patients present with dry cough, exertional dyspnoea, interstitial lesions on X-ray of the chest and restrictive ventilatory defect on spirometry. A sharp decline in oxygen saturation with exercise is characteristic. Careful evaluation of the history of the patient and physical examination help in narrowing down diagnostic probabilities. HRCT of the chest has emerged as an important tool in the evaluation of these disorders. Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (IIP are a group of conditions which are classified into several types based on pathological features. Bronchoscopic procedures are helpful in diagnosis of certain disorders but are of limited value in classification of IIP which requires surgical biopsy. Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP, also referred to as Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, has a progressive course and an unfavourable outcome. Certain new drugs have recently become available for treatment of UIP. Our approach towards diagnosis and management of interstitial lung diseases based on personal experience over the past three decades is reported here. Key words: Usual interstitial pneumonia – sarcoidosis – pneumoconiosis – bronchoscopy – lung biopsy 

  5. PRO-QUEST: a rapid assessment method based on progressive saturation for quantifying exchange rates using saturation times in CEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Eleni; Tachrount, Mohamed; Zaiss, Moritz; Shmueli, Karin; Golay, Xavier

    2018-03-05

    To develop a new MRI technique to rapidly measure exchange rates in CEST MRI. A novel pulse sequence for measuring chemical exchange rates through a progressive saturation recovery process, called PRO-QUEST (progressive saturation for quantifying exchange rates using saturation times), has been developed. Using this method, the water magnetization is sampled under non-steady-state conditions, and off-resonance saturation is interleaved with the acquisition of images obtained through a Look-Locker type of acquisition. A complete theoretical framework has been set up, and simple equations to obtain the exchange rates have been derived. A reduction of scan time from 58 to 16 minutes has been obtained using PRO-QUEST versus the standard QUEST. Maps of both T 1 of water and B 1 can simply be obtained by repetition of the sequence without off-resonance saturation pulses. Simulations and calculated exchange rates from experimental data using amino acids such as glutamate, glutamine, taurine, and alanine were compared and found to be in good agreement. The PRO-QUEST sequence was also applied on healthy and infarcted rats after 24 hours, and revealed that imaging specificity to ischemic acidification during stroke was substantially increased relative to standard amide proton transfer-weighted imaging. Because of the reduced scan time and insensitivity to nonchemical exchange factors such as direct water saturation, PRO-QUEST can serve as an excellent alternative for researchers and clinicians interested to map pH changes in vivo. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Interstitial Cells of Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pucovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are made up of several distinct cell types. Although it was originally thought that the tunica media of blood vessels was composed of a homogeneous population of fully differentiated smooth muscle cells, more recent data suggest the existence of multiple smooth muscle cell subpopulations in the vascular wall. One of the cell types contributing to this heterogeneity is the novel, irregularly shaped, noncontractile cell with thin processes, termed interstitial cell, found in the tunica media of both veins and arteries. While the principal role of interstitial cells in veins seems to be pacemaking, the role of arterial interstitial cells is less clear. This review summarises the knowledge of the functional and structural properties of vascular interstitial cells accumulated so far, offers hypotheses on their physiological role, and proposes directions for future research.

  7. An atypical cause of rapidly progressing breast lump with abscess formation: Pure squamous cell carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilekar, Murat; Erkasap, Serdar; Oner, Ulku; Akici, Murat; Ciftci, Evrim; Dizen, Hayrettin; Turel, Serkan; Kavak, Ozgu I; Yilmaz, Sezgin

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare type of breast malignancy and little is known about long-term outcome. In the present report, the clinical features, histopathologic findings and postoperative course of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma are described. We have treated a 47-years-old woman who admitted for right breast mass without any discharge, bleeding and pain. The tumor was, 3 × 2 × 1.5 cm in size with central abscess formation. The result of surgical biopsy revealed large cell keratinizing type of SCC. The metastatic work-up studies ruled out any other probable sources of primary tumor. The patient was performed modified radical mastectomy and axillary dissection and received two cycles of chemotherapy. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast (SCCB) is a rare entity and should be considered in patients with rapidly progressing breast mass. It should also be considered in breast lesions with abscess formation. The initial therapeutic approach should be surgical excision after histopathological diagnosis.

  8. 67Gallium citrate lung scans in interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease often require a lung biopsy to determine the diagnosis and proper therapy. However, once the diagnosis is established, clinical evaluation of symptoms, chest roentgenogram and pulmonary function testing are the only noninvasive means currently available to assess activity of the disease process and response to the therapy. Although these measures appear adequate in the presence of acute active disease in which response to therapy results in readily demonstrable changes in the above parameters, they may be insensitive to subtle changes that can occur in minimally active disease with slowly progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis over a period of years. A more sensitive noninvasive technique for identifying these cases with a smoldering diffuse interstitial inflammatory process might greatly improve our ability to effectively manage such patients. With this in mind, the value of gallium lung scan was investigated to assess its ability to predict inflammatory activity in such a clinical setting

  9. /sup 67/Gallium citrate lung scans in interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.

    1976-02-01

    Patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease often require a lung biopsy to determine the diagnosis and proper therapy. However, once the diagnosis is established, clinical evaluation of symptoms, chest roentgenogram and pulmonary function testing are the only noninvasive means currently available to assess activity of the disease process and response to the therapy. Although these measures appear adequate in the presence of acute active disease in which response to therapy results in readily demonstrable changes in the above parameters, they may be insensitive to subtle changes that can occur in minimally active disease with slowly progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis over a period of years. A more sensitive noninvasive technique for identifying these cases with a smoldering diffuse interstitial inflammatory process might greatly improve our ability to effectively manage such patients. With this in mind, the value of gallium lung scan was investigated to assess its ability to predict inflammatory activity in such a clinical setting.

  10. HRCT appearances of pulmonary interstitial diseases. The pathologic basis and clinical diagnostic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Daqing; Li Tieyi; Guan Yansheng; He Wen; Nie Yongkang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT appearances, the pathologic basis and diagnostic significance of pulmonary interstitial diseases. methods: 14 isolated lungs with interstitial diseases were obtained at autopsy and surgery. The lungs were inflated and fixed. HRCT and 1 cm thin slice soft X-ray radiograph were performed and then histologic examination was done. HRCT images of 72 cases with interstitial diseases were analysed. The HRCT appearances of 10 cases were followed up for 1.5-7.0 years. Results: According to HRCT-pathologic correlation, pulmonary interstitial diseases had the following HRCT findings: (1) Intralobular interstitial thickening (33 cases, 46%), including fine linear, reticular and radiating appearances and the interface sign. (2) Interlobular septal thickening (24 cases, 33%). (3) Thickening of bronchovesicular bundles (35 cases, 49%), with coarse, blurred or smooth bundle, and nodular shape. (4) Subpleural lines (31 cases, 43%). (5) Ground-glass opacity (22 cases, 31%) with peripheral, diffuse or locular distribution. (6) Honeycombing (27 cases, 38%), having sizes: 5 mm. Of the 10 cases with follow-up, 2 cases became normal on CT and 8 cases progressing to honeycombed lung. Conclusions: The HRCT findings of pulmonary interstitial diseases represent abnormalities of axial, peripheral and septal interstitium. Interstitial fibrosis of the lung can be differentiated from that without fibrosis by HRCT. Ground-glass opacity, intralobular interstitial thickening and subpleural lines are preliminary findings of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis

  11. Interstitial cystitis: painful bladder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Sholan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of a bladder of unknown etiology. It negatively affects the quality of life, causes depressive disorders, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of interstitial cystitis is still unclear and it’s considered as painful bladder syndrome with multifactorial origin. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 470/100 000 people (60/100 000 men, 850/100 000 women are diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult and is substantially based on clinical symptoms. Pelvic pain, urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia are the basic complaints in this pathology. The diagnosis requires exclusion of diseases with similar manifestations. So interstitial cystitis is frequently misdiagnosed as urinary tract infection, overactive bladder, urethral obstruction or diverticulosis, chronic prostatitis, bladder cancer, vulvodynia, endometriosis, and chronic pelvic pain. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is uncertain, which makes etiologic treatment impossible. Currently scientific discussions on the causes of disease continue as well as different treatment regimens are offered, but are often ineffective, palliative and temporary. The treatment for intersticial cystitis should focus on restoring normal bladder function, prevention of relapse of symptoms and improvement of patients’ quality of life. The literature review presents current view on the terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  12. Use of High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy in a Pregnant Woman with Dermatomyositis-Related Interstitial Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Shoji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old pregnant woman was referred to our hospital with respiratory distress at 30 weeks of gestation. Chest computed tomography (CT scans revealed pulmonary infiltrates along the bronchovascular bundles and ground-glass opacities in both lungs. Despite immediate treatment with steroid pulse therapy for suspected interstitial pneumonia, the patient’s condition worsened. Respiratory distress was slightly alleviated after the initiation of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC oxygen therapy (40 L/min, FiO2 40%. We suspected clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM complicating rapidly progressive refractory interstitial pneumonia. In order to save the life of the patient, the use of combination therapy with immunosuppressants was necessary. The patient underwent emergency cesarean section and was immediately treated with immunosuppressants while continuing HFNC oxygen therapy. The neonate was treated in the neonatal intensive care unit. The patient’s condition improved after 7 days of hospitalization; by this time, she was positive for myositis-specific autoantibodies and was diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia preceding dermatomyositis. This condition can be potentially fatal within a few months of onset and therefore requires early combination immunosuppressive therapy. This case demonstrates the usefulness of HFNC oxygen therapy for respiratory management as it negates the need for intubation and allows for various treatments to be quickly performed.

  13. Cyclophosphamide-refractory scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease: remarkable clinical and radiological response to a single course of rituximab combined with high-dose corticosteroids.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haroon, Muhammad

    2011-10-01

    We would like to report our experience of using rituximab in cyclophosphamide refractory, rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) in a patient with limited scleroderma. A 40-year-old man presented with 10-week history of inflammatory polyarthritis, which responded to a short course of oral corticosteroids. However, 3 weeks later, he developed new onset of exertional dyspnoea. High-resolution CT of the thorax was suggestive of early ILD. Surgical lung biopsy showed features of fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia. He was diagnosed with scleroderma on the basis of: presence of anticentromere antibodies, Raynaud\\'s phenomenon, pulmonary fibrosis, digital oedema and hypomotility along with a dilated oesophagus. He was treated aggressively with pulse doses of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide; however, his ILD continued to deteriorate. At this stage, he received rituximab (two pulses of 1 g each), which led to a gradual clinical improvement. Now, 12 months since his rituximab infusion, he walks 2 miles daily without any exertional dyspnoea.

  14. Thermotransport in interstitial solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel'son, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of literature data the problem of thermotransport of impurities (H, N, O, C) in interstitial solid solutions is considered. It is shown that from experimental data on the thermotransport an important parameter of dissolved atoms can be found which characterizes atom state in these solutions-enthalpy of transport

  15. Immunohistochemical detection of virus through its nuclear cytopathic effect in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia other than acute exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. dos Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias include complex diseases that have a strong interaction between genetic makeup and environmental factors. However, in many cases, no infectious agent can be demonstrated, and these clinical diseases rapidly progress to death. Theoretically, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias could be caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis C virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and herpesvirus, which may be present in such small amounts or such configuration that routine histopathological analysis or viral culture techniques cannot detect them. To test the hypothesis that immunohistochemistry provides more accurate results than the mere histological demonstration of viral inclusions, this method was applied to 37 open lung biopsies obtained from patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. As a result, immunohistochemistry detected measles virus and cytomegalovirus in diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 38 and 10% of the cases, respectively. Alveolar epithelium infection by cytomegalovirus was observed in 25% of organizing pneumonia patterns. These findings were coincident with nuclear cytopathic effects but without demonstration of cytomegalovirus inclusions. These data indicate that diffuse alveolar damage-related cytomegalovirus or measles virus infections enhance lung injury, and a direct involvement of these viruses in diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns is likely. Immunohistochemistry was more sensitive than the histological demonstration of cytomegalovirus or measles virus inclusions. We concluded that all patients with diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns should be investigated for cytomegalovirus and measles virus using sensitive immunohistochemistry in conjunction with routine procedures.

  16. Systems medicine advances in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiffo, Flavia R; Eickelberg, Oliver; Fernandez, Isis E

    2017-09-30

    Fibrotic lung diseases involve subject-environment interactions, together with dysregulated homeostatic processes, impaired DNA repair and distorted immune functions. Systems medicine-based approaches are used to analyse diseases in a holistic manner, by integrating systems biology platforms along with clinical parameters, for the purpose of understanding disease origin, progression, exacerbation and remission.Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) refer to a heterogeneous group of complex fibrotic diseases. The increase of systems medicine-based approaches in the understanding of ILDs provides exceptional advantages by improving diagnostics, unravelling phenotypical differences, and stratifying patient populations by predictable outcomes and personalised treatments. This review discusses the state-of-the-art contributions of systems medicine-based approaches in ILDs over the past 5 years. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  17. Levetiracetam-induced interstitial nephritis in a patient with glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahta, Ali; Kim, Ryan Y; Kesari, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old man with a new diagnosis of low grade glioma was started on an escalating dose of levetiracetam (Lev) for seizure management. He gradually developed intractable nausea/vomiting and a high creatinine concentration due to acute renal failure which was attributed to Lev-induced interstitial nephritis. The medication was changed and his renal function rapidly improved to his baseline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interstitial microwave hyperthermia treatment investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siauve, N; Lormel, C

    2012-01-01

    Microwave ablation also called interstitial hyperthermia is a medical procedure used in the treatment of many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. With this medical therapy, an electromagnetic source (antenna) is directly positioned in the target tissue and a sufficient power is injected to necrosis the tissue. The aim of this study is to propose a design procedure and develop the associated tools, for determining the optimal shape, dimensions, type and operating frequency of antenna according to the target volume. In this context, a 3D numerical predictive model of temperature elevation induced by the electric fields and two benches for thermal and electrical tissues properties characterization have been developed. To validate the procedure and the different tools, an experimental bench test which includes interstitial antenna, external microwave generator, phantom that represents the target tissue and measurement system of temperature and electric field has been elaborated.

  19. Tumor interstitial fluid - a treasure trove of cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J; Timmermans-Wielenga, Vera; Talman, Mai-Lis; Serizawa, Reza R; Moreira, José M A

    2013-11-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical secretion, non-classical secretion, secretion via exosomes and membrane protein shedding. Consequently, the interstitial aqueous phase of solid tumors is a highly promising resource for the discovery of molecules associated with pathological changes in tissues. Firstly, it allows one to delve deeper into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we provide an overview of the features of tumor-associated interstitial fluids, based on recent and updated information obtained mainly from our studies of breast cancer. Data from the study of interstitial fluids recovered from several other types of cancer are also discussed. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled: The Updated Secretome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. HDR- and LDR-interstitial irradiation (IRT) in rat spinal cord: the effect of decreasing the dose rate and the impact of a rapid dose fall off over the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, L.A.M.; Plas, M. van der; Hanssen, A.E.J.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: Detailed knowledge of radiobiological parameters of the different tissues involved are warranted before HDR- and recently PDR-brachytherapy can be successfully introduced in clinical practice as an alternative to LDR- brachytherapy. The purpose of this study is to determine the α/β ratio and half time of repair of rat spinal cord during continuous irradiation at different dose rates and to investigate the impact of a rapid dose fall off over the spinal cord thickness. Material and methods: Two parallel catheters are inserted on each side of the vertebral bodies from the level of Th 10 to L 4 . These catheters were afterloaded with two 192 Ir- wires of 4 cm length each (activity 1- 10 mCi/cm) or connected to the HDR-microSelectron. Serial experiments have been carried out to obtain complete dose response curves at 5 different dose rates, resp. 0.5, 0.9, 1.6, 2.6 and 120 Gy/h. Paralysis of the hindlegs after 5-6 months and histopathological examination of the spinal cord of each animal are used as experimental endpoints. Dose-volume histograms of each irradiated rat have been analysed to evaluate the correlation between dose distribution and biological response and the histopathological damage seen. Results: The distribution of the histological damage was a good reflection of the rapid dose fall-off over the spinal cord, with white matter necrosis or demyelination predominantly seen in the dorsal tracts of the spinal cord or dorsal roots. With each reduction of the dose rate, spinal cord tolerance was significantly increased, with a maximum dose rate factor of 4.3 if the dose rate was reduced from 120 Gy/h to 0.53 Gy/h. Estimates of the repair parameters using different types of analysis revealed an α/β ratio of 2.44 Gy and a (mono- exponential) half time of repair (=t (1(2)) ) of 1.43 hours; for the maximum of 150 % of the prescribed dose these values were 3.67 Gy and 1.43 hours respectively. Conclusions: Spinal cord radiation tolerance is

  1. Rapid disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals with adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, J.; Veugelers, P. J.; Keet, I. P.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; Miedema, F.; Lange, J. M.; Coutinho, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the relation between the occurrence of adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) prophylaxis and the subsequent course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a cohort of homosexual men. Adverse reactions to TMP-SMZ were associated with a more rapid

  2. Tritiated thymidine incorporation and the development of an interstitial lesion in the bronchiolar-alveolar regions of the lungs of normal and complement deficient mice after inhalation of chrysotile asbestos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGavran, P.D.; Butterick, C.J.; Brody, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Inhaled asbestos causes the proliferation of bronchiolar-alveolar epithelial and interstitial cells in rats and mice 19 to 72 hours after a single 5-hour exposure. This condition is associated with rapid macrophage accumulation and development of an interstitial fibrotic lesion at alveolar duct bifurcations. In an attempt to define the mechanisms mediating asbestos-induced cell proliferation and fibrogenesis, we studied mice exposed to chrysotile asbestos for five hours. The mice were normal and a congenic strain (B10.D2/oSn), deficient in the fifth component of complement (C5-). We knew that the latter exhibit a depressed asbestos-induced macrophage response and wanted to learn whether the depressed response correlated with measurements of cell proliferation and progression of an interstitial lesion. Sections of first alveolar duct bifurcations were prepared for light microscopic autoradiography and ultrastructural morphometry at varying times after animal exposure to asbestos. In sham-exposed C5+ and C5- animals, less than 1% of epithelial and interstitial cells of the terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts incorporated tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) at any time after exposure to asbestos. Between 19 and 72 hours after exposure, epithelial and interstitial cells in both strains of mice exhibited significantly increased levels of 3H-TdR incorporation. The response decreased by eight days postexposure, and 3H-TdR incorporation was normal one month after exposure. Similarly, morphometry showed that both the C5+ and C5- asbestos-exposed mice exhibited significant increases in the volume density of epithelial and interstitial cells 48 hours after exposure. However, one month after exposure, the normal C5+ asbestos-exposed mice developed a fibrotic lesion, whereas the C5- asbestos-exposed animals were no different from sham-exposed C5- controls

  3. Interstitial hyperthermia using 8 MHz radiofrequency and stereotaxic brachytherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Satoshi

    1990-01-01

    As a preliminary study of the interstitial hyperthermia combined with interstitial irradiation (brachytherapy) for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we performed an experiment of interstitial hyperthermia of brain tissue of dogs. Nine afterloading tubes, four for needle electrodes and five for thermisters, were inserted in the brain tissue of dogs. Rise and stability of temperature were ascertained, and clinical safety was confirmed. Thereafter this combined therapy was applied on seven cases, in which three were malignant gliomas and four were metastatic tumors. Through the guide tubes, 192 Ir thin wires were implanted stereotaxically, and interstitial irradiation was carried out. After removal of 192 Ir wires, needle electrodes were inserted through the same tubes, and also a thermister was guided at the center of electrodes. And interstitial hyperthermia using 8 MHz radiofrequency was carried out. The results of the treatment were evaluated with CT scan based on criteria of the Japan Neurological Society. In cases of malignant gliomas, 2 PRs (partial remission), and 1 NC (no change) were obtained. In cases of metastatic tumors, 1 CR (complete remission), 2 PRs, 1 NC were obtaind. In cases of NCs, progression of tumors have been suppressed for 10 and 17 months, and still alive. As complication, transient worsening of neurological symptoms were observed in four cases (increased paresis: two cases, nausea and vomiting: two cases). The author have had an impression that interstitial hyperthermia combined with interstitial irradiation might become an effective means of treatment of brain tumors. (author)

  4. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.

    2007-01-01

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis

  5. Clinical Management of Acute Interstitial Pneumonia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 51-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital because of cough and expectoration accompanied with general fatigue and progressive dyspnea. Chest HRCT scan showed areas of ground glass attenuation, consolidation, and traction bronchiectasis in bilateral bases of lungs. BAL fluid test and transbronchial lung biopsy failed to offer insightful evidence for diagnosis. She was clinically diagnosed with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP. Treatment with mechanical ventilation and intravenous application of methylprednisolone (80 mg/day showed poor clinical response and thus was followed by steroid pulse therapy (500 mg/day, 3 days. However, she died of respiratory dysfunction eventually. Autopsy showed diffuse alveolar damage associated with hyaline membrane formation, pulmonary interstitial, immature collagen edema, and focal type II pneumocyte hyperplasia.

  6. Case report of a 28-year-old male with the rapid progression of steroid-resistant central nervous system vasculitis diagnosed by a brain biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keigo; Sato, Hideki; Hattori, Hidenori; Takao, Masaki; Takahashi, Shinichi; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2017-09-30

    A 28-year-old Japanese male without a significant past medical history presented with new-onset generalized clonic seizure and headache. A brain MRI revealed multiple enhanced lesions on both cerebral hemispheres. Laboratory exams showed no evidence of systemic inflammation or auto-immune antibodies such as ANCAs. Despite four courses of high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy and five treatments with plasmapheresis, his symptoms worsened and the MRI lesions progressed rapidly. During these treatments, we performed a targeted brain biopsy, that revealed histological findings consistent with a predominant angiitis of parenchymal and subdural small vessels. He was provided with diagnosis of central nervous system vasculitis (CNSV). Subsequent cyclophosphamide pulse therapy enabled a progressive successful improvement of his symptoms. While diagnostic methods for CNSV remain controversial, histological findings are thought to be more useful in obtaining a more definitive diagnosis than findings in image studies, such as MRI and angiography. We suggest that a brain biopsy should be considered during the early period of cases with suspected CNSV and rapid clinical deterioration. We also detected human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) using PCR technology in brain biopsy specimens, however the relationship between CNSV and HHV-7 infection is unknow.

  7. The interstitial pneumonitis induced by cytostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrava, M.; Markova, I.; Mistina, L.

    1998-01-01

    The author presents a cause of 9-year old boy with ALL-F2B in the stage of the prevention treatment where in the its course the induced interstitial pneumonitis by cytostatics was developed. The bacterial, virus, mycological and parasitic causes of the interstitial pneumonitis on the basis of the bronchoscopy, BAL, CT, scintigraphy, laboratory and by cultivation were excluded. (authors)

  8. The behavior of interstitials in irradiated graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    A computer model is developed to simulate the behavior of self-interstitials with particular attention to clustering. Owing to the layer structure of graphite, atomistic simulations can be performed using a large parallelepipedic supercell containing a few layers. In particular, interstitial clustering is studied here using a supercell that contains two basal planes only. Frenkel pairs are randomly produced. Interstitials are placed at sites between the crystal planes while vacancies are distributed in the two crystal planes. The size of the computational cell is 20000 atoms and periodic boundary conditions are used in two dimensions. Vacancies are assumed immobile whereas interstitials are given a certain mobility. Two point defect sinks are considered, direct recombination of Frenkel pairs and interstitial clusters. The clusters are assumed to be mobile up to a certain size where they are presumed to become loop nuclei. Clusters can shrink by emission of singly bonded interstitials or by recombination of a peripheral interstitial with a neighboring vacancy. The conditions under which interstitial clustering occurs are reported. It is shown that when clustering occurs the cluster size population gradually shifts towards the largest size cluster. The implications of the present results for irradiation growth and irradiation-induced amorphization are discussed

  9. Atypical rapid progression of osteoarticular amyloidosis involving the hip in a patient on hemodialysis using polyacrylonitrile membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kenneth S. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, WI (United States); Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van [Wayne State School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Abbud, Alexander [Wayne State School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Amyloidosis related to dialysis is a well-known complication affecting many organ systems, in particular the musculoskeletal system. In 1985 Shirahama et al. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 53:705-709, 1985) identified beta-2 microglobulin (MG) as the offending constituent by using protein purification techniques. Amyloidosis has been increasing in prevalence because of longer life spans and increased chronic medical conditions such as end-stage renal disease. When dialysis-related amyloidosis involves the musculoskeletal system, it affects the shoulder girdle, the so called shoulder pad sign, the wrist, hip, knee, and spine (Resnick, Diagnosis of bone and joint disorders, 4th edn., pp. 2054-2058 and 2176-2183, 2002). Other osteoarticular manifestations of amyloidosis include osteoporosis, lytic lesions, and pathologic fractures. It has been well documented that the prevalence of amyloid is dependent on duration of dialysis - over 90% in patients on dialysis for over 7 years (Jadoul, Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:61-64, 1998). However, a recent changeover to high-flux membranes used in hemofiltration has been reported to delay its onset (Campistol et al., Contrib Nephrol 125:76-85, 1999). We report on the radiographic, nuclear medicine, and computed tomography (CT) findings of osteoarticular amyloidosis involving the hip, and sequence its atypical rapid onset. The imaging, histopathological findings, and differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Chlorambucil-Induced Acute Interstitial Pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Shafqat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorambucil is an alkylating agent commonly used in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL. We report a case of interstitial pneumonitis developing in an 83-year-old man 1.5 months after completing a six-month course of chlorambucil for CLL. The interstitial pneumonitis responded to therapy with prednisone. We performed a systematic review of literature and identified 13 other case reports of chlorambucil-induced pulmonary toxicity, particularly interstitial pneumonitis. No unifying risk factor could be discerned and the mechanism of injury remains unknown. In contrast, major randomized trials of chlorambucil therapy in CLL have not reported interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect, which may be due to the rarity of the phenomenon or due to underreporting of events occurring after completion of treatment. Clinicians should consider drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis in the differential diagnosis of a suggestive syndrome developing even after discontinuation of chlorambucil.

  11. Female human pluripotent stem cells rapidly lose X chromosome inactivation marks and progress to a skewed methylation pattern during culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, M; Seriola, A; Barbé, L; Santalo, J; Veiga, A; Dée, K; Van Haute, L; Sermon, K; Spits, C

    2016-04-01

    Does a preferential X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern exist in female human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and does the pattern change during long-term culture or upon differentiation? We identified two independent phenomena that lead to aberrant XCI patterns in female hPSC: a rapid loss of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and long non-coding X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) expression during culture, often accompanied by erosion of XCI-specific methylation, and a frequent loss of random XCI in the cultures. Variable XCI patterns have been reported in female hPSC, not only between different hPSC lines, but also between sub-passages of the same cell line, however the reasons for this variability remain unknown. Moreover, while non-random XCI-linked DNA methylation patterns have been previously reported, their origin and extent have not been investigated. We investigated the XCI patterns in 23 human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines, during long-term culture and after differentiation, by gene expression analysis, histone modification assessment and study of DNA methylation. The presence and location of H3K27me3 was studied by immunofluorescence, XIST expression by real-time PCR, and mono- or bi-allelic expression of X-linked genes was studied by sequencing of cDNA. XCI-specific DNA methylation was analysed using methylation-sensitive restriction and PCR, and more in depth by massive parallel bisulphite sequencing. All hPSC lines showed XCI, but we found a rapid loss of XCI marks during the early stages of in vitro culture. While this loss of XCI marks was accompanied in several cases by an extensive erosion of XCI-specific methylation, it did not result in X chromosome reactivation. Moreover, lines without strong erosion of methylation frequently displayed non-random DNA methylation, which occurred independently from the loss of XCI marks. This bias in X chromosome DNA methylation did not appear as a passenger event driven by clonal culture

  12. Postoperative interstitial radiotherapy of keloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavere, P.; Bonnafoux-Clavere, A.; Roullet, B.; Morzel, A.; Rhein, B.; Bonnetblanc, J.M.; Olivier, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    During an 8-year period, 21 patients with keloids (27 keloids) were treated with keloidectomy and post-operative interstitial radiotherapy by an iridium 192 wire. Only one patient had been previously treated by corticoids, without results. A dose of 12 Gy (three patients) to 15 Gy (18 patients) was delivered at a point 2.5 mm from the axis of the wire. The follow-up time was from 2 - 104 months. The success rate, at 7 months, was close to 88%. Ao recurrence occurred in three patients without relation to the method used, the lesion-age or the localization of the lesions. There were no side-effects. This method represents an effective, non-constraining and safe treatment for keloids if the contra-indications are respected

  13. Navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassmann, G.; Kolotas, C.; Heyd, R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the stud was to develop a computed tomography (CT) based electromagnetic navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy. This is especially designed for situations when needles have to be positioned adjacent to or within critical anatomical structures. In such instances interactive 3D visualisation of the needle positions is essential. The material consisted of a Polhemus electromagnetic 3D digitizer, a Pentium 200 MHz laptop and a voice recognition for continuous speech. In addition, we developed an external reference system constructed of Perspex which could be positioned above the tumour region and attached to the patient using a non-invasive fixation method. A specially designed needle holder and patient bed were also developed. Measurements were made on a series of phantoms in order to study the efficacy and accuracy of the navigation system. The mean navigation accuracy of positioning the 20.0 cm length metallic needles within the phantoms was in the range 2.0-4.1 mm with a maximum of 5.4 mm. This is an improvement on the accuracy of a CT-guided technique which was in the range 6.1-11.3 mm with a maximum of 19.4 mm. The mean reconstruction accuracy of the implant geometry was 3.2 mm within a non-ferromagnetic environment. We found that although the needles were metallic this did not have a significant influence. We also found for our experimental setups that the CT table and operation table non-ferromagnetic parts had no significant influence on the navigation accuracy. This navigation system will be a very useful clinical tool for interstitial brachytherapy applications, particularly when critical structures have to be avoided. It also should provide a significant improvement on our existing technique

  14. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) associated interstitial lung disease (ILD).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, David N

    2013-10-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most common Connective Tissue Disease (CTD) and represents an increasing burden on global health resources. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been recognised as a complication of RA but its potential for mortality and morbidity has arguably been under appreciated for decades. New studies have underscored a significant lifetime risk of ILD development in RA. Contemporary work has identified an increased risk of mortality associated with the Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) pattern which shares similarity with the most devastating of the interstitial pulmonary diseases, namely Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). In this paper, we discuss recent studies highlighting the associated increase in mortality in RA-UIP. We explore associations between radiological and histopathological features of RA-ILD and the prognostic implications of same. We emphasise the need for translational research in this area given the growing burden of RA-ILD. We highlight the importance of the respiratory physician as a key stakeholder in the multidisciplinary management of this disorder. RA-ILD focused research offers the opportunity to identify early asymptomatic disease and define the natural history of this extra articular manifestation. This may provide a unique opportunity to define key regulatory fibrotic events driving progressive disease. We also discuss some of the more challenging and novel aspects of therapy for RA-ILD.

  15. Chronic Subdural Hematoma development in Accelerated phase of Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia presenting with seizure and rapid progression course with fatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheja Amol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH in leukemia is rare, and most reported cases occurred in relation with acute myeloid leukaemia; however, occurrence is extremely rare in accelerated phase of chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML. Seizure as presentation of SDH development in CML cases is not reported in literature. Authors report an elderly male, who was diagnosed as CML, accelerated phase of developing SDH. Initially presented to local physician with seizure; urgent CT scan head was advised, but ignored and sensorium rapidly worsened over next day and reported to our emergency department in deeply comatose state, where imaging revealed chronic subdural hematoma with hypoxic brain injury with fatal outcome. Seizure, progressive worsening of headache, vomiting and papilloedema are harbinger of intracranial space occupying lesion and requires CT head in emergency medical department for exclusion, who are receiving treatment of haematological malignancy

  16. HRCT of diffuse interstitial pneumonia during treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Sano, Akira; Imanaka, Kazufumi

    1989-01-01

    HRCT was carried out in twenty patients with diffuse interstitial pneumonia: 13 cases of IIP, 3 of BOOP, 2 of drug-induced pneumonia, 1 of rheumatoid lung and acute interstitial pneumonia of unknown origin. With special attention to inflammatory activity, the patients underwent HRCT periodically during the treatment. Correlative investigation between HRCT image and grade of accumulation in 67 Ga scintigraphy was also performed. Response to steroid therapy was clearly reflected on HRCT image, that was shown as decreasing pulmonary density or thinning of honeycomb wall. HRCT is considered to be useful in assessing the activity of diffuse interstitial pneumonia. (author)

  17. The diffuse interstitial lung disease - with emphasis in the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustillo P, Jose G; Pacheco, Pedro M; Matiz, Carlos; Ojeda, Paulina; Carrillo B, Jorge A.

    2003-01-01

    The term diffuse interstitial lung disease, it refers to those diseases that commit the interstice basically, the space between the membrane basal epithelial and endothelial, although the damage can also commit the outlying air spaces and the vessels; the supplement is centered in the diffuse interstitial lung illness of unknown cause; well-known as idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, making emphasis in the more frequents, the pulmonary fibrosis idiopathic or cryptogenic fibrosant alveolitis

  18. Diffusion of He interstitial and di-He cluster at grain boundaries in α-Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, F.; Heinisch, H.L.; Kurtz, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    A systematic molecular dynamics study of the diffusion mechanisms of He interstitial and di-He cluster at two representative interfaces has been carried out in α-Fe. The diffusion coefficient of a He interstitial and the effective migration energies were determined. The He atom diffuses along the Σ11 grain boundary one-dimensionally along specific directions, while it migrates two-dimensionally at low temperatures, and three-dimensionally at higher temperatures, in the Σ3 grain boundary. The di-He interstitial cluster can migrate rapidly along the Σ3 interface at low temperatures, but not at the Σ11 interface. It has been observed that a di-He interstitial cluster can kick out a self interstitial atom (SIA) at high temperatures, forming a He 2 V complex. The SIA migrates rapidly near interfaces, whereas the He 2 V complex is immobile at the temperatures considered. This small cluster may serve as the smallest nucleation for the formation of helium bubbles at interfaces

  19. Interstitial Metabolic Monitoring During Hemorrhagic Shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pamnani, Motilal

    2004-01-01

    .... We hypothesize that decompensation results from potassium-mediated vasodilation and/or loss of cardiac contractility, and thus a method of measuring interstitial potassium should be a crucial part...

  20. Interstitial meiofauna of Namib sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-16

    Mar 16, 1988 ... Zoology Department, Institute for Coastal Research, University of Port Elizabeth, P.O. Box ... Oliff, Gardner, Turner & Sharp (1970) and later Dye, ... Wooldridge, Dye & ...... potential sources of food for interstitial organisms,.

  1. Cdc42-dependent leading edge coordination is essential for interstitial dendritic cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammermann, Tim; Renkawitz, Jorg; Wu, Xunwei

    2009-01-01

    Mature dendritic cells (DCs) moving from the skin to the lymph node are a prototypic example of rapidly migrating amoeboid leukocytes. Interstitial DC migration is directionally guided by chemokines, but independent of specific adhesive interactions with the tissue as well as pericellular proteol...

  2. Cicatricial organising pneumonia mimicking a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Bilawich, AnaMaria

    2018-04-01

    Organising pneumonia (OP) is composed of loose granulation tissue plugs in distal airspaces; these disappear with steroid treatment. Recently a variant labelled 'cicatricial' OP has been described in which the granulation tissue organised to much denser fibrous tissue but still retained the usual pattern of OP. Here we report 10 patients thought to have an interstitial lung disease, and who on biopsy had a variant of cicatricial OP characterised by linear bands or small nodular masses of dense fibrous tissue that does not resemble ordinary OP. The bands/nodules were usually distributed randomly but occasionally resembled fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia in local areas. Small foci of loose granulation tissue at the edge of the fibrotic bands sometimes mimicked fibroblast foci. Recognisable conventional OP was always present, but often in very small amounts. Four cases, including one patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, showed formation of bone in the fibrotic bands and nodules. On computerised tomography (CT) scan of the chest some cases looked like typical OP, but some demonstrated only irregularly distributed linear opacities, sometimes with associated calcification. Follow-up imaging on six cases showed that the process either markedly improved or remained stable over time; no case had progressive disease. Cicatricial OP with this pathological pattern represents an uncommon form of OP that appears to be a generally benign process which may have persisting linear opacities on CT scan but that does not progress; however, it can be confused on biopsy and CT with a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Tc-99m-bicisate (ECD)-brain-SPECT in rapidly progressive dementia; Hirn-SPECT mit Tc-99m-Bicisat (ECD) bei rasch progredientem dementiellen Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marienhagen, J.; Eilles, C. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Weingaertner, U.; Blaha, L. [Bezirkskrankenhaus Mainkofen (Germany). Psychiatrische Klinik; Zerr, I.; Poser, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie

    1999-07-01

    We present a 61-year-old male patient with progressive dementia. A brain SPECT with Tc-99m-bicisate was performed for confirmation of clinically suspected Alzheimer-dementia. At the time of the SPECT-investigation marked apraxia and aphasia besides severe dementia were present. Electrophysiological as well as anatomical neuroimaging findings showed non-diagnostic alterations. SPECT revealed distinct perfusion defects, which made Alzheimer Dementia unlikely. The further course of the patient was determined by rapidly progressive deterioration with development of akinetic mutism. Thereafter, increased levels of neuron-specific enolase as well as 14-3-3 proteins were found in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF). The patient finally died with signs of cerebral decortication. Due to the clinical course and the CSF-findings the patient's final diagnosis was Creutzfeld-Jakob-disease, nevertheless no autopsy was performed. The presented case report underscores the clinical utility of perfusion brain SPECT in the differential diagnosis of dementias. (orig.) [German] Wir berichten ueber einen 61jaehrigen Patienten mit progredientem dementiellen Syndrom, der unter der Verdachtsdiagnose einer Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ (DAT) zur Hirn-SPECT-Untersuchung mit TC-99m-Bicisat (ECD) vorgestellt wurde. Zum Untersuchungszeitpunkt bestanden neben dem Vollbild einer Demenz eine ausgepraegte Apraxie und Aphasie bei unspezifischen Veraenderungen im EEG sowie der neuroradiologischen Bildgebung. In der Hirn-SPECT-Untersuchung fanden sich fuer eine DAT untypische ausgedehnte, vorwiegend rechtshemisphaerische Perfusionsstoerungen. Im weiteren Verlauf rasche Progredienz des Krankheitsbildes mit Entwicklung eines akinetischen Mutismus sowie Nachweis erhoehter Werte der neuronspezifischen Enolase und des 14-3-3-Proteins im Liquor. Der Patient verstarb schliesslich unter dem Bild einer Decortication. Aufgrund des klinischen Verlaufs sowie der Liquorbefunde wurde, da eine autoptische Befundsicherung

  4. Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis, a rare entity of interstitial pneumonia: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Chun; Chae, Eun Jin; Song, Joon Seon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seou (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a recently described, very rare type of fibrotic interstitial lung disease predominantly involving subpleural areas of both upper lungs. IPPFE has distinctive radiologic and pathologic features: progressive subpleural opacity with fibrotic changes, predominantly in upper lungs, and dense elastic component on histology. We experienced one case of surgically confirmed IPPFE, with progression of radiologic findings on the serial CT examinations. We herein report the characteristic radiologic features of IPPFE with pathologic and clinical manifestations.

  5. Interstitial brachytherapy with 192-IR in treatment of recurrent malignant primary brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenes, R.; Martinez, R.; Victoria, C.; Nunez, L.; Clavo, B.; Sancedo, G.

    1994-01-01

    Seven patients with recurrent malignant primary brain tumors after surgery and radiation therapy were treated at the Clinica Puerta de Hierro (Madrid) by interstitial brachytherapy with 192-Ir sources. Implantations were performed using computerized tomography and dose prescription were determined following the Paris system rules for interstitial implants. The means dose deliberated was 50 to 65 Gy to the reference isodoses. At the last follow-up all patients except for one are alive and without evidence of progression of the disease. (Author) 35 refs

  6. Comorbidities in interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Margaritopoulos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosing lung disorders include a large number of diseases with diverse behaviour. Patients can die because of the progression of their illness, remain stable or even improve after appropriate treatment has been instituted. Comorbidities, such as acute and chronic infection, gastro-oesophageal reflux, pulmonary hypertension, lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive sleep apnoea, can pre-exist or develop at any time during the course of the disease and, if unidentified and untreated, may impair quality of life, impact upon the respiratory status of the patients, and ultimately lead to disease progression and death. Therefore, early identification and accurate treatment of comorbidities is essential.

  7. Rapidly Progressive Disseminated Sporotrichosis as the First Presentation of HIV Infection in a Patient with a Very Low CD4 Cell Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira-Esteves, Isis Cristine Morávia Ribeiro; Almeida Rosa da Silva, Guilherme; Eyer-Silva, Walter de Araujo; Basílio-de-Oliveira, Rodrigo Panno; de Araujo, Luciana Ferreira; Martins, Carlos José; Neves-Motta, Rogério; Velho Mendes de Azevedo, Marcelo Costa; Signorini, Dario José Hart Pontes; Francisco da Cunha Pinto, Jorge; Moura, Lívia Machado; Laterça, Rafael Jacyntho; Pereira, Diogo Raphael Garcia de Oliveira; do Lago, Isabela Vieira; Raphael de Almeida Ferry, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a human and animal disease caused by species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. It is classically acquired through traumatic inoculation of fungal elements. Most frequently, sporotrichosis presents as a fixed cutaneous or as a lymphocutaneous form. A much smaller number of cases occur as cutaneous disseminated and disseminated forms. These cases require immediate diagnosis and management to reduce morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a 34-year-old male patient in whom the first presentation of HIV infection was a rapidly progressive sporotrichosis with multiple cutaneous lesions, a high fungal burden in tissues, and pulmonary involvement. He had an extremely low CD4 cell count (06/mm 3 ). Treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate led to complete clinical resolution. Sporotrichosis remains a neglected opportunistic infection among HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and awareness of this potentially fatal infection is of utmost importance if treatment is not to be delayed and if potentially devastating complications are to be avoided.

  8. Rapid promotion and progression of fibrovascular polyps by inflammation and/or hyperplasia in hamster check pouch: implications for carcinogenesis assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, C; Jensen, J L

    1983-03-01

    Tumor initiation by topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) followed by topical application of retinyl acetate (RA), ethylphenylpropiolate, or acetic acid in DMSO at inflammatory and hyperplasiogenic dose regimens caused the rapid promotion of fibrovascular polyps with dysplastic epithelium in hamster cheek pouch. Such lesions did not occur in control animals initiated with DMBA followed by application of DMSO only, where inflammation was also minimal. At the dose regimen employed, RA caused obvious cytotoxicity and tissue destruction. With EPP and AA, there was no histological evidence of tissue destruction. At dose regimens resulting in minimal inflammation and no apparent cytotoxicity, RA promoted almost no polyps, but a higher yield of other tumor types. Thus, inflammation and/or hyperplasia apparently exerted a strong polyp-promoting and progressive influence. This and other differences between the tumorigenic responses of hamster-pouch mucosa and mouse skin suggest that the former supplement the latter in carcinogenic risk assessment.

  9. Rapidly progressive renal disease as part of Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family due to a novel WFS1 mutation (p.Leu511Pro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Boulahbel, Houda; Lodahl, Marianne; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Cesur, Yasar; Dogan, Murat; Yilmaz, Cahide; Akgun, Cihangir; Acikgoz, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome, also named "DIDMOAD" (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness), is an inherited association of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy as key diagnostic criteria. Renal tract abnormalities and neurodegenerative disorder may occur in the third and fourth decade. The wolframin gene, WFS1, associated with this syndrome, is located on chromosome 4p16.1. Many mutations have been described since the identification of WFS1 as the cause of Wolfram syndrome. We identified a new homozygous WFS1 mutation (c.1532T>C; p.Leu511Pro) causing Wolfram syndrome in a large inbred Turkish family. The patients showed early onset of IDDM, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment and very rapid progression to renal failure before age 12 in three females. Ectopic expression of the wolframin mutant in HEK cells results in greatly reduced levels of protein expression compared to wild-type wolframin, strongly supporting that this mutation is disease-causing. The mutation showed perfect segregation with disease in the family, characterized by early and severe clinical manifestations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article.

  11. Di-interstitial defect in silicon revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G.; Chroneos, A.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the defect spectrum of Cz-Si samples following fast neutron irradiation. We mainly focus on the band at 533 cm −1 , which disappears from the spectra at ∼170 °C, exhibiting similar thermal stability with the Si-P6 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum previously correlated with the di-interstitial defect. The suggested structural model of this defect comprises of two self-interstitial atoms located symmetrically around a lattice site Si atom. The band anneals out following a first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 0.88 ± 0.3 eV. This value does not deviate considerably from previously quoted experimental and theoretical values for the di-interstitial defect. The present results indicate that the 533 cm −1 IR band originates from the same structure as that of the Si-P6 EPR spectrum

  12. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-01-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references

  13. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Cheol; Suh, Gee Young; Han, Joung Ho; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2002-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are at present classified as one of four types: usual, nonspecific, acute, or desquamative. The acute form has the worst prognosis, followed by the usual and the nonspecific form; it is in desquamative cases that prognosis is best. At high-resolution CT, usual interstitial pneumonia, the most frequent type, manifests as patchy subpleural areas of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacity, and honeycombing, which the nonspecific type, the second most frequent, appears as subpleural patchy areas of ground-glass attenuation with associated areas of irregular linear opacity. Acute interstitial pneumonia demonstrates extensive bilateral airspace consolidation and patchy or diffuse bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation in middle and lower lung zones

  14. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: imaging-pathology correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Stephen M.; Hansell, David M.

    2002-01-01

    The terminology related to idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) remains confusing and in some cases wholly inaccurate. In addition, a greater understanding of the correlation between high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) appearances and the corresponding histopathological changes found in the interstitial pneumonias has resulted in a crucial role for HRCT in the investigation of IIPs. The role of the radiologist is becoming increasingly important with a strong emphasis on establishing a diagnosis without resorting to lung biopsy. We aim to clarify the current classification of the IIPs highlighting their clinical, pathological and imaging characteristics in order to assist the radiologist in performing their increasingly important diagnostic role. (orig.)

  15. Quantum diffusion of light interstitials in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, T.; Bergersen, B.

    1978-01-01

    A quantum theory of diffusion of self-trapped light interstitials in metals is presented. The theory encompasses both coherent and incoherent tunneling, but the approximation used neglects the dependence of the interstitial transfer matrix element on the vibrational state of the crystal. The coherent tunneling contribution is estimated by fitting the incoherent diffusion rate to experimental data for hydrogen and muon diffusion. It is predicted that coherent diffusion should be dominant below approximately 80 K for H in Nb and below approximately 190 K for μ + in Cu. Experimental verifications of these predictions would require high purity strain free samples and low concentrations of the diffusing species. (author)

  16. The Role of Interstitial Fluid Pressurization in Articular Cartilage Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been reported in the field of cartilage mechanics that impacts our understanding of the role of interstitial fluid pressurization on cartilage lubrication. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the interstitial fluid of cartilage pressurizes considerably under loading, potentially supporting most of the applied load under various transient or steady-state conditions. The fraction of the total load supported by fluid pressurization has been called the fluid load support. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the friction coefficient of cartilage correlates negatively with this variable, achieving remarkably low values when the fluid load support is greatest. A theoretical framework that embodies this relationship has been validated against experiments, predicting and explaining various outcomes, and demonstrating that a low friction coefficient can be maintained for prolonged loading durations under normal physiological function. This paper reviews salient aspects of this topic, as well as its implications for improving our understanding of boundary lubrication by molecular species in synovial fluid and the cartilage superficial zone. Effects of cartilage degeneration on its frictional response are also reviewed. PMID:19464689

  17. Correlation of pulmonary function and usual interstitial pneumonia computed tomography patterns in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadu, Antonella; Byrne, Suzanne C; Pirina, Pietro; Hartman, Thomas E; Bartholmai, Brian J; Moua, Teng

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about presenting 'inconsistent' or 'possible' usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) computed tomography (CT) patterns advancing to 'consistent' UIP as disease progresses in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We hypothesized that if 'consistent' UIP represented more advanced disease, such a pattern on presentation should also correlate with more severe pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormalities. Consecutive IPF patients (2005-2013) diagnosed by international criteria with baseline PFT and CT were included. Presenting CTs were assessed by three expert radiologists for consensus UIP pattern ('consistent', 'possible', and 'inconsistent'). Approximation of individual and combined interstitial abnormalities was also performed with correlation of interstitial abnormalities and UIP CT pattern made with PFT findings and survival. Three-hundred and fifty patients (70% male) were included with a mean age of 68.3 years. Mean percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%) and diffusion capacity (DLCO%) was 64% and 45.5% respectively. Older age and male gender correlated more with 'consistent' UIP CT pattern. FVC% was not associated with any UIP pattern but did correlate with total volume of radiologist assessed interstitial abnormalities. DLCO% was lower in those with 'consistent' UIP pattern. A 'consistent' UIP CT pattern was also not independently predictive of survival after correction for age, gender, FVC%, and DLCO%. PFT findings appear to correlate with extent of radiologic disease but not specific morphologic patterns. Whether such UIP patterns represent different stages of disease severity or radiologic progression is not supported by coinciding pulmonary function decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radionuclide study for the interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Kenji; Mori, Yutaka; Ujita, Masuo

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of pulmonary nuclear medicine was evaluated in 105 patients with interstitial pulmonary diseases (IPD). Ventilation study (V) with 81m Kr, distribution of compliance in thoraco-pulmonary system (C) by 81m Kr gas bolus inhalation method, perfusion study (Q) with 99m Tc-MAA, 67 Ga scintigraphy and an assessment of pulmonary epithelial permeability with 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol were performed as nuclear medicine procedures. Pulmonary function test (%DLco, vital capacity and functional residual capacity) and blood gas analysis were also examined. Abnormalities in V were larger than that in Q which was high V/Q mismatch finding, in the interstitial pneumonia. Correlation between V/Q mismatch and PaO 2 was, therefore, not significant. %DLco was decreased in cases with larger V/Q mismatches. 67 Ga accumulated in the early stage of interstitial pneumonia when CT or chest X-ray did not show any finding. %DLco was decreased in cases with strong accumulation of 67 Ga. 67 Ga might be useful to evaluate activity of the diseases. Pulmonary epithelial permeability was assessed by 99m Tc-DTPA inhalation study. This permeability accelerated in idiopathic interstitial fibrosis and sarcoidosis. Pulmonary epithelial permeability may be useful as an indicator for epithelial cell injury. (author)

  19. Interstitial laser thermotherapy in neurosurgery: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menovsky, T.; Beek, J. F.; van Gemert, M. J.; Roux, F. X.; Bown, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most recent laser treatment modalities in neurosurgery is interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILTT). In this review, experimental and clinical studies concerning intracranial ILTT are discussed. Two methods for intra-operative control of the laser induced lesions are described; i.e.,

  20. Radionuclide study for the interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Kenji; Mori, Yutaka; Ujita, Masuo (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-07-01

    The contribution of pulmonary nuclear medicine was evaluated in 105 patients with interstitial pulmonary diseases (IPD). Ventilation study (V) with {sup 81m}Kr, distribution of compliance in thoraco-pulmonary system (C) by {sup 81m}Kr gas bolus inhalation method, perfusion study (Q) with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA, {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy and an assessment of pulmonary epithelial permeability with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA aerosol were performed as nuclear medicine procedures. Pulmonary function test (%DLco, vital capacity and functional residual capacity) and blood gas analysis were also examined. Abnormalities in V were larger than that in Q which was high V/Q mismatch finding, in the interstitial pneumonia. Correlation between V/Q mismatch and PaO{sub 2} was, therefore, not significant. %DLco was decreased in cases with larger V/Q mismatches. {sup 67}Ga accumulated in the early stage of interstitial pneumonia when CT or chest X-ray did not show any finding. %DLco was decreased in cases with strong accumulation of {sup 67}Ga. {sup 67}Ga might be useful to evaluate activity of the diseases. Pulmonary epithelial permeability was assessed by {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA inhalation study. This permeability accelerated in idiopathic interstitial fibrosis and sarcoidosis. Pulmonary epithelial permeability may be useful as an indicator for epithelial cell injury. (author).

  1. Nlrp3 prevents early renal interstitial edema and vascular permeability in unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilco P Pulskens

    Full Text Available Progressive renal disease is characterized by tubulo-interstitial injury with ongoing inflammation and fibrosis. The Nlrp3 inflammasome contributes to these pathophysiological processes through its canonical effects in cytokine maturation. Nlrp3 may additionally exert inflammasome-independent effects following tissue injury. Hence, in this study we investigated potential non-canonical effects of Nlrp3 following progressive renal injury by subjecting WT and Nlrp3-deficient (-/- mice to unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO. Our results revealed a progressive increase of renal Nlrp3 mRNA in WT mice following UUO. The absence of Nlrp3 resulted in enhanced tubular injury and dilatation and an elevated expression of injury biomarker NGAL after UUO. Moreover, interstitial edema was significantly elevated in Nlrp3-/- mice. This could be explained by increased intratubular pressure and an enhanced tubular and vascular permeability. In accordance, renal vascular leakage was elevated in Nlrp3-/- mice that associated with reduced mRNA expression of intercellular junction components. The decreased epithelial barrier function in Nlrp3-/- mice was not associated with increased apoptosis and/or proliferation of renal epithelial cells. Nlrp3 deficiency did not affect renal fibrosis or inflammation. Together, our data reveal a novel non-canonical effect of Nlrp3 in preserving renal integrity and protection against early tubular injury and interstitial edema following progressive renal injury.

  2. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: histopathological and imaging perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, S.R.; Ryan, S.M.; Colby, T.V.

    2003-01-01

    The present review focuses on the interstitial lung diseases related to smoking. Thus, the pathology and radiology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial lung disease are considered. The more tenuous association between pulmonary fibrosis and smoking is also discussed

  3. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: histopathological and imaging perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.R.; Ryan, S.M.; Colby, T.V

    2003-04-01

    The present review focuses on the interstitial lung diseases related to smoking. Thus, the pathology and radiology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial lung disease are considered. The more tenuous association between pulmonary fibrosis and smoking is also discussed.

  4. Interstitial radiotherapy in the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefermann, H.; Bruggmoser, G.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1981-01-01

    The practical and organisatory sides of interstitial radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with iodine 125 capsules are reported on. Special stress is laid upon measures and measurements concerning radiation protection. First evaluations of these measurements show that this form of therapy is to be carried out in exact correspondence with the radiation protection law. The computer-supported isodose calculation and in-vivo-measurements in rectum, method and urinary bladder confirm the rapid drop in the dosage outside of the irradiated focus volume. Therefore, the inflammatory accompanying reactions are despite higher tumour dose, significantly milder then with the percutaneous radiation therapy. The indication criteria should be closely adhered to because the operation is a very extensive one. (orig.) [de

  5. Fanconi's syndrome, interstitial fibrosis and renal failure by aristolochic acid in Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yin-Tai; Fu, Lin-Shien; Chung, Lin-Huei; Hung, Shien-Chung; Huang, Yi-Ting; Chi, Chin-Shiang

    2006-04-01

    Aristolochic acid-associated nephropathy (AAN) has been identified as a separate entity of progressive tubulo-interstitial nephropathy. Its characteristic pathological findings, including hypocellular interstitial fibrosis, intimal thickening of interlobular and afferent arterioles with glomeruli sparing or mild sclerosis, have been identified. Many cases of AAN in adults have been reported in Taiwan as well as throughout the world, but it has seldom been described in children. We report on a 10-year-old boy who presented with severe anemia, Fanconi's syndrome, and progressive renal failure. Renal biopsy revealed typical findings of AAN. Aristolochic acids I and II were identified from a Chinese herb mixture ingested by the boy. AAN was diagnosed after other etiologies had been excluded. The case demonstrates the hazards of Chinese herbs with regard to children's health in Taiwan and suggests that more attention should be paid to this issue.

  6. Percutaneous evacuation of diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema by lung puncture in a baby with extremely low birth weight: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Masahiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation and can become life-threatening if progression occurs. Therapeutic lung puncture is a treatment option for severe pulmonary interstitial emphysema but has a limited use in babies with extremely low birth weight. We present a case of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a Japanese baby (1-day-old boy with extremely low birth weight. The emphysema was successfully decompressed by therapeutic lung puncture performed with a trocar catheter. Case presentation The baby was born with a weight of 420g, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the lowest reported birth weight among babies with pulmonary interstitial emphysema. A chest X-ray on postnatal day 2 revealed pulmonary interstitial emphysema, which gradually progressed to diffuse pseudocystic changes. His condition became life-threatening despite the use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and lateral decubitus positioning. We evacuated the pulmonary interstitial emphysema by lung puncture with a trocar catheter to avoid respiratory and cardiovascular collapse. This resulted in adequate evacuation of the emphysema and a dramatic improvement in his clinical condition. Conclusions Therapeutic lung puncture performed with a trocar catheter is beneficial in babies with extremely low birth weight and diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema. This treatment option may be broadly applicable, especially in an emergency situation.

  7. Novel research approaches for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: thinking beyond the bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Mullins, Chris; Bavendam, Tamara; Kirkali, Ziya; Kusek, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite years of basic and clinical research focused on interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), including clinical trials of candidate therapies, there remains an insufficient understanding of underlying cause(s), important clinical features and a lack of effective treatments for this syndrome. Progress has been limited and is likely due to many factors, including a primary focus on the bladder and lower urinary tract as origin of symptoms without adequately considering the pote...

  8. Cerebrospinal Fluid and Interstitial Fluid Motion via the Glymphatic Pathway Modelled by Optimal Mass Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Benveniste, Helene; Nedergaard, Maikan; Lee, Hedok; Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Ratner, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    It was recently shown that the brain-wide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid exchange system designated the `glymphatic pathway' plays a key role in removing waste products from the brain, similarly to the lymphatic system in other body organs [1,2]. It is therefore important to study the flow patterns of glymphatic transport through the live brain in order to better understand its functionality in normal and pathological states. Unlike blood, the CSF does not flow rapidly throu...

  9. Pancreas tumor interstitial pressure catheter measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Gunn, Jason; Marra, Kayla; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the methodology in measuring interstitial pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors. A Millar Mikrotip pressure catheter (SPR-671) was used in this study and a system was built to amplify and filter the output signal for data collection. The Millar pressure catheter was calibrated prior to each experiment in a water column at 37°C, range of 0 to 60 inH2O (112 mmHg), resulting in a calibration factor of 33 mV / 1 inH2O. The interstitial pressures measured in two orthotopically grown pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor were 57 mmHg and 48 mmHg, respectively. Verteporfin uptake into the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor was measured using a probe-based experimental dosimeter.

  10. 020. Coexistence of lung adenocarcinoma and usual interstitial pneumonia: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliaka, Aggeliki; Papaemmanouil, Styliani; Spyratos, Dionysis; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Sakkas, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    Background Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause. The most common symptoms are progressively increased shortness of breath and dry cough. Some studies suggest an association between usual interstitial pneumonia and lung cancer through different pathogenetic mechanisms. Objective The case presentation of a patient with lung adenocarcinoma and UIP. Methods A 66-year-old male presented with persistent dry cough, hemoptysis and dyspnea. The chest radiographs revealed a mass in the lower lobe of the left lung, measuring 3 cm, as well as diffuse interstitial changes in the same lobe. Two partial lobectomies were performed. Results Histological examination of the mass showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, focally with bronchoalveolar pattern (Immunohistochemical detection of EGFR: positive). The rest lung parenchyma presented histological appearance of UIP. Conclusions According to clinicopathological studies, the prevalence of lung cancer among patients with UIP/IPF varies between 4% and 9%. The overall median survival of IPF-Ca patients is seven months in comparison with IPF only patients (14 months).

  11. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-01-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, th...

  12. A case of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    豊見山, 寛; 兼島, 洋; 下地, 克佳; 金城, 勇徳; 中富, 昌夫; 小張, 一峰; 松井, 克明; Tomiyama, Hiroshi; Kaneshima, Hiroshi; Shimoji, Katsuyoshi; Kinjo, Yutoku; Nakatomi, Masao; Kobari, Kazumine; Matsui, Katsuaki; 琉球大学医学部第一内科

    1982-01-01

    A case of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was reported. A 53-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with his complaint of shortness of breath. On physical examination clubbing of the fingers was noticed and velcro rales was heard on the bilateral lower back. On laboratory data no remarkable finding was revealed. Chest roentgenogram showed diffuse reticulonodular shadow and small ring shadow of the bilateral lower lung fields. On pulmonary function test decline of VC and DLco was revealed...

  13. Self-interstitial atoms in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, W.

    1978-01-01

    The present state of knowledge and understanding of the properties of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in metals is reviewed. Special emphasis is given to a discussion of the structure of SIAs and those properties which relate to structure such as relaxation volumes, elastic polarizabilities, defect vibrations, geometry of jump processes, and elastic interactions. The present experimental status with respect to these properties is summarized, and the basic theoretical concepts for their understanding are presented as simply as possible. (Auth.)

  14. Temperature control in interstitial laser cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.; Holmes, Kyland; Burnett, Corinthius; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2003-07-01

    Positive results of Laser-Assisted Cancer Immunotherapy (LACI) have been reported previously in the irradiation of superficial tumors. This paper reports the effect of LACI using laser interstitial therapy approach. We hypothesize that the maximum immuno response depends on laser induced tumor temperature. The measurement of tumor temperature is crucial to ensure necrosis by thermal damage and immuno response. Wister Furth female rats in this study were inoculated with 13762 MAT B III rat mammary adinocarcinoma. LACI started seven to ten days following inoculation. Contrary to surface irradation, we applied laser interstitial irradiation of tumor volume to maximize the energy deposition. A diode laser with a wavelength of 805 nm was used for tumor irradiation. The laser energy was delivered inside the tumor through a quartz fiber. Tumor temperature was measured with a micro thermocouple (interstitial), while the tumor surface temperature was controlled with an IR detector. The temperature feedback demonstrates that it is possible to maintain the average tumor temperature at the same level with reasonable accuracy in the desired range from 65°C-85°C. In some experiments we used microwave thermometry to control average temperature in deep tissue for considerable period of time, to cause maximum thermal damage to the tumor. The experimental set-up and the different temperature measurement techniques are reported in detail, including the advantages and disadvantages for each method.

  15. Nature of interstitially induced lattice strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of interstitial atoms to a metal lattice has been likened to the addition of extra billiard balls to an array of tangentially touching billiard balls. In such a picture the increased clustering of interstitials can lead to the buildup of larger and larger strain fields which ultimately are associated with the production of broken bonds. Simple models of the strain fields associated with the addition of particles to a lattice in which the force exerted between the added atoms and host atoms is finite have been studied. From these studies one can define situations in which the billiard-ball approach has qualitative validity and those in which it is inappropriate. Basically, those situations in which the displacements of the host atoms can be represented as involving acoustic phonons yield long-range strain fields analogous to those of the billiard-ball model with the radius of the extra billiard ball being determined by the stiffness of the host lattice and the forces between the added atom and the surrounding host atoms. If the displacements produced by the added atoms are represented as involving primarily optical phonons the displacement pattern is short-ranged and not described by the usual elasticity theory. For example, Vegard's law does not apply in these instances. Such concerns arise in considering the strains induced by interstitial helium in tritides

  16. Role of interstitial implantation in gynecological cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, D.; Hilaris, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    Recurrent cancer at any site carries a gloomy prognosis. Cancer of the cervix that recurs after radical surgery or curative radiation therapy is a perplexing problem confronting both gynecological and radiation oncologists. In the authors' series, 45% of the patients survived disease-free at 1 year and 10% survived without disease at 5 years or longer following interstitial implantation for recurrent cervical cancer. The optimal utilization of this procedure seems to depend on the site of recurrence, the extent of the disease in the pelvis, and the status of para-aortic node involvement. This retrospective analysis enabled the authors to identify the prognostic factors. The most favorable group benefited by this technique were those who presented with either central recurrence or unilateral, localized pelvic side wall recurrent disease. The least morbidity was noticed in those patients with minimal surgical manipulations at the time of the interstitial implantation. The authors recommended that only a limited and essential surgical procedure should accompany interstitial implantation, since the associated morbidity and mortality is high and survival brief

  17. Interstitial lung involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vladimirovich Bestaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease of unknown etiology, characterized by chronic erosive arthritis and extraarticular manifestations. Pulmonary involvement is one of the common extraarticular manifestations of RA and may show itself as bronchial tree lesions, rheumatoid nodules, Caplan's syndrome, and lesions in the pleura or pulmonary interstitium (interstitial lung involvement (ILI. High-resolution computed tomography allows the diagnosis of ILI in RA in nearly 70% of cases although the incidence of ILI may be lower (4 to 30% depending on diagnostic methods and patient selection criteria. There are several histopathological types of ILI, the differential diagnosis of which can be troublesome. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia are major types of RA-associated ILI. UIP-pattern ILI has a more severe course than ILI with other histological patterns. The clinical presentation of ILI may be complicated by the likely toxic effect of a number of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs used to treat RA, such as methotrexate and leflunomide, and biological agents (BAs, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α inhibitors. The pathogenesis of pulmonary involvement in RA and the role of synthetic DMARDs and BAs in the development of ILI call for further investigations.An extraarticular manifestation, such as ILI, affects the choice of treatment policy in patients with RA.The relevance of a study of ILI is beyond question. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art of investigations in this area.

  18. Interstitial prostate brachytherapy. LDR-PDR-HDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Gyoergy; Hoskin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The first comprehensive overview of interstitial brachytherapy for the management of local or locally advanced prostate cancer. Written by an interdisciplinary team who have been responsible for the successful GEC-ESTRO/EAU Teaching Course. Discusses in detail patient selection, the results of different methods, the role of imaging, and medical physics issues. Prostate brachytherapy has been the subject of heated debate among surgeons and the proponents of the various brachytherapy methods. This very first interdisciplinary book on the subject provides a comprehensive overview of innovations in low dose rate (LDR), high dose rate (HDR), and pulsed dose rate (PDR) interstitial brachytherapy for the management of local or locally advanced prostate cancer. In addition to detailed chapters on patient selection and the use of imaging in diagnostics, treatment guidance, and implantation control, background chapters are included on related medical physics issues such as treatment planning and quality assurance. The results obtained with the different treatment options and the difficult task of salvage treatment are fully discussed. All chapters have been written by internationally recognized experts in their fields who for more than a decade have formed the teaching staff responsible for the successful GEC-ESTRO/EAU Prostate Brachytherapy Teaching Course. This book will be invaluable in informing residents and others of the scientific background and potential of modern prostate brachytherapy. It will also prove a useful source of up-to-date information for those who specialize in prostate brachytherapy or intend to start an interstitial brachytherapy service.

  19. Interagency partnering for weed prevention--progress on development of a National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrooks, R.; Westbrooks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, experience has shown that interagency groups provide an effective forum for addressing various invasive species issues and challenges on multiple land units. However, more importantly, they can also provide a coordinated framework for early detection, reporting, identification and vouchering, rapid assessment, and rapid response to new and emerging invasive plants in the United States. Interagency collaboration maximizes the use of available expertise, resources, and authority for promoting early detection and rapid response (EDRR) as the preferred management option for addressing new and emerging invasive plants. Currently, an interagency effort is underway to develop a National EDRR System for Invasive Plants in the United States. The proposed system will include structural and informational elements. Structural elements of the system include a network of interagency partner groups to facilitate early detection and rapid response to new invasive plants, including the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), State Invasive Species Councils, State Early Detection and Rapid Response Coordinating Committees, State Volunteer Detection and Reporting Networks, Invasive Plant Task Forces, and Cooperative Weed Management Areas. Informational elements and products being developed include Regional Invasive Plant Atlases, and EDRR Guidelines for EDRR Volunteer Network Training, Rapid Assessment and Rapid Response, and Criteria for Selection of EDRR Species. System science and technical support elements which are provided by cooperating state and federal scientists, include EDRR guidelines, training curriculum for EDRR volunteers and agency field personnel, plant identification and vouchering, rapid assessments, as well as predictive modeling and ecological range studies for invasive plant species.

  20. Interstitial laser coagulation in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia using a diode laser system: results of an evolving technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mårtenson, A. C.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) treatment is a recent technique in the treatment of BPH that is evolving rapidly. The results of a prospective randomised study vs transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is presented as well as results of patients treated with a temperature sensing laser

  1. Cyclophosphamide for connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Hayley; Holland, Anne E; Westall, Glen P; Goh, Nicole Sl; Glaspole, Ian N

    2018-01-03

    Approximately one-third of individuals with interstitial lung disease (ILD) have associated connective tissue disease (CTD). The connective tissue disorders most commonly associated with ILD include scleroderma/systemic sclerosis (SSc), rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. Although many people with CTD-ILD do not develop progressive lung disease, a significant proportion do progress, leading to reduced physical function, decreased quality of life, and death. ILD is now the major cause of death amongst individuals with systemic sclerosis.Cyclophosphamide is a highly potent immunosuppressant that has demonstrated efficacy in inducing and maintaining remission in autoimmune and inflammatory illnesses. However this comes with potential toxicities, including nausea, haemorrhagic cystitis, bladder cancer, bone marrow suppression, increased risk of opportunistic infections, and haematological and solid organ malignancies.Decision-making in the treatment of individuals with CTD-ILD is difficult; the clinician needs to identify those who will develop progressive disease, and to weigh up the balance between a high level of need for therapy in a severely unwell patient population against the potential for adverse effects from highly toxic therapy, for which only relatively limited data on efficacy can be found. Similarly, it is not clear whether histological subtype, disease duration, or disease extent can be used to predict treatment responsiveness. To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of cyclophosphamide in the treatment of individuals with CTD-ILD. We performed searches on CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science up to May 2017. We handsearched review articles, clinical trial registries, and reference lists of retrieved articles. We included randomised controlled parallel-group trials that compared cyclophosphamide in any form, used individually or concomitantly with other immunomodulating therapies, versus non

  2. Impaired left ventricular systolic function and increased brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity are independently associated with rapid renal function progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chang, Jer-Ming; Lee, Chee-Siong; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Su, Ho-Ming; Voon, Wen-Chol; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2011-09-01

    Heart failure and increased arterial stiffness are associated with declining renal function. Few studies have evaluated the association between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (baPWV) and renal function progression. The aim of this study was to assess whether LVEFfunction was estimated by eGFR slope. The renal end point was defined as ≥25% decline in eGFR. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were compared and analyzed. After a multivariate analysis, serum hematocrit was positively associated with eGFR slope, and diabetes mellitus, baPWV (P=0.031) and LVEFfunction decline and progression to the renal end point.

  3. [Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis: a clinicopathologic entity, histologic pattern or unclassified group of heterogeneous interstitial pneumonitis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, António; Moura, M Conceição Souto; Cruz, M Rosa; Gomes, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP) initially described by Katzenstein and Fiorelli in 1994, seems to be a distinct clinicopathologic entity among idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis (IIP). Besides different histologic features from other IIP, NSIP is characterized by a better long-term outcome, associated with a better steroids responsiveness than idiopathic pulmonar fibrosis (IPF), where usually were included. Thus, differentiating NSIP from other IIP, namely IPF is very significant, since it has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. NSIP encloses different pathologies, namely those with inflammatory predominance (cellular subtype) or fibrous predominance (fibrosing subtype). NSIP is reviewed and discussed by the authors, after two clinical cases description.

  4. Evolution of anisotropy in bcc Fe distorted by interstitial boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölden, Dominik; Zhang, Hongbin; Radulov, Iliya; Dirba, Imants; Komissinskiy, Philipp; Hildebrandt, Erwin; Alff, Lambert

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of magnetic anisotropy in bcc Fe as a function of interstitial boron atoms was investigated in thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The thermodynamic nonequilibrium conditions during film growth allowed one to stabilize an interstitial boron content of about 14 at .% accompanied by lattice tetragonalization. The c /a ratio scaled linearly with the boron content up to a maximum value of 1.05 at 300 °C substrate growth temperature, with a room-temperature magnetization of. In contrast to nitrogen interstitials, the magnetic easy axis remained in-plane with an anisotropy of approximately -5.1 ×106erg /cm3 . Density functional theory calculations using the measured lattice parameters confirm this value and show that boron local ordering indeed favors in-plane magnetization. Given the increased temperature stability of boron interstitials as compared to nitrogen interstitials, this study will help to find possible ways to manipulate boron interstitials into a more favorable local order.

  5. Permanent I-125 interstitial implant in the management of high grade CNS malignancies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishampayan, N.; Zamorano, L.; Aronin, P.; Gaspar, L.; Canady, A.; Lattin, P.; Ezzell, G.; Yakar, D.; Chungbin, S.; Fontanesi, J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and complications associated with the use of permanent I-125 interstitial implants in children with high grade CNS malignancies. Materials and Methods: Between May of 1990 and September of 1994, fourteen children received permanent I-125 interstitial implant brachytherapy as initial therapy (n=8) or at time of recurrence (n=6). Histologies included Glioblastoma Multiforme (n=2), Anaplastic Astrocytoma (n=9) and others (n=3). Pre-implant surgical procedures included: Gross Total Resection (n=2), Subtotal Resection (n=8) or Biopsy alone (n=4). Six patients received pre-implant external beam irradiation (dose range 3,500-6500 cGy) and three patients received post-implant external beam irradiation (dose range 5,040-5,060 cGy). Implant dose range was 8,294-10,368 cGy over the lifetime of the implant (median 10,368 cGy). Results: At last follow-up (median 17.5 months; range 4-56 months), eight children were alive. Six out of the eight had no evidence of disease progression while the remaining had radiologic evidence of progression. Implant complications (n=2) included skin necrosis and bone flap infection. Conclusions: Based on this initial review, we continue to investigate the use of permanent I-125 interstitial brachytherapy in the treatment of high grade CNS malignancies in children and will discuss and compare these results with those of other 'Boost' series

  6. Low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Yosuke; Dokiya, Takushi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Suzuki, Takayuki; Saito, Shiro; Monma, Tetsuo; Ohki, Takahiro [National Tokyo Medical Center (Japan); Murai, Masaru; Kubo, Atsushi

    2000-04-01

    From December 1997 through January 1999, fifteen prostatic cancer patients were treated with low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy using TRUS and perineal template guidance without external radiotherapy. Up to now, as no apparent side effects were found, the safety of this treatment is suggested. In the future, in order to treat prostatic cancer patients with interstitial brachytherapy using I-125 or Pd-103, more investigation for this low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy is needed. (author)

  7. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases; Interstitielle Lungenerkrankungen bei Rauchern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinikum rechts der Isar, Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2007-03-15

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis: interstitial and glomerular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mariam P; Nasr, Samih H; Kurtin, Paul J; Casey, Edward T; Hernandez, Loren P Herrera; Fidler, Mary E; Sethi, Sanjeev; Cornell, Lynn D

    2015-12-01

    Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis is rarely recognized in the antemortem setting. We identified 14 patients with renal extramedullary hematopoiesis on antemortem specimens from 1994 to 2015. The mean age was 68 years (range 47-87 years); males predominated (M:F=9:5). All presented with renal insufficiency, including five (36%) with acute kidney injury. The mean serum creatinine at biopsy was 2.9 mg/dl (range 1.2-7.3 mg/dl). All had proteinuria (mean 7.9 g/24 h; range 0.5-28; n=13), including 9 with ≥3 g/24 h. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis appeared histologically as an interstitial infiltrate (n=12) and/or a perirenal infiltrate (n=3) or mass-like lesion (n=1). Five were misdiagnosed as interstitial nephritis. Concurrent glomerular disease was prevalent and included fibrillary-like glomerulonephritis (n=3), chronic thrombotic microangiopathy (n=5), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n=6), and diabetic glomerulosclerosis (n=2). All patients had an underlying hematologic malignancy: primary myelofibrosis in 9, myeloproliferative neoplasm not otherwise specified in 1, essential thrombocythemia in 1, polycythemia vera in 1, and plasma cell myeloma in 2. Clinical follow-up was available in 12 patients, mean of 29 months (range 4-120 months). In 10 patients for whom treatment history could be obtained, 9 were treated with chemotherapy, and 1 was treated with steroids. The mean creatinine at last follow-up was 2 mg/dl (range 1.2-3.9 mg/dl) (n=9). Ten patients died in the follow-up period from their underlying hematological disease and had persistent renal disease. The two remaining patients had persistent chronic kidney disease. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of interstitial infiltrates, particularly in the presence of a glomerulopathy and a hematologic malignancy.

  9. Sapphire capillary interstitial irradiators for laser medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikunova, I. A.; Dolganova, I. N.; Dubyanskaya, E. N.; Mukhina, E. E.; Zaytsev, K. I.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate instruments for laser radiation delivery based on sapphire capillary needles. Such sapphire irradiators (introducers) can be used for various medical applications, such as photodynamic therapy, laser hyperthermia, laser interstitial thermal therapy, and ablation of tumors of various organs. Unique properties of sapphire allow for effective redistribution of the heat, generated in biological tissues during their exposure to laser radiation. This leads to homogeneous distribution of the laser irradiation around the needle, and lower possibility of formation of the overheating focuses, as well as the following non-transparent thrombi.

  10. Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelidis Panagiotis

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs. Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD.

  11. Evidence of interstitial microsegregation in iron obtained by ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Segregation of impurity atoms to the strain fields of dislocations and the effective locking of the dislocations by the impurity atmospheres have been suggested earlier by others. The formation of interstitial atmospheres and their effect in iron was first treated mathematically by Cottrell and Bilby (Proc. Phys. Soc.; A62: 49(1949). Hirth and Lothe (Theory of Discolations, McGraw-Hill, New York (1968) reviewed more recent evidence of interstitial effects and theoretical treatments of interstitial dislocation interactions. This paper describes additional evidence of microsegregation of several interstitial elements in iron that were detected using secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). 10 references, 2 figures

  12. Lung volumes and emphysema in smokers with interstitial lung abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Hunninghake, Gary M; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Lynch, David A; Brehm, John M; Andriole, Katherine P; Diaz, Alejandro A; Khorasani, Ramin; D'Aco, Katherine; Sciurba, Frank C; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O

    2011-03-10

    Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known. We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema. Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (-0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.596 to -0.292; Ppulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking. In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities--which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans--were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00608764.).

  13. Migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posselt, M.; Gao, F.; Zwicker, D.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon is performed using classical molecular dynamics simulations with the Stillinger-Weber potential. The initial di- and tri-interstitial configurations with the lowest formation energies are determined, and then, the defect migration is investigated for temperatures between 800 and 1600 K. The defect diffusivity and the self-diffusion coefficient per defect are calculated. Compared to the mono-interstitial, the di-interstitial migrates faster, whereas the tri-interstitial diffuses slower. The migration mechanism of the di-interstitial shows a pronounced dependence on the temperature. Like in the case of the mono-interstitial, the mobility of the di-interstitial is higher than the mobility of the lattice atoms during the defect diffusion. On the other hand, the tri-interstitial mobility is lower than the corresponding atomic mobility. The implications of the present results for the analysis of experimental data on defect evolution and migration are discussed

  14. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2015-09-07

    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation and annealing of metastable (interstitial oxygen)-(interstitial carbon) complexes in n- and p-type silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Makarenko, L F; Lastovskii, S B; Murin, L I; Moll, M; Pintilie, I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown experimentally that, in contrast to the stable configuration of (interstitial carbon)-(interstitial oxygen) complexes (CiOi), the corresponding metastable configuration (CiOi{*}) cannot be found in n-Si based structures by the method of capacitance spectroscopy. The rates of transformation CiOi{*} -> CiOi are practically the same for both n- and p-Si with a concentration of charge carriers of no higher than 10(13) cm(-3). It is established that the probabilities of the simultaneous formation of stable and metastable configurations of the complex under study in the case of the addition of an atom of interstitial carbon to an atom of interstitial oxygen is close to 50\\%. This is caused by the orientation dependence of the interaction potential of an atom of interstitial oxygen with an interstitial carbon atom, which diffuses to this oxygen atom.

  16. Preliminary results of interstitial [sup 192]Ir brachytherapy for malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Kengo; Nakagawa, Minoru; Higashi, Hisato [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; and others

    1992-09-01

    Twenty-six patients with recurrent or unremovable malignant gliomas were treated by interstitial brachytherapy with iridium-192 seeds. Stereotactic implantation of the afterloading catheters using the Brown-Roberts-Wells computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic system was performed in 24 patients and surgical CT, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical examination. Tumor regression was seen in 17 patients 1-3 months after implantation. Tumor progression was seen in only three patients. After interstitial brachytherapy, the most commonly observed CT finding was central low density. Median survival time was 18 months after implantation. Autopsies in five patients revealed the delayed effects of radiation injury such as typical vascular changes, microcalcification, and coagulative necrosis in the implant area and tumor recurrence at the periphery. The results suggest that brachytherapy is not curative but prolonged the median survival time by 6 months. (author).

  17. Calcium Channel Blockers and Esophageal Sclerosis: Should We Expect Exacerbation of Interstitial Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Seretis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal sclerosis is the most common visceral manifestation of systemic sclerosis, resulting in impaired esophageal clearance and retention of ingested food; in addition, co-existence of lung fibrosis with esophageal scleroderma is not uncommon. Both the progression of generalized connective tissue disorders and the damaging effect of chronic aspiration due to esophageal dysmotility appear to be involved in this procedure of interstitial fibrosis. Nifedipine is a widely prescribed calcium antagonist in a significant percentage of rheumatologic patients suffering from Raynaud syndrome, in order to inhibit peripheral vasospasm. Nevertheless, blocking calcium channels has proven to contribute to exacerbation of gastroesophageal reflux, which consequently can lead to chronic aspiration. We describe the case of severe exacerbation of interstitial lung disease in a 76-year-old female with esophageal sclerosis who was treated with oral nifedipine for Raynaud syndrome.

  18. Effect of thermal friction on the generation and transport of interstitial defects in irradiated metals

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, S L

    2002-01-01

    Generation of interstitial and vacancy defects under 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation is expected to drive the evolution of microstructure of materials in a future fusion power station. We investigate effects of thermal friction associated with the interaction between mobile clusters of interstitial atoms produced in collision cascades and phonon excitations. Phonons give rise to the random Brownian motion of clusters in the crystal lattice. Phonon excitations are also responsible for the dissipation of energy of rapidly moving clusters formed at the periphery of collision cascades. We investigate how the coefficient of thermal friction depends on the structure of clusters. We also discuss implications of our findings for understanding the origin of higher resistance of bcc metals to irradiation and the connection between this phenomenon and the long-range effect observed in experiments on ion implantation.

  19. First-principles studies of di-arsenic interstitial and its implications for arsenic-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonghyun; Kirichenko, Taras A.; Kong, Ning; Larson, Larry; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2007-01-01

    We propose new structural configurations and novel diffusion mechanisms for neutral di-arsenic interstitial (As 2 I 2 ) in silicon with a first-principle density functional theory simulation within the generalized gradient approximation. With an assumption of excess silicon interstitials and high arsenic concentrations, neutral As 2 I 2 is expected to be favorable and mobile with low-migration barrier. Moreover, because the diffusion barrier of arsenic interstitial pairs (AsI) is very low ( 2 I 2 can be easily formed and likely intermediate stage of larger arsenic interstitial clusters

  20. Energetics of formation and migration of self-interstitials and self-interstitial clusters in α-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, B.D.; Odette, G.R.; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA; Maroudas, D.; Lucas, G.E.; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA

    1997-01-01

    Energetic primary recoil atoms from fast neutron irradiation generate both isolated point defects and clusters of vacancies and interstitials. Self-interstitial mobility as well as defect cluster stability and mobility play key roles in the subsequent fate of defects and, hence, in the overall microstructural evolution under irradiation. Self-interstitials and two, three and four-member self-interstitial clusters are highly mobile at low temperatures as observed in molecular-dynamics simulations and high mobility probably also extends to larger clusters. In this study, the morphology, energetics and mobility of self-interstitials and small self-interstitial clusters in α-iron are studied by molecular-statics and molecular-dynamics simulations using a Finnis-Sinclair many-body interatomic potential. Self-interstitial migration is found to be a two-step process consisting of a rotation out of the split-dumbbell configuration into the split-dumbbell configuration and translational jumps through the crowdion configuration before returning to the dumbbell configuration. Self-interstitial clusters of type split-interstitials assembled on adjacent {110} planes migrate along directions in an amoeba-like fashion by sequential local dissociation and re-association processes. (orig.)

  1. The Interstitial Language and Transnational Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bartoloni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I argue that the idea of inhabiting, and of human individuality as the house of being, are fruitful ideas if located in a space defined by movement, porosity, interstitiality, and in an urban and architectural paradigm which is based on openness and inclusiveness. Transnational experiences and localities can be, to this end, extremely instructive. It is essential to articulate the notion of dwelling within an urban context in which building is the result of complex cultural and social interactions, which are characterised not only by the negotiation of space and materials but also, and more importantly, by a range of symbolic values. The symbolism that I refer to here is the product of mnemonic and emotional experiences marked by time and space, which in the case of the migratory and transnational experiences is arrived at through a delicate negotiation of the past and the present, and the ‘here’ (the current locality and the ‘there’ (the native locality. The dwelling that I speak of is, therefore, a double dwelling divided between the present at-hand and the remembered past, and as such it inhabits a space, which is both interstitial and liminal, simultaneously in and out-of-place. I have chosen the Italian Forum in Sydney as a working sample of the place-out-of-place

  2. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    CERN Document Server

    Mølholt, T E; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Svane, A; Masenda, H; Naidoo, D; Bharuth-Ram, K; Fanciulli, M; Gislason, H P; Johnston, K; Langouche, G; Ólafsson, S; Sielemann, R; Weyer, G

    2014-01-01

    Isolated Fe-57 atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mossbauer spectroscopy following implantation of Mn-57 decaying to Fe-57. Four Mossbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe2+ and Fe3+, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  3. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Benedikte; Hesse, Ulrik; Hansen, Alastair B

    2010-01-01

    To characterize and evaluate a Danish patient population with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), using a working definition for BPS/IC incorporating six variables, and a set of criteria defined by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC); to describe...... the clinical course and treatment intensity in relation to these variables....

  4. Theory of the change of elastic constants by interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, N.; Dederichs, P.H.; Lehmann, C.; Leibfried, G.; Scholz, A.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of the change of elastic constants by point-defects, in particular by interstitials, is briefly summarized. The typical effects of spring changes in a defect lattice on the elastic data are discussed qualitatively. Numerical results for the change of elastic constants by self-interstitials and vacancies are given and compared with experimental data for Cu and Al

  5. Time scales of transient enhanced diffusion: Free and clustered interstitials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowern, N. E. B.; Huizing, H. G. A.; Stolk, P. A.; Visser, C. C. G.; de Kruif, R. C. M.; Kyllesbech Larsen, K.; Privitera, V.; Nanver, L. K.; Crans, W.

    1996-12-01

    Transient enhanced diffusion (TED) and electrical activation after nonamorphizing Si implantations into lightly B-doped Si multilayers shows two distinct timescales, each related to a different class of interstitial defect. At 700°C, ultrafast TED occurs within the first 15 s with a B diffusivity enhancement of > 2 × 10 5. Immobile clustered B is present at low concentration levels after the ultrafast transient and persists for an extended period (˜ 10 2-10 3 s). The later phase of TED exhibits a near-constant diffusivity enhancement of ≈ 1 × 10 4, consistent with interstitial injection controlled by dissolving {113} interstitial clusters. The relative contributions of the ultrafast and regular TED regimes to the final diffusive broadening of the B profile depends on the proportion of interstitials that escape capture by {113} clusters growing within the implant damage region upon annealing. Our results explain the ultrafast TED recently observed after medium-dose B implantation. In that case there are enough B atoms to trap a large proportion of interstitials in SiB clusters, and the remaining interstitials contribute to TED without passing through an intermediate {113} defect stage. The data on the ultrafast TED pulse allows us to extract lower limits for the diffusivities of the Si interstitial ( DI > 2 × 10 -10 cm 2s -1) and the B interstitial(cy) defect ( DBi > 2 × 10 -13 cm 2s -1) at 700°C.

  6. Advanced sickle cell associated interstitial lung disease presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies have reported abnormal pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension among Nigerians with sickle cell disease, but there is no report of interstitial lung disease among them. We report a Nigerian sickle cell patient who presented with computed tomography proven interstitial lung disease complicated by ...

  7. Selective Uterine Artery Embolization for Management of Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Sang Jin; Joe, Hwan Sung; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo; Kim, Dong Hun

    2007-01-01

    Interstitial pregnancy is defined as any gestation that develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tubes lateral to the round ligament. Interstitial pregnancies account for 2-4% of all ectopic pregnancies and have been reported to have an associated 2% to 2.5% maternal mortality rate. The traditional treatment for interstitial pregnancy using surgical cornual resection may cause infertility or uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. Recently, the early identification of intact interstitial pregnancy has been made possible in many cases with high resolution transvaginal ultrasound as well as more sensitive assays for betahuman chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). The treatment includes: hysteroscopic transcervical currettage, local and systemic methotrexate (MTX) therapy and prostaglandin or potassium chloride injection of the ectopic mass under sonographic guidance. We describe a case of successful treatment of interstitial pregnancy using uterine artery embolization, after failure of methotrexate treatment

  8. Selective Uterine Artery Embolization for Management of Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Sang Jin; Joe, Hwan Sung; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo [Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hun [Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Interstitial pregnancy is defined as any gestation that develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tubes lateral to the round ligament. Interstitial pregnancies account for 2-4% of all ectopic pregnancies and have been reported to have an associated 2% to 2.5% maternal mortality rate. The traditional treatment for interstitial pregnancy using surgical cornual resection may cause infertility or uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. Recently, the early identification of intact interstitial pregnancy has been made possible in many cases with high resolution transvaginal ultrasound as well as more sensitive assays for betahuman chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}-hCG). The treatment includes: hysteroscopic transcervical currettage, local and systemic methotrexate (MTX) therapy and prostaglandin or potassium chloride injection of the ectopic mass under sonographic guidance. We describe a case of successful treatment of interstitial pregnancy using uterine artery embolization, after failure of methotrexate treatment.

  9. Background and perspective on rapid progress and deepening of international development of nuclear industry-composition of international nuclear energy business 'cooperation and competition'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Tokio; Kanda, Keji; Ishizuka, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    Based on the recognition that international development of nuclear industry was important by a viewpoint of international cooperation to neighboring Asian area and also it was the trump that defeated a feeling of domestic confinement, the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) founded Nuclear energy international development gathering' in November 2004. On that occasion our magazine (March, 2005 issue) featured 'prospects and problem of the international development of nuclear energy use'. Slightly for half a year afterwards this nuclear energy international development has been rapidly deepened and become a close-up as a policy of an important strategy of the field of nuclear energy that the government and the private sector were united to make. Therefore the nuclear energy international development was secondly featured from multidirectional points of view such as a background of nuclear energy international development, composition of international nuclear energy business, a main strategy of three makers, approach of finance / a business firm. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function.

  11. Interstitial radiophosphorus diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, S.M.; Gabuniya, R.I.; Godin, V.P.; Letyagin, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    Method of invasive β-radiometry in breast cancer was developed. Analysis of observations of 148 patients with breast cancer was presented. Qualitative increase of count efficiency is the important advantage for interstitial β-radiometry in intratumoral situation of β-detector. Radionuclide activity of 37-74 kBq/kg permits to receive values of relative accumulation of 32 P in a tumor (RAPTu1) by invasive method. Tendency is evident to some decrease of mean values of RAPTu1 in investigations conducted in 70 hrs and more after 32 P introduction. Study on relative accumulation of radionuclide in tumor after conservative treatment can serve as a criterion for evaluation of efficiency of antitumor treatment

  12. Immune complexes, gallium lung scans, and bronchoalveolar lavage in idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis-fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelb, A.F.; Dreisen, R.B.; Epstein, J.D.; Silverthorne, J.D.; Bickel, Y.; Fields, M.; Border, W.A.; Taylor, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    We obtained results of lung immune complexes (LIC), circulating immune complexes (CIC), 48-hour gallium lung scans (scans), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and pulmonary function tests in 20 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis-fibrosis. Sixteen patients had predominantly interstitial (13 cases UIP) and/or intraalveolar (3 cases DIP) cellular disease (group 1). Prior to corticosteroid therapy in group 1, scans were positive in 75 percent, CIC were elevated in 86 percent, LIC were present in 64 percent, and BAL was abnormal in 90 percent. Duration of follow-up after treatment was 3.5 +/- 1.0 year. In group 1 after treatment with corticosteroids in 13 patients and corticosteroids and penicillamine (three patients) and plasmapheresis (one patient), only four patients remain stable or improved. After corticosteroid therapy, elevated CIC returned to normal values despite progressive patient deterioration. In three patients, lung immune complexes were still detected after circulating immune complexes had returned to normal after corticosteroid therapy. In group 2 were four patients with fibrotic disease; scans and CIC were uniformly negative, LIC were weakly present in only one patient, and BAL was abnormal in all. Despite corticosteroid therapy, all have died or deteriorated. These results suggest that positive gallium lung scans, BAL, circulating immune complexes, and to a lesser extent, lung immune complexes are associated with the cellular phase of interstitial pneumonia, but do not reliably identify a corticosteroid-responsive group

  13. T2 mapping of CT remodelling patterns in interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzan, Maria T.A. [Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Pneumology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Thoraxklinik at Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Eichinger, Monika; Heussel, Claus Peter [Thoraxklinik at Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Kreuter, Michael; Herth, Felix J. [Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Thoraxklinik at Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Pneumology, Center for Rare and Interstitial Lung Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Warth, Arne [Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Institute for Pathology, Heidelberg (Germany); Pop, Carmen Monica [Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Pneumology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dinkel, Julien [Thoraxklinik at Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich (CPC-M), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate lung T2 mapping for quantitative characterization and differentiation of ground-glass opacity (GGO), reticulation (RE) and honeycombing (HC) in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Twelve patients with stable UIP or NSIP underwent thin-section multislice CT and 1.5-T MRI of the lung. A total of 188 regions were classified at CT into normal (n = 29) and pathological areas, including GGO (n = 48), RE (n = 60) and HC (n = 51) predominant lesions. Entire lung T2 maps based on multi-echo single shot TSE sequence (TE: 20, 40, 79, 140, 179 ms) were generated from each subject with breath-holds at end-expiration and ECG-triggering. The median T2 relaxation of GGO was 67 ms (range 60-72 ms). RE predominant lesions had a median relaxation of 74 ms (range 69-79 ms), while for HC pattern this was 79 ms (range 74-89 ms). The median T2 relaxation for normal lung areas was 41 ms (ranged 38-49 ms), and showed significant difference to pathological areas (p < 0.001). A statistical difference was found between the T2 relaxation of GGO, RE and HC (p < 0.05). The proposed method provides quantitative information for pattern differentiation, potentially allowing for monitoring of progression and response to treatment, in interstitial lung disease. (orig.)

  14. Follistatin, an Activin Antagonist, Ameliorates Renal Interstitial Fibrosis in a Rat Model of Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Maeshima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activin, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, regulates cell growth and differentiation in various cell types. Activin A acts as a negative regulator of renal development as well as tubular regeneration after renal injury. However, it remains unknown whether activin A is involved in renal fibrosis. To clarify this issue, we utilized a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO. The expression of activin A was significantly increased in the UUO kidneys compared to that in contralateral kidneys. Activin A was detected in glomerular mesangial cells and interstitial fibroblasts in normal kidneys. In UUO kidneys, activin A was abundantly expressed by interstitial α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts. Administration of recombinant follistatin, an activin antagonist, reduced the fibrotic area in the UUO kidneys. The number of proliferating cells in the interstitium, but not in the tubules, was significantly lower in the follistatin-treated kidneys. Expression of α-SMA, deposition of type I collagen and fibronectin, and CD68-positive macrophage infiltration were significantly suppressed in the follistatin-treated kidneys. These data suggest that activin A produced by interstitial fibroblasts acts as a potent profibrotic factor during renal fibrosis. Blockade of activin A action may be a novel approach for the prevention of renal fibrosis progression.

  15. T2 mapping of CT remodelling patterns in interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzan, Maria T.A.; Eichinger, Monika; Heussel, Claus Peter; Kreuter, Michael; Herth, Felix J.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Warth, Arne; Pop, Carmen Monica; Dinkel, Julien

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate lung T2 mapping for quantitative characterization and differentiation of ground-glass opacity (GGO), reticulation (RE) and honeycombing (HC) in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Twelve patients with stable UIP or NSIP underwent thin-section multislice CT and 1.5-T MRI of the lung. A total of 188 regions were classified at CT into normal (n = 29) and pathological areas, including GGO (n = 48), RE (n = 60) and HC (n = 51) predominant lesions. Entire lung T2 maps based on multi-echo single shot TSE sequence (TE: 20, 40, 79, 140, 179 ms) were generated from each subject with breath-holds at end-expiration and ECG-triggering. The median T2 relaxation of GGO was 67 ms (range 60-72 ms). RE predominant lesions had a median relaxation of 74 ms (range 69-79 ms), while for HC pattern this was 79 ms (range 74-89 ms). The median T2 relaxation for normal lung areas was 41 ms (ranged 38-49 ms), and showed significant difference to pathological areas (p < 0.001). A statistical difference was found between the T2 relaxation of GGO, RE and HC (p < 0.05). The proposed method provides quantitative information for pattern differentiation, potentially allowing for monitoring of progression and response to treatment, in interstitial lung disease. (orig.)

  16. The safety and efficacy of carboplatin plus nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer patients with interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Yuichiro; Hattori, Yoshihiro; Tohnai, Rie; Ito, Shoichi; Kawa, Yoshitaka; Kono, Yuko; Urata, Yoshiko; Nogami, Munenobu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Negoro, Shunichi; Satouchi, Miyako

    2018-01-01

    The optimal chemotherapy regimen for non-small cell lung cancer patients with interstitial lung disease is unclear. We therefore investigated the safety and efficacy of carboplatin plus nab-paclitaxel as a first-line regimen for non-small cell lung cancer in patients with interstitial lung disease. We retrospectively reviewed advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with interstitial lung disease who received carboplatin plus nab-paclitaxel as a first-line chemotherapy regimen at Hyogo Cancer Center between February 2013 and August 2016. interstitial lung disease was diagnosed according to the findings of pretreatment chest high-resolution computed tomography. Twelve patients were included (male, n = 11; female, n = 1). The overall response rate was 67% and the disease control rate was 100%. The median progression free survival was 5.1 months (95% CI: 2.9-8.3 months) and the median overall survival was 14.9 months (95% CI: 4.8-not reached). A chemotherapy-related acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease was observed in one patient; the extent of this event was Grade 2. There were no treatment-related deaths. Carboplatin plus nab-paclitaxel, as a first-line chemotherapy regimen for non-small cell lung cancer, showed favorable efficacy and safety in patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Pulmonary function tests as outcomes for systemic sclerosis interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Melissa; Hoa, Sabrina; Hudson, Marie; Schwartzman, Kevin; Steele, Russell

    2018-06-30

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We performed a systematic review to characterise the use and validation of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) as surrogate markers for systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) progression.Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant studies. Included studies either used at least one PFT measure as a longitudinal outcome for SSc-ILD progression ( i.e. outcome studies) and/or reported at least one classical measure of validity for the PFTs in SSc-ILD ( i.e. validation studies).This systematic review included 169 outcome studies and 50 validation studies. Diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide ( D LCO ) was cumulatively the most commonly used outcome until 2010 when it was surpassed by forced vital capacity (FVC). FVC (% predicted) was the primary endpoint in 70.4% of studies, compared to 11.3% for % predicted D LCO Only five studies specifically aimed to validate the PFTs: two concluded that D LCO was the best measure of SSc-ILD extent, while the others did not favour any PFT. These studies also showed respectable validity measures for total lung capacity (TLC).Despite the current preference for FVC, available evidence suggests that D LCO and TLC should not yet be discounted as potential surrogate markers for SSc-ILD progression. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  18. Interstitial lung diseases with fibrosis - the pattern at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarzemska, A.; Lasek, W.; Nawrocka, E.; Meder, G.; Zapala, M.

    2003-01-01

    Surgical lung biopsy, either open thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopy is recommended in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). In some cases, however, the repetitive pattern of radiological features in high-resolution computed tomography is often sufficient to confirm the diagnosis in a non-invasive manner. The purpose of the study was to determine whether patients with ILD can be selected on the basis of the HRCT pattern. Thin-section CT scans were performed in 40 patients with histologically proven idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (26 patients with usual interstitial pneumonia UIP, 2 patients with desquamative interstitial pneumonia DIP, 2 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia BOOP, 2 patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia NSIP, 11 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and 3 patients with pulmonary histiocytosis X). The location and the intensity of lesions were taken into consideration. Clinical and histopathological findings were compared. HRCT features of interstitial lung diseases such as nodules and cystic spaces in hypersensitivity pneumonitis and pulmonary histiocytosis, and ground-glass opacities in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) were statistically significant for differential diagnosis in ILD cases. Combination of honeycombing and ground-glass opacities found in UIP and nodules found in DIP were also statistically significant features in IIP subtypes diagnosis. In some cases, HRCT patterns of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pulmonary histiocytosis X and IPF combined with clinical findings allowed for the accurate diagnosis without resorting to lung biopsy. Within a group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia only in usual interstitial pneumonia characteristic pattern in thin-section CT can be defined. In other subgroups some typical features can imply a diagnosis. (author)

  19. Gallium interstitial contributions to diffusion in gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Joseph T.; Morgan, Caroline G.

    2011-09-01

    A new diffusion path is identified for gallium interstitials, which involves lower barriers than the barriers for previously identified diffusion paths [K. Levasseur-Smith and N. Mousseau, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113502 (2008), P. A. Schultz and O. A. von Lilienfeld, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering 17, 084007 (2009)] for the charge states which dominate diffusion over most of the available range of Fermi energies. This path passes through the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration, and has a particularly low diffusion barrier of 0.35 eV for diffusion in the neutral charge state. As a part of this work, the character of the charge states for the gallium interstitials which are most important for diffusion is investigated, and it is shown that the last electron bound to the neutral interstitial occupies a shallow hydrogenic bound state composed of conduction band states for the hexagonal interstitial and both tetrahedral interstitials. How to properly account for the contributions of such interstitials is discussed for density-functional calculations with a k-point mesh not including the conduction band edge point. Diffusion barriers for gallium interstitials are calculated in all the charge states which can be important for a Fermi level anywhere in the gap, q = 0, +1, +2, and +3, for diffusion via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration and via the hexagonal interstitial configuration. The lowest activation enthalpies over most of the available range of Fermi energies are found to correspond to diffusion in the neutral or singly positive state via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration. It is shown that several different charge states and diffusion paths contribute significantly for Fermi levels within 0.2 eV above the valence band edge, which may help to explain some of the difficulties [H. Bracht and S. Brotzmann, Phys. Rev. B 71, 115216 (2005)] which have been

  20. High-resolution CT of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilgrain, V.; Frija, J.; Yana, C.; Couderc, L.J.; David, M.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1989-01-01

    Three patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (two HIV 1+ patients with chronic lymphadenopathic syndromes and one with a not-characterized autoimmune disease) have been studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). This technique reveals septal lines, small reticulonodular opacities, polyhedral micronodular opacities, 'ground-glass' opacities and a dense, subpleural, curved broken line in one patient. The lesions dominate in the bases of the lungs. They are not characteristic for lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. If a patient presents with a chronic lymphadenopathic syndrome, the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection should not be automatically made, since the syndrome can be caused by lymphoid interstitial pneumonia [fr

  1. Interstitial brachytherapy in carcinoma of the penis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, A.J.; Ghosh, S.; Bhalavat, R.L. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kulkarni, J.N. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Surgery; Sequeira, B.V.E. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Medical Physics

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Keeping in line with the increasing emphasis on organ preservation, we at the Tata Memorial Hospital have evaluated the role of Ir-192 interstitial implant as regards local control, functional and cosmetic outcome in early as well as locally recurrent carcinoma of the distal penis. Patients and Methods: From October 1988 to December 1996, 23 patients with histopathologically proven cancer of the penis were treated with radical radiation therapy using Ir-192 temporary interstitial implant. Our patients were in the age group of 20 to 60 years. The primary lesions were T1 and 7, T2 in 7 and recurrent in 9 patients. Only 7 patients had palpable groin nodes at presentation, all of which were pathologically negative. The median dose of implant was 50 Gy (range 40 to 60 Gy), using the LDR afterloading system and the Paris system of implant rules for dosimetry. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 117 months (median 24 months). Results: At last follow-up 18 of the 23 patients remained locally controlled with implant alone. Three patients failed only locally, 2 locoregionally and 1 only at the groin. Of the 5 patients who failed locally, 4 were successfully salvaged with partial penectomy and remained controlled when last seen. Local control with implant alone at 8 years was 70% by life table analysis. The patients had excellent functional and cosmetic outcome. We did not record any case of skin or softtissue necrosis. Only 2 patients developed meatal stenosis, both of which were treated endoscopically. Conclusion: Our results lead us to interpret that interstitial brachytherapy with Ir-192 offers excellent local control rates with preservation of organ and function. Penectomy can be reserved as a means for effective salvage. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Das Prinzip des Organerhalts gewinnt in der Onkologie zunehmend an Bedeutung. Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es, die Rolle der interstitiellen Brachytherapie mit Ir-192 zur Behandlung des fruehen und rezidivierten Peniskarzinoms zu

  2. Interstitial keratitis and sensorineural hearing loss as a manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis: clinical lessons from a rare complication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lennard YW; Akhtar, Mohammed Majid; Kirresh, Othman; Gibson, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Cogan's syndrome or non-syphilitic interstitial keratitis with vestibule-auditory dysfunction is a serious and under-recognised complication of rheumatoid arthritis. It is an autoimmune condition characterised by inflammatory infiltrates on the cornea and extensive vestibulocochlear damage. If left untreated, patients progress to develop profound hearing loss. We present a case that was incorrectly diagnosed and treated as conjunctivitis by several emergency departments prior to being correctly recognised as Cogan's syndrome. PMID:23242087

  3. Interstitial keratitis and sensorineural hearing loss as a manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis: clinical lessons from a rare complication

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Lennard YW; Akhtar, Mohammed Majid; Kirresh, Othman; Gibson, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Cogan's syndrome or non-syphilitic interstitial keratitis with vestibule-auditory dysfunction is a serious and under-recognised complication of rheumatoid arthritis. It is an autoimmune condition characterised by inflammatory infiltrates on the cornea and extensive vestibulocochlear damage. If left untreated, patients progress to develop profound hearing loss. We present a case that was incorrectly diagnosed and treated as conjunctivitis by several emergency departments prior to being correct...

  4. Interstitial shadow on chest CT is associated with the onset of interstitial lung disease caused by chemotherapeutic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niho, Seiji; Goto, Koichi; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Kim, Y.H.; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kubota, Kaoru; Saijo, Nagahiro; Nishiwaki, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Pretreatment computerized tomography (CT) films of the chest was studied to clarify the influence of interstitial shadow on developing interstitial lung disease (ILD). Eligible patients were those lung cancer patients who started to receive first-line chemotherapy between October 2001 and March 2004. Patients who received thoracic radiotherapy to the primary lesion, mediastinum, spinal or rib metastases were excluded. We reviewed pretreatment conventional CT and plain X-ray films of the chest. Ground-glass opacity, consolidation or reticular shadow without segmental distribution was defined as interstitial shadow, with this event being graded as mild, moderate or severe. If interstitial shadow was detected on CT films of the chest, but not via plain chest X-ray, it was graded as mild. Patients developing ILD were identified from medial records. A total of 502 patients were eligible. Mild, moderate and severe interstitial shadow was identified in 7, 8 and 5% of patients, respectively. A total of 188 patients (37%) received tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment, namely gefitinib or erlotinib. Twenty-six patients (5.2%) developed ILD either during or after chemotherapy. Multivariate analyses revealed that interstitial shadow on CT films of the chest and treatment history with TKI were associated with the onset of ILD. It is recommended that patients with interstitial shadow on chest CT are excluded from future clinical trials until this issue is further clarified, as it is anticipated that use of chemotherapeutic agents frequently mediate onset of ILD in this context. (author)

  5. Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Quentin E.; Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Li, Xing; Rockey, William R.; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Enger, Shirin A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods: A wire-mounted 62 GBq 153 Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 μm thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535 μm thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 0–5 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. Results: The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D 98% ), I-RSBT reduced urethral D 0.1cc below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D 1cc was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D 1cc was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq 153 Gd sources. Conclusions: For the case considered, the proposed 153 Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR-BT by 29%–44% if the clinician allows

  6. Directional interstitial brachytherapy from simulation to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liyong

    Organs at risk (OAR) are sometimes adjacent to or embedded in or overlap with the clinical target volume (CTV) to be treated. The purpose of this PhD study is to develop directionally low energy gamma-emitting interstitial brachytherapy sources. These sources can be applied between OAR to selectively reduce hot spots in the OARs and normal tissues. The reduction of dose over undesired regions can expand patient eligibility or reduce toxicities for the treatment by conventional interstitial brachytherapy. This study covers the development of a directional source from design optimization to construction of the first prototype source. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to simulate the radiation transport for the designs of directional sources. We have made a special construction kit to assemble radioactive and gold-shield components precisely into D-shaped titanium containers of the first directional source. Directional sources have a similar dose distribution as conventional sources on the treated side but greatly reduced dose on the shielded side, with a sharp dose gradient between them. A three-dimensional dose deposition kernel for the 125I directional source has been calculated. Treatment plans can use both directional and conventional 125I sources at the same source strength for low-dose-rate (LDR) implants to optimize the dose distributions. For prostate tumors, directional 125I LDR brachytherapy can potentially reduce genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities and improve potency preservation for low risk patients. The combination of better dose distribution of directional implants and better therapeutic ratio between tumor response and late reactions enables a novel temporary LDR treatment, as opposed to permanent or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the intermediate risk T2b and high risk T2c tumors. Supplemental external-beam treatments can be shortened with a better brachytherapy boost for T3 tumors. In conclusion, we have successfully finished the

  7. Magnetic effects of interstitial hydrogen in nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, Andrea [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso (Chile); Velásquez, E.A. [Facultad de Física y Centro de Investigación en Nanotecnología y Materiales Avanzados CIEN-UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Grupo de Investigación en Modelamiento y Simulación Computacional, Universidad de San Buenaventura Sec. Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [Grupo de Instrumentación Científica y Microelectrónica, Grupo de Estado Sólido, IF-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mejía-López, J. [Facultad de Física y Centro de Investigación en Nanotecnología y Materiales Avanzados CIEN-UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Florez, J.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso (Chile); and others

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen storage in materials is among the most relevant fields when thinking about energy conversion and storage. In this work we present a study that responds to a couple of questions concerning induced electronic changes that H produces in ferromagnetic nickel (Ni) host. We calculate and explain the change of magnetic properties of Ni with different concentrations of H. Density functional theory calculations (DFT) were performed for super-cells of fcc Ni with interstitial H in octahedral sites at different concentrations. In order to physically explain the effect of magnetization diminishing as the hydrogen concentration increases, we propose a simple Stoner type of model to describe the influence of the H impurity on the magnetic properties of Ni. The exchange splitting reduction, as shown in first principles calculations, is clearly explained within this physical model. Using a paramagnetic Ni fcc band with variable number of electrons and a Stoner model allow us to obtain the correct trend for the magnetic moment of the system as a function of the H concentration. - Highlights: • We calculate and explain the change of magnetic properties of Ni with different concentrations of H. • We propose a simple Stoner type of model to describe the influence of the H impurity on the magnetic properties of Ni. • The band exchange splitting reduction as the H concentration increases, is a consequence of the competition between the band energy term (kinetic energy) and the ferromagnetic energy term (Weiss field).

  8. Interstitial cells of Cajal in chagasic megaesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Marcus Aurelho; Cabrine-Santos, Marlene; Tavares, Marcelo Garcia; Gerolin, Gustavo Pacheco; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Ramirez, Luis Eduardo

    2008-08-01

    Chagasic visceromegalies are the most important digestive manifestations of Chagas disease and are characterized by motor disorders and dilation of organs such as esophagus and colon. One of the theories raised to explain the physiopathogenesis of chagasic megas is the plexus theory. Recent studies have shown a reduction of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the colon of chagasic patients. These cells are present throughout the gastrointestinal tract and are considered to be pacemaker cells, that is, they are responsible for coordinating peristalsis and for mediating nerve impulses. In view of the lack of studies on these cells in megaesophagus and the previous observation of a reduction of ICCs in chagasic megacolons, we compared the distribution of ICCs in the esophagus of chagasic and nonchagasic patients to contribute to a better understanding of the physiopathogenesis of this esophageal disease. Esophageal biopsy samples from 10 chagasic and 5 nonchagasic patients were used. Cells were identified with the anti-CD117 antibody. The number of ICCs was quantified in longitudinal and circular muscle layers and myenteric plexus. The results were analyzed statistically by comparison of means. An intense reduction in the number of ICCs was observed in muscle layers and in the myenteric plexus of patients with megaesophagus. We conclude that there is an intense reduction of ICCs in the esophagus of chagasic patients when compared to nonchagasic patients, a finding supporting the important role of these cells in gastrointestinal tract motility. A deficiency in these cells might be implied in the genesis of megaesophagus.

  9. Classical patterns of interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Mang, C.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the most important non-invasive tool in the diagnostics and follow-up of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). A systematic review of the HRCT patterns of ILD was carried out and the most relevant differential diagnoses are discussed in order to provide a road map for the general radiologist to successfully navigate the complex field of ILD. Using HRCT four basic patterns of ILD can be identified: linear and reticular patterns, the nodular pattern, the high attenuation and low attenuation patterns. These patterns can be further differentiated according to their localization within the secondary pulmonary lobule (SPL), e.g. centrilobular or perilymphatic and their distribution within the lungs (e.g. upper or lower lobe predominance). Relevant clinical data, such as smoking history and course of the disease provide useful additional information in the diagnosis of ILD. On the basis of the pattern and anatomical distribution on HRCT, an accurate diagnosis can be achieved in some cases of ILD; however, due to morphological and clinical overlap the final diagnosis of many ILDs requires close cooperation between clinicians, radiologists and pathologists. (orig.) [de

  10. Emergent pattern formation in an interstitial biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachreson, Cameron; Wolff, Christian; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Toth, Milos

    2017-01-01

    Collective behavior of bacterial colonies plays critical roles in adaptability, survivability, biofilm expansion and infection. We employ an individual-based model of an interstitial biofilm to study emergent pattern formation based on the assumptions that rod-shaped bacteria furrow through a viscous environment and excrete extracellular polymeric substances which bias their rate of motion. Because the bacteria furrow through their environment, the substratum stiffness is a key control parameter behind the formation of distinct morphological patterns. By systematically varying this property (which we quantify with a stiffness coefficient γ ), we show that subtle changes in the substratum stiffness can give rise to a stable state characterized by a high degree of local order and long-range pattern formation. The ordered state exhibits characteristics typically associated with bacterial fitness advantages, even though it is induced by changes in environmental conditions rather than changes in biological parameters. Our findings are applicable to a broad range of biofilms and provide insights into the relationship between bacterial movement and their environment, and basic mechanisms behind self-organization of biophysical systems.

  11. Interstitial adenosine concentration is increased by dipyridamole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, M.W.; Wangler, R.D.; DeWitt, D.F.; Wang, C.Y.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Sparks, H.V.

    1986-01-01

    The authors used the multiple indicator dilution technique to observe the capillary transport of adenosine (ADO) in isolated guinea pig hearts. Radiolabelled albumin, sucrose and ADO were injected on the arterial side and measured in venous samples collected during the following 20 seconds. Transport parameters calculated from these data include permeability-surface area products (PS) for transendothelial diffusion, endothelial cell (EC) uptake at the lumenal and ablumenal membranes, and EC metabolism. With simultaneous measurements of arterial and venous ADO concentrations and flow, the authors calculated the steady-state interstitial fluid (ISF) ADO concentration. Under control conditions the venous ADO concentration was 7.1 +/- 2.8 nM. The calculated ISF concentration depends on whether they assume the venous ADO comes from the ISF, or directly from ECs. These ISF concentrations are 25 +/- 12 nM and 9.8 +/- 4.0 nM, respectively. During dipyridamole infusion (10 uM) the EC transport parameters became nearly zero. Venous and ISF ADO concentrations increased to 33 +/- 8.9 nM and 169 +/- 42 nM, respectively. The authors conclude that the ISF ADO concentration is 1.5-4 fold higher than the venous concentration at rest, and the ISF concentration increases greatly with dipyridamole

  12. Dose optimisation in single plane interstitial brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Kari; Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Honoré, Henriette Benedicte

    2006-01-01

    patients,       treated for recurrent rectal and cervical cancer, flexible catheters were       sutured intra-operatively to the tumour bed in areas with compromised       surgical margin. Both non-optimised, geometrically and graphically       optimised CT -based dose plans were made. The overdose index...... on the       regularity of the implant, such that the benefit of optimisation was       larger for irregular implants. OI and HI correlated strongly with target       volume limiting the usability of these parameters for comparison of dose       plans between patients. CONCLUSIONS: Dwell time optimisation significantly......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brachytherapy dose distributions can be optimised       by modulation of source dwell times. In this study dose optimisation in       single planar interstitial implants was evaluated in order to quantify the       potential benefit in patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 14...

  13. Californium-252 radiotherapy sources for interstitial afterloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.; Walker, V.W.

    1976-01-01

    Californium-252 neutron sources for interstitial afterloading were developed to investigate the value of this radionuclide in cancer therapy. Californium-252 seed assemblies contain essentially point sources of 252 Cf permanently sealed on 1-cm centers within a flexible plastic tube. The seed assemblies are fabricated with remotely operated, specially designed machines. The fabrication process involves the production of a Pt-10 percent Ir-clad wire with a 252 Cf 2 O 3 -Pd cermet core. The wire is swaged and drawn to size, cut to length, and welded in a Pt-10 percent Ir capsule 0.8 mm in diameter and 6 mm long. Each seed capsule contains approximately 0.5 microgram of 252 Cf. Because the effective half-life of 252 Cf is 2.6 years, the seed assemblies are not disposable and must be reused until their activities have decreased to unsuitable levels. The flexible plastic components must therefore have sufficient resistance to radiation damage to survive the neutron-plus-gamma radiation from 252 Cf. On the basis of accelerated irradiation tests with a large 252 Cf source, a recently developed fluoropolymer, ''Tefzel'' (trademark of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company) has adequate radiation resistance for this application. Californium-252 seed assembly systems are loaned by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration for clinical investigations under a protocol of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, U.S. National Cancer Institute

  14. A new interstitial flatworm (Turbellaria: Promesostomidae) from the Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clerck, De G.G.

    1994-01-01

    Paraproboscifer alacerregis, representing a new genus and a new species of the interstitial typloplanoid flatworms is described from the Seychelles and Kenya. It is placed in the turbellarian family Promesostomidae, The type locality is on Mahé Island, Seychelles.

  15. Leflunomide-Induced Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygül Güzel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leflunomide (LEF induced interstitial pneumonitis is a very rare condition but potentially fatal. We report a case of LEF induced interstitial pneumonitis. A 63-year-old woman followed-up for 37 years with the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis treated with LEF (20 mg/day since 5 months were admitted to our hospital with cough, dyspnea, fever, and dark sputum.Chest radiography represented bilateral alveolar consolidation. High-resolution computed tomography demonstrated diffuse ground-glass appearance and interlobular septal thickening. Since the patient’s clinics and radiologic findings improved dramatically after the cessation of LEF and recieving oral steriod therapy, she was diagnosed as drug-induced interstitial lung disease. In conclusion, when nonspecific clinical signs such as respiratory distress, cough and fever seen during the use of LEF, drug-induced interstitial lung disease should be kept in mind for the differantial diagnosis.

  16. A CURIOUS CASE OF FEVER AND INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Shahid Mahdi; Dr. Darpanarayan Hazra; Dr. Zainab Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Antisynthetase syndrome is a rare chronic autoimmune inflammatory myopathy with fever, interstitial lung disease, Raynaud’s phenomenon and polyarthritis. The exact underlying cause of antisynthetase syndrome is not yet known. Diagnosis is made with presence of Jo-1 (Histydyl t RNA synthase) antigen in a patient with underlying interstitial lung disease, myositis, arthritis, Raynaud’s phenomenon and mechanic’s hand. Some of the other antisynthetase anti bodies are PL-7 (antigen – threonyl-tRNA...

  17. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: understanding key radiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, S. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom); Benamore, R., E-mail: Rachel.Benamore@orh.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Many radiologists find it challenging to distinguish between the different interstitial idiopathic pneumonias (IIPs). The British Thoracic Society guidelines on interstitial lung disease (2008) recommend the formation of multidisciplinary meetings, with diagnoses made by combined radiological, pathological, and clinical findings. This review focuses on understanding typical and atypical radiological features on high-resolution computed tomography between the different IIPs, to help the radiologist determine when a confident diagnosis can be made and how to deal with uncertainty.

  18. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: understanding key radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, S.; Benamore, R.

    2010-01-01

    Many radiologists find it challenging to distinguish between the different interstitial idiopathic pneumonias (IIPs). The British Thoracic Society guidelines on interstitial lung disease (2008) recommend the formation of multidisciplinary meetings, with diagnoses made by combined radiological, pathological, and clinical findings. This review focuses on understanding typical and atypical radiological features on high-resolution computed tomography between the different IIPs, to help the radiologist determine when a confident diagnosis can be made and how to deal with uncertainty.

  19. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Assayag

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease affecting about 1% of the population. Interstitial lung disease is a serious and frequent complication of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD is characterized by several histopathologic subtypes. This article reviews the proposed pathogenesis and risk factors for RA-ILD. We also outline the important steps involved in the work-up of RA-ILD and review the evidence for treatment and prognosis.

  20. Modeling of long-range migration of boron interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Burunova, O.N.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the interstitial migration of ion-implanted dopant in silicon during low-temperature thermal treatment has been formulated. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created during ion implantation or at the initial stage of annealing. During thermal treatment a migration of these impurity interstitials to the surface and in the bulk of a semiconductor occurs. On this basis, a simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 35 minutes at a temperature of 800 0 C has been carried out. The calculated boron profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters describing the interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 0.092 μm at a temperature of 800 0 C. To carry out modeling of ion-implanted boron redistribution, the analytical solutions of nonstationary diffusion equation for impurity interstitials have been obtained. The case of Dirichlet boundary conditions and the case of reflecting boundary on the surface of a semiconductor have been considered. (authors)

  1. Microstructures and phase transformations in interstitial alloys of tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, U.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of microstructures, phases, and possible ordering of interstitial solute atoms is fundamental to an understanding of the properties of metal-interstitial alloys in general. As evidenced by the controversies on phase transformations in the particular system tantalum--carbon, our understanding of this class of alloys is inferior to our knowledge of substitutional metal alloys. An experimental clarification of these controversies in tantalum was made. Using advanced techniques of electron microscopy and ultrahigh vacuum techology, an understanding of the microstructures and phase transformations in dilute interstitial tantalum--carbon alloys is developed. Through a number of control experiments, the role and sources of interstitial contamination in the alloy preparation (and under operating conditions) are revealed. It is demonstrated that all previously published work on the dilute interstitially ordered phase Ta 64 C can be explained consistently in terms of ordering of the interstitial contaminants oxygen and hydrogen, leading to the formation of the phases Ta 12 O and Ta 2 H

  2. New insights into canted spiro carbon interstitial in graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Barbary, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The self-interstitial carbon is the key to radiation damage in graphite moderator nuclear reactor, so an understanding of its behavior is essential for plant safety and maximized reactor lifetime. The density functional theory is applied on four different graphite unit cells, starting from of 64 carbon atoms up to 256 carbon atoms, using AIMPRO code to obtain the energetic, athermal and mechanical properties of carbon interstitial in graphite. This study presents first principles calculations of the energy of formation that prove its high barrier to athermal diffusion (1.1 eV) and the consequent large critical shear stress (39 eV-50 eV) necessary to shear graphite planes in its presence. Also, for the first time, the gamma surface of graphite in two dimensions is calculated and found to yield the critical shear stress for perfect graphite. Finally, in contrast to the extensive literature describing the interstitial of carbon in graphite as spiro interstitial, in this work the ground state of interstitial carbon is found to be canted spiro interstitial.

  3. Stereotactic interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of oligodendroglial brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Majdoub, Faycal; Neudorfer, Clemens; Maarouf, Mohammad [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Center of Neurosurgery, Cologne-Merheim Medical Center (CMMC), Cologne (Germany); Blau, Tobias; Deckert, Martina [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Neuropathology, Cologne (Germany); Hellmich, Martin [University Hospital of Cologne, Institute of Statistics, Informatics and Epidemiology, Cologne (Germany); Buehrle, Christian [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); Sturm, Volker [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); University Hospital of Wurzburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    We evaluated the treatment of oligodendroglial brain tumors with interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) using {sup 125}iodine seeds ({sup 125}I) and analyzed prognostic factors. Between January 1991 and December 2010, 63 patients (median age 43.3 years, range 20.8-63.4 years) suffering from oligodendroglial brain tumors were treated with {sup 125}I IBT either as primary, adjuvantly after incomplete resection, or as salvage therapy after tumor recurrence. Possible prognostic factors influencing disease progression and survival were retrospectively investigated. The actuarial 2-, 5-, and 10-year overall and progression-free survival rates after IBT for WHO II tumors were 96.9, 96.9, 89.8 % and 96.9, 93.8, 47.3 %; for WHO III tumors 90.3, 77, 54.9 % and 80.6, 58.4, 45.9 %, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete remission in 2 patients, partial remission in 13 patients, stable disease in 17 patients and tumor progression in 31 patients. Median time to progression for WHO II tumors was 87.6 months and for WHO III tumors 27.8 months. Neurological status improved in 10 patients and remained stable in 20 patients, while 9 patients deteriorated. There was no treatment-related mortality. Treatment-related morbidity was transient in 11 patients. WHO II, KPS ≥ 90 %, frontal location, and tumor surface dose > 50 Gy were associated with increased overall survival (p ≤ 0.05). Oligodendroglioma and frontal location were associated with a prolonged progression-free survival (p ≤ 0.05). Our study indicates that IBT achieves local control rates comparable to surgery and radio-/chemotherapy treatment, is minimally invasive, and safe. Due to the low rate of side effects, IBT may represent an attractive option as part of a multimodal treatment schedule, being supplementary to microsurgery or as a salvage therapy after chemotherapy and conventional irradiation. (orig.) [German] Die Behandlung oligodendroglialer Hirntumoren durch die interstitielle Brachytherapie

  4. International registry results for an interstitial laser BPH treatment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Richard L.; Muschter, Rolf; Adams, Curtis S.; Esch, Victor C.

    1996-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can significantly impair quality of life in older men. Most men over 60 experience some symptoms due to BPH and it is thought that essentially all men would eventually be affected by it if they lived long enough. At present, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), a surgical treatment for BPH, is one of the more common procedures performed in the developed world, particularly in the United States. A number of other treatments are also often used, including open prostatectomy, side-firing lasers, and drug therapy. With the population in the developed world rapidly aging, BPH is expected to affect an even larger group of men in the future. Current methods of therapy carry significant disadvantages. Open prostatectomy carries a fairly high risk of impotence and incontinence, as well as sometimes significant risk of death depending on the patient's age and medical conditions. TURP also carries similar risks, albeit reduced, including the risk of substantial blood loss and a small but meaningful risk of death. Side-firing lasers are thought to have a reduced risk of death compared to TURP due to significantly reduced bleeding; however, patients often experience an extended period of pain during voiding due to prolonged tissue sloughing. Drug treatment, although useful for some patients, does not strongly improve symptoms in the majority of patients. Even with the current range of treatments, many patients with symptomatic BPH elect to avoid any current treatment due to risks and side effects. As a possible solution to this problem, previous writers have suggested the possibility of treating BPH through interstitial thermotherapy. In this treatment, prostatic tissue is heated from within the prostate to the point of irreversible necrosis. Healing processes then reduce the volume of the affected tissue, even in the absence of sloughing. This study covers initial human use of such a device, using an 810 nm wavelength diode laser

  5. Perioperative interstitial brachytherapy for recurrent keloid scars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, E.; Bardet, E.; Peuvrel, P.; Martinet, L.; Perrot, P.; Baraer, F.; Loirat, Y.; Sartre, J.Y.; Malard, O.; Ferron, C.; Dreno, B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the results of perioperative interstitial brachytherapy with low dose-rate (L.D.R.) Ir-192 in the treatment of keloid scars. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 73 histologically confirmed keloids (from 58 patients) resistant to medico surgical treated by surgical excision plus early perioperative brachytherapy. All lesions were initially symptomatic. Local control was evaluated by clinical evaluation. Functional and cosmetic results were assessed in terms of patient responses to a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Median age was 28 years (range 13-71 years). Scars were located as follows: 37% on the face, 32% on the trunk or abdomen, 16% on the neck, and 15% on the arms or legs. The mean delay before loading was four hours (range, 1-6 h). The median dose was 20 Gy (range, 15-40 Gy). Sixty-four scars (from 53 patients) were evaluated. Local control was 86% (follow-up, 44.5 months; range, 14-150 months). All relapses occurred early within 2 years posttreatment. At 20 months, survival without recurrence was significantly lower when treated lengths were more than 6 cm long. The rate was 100% for treated scars below 4.5 cm in length, 95% (95% CI: 55-96) for those 4.5-6 cm long, and 75% (95% CI: 56-88) beyond 6 cm (p = 0.038). Of the 35 scars (28 patients) whose results were reassessed, six remained symptomatic and the esthetic results were considered to be good in 51% (18/35) and average in 37% (13/35) (median follow-up, 70 months; range, 16-181 months). Conclusion: Early perioperative L.D.R. brachytherapy delivering 20 Gy at 5 mm reduced the rate of recurrent keloids resistant to other treatments and gave good functional results. (authors)

  6. Co-morbidities of Interstitial Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela eChelimsky

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/BPS with systemic dysfunction associated co-morbidities such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and fibromyalgia (FM. Material and Methods: Two groups of subjects with IC/BPS were included: 1 Physician diagnosed patients with IC/BPS and 2 Subjects meeting NIDDK IC/PBS criteria based on a questionnaire (ODYSA. These groups were compared to healthy controls matched for age and socio-economic status. NIDDK criteria required: pain with bladder filling that improves with emptying, urinary urgency due to discomfort or pain, polyuria > 11 times/24 hrs, and nocturia > 2 times/night. The ODYSA instrument evaluates symptoms pertaining to a range of disorders including chronic fatigue, orthostatic intolerance, syncope, IBS, dyspepsia, cyclic vomiting syndrome, headaches and migraines, sleep, Raynaud’s syndrome and chronic aches and pains. Results: IC/BPS was diagnosed in 26 subjects (mean age 47 +/- 16 yrs, 92% females, 58 had symptoms of IC/BPS by NIDDK criteria, (mean age 40 +/- 17 yrs, 79% females and 48 were healthy controls (mean age 31+/- 14 yrs, mean age 77%. Co-morbid complaints in the IC/BPS groups included gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of IBS and dyspepsia, sleep abnormalities with delayed onset of sleep, feeling poorly refreshed in the morning, waking up before needed, snoring, severe chronic fatigue and chronic generalized pain, migraines and syncope. Discussion: Patients with IC/BPS had co-morbid central and autonomic nervous system disorders. Our findings mirror those of others in regard to IBS, symptoms suggestive of FM, chronic pain and migraine. High rates of syncope and functional dyspepsia found in the IC/BPS groups merit further study to determine if IC/BPS is part of a diffuse disorder of central, autonomic and sensory processing affecting multiple organs outside the bladder.

  7. Interstitial Lung disease in Systemic Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, G.C.; Mok, M.Y.; Tsang, K.W.T.; Khong, P.L.; Fung, P.C.W.; Chan, S.; Tse, H.F.; Wong, R.W.S.; Lam, W.K.; Lau, C.S.; Wong, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate high-resolution CT (HRCT) parameters of inflammation and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc), for correlation with lung function, skin scores and exercise tolerance. Material and Methods: : 45 SSc patients (40 women, 48.5±13.4 years), underwent thoracic HRCT, lung function assessment, and modified Rodnan skin scores. Exercise tolerance was also graded. HRCT were scored for extent of 4 HRCT patterns of interstitial lung disease (ILD): ground glass opacification (GGO), reticular, mixed and honeycomb pattern in each lobe. Total HRCT score, inflammation index (GGO and mixed score) and fibrosis index (reticular and honeycomb scores) were correlated with lung function and clinical parameters. Results: ILD was present in 39/45 (86.7%) patients. Abnormal (<80% predicted) forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC) and carbon monoxide diffusion factor (DLco) were detected in 30%, 22% and 46% of patients. Total HRCT score correlated with FVC (r=0.43, p=0.008), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume) (r=-0.37, p=0.03), TLC (r=-0.47, p=0.003), and DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008); inflammatory index with DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008) and exercise tolerance (r=-0.39, p < 0.05); and fibrosis index with FVC (r=-0.31, p=0.05) and TLC (r=-0.38, p=0.02). Higher total HRCT score, and inflammation and fibrosis indices were found in patients with abnormal lung function. Conclusion: Qualitative HRCT is able to evaluate inflammation and fibrosis, showing important relationships with diffusion capacity and lung volume, respectively

  8. A comparison between tandem and ovoids and interstitial gynecologic template brachytherapy dosimetry using a hypothetical computer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, I-Chow J.; Speight, Joycelyn; Hai, Jenny; Vigneault, Eric; Phillips, Theodore; Pouliot, Jean

    2002-01-01

    coverage of the region lateral to the cervix. Smaller volumes of the vagina and uterine fundus received the full dose from the interstitial implant. The cumulative dose-volume histograms revealed larger high-dose regions within the treatment volume for the intracavitary system. The volumes receiving ≥180% of the prescription dose were 31 cc and 17 cc for the intracavitary system and interstitial system, respectively. The isodose lines showed that most of this difference results from the high-dose region around the tandem. The percentage dose-volume histograms showed that a larger percentage of cervix received a higher dose in the intracavitary system. Fifty-two percent of the target volume received 200% or higher of the prescription dose with tandem and ovoids, compared with only 20% with the template system. Analysis of dose points outside of the 100% isodose lines showed a slightly more rapid dose drop-off with the interstitial system compared to the intracavitary system. Point doses at 20, 25, and 30 mm from the tandem in the interstitial system were 100%, 69%, and 51% of prescribed dose, and from the intracavitary system were 101%, 76%, and 58%, respectively. Conclusions: Our dosimetric analysis revealed a better coverage in the parametrial regions, but underdosage of the central cervical region, for the interstitial system. On the other hand, because of the increased distance of source to dose point, there is a more rapid dose drop-off outside the treated volume with the interstitial system, which has the potential to improve tissue sparing. Based on this analysis, we caution against using a radiotherapy system with a homogenous central dose distribution when treating cervical cancer with an intact uterus. We recommend differential loading of the implant catheters with the majority of dose delivered from the tandem when using an interstitial GYN template with remote afterloader

  9. Enhancement of CD147 on M1 macrophages induces differentiation of Th17 cells in the lung interstitial fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jie-jie; Zhang, Kui; Chen, Li-na; Miao, Jin-lin; Yao, Meng; Ren, Ying; Fu, Zhi-guang; Chen, Zhi-nan; Zhu, Ping

    2014-09-01

    Lung interstitial fibrosis is a chronic lung disease, and few effective therapies are available to halt or reverse the progression of the disease. In murine and human lung fibrosis, the expression of CD147 is increased. However, the role of CD147 in lung fibrosis has not been identified, and it remains to be determined whether lung fibrosis would be improved by decreasing the expression of CD147. A murine bleomycin-induced lung interstitial fibrosis model was used in the experiments, and HAb18 mAbs and CsA were administered during the induction of lung fibrosis. In our study, we found that the HAb18 mAbs markedly reduced the collagen score and down-regulated M1 macrophages and Th17 cells. In vitro, flow cytometry analysis showed that M1 macrophages induced higher Th17 differentiation than M2 macrophages. After treatment with HAb18 mAbs or after reducing the expression of CD147 by lentivirus interference in M1 macrophages, the level of Th17 cells were significantly inhibited. In conclusion, HAb18 mAbs or CsA treatment ameliorates lung interstitial fibrosis. CD147 promoted M1 macrophage and induced the differentiation of Th17 cells in lung interstitial fibrosis, perhaps by regulating some cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-23. These results indicated that CD147 may play an important role in the development of lung interstitial fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interstitial impurity interactions and dislocation microdynamics in Mo crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, D.N.

    1975-05-01

    The effects of interstitial impurities on the mechanical properties of molybdenum are explored by comparing results obtained for crystals of various interstitial contents controlled by ultra-high vacuum outgassing. Results show a modulus reduction for as-grown samples and for outgassed specimens at low applied stresses. As a function of plastic microstrain, the values of modulus defect for both as-grown and outgassed specimens saturate at the same value. Interstitial impurities act as pinning agents to dislocation bowing, but when all the easy dislocation loops have broken away from local interstitial pins, the modulus defect reaches a constant saturation value. Etch pitting techniques were used to correlate microstrain observations with dislocation generation and motion. It has been found that edge dislocation generation and movement are active in the microstrain region while screw dislocations are relatively inactive until the macrostrain region is reached. Dislocation velocities range from 10 -6 to 10 -3 cm/s and the average distance between interstitial impurity pinning points is found to be approximately 8 x 10 -4 cm. (U.S.)

  11. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Alberto; Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta; Bordes, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Effects of solute interstitial elements on swelling of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiegler, J.O.; Leitnaker, J.M.; Bloom, E.E.

    1975-01-01

    High-purity stainless steel (HPS), equivalent to type 316 stainless steel in major alloy elements but with greatly reduced interstitial elements and manganese contents, was irradiated in the temperature range 725 to 875 K to fluences ranging from 1.0 to 3.5 x 10 26 neutrons/m 2 (>0.1 MeV). The HPS swelled 20 to 50 times more than commercial grade 316 stainless steel (316 SS), and about the same as commercial-purity nickel, which has about the same interstitial content as HPS. A fine-grained 316 SS in which interstitial elements but not manganese were precipitated by thermomechanical treatments also showed exaggerated swelling, approaching that of HPS, which suggests that swelling in commercial stainless steels is retarded by small amounts of interstitial elements normally present in them and not by the major alloying elements. Interstitials tend to precipitate from solution during irradiation, and bulk extractions of precipitate particles were made to evaluate the extent of the precipitation reactions. At both 643 and 853 K precipitation was clearly enhanced by irradiation significantly enough to alter the matrix composition, which suggests that swelling may be increased at high fluences over that predicted by extrapolation of lower fluence data. These observations are discussed in terms of potential behaviour of fuel cladding materials and of the validity and interpretation of accelerated schemes for simulating neutron damage. (author)

  13. Acute Abdomen in Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy, An Emergency Laparoscopic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Picardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present case report demonstrates a laparoscopic approach to treat interstitial cornual pregnancy in emergency. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tube which accounts for 2–4% of all ectopic pregnancies and has the potential to cause life-threatening hemorrhage at rupture. The mortality rate for a woman diagnosed with such a pregnancy is 2–2.5%. Diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy is made by ultrasound. In this case a 32 year-old woman, Gravida 0 Parity 0 Living 0 Ectopic 1, presented to the emergency obstetrical room complaining acute abdominal pain. There was a history of 10 weeks of pregnancy but no pelvic ultrasound scan was performed before the access. A transvaginal ultrasound scan immediately performed demonstrated a gestational sac with viable fetus in the right interstitial region. Moreover there was an ultrasound evidence of hemoperitoneum. She was transferred to the operating room and an emergency laparoscopy surgery was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged two days after the surgery. Interstitial pregnancies present a difficult management problem with no absolute standard of care in literature. Laparoscopic technique is under study with favorable results. For our personal point of view a treatment via laparoscopy could be performed both in elective and in emergency cases.

  14. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Californium-252 interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtyurin, B.M.; Ivanov, V.N.; Medvedev, V.S.; Galantseva, G.F.; Abdulkadyrov, S.A.; Ivanova, L.F.; Petrovskaya, G.A.; Plichko, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    A clinical study using 252 Cf sources in brachytherapy of tumors began in the Research Institute of Medical Radiology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in 1973. 252 Cf afterloading cells were utilized by the method of simple afterloading. Dosimetry and radiation protection of medical personnel were developed. To substantiate optimal therapeutic doses of 252 Cf neutrons, a correlation of dose, time, and treatment volume factors with clinical results of 252 Cf interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue for 47 patients with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year was studied. Forty-nine interstitial implants have been performed. Seventeen patients received 252 Cf implants alone (Group I), 17 other patients received 252 Cf implants in combination with external radiation (Group II), and 15 patients were treated with interstitial implants for recurrent or residual tumors (Groups III). Complete regression of carcinoma of the tongue was obtained in 48 patients (98%). Thirteen patients (27%) developed radiation necrosis. The therapeutic dose of neutron radiation from 252 Cf sources in interstitial radiotherapy of primary tongue carcinomas (Group I) was found to be 7 to 9 Gy. Optimal therapeutic neutron dose in combined interstitial and external radiotherapy of primary tumors (Group II) was 5 to 6 Gy with an external radiation dose of 40 Gy. For recurrent and residual tumors (Group III), favorable results were obtained with tumor doses of 6.5 to 7 Gy

  16. Dislocation climb and interstitial loop growth under cascade damage irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.; Semenov, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of intracascade clustering and recombination in radiation damage have been considered previously in semiquantitative calculations involving vacancy accumulation at voids, within the concept of production bias. To model void swelling and microstructural evolution quantitatively, similar effects on dislocation climb and interstitial loop growth have to be considered. In this regard, at elevated temperatures (such as in the peak-swelling temperature regime), the concentration of freely migrating vacancies is much higher than that of the interstitials, owing to the evaporation from the primary vacancy clusters (i.e. those produced by intracascade clustering). It is not immediately obvious how the dislocations can be net interstitials sinks, and hence that the observed nucleation and growth of the interstitial loops at elevated temperatures can be correctly predicted as in the conventional theory. To address these basic questions, a rate theory model is formulated in this paper, which describes the dislocation climb and loop growth in the presence of intracascade primary clusters. Within this model, conservation equations for the concentrations and average radii of the two kinds of primary cluster are derived, and the corresponding steady-state concentrations and average radii are calculated. From this, the dislocation climb velocity and interstitial loop growth rate are calculated. On the basis of the results of this calculation, some of the basic questions of production bias are discussed. (Author)

  17. Free treatment, rapid malaria diagnostic tests and malaria village workers can hasten progress toward achieving the malaria related millennium development goals: the Médecins Sans Frontières experience from Chad, Sierra-Leone and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Tayler-Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Halving the burden of malaria by 2015 and ensuring that 80% of people with malaria receive treatment is among the health related targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. Despite political momentum toward achieving this target, progress is slow and many with malaria (particularly in poor and rural communities in Africa are still without access to effective treatment. Finding ways to improve access to anti-malarial treatment in Africa is essential to achieve the malaria related and other MDG targets. During its work in Chad, Sierra Leone and Mali in the period 2004 to 2008, Médecins Sans Frontières showed that it was possible to significantly improve access to effective malaria treatment through: i the removal of health centre level user fees for essential healthcare for vulnerable population groups, ii the introduction of free community based treatment for children using malaria village workers to diagnose and treat simple malaria in communities where geographical and financial barriers limited access to effective malaria care, iii the improved diagnosis and treatment of malaria using rapid diagnosis tests and artemisinin based combination therapy, at both health facilities and in the community. This paper describes and discusses these strategies and their related impact.

  18. Interstitial integrals in the multiple-scattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.R.; Dill, D.

    1982-01-01

    We present an efficient method for the evaluation of integrals involving multiple-scattering wave functions over the interstitial region. Transformation of the multicenter interstitial wave functions to a single center representation followed by a geometric projection reduces the integrals to products of analytic angular integrals and numerical radial integrals. The projection function, which has the value 1 in the interstitial region and 0 elsewhere, has a closed-form partial-wave expansion. The method is tested by comparing its results with exact normalization and dipole integrals; the differences are 2% at worst and typically less than 1%. By providing an efficient means of calculating Coulomb integrals, the method allows treatment of electron correlations using a multiple scattering basis set

  19. Acute ciprofloxacin-induced crystal nephropathy with granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Goli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is caused by the intratubular precipitation of crystals, which results in obstruction and kidney injury. Ciprofloxacin, a commonly used antibiotic, causes AKI secondary to immune-mediated interstitial injury. Rare mechanisms of ciprofloxacin-induced renal injury include crystalluria, rhabdomyolysis, and granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Clinical and experimental studies have suggested that crystalluria and crystal nephropathy due to ciprofloxacin occur in alkaline urine. Preexisting kidney function impairment, high dose of the medication, and advanced age predispose to this complication. We report a case of ciprofloxacin-induced crystal nephropathy and granulomatous interstitial nephritis in a young patient with no other predisposing factors. The patient responded to conservative treatment without the need for glucocorticoids.

  20. Lung lobar volume in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hisao; Koba, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Tsukasa; Abe, Shosaku.

    1997-01-01

    We measured lung lobar volume by using helical computed tomography (HCT) in 23 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), 7 patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD-IP), and 5 healthy volunteers HCT scanning was done at the maximal inspiratory level and the resting end-expiratory level. To measure lung lobar volume, we traced the lobar margin on HCT images with a digitizer and calculated the lobar volume with a personal computer. The lower lobar volume and several factors influencing it in chronic interstitial pneumonia were studied. At the maximal inspiratory level, the lower lobar volume as a percent of the whole lung volume was 46.8±4.13% (mean ± SD) in the volunteers, 39.5±6.19% in the patients with IIP, and 27.7±7. 86% in the patients with CVD-IP. The lower lobar volumes in the patients were significantly lower than in the volunteers. Patients with IIP in whom autoantibody tests were positive had lower lobar volumes that were very low and were similar to those of patients with CVD-IP. These data suggest that collagen vascular disease may develop in patients with interstitial pneumonia. The patients with IIP who had emphysematous changes on the CT scans had smaller decreases in total lung capacity and lower ratios of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity than did those who had no emphysematous changes, those two groups did not differ in the ratio of lower lobar volume to whole lung volume. This suggests that emphysematous change is not factor influencing lower lobar volume in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia. We conclude that chronic interstitial pneumonia together with very low values for lower lobar volume may be a pulmonary manifestation of collagen vascular disease. (author)

  1. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema in neonates -reporting of 11 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, Beatriz Regina; Santos Mezzacappa, Maria Aparecida dos; Marba, Sergio Tadeu Martins

    1997-01-01

    The present paper relates the radiologic and clinical aspects of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in 11 infants submitted to assisted ventilation. The radiologic diagnosis was made using the classification of Boothroyd and Barson (levels I to III). A prevalence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema of levels II and III was observed in masculine premature infants with hyaline membrane disease and intrauterine pneumonia. Mortality was high and occurred in the infants with advanced levels of the disease. The authors emphasize the importance of early radiologic diagnosis of this condition during the treatment of premature infants submitted to assisted ventilation. (author)

  2. Interstitial diffusion in crystal and the Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyublik, A.Ya.

    1976-01-01

    The role of different vibrational states of a crystal is taken into account in the model of interstitial uncorrelated jumps. The relation of the diffusion coefficient for an interstitial with probabilities of jumps is found. The cross section for resonant absorption of γ-quanta by a nucleus of a diffusing atom in a crystal is calculated. The existence of vibrational levels is shown to lead to less broadening and intensity of the Moessbauer line than those predicted by the simple model of jumps. The absorption line shape for atom jumping through octahedral sites in bcc lattice is investigated [ru

  3. Dose and volume specification for reporting interstitial therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The ICRU has previously published reports dealing with Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy with Photons and Electrons (ICRU Report 29, ICRU, 1978), Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 50, ICRU, 1993) and Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology (ICRU Report 38, ICRU, 1985). The present report addresses the problem of absorbed dose specification for report interstitial therapy. Although specific to interstitial therapy, many of the concepts developed in this report are also applicable to certain other kinds of brachytherapy applications. In particular, special cases of intraluminal brachytherapy and plesio-brachytherapy via surface molds employing x or gamma emitters are addressed in this report

  4. Global concepts of bladder pain syndrome (interstitial cystitis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus; Hanno, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS), commonly referred to as "interstitial cystitis", is no longer considered a rare disorder. It may affect up to 2.7% of the adult female population (Ueda et al. in Int J Urol 10:1-70, 2003) with up to 20% of cases occurring in men.......Bladder pain syndrome (BPS), commonly referred to as "interstitial cystitis", is no longer considered a rare disorder. It may affect up to 2.7% of the adult female population (Ueda et al. in Int J Urol 10:1-70, 2003) with up to 20% of cases occurring in men....

  5. Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: Aetiology, evaluation and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rourke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome (BPS is often a chronic debilitating condition characterised by predominantly storage symptoms and associated frequently with pelvic pain that varies with bladder filling. The aetiology is uncertain as the condition occurs in the absence of a urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology. Resulting discomfort may vary and ranges from abdominal tenderness to intense bladder spasms. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult and is often made by its typical cystoscopic features. This review discusses the diagnosis and management of interstitial cystitis according to the current available best evidence and advises a multimodal approach in its management.

  6. On the atomic displacement fields of small interstitial dislocation loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Dudarev, S.L.; Jenkins, M.L.; Sutton, A.P.; Kirk, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The atomic displacement fields of dislocation loops of size 1-5 nm formed by self-interstitial atoms in α-Fe have been calculated using isotropic elasticity theory and anisotropic elasticity theory, and compared with atomic simulations for loops formed by 43-275 self-interstitial atoms. The atomic displacements predicted by anisotropic elasticity theory were in good agreement with those given by the atomistic simulations at distances greater than 3 nm from the loop plane, but the displacements predicted by isotropic elasticity theory showed significant discrepancies at distances up to 15 nm

  7. Interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality in smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyer, Nils; Wille, Mathilde M W; Thomsen, Laura H

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether smokers with incidental findings of interstitial lung abnormalities have an increased mortality during long-term follow-up, and review the contributing causes of death. METHODS: Baseline CT scans of 1990 participants from the Danish Lung...... in this lung cancer screening population of relatively healthy smokers and were associated with mortality regardless of the interstitial morphological phenotype. The increased mortality was partly due to an association with lung cancer and non-pulmonary malignancies....

  8. Interstitial cells of Cajal in human gut and gastrointestinal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderwinden, J M; Rumessen, J J

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, based on ultrastructural and immunohistochemical evidence. The distribution and morphology of ICC at each level of the normal GI tracts is addressed from the perspective of their fun......This paper reviews the distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, based on ultrastructural and immunohistochemical evidence. The distribution and morphology of ICC at each level of the normal GI tracts is addressed from the perspective...

  9. A Patient with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia during Ibrutinib Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Sven; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Schönfeld, Nicolas; Blum, Torsten-Gerriet; Großwendt, Claudia; Boch, Christian; Rehbock, Beate; Griff, Sergej; Schmittel, Alexander; Bauer, Torsten T

    2017-01-01

    We present a 74-year-old male with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) during treatment with ibrutinib for mantle cell lymphoma. Previously, the patient had received six cycles of bendamustine and rituximab and six cycles of R-CHOP, followed by rituximab maintenance therapy. Respiratory tract complications of ibrutinib other than infectious pneumonia have not been mentioned in larger trials, but individual case reports hinted to a possible association with the development of pneumonitis. In our patient, the onset of alveolitis that progressed towards NSIP together with the onset of ibrutinib treatment suggests causality. One week after ibrutinib was discontinued, nasal symptoms resolved first. A follow-up CT showed a reduction in the reticular hyperdensities and ground-glass opacities, suggestive of restitution of the lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case showing a strong link between ibrutinib and interstitial lung disease, strengthening a previous report on subacute pneumonitis. Our findings have clinical implications because pulmonary side effects were reversible at this early stage. We, therefore, suggest close monitoring for respiratory side effects in patients receiving ibrutinib.

  10. A Patient with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia during Ibrutinib Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Jungmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 74-year-old male with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP during treatment with ibrutinib for mantle cell lymphoma. Previously, the patient had received six cycles of bendamustine and rituximab and six cycles of R-CHOP, followed by rituximab maintenance therapy. Respiratory tract complications of ibrutinib other than infectious pneumonia have not been mentioned in larger trials, but individual case reports hinted to a possible association with the development of pneumonitis. In our patient, the onset of alveolitis that progressed towards NSIP together with the onset of ibrutinib treatment suggests causality. One week after ibrutinib was discontinued, nasal symptoms resolved first. A follow-up CT showed a reduction in the reticular hyperdensities and ground-glass opacities, suggestive of restitution of the lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case showing a strong link between ibrutinib and interstitial lung disease, strengthening a previous report on subacute pneumonitis. Our findings have clinical implications because pulmonary side effects were reversible at this early stage. We, therefore, suggest close monitoring for respiratory side effects in patients receiving ibrutinib.

  11. Inhibiting aerobic glycolysis suppresses renal interstitial fibroblast activation and renal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Jiang, Lei; Xu, Jing; Bai, Feng; Zhou, Yang; Yuan, Qi; Luo, Jing; Zen, Ke; Yang, Junwei

    2017-09-01

    Chronic kidney diseases generally lead to renal fibrosis. Despite great progress having been made in identifying molecular mediators of fibrosis, the mechanism that governs renal fibrosis remains unclear, and so far no effective therapeutic antifibrosis strategy is available. Here we demonstrated that a switch of metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) in renal fibroblasts was the primary feature of fibroblast activation during renal fibrosis and that suppressing renal fibroblast aerobic glycolysis could significantly reduce renal fibrosis. Both gene and protein assay showed that the expression of glycolysis enzymes was upregulated in mouse kidneys with unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) surgery or in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated renal interstitial fibroblasts. Aerobic glycolysis flux, indicated by glucose uptake and lactate production, was increased in mouse kidney with UUO nephropathy or TGF-β1-treated renal interstitial fibroblasts and positively correlated with fibrosis process. In line with this, we found that increasing aerobic glycolysis can remarkably induce myofibroblast activation while aerobic glycolysis inhibitors shikonin and 2-deoxyglucose attenuate UUO-induced mouse renal fibrosis and TGF-β1-stimulated myofibroblast activation. Furthermore, mechanistic study indicated that shikonin inhibits renal aerobic glycolysis via reducing phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase type M2, a rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme associated with cell reliance on aerobic glycolysis. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the critical role of aerobic glycolysis in renal fibrosis and support treatment with aerobic glycolysis inhibitors as a potential antifibrotic strategy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Interstitial lung disease in an adult with Fanconi anemia: Clues to the pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, W.S.; Wenger, S.L.; Hoffman, R.M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-31

    We have studied a 38-year-old man with a prior diagnosis of Holt-Oram syndrome, who presented with diabetes mellitus. He had recently taken prednisone for idiopathic interstitial lung disease and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for sinusitis. Thrombocytopenia progressed to pancytopenia. The patient had skeletal, cardiac, renal, cutaneous, endocrine, hepatic, neurologic, and hematologic manifestations of Fanconi anemia (FA). Chest radiographs showed increased interstitial markings at age 25, dyspnea began in his late 20s, and he stopped smoking at age 32. At age 38, computerized tomography showed bilateral upper lobe fibrosis, lower lobe honeycombing, and bronchiectasis. Pulmonary function tests, compromised at age 29, showed a moderately severe obstructive and restrictive pattern by age 38. Serum alpha-1 antitrypsin level was 224 (normal 85-213) mg/dL and PI phenotype was M1. Karyotype was 46,X-Y with a marked increase in chromosome aberrations induced in vitro by diepoxybutane. The early onset and degree of pulmonary disease in this patient cannot be fully explained by environmental or known genetic causes. The International Fanconi Anemia Registry (IFAR) contains no example of a similar pulmonary presentation. Gene-environment (ecogenetic) interactions in FA seem evident in the final phenotype. The pathogenic mechanism of lung involvement in FA may relate to oxidative injury and cytokine anomalies. 49 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Posttreatment biopsy results following interstitial brachytherapy in early-stage prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestidge, Bradley R.; Hoak, David C.; Grimm, Peter D.; Ragde, Haakon; Cavanagh, William; Blasko, John C.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess pathologic control rates for prostatic carcinoma as determined by postimplant prostate biopsy in a large series of consecutive patients who have received permanent interstitial brachytherapy using a contemporary transrectal ultrasound-directed, transperineal, computer generated, volume technique. Methods and Materials: Four hundred and two patients received permanent 125 I or 103 Pd interstitial brachytherapy as primary treatment for early stage prostatic carcinoma at the Northwest Tumor Institute between January 1988 and January 1994. Of these, 201 have consented to biopsy 12 or more months postimplant with a median follow-up of 40 months (range: 12-83 months). None had received homonal manipulation. A total of 361 biopsies was performed on 201 patients with a range of one to six annual biopsies per patient (91 received multiple, serial biopsies). Of the 161 patients more than 12 months postimplant who have not been biopsied, most have been unwilling or unable to submit to biopsy. Only six patients with biochemical progression have not been biopsied. There was no difference in the presenting characteristics or implant parameters between those patients biopsied and those that were not. One hundred and forty-three received 125 I (71%) prescribed to a MPD of 160 Gy with a median activity of 35.5 mCi, and 58 (29%) received 103 Pd prescribed to a MPD of 115 Gy with a median activity of 123 mCi. Multiple biopsies were performed under transrectal ultrasound guidance, and all specimens were classified as either negative, indeterminate, or positive. Results: At the time of last biopsy, 161 (80%) have achieved negative pathology, 34 (17%) remain indeterminate, and 6 (3%) have been positive. Only 2 of the 186 patients with a PSA < 4.0 ng/ml at the time of biopsy were positive. Among those 33 indeterminate patients with a subsequent biopsy, 28 have converted to negative, 2 to positive, and 3 remain unchanged to date. Conclusions: These data demonstrate at

  14. Ozone depletion in the interstitial air of the seasonal snowpack in northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Nakayama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To examine the behaviour of ozone (O3 in the seasonal snowpack, measurements were taken of O3 and CO2 in the interstitial air on Rishiri Island, which is located in northern Japan, during the 2010/11 winter season. Exhibiting variation on timescales ranging from several minutes to several days, the atmospheric O3 in the surface air generally increased from December (38 ppb to April (52 ppb. The ozone mixing ratio sharply decreased below the snow surface. Whereas the CO2 data in the interstitial air indicated that a rapid exchange between the snow and the atmosphere occurred intermittently, the O3 mixing ratio remained low and constant (<5 ppb in the snowpack interior. The vertical profile of the O3 mixing ratio indicates that the e-folding lifetime of the O3 loss reaction was 5.0±2.3 minutes during the day and 10.0±6.3 minutes at night, suggesting photochemical O3 depletion occurred during the daytime. Kinetic experiments using ambient (maritime air and snow indicate that the photochemical O3 loss is proportional to the solar radiation and that the O3 loss rate decreases as dawn approaches during the night. The result of the kinetic experiments using artificial O3 in the pure air and snow suggests the important role of gaseous species in the ambient air towards O3 depletion.

  15. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  16. Interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension associated with suspected ehrlichiosis in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toom, Marjolein Lisette den; Dobak, Tetyda Paulina; Broens, Els Marion; Valtolina, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In dogs with canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), respiratory signs are uncommon and clinical and radiographic signs of interstitial pneumonia are poorly described. However, in human monocytic ehrlichiosis, respiratory signs are common and signs of interstitial pneumonia are well known.

  17. Interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in shelf sediments off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma; Raju, G.R.K.

    Spatial distribution of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in the shelf sediments shows an increasing trend with distance from coastal to inshore region. Maximum concentration ranges of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates are 16-19 and 40-50 mu g...

  18. [New toxicity of fotemustine: diffuse interstitial lung disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M; Wémeau-Stervinou, L; Gauthier, S; Auffret, M; Mortier, L

    2012-04-01

    Fotemustine is an alkylating cytostatic drug belonging to the nitrosourea family and is used in particular in the treatment of disseminated malignant melanoma. Herein, we report a case of interstitial lung disease associated with fotemustine. An 81-year-old man treated with fotemustine for metastatic melanoma presented acute interstitial lung disease 20 days after a fourth course of fotemustine monotherapy. The condition regressed spontaneously, with the patient returning to the clinical, radiological and blood gas status that had preceded fotemustine treatment. After other potential aetiologies had been ruled out, acute fotemustine-induced lung toxicity was considered and this treatment was definitively withdrawn. Other cytostatic agents belonging to the nitrosourea family can cause similar pictures, with a number of cases of interstitial lung disease thus being ascribed to fotemustine and dacarbazine. To our knowledge, this is the first case of interstitial lung disease induced by fotemustine monotherapy. This diagnosis should be considered where respiratory signs appear in melanoma patients undergoing fotemustine treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Total energy calculations and molecular dynamics simulations employing DFT are reliable tools ... as well as predicting equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties. Self-consistent ..... produced by interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd. The quantity of central interest .... These numbers are in reasonable qualitative agreement.

  20. Fine sand in motion: the influence of interstitial air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sand is a granular material, and therefore it consists of individual grains arranged in a packing. The pores in-between the grains are usually filled with a fluid, in this case air. Now, is this interstitial air able to influence the behavior of the sand bed as a whole? When a ball impacts on fine,

  1. Pulmonary scan in evaluating alveolar-interstitial syndrome in ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Volpicelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse comet-tail artifacts at lung ultrasound are due to thickened interlobular septa and extravascular lung water. This condition is typical of the alveolar-interstitial syndrome due to pulmonary edema, diffuse parenchymal lung disease or ARDS. Aim of our study is to assess the potential of bedside lung ultrasound to diagnose the alveolar-interstitial syndrome in patients admitted to our emergency medicine unit. The ultrasonic feature of multiple and diffuse comet-tail artifacts was investigated during 5 months, in 121 consecutive patients admitted to our unit. Each patient was studied bedside in a supine position, by 8 antero-lateral pulmonary intercostal scans. Ultrasonic results were compared with chest radiograph and clinical outcome. Lung ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 98% in diagnosing the radiologic alveolar-interstitial syndrome. Corresponding figures in the identification of a disease involving lung interstitium were 83% and 96%. These preliminary data show that the study of comet-tail artifacts at lung ultrasound is a method reasonably accurate for diagnosing the alveolar-interstitial syndrome at bedside. This conclusion opens the hypothesis of the usefullness of bedside lung ultrasound in the evaluation of dyspnoeic patients in the emergency setting.

  2. Pulmonary function vascular index predicts prognosis in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corte, Tamera J.; Wort, Stephen J.; MacDonald, Peter S.; Edey, Anthony; Hansell, David M.; Renzoni, Elisabetta; Maher, Toby M.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Bandula, Steven; Bresser, Paul; Wells, Athol U.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality in fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). We hypothesize that baseline KCO (diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide/alveolar volume) and 6-month decline in KCO reflect PH, thus predicting mortality

  3. Intravesical NGF Antisense Therapy Using Lipid Nanoparticle for Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    4):572–577. 68. Okragly AJ, Niles AL, Saban R, et al. Elevated tryptase, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin -3 and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic... neurotrophin -3 and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the urine of318 interstitial cystitis and bladder cancer patients. The

  4. Investigations of lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathungage Don, Tharanga; Richard Clarke Collaboration; John Cater Collaboration; Vinod Suresh Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The lymphatic system is a highly complex biological system that facilitates the drainage of excess fluid in body tissues. In addition, it is an integral part of the immunological control system. Understanding the mechanisms of fluid absorption from the interstitial space and flow through the initial lymphatics is important to treat several pathological conditions. The main focus of this study is to computationally model the lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space. The model has been developed to consider a 3D lymphatic network and uses biological data to inform the creation of realistic geometries for the lymphatic capillary networks. We approximate the interstitial space as a porous region and the lymphatic vessel walls as permeable surfaces. The dynamics of the flow is approximated by Darcy's law in the interstitium and the Navier-Stokes equations in the lymphatic capillary lumen. The proposed model examines lymph drainage as a function of pressure gradient. In addition, we have examined the effects of interstitial and lymphatic wall permeabilities on the lymph drainage and the solute transportation in the model. The computational results are in accordance with the available experimental measurements.

  5. [Lung transplantation in pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berastegui, Cristina; Monforte, Victor; Bravo, Carlos; Sole, Joan; Gavalda, Joan; Tenório, Luis; Villar, Ana; Rochera, M Isabel; Canela, Mercè; Morell, Ferran; Roman, Antonio

    2014-09-15

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the second indication for lung transplantation (LT) after emphysema. The aim of this study is to review the results of LT for ILD in Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona, Spain). We retrospectively studied 150 patients, 87 (58%) men, mean age 48 (r: 20-67) years between August 1990 and January 2010. One hundred and four (69%) were single lung transplants (SLT) and 46 (31%) bilateral-lung transplants (BLT). The postoperative diagnoses were: 94 (63%) usual interstitial pneumonia, 23 (15%) nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, 11 (7%) unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia and 15% miscellaneous. We describe the functional results, complications and survival. The actuarial survival was 87, 70 and 53% at one, 3 and 5 years respectively. The most frequent causes of death included early graft dysfunction and development of chronic rejection in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans (BOS). The mean postoperative increase in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) was similar in SLT and BLT. The best FEV1 was reached after 10 (r: 1-36) months. Sixteen percent of patients returned to work. At some point during the evolution, proven acute rejection was diagnosed histologically in 53 (35%) patients. The prevalence of BOS among survivors was 20% per year, 45% at 3 years and 63% at 5 years. LT is the best treatment option currently available for ILD, in which medical treatment has failed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. In situ sampling of interstitial water from lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Albertus G.; van Raaphorst, Wim; Lijklema, Lambertus

    1982-01-01

    A sampler with a relatively high resolution has been developed, which allows interstitial water to be obtained from lake sediments at well defined depths, without serious disturbance of sediment structure. Oxidation effects are excluded. Sampling time is in the order of a day. Installation requires

  7. Morphology of the Interstitial Tissue of Active and Resting Testis of the Guinea Fowl

    OpenAIRE

    Dharani, Palanisamy; Kumary, S. Usha; Sundaram, Venkatesan; Joseph, Cecilia; Ramesh, Geetha

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY: The morphology of the interstitial tissue of sexually active and resting testis of the guinea fowl were studied. Six adult health birds of active and resting phases of reproductive cycle were used for this study. The interstitial tissue consisted of loose connective tissue, interstitial cells (Leydig cells), few connective cells, blood vessels and adrenergic nerve fibres in the present study in both active and resting testes. The interstitial tissue was compact in sexually active tes...

  8. Interstitial cells of Cajal in human small intestine. Ultrastructural identification and organization between the main smooth muscle layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri Johannes; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, small intestine, gut motility, pacemaker cells, smooth muscle......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, small intestine, gut motility, pacemaker cells, smooth muscle...

  9. Fine interstitial clusters as recombinators in decomposing solid solutions under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trushin, Yu.V.

    1991-01-01

    Behaviour of interstitial clusters and their roll in processes of radiation swelling of metals are described. It is shown that occurrence of coherent advanced precipitations during decomposition of solid solutions under irradiation leads to matrix supersaturation over interstitial atoms. This enhances recombination of unlike defects due to vacancy precipitation on fine interstitial clusters. Evaluation of cluster sizes was conducted

  10. Microdefects and self-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    In this thesis, a study is presented of D-defects and self-interstitial diffusion in silicon using Li ion (Li{sup +}) drifting in an electric field and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Obstruction of Li{sup +} drifting has been found in wafers from certain but not all FZ p-type Si. Incomplete Li{sup +} drifting always occurs in the central region of the wafers. This work established that interstitial oxygen is not responsible for hindering Li{sup +} drifting. TEM was performed on a samples from the partially Li{sup +} drifted area and compared to regions without D-defects. Precipitates were found only in the region containing D-defects that had partially Li{sup +} drifted. This result indicates D-defects are responsible for the precipitation that halts the Li{sup +} drift process. Nitrogen (N) doping has been shown to eliminate D-defects as measured by conventional techniques. Li{sup +} drifting and D-defects provide a useful means to study Si self-interstitial diffusion. The process modeling program SUPREM-IV was used to simulate the results of Si self-interstitial diffusion obtained from Li{sup +} drifting experiments. Anomalous results from the Si self-interstitial diffusion experiments forced a re-examination of the possibility of thermal dissociation of D-defects. Thermal annealing experiments that were performed support this possibility. A review of the current literature illustrates the need for more research on the effects of thermal processing on FZ Si to understand the dissolution kinetics of D-defects.

  11. Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis: A New Entity within the Spectrum of Rare Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Portillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE is a rare entity that has been recently included in the official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS statement in 2013 as a group of rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs. PPFE is characterized by pleural and subpleural parenchymal thickening due to elastic fiber proliferation, mainly in the upper lobes. The etiology of the disease is unclear, although some cases have been associated as a complication after bone marrow transplantation, lung transplantation (LT, chemotherapy, and recurrent respiratory infections. The patients usually report progressive dyspnea and dry cough and are predisposed to develop spontaneous or iatrogenic pneumothoraces after surgical lung biopsy (SLB for its diagnosis. That is why better awareness with the clinical and radiologic features can help optimal management by the multidisciplinary team. Novel invasive techniques such as cryobiopsy may become useful tools in these patients as it could spare SLB. We present the first reported cases in Spain.

  12. The effects of self-interstitial clusters on cascade defect evolution beyond the primary damage state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, H.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The intracascade evolution of the defect distributions of cascades in copper is investigated using stochastic annealing simulations applied to cascades generated with molecular dynamics (MD). The temperature and energy dependencies of annihilation, clustering and free defect production are determined for individual cascades. The annealing simulation results illustrate the strong influence on intracascade evolution of the defect configuration existing in the primary damage state. Another factor significantly affecting the evolution of the defect distribution is the rapid one-dimensional diffusion of small, glissile interstitial loops produced directly in cascades. This phenomenon introduces a cascade energy dependence of defect evolution that is apparent only beyond the primary damage state, amplifying the need for further study of the annealing phase of cascade evolution and for performing many more MD cascade simulations at higher energies.

  13. The effects of self-interstitial clusters on cascade defect evolution beyond the primary damage state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The intracascade evolution of the defect distributions of cascades in copper is investigated using stochastic annealing simulations applied to cascades generated with molecular dynamics (MD). The temperature and energy dependencies of annihilation, clustering and free defect production are determined for individual cascades. The annealing simulation results illustrate the strong influence on intracascade evolution of the defect configuration existing in the primary damage state. Another factor significantly affecting the evolution of the defect distribution is the rapid one-dimensional diffusion of small, glissile interstitial loops produced directly in cascades. This phenomenon introduces a cascade energy dependence of defect evolution that is apparent only beyond the primary damage state, amplifying the need for further study of the annealing phase of cascade evolution and for performing many more MD cascade simulations at higher energies

  14. Computed tomographic-guided iodine-125 interstitial implants for malignant thoracic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qiming [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); The Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 34 Zhongshan Bei Road, Quanzhou 362000 (China); Chen, Jin; Chen, Qunlin [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Lai, Qingquan; Cai, Siqing [The Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 34 Zhongshan Bei Road, Quanzhou 362000 (China); Luo, Kaidong [The Department of Radiology, Longyan Hosptial of Traditional Chinese Medical, 59 Longteng Middle Road, Longyan 364000 (China); Lin, Zhengyu, E-mail: linsinlan@yahoo.com.cn [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy using iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) radioactive seeds under computed tomographic (CT) guidance for malignant thoracic tumors. Materials and methods: Forty-one patients (34 males, 7 females; 18–90 years; mean, 63.7 years) with 77 lesions (3 in the mediastinum, 7 in the chest wall, 67 in the lung) underwent percutaneous interstitial implantation of {sup 125}I radioactive seeds under CT guidance. A treatment planning system (TPS) was employed to calculate the number and distribution of seeds preoperatively. An 18-G needle was inserted into the lesions under CT guidance and send the seeds according to TPS. Two patients with mediastinal lesions undergoing seed implantation received an artificial pneumothorax. One patient with lung carcinoma adjacent to the anterior mediastinum underwent seed implantation through the sternum. Follow-up CT was done every 2 months postoperatively. Results: The procedure was successful in all patients. No major procedure-associated death occurred. The mean duration of follow-up was 19.4 ± 1.3 months (3–49 months). A complete response (CR) was seen in 49 lesions (63.6%), partial response (PR) in 9 lesions (11.7%), stable disease (SD) in 12 lesions (12.8%), and progressive disease (PD) in 7 lesions (7.4%). The overall response rate (CR + PR) was 75.3%; the local control rate (CR + PR + SD) was 90.9%. The 1-, 2- and 3-year progression-free rates for local tumors were 91%, 88% and 88%, respectively. The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 87%, 74% and 68%, respectively. Conclusion: Implantation of CT-guided {sup 125}I seeds is feasible and effective for patients with malignant thoracic tumors.

  15. Interstitial lung disease in anti-synthetase syndrome: Initial and follow-up CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debray, Marie-Pierre, E-mail: marie-pierre.debray@bch.aphp.fr [AP-HP, Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, Department of Radiology, 46, rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Borie, Raphael, E-mail: raphael.borie@bch.aphp.fr [AP-HP, Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, Department of Pneumology A and Centre de Compétence Maladies Pulmonaires rares, DHU Fire 46, rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Inserm, U1152, Paris (France); Revel, Marie-Pierre, E-mail: marie-pierre.revel@htd.aphp.fr [AP-HP, Cochin Hospital, Department of Radiology, 27, Rue du Fg Saint Jacques, 75679 Paris Cedex 14 (France); Naccache, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.naccache@tnn.aphp.fr [AP-HP, Avicenne Hospital, Department of Pneumology and Centre de Compétence Maladies Pulmonaires rares, Bobigny (France); AP-HP, Tenon Hospital, Department of Pneumology and Centre de Compétence Maladies Pulmonaires rares, 4, rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris (France); Khalil, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.khalil@tnn.aphp.fr [AP-HP, Tenon Hospital, Department of Radiology, 4, rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris (France); Toper, Cécile, E-mail: cecile.toper@gmail.com [AP-HP, Tenon Hospital, Department of Pneumology and Centre de Compétence Maladies Pulmonaires rares, 4, rue de la Chine, 75020 Paris (France); Israel-Biet, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.israel-biet@egp.aphp.fr [Université Paris Descartes and AP-HP, Department of Pneumology, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, 20, rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris (France); and others

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To describe the initial and follow-up CT features of interstitial lung disease associated with anti-synthetase syndrome (AS-ILD). Materials and methods: Two independent thoracic radiologists retrospectively analysed thin-section CT images obtained at diagnosis of AS-ILD in 33 patients (17 positive for anti-Jo1, 13 for anti-PL12, and three for anti-PL7 antibodies). They evaluated the pattern, distribution and extent of the CT abnormalities. They also evaluated the change in findings during follow-up (median 27 months; range 13–167 months) in 26 patients. Results: At diagnosis, ground-glass opacities (100%), reticulations (87%) and traction bronchiectasis (76%) were the most common CT findings. Consolidations were present in 45% of patients. A non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), organizing pneumonia (OP) or mixed NSIP-OP CT pattern were observed in 15 out of 33 (45%), seven out of 33 (21%) and eight out of 33 (24%) patients, respectively, whereas the CT pattern was indeterminate in three patients. During follow-up, consolidations decreased or disappeared in 11 out of 12 patients (92%), among which seven within the first 6 months, but honeycombing progressed or appeared in ten out of 26 patients (38%) and overall disease extent increased in nine out of 26 patients (35%). Conclusion: CT features at diagnosis of AS-ILD mainly suggest NSIP and OP, isolated or in combination. Consolidations decrease or disappear in most cases but the disease may progress to fibrosis in more than one third of patients.

  16. Tolerance of rat spinal cord to continuous interstitial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, Lucas A.M.; Plas, Mirjam van der; Ruifrok, Arnout C.C.; Schalkwijk, Lia J.M.; Hanssen, Alex E.J.; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the kinetics of repair in rat spinal cord during continuous interstitial irradiation at different dose rates and to investigate the impact of a rapid dose fall off over the spinal cord thickness. Material and Methods: Two parallel catheters were inserted on each side of the vertebral bodies from the level of T 10 to L 4 . These catheters were afterloaded with two 192 Ir- wires of 4 cm length each (activity 1 - 10 mCi/cm) or connected to the HDR- microSelectron. Experiments have been carried out to obtain complete dose response curves at 7 different dose rates: 0.53, 0.90, 1.64, 2.56, 4.4, 9.9 and 120 Gy/h. Paralysis of the hindlegs after 5 - 6 months and histopathological examination of the spinal cord of each animal were used as experimental endpoints. Results: The distribution of the histological damage was a good reflection of the rapid dose fall - off over the spinal cord, with white matter necrosis or demyelination predominantly seen in the dorsal tracts of the spinal cord or dorsal roots. With each reduction of the dose rate, spinal cord tolerance was significantly increased, with a maximum dose rate factor of 4.3 if the dose rate was reduced from 120 Gy/h to 0.53 Gy/h (ED 50 of 17.3 Gy and 75.0 Gy, respectively). Estimates of the repair parameters using different types of analysis are presented. For the direct analysis the best fit of the data was obtained if a biexponential function for repair was used. For the 100% dose prescribed at the ventral side of the spinal cord the (α(β)) ratio is 1.8 Gy (0.8 - 2.8) and two components of repair are observed: a slow component of repair of 2.44 h (1.18 - ∞) and a fast component of 0.15 h (0.02 - ∞). The proportion of the damage repaired with the slow component is 0.59 (0.18 - 1). For the maximum of 150% of the prescribed dose at the dorsal side of the spinal cord the (α(β)) ratio is 2.7 Gy (1.5 - 4.4); the two components for the kinetics of repair remain the same. Conclusions: Spinal cord

  17. Interstitial pO2 in ischemic penumbra and core are differentially affected following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shimin; Shi, Honglian; Liu, Wenlan; Furuichi, Takamitsu; Timmins, Graham S; Liu, Ke Jian

    2004-03-01

    Stroke causes heterogeneous changes in tissue oxygenation, with a region of decreased blood flow, the penumbra, surrounding a severely damaged ischemic core. Treatment of acute ischemic stroke aims to save this penumbra before its irreversible damage by continued ischemia. However, effective treatment remains elusive due to incomplete understanding of processes leading to penumbral death. While oxygenation is central in ischemic neuronal death, it is unclear exactly what actual changes occur in interstitial oxygen tension (pO2) in ischemic regions during stroke, particularly the penumbra. Using the unique capability of in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry to measure localized interstitial pO2, we measured both absolute values, and temporal changes of pO2 in ischemic penumbra and core during ischemia and reperfusion in a rat model. Ischemia rapidly decreased interstitial pO2 to 32% +/- 7.6% and 4% +/- 0.6% of pre-ischemic values in penumbra and core, respectively 1 hour after ischemia. Importantly, whilst reperfusion restored core pO2 close to its pre-ischemic value, penumbral pO2 only partially recovered. Hyperoxic treatment significantly increased penumbral pO2 during ischemia, but not in the core, and also increased penumbral pO2 during reperfusion. These divergent, important changes in pO2 in penumbra and core were explained by combined differences in cellular oxygen consumption rates and microcirculation conditions. We therefore demonstrate that interstitial pO2 in penumbra and core is differentially affected during ischemia and reperfusion, providing new insights to the pathophysiology of stroke. The results support normobaric hyperoxia as a potential early intervention to save penumbral tissue in acute ischemic stroke.

  18. Effects of γ irradiation of hydra: elimination of interstitial cells from viable hydra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, M.; Kakis, H.; Campbell, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Hydra attenuata and H. magnipapillata were γ-irradiated from a cesium source. All doses which had any observable effect (3000 rad and above) resulted in a reduction in the number of interstitial cells and of their differentiated product cells, or in the complete elimination of these cells. Interstitial cells were essentially completely eliminated within 5 days after irradiation doses above 5500 rad, and these hydra died. Irradiation doses of 4200 to 5500 rad resulted in a mixture of effects: some hydra recovered completely, some lost all interstitial cells and died, and some lost interstitial cells but could be propagated, as asexually reproducing clones, by hand feeding them. Hydra of some of these hand-fed clones entirely lacked interstitial cells and did not recover interstitial cells during subsequent culturing. Yet when these hydra were repopulated by interstitial cells from a normal hydra, they were restored to normal. Nerve cells became depleted more slowly than interstitial cells following irradiation, so animals can be obtained which possess nerve but no stem (interstitial) cells. The nerve cells and other derivatives of interstitial cells eventually disappear upon prolonged culture of the hydra. Thus γ irradiation can be used to eliminate interstitial cells from hydra, leaving viable polyps composed only of epithelial cells

  19. Determination of the population of octahedral and tetrahedral interstitials in zirconium hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.M.; Gogava, V.V.; Shilo, S.I.; Biryukova, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Results of neutron investigations of ZrHsub(1.66), ZrHsub(1.75) and ZrHsub(1.98) zirconium hydrides are presented. Investigations were conducted using plane polycrystal samples by multidetector system of scattered neutron detection. Neutron diffraction method was used to determine the number of interstitial hydrogen atoms in interstitials of the lattice cell in the case of statistic atom distribution. The numbers of interstitial atoms in octahedral interstitials for zirconium hydrides were determined experimentally; the difference of potential energies of hydrogen atoms in octa- and tetrahedral interstitials was determined as well. It is shown that experimentally determined difference of potential energies of hydrogen atoms, occupying octa- and tetrahedral positions in investigated zirconium hydrides results at room temperature in the pretailing occupation of tetrahedral interstitials by hydrogen atoms (85-90%); the occupation number grows with temperature decrease and the ordering of interstitial vacancies with formation of hydrogen superstructure takes place at low temperatures

  20. Interstitial irradiation of rectal carcinoma with rectal template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Kinji; Tanaka, Ken; Nakanishi, Makoto; Inoue, Takehiro

    1984-01-01

    Using Iridium-192 wires through a rectal template after Syed, interstitial brachytherapy was conducted in a patient with inoperable adenocarcinoma of the rectum. 67-year-old man with constipation and change in the stool caliber underwent external radiotherapy (4,000cGy/4W) to the whole pelvis including the perineum, followed by interstitial implant using a template, at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. Marked tumor regression, marked circumferential fibrosis and a remarkable decline of CEA titers (pre-RT: 35.8ng/ml, post-RT: 6.2ng/ml) were observed until 7 months post-RT. The domestic production of Iridium-192 wires has made possible the intergrated use of brachytherapy in the perineal region in Japan. (author)

  1. Remote inspection manipulators for AGR II: Babcock Power's interstitial manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyley, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The interstitial manipulator has been designed and built by Babcock Power for the remote visual inspection of AGR II reactors at Heysham and Torness. Its five drives are operated from a console local to the manipulator on the pile cap, or from a similar console located remotely. The need to operate from an interstitial ISI standpipe has restricted the size of the components entering the reactor, and this has consequently provided the major design constraint. A detailed structural assessment of the manipulator was carried out to demonstrate the ability to operate with payloads in excess of the largest camera weight of 13.6 kg. The manipulator finite element model was also used to determine static deflections, and, as a consequence, has provided data from which the control system is able to predict accurately the camera's position. Other computer aided design techniques have enabled the step by step sequences of manipulator deployment, in the restricted space available, to be successfully demonstrated. (author)

  2. Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W.

    1990-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant

  3. Explicit studies of the quantum theory of light interstitial diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.; Baskes, M.I.; Wilson, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    The formalism associated with small-polaron diffusion in the high temperature semiclassical regime is generalized so as to transcend simplifications employed in developing the nonadiabatic theory. The diffusion constant is then calculated for simple models in which the metal atoms interact with each other and with the interstitial atom with two-body forces. Studies of these models not only confirm the necessity of generalizing the formalism but also yield diffusion constants whose magnitudes and temperature dependenes ar consistent with the general features of the existing data for the diffusion of hydrogen and its isotopes in bcc metals. The motion of a positive muon between interstitial positions of a metal is also investigated

  4. Photoacoustic imaging driven by an interstitial irradiation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Mitcham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic (PA imaging has shown tremendous promise in providing valuable diagnostic and therapy-monitoring information in select clinical procedures. Many of these pursued applications, however, have been relatively superficial due to difficulties with delivering light deep into tissue. To address this limitation, this work investigates generating a PA image using an interstitial irradiation source with a clinical ultrasound (US system, which was shown to yield improved PA signal quality at distances beyond 13 mm and to provide improved spectral fidelity. Additionally, interstitially driven multi-wavelength PA imaging was able to provide accurate spectra of gold nanoshells and deoxyhemoglobin in excised prostate and liver tissue, respectively, and allowed for clear visualization of a wire at 7 cm in excised liver. This work demonstrates the potential of using a local irradiation source to extend the depth capabilities of future PA imaging techniques for minimally invasive interventional radiology procedures.

  5. MRI contrast agent concentration and tumor interstitial fluid pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2016-10-07

    The present work describes the relationship between tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) and the concentration of contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We predict the spatial distribution of TIFP based on that of contrast agent concentration. We also discuss the cases for estimating tumor interstitial volume fraction (void fraction or porosity of porous medium), ve, and contrast volume transfer constant, K(trans), by measuring the ratio of contrast agent concentration in tissue to that in plasma. A linear fluid velocity distribution may reflect a quadratic function of TIFP distribution and lead to a practical method for TIFP estimation. To calculate TIFP, the parameters or variables should preferably be measured along the direction of the linear fluid velocity (this is in the same direction as the gray value distribution of the image, which is also linear). This method may simplify the calculation for estimating TIFP. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Resistivity studies of interstitial helium mobility in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.G.; Birnbaum, H.K.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The mobility of interstitial helium in Nb and Nb-O alloys was studied in the temperature range of 10-383 K using resistivity measurements. The helium was introduced by radioactive decay of solute tritium (approximately 1 at%). At T < 100 K the resistivity increased due to conversion of tritium trapped at oxygen interstititals to helium. The formation of helium caused a very significant resistance increase at room temperature and above. The results suggest that helium is mobile at temperatures above 295 K and that the precipitation of large helium bubbles occurs along grain boundaries. The mobile helium species may either be single interstitials or small helium clusters. The activation enthalpy for the diffusion of the mobile helium species was estimated to be about 55 kJ/mol (0.66 eV). (Auth.)

  7. CD34-positive interstitial cells of the human detrusor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle; Hansen, Alastair; Smedts, Frank

    2007-01-01

    using a panel of antibodies directed against CD117/c-kit, CD34, CD31, S100, tryptase, neurofilament, NSE, Factor-VIII and GFAP. A striking finding was an interstitial type of cell which is CD34 immunoreactive (CD34-ir) but CD117/c-kit negative. The cells have a tentacular morphology, enveloping...... flattened processes, ramifying primarily in a bipolar fashion. Using immunoelectron microscopy (I-TEM) it was possible to view CD34 gold labelling of cells corresponding to interstitial cells. Although similar CD34-positive cells have been demonstrated in the bowel wall, they have never been described...... in the detrusor. The ontogeny and function of CD34-ir, a kit-negative cell, is unknown, but it may be involved in smooth muscle contraction....

  8. Dose, time and volume effects in interstitial radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgers, J.M.V.

    1982-01-01

    This study presents the main features and uncertainties of interstitial therapy and was undertaken to examine whether differences could be found in different clinical situations treated by interstitial implants with removable sources, that were not simply related to dose. In chapter 2, dating from 1978, continuous low dose rate irradiation is discussed from the radiobiological point of view together with some points related to variation in dose rate. A benefit of continuous low dose rate irradiation could be surmised in a few situations with special cell-kinetic properties. The problem of dose specification, the sharp dose gradient and other volume characteristics are discussed in chapter 3. Possible adjustments to variations in dose rate are discussed in chapter 4. The clinical material is reviewed in chapter 5, including aspects of dose specification, dose fall-off and variation in dose rate. The general discussion and conclusions are given in chapter 6. (Auth.)

  9. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. From classification to diagnostic work-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Mang, C.; Bankier, A.; Stiebellehner, L.; Schmid, K.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) comprise seven entities with distinct histologic patterns. In their idiopathic form IIP are rare diseases. They are, nevertheless, considered prototypes of the much more common secondary interstitial pneumonias. The advent of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has had a profound impact on the imaging of IIP, because the detailed delineation of the lung anatomy allows a close correlation between the histologic patterns of IIP and the CT features. On the basis of CT morphology and in the correct clinical context, the radiologist can achieve an accurate diagnosis in many cases. However, due to overlap between the various entities, complementary lung biopsy is recommended in virtually all cases. This article reviews the CT pattern of IIP and offers relevant clinical and histological information for the purpose of enabling the radiologist to understand and participate in the multidisciplinary concept of IIP. (orig.) [de

  10. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-10-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone. This was assessed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and in individuals of differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. All 15 cases of interstitial lung disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The isoprenoidal metabolites--digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone, RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum magnesium, tyrosine/tryptophan catabolic patterns, free radical metabolism, glycoconjugate metabolism, and RBC membrane composition--were assessed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance. In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Isoprenoid pathway dysfunction con tributes to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The biochemical patterns obtained in interstitial lung disease are similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. However, all the patients with interstitial lung disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Interstitial lung disease occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function.

  11. The pharmacokinetics of the interstitial space in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Levitt, David G

    2003-01-01

    Background The pharmacokinetics of extracellular solutes is determined by the blood-tissue exchange kinetics and the volume of distribution in the interstitial space in the different organs. This information can be used to develop a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model applicable to most extracellular solutes. Methods The human pharmacokinetic literature was surveyed to tabulate the steady state and equilibrium volume of distribution of the solutes mannitol, EDTA, morphi...

  12. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children with Interstitial Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekiewicz, M A; Karolewska-Bochenek, K; Dembiński, Ł; Gawronska, A; Krenke, K; Lange, J; Banasiuk, M; Kuchar, E; Kulus, M; Albrecht, P; Banaszkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in adult patients with interstitial lung disease. However, no data currently exist regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the disease in pediatric patients with interstitial lung disease. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and characterize its features in children with interstitial lung disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was established based on 24 h pH-impedance monitoring (MII-pH). Gastroesophageal reflux episodes (GERs) were classified according to widely recognized criteria as acid, weakly acid, weakly alkaline, or proximal. Eighteen consecutive patients (15 boys, aged 0.2-11.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a half (9/18) of children. A thousand GERs were detected by MII-pH (median 53.5; IQR 39.0-75.5). Of these, 585 (58.5 %) episodes were acidic, 407 (40.7 %) were weakly acidic, and eight (0.8 %) were weakly alkaline. There were 637 (63.7 %) proximal GERs. The patients in whom gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed had a significantly higher number of proximal and total GERs. We conclude that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with interstitial lung disease is high; thus, the disease should be considered regardless of presenting clinical symptoms. A high frequency of non-acid and proximal GERs makes the MII-pH method a preferable choice for the detection of reflux episodes in this patient population.

  13. Sharp interstitial Nefritis, Value Diagnoses of the Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Luis Fernando; Rivera, Humberto; Andrade, Rafael E; Garcia, Diego

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of young patients are revised and they present a clinical picture of acute renal insufficiency of unknown aetiology. This fact was no suspected initially but thanks to the help of ultrasound and the clinical history it was possible to diagnose as an acute interstitial nephritis due to hypersensitivity to drugs. The classification of this illness is revised as well as its etiopathogenic clinical picture and ultrasound diagnosis

  14. First principles calculations of interstitial and lamellar rhenium nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, G., E-mail: gerardo@cnyn.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada Baja California (Mexico); Tiznado, H.; Reyes, A.; Cruz, W. de la [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada Baja California (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible structures of rhenium nitride as a function of composition are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloying energy is favorable for rhenium nitride in lamellar arrangements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structures produced by magnetron sputtering are metastable variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structures produced by high-pressure high-temperature are stable configurations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lamellar structures are a new category of interstitial dissolutions. - Abstract: We report here a systematic first principles study of two classes of variable-composition rhenium nitride: i, interstitial rhenium nitride as a solid solution and ii, rhenium nitride in lamellar structures. The compounds in class i are cubic and hexagonal close-packed rhenium phases, with nitrogen in the octahedral and tetrahedral interstices of the metal, and they are formed without changes to the structure, except for slight distortions of the unit cells. In the compounds in class ii, by contrast, the nitrogen inclusion provokes stacking faults in the parent metal structure. These faults create trigonal-prismatic sites where the nitrogen residence is energetically favored. This second class of compounds produces lamellar structures, where the nitrogen lamellas are inserted among multiple rhenium layers. The Re{sub 3}N and Re{sub 2}N phases produced recently by high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis belong to this class. The ratio of the nitrogen layers to the rhenium layers is given by the composition. While the first principle calculations point to higher stability for the lamellar structures as opposed to the interstitial phases, the experimental evidence presented here demonstrates that the interstitial classes are synthesizable by plasma methods. We conclude that rhenium nitrides possess polymorphism and that the two-dimensional lamellar structures might represent an emerging class of materials

  15. First principles calculations of interstitial and lamellar rhenium nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, G.; Tiznado, H.; Reyes, A.; Cruz, W. de la

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The possible structures of rhenium nitride as a function of composition are analyzed. ► The alloying energy is favorable for rhenium nitride in lamellar arrangements. ► The structures produced by magnetron sputtering are metastable variations. ► The structures produced by high-pressure high-temperature are stable configurations. ► The lamellar structures are a new category of interstitial dissolutions. - Abstract: We report here a systematic first principles study of two classes of variable-composition rhenium nitride: i, interstitial rhenium nitride as a solid solution and ii, rhenium nitride in lamellar structures. The compounds in class i are cubic and hexagonal close-packed rhenium phases, with nitrogen in the octahedral and tetrahedral interstices of the metal, and they are formed without changes to the structure, except for slight distortions of the unit cells. In the compounds in class ii, by contrast, the nitrogen inclusion provokes stacking faults in the parent metal structure. These faults create trigonal-prismatic sites where the nitrogen residence is energetically favored. This second class of compounds produces lamellar structures, where the nitrogen lamellas are inserted among multiple rhenium layers. The Re 3 N and Re 2 N phases produced recently by high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis belong to this class. The ratio of the nitrogen layers to the rhenium layers is given by the composition. While the first principle calculations point to higher stability for the lamellar structures as opposed to the interstitial phases, the experimental evidence presented here demonstrates that the interstitial classes are synthesizable by plasma methods. We conclude that rhenium nitrides possess polymorphism and that the two-dimensional lamellar structures might represent an emerging class of materials within binary nitride chemistry.

  16. Chronic interstitial pneumonia with honeycombing in coal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brichet, A.; Tonnel, A.B.; Brambilla, E.; Devouassoux, G.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Copin, M.C.; Wallaert, B. [A. Calmette Hospital, Lille (France)

    2002-10-01

    Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) results from coal mine dust inhalation. The paper reports the presence of a chronic interstitial pneumonia (CIP) with honeycombing in 38 cases of coal miners, with or without CWP. The 38 patients were selected on the basis of clinical criteria which are unusual in CWP, i.e. fine inspiratory crackles and severe dyspnea. There were 37 men and one woman; mean age was 67.5 {+-} 9.1 years. Thirty-two were smokers. Duration of exposure was 26.7 {+-} 9.9 years. All the patients had clinical examination, chest radiography, computed tomography (CT), lung function, laboratory investigations, wedged fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In eight cases, lung specimens were obtained. Seventeen out of 38 had finger clubbing. 17 had radiological signs of CWP limited to the upper lobes or diffusely distributed. CT showed honeycombing (36 cases), and/or ground glass opacities (30 cases) with traction bronchiectasis (8 cases) predominant in the lower lobes. BAL analysis demonstrated an increased percentage of neutrophils (9.4% {+-} 6). Lung function showed a restrictive pattern associated with a decreased DLCO and hypoxemia. Lung specimens demonstrated in 2 cases a homogenous interstitial fibrosis of intra-alveolar septum with an accumulation of immune and inflammatory cells without temporal variation and with obvious honeycombing. The 6 other cases showed features of usual interstitial pneumonia. These cases, should alert other clinicians to a possible association between CIP with honeycombing and coal dust exposure, with or without associated CWP.

  17. Condensation of helium in interstitial sites of carbon nanotubes bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcone, B.; Orlandini, E.; Toigo, F.; Ancilotto, F.

    2006-01-01

    Helium atoms are believed to be strongly bound within the interstitial channels in bundles of carbon nanotubes. In a recent paper [F. Ancilotto et al., Phys. Rev. B 70, 165422 (2004)] inhomogeneity in the size distribution of nanotube radii was shown to make a system of 4 He atoms in such an environment effectively a four-dimensional Bose gas, thus permitting a Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of the adsorbed atoms into the minimum energy state. This surprising result was obtained for a model of noninteracting atoms in a continuum distribution of (virtually) infinite interstitial channels. Here we investigate how the singular thermal properties of the ideal system and the occurrence of BEC are affected by a more realistic modeling of a bundle of nanotubes where (i) the number of nanotubes is finite and where (ii) 4 He atoms adsorbed within the same interstitial channel interact among themselves. Also in this case we observe an anomalous heat capacity close to the ideal condensation temperature, suggesting the persistence of the condensation transition for interacting 4 He atoms, which might be experimentally observed

  18. Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases. Often forgotten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschenrieder, F.; Stroszczynski, C.; Hamer, O.W.

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases (DILD) are probably more common than diagnosed. Due to their potential reversibility, increased vigilance towards DILD is appropriate also from the radiologist's point of view, particularly as these diseases regularly exhibit radiological correlates in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs. Based on personal experience typical relatively common manifestations of DILD are diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), eosinophilic pneumonia (EP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), organizing pneumonia (OP), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). These patterns are presented based on case studies, whereby emphasis is placed on the clinical context. This is to highlight the relevance of interdisciplinary communication and discussion in the diagnostic field of DILD as it is a diagnosis of exclusion or of probability in most cases. Helpful differential diagnostic indications for the presence of DILD, such as an accompanying eosinophilia or increased attenuation of pulmonary consolidations in amiodarone-induced pneumopathy are mentioned and the freely available online database http://www.pneumotox.com is presented. (orig.) [de

  19. Diffuse neutron scattering study of metallic interstitial solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberis, P.

    1991-10-01

    We studied two interstitial solid solutions (Ni-C(1at%) and Nb-O(2at%) and two stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-CaO(13.6mol%) and ZrO2-Y2O3(9.6mol%) by elastic diffuse neutron scattering. We used polarized neutron scattering in the case of the ferromagnetic Ni-based sample, in order to determine the magnetic perturbation induced by the C atoms. Measurements were made on single crystals in the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS, Saclay, France). An original algorithm to deconvolve time-of-flight spectra improved the separation between elastically and inelastically scattered intensities. In the case of metallic solutions, we used a simple non-linear model, assuming that interstitials are isolated and located in octahedral sites. Results are: - in both compounds, nearest neighbours are widely displaced away from the interstitial, while next nearest neighbours come slightly closer. - the large magnetic perturbation induced by carbon in Nickel decreases with increasing distance on the three first neighbour shells and is in good agreement with the total magnetization variation. - no chemical order between solute atoms could be evidenced. Stabilized zirconia exhibit a strong correlation between chemical order and the large displacements around vacancies and dopants. (Author). 132 refs., 38 figs., 13 tabs

  20. Airway-centered interstitial fibrosis: etiology, clinical findings and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Lilian Tiemi; Leslie, Kevin O; Ferreira, Rimarcs Gomes; Coletta, Ester Aparecida Ney; Storrer, Karin Mueller; Soares, Maria Raquel; de Castro Pereira, Carlos Alberto

    2015-05-09

    Airway-centered Interstitial Fibrosis (ACIF) is a common pathologic pattern observed in our practice. The objectives of this study are to describe the causes associated with ACIF in a large sample of patients and its effect on survival. A retrospective study in three centers of interstitial lung disease in São Paulo, between January of 1995 and December of 2012. The surgical lung biopsy specimens were reviewed by three pathologists. The clinical, functional and tomographic findings were analyzed by a standardized protocol. There were 68 cases of ACIF, most of them women. The mean age was 57 ± 12 yr. Dyspnea, cough, restrictive pattern at spirometry and oxygen desaturation at exercise were common. A reticular pattern with peribronchovascular infiltrates was found in 79% of the cases. The etiologies of ACIF were hypersensitivity pneumonitis in 29 (42.6%), gastroesophageal reflux disease in 17 (25.0%), collagen vascular disease in 4 (5.9%), a combination of them in 15 cases and idiopathic in 3 (4.4%). The median survival was 116 months (95% CI = 58.5 - 173.5). Lower values of oxygen saturation at rest, presence of cough and some histological findings--organizing tissue in the airways, fibroblastic foci and microscopic honeycombing--were predictors of worse survival. ACIF is an interstitial lung disease with a better survival when compared with IPF. The main etiologies are HP and GERD. The oxygen saturation at rest, the presence of cough and some histological findings are predictors of survival.

  1. Distribution and components of interstitial inflammation and fibrosis in IgG4-related kidney disease: analysis of autopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Satoshi; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Mizushima, Ichiro; Harada, Kenichi; Takata, Takuma; Saeki, Takako; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Nagata, Michio

    2016-09-01

    IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) occasionally progresses to chronic renal failure and is pathologically characterized by IgG4-positive lymphoplasmacyte-rich tubulointerstitial nephritis with storiform fibrosis (bird's-eye pattern fibrosis). Although radiology reveals a heterogeneous distribution of affected areas in this disease, their true distribution within the whole kidney is still unknown because of difficulty in estimating this from needle biopsy samples. Using 5 autopsy specimens, the present study histologically characterized the distribution and components of interstitial inflammation and fibrosis in IgG4-RKD. Interstitial lymphoplasmacytic infiltration or fibrosis was observed in a variety of anatomical locations such as intracapsular, subcapsular, cortical, perivascular, and perineural regions heterogeneously in a patchy distribution. They tended to be more markedly accumulated around medium- and small-sized vessels. Storiform fibrosis was limited to the cortex. Immunostaining revealed nonfibrillar collagens (collagen IV and VI) and fibronectin predominance in the cortical lesion, including storiform fibrosis. In contrast, fibril-forming collagens (collagen I and III), collagen VI, and fibronectin were the main components in the perivascular lesion. In addition, α-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts were prominently accumulated in the early lesion and decreased with progression, suggesting that myofibroblasts produce extracellular matrices forming a peculiar fibrosis. In conclusion, perivascular inflammation or fibrosis of medium- and small-sized vessels is a newly identified pathologic feature of IgG4-RKD. Because storiform fibrosis contains mainly nonfibrillar collagens, "interstitial fibrosclerosis" would be a suitable term to reflect this. The relation between the location and components of fibrosis determined in whole kidney samples provides new clues to the pathophysiology underlying IgG4-RKD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published

  2. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a Danish population: a study using the 2008 criteria of the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, B.; Hesse, U.; Hansen, Alastair Bierre

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize and evaluate a Danish patient population with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), using a working definition for BPS/IC incorporating six variables, and a set of criteria defined by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC...

  3. A comparison in cosmetic outcome between per-operative interstitial breast implants and delayed interstitial breast implants after external beam radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Bradley R.; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; Russell, Nicola S.; Jansen, Edwin P. M.; Peterse, Johannes L.; Borger, Jacques; Rutgers, Emiel J. Th

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Interstitial implants for brachytherapy boost in the breast conserving therapy of breast cancer can be performed in two ways; implants during the tumor excision (per-operative implants) or after the external beam therapy (delayed interstitial implants). Differences in

  4. Analysis of Dissolved Organic Nutrients in the Interstitial Water of Natural Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yuki; Eda, Shima; Kiriyama, Chiho; Asada, Tomoya; Morisaki, Hisao

    2016-07-01

    In biofilms, the matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) retains water in the interstitial region of the EPS. This interstitial water is the ambient environment for microorganisms in the biofilms. The nutrient condition in the interstitial water may affect microbial activity in the biofilms. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients, i.e., saccharides and proteins, contained in the interstitial water of biofilms formed on the stones. We also analyzed the molecular weight distribution, chemical species, and availability to bacteria of some saccharides in the interstitial water. Colorimetric assays showed that the concentrations of saccharides and proteins in the biofilm interstitial water were significantly higher (ca. 750 times) than those in the surrounding lake waters (p Chromatographic analyses demonstrated that the saccharides in the interstitial waters were mainly of low molecular-weight saccharides such as glucose and maltose, while proteins in the interstitial water were high molecular-weight proteins (over 7000 Da). Bacterial growth and production of EPS occurred simultaneously with the decrease in the low molecular-weight saccharide concentrations when a small portion of biofilm suspension was inoculated to the collected interstitial water, suggesting that the dissolved saccharides in the interstitial water support bacterial growth and formation of biofilms.

  5. Interstitial Fluid Flow: The Mechanical Environment of Cells and Foundation of Meridians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using information from the deep dissection, microobservation, and measurement of acupoints in the upper and lower limbs of the human body, we developed a three-dimensional porous medium model to simulate the flow field using FLUENT software and to study the shear stress on the surface of interstitial cells (mast cells caused by interstitial fluid flow. The numerical simulation results show the following: (i the parallel nature of capillaries will lead to directional interstitial fluid flow, which may explain the long interstitial tissue channels or meridians observed in some experiments; (ii when the distribution of capillaries is staggered, increases in the velocity alternate, and the velocity tends to be uniform, which is beneficial for substance exchange; (iii interstitial fluid flow induces a shear stress, with magnitude of several Pa, on interstitial cell membranes, which will activate cells and lead to a biological response; (iv capillary and interstitial parameters, such as capillary density, blood pressure, capillary permeability, interstitial pressure, and interstitial porosity, affect the shear stress on cell surfaces. The numerical simulation results suggest that in vivo interstitial fluid flow constitutes the mechanical environment of cells and plays a key role in guiding cell activities, which may explain the meridian phenomena and the acupuncture effects observed in experiments.

  6. The effect of interstitial pressure on therapeutic agent transport: coupling with the tumor blood and lymphatic vascular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B; Chaplain, Mark A J; McDougall, Steven R; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John S

    2014-08-21

    Vascularized tumor growth is characterized by both abnormal interstitial fluid flow and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we study the effect that these conditions have on the transport of therapeutic agents during chemotherapy. We apply our recently developed vascular tumor growth model which couples a continuous growth component with a discrete angiogenesis model to show that hypertensive IFP is a physical barrier that may hinder vascular extravasation of agents through transvascular fluid flux convection, which drives the agents away from the tumor. This result is consistent with previous work using simpler models without blood flow or lymphatic drainage. We consider the vascular/interstitial/lymphatic fluid dynamics to show that tumors with larger lymphatic resistance increase the agent concentration more rapidly while also experiencing faster washout. In contrast, tumors with smaller lymphatic resistance accumulate less agents but are able to retain them for a longer time. The agent availability (area-under-the curve, or AUC) increases for less permeable agents as lymphatic resistance increases, and correspondingly decreases for more permeable agents. We also investigate the effect of vascular pathologies on agent transport. We show that elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity contributes to the highest AUC when the agent is less permeable, but to lower AUC when the agent is more permeable. We find that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity contributes to low AUC in general regardless of the transvascular agent transport capability. We also couple the agent transport with the tumor dynamics to simulate chemotherapy with the same vascularized tumor under different vascular pathologies. We show that tumors with an elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity alone require the strongest dosage to shrink. We further show that tumors with elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity are more hypoxic during therapy and that the response

  7. Palliative interstitial HDR brachytherapy for recurrent rectal cancer. Implantation techniques and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolotas, C.; Roeddiger, S.; Martin, T.; Tselis, N.; Baltas, D.; Zamboglou, N.; Strassmann, G.; Aebersold, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To report the methods and clinical results of CT-based interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy procedures for the palliative treatment of recurrent rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 44 brachytherapy implants were performed in 38 patients. CT-guided catheter implants were performed in 34 patients under local anesthesia and sedation, and four patients were implanted intraoperatively. Of 40 CT-guided implants, 20 were done using metallic needles introduced via the sacrum and 20 were transperineal implants of plastic tubes in the presacral region. Postimplant CT scans were used for three-dimensional (3-D) conformal brachytherapy planning. Patients implanted with metallic needles were given a single fraction of 10-15 Gy using HDR 192 Ir, and those who received transperineal implants of plastic catheters were given fractionated brachytherapy, 5 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 30-40 Gy. The median tumor volume was 225 cm 3 with a range of 41-2,103 cm 3 . Results: After a median follow-up of 23.4 months, a total of 13/38 patients were alive. The median postbrachytherapy survival was 15 months with 18 of the 25 deaths due to distant metastases. Tumor response was as follows: 6/38 partial remission, 28/38 stable disease, and 4/38 local progression. A planning target volume (PTV) coverage > 85% was achieved in 42/44 implants. The treatment was well tolerated, and no acute complications were observed. One patient developed a fistula after 8 months. Pain relief was recorded in 34 patients (89.5%), and the median duration of this palliative effect was 5 months with a range of 1-13 months. Conclusions: Interstitial HDR brachytherapy is a valuable tool for the delivery of high doses and achieves effective palliation in recurrent rectal carcinoma. (orig.)

  8. Palliative interstitial HDR brachytherapy for recurrent rectal cancer. Implantation techniques and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolotas, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Offenbach Hospital, Offenbach (Germany); Dept. of Radio-Oncology, Univ. of Bern, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Roeddiger, S.; Martin, T.; Tselis, N.; Baltas, D.; Zamboglou, N. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Offenbach Hospital, Offenbach (Germany); Strassmann, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Hospital, Philipps Univ., Marburg (Germany); Aebersold, D.M. [Dept. of Radio-Oncology, Univ. of Bern, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To report the methods and clinical results of CT-based interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy procedures for the palliative treatment of recurrent rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 44 brachytherapy implants were performed in 38 patients. CT-guided catheter implants were performed in 34 patients under local anesthesia and sedation, and four patients were implanted intraoperatively. Of 40 CT-guided implants, 20 were done using metallic needles introduced via the sacrum and 20 were transperineal implants of plastic tubes in the presacral region. Postimplant CT scans were used for three-dimensional (3-D) conformal brachytherapy planning. Patients implanted with metallic needles were given a single fraction of 10-15 Gy using HDR {sup 192}Ir, and those who received transperineal implants of plastic catheters were given fractionated brachytherapy, 5 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 30-40 Gy. The median tumor volume was 225 cm{sup 3} with a range of 41-2,103 cm{sup 3}. Results: After a median follow-up of 23.4 months, a total of 13/38 patients were alive. The median postbrachytherapy survival was 15 months with 18 of the 25 deaths due to distant metastases. Tumor response was as follows: 6/38 partial remission, 28/38 stable disease, and 4/38 local progression. A planning target volume (PTV) coverage > 85% was achieved in 42/44 implants. The treatment was well tolerated, and no acute complications were observed. One patient developed a fistula after 8 months. Pain relief was recorded in 34 patients (89.5%), and the median duration of this palliative effect was 5 months with a range of 1-13 months. Conclusions: Interstitial HDR brachytherapy is a valuable tool for the delivery of high doses and achieves effective palliation in recurrent rectal carcinoma. (orig.)

  9. Exhaled ethane: an in vivo biomarker of lipid peroxidation in interstitial lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Soichiro; Kobayashi, Hideo; Motoyoshi, Kazuo

    2005-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis and progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD). Exhaled ethane is a product of lipid peroxidation that has been proposed as a biomarker of oxidative stress in vivo. To determine whether the exhaled ethane level is elevated in patients with ILD and to compare it with other clinical parameters. Breath samples were collected from 34 patients with ILD, including 13 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 9 patients with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, 6 patients with collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial pneumonia, and 6 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Gas samples were obtained at hospital admission and after 3 weeks. After each expired sample was concentrated using a trap-and-purge procedure, the ethane level was analyzed by gas chromatography. Exhaled ethane levels were elevated in ILD patients (n = 34, mean +/- SD, 8.5 +/- 8.0 pmol/dL) compared with healthy volunteers (n = 16, 2.9 +/- 1.0 pmol/dL; p ethane levels were largely consistent with the clinical course. Four patients with IPF who had persistently high ethane levels died or deteriorated, whereas those with ethane levels ethane concentrations were positively correlated with levels of lactate dehydrogenase (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [rs], 0.28, p = 0.026) and C-reactive protein (rs, 0.38, p = 0.025) and were inversely correlated with Pa(O2) (rs, - 0.40, p = 0.0026). Patients showing increased uptake on (67)Ga scintigraphy demonstrated higher ethane levels (n = 19, 7.5 +/- 5.7 pmol/dL) compared with those who did not show increased uptake on scintigraphy (n = 10, 3.0 +/- 2.4 pmol/dL; p ethane is elevated in patients with ILD and is correlated with the clinical outcome, suggesting that it provides useful information about ongoing oxidative stress, and thereby disease activity and severity in ILD.

  10. Interstitial brachytherapy with 192-IR in treatment of recurrent malignant primary brain tumors. Braquiterapia intersticial con iridio-192 en el tratamiento de recidivas de tumores cerebrales tras cirugia y radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenes, R.; Martinez, R.; Victoria, C.; Nuez, L.; Clavo, B.; Sancedo, G. (Clinica Puerta de Hierro. Madrid (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Seven patients with recurrent malignant primary brain tumors after surgery and radiation therapy were treated at the Clinica Puerta de Hierro (Madrid) by interstitial brachytherapy with 192-Ir sources. Implantations were performed using computerized tomography and dose prescription were determined following the Paris system rules for interstitial implants. The means dose deliberated was 50 to 65 Gy to the reference isodoses. At the last follow-up all patients except for one are alive and without evidence of progression of the disease. (Author) 35 refs.

  11. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F. T.; Chan, K.M.; Sayles, F.L.

    1970-01-01

    Leg 5 samples fall into two categories with respect to interstitial water composition: 1) rapidly deposited terrigenous or appreciably terrigenous deposits, such as in Hole 35 (western Escanaba trough, off Cape Mendocino, California); and, 2) slowly deposited pelagic clays and biogenic muds and oozes. Interstitial waters in the former show modest to slight variations in chloride and sodium, but drastic changes in non-conservative ions such as magnesium and sulfate. The pelagic deposits show only relatively minor changes in both conservative and non-conservative pore fluid constituents. As was pointed out in earlier Leg Reports, it is believed that much of the variation in chloride in pore fluids within individual holes is attributable to the manipulation of samples on board ship and in the laboratory. On the other hand, the scatter in sodium is due in part to analytical error (on the order of 2 to 3 per cent, in terms of a standard deviation), and it probably accounts for most of the discrepancies in total anion and cation balance. All constituents reported here, with the exception of bulk water content, were analyzed on water samples which were sealed in plastic tubes aboard ship and were subsequently opened and divided into weighed aliquots in the laboratory. Analytical methods follow the atomic absorption, wet chemical and emission spectrochemical techniques briefly summarized in previous reports, e.g. Manheim et al., 1969, and Chan and Manheim, 1970. The authors acknowledge assistance from W. Sunda, D. Kerr, C. Lawson and H. Richards, and thank D. Spencer, P. Brewer and E. Degens for allowing the use of equipment and laboratory facilities.

  12. Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Shared Mechanistic and Phenotypic Traits Suggest Overlapping Disease Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Francisco; Doyle, Tracy J; Fletcher, Elaine A; Ascherman, Dana P; Rosas, Ivan O

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of clinically evident interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is approximately 10%. An additional 33% of undiagnosed patients have interstitial lung abnormalities that can be detected with high-resolution computed tomography. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease patients have three times the risk of death compared to those with rheumatoid arthritis occurring in the absence of interstitial lung disease, and the mortality related to interstitial lung disease is rising. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease is most commonly classified as the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, overlapping mechanistically and phenotypically with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but can occur in a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, mainly nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Based on this, we propose two possible pathways to explain the coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and interstitial lung disease: (i) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may come about when an immune response against citrullinated peptides taking place in another site (e.g. the joints) subsequently affects the lungs; (ii) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may represent a disease process in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-like pathology triggers an immune response against citrullinated proteins that promotes articular disease indicative of rheumatoid arthritis. More studies focused on elucidating the basic mechanisms leading to different sub-phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease and the overlap with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are necessary to improve our understanding of the disease process and to define new therapeutic targets.

  13. Postoperative interstitial hernia as a cause of obscure incisional wound site pain

    OpenAIRE

    Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Śmietański, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    An interstitial hernia is one in which the hernia sac is located between the layers of the abdominal wall. The analysis of contemporary literature shows that interstitial hernias are most often seen in children as a type of inguinal hernia and often accompany undescended testis. The hernia sac is usually located between the external-oblique and internal-oblique muscles in a lateral-cephalic direction. The authors present 3 cases of interstitial hernia found during laparoscopic exploration of ...

  14. Role of Self-Interstitial Atoms on the High Temperature Properties of Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, K.; Averback, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Equilibrium concentrations of self-interstitial atoms and divacancies have been determined in Cu by molecular dynamics computer simulations using embedded atom potentials. Near the melting temperature these concentrations are both ∼10 -6 . Owing to the higher mobility of the interstitial atoms, however, they contribute more to diffusion. In perfect, or pulse-heated crystals, spontaneous Frenkel pair production results in even higher interstitial concentrations. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  15. Dose rate constant and energy spectrum of interstitial brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Nath, Ravinder

    2001-01-01

    In the past two years, several new manufacturers have begun to market low-energy interstitial brachytherapy seeds containing 125 I and 103 Pd. Parallel to this development, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has implemented a modification to the air-kerma strength (S K ) standard for 125 I seeds and has also established an S K standard for 103 Pd seeds. These events have generated a considerable number of investigations on the determination of the dose rate constants (Λ) of interstitial brachytherapy seeds. The aim of this work is to study the general properties underlying the determination of Λ and to develop a simple method for a quick and accurate estimation of Λ. As the dose rate constant of clinical seeds is defined at a fixed reference point, we postulated that Λ may be calculated by treating the seed as an effective point source when the seed's source strength is specified in S K and its source characteristics are specified by the photon energy spectrum measured in air at the reference point. Using a semi-analytic approach, an analytic expression for Λ was derived for point sources with known photon energy spectra. This approach enabled a systematic study of Λ as a function of energy. Using the measured energy spectra, the calculated Λ for 125 I model 6711 and 6702 seeds and for 192 Ir seed agreed with the AAPM recommended values within ±1%. For the 103 Pd model 200 seed, the agreement was 5% with a recently measured value (within the ±7% experimental uncertainty) and was within 1% with the Monte Carlo simulations. The analytic expression for Λ proposed here can be evaluated using a programmable calculator or a simple spreadsheet and it provides an efficient method for checking the measured dose rate constant for any interstitial brachytherapy seed once the energy spectrum of the seed is known

  16. Restraint stress intensifies interstitial K+ accumulation during severe hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eSchnell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for three weeks (6 h/day. In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current (DC potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain.

  17. What is new in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, P.; Nordling, J.; Ophoven, A. van

    2008-01-01

    and nomenclature are ongoing. Some new treatments have been reported that may be of benefit. Summary In the age of the internet, it is incumbent upon the clinician to keep up with current ideas, epidemiology, and treatment findings to be able to discuss these with well informed patients who come to clinics around......Purpose of review Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is an important and poorly understood disorder. This review highlights current research findings that may be of benefit to the clinician who is responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of patients who suffer from this condition...

  18. Predicting Plasma Glucose From Interstitial Glucose Observations Using Bayesian Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Hildenbrand; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Juhl, Rune

    2014-01-01

    One way of constructing a control algorithm for an artificial pancreas is to identify a model capable of predicting plasma glucose (PG) from interstitial glucose (IG) observations. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) make it possible to account both for the unknown influence of the continuous...... glucose monitor (CGM) and for unknown physiological influences. Combined with prior knowledge about the measurement devices, this approach can be used to obtain a robust predictive model. A stochastic-differential-equation-based gray box (SDE-GB) model is formulated on the basis of an identifiable...

  19. Registration of interstitial anions in irradiated MgO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surzhikov, A.P.; Pogrebnyak, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    Possibility of application of positron annihilation for detection in oxides of rare earth metals with interstitial component of Frenkel anion defects is revealed. Magnesium oxide monocrystals with Ca, Si, Fe, Al impurity contents of 0.1 wt.% were investigated. These crystals were irradiated by X-rays (45 kV, 20 μA) and protons (10 MeV). It is shown that heating of magnesium oxide crystals irradiated by protons up to 700 K completely anneals F + -centers. In this case the component disappears inth the pulse distributon at xi=5.0; the subsequent crystal irradiation with X-ray does not lead to its reduction

  20. Dyskeratosis Congenita Associated Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnati D. Desai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC is a rare inherited disorder of ectodermal dysplasia. It consists of a classical mucocutaneous triad of abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and leukoplakia. Pulmonary disease is seen in 10-15%. It is characterized by Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, or Idiopathic Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis (IFPF. Non-specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP has been reported rarely in children with DC and in an isolated adult patient. Our patient had classical clinical presentation of DC with pancytopenia and portal hypertension and clinic-radiological features of NSIP which is a rare association.

  1. Usual interstitial pneumonia in adult-onset still's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodelo, Joaquin; Gonzalez, Luis Alonso; Velasquez, Monica Patricia; Vasquez, Gloria; Uribe, Oscar; Perez, Maria del Pilar; Ramirez, Luis Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Adult-onset still's disease (AOSD) is a multi-system inflammatory disorder of unknown origin, characterized by high spiking fevers, evanescent salmon colored rash, arthralgias or arthritis, hepatospleno-megaly, Iymphadenopathy and sore throat. It is not uncommon for AOSD to involve other organs, such as the liver, the kidney; the bone marrow and less often the lungs. Pulmonary involvement ranges from 30 to 40 % (0 to 53 %), the pulmonary manifestations of AOSD include pleurisy, acute pneumonitis and even the acute respiratory distress syndrome. We present a case of a patient with AOSD who developed an interstitial lung disease and reviewed the literature on it

  2. Childhood acromegaly successfully treated with interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    A child with a growth hormone producing tumour presented at the age of 4 1/2 years. The onset of the disease was at 18 months of age. Treatment was given with three doses of interstitial irradiation using yttrium-90 implants. There were no local complications from the procedures. Now, 11 years after diagnosis, she is asymptomatic, of normal appearance, and her height and the size of the pituitary fossa are normal. Growth hormone levels are almost normal, thyroid function is intact, and she is maintained on prednisone and sex hormones. (Authors)

  3. Childhood acromegaly successfully treated with interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). Dept. of Medicine and Radiology); Hall, R. (Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (UK))

    1982-01-01

    A child with a growth hormone producing tumour presented at the age of 4 1/2 years. The onset of the disease was at 18 months of age. Treatment was given with three doses of interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90 implants. There were no local complications from the procedures. Now, 11 years after diagnosis, she is asymptomatic, of normal appearance, and her height and the size of the pituitary fossa are normal. Growth hormone levels are almost normal, thyroid function is intact, and she is maintained on prednisone and sex hormones.

  4. Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis in the setting of lung growth abnormality: radiographic and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Monette; Vade, Aruna; Lim-Dunham, Jennifer Eden [Loyola University Health System, Department of Radiology, Maywood, IL (United States); Masuda, Emi [Henry Ford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Massarani-Wafai, Rasan [Loyola University Health System, Department of Pathology, Maywood, IL (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) is a rare pediatric interstitial lung disease. We report a case of a term boy presenting with tachypnea at birth requiring supplemental oxygen. Chest radiographs followed by high-resolution CT (HRCT) demonstrated hyperinflation and diffuse interstitial markings interspersed with multiple cystic spaces. An open lung biopsy demonstrated a minor component of PIG superimposed upon poor alveolarization. PIG in the setting of lung growth abnormality might be more common than previously described. Additionally, radiographic findings associated with most pediatric interstitial lung diseases are nonspecific, and histopathologic correlation is essential for diagnosis. (orig.)

  5. Basal interstitial water pressure in laboratory debris flows over a rigid bed in an open channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hotta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows under various conditions gives essential information on the flow stress structure. This study measured the basal interstitial water pressure during debris flow routing experiments in a laboratory flume. Because a sensitive pressure gauge is required to measure the interstitial water pressure in shallow laboratory debris flows, a differential gas pressure gauge with an attached diaphragm was used. Although this system required calibration before and after each experiment, it showed a linear behavior and a sufficiently high temporal resolution for measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows. The values of the interstitial water pressure were low. However, an excess of pressure beyond the hydrostatic pressure was observed with increasing sediment particle size. The measured excess pressure corresponded to the theoretical excess interstitial water pressure, derived as a Reynolds stress in the interstitial water of boulder debris flows. Turbulence was thought to induce a strong shear in the interstitial space of sediment particles. The interstitial water pressure in boulder debris flows should be affected by the fine sediment concentration and the phase transition from laminar to turbulent debris flow; this should be the subject of future studies.

  6. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  7. Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-16

    This report summarizes the annual progress of EPA’s Clean Air Markets Programs such as the Acid Rain Program (ARP) and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR). EPA systematically collects data on emissions, compliance, and environmental effects, these data are highlighted in our Progress Reports.

  8. Rituximab in the Treatment of Interstitial Lung Disease Associated with Antisynthetase Syndrome: A Multicenter Retrospective Case Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Tracy J; Dhillon, Namrata; Madan, Rachna; Cabral, Fernanda; Fletcher, Elaine A; Koontz, Diane C; Aggarwal, Rohit; Osorio, Juan C; Rosas, Ivan O; Oddis, Chester V; Dellaripa, Paul F

    2018-06-01

    To assess clinical outcomes including imaging findings on computed tomography (CT), pulmonary function testing (PFT), and glucocorticoid (GC) use in patients with the antisynthetase syndrome (AS) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) treated with rituximab (RTX). We retrospectively identified all patients at 2 institutions with AS-ILD who were treated with RTX. Baseline demographics, PFT, and chest CT were assessed before and after RTX. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT using a standardized scoring system. Twenty-five subjects at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (n = 13) and University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (n = 12) were included. Antisynthetase antibodies were identified in all patients (16 Jo1, 6 PL-12, 3 PL-7). In 21 cases (84%), the principal indication for RTX use was recurrent or progressive ILD, owing to failure of other agents. Comparing pre- and post-RTX pulmonary variables at 12 months, CT score and forced vital capacity were stable or improved in 88% and 79% of subjects, respectively. Total lung capacity (%) increased from 56 ± 13 to 64 ± 13 and GC dose decreased from 18 ± 9 to 12 ± 12 mg/day. Although DLCO (%) declined slightly at 1 year, it increased from 42 ± 17 to 70 ± 20 at 3 years. The most common imaging patterns on CT were nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP; n = 13) and usual interstitial pneumonia/fibrotic NSIP (n = 5), of which 5 had concurrent elements of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. Stability or improvement in pulmonary function or severity of ILD on CT was seen in most patients. Use of RTX was well tolerated in the majority of patients. RTX may play a therapeutic role in patients with AS-ILD, and further clinical investigation is warranted.

  9. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  10. Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Manifesting as a Striated Nephrogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Moinuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN is an underdiagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI. Guidelines suggest that AIN should be suspected in a patient who presents with an elevated serum creatinine and a urinalysis that shows white cells, white cell casts, or eosinophiluria. Drug-induced AIN is suspected if AKI is temporally related to the initiation of a new drug. However, patients with bland sediment and normal urinalysis can also have AIN. Currently, a definitive diagnosis of AIN is made by renal biopsy which is invasive and fraught with risks such as bleeding, infection, and hematoma. Additionally, it is frequently unclear when a kidney biopsy should be undertaken. We describe a biopsy proven case of allergic interstitial nephritis which manifested on contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI as a striated nephrogram. Newer and more stable macrocyclic gadolinium contrast agents have a well-demonstrated safety profile. Additionally, in the presentation of AKI, gadolinium contrast agents are safe to administer in patients who demonstrate good urine output and a downtrending creatinine. We propose that the differential for a striated nephrogram may include AIN. In cases in which the suspicion for AIN is high, this diagnostic consideration may be further characterized by contrast enhanced MRI.

  11. Development of an interstitial cystitis risk score for bladder permeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Lamb

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC is a multifactorial syndrome of severe pelvic and genitalia pain and compromised urinary function; a subset of IC patients present with Hunner's lesions or ulcers on their bladder walls (UIC. UIC is diagnosed by cystoscopy, which may be quite painful. The objective of this study was to determine if a calculated Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score (BP-RS based on non-invasive urinary cytokines could discriminate UIC patients from controls and IC patients without Hunner's ulcers.A national crowdsourcing effort targeted IC patients and age-matched controls to provide urine samples. Urinary cytokine levels for GRO, IL-6, and IL-8 were determined using a Luminex assay.We collected 448 urine samples from 46 states consisting of 153 IC patients (147 female, 6 male, of which 54 UIC patients (50 females, 4 male, 159 female controls, and 136 male controls. A defined BP-RS was calculated to classify UIC, or a bladder permeability defect etiology, with 89% validity.The BP-RS Score quantifies UIC risk, indicative of a bladder permeability defect etiology in a subset of IC patients. The Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score is the first validated urine biomarker assay for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

  12. Observation of interstitial molecular hydrogen in clathrate hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, R Gary; Barnes, Brian C; Lafond, Patrick G; Kockelmann, Winfred A; Keen, David A; Soper, Alan K; Hiratsuka, Masaki; Yasuoka, Kenji; Koh, Carolyn A; Sum, Amadeu K

    2014-09-26

    The current knowledge and description of guest molecules within clathrate hydrates only accounts for occupancy within regular polyhedral water cages. Experimental measurements and simulations, examining the tert-butylamine + H2 + H2O hydrate system, now suggest that H2 can also be incorporated within hydrate crystal structures by occupying interstitial sites, that is, locations other than the interior of regular polyhedral water cages. Specifically, H2 is found within the shared heptagonal faces of the large (4(3)5(9)6(2)7(3)) cage and in cavities formed from the disruption of smaller (4(4)5(4)) water cages. The ability of H2 to occupy these interstitial sites and fluctuate position in the crystal lattice demonstrates the dynamic behavior of H2 in solids and reveals new insight into guest-guest and guest-host interactions in clathrate hydrates, with potential implications in increasing overall energy storage properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Interstitial lung disease associated with human papillomavirus vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinations against the human papillomavirus (HPV have been recommended for the prevention of cervical cancer. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccines (Cervarix are said to have favourable safety profiles. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs can occur following exposure to a drug or a biological agent. We report a case of ILD associated with a Cervarix vaccination. A woman in her 40's, with a history of conisation, received three inoculations of Cervarix. Three months later, she presented with a cough and shortness of breath. Findings from a computed tomography of the chest and a transbronchial lung biopsy were consistent with non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Workup eliminated all other causes of the ILD, except for the vaccination. Over the 11 months of the follow-up period, her symptoms resolved without steroid therapy. The onset and spontaneous resolution of the ILD showed a chronological association with the HPV vaccination. The semi-quantitative algorithm revealed that the likelihood of an adverse drug reaction to Cervarix was “Probable”. The outcome was relatively good, but more attention should be paid to a potential risk for HPV vaccinations to cause ILDs. Wherever possible, chest radiographic examinations should be performed in order not to overlook any ILDs.

  14. MRI of interstitial lung diseases. What is possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Wielpuetz, M.O.; Jobst, B.J.; Dinkel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lungs is becoming increasingly appreciated as a third diagnostic imaging modality besides chest x-ray and computed tomography (CT). Its value is well acknowledged for pediatric patients or for scientific use particularly when radiation exposure should be strictly avoided. However, the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is the biggest challenge of all indications. The objective of this article is a summary of the current state of the art for diagnostic MRI of interstitial lung diseases. This article reflects the results of a current search of the literature and discusses them against the background of the authors own experience with lung MRI. Due to its lower spatial resolution and a higher susceptibility to artefacts MRI does not achieve the sensitivity of CT for the detection of small details for pattern recognition (e.g. fine reticulation and micronodules) but larger details (e.g. coarse fibrosis and honeycombing) can be clearly visualized. Moreover, it could be shown that MRI has the capability to add clinically valuable information on regional lung function (e.g. ventilation, perfusion and mechanical properties) and inflammation with native signal and contrast dynamics. In its present state MRI can be used for comprehensive cardiopulmonary imaging in patients with sarcoidosis or for follow-up of lung fibrosis after initial correlation with CT. Far more indications are expected when the capabilities of MRI for the assessment of regional lung function and activity of inflammation can be transferred into robust protocols for clinical use. (orig.) [de

  15. Auscultation of Velcro Crackles is Associated With Usual Interstitial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellarés, Jacobo; Hernández-González, Fernanda; Lucena, Carmen M; Paradela, Marina; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Prieto-González, Sergio; Benegas, Mariana; Cuerpo, Sandra; Espinosa, Gerard; Ramírez, José; Sánchez, Marcelo; Xaubet, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    Auscultation of Velcro crackles has been proposed as a key finding in physical lung examination in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), especially in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, no studies have been carried out to assess the association of Velcro crackles with other clinical variables.We evaluated a cohort of 132 patients, prospectively and consecutively included in our ILD diagnostic program at a tertiary referral center. All patients were auscultated during the physical examination. The patients were divided into 2 groups: "presence" or "nonpresence" of bilateral Velcro crackles.Of all patients assessed, 83 (63%) presented Velcro crackles in the respiratory auscultation. Patients with Velcro crackles usually had more frequently cough and dyspnea at the moment of diagnosis. Forced vital capacity (P = 0.002) and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (P = 0.04) was lower in these patients. The ILD-GAP index was higher in the group with Velcro crackles (P = 0.01). All patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in high-resolution computed tomography and all patients with final IPF diagnosis presented Velcro crackles. In multivariate analysis, the presence of Velcro crackles was independently associated with an UIP pattern.In patients suspected of having ILD, the auscultation of Velcro crackles was associated with UIP, a possibility which must be taken into consideration in early ILD detection in primary care.

  16. Peritumoral interstitial fluid flow velocity predicts survival in cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hompland, Tord; Lund, Kjersti V.; Ellingsen, Christine; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: High tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is associated with poor outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We have recently developed a noninvasive assay of the IFP of tumors, and in this assay, the outward interstitial fluid flow velocity at the tumor surface (v 0 ) is measured by Gd-DTPA-based DCE-MRI and used as a parameter for IFP. Here, we investigated the independent prognostic significance of v 0 in cervical cancer patients given cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy with curative intent. Patients: The study involved 62 evaluable patients from a cohort of 74 consecutive patients (Stage IB through IIIB) with a median follow-up of 5.5 years. Results: The actuarial disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years were 67% and 76%, respectively. Significant associations were found between v 0 dichotomized about the median value and DFS and OS, both in the total patient cohort and a subcohort of 40 Stage IIB patients. Multivariate analysis involving stage, tumor volume, lymph node status, and v 0 revealed that only v 0 provided independent prognostic information about DFS and OS. Conclusion: This investigation demonstrates a strong, independent prognostic impact of the pretreatment peritumoral fluid flow velocity in cervical cancer

  17. Bone tissue engineering: the role of interstitial fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    It is well established that vascularization is required for effective bone healing. This implies that blood flow and interstitial fluid (ISF) flow are required for healing and maintenance of bone. The fact that changes in bone blood flow and ISF flow are associated with changes in bone remodeling and formation support this theory. ISF flow in bone results from transcortical pressure gradients produced by vascular and hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical loading. Conditions observed to alter flow rates include increases in venous pressure in hypertension, fluid shifts occurring in bedrest and microgravity, increases in vascularization during the injury-healing response, and mechanical compression and bending of bone during exercise. These conditions also induce changes in bone remodeling. Previously, we hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow in bone, and in particular fluid shear stress, serves to mediate signal transduction in mechanical loading- and injury-induced remodeling. In addition, we proposed that a lack or decrease of ISF flow results in the bone loss observed in disuse and microgravity. The purpose of this article is to review ISF flow in bone and its role in osteogenesis.

  18. Factors affecting radiation injury after interstitial brachytherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, S.A.; Gutin, P.H.; Davis, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of brachytherapy on normal brain tissue are not easily delineated in the clinical setting because of the presence of concurrent radiation-induced changes in the coexistent brain tumor. Sequential morphologic studies performed after the implantation of radioactive sources into the brains of experimental animals have provided a better understanding of the character and magnitude of the structural changes produced by interstitial irradiation on normal brain tissue. Furthermore, the clinical experience accumulated thus far provides not only relevant information, but also some guidelines for future treatment policies. In this paper, the authors summarize the experimental findings and review the pathologic and clinical features of brain injury caused by interstitial brachytherapy. A number of studies in the older literature examined the effects of radioisotopes such as radium-226 (38--43), radon-22 (44--46), gold-198 (29,47--50), tantalum-182 (29,51,52) yttrium-9- (50,53,54), and cobalt-60 (29,50,55). This review is restricted to low- and high-activity encapsulated iodine-125 ( 125 I) and iridium-192 ( 192 Ir), the isotopes that are most commonly used in current clinical practice

  19. Legionnaire's pneumonia: Is there really an interstitial disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, C.; Frat, J.P.; Le Moal, G.; Roblot, F.; Michalakis, G.; Cabon, E.; Tasu, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Legionella pneumonia is usually classified as 'atypical pneumonia', which suggests a predominance of interstitial patterns in chest X-rays. Based on a selection of recent clinical cases and a brief review of the literature, the aim of the study is to clarify, how far the actual radiological findings would be consistent with these expectations. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 18 epidemic personal cases and a review of the literature data were performed to describe the chest X-ray findings of Legionella pneumophila (LP) community acquired pneumonia. X-ray review was performed simultaneously and in consensus by two radiologists (J.P.T., E.C.) and a physician (C.G.). Results: From our series, 17 patients had an abnormal chest X-ray on admission. Among these pathological X-ray cases, infiltrates were more often confluent (n = 16), or patchy (n = 7), rather than interstitial (n = 1). Fifteen patients had infiltrates involving the lower lung fields. Bilateral distribution of abnormalities and pleural effusion were each observed in three cases. Radiological findings deteriorated between the second and seventh days following admission, particularly in the form of patchy infiltrates with pleural effusion. The review of the literature is consistent with these findings, by reporting prevalent confluent or patchy infiltrates. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the physiopathological particularity of this affection and incite us to avoid the classification 'atypical pneumonia' in radiologic terminology. This term is more appropriate for clinical and microbiological use

  20. Hydrogen solution in tetrahedral or octahedral interstitial sites in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, C.A.; Hu, J.P.; Ouyang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The physical nature of the site preference for H solution in BCC Al is revealed. → The site preference is result of competition between Al-H bonding interaction and local lattice distortion. → The Al-H bonding interaction lowers the solution energy while the local lattice distortion increases the solution energy. - Abstract: It is reported that H atoms prefer to stay at interstitial (defect) sites with larger space in most metals. However, H atom prefers to occupy tetrahedral interstitial sites (T-site) that provide smaller space than octahedral sites (O-site) in Al. This paper studied the H-Al interactions from first principles calculations. Through analysis of the H-induced electronic states and the local atomic relaxations, we show that H-Al bonding interaction is stronger for T-site H, which is in favor of the solution energy. On the other hand, larger local atomic distortion is observed around the T-site H, which increases the total energy.

  1. Stability and mobility of self-interstitials and small interstitial clusters in α-iron: ab initio and empirical potential calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willaime, F.; Fu, C.C.; Marinica, M.C.; Dalla Torre, J.

    2005-01-01

    The stability and mobility of self-interstitials and small interstitial clusters, I n , in α-Fe is investigated by means of calculations performed in the framework of the density functional theory using the SIESTA code. The mono-, di- and tri-interstitials are shown to be made of (parallel) dumbbells and to migrate by nearest-neighbor translation-rotation jumps, according to Johnson's mechanism. The orientation of the dumbbells becomes energetically more favourable for I 5 and larger clusters. The performance of a semi-empirical potential recently developed for Fe, including ab initio self-interstitial data in the fitted properties, is evaluated over the present results. The superiority over previous semi-empirical potentials is confirmed. Finally the impact of the present results on the formation mechanism of loops, observed experimentally in α-Fe is discussed

  2. Usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: Correlation between CT findings at the site of biopsy with pathological diagnoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumikawa, Hiromitsu, E-mail: h-sumikawa@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public Health Teachers, 3-1 Kurumazuka, Itami, Hyougo 664-8533 (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, 830-0011 (Japan); Ichikado, Kazuya [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital, 5-3-1 Tikami, Kumamoto, 861-4193 (Japan); Colby, Thomas V. [Department of Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Fukuoka, Junya [Laboratory of Pathology, Toyama University Hospital, Toyama (Japan); Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Kensuke [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tosei General Hospital, 160 Nishioiwake-cho, Seto City, Aichi (Japan); Yanagawa, Masahiro; Koyama, Mitsuhiro; Honda, Osamu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings at the site of biopsy with the whole lung CT and pathologic diagnoses in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Methods: The study included 35 patients (25 UIP and 10 NSIP) diagnosed both pathologically and clinically. 81 surgical biopsy specimens (54 UIP, and 27 NSIP) and extracted areas corresponding to biopsy sites on HRCT were analyzed. CT interpretations were compared with pathological diagnoses in both extracted images and the whole lung. Concordant and discordant cases in multiple extracted images were divided and analyzed. Then the whole cases were categorized by including or not at least one UIP diagnosis of extracted images and evaluated. Results: The diagnoses in extracted sites significantly correlated with pathological diagnoses (p = 0.047). There were significant differences in the concordances of extracted images compared with the diagnosis of whole lung and pathology (p = 0.008, 0.003, respectively). All 7 cases that were not concordant were diagnosed as radiological UIP with whole lung CT. The cases with at least one UIP diagnosis of extracted CT images were diagnosed as UIP in pathology more frequently (18 in 25) (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Radiological UIP in whole CT had more frequently discordant diagnoses from multiple extracted images than NSIP. And there were more cases in pathological UIP that included at least one UIP diagnosis of extracted images compared with pathological NSIP.

  3. ROLE OF GLYCAEMIA LEVEL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERSTITIAL COLLAGEN IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rudenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A role of blood glucose levels in the development of interstitial collagen has been studied in 84 patients (53 women and 31 men, average age 60 ± 2.4 years with coronary heart disease (CHD. All patients were divided into twocomparable groups: a study group including patients with coronary heart disease andtype 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and a control group consisting of patients with coronary heart disease without DM. All patients received standard medical therapy as recommended by the European Society of Cardiology. The level of blood glucose in both groups was assessed by the standard technique, a degree of interstitial collagen volume fraction (ICVF was measured using the formula of J. Shirani et al. The data were processed by parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. It has been proved that hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes contributes to the development of ICVF, the degree of which increases with the rise of blood glucose level. A high level ofICVF in patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes type 2 can be a predictor of myocardial dyssynchrony development and heart failure progression, therefore, a close monitoring and timely correction of changes of blood glucose levelsare recommended to prevent the complication development. ICVF evaluation should become a routine diagnostic method in all patients with type 2 diabetes.

  4. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  5. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoedo, Mauricio Kauark, E-mail: mauricioamoedo@gmail.com [Interventional Radiology, Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, Luciana Volpon Soares; Souza, Antonio Soares [Instituto de Radiodiagnostico Rio Preto (Ultra-X), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Famerp), SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity. (author)

  6. Persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, Pooja; Narula, Mahender K.; Anand, Rama; Chandra, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 10-month-old boy with multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis showing thin-walled lung cysts along with computed tomography (CT) evidence of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PPIE), in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. Follow-up CT performed after 6 months demonstrated complete resolution of interstitial emphysema

  7. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Kauark Amoedo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity.

  8. Measurements of the oxidation state and concentration of plutonium in interstitial waters of the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Lovett, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The question of plutonium movement in interstitial waters resulting from diffusion along concentration gradients or from advective flow is addressed. The results of measurements of both the concentration and the oxidation state of plutonium in interstitial water collected from sediments near the Windscale discharge, in the solid phases of these sediments and in seawater and suspended solids collected at the coring locations are discussed

  9. Urinary uromodulin excretion predicts progression of chronic kidney disease resulting from IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uromodulin, or Tamm-Horsfall protein, is the most abundant urinary protein in healthy individuals. Recent studies have suggested that uromodulin may play a role in chronic kidney diseases. We examined an IgA nephropathy cohort to determine whether uromodulin plays a role in the progression of IgA nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 344 IgA nephropathy patients were involved in this study. Morphological changes were evaluated with the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA measured the urinary uromodulin level on the renal biopsy day. Follow up was done regularly on 185 patients. Time-average blood pressure, time-average proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and eGFR decline rate were caculated. Association between the urinary uromodulin level and the eGFR decline rate was analyzed with SPSS 13.0. RESULTS: We found that lower baseline urinary uromodulin levels (P = 0.03 and higher time-average proteinuria (P = 0.04 were risk factors for rapid eGFR decline in a follow-up subgroup of the IgA nephropathy cohort. Urinary uromodulin level was correlated with tubulointerstitial lesions (P = 0.016. Patients that had more tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis on the surface had lower urinary uromodulin levels (P = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary uromodulin level is associated with interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and contributes to eGFR decline in IgA nephropathy.

  10. A first-principles investigation of interstitial defects in dilute tungsten alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharaee, Leili; Erhart, Paul, E-mail: erhart@chalmers.se

    2015-12-15

    The thermodynamic properties of intrinsic and extrinsic (Ti, V, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, Re) defects in tungsten have been investigated using density functional theory calculations. The formation energies of substitutional defects are discussed with respect to their thermodynamic solubility limits. Several different interstitial configurations have been identified as local minima on the potential energy surface. In addition to dumbbell configurations with orientations along 〈111〉 and 〈110〉, a lower symmetry configuration is described, which is referred to as a bridge interstitial. This interstitial type is found to be the lowest energy configuration for mixed-interstitials containing Ti, V, and Re, and can be up to 0.2 eV lower in energy than the other configurations. According to the calculations Ti, V and Re also trap self-interstitial atoms, which can be produced in substantial numbers during ion irradiation, affecting the mobility of the latter.

  11. Effect of the chemical pressure by the addition of interstitials in CePd3:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the 'chemical pressure' on the intermediate valence compound CePd 3 , is studied by means of specific heat measurements with and without magnetic field. The addition of interstitials in the cubic structure on the alloys CePd 3 A H (A = B, Be, Si) is analyzed. At low interstitial concentration the thermal and magnetic properties that characterize the evolution of the Ce valence show a universal behaviour with the volume displaced by the interstitial. For higher concentrations two different behaviours were found in the trivalent state: a) With the larger interstitials, Be and Si, the system evolves toward a long range antiferromagnetic order; b) With the smaller interstitial, B, the system evolves toward a concentrated Kondo state. (Author) [es

  12. Ultrastructure of the Interstitial Tissue in the Testis of the Egyptian Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Abd-Elaziz, A. M. Kassem, D. M. Zaghloul*, A. E. Derbalah and M. H. Bolefa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural examination of the testicular interstitial tissue of Egyptian dromedary camel was performed to observe the seasonal changes. The activity of the interstitial tissue increased largely in spring. This was indicated by the large number of mature Leydig cells and two to three layers of myofibroblasts around the basal laminae of the seminiferous tubules with large blood vessels in the interstitial tissue. The testicular activity was moderate in winter as indicated by the lower number of immature Leydig cells. The lowest activity was in summer when Leydig cells became inactive with pyknotic nuclei. The cells of interstitial tissue lost their junctions with each other, leaving large intercellular spaces and myofibroblasts transformed to fibrocytes. The testicular activity began again to increase in autumn. The testicular activity of camel, however, did not stop in any season of the year, because even in non-breeding seasons a part of the interstitial tissue of the testis was active.

  13. The role of silicon interstitials in the deactivation and reactivation of high concentration boron profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboy, Maria [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: marabo@tel.uva.es; Pelaz, Lourdes [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Marques, Luis A. [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez, Pedro [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Barbolla, Juan [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Venezia, V.C. [Philips Research Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Duffy, R. [Philips Research Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Griffin, Peter B. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-12-15

    Boron cluster formation and dissolution in high concentration B profiles and the role of Si interstitials in these processes are analyzed by kinetic non-lattice Monte Carlo atomistic simulations. For this purpose, we use theoretical structures as simplifications of boron implants into preamorphized Si, followed by low-temperature solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth or laser thermal annealing process. We observe that in the presence of high B concentrations (above 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}), significant deactivation occurs during high temperature anneal, even in the presence of only equilibrium Si interstitials. The presence of additional Si interstitials from an end of range (EOR) damage region accelerates the deactivation process and makes B deactivation slightly higher. We show that B deactivation and reactivation processes can be clearly correlated to the evolution of Si interstitial defects at the EOR. The minimum level of activation occurs when the Si interstitial defects at EOR dissolve or form very stable defects.

  14. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  15. Identification of key metabolic changes in renal interstitial fibrosis rats using metabonomics and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangcai; Dong, Minjian; Liao, Shixian; Du, Yao; Zhou, Qi; Zheng, Hong; Chen, Minjiang; Ji, Jiansong; Gao, Hongchang

    2016-06-03

    Renal fibrosis is one of the important pathways involved in end-stage renal failure. Investigating the metabolic changes in the progression of disease may enhance the understanding of its pathogenesis and therapeutic information. In this study, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was firstly used to screen the metabolic changes in urine and kidney tissues of renal interstitial fibrotic rats induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after operation, respectively. The results revealed that reduced levels of bioenergy synthesis and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), as well as elevated levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS) are involved in metabolic alterations of renal fibrosis rats. Next, by pharmacological treatment we found that reduction of IS levels could prevent the renal fibrotic symptoms. Therefore, we suggested that urinary IS may be used as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of renal fibrosis, and a therapeutic target for drugs. Novel attempt combining metabonomics and pharmacology was established that have ability to provide more systematic diagnostic and therapeutic information of diseases.

  16. Interstitial lung disease in systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzeni, Fabiola; Gerardi, Maria Chiara; Barilaro, Giuseppe; Masala, Ignazio Francesco; Benucci, Maurizio; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2018-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are among the most serious complications associated with systemic rheumatic diseases, and lead to significant morbidity and mortality; they may also be the first manifestation of connective tissue diseases (CTDs). The aim of this narrative review is to summarise the data concerning the pathogenesis of CTD/ILD and its distinguishing features in different rheumatic diseseas. Areas covered: The pathogenesis, clinical aspects and treatment of ILD associated with rheumatic systemic diseases and CTDs were reviewed by searching the PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases for papers published between 1995 and February 2017 using combinations of words or terms. Articles not written in English were excluded. Expert commentary: The management of CTD-ILD is challenging because of the lack of robust data regarding the treatments used, the heterogeneity of the diseases themselves, and the scarcity of well-defined outcome measures. Treatment decisions are often made clinically on the basis of functional, radiographic progression, and exacerbating factors such as age and the burden of comorbidities. Given the complexities of diagnosis and the paucity of treatment trials, the management of CTD patients with ILD requires multidisciplinary collaboration between rheumatologists and pulmonologists in CTD-ILD clinics.

  17. Serial high resolution CT in non-specific interstitial pneumonia: prognostic value of the initial pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Screaton, N.J. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nicholas.screaton@papworth.nhs.uk; Hiorns, M.P. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Lee, K.S. [Samsung Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea); Franquet, T. [Hospital de Saint Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Johkoh, T. [Department of Medical Physics and Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Fujimoto, K. [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Ichikado, K. [First Department of Internal Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Colby, T.V. [Department of Laboratory Medicine/Pathology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Mueller, N.L. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the relationship between initial CT pattern and serial changes in CT findings and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serial high resolution (HR) CTs and PFTs were retrospectively analyzed in 38 cases of histologically proven NSIP, including 4 with cellular NSIP, 13 with mixed cellular and fibrotic NSIP, and 21 with fibrotic NSIP. The presence and extent of various CT findings were assessed. A fibrosis index (defined as the ratio of the extent of a reticular/honeycomb pattern to the overall extent of abnormal parenchyma) was derived. RESULTS: The predominant CT pattern was reticular/honeycomb in 27 (84%) cases and ground-glass/consolidation in 6 (16%) cases. Between scans, mean disease extent reduced by 5.2%. Disease extent reduced by >10% in 13 (34%) and increased by >10% in 6 (16%) patients. Histopathological subtype of NSIP did not correlate with individual CT pattern, predominant pattern, fibrosis index or serial change in disease extent on CT or PFTs. Response on follow-up CT was associated with fibrosis index, predominant pattern and extent of consolidation on initial CT. CONCLUSION: In NSIP disease, progression on CT correlates with the predominant CT pattern, fibrosis index, and extent of consolidation but not with histopathological subtype. An inflammatory (ground-glass/consolidation) predominant pattern is associated with better outcome in terms of disease extent on HRCT.

  18. Polyester Sulphonic Acid Interstitial Nanocomposite Platform for Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel I. Iwuoha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel enzyme immobilization platform was prepared on a platinum disk working electrode by polymerizing aniline inside the interstitial pores of polyester sulphonic acid sodium salt (PESA. Scanning electron microscopy study showed the formation of homogeneous sulphonated polyaniline (PANI nanotubes (~90 nm and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA confirmed that the nanotubes were stable up to 230 °C. The PANI:PESA nanocomposite showed a quasi-reversible redox behaviour in phosphate buffer saline. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was immobilized on to this modified electrode for hydrogen peroxide detection. The biosensor gave a sensitivity of 1.33 μA (μM-1 and a detection limit of 0.185 μM for H2O2. Stability experiments showed that the biosensor retained more than 64% of its initial sensitivity over four days of storage at 4 °C.

  19. Postoperative interstitial radiotherapy of keloids. Curietherapie postoperatoire des cicatrices cheloides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavere, P; Bonnafoux-Clavere, A; Roullet, B; Morzel, A; Rhein, B; Bonnetblanc, J M; Olivier, J P [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 87 - Limoges (France)

    1993-01-01

    During an 8-year period, 21 patients with keloids (27 keloids) were treated with keloidectomy and post-operative interstitial radiotherapy by an iridium 192 wire. Only one patient had been previously treated by corticoids, without results. A dose of 12 Gy (three patients) to 15 Gy (18 patients) was delivered at a point 2.5 mm from the axis of the wire. The follow-up time was from 2 - 104 months. The success rate, at 7 months, was close to 88%. Ao recurrence occurred in three patients without relation to the method used, the lesion-age or the localization of the lesions. There were no side-effects. This method represents an effective, non-constraining and safe treatment for keloids if the contra-indications are respected.

  20. CT and conventional radiographic techniques in interstitial pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leipner, N.; Schueller, H.; Uexkuell-Gueldenband, V. v.; Schlolaut, K.H.; Overlack, A.; Bonn Univ.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-four patients with pulmonary fibrosis were examined by CT and by conventional radiological methods. Sixty patients had asbestosis, thirty-nine silicosis, forty sarcoidosis and twenty-five had idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. CT is superior to conventional radiography in evaluating interstitial pulmonary changes, particularly of the pleura and the lung parenchyma. In sixty-nine patients there were some findings which could only be demonstrated by CT. In asbestosis, silicosis and sarcoidosis the CT classification of the lung parenchyma which we have suggested produces significantly better correlation with vital capacity than can be achieved from conventional chest films, according to the guidelines of the I.L.O. (orig./GDG) [de

  1. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Yimy F; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Iglesias, Antonio; Ojeda, Paulina; Matiz, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    An interstitial lung disease (ILD) belongs to a group of diffuse parenchyma lung diseases it should be differentiated from other pathologies among those are idiopathic and ILD associated to connective tissue diseases (CTD) New concepts have been developed in the last years and they have been classified in seven defined subgroups. It has been described the association of each one of these subgroups with CTD. Natural history and other aspects of its treatment is not known completely .For complete diagnose it is required clinical, image and histopathologic approaches. The biopsy lung plays an essential role. It is important to promote and to stimulate the subclasification of each subgroup with the purpose of knowing their natural history directing the treatment and to improve their outcome

  2. Aortic calcified particles modulate valvular endothelial and interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engeland, Nicole C A; Bertazzo, Sergio; Sarathchandra, Padmini; McCormack, Ann; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Yacoub, Magdi H; Chester, Adrian H; Latif, Najma

    Normal and calcified human valve cusps, coronary arteries, and aortae harbor spherical calcium phosphate microparticles of identical composition and crystallinity, and their role remains unknown. The objective was to examine the direct effects of isolated calcified particles on human valvular cells. Calcified particles were isolated from healthy and diseased aortae, characterized, quantitated, and applied to valvular endothelial cells (VECs) and interstitial cells (VICs). Cell differentiation, viability, and proliferation were analyzed. Particles were heterogeneous, differing in size and shape, and were crystallized as calcium phosphate. Diseased donors had significantly more calcified particles compared to healthy donors (Pinnocent bystanders but induce a phenotypical and pathological change of VECs and VICs characteristic of activated and pathological cells. Therapy tailored to reduce these calcified particles should be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis: a sense of urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanno, Philip M; Chapple, Chris R; Cardozo, Linda D

    2009-12-01

    A classic triad of symptoms (bladder pain, urinary frequency, and urgency) has served to define bladder pain syndrome/painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/PBS/IC) syndrome. BPS/PBS/IC is a distinct condition and it is likely that the urgency experienced by these patients differs from that experienced by those with overactive bladder syndrome. It is unclear how best to define urgency in the BPS/PBS/IC setting. Differences in the other primary symptoms associated with these conditions probably influence how urgency is perceived. Advances in research into the pathophysiology of urgency and underlying disease processes will help to optimize both the diagnosis and treatment of BPS/PBS/IC.

  4. Management of Myositis-Related Interstitial Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, Julie; Johnson, Cheilonda; Rich, Eric; Collard, Harold R; Lee, Joyce S

    2016-11-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a frequent pulmonary manifestation and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Myositis-related ILD presents a therapeutic challenge for clinicians, as there are no available guidelines to help with management decisions. This review covers the existing evidence on the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic management of myositis-related ILD, highlighting the lack of randomized controlled data to guide treatment. Given the absence of existing guidelines to inform treatment decisions, we provide a comprehensive summary, including dosing, side effects, and suggested monitoring of the commonly used immunosuppressive agents and a proposed treatment algorithm based on the existing literature. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Syndrome of proximal interstitial deletion 4p15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryns, J.P. [Univ. of Leuven (Belgium)

    1995-09-11

    In this journal, Chitayat et al. reported on 2 boys and a girl with interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4, including p15.2p15.33. All 3 patients had a characteristic face distinct from that of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and multiple minor congenital anomalies. One patient had a congenitally enlarged penis. The authors noted that all had normal growth, and all had moderate psychomotor retardation (patient 1, developmental age of 4-6 years at age 9 years; patient 2, mental age 6 years at age 25 years; and patient 3, global delay with hypotonia, difficulties in both gross and fine motor development, and persistent delay in language skills). 5 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Intravesical treatments of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schwalenberg, Thilo

    2012-12-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a disabling chronic condition that affects up to 7% of women in the USA. In men, BPS/IC seems to be less common, but might be underestimated because it can be confused with chronic prostatitis. The aetiology and pathophysiology of BPS/IC are not well understood. Consequently, diagnosis and treatment is challenging and most therapies used to date are off-label. These therapies include bladder instillation with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and BCG, as well as hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Overall, botulinum neurotoxin A injection, intravesical sodium hyaluronate instillation and DMSO instillation seem to be the best-performing treatments, with response rates of 79%, 76% and 75%, respectively, and can be used effectively as second-line or third-line therapies for BPS/IC. However, additional high-quality randomized controlled trials are necessary to improve the available data.

  7. The vacancy-interstitial model of DX centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    Recent DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) studies of 'DX' centers in dilute Al x Ga 1-x As alloys agree with a model of the deep neutral state in which the donor has moved into an adjacent interstitial site leaving behind a vacancy. The enthalpy and entropy of these states, which depend on the number (0 to 3) of Al atoms adjacent to the donors, have been obtained by fitting the data. This model, which also predicts the large potential barriers between the centered and relaxed states, thus accounting for PPC (persistent photoconductivity), is an extension to large displacement of the displaced donor model proposed earlier. It is equivalent to recent model of the EL2 metastable state based on displaced antisite double-donors. (author) 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Interstitial lung disease during trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzurio, Syota; Horita, Naokatsu; Shiota, Yutaro; Kanehiro, Arihiko; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2010-01-01

    We studied clinical and radiographic features of interstitial lung disease (ILD) during trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) administration. Ten patients who had received prednisolone treatment for underlying diffuse pulmonary disease showed various ILDs after introduction of TMP/SMX. The radiographic features of the ILDs were not consistent with infectious disease or exacerbation of the underlying disease, and these diagnoses were excluded radiographically and on clinical grounds during the differential diagnosis of the ILDs. These ILDs emerged relatively early after introduction of TMP/SMX, which is consistent with the former case report of drug-induced ILD (DI-ILD) caused by TMP/SMX. Therefore DI-ILDs caused by TMP/SMX were suspected in these cases. In most of these cases, the ILDs were clinically mild and disappeared immediately although administration of TMP/SMX was continued. (author)

  9. Donor level of interstitial hydrogen in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobaczewski, L.; Bonde Nielsen, K.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Peaker, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    The first data evidencing the existence of the donor level of the interstitial hydrogen in GaAs are presented. The abundant formation of the (0/+) donor level after in situ low-temperature implantation of hydrogen into the depletion layer of GaAs Schottky diodes has been observed and the activation energy and annealing properties have been determined by Laplace DLTS. The activation energy for electron emission of this donor state is 0.14eV. Above 100K the hydrogen deep donor state is unstable, converting to a more stable form when there are electrons available for the capture process. A slightly perturbed form of the hydrogen donor in its neutral charge state can be recovered by illuminating the sample. This process releases twice as many electrons as the ionisation process of the hydrogen donor state itself. This fact, by analogy with the silicon case, evidences the negative-U behaviour of hydrogen in GaAs

  10. Muscle interstitial potassium kinetics during intense exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Mohr, Magni; Pedersen, Lasse Dannemann

    2003-01-01

    Interstitial K+ ([K+]i) was measured in human skeletal muscle by microdialysis during exhaustive leg exercise, with (AL) and without (L) previous intense arm exercise. In addition, the reproducibility of the [K+]i determinations was examined. Possible microdialysis-induced rupture of the sarcolemma...... was assessed by measurement of carnosine in the dialysate, because carnosine is only expected to be found intracellularly. Changes in [K+]i could be reproduced, when exhaustive leg exercise was performed on two different days, with a between-day difference of approximately 0.5 mM at rest and 1.5 m......M at exhaustion. The time to exhaustion was shorter in AL than in L (2.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.3 min; P exercise period in AL compared with L (9.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.9 mM; P

  11. Measurement of 222Rn in soil concentrations in interstitial air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of 222 Rn soil concentrations were made by inserting stainless-steel sampling tubes into the soil. The samples of the soil interstitial air were taken in to pre-evacuated 1 L glass flasks. The glass flasks are cylindrical and coated with a film of ZnS(Ag). 222 Rn was measured by counting the alpha particles emitted by 222 Rn and its daughter products, 218 Po and 214 Bi, when they reached radioactive equilibrium. Measurements of 222 Rn gas concentrations in the soil air interstices by the method at different depths were used to calculate the diffusion coefficient of the 222 Rn in the soil air. This study has been carried out for diverse soils. (Author)

  12. Assessment and management of refractory breathlessness in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, Lucy; Walthall, Helen

    2017-09-02

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) refers to a cluster of fibroinflammatory conditions. There are limited treatment options and most patients have severe dyspnoea. The prognosis is poor. This study aims to evaluate current literature on the assessment and management of refractory breathlessness in ILD. Few tools are available to assess dyspnoea in advanced respiratory disease. Holistic assessment requires a combination of tools but there are few disease specific tools. The role of opioids is well established in the reduction of breathlessness, but there is insufficient evidence that benzodiazepines are beneficial. Non-pharmcolological breathlessness intervention services can give patients mastery of their disease, reduced distress due to breathlessness and were more cost effective. More research on holistic interventions for use in advanced disease needs to be done. Patient-reported outcome measures could elicit valuable evidence to describe the benefit of breathlessness management services in advanced respiratory disease.

  13. Lipoprotein(a Induces Human Aortic Valve Interstitial Cell Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu, PhD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a, or Lp(a, significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, release of phosphate, calcium deposition, hydroxyapatite, cell apoptosis, matrix vesicle formation, and phosphorylation of signal transduction proteins; increased expression of chondro-osteogenic mediators; and decreased SOX9 and matrix Gla protein (p < 0.001. Inhibition of MAPK38 and GSK3β significantly reduced Lp(a-induced calcification of human aortic valve interstitial cells (p < 0.001. There was abundant presence of Lp(a and E06 immunoreactivity in diseased human aortic valves. The present study demonstrates a causal effect for Lp(a in aortic valve calcification and suggests that interfering with the Lp(apathway could provide a novel therapeutic approach in the management of this debilitating disease.

  14. 192Ir high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brain implant: optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Anuj; Singh, Dinesh; Chitra, S.; Gupta, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The new modality of stepping source dosimetry system (SSDs) illustrates a remarkable improvement in attaining the uniform and homogeneous dose distribution within the target volume. The technique enables the physicist to correct for a certain amount of misplacement or curvature of implant geometry. The short course of brachytherapy provides good palliation in terms of functional improvements with low and acceptable toxicity in high-grade glioma. With continual refinements of the technique, brachytherapy performed by a skilled brachytherapy team offers an opportunity to improve patient survival and quality of life. Since 1997, micro selectron HDR 192 Ir treatments are done including gynecological, oesophageal, breast, surface mould, soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and brain in our hospital. In this paper, procedure of interstitial brain implant in glioma as implant technique, simulation and treatment planning will be discussed

  15. Thermoseeds for interstitial magnetic hyperthermia: from bioceramics to nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A; Arcos, D; Vallet-Regí, M

    2013-01-01

    The development of magnetic materials for interstitial hyperthermia treatment of cancer is an ever evolving research field which provides new alternatives to antitumoral therapies. The development of biocompatible magnetic materials has resulted in new biomaterials with multifunctional properties, which are able to adapt to the complex scenario of tumoral processes. Once implanted or injected in the body, magnetic materials can behave as thermoseeds under the effect of AC magnetic fields. Magnetic bioceramics aimed to treat bone tumors and magnetic nanoparticles are among the most studied thermoseeds, and supply different solutions for the different scenarios in cancerous processes. This paper reviews some of the biomaterials used for bone cancer treatment and skeletal reinforcing, as well as the more complex topic of magnetic nanoparticles for intracellular targeting and hyperthermia. (topical review)

  16. High-dose rate fractionated interstitial radiotherapy for oropharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Takayuki; Inoue, Toshihiko; Inoue, Takehiro; Teshima, Teruki; Murayama, Shigeyuki [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-03-01

    The limitations of treating oropharyngeal cancer patients with definitive external radiotherapy are the complications of salivary glands, taste buds, mandible and temporomandibular joints. To avoid these complications we started interstitial radiotherapy as boost after 46 Gy of external radiotherapy. Ten cases (retromolar trigone; 1, soft palate; 1, base of tongue; 3, lateral wall; 5) were treated with this method and seven cases were controlled locally. With short follow-up period, xerostomia and dysgeusia are less than definitive external radiotherapy as clinical impression and no in-field recurrences have been experienced. With markedly increased tumor dose, the local control rate can be improved. This treatment method will be an alternative to definitive external radiotherapy to gain better QOL and higher control rate. (author).

  17. Retrospective study of 87 interstitial brachytherapy for facial skin carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berland, E.; Bolla, M.; Saillard, F.; Beani, J.C.; Lebeau, J.; Fillon, J.P.; Vrousos, C.

    1996-01-01

    From 1977 to 1983, 83 patients (pts) with 87 facial skin carcinomas (FSC) were treated with interstitial brachytherapy (BT) in our department. Median age was 70 years (43-97 y). There was 61 basal cell carcinomas and 26 squamous cell carcinomas. 28 of them corresponded to local relapse of FSC initially treated without BT. TNM stadification was as following: T1+rT1=72,4%; T2+rT2=23%; T3+rT3=2,3%; T4+rT4=2,3%. The median follow-up was 53 months (8 months to 15 years). Different techniques were used:hypodermic needles,plastic tubes, Raynal method. A dose of 60 Gy was prescribed on the reference isodose, according to the PARIS system. Specific overall survival was 98,8% at 5 and 10 y. Local control at 5 and 10 y was 100 and 90% for FSC treated in first intention, and 81,2% for recurrent FSC. This was highly significant (p=0,002 Logrank test) Functional sequelae were appreciated according to the RTOG/EORTC scale: 29 occurred in 21 pts.60% of them were depigmentation ((11(29))) and epilation ((6(29))). Among the 21 FSC of the eyelid, one lacrimal stenosis occurred (4,8%) Cosmetic results were judged 'good' or 'very good' for 83% of the pts (BONVALLOT criteria). Bad results occured more frequently for recurrent FSC According to the litterature, our study shows that interstitial BT is a good alternative to surgery for facial skin carcinoma for elderly patients

  18. Classification of interstitial lung disease patterns with topological texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Markus B.; Nagarajan, Mahesh; Leinsinger, Gerda; Ray, Lawrence A.; Wismüller, Axel

    2010-03-01

    Topological texture features were compared in their ability to classify morphological patterns known as 'honeycombing' that are considered indicative for the presence of fibrotic interstitial lung diseases in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images. For 14 patients with known occurrence of honey-combing, a stack of 70 axial, lung kernel reconstructed images were acquired from HRCT chest exams. A set of 241 regions of interest of both healthy and pathological (89) lung tissue were identified by an experienced radiologist. Texture features were extracted using six properties calculated from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), Minkowski Dimensions (MDs), and three Minkowski Functionals (MFs, e.g. MF.euler). A k-nearest-neighbor (k-NN) classifier and a Multilayer Radial Basis Functions Network (RBFN) were optimized in a 10-fold cross-validation for each texture vector, and the classification accuracy was calculated on independent test sets as a quantitative measure of automated tissue characterization. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare two accuracy distributions and the significance thresholds were adjusted for multiple comparisons by the Bonferroni correction. The best classification results were obtained by the MF features, which performed significantly better than all the standard GLCM and MD features (p < 0.005) for both classifiers. The highest accuracy was found for MF.euler (97.5%, 96.6%; for the k-NN and RBFN classifier, respectively). The best standard texture features were the GLCM features 'homogeneity' (91.8%, 87.2%) and 'absolute value' (90.2%, 88.5%). The results indicate that advanced topological texture features can provide superior classification performance in computer-assisted diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases when compared to standard texture analysis methods.

  19. Inferring diameters of spheres and cylinders using interstitial water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sheryl L; Mercredi, Morgan E; Buist, Richard; Martin, Melanie

    2018-06-04

    Most early methods to infer axon diameter distributions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used single diffusion encoding sequences such as pulsed gradient spin echo (SE) and are thus sensitive to axons of diameters > 5 μm. We previously simulated oscillating gradient (OG) SE sequences for diffusion spectroscopy to study smaller axons including the majority constituting cortical connections. That study suggested the model of constant extra-axonal diffusion breaks down at OG accessible frequencies. In this study we present data from phantoms to test a time-varying interstitial apparent diffusion coefficient. Diffusion spectra were measured in four samples from water packed around beads of diameters 3, 6 and 10 μm; and 151 μm diameter tubes. Surface-to-volume ratios, and diameters were inferred. The bead pore radii estimates were 0.60±0.08 μm, 0.54±0.06 μm and 1.0±0.1 μm corresponding to bead diameters ranging from 2.9±0.4 μm to 5.3±0.7 μm, 2.6±0.3 μm to 4.8±0.6 μm, and 4.9±0.7 μm to 9±1 μm. The tube surface-to-volume ratio estimate was 0.06±0.02 μm -1 corresponding to a tube diameter of 180±70 μm. Interstitial models with OG inferred 3-10 μm bead diameters from 0.54±0.06 μm to 1.0±0.1 μm pore radii and 151 μm tube diameters from 0.06±0.02 μm -1 surface-to-volume ratios.

  20. Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome Presenting as Acute Interstitial Pneumonitis/Hamman-Rich Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously well, 45-year-old Pakistani lady was admitted to the medical unit on-call of Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH Peshawar with a 5-day history of fever, productive cough with copious mucoid sputum, dyspnea, and pleuritic chest pain. She also complained of dry eyes, mouth, and vagina. Her chest X-ray showed diffuse alveolar shadowing and arterial gas analysis confirmed type 1 respiratory failure. Over the next few days, she deteriorated rapidly making an urgent transfer to the medical intensive care unit (MICU necessary, where she was mechanically ventilated. An HRCT followed by bronchoscopic biopsies made a diagnosis of acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP, formerly known as Hamman-Rich syndrome. She also turned out to be positive for both anti-SS-A/Ro and anti-SS-B/La antibodies along with a positive Schirmer’s test and lower lip biopsy. She received intravenous steroids and supportive care. The patient had a complete recovery after approximately three weeks’ stay in the hospital with lung function returning back to normal. This is most probably the first ever case of primary Sjogren syndrome (pSjS presenting as AIP, recovering completely in less than a month time.

  1. Progressive technologies in furniture design

    OpenAIRE

    Šebková, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Šebková, M. Progressive technologies in furniture design. Diploma thesis, Brno, Mendel University in Brno, 2014 Diploma thesis 'Progressive technologies in furniture design' is focused on the use of modern technologies in furniture production. The theoretical part explains the basic terms, technology and material options. It focuses mainly on the production of 3D printed furniture and possibilities of virtual testing, measurements, scanning and rapid prototyping. Practical part of diploma the...

  2. The evidence of benefits of exercise training in interstitial lung disease: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowman, Leona M; McDonald, Christine F; Hill, Catherine J; Lee, Annemarie L; Barker, Kathryn; Boote, Claire; Glaspole, Ian; Goh, Nicole S L; Southcott, Anne M; Burge, Angela T; Gillies, Rebecca; Martin, Alicia; Holland, Anne E

    2017-07-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the clinical relevance of exercise training across the range of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). To establish the impact of exercise training in patients with ILDs of differing aetiology and severity. 142 participants with ILD (61 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 22 asbestosis, 23 connective tissue disease-related ILD (CTD-ILD) and 36 with other aetiologies) were randomised to either 8 weeks of supervised exercise training or usual care. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD), Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ), St George Respiratory Questionnaire IPF-specific version (SGRQ-I) and modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea score were measured at baseline, 9 weeks and 6 months. Exercise training significantly increased 6MWD (25 m, 95% CI 2 to 47 m) and health-related quality of life (CRDQ and SGRQ-I) in people with ILD. Larger improvements in 6MWD, CRDQ, SGRQ-I and dyspnoea occurred in asbestosis and IPF compared with CTD-ILD, but with few significant differences between subgroups. Benefits declined at 6 months except in CTD-ILD. Lower baseline 6MWD and worse baseline symptoms were associated with greater benefit in 6MWD and symptoms following training. Greater gains were seen in those whose exercise prescription was successfully progressed according to the protocol. At 6 months, sustained improvements in 6MWD and symptoms were associated with better baseline lung function and less pulmonary hypertension. Exercise training is effective in patients across the range of ILDs, with clinically meaningful benefits in asbestosis and IPF. Successful exercise progression maximises improvements and sustained treatment effects favour those with milder disease. Results, ACTRN12611000416998. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. High dose rate interstitial brachytherapy with external beam irradiation for localized prostate cancer. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiratsuka, Junichi; Jo, Yoshimasa; Yoden, Eisaku; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Imajo, Yoshinari [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Nagase, Naomi; Narihiro, Naomasa; Kubota, Juichi

    2000-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the biochemical and pathological results of combined external beam radiotherapy and high dose rate Ir-192 brachytherapy (HDR-Ir192) for clinically localized prostate cancer. Between October 1997 and August 1999, 39 evaluable patients with adenocarcinoma of prostate diagnosed by biopsy were treated with interstitial and external beam irradiation. Patients ranged in age from 58-82 years, with a mean of 69.7 years. T1c, T2 and T3 tumors, according to the UICC classification system (1997), were found in 7, 21 and 11 cases respectively. The mean initial pre-treatment PSA was 35.9 ng/ml (median 13.2), with 77% of the patients having had a pre-treatment PSA greater than 10 ng/ml. Of all patients, 17 had received pre-treatment hormonal therapy. Hormonal pretreatment was stopped at the beginning of radiotherapy in all cases. External beam four-field box irradiation was given to the small pelvis to a dose of 45 Gy/25 fractions. Three HDR-Ir192 treatments were given over a 30-h period, with 5.5 Gy per fraction at the circumference of the prostate gland over the course of this study. Biochemical failure was defined as a PSA level >1.5 ng/ml and rising on three consecutive values. If serial post-treatment PSA levels showed a continuous downward trend, failure was not scored. The patient with clinical evidence of progression was classified as a clinical failure. The median follow-up at the time of evaluation was 19.6 months. A post-treatment PSA level {<=}1.0 ng/ml was seen in 26 (67%) patients, and values from >1.0 to {<=}2.0 ng/ml were seen in 10 (26%) patients. Biochemical failure was not seen in 38 patients except for one patient who developed a distant bone metastasis with negative prostatic biopsy 15 months after treatment. Biochemical control rate was 100% (38/38) except for the patient with bone metastasis classified as clinical failure. Negative biopsies 18 months after treatment were found in 93% (14/15) of patients. Only one patient

  4. Comparison of clinicoradiologic manifestation of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A report from NRITLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafti Saeid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ever since Katzenstein and Fiorelli introduced the term nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP to denote those cases of interstitial pneumonia that cannot be categorized as any of the other types of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP, there has been continuing debate on whether it is a real clinical entity or not. The American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Symposium task group tried to identify idiopathic NSIP as a separate disease and exclude it from the category of IIP. However, it appears that the clinical presentation of NSIP and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP are the same. Objective : To show that the radiologic features of NSIP and UIP should be relied upon, instead of clinical presentation and pathologic findings, to differentiate between the two. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients who had received a diagnosis of either NSIP or UIP on the basis of open lung biopsy between January 2001 and December 2007 were identified for inclusion in this retrospective review. The study included 61 subjects: 32 men and 29 women with a mean age of 59.39 ± 14.5 years. Chest computed tomography images of all the cases were collected for a review. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT and all pathologic specimens were also evaluated. A weighted kappa coefficient was used to evaluate whether radiology can be used instead of biopsy for the diagnosis of NSIP and UIP. Comparison of the mean ages and the time intervals (i.e., interval between symptom onset and the time of diagnosis in the UIP and NSIP groups was done using the Mann-Whitney U test. Association between gender and biopsy result was evaluated by the Fisher exact test. Data were evaluated using SPSS, v.13. Results : Sixty-one patients were included in this study, 32 were male and 29 were female. On the basis of biopsy findings, 50 (82% patients had UIP and 11 (18% had NSIP. Thirty (60% of the 50 patients who had UIP were male and 20 (40% were female; 2 (18

  5. Sedimentary processes in Boca de Quadra and Smeaton Bay: preliminary evidence from excess 210Pb and interstitial-water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, S.F.; Burrel, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    Sedimentary profiles of unsupported 210 Pb (t/sub 1/2/ = 22.26 years) coupled with profiles of redox-sensitive metals in the interstitial water suggest sedimentary processes that have occurred in Boca de Quadra and Smeaton Bay within the past several decades. Although average sedimentation rates can be calculated from excess 210 Pb profiles alone, ancillary information is needed to interpret the history recorded in the sedimentary column. Particularly in dynamic environments such as the fjords examined here, it is necessary to examine the combined effects of: (1) rapid deposition of sediment by slumping or major storms; (2) erosional events such as scouring; (3) homogenization of sediment by storm mixing or bioturbation; and (4) deposition of material from a different source. In this report we discuss efforts underway to examine the events responsible for the observed profiles of excess 210 Pb in the sediment of Boca de Quadra and Smeaton Bay

  6. Interstitial fibrosis scored on whole-slide digital imaging of kidney biopsies is a predictor of outcome in proteinuric glomerulopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Laura H; Martini, Sebastian; Barisoni, Laura; Canetta, Pietro A; Troost, Jonathan P; Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Palmer, Matthew; Rosenberg, Avi Z; Lemley, Kevin V; Chien, Hui-Ping; Zee, Jarcy; Smith, Abigail; Appel, Gerald B; Trachtman, Howard; Hewitt, Stephen M; Kretzler, Matthias; Bagnasco, Serena M

    2018-02-01

    Interstitial fibrosis (IF), tubular atrophy (TA) and interstitial inflammation (II) are known determinants of progression of renal disease. Standardized quantification of these features could add value to current classification of glomerulopathies. We studied 315 participants in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) study, including biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD = 98), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS = 121), membranous nephropathy (MN = 59) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN = 37). Cortical IF, TA and II were quantified (%) on digitized whole-slide biopsy images, by five pathologists with high inter-reader agreement (intra-class correlation coefficient >0.8). Tubulointerstitial messenger RNA expression was measured in a subset of patients. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fit to assess association of IF with the composite of 40% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and separately as well, and with complete remission (CR) of proteinuria. IF was highly correlated with TA (P  0.4, false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.01), including upstream regulators such as tumor necrosis factor, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-B1), and signaling pathways for antigen presentation and hepatic fibrosis. The degree of IF is associated with risk of eGFR decline across different types of proteinuric glomerulopathy, correlates with inflammatory and fibrotic gene expression, and may have predictive value in assessing risk of progression. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  7. Deformation processes in refractory metals. Progress report, 1 December 1974--30 November 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoso, J.R.; Reed-Hill, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Work in progress is mostly concerned with the stress-strain behavior of niobium, as affected by dynamic strain aging. An investigation of the aging phenomena in nickel containing carbon as the major interstitial impurity was also conducted. Some aspects of the deformation behavior of the hexagonal metals titanium and zirconium still warrant investigation and are also being considered. (auth)

  8. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  9. Transperineal high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy in the management of gynecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itami, Jun; Hara, Ryuseke; Kozuka, Takuyou; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakajima, Kaori; Shibata, Kouji; Abe, Yoshihisa; Fuse, Masashi; Ito, Masashi [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy and Oncology

    2003-11-01

    Background: High-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy is a newly introduced modality, and its role in the management of gynecologic malignancies remains to be studied. Clinical experience in high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy was retrospectively investigated. Patients and Methods: Eight patients with primary and nine with recurrent gynecologic malignancies underwent high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy with/without external-beam irradiation. Fractional dose of the high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy ranged between 4 and 6 Gy with total doses of 15-54 Gy. Interstitial irradiation was performed twice daily with an interval of > 6 h. Results: 2-year local control rate was 75% for primary treatment and 47% for treatment of recurrence (p = 0.46). Maximum tumor size had a statistically significant impact on local control (p < 0.002). Grade 2 and 4 late complications were seen in five patients, and the incidence was significantly higher in patients with a larger volume enclosed by the prescribed fractional dose of high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 2 and 4 complications at 18 months was 78% and 0% with a volume > 100 cm{sup 3} and {<=} 100 cm{sup 3}, respectively (p < 0.04). Conclusion: Although high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy is a promising modality, it must be applied cautiously to patients with bulky tumors because of the high incidence of serious complications. (orig.)

  10. Radiographic and high resolution CT findings of non-specific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Satoshi [Tosei General Hospital, Seto, Aichi (Japan); Yokoi, Toyoharu; Suzuki, Ryujiro; Noda, Yasunobu; Kato, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Michie

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the radiographic and high resolution CT findings in fifteen patients with biopsy proven nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. The most common radiographic findings in NSIP were bilateral infiltrates involving alveolar pattern, interstitial pattern, and mixed alveolar-interstitial pattern, which distributed mainly in the middle and lower lung zones. Loss of lung volumes were common. The predominant findings of linear and reticular opacities on HRCT were peribronchovascular interstitial thickening, parenchymal bands, intralobular interstitial thickening, and traction bronchiectasis. Honeycombing was not noted in any patient on initial CT scans. The predominant findings of increased lung opacity were mixed pattern of ground glass opacity and consolidation. Because these findings mimic those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia, distinction between NSIP and IPF/UIP seems to be difficult by radiographic and HRCT findings. The response to corticosteroid therapy was good. At follow up HRCT, the pulmonary abnormalities observed on initial scans had disappeared or were diminished in most cases. Intralobular interstitial thickening and traction bronchiectasis, that have been considered to be an indicator of irreversible fibrosis, occasionally disappeared after corticosteroid therapy. (author)

  11. Interstitial Features at Chest CT Enhance the Deleterious Effects of Emphysema in the COPDGene Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Samuel Y; Harmouche, Rola; Ross, James C; Diaz, Alejandro A; Rahaghi, Farbod N; Sanchez-Ferrero, Gonzalo Vegas; Putman, Rachel K; Hunninghake, Gary M; Onieva, Jorge Onieva; Martinez, Fernando J; Choi, Augustine M; Bowler, Russell P; Lynch, David A; Hatabu, Hiroto; Bhatt, Surya P; Dransfield, Mark T; Wells, J Michael; Rosas, Ivan O; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George R

    2018-06-05

    Purpose To determine if interstitial features at chest CT enhance the effect of emphysema on clinical disease severity in smokers without clinical pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and Methods In this retrospective cohort study, an objective CT analysis tool was used to measure interstitial features (reticular changes, honeycombing, centrilobular nodules, linear scar, nodular changes, subpleural lines, and ground-glass opacities) and emphysema in 8266 participants in a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) called COPDGene (recruited between October 2006 and January 2011). Additive differences in patients with emphysema with interstitial features and in those without interstitial features were analyzed by using t tests, multivariable linear regression, and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multivariable linear and Cox regression were used to determine if interstitial features modified the effect of continuously measured emphysema on clinical measures of disease severity and mortality. Results Compared with individuals with emphysema alone, those with emphysema and interstitial features had a higher percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (absolute difference, 6.4%; P < .001), a lower percentage predicted diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (absolute difference, 7.4%; P = .034), a 0.019 higher right ventricular-to-left ventricular (RVLV) volume ratio (P = .029), a 43.2-m shorter 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) (P < .001), a 5.9-point higher St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score (P < .001), and 82% higher mortality (P < .001). In addition, interstitial features modified the effect of emphysema on percentage predicted DLCO, RVLV volume ratio, 6WMD, SGRQ score, and mortality (P for interaction < .05 for all). Conclusion In smokers, the combined presence of interstitial features and emphysema was associated with worse clinical disease severity and higher mortality than was emphysema alone. In addition, interstitial features

  12. Muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in the human leg during exercise and ATP infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    ATP and NE concentrations to gain insight into the interstitial and intravascular mechanisms by which ATP causes muscle vasodilation and sympatholysis. Leg hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotide and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were measured during: 1) femoral arterial ATP infusion (0......, respectively (Pcontracting muscle (Pmuscle, whereas interstitial NE concentrations increased similarly in both active...... and inactive muscles. These results suggest that the vasodilatory and sympatholytic effects of intraluminal ATP are mainly mediated via endothelial prinergic receptors. Intraluminal ATP and muscle contractions appear to modulate sympathetic nerve activity by inhibiting the effect of NE rather than blunting its...

  13. Effect of impurities on the growth of {113} interstitial clusters in silicon under electron irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, K.; Hamada, K.; Satoh, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth and shrinkage of interstitial clusters on {113} planes were investigated in electron irradiated Czochralski grown silicon (Cz-Si), floating-zone silicon (Fz-Si), and impurity-doped Fz-Si (HT-Fz-Si) using a high voltage electron microscope. In Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters were formed only near the beam incident surface after a long incubation period, and shrank on subsequent irradiation from the backside of the specimen. In Cz-Si and HT-Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters nucle...

  14. Treatment of intractable interstitial lung injury with alemtuzumab after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, M; Perch, M; Andersen, E

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman underwent left single-lung transplantation for end-stage emphysema due to α1-antitrypsin deficiency in January 2010. Cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone were administered for immunosuppression and antithymocyte globulin for induction therapy at the time...... of transplantation. Routine examination of a lung biopsy, 4 months after transplantation, showed nonspecific, diffuse interstitial inflammation with alveolar septal fibrosis. The patient's clinical status and imaging studies, consistent with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, which was considered as signs......, posttransplant antirejection drug regimen. We have since successfully treated with alemtuzumab three additional patients who developed interstitial lung injury after lung transplantation, who are also summarized in this report....

  15. Identification of the interstitial Mn site in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2093111; Wahl, Ulrich; Augustyns, Valerie; Silva, Daniel; Granadeiro Costa, Angelo Rafael; Houben, K; Edmonds, Kevin W; Gallagher, BL; Campion, RP; Van Bael, MJ; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Martins Correia, Joao; Esteves De Araujo, Araujo Joao Pedro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Da Costa Pereira, Lino Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We determined the lattice location of Mn in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As using the electron emission channeling technique. We show that interstitial Mn occupies the tetrahedral site with As nearest neighbors (TAs) both before and after thermal annealing at 200 °C, whereas the occupancy of the tetrahedral site with Ga nearest neighbors (TGa) is negligible. TAs is therefore the energetically favorable site for interstitial Mn in isolated form as well as when forming complexes with substitutional Mn. These results shed new light on the long standing controversy regarding TAs versus TGa occupancy of interstitial Mn in (Ga,Mn)As.

  16. Modelling of initial stages of interstitial solid solution decomposition in bcc metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanter, M S

    1982-01-01

    By means of a model of deformation interaction of interstitial atoms added by interlocking of the nearest positions the configuration of cluster of alien atoms intruded into octahedral ..cap alpha..-Fe, V, Nb and Ta interstitially sites is computerized. The cluster structure is determined by elastic properties, of the crystal lattice of the metal-solvent. Clusters in ..cap alpha..-Fe have a plate form in a plane (001) of half lattice period width, in V, Nb and Ta - of monatomic plate in a plane (110). Clusters of interstitials must be sufficiently stable and arise even in solutions low concentration.

  17. Detection of the free migration of the self-interstitials in magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauzier, J; Hillairet, J; Duclos, D; Vieux Champagne, A

    1986-05-01

    This paper describes the first experimental determination of the migration temperature of freely diffusing self-interstitials in magnesium. This observation was made possible by analysis of the elastic modulus and damping variations induced by the pinning of the dislocations by self-interstitials. A marked pinning stage is found between 9 K and 14 K, which is definite evidence for the long-range diffusion of the self-interstitial at these temperatures. Prior data are discussed and reinterpreted in the light of this finding.

  18. Interstitial-phase precipitation in iron-base alloys: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, A.R.

    1982-06-01

    Recent developments have elucidated the atomistic mechanisms of precipitation of interstitial elements in simple alloy systems. However, in the more technologically important iron base alloys, interstitial phase precipitation is generally not well understood. The present experimental study was therefore designed to test the applicability of these concepts to more complex ferrous alloys. Hence, a comparative study was made of interstitial phase precipitation in ferritic Fe-Si-C and in austenitic phosphorus-containing Fe-Cr-Ni steels. These systems were subjected to a variety of quench-age thermal treatments, and the microstructural development was subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy

  19. Interstitial brachytherapy for eyelid carcinoma. Outcome analysis in 60 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krengli, M.; Deantonio, L. [University Hospital ' ' Maggiore della Carita' ' , Division of Radiotherapy, Novara (Italy); University of ' ' Piemonte Orientale' ' , Department of Translational Medicine, Novara (Italy); Masini, L.; Filomeno, A.; Gambaro, G. [University Hospital ' ' Maggiore della Carita' ' , Division of Radiotherapy, Novara (Italy); Comoli, A.M. [University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Ophthalmology, Novara (Italy); Negri, E. [University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Medical Physics, Novara (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Eyelid cancer is a therapeutic challenge due to the cosmetic and functional implications of this anatomical region and the objectives of therapy are tumor control, functional and cosmetic outcome. The present study was performed to analyze local control, toxicity, functional and cosmetic results in patients with eyelid carcinoma treated by interstitial brachytherapy. In this study 60 patients with eyelid carcinoma were treated by interstitial brachytherapy using iridium ({sup 192}Ir) wires with a linear activity of 1.2-1.7 mCi/cm. The prescription dose was 51-70 Gy (mean 65 Gy, median 66 Gy). Of the 60 patients 51 (85.0 %) had received no prior treatment, 4 (6.7 %) had received previous surgery with positive or close margins and 5 (8.3 %) had suffered local recurrence after surgery. Of the tumors 52 (86.7 %) were basal cell carcinoma, 7 (11.7 %) squamous cell carcinoma and 1 (1.7 %) Merkel cell carcinoma. Clinical stage of the 51 previously untreated tumors was 38 T1N0, 12 T2N0 and 1 T3N0. Mean follow-up was 92 months (range 6-253 months). Local control was maintained in 96.7 % of patients. Late effects higher than grade 2 were observed in 3.0 % of cases. Functional and cosmetic outcomes were optimal in 68.4 % of patients. Interstitial brachytherapy for carcinoma of the eyelid can achieve local control, cosmetic and functional results comparable to those of surgery. (orig.) [German] Das Karzinom des Augenlids stellt aufgrund der funktionellen und kosmetischen Beeintraechtigungen dieser anatomischen Region eine therapeutische Herausforderung dar. Ziele der Therapie sind sowohl die Tumorkontrolle als auch ein gutes funktionelles und kosmetisches Ergebnis. Lokale Kontrolle, Toxizitaet sowie funktionelle und kosmetische Ergebnisse bei Patienten mit Karzinom des Augenlids, die mit interstitieller Brachytherapie behandelt wurden, sollten analysiert werden. Sechzig Patienten mit Karzinom des Augenlids wurden mit interstitieller Brachytherapie mit Iridium-192-Draehten

  20. Occupational exposure of professionals during interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirraco, R.; Pereira, A.; Viterbo, T.; Cavaco, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Introduction: In this study we present dose measurements for professionals exposed during interstitial 125 I permanent prostate brachytherapy implants. Methods and Materials: The implant technique used was intra operative real time using strand and loose seeds. The professionals inside the operating room are an oncologist, a radiologist, a physicist, a nurse and an anesthesiologist. The oncologist and the physicist contact directly the loaded needle with radioactive seeds and two types of measurements were taken: total body and extremities (finger) dose. The rest of the team operates at long distances, but measurements were made. To measure total body equivalent dose we use a Berthold Umo LB 123 coupled with a LB 1236-H10 detector, and we recorded dose, time and distance from implant location. Finger dosemeters are thermo -luminescent dosimeter (TLD) rings that were controlled over one month. Results: 50 cases (average number of applications per year) were analysed for extremities measurements and 9 cases for total body measurements (in this case, the results were extrapolated for 50 cases), with an average of 26.1 mCi total activity per implant (in a range of 17.4 - 40.3 mCi). The finger dose was 1.8 mSv for the oncologist and 1.9 mSv for the physicist. The interpolation of total body equivalent dose for the oncologist was 24 mSv, for the radiologist 6 mSv and 9 mSv for the physicist. The rest of the team did not receive anything but background radiation. The annual national limit dose for workers is 20 mSv for total body irradiation, and 500 mSv for extremities. Conclusion: In conclusion we may say that during interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants, total doses received for all groups are not significant when compared to annual limits for Portuguese laws 1. Even so, our main goal is always to get the less possible dose (ALARA principle). References: 1. Decreto Lei n. 180/2002 de 8 de Agosto. (authors)

  1. CT stereotactic reconstruction of oral cavity interstitial plastic tube implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crispin, V.; Carrasco, P.; Guardino, C.; Lopez, J.; Chust, M.; Arribas, L.; Mengual, J.; Miragall, E.G.; Hernandez, A.; Carrascosa, M.; Cardenal, R.; Guinot, J.; Casana, M.; Prats, C.

    1996-01-01

    The continuous using of CT images in external RT have made us think of its applications for plastic tube interstitial implants in the oral cavity in order to calculate the dose delivered by an interstitial implant at any point of the image and its relationship with local control and complications. Moreover, the outcoming result of the whole treatment depends on whether the irradiated volume up to a prescribed dose includes the CTV or not. None of these objectives may be achieved through the classical film reconstruction. Although film reconstruction appeared as the only accurate method for these purposes in the early eighties, it does not allow us to calculate doses at critical points or volumes. Therefore possible complications over critical tissues surrounding the radioactive implant cannot be taken into account in a precise way. The use of a stereotactic coordinate system could make CT reconstruction as precise as film reconstruction. As our stereotactic frame can be placed over the patient in 'direct' or 'inverse' positions it is really interesting in the applications we are talking about. We also have used a non invasive standard plexiglass helmet commonly used in stereotactic fractionated irradiations in teletherapy. It fits perfectly the patient's head and avoids any movement of the patient during the CT exam. We do parallel slices, approximately perpendicular to the iridium wires (following the Paris System), covering the whole implant helping ourselves with both bone and implant references. The dose-volume histograms and DNR (dose nonuniformity ratio) index defined by Saw et Al are used for intercomparison between the ortogonal and the stereotactic reconstructions. The existence of a minimum in the DNR curve indicates that there is a reference dose rate for this implant which provides an optimal dose distribution. If we calculate which is the minimum of each method, we find they are very close. So, as both methods give very similar results, we can conclude

  2. Occupational exposure of professionals during interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirraco, R.; Pereira, A.; Viterbo, T.; Cavaco, A. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro R egional de Oncologia do Porto, SA, Porto (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Introduction: In this study we present dose measurements for professionals exposed during interstitial 125 I permanent prostate brachytherapy implants. Methods and Materials: The implant technique used was intra operative real time using strand and loose seeds. The professionals inside the operating room are an oncologist, a radiologist, a physicist, a nurse and an anesthesiologist. The oncologist and the physicist contact directly the loaded needle with radioactive seeds and two types of measurements were taken: total body and extremities (finger) dose. The rest of the team operates at long distances, but measurements were made. To measure total body equivalent dose we use a Berthold Umo LB 123 coupled with a LB 1236-H10 detector, and we recorded dose, time and distance from implant location. Finger dosemeters are thermo -luminescent dosimeter (TLD) rings that were controlled over one month. Results: 50 cases (average number of applications per year) were analysed for extremities measurements and 9 cases for total body measurements (in this case, the results were extrapolated for 50 cases), with an average of 26.1 mCi total activity per implant (in a range of 17.4 - 40.3 mCi). The finger dose was 1.8 mSv for the oncologist and 1.9 mSv for the physicist. The interpolation of total body equivalent dose for the oncologist was 24 mSv, for the radiologist 6 mSv and 9 mSv for the physicist. The rest of the team did not receive anything but background radiation. The annual national limit dose for workers is 20 mSv for total body irradiation, and 500 mSv for extremities. Conclusion: In conclusion we may say that during interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants, total doses received for all groups are not significant when compared to annual limits for Portuguese laws 1. Even so, our main goal is always to get the less possible dose (ALARA principle). References: 1. Decreto Lei n. 180/2002 de 8 de Agosto. (authors)

  3. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulou Iakovina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well established that acetaminophen metabolism, particularly at high doses, produces reactive metabolites that may induce renal and hepatic toxicity. It is also plausible however, that such reactive species could instead alter renal peptide immunogenicity, thereby inducing AIN. In the following report, we review a possible mechanism for the acetaminophen-induced AIN observed in our patient and also discuss the potential involvement of acute alcohol ingestion in disease onset. The objective of our report is to increase awareness of healthcare professionals to the potential involvement of these commonly used agents in AIN pathogenesis.

  4. Synthesized interstitial lung texture for use in anthropomorphic computational phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchetti, Marc F.; Solomon, Justin B.; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    A realistic model of the anatomical texture from the pulmonary interstitium was developed with the goal of extending the capability of anthropomorphic computational phantoms (e.g., XCAT, Duke University), allowing for more accurate image quality assessment. Contrast-enhanced, high dose, thorax images for a healthy patient from a clinical CT system (Discovery CT750HD, GE healthcare) with thin (0.625 mm) slices and filtered back- projection (FBP) were used to inform the model. The interstitium which gives rise to the texture was defined using 24 volumes of interest (VOIs). These VOIs were selected manually to avoid vasculature, bronchi, and bronchioles. A small scale Hessian-based line filter was applied to minimize the amount of partial-volumed supernumerary vessels and bronchioles within the VOIs. The texture in the VOIs was characterized using 8 Haralick and 13 gray-level run length features. A clustered lumpy background (CLB) model with added noise and blurring to match CT system was optimized to resemble the texture in the VOIs using a genetic algorithm with the Mahalanobis distance as a similarity metric between the texture features. The most similar CLB model was then used to generate the interstitial texture to fill the lung. The optimization improved the similarity by 45%. This will substantially enhance the capabilities of anthropomorphic computational phantoms, allowing for more realistic CT simulations.

  5. Computerized tomography of chest in emphysema and interstitial diseases diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto Bayarri, M.; Malagari, K.; Ibarburen, C.; Arenas, G.; Correa Pombo, J.; Garcia Tahoces, P.; Tucker, D.; Barnes, G.T.; Luna, R.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Fraser, R.G.; Vidal Carrerira, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effect of increasing the spatial resolution on thin section (1.5 mm) computed tomography (CT) of the chest, we compared images reconstructed with the standard algorithm (SA) to three other images obtained with 1) a high spatial frequency algorithm, 2) retrospective targeting to a small field of view (FOV) reconstructed with the high spatial frequency algorithm, and 3) the same high spatial frequency algorithm with images acquired with the small (0.6 mm) rather the large (0.9 mm) focal spot. Examinations were performed on a phantom, on normal subjects, and on patients with emphysema and other diffuse lung diseases. Modulation transfer function (MTF) calculations revealed that higher resolution was achieved on the small focal spot and high spatial frequency algorithm than on the standard algorithm. Evaluation of the four images from 25 normal subjects, 16 patients with emphysema and 9 with interstitial disease was performed by means of an ROC study. Results from the areas under the ROC curves, sensitivity and specificity have shown that images reconstructed with the high spatial frequency algorithm were preferred. We conclude that the use of a high spatial frequency algorithm increases spatial resolution and improves visibility of lung parenchyma. Although more evaluation is needed, the potential of increasing spatial resolution further by using a smaller focal spot is currently limited by the mas Available per slice and the associated increased level of quantum noise. (Author)

  6. Safety of Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy in Patients With Pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Sanjeet S; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Favazza, Christopher P; Watson, Robert E; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Van Gompel, Jamie J

    2018-02-10

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT) has increasingly been used as a treatment option for medically refractory epilepsy, tumors, and radiation necrosis. The use of LiTT requires intraoperative magnetic resonance (MR) thermography. This can become an issue in patients with other implanted therapeutic devices such as pacemakers and vagal nerve stimulators due to concerns regarding increases in the specific absorption rate (SAR). This is a technical case report demonstrating a successfully and safely performed LiTT in a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a patient with a pacemaker for mesial temporal sclerosis. An 83-yr-old gentleman who had an implanted cardiac pacemaker presented with medically intractable epilepsy and was confirmed to have mesial temporal sclerosis on imaging. Video electroencephalography demonstrated concordant ipsilateral seizures and semiology. He underwent LiTT for ablation of the mesial temporal lobe. This was performed with the below described protocol with a cardiology nurse monitoring the patient's cardiac condition and a physicist monitoring SAR, and MR imaging quality without any adverse events. This study reports on a protocol of cardiac and MR SAR to safely perform MR-guided LiTT in the setting of traditional pacemakers in patients who are not pacemaker dependent. Copyright © 2018 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  7. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, I; McMahon, S B; O'Reilly, B A

    2013-08-01

    The bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a spectrum of urological symptoms characterised by bladder pain with typical cystoscopic features. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult. There is no evidence-based management approach for the diagnosis or treatment of BPS. The objective of this study was to critically review and summarise the evidence relating to the diagnosis and treatment of the bladder pain syndrome. A review of published data on the diagnosis and treatment of the BPS was performed. Our search was limited to English-language articles, on the "diagnosis", and "management" or "treatment" of "interstitial cystitis" and the "bladder pain syndrome" in "humans." Frequency, urgency and pain on bladder filling are the most common symptoms of BPS. All urodynamic volumes are reduced in patients with BPS. Associated conditions include psychological distress, depression, history of sexual assault, irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Cystoscopy remains the test for definitive diagnosis, with visualisation of haemorrhage on cystoreduction. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is essential in the management of this condition. Orally administered amitriptyline is an efficacious medical treatment for BPS. Intravesical hyaluronic acid and local anaesthetic, with/without hydrodistension are among new treatment strategies. Sacral or pudendal neuromodulation is effective, minimally invasive and safe. Surgery is reserved for refractory cases. There remains a paucity of evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of BPS. We encountered significant heterogeneity in the assessment of symptoms, duration of treatment and follow up of patients in our literature review.

  8. MMPI-2-RF characteristics of individuals with interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Rachel L; Wunderlich, Ted; Wilson, Nicolas; Akeson, Steven

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the psychological functioning of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patients utilizing MMPI-2-RF scoring. The MMPI-2 was administered to 60 individuals who reported a diagnosis of IC. Responses were scored in the MMPI-2-RF format. Fifty-one protocols were deemed valid. Elevations were discovered on scales FBS-r (symptom validity), RC1 (somatic complaints), and MLS (malaise). Participants were split into two groups based on extreme elevations on RC1; the high RC1 group produced higher scores on 39 scales including clinically significant elevations on 17 scales. Over 25% of this sample had an emotional component to their physical concerns. This knowledge about the psychological characteristics of IC patients may have clinical utility for physicians and other treatment providers. The results argue strongly for psychological evaluation as a component of IC diagnosis and treatment. Those with significant emotional overlay to their somatic complaints may be best managed through psychological interventions and minimally invasive treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Position locating device and method for interstitial radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    A position locating device is described for interstitial radiotherapy of a body portion comprising a flexible sheet member for being received about and conformed with a body portion which is to receive radiotherapy. The sheet member has spaced position locating means and first and second opposite ends, and attachment means for releasably securing the sheet member about the body portion comprising joining means securing bands with the sheet member. The joining means provides first and second clamping units each detachably secured with the sheet member proximate to a respective one of its ends for being replaced and repositioned therewith. The bands comprise first and second sets having first ends pivotably secured with a respective one of the first and second clamping units for allowing their angular adjustment with the second ends of the first set of bands being detachably securable with the second ends of the second set of bands for releasably securing the sheet member about the body portion. Each of the clamping units comprises a flat bar having a slot for receiving therethrough an end of the sheet member and screw elements threadedly engaging a respective one of the bars for clamping and securing the sheet member therewith. The first ends of the bands have an opening for receiving a respective screw element therethrough for securing same with the bar unit and allowing pivotal movement thereabout

  10. Erectile dysfunction is a common problem in interstitial lung diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Hilberg, Ole; Wijsenbeek, Marlies

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is related to chronic diseases, including COPD. The patho- genesis may involve chronic hypoxia, which is common in interstitial lung disease (ILD). We aimed to study the relationship between ILD and ED. Method: Male patients with ILD detected by high...... degree of ED, thirty (56.6%) had moderate to severe ED, and 23 (43.4%) had severe ED. Low diffusion capacity and high body mass index showed a trend of increasing risk of moderate to severe ED. The risk increased with age (OR per 5-year increase=2.63 (1.25; 5.53)) and decreased with 6MWT distance (OR per...... 50 m increase=0.60 (0.41; 0.89). Only two patients (6.7%) received specific treatment with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Conclusion: Severe ED is a common problem in men with ILD, and is associated with poor walking distance and high age. Treatment coverage is low, and physicians should ad- dress...

  11. Oxygen therapy for interstitial lung disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. Bell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to establish the impact of oxygen therapy on dyspnoea, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, exercise capacity and mortality in interstitial lung disease (ILD. We included studies that compared oxygen therapy to no oxygen therapy in adults with ILD. No limitations were placed on study design or intervention type. Two reviewers independently evaluated studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcome was dyspnoea. Eight studies evaluated the acute effects of oxygen (n=1509. There was no effect of oxygen therapy on modified Borg dyspnoea score at end exercise (mean difference (MD −0.06 units, 95% CI −0.24–0.13; two studies, n=27. However, effects on exercise outcomes consistently favoured oxygen therapy. One study showed reduction in dyspnoea at rest with oxygen in patients who were acutely unwell (MD visual analogue scale 30 mm versus 48 mm, p<0.05; n=10. Four studies of long-term oxygen therapy (n=2670 had high risk of bias and no inferences could be drawn. This systematic review showed no effects of oxygen therapy on dyspnoea during exercise in ILD, although exercise capacity was increased. Future trials should evaluate whether acute improvements in exercise capacity with oxygen can be translated into improved physical activity and HRQoL.

  12. Sirolimus-associated interstitial pneumonitis in a liver transplant recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claire Berrouet, Marie; Aristizabal, Julian Miguel; Restrepo, Juan Carlos; Correa, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    Sirolimus is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used during the past few years. Sirolimus is indicated in rescue therapies and to reduce the secondary toxic effects of calcineurin inhibitors. This drug has been associated with infrequent but severe pulmonary toxicity. Cases of interstitial pneumonitis, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, and alveolar proteinosis have been described. We describe a case of pulmonary toxicity associated with the use of sirolimus in a 59-yr-old liver transplant recipient. We also review all reported cases of sirolimus-associated lung toxicity among liver transplantation recipients, with the intention of understanding the risk factors, the clinical picture and the outcomes of this complication. Five cases have been reported since January 2000, including the present case. Clinical presentation is similar, with fever, dyspnoea, fatigue, cough, and hemoptysis. Discontinuation of the drug led to resolution of clinical and radiographic findings. Sirolimus-induced pulmonary toxicity is a serious condition and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver recipients presenting with respiratory findings. Discontinuation of the drug is associated with resolution of the pulmonary compromise

  13. Mechanisms of leading edge protrusion in interstitial migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerry; Lewalle, Alexandre; Fritzsche, Marco; Thorogate, Richard; Duke, Tom; Charras, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    While the molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying cell protrusion on two-dimensional substrates are well understood, our knowledge of the actin structures driving protrusion in three-dimensional environments is poor, despite relevance to inflammation, development and cancer. Here we report that, during chemotactic migration through microchannels with 5 μm × 5 μm cross-sections, HL60 neutrophil-like cells assemble an actin-rich slab filling the whole channel cross-section at their front. This leading edge comprises two distinct F-actin networks: an adherent network that polymerizes perpendicular to cell-wall interfaces and a ‘free’ network that grows from the free membrane at the cell front. Each network is polymerized by a distinct nucleator and, due to their geometrical arrangement, the networks interact mechanically. On the basis of our experimental data, we propose that, during interstitial migration, medial growth of the adherent network compresses the free network preventing its retrograde movement and enabling new polymerization to be converted into forward protrusion. PMID:24305616

  14. Fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: HRCT findings that predict mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edey, Anthony J.; Hansell, David M. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Devaraj, Anand A. [St. George' s NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Tooting (United Kingdom); Barker, Robert P. [Frimley Park Hosptal, Department of Radiology, Frimley, Surrey (United Kingdom); Nicholson, Andrew G. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Wells, Athol U. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    The study aims were to identify CT features that predict outcome of fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) when information from lung biopsy data is unavailable. HRCTs of 146 consecutive patients presenting with fibrotic IIP were studied. Visual estimates were made of the extent of abnormal lung and proportional contribution of fine and coarse reticulation, microcystic (cysts {<=}4 mm) and macrocystic honeycombing. A score for severity of traction bronchiectasis was also assigned. Using death as our primary outcome measure, variables were analysed using the Cox proportional hazards model. CT features predictive of a worse outcome were coarse reticulation, microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing, as well as overall extent of lung abnormality (p < 0.001). Importantly, increased severity of traction bronchiectasis, corrected for extent of parenchymal abnormality, was predictive of poor prognosis regardless of the background pattern of abnormal lung (HR = 1.04, CI = 1.03-1.06, p < 0.001). On bivariate Cox analysis microcystic honeycombing was a more powerful determinant of a poor prognosis than macrocystic honeycombing. In fibrotic IIPs we have shown that increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis is indicative of higher mortality irrespective of the HRCT pattern and extent of disease. Extent of microcystic honeycombing is a more powerful determinant of outcome than macrocystic honeycombing. (orig.)

  15. Interstitial pneumonitis is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients treated with sirolimus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morcos, A

    2012-06-01

    Sirolimus is a powerful immunosuppressive drug which is being used increasingly after liver transplantation because of its renal sparing and anti-tumour effects. It has been associated with uncommon, but potentially fatal, interstitial pneumonitis.

  16. Measuring interstitial pH and pO2 in mouse tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakesh K; Munn, Lance L; Fukumura, Dai

    2013-07-01

    This protocol outlines methods to measure two extravascular parameters, interstitial pH and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), in mouse tumors. The method for measuring interstitial pH uses fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) of the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). The method for measuring interstitial pO2 is based on the oxygen-dependent quenching of the phosphorescence of albumin-bound palladium meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin, and can be used to measure microvascular as well as interstitial pO2. In addition, the two methods can be used sequentially to measure both pH and pO2 in the same tissues.

  17. INTERSTITIAL LUNG-DISEASE AND MYOSITIS IN A PATIENT WITH SIMULTANEOUSLY OCCURRING SARCOIDOSIS AND SCLERODERMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROEN, H; POSTMA, DS; KALLENBERG, CGM

    1993-01-01

    A patient initially presented with sarcoidosis in combination with myositis of sarcoid origin and Raynaud's phenomenon. During the course of his disease, he additionally developed scleroderma. Bronchoalveolar lavage, performed because of increase of interstitial markings in the presence of enlarged

  18. Venous Thromboembolism and Risk of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia A Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte Margareta; Dahl, Morten; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is characterized by pulmonary fibrosis and high mortality. Objectives: We examined the association between ever-diagnosed venous thromboembolism and risk of incident idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Venous thromboembolism was taken as a proxy...... Danish registries. Measurements and Main Results: Age-standardized incidence rates per 10,000 person-years for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia were higher among those ever diagnosed with venous thromboembolism (1.8; n = 158,676), pulmonary embolism (2.8; n = 70,586), and deep venous thrombosis only (1.......2; n = 88,090), than among control subjects (0.8; n = 7,260,278). Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia were 1.8 (95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.7-1.9) in those ever diagnosed with venous thromboembolism, 2.4 (95% CI, 2.3-2.6) in those ever diagnosed with pulmonary...

  19. Statin Use Is Associated with Reduced Mortality in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that statin use begun before the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is associated with reduced mortality. METHODS: We studied all patients diagnosed with interstitial lung disease in the entire Danish population from 1995 through 2009, comparing statin use versus...... no statin use in a nested 1:2 matched study. RESULTS: The cumulative survival as a function of follow-up time from the date of diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (n = 1,786 + 3,572) and idiopathic lung fibrosis (n = 261 + 522) was higher for statin users versus never users (log-rank: P = 7 · 10......(-9) and P = 0.05). The median survival time in patients with interstitial lung disease was 3.3 years in statin users and 2.1 years in never users. Corresponding values in patients with idiopathic lung fibrosis were 3.4 versus 2.4 years. After multivariable adjustment, the hazard ratio for all...

  20. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal associated with deep muscular plexus of human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Mikkelsen, H B; Thuneberg, L

    1992-01-01

    Evidence showing that interstitial cells of Cajal have important regulatory functions in the gut musculature is accumulating. In the current study, the ultrastructure of the deep muscular plexus and associated interstial cells of Cajal in human small intestine were studied to provide a reference...... a continuous basal lamina, caveolae, intermediate filaments, dense bodies, dense bands, and a well-developed subsurface smooth endoplasmic reticulum), but the arrangement of organelles was clearly different, and cisternae of granular endoplasmic reticulum were abundant. Interstitial cells of Cajal were......, and only few gap junctions with other interstitial cells of Cajal or with the musculature were observed. Compared with interstitial cells of Cajal from other mammals, those associated with the deep muscular plexus in the human small intestine more closely resemble smooth muscle cells...

  1. Interstitial pressure dependence of the thermal conductivity of some rare earth oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, P.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal transport properties of powdered materials depend upon interstitial gas pressure. The present study reports the experimental results for the effective thermal conductivity of three rare earth oxide powders viz. yttrium oxide, samarium oxide, and gadolinium oxide, at various interstitial pressures by using transient plane source (TPS) method. A theoretical model is also proposed for the interpretation of the variation of the effective thermal conductivity with interstitial gas pressure. Its validity is found to be good in low pressure range of 45 mm Hg to normal pressure when compared with the experimental results. Also an attempt has been made to calculate the variation of thermal conductivity with interstitial pressure in the high pressure range up to 2 kbar using the proposed model. (author)

  2. Usual interstitial pneumonia and non-specific interstitial pneumonia: serial thin-section CT findings correlated with pulmonary function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeon Joo; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Man Pyo; Chung Myung Jin; Han, Joung Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Colby, Thomas V. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale (United States); Kim, Seon Woo [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    We wanted to demonstrate and compare the serial high-resolution CTs (HRCT) and the pulmonary function test (PFT) findings of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and the non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). The serial HRCT scans and the PFT results were retrospectively analysed and compared for 35 patients having UIP without significant honeycombing (UIP-w/o hc, < 5% of honeycombing at CT), 35 patients having UIP with honeycombing (UIP-w/i hc, {>=} 5% of honeycombing), and 25 patients with NSIP. The mortality rates were also compared. Follow-up CT scans were available in 75 patients (29 UIP-w/o hc patients, 22 UIP-w/i hc patients and 24 NSIP patients) and the follow-up periods ranged from 150 to 2,370 days. The initial and follow-up PFT data were available for 71 patients. On the initial CT, significant differences were present between the UIP-w/i hc patients and both the UIP-w/o hc patients and the NSIP patients in the overall extent, ground-glass opacity (GGO) away from the reticulation, reticulation and honeycombing (all {rho} < 0.05). Improvement was noticed in five (17%) of 29 UIP-w/o hc patients, none of 22 UIP-w/i hc patients, and 9 (37%) of 24 NSIP patients; deterioration was noted in six (21%) UIP-w/o hc patients, two (9%) UIP-w/i hc patients and three (13%) NSIP patients ({rho} 0.044 between UIP-w/o and UIP-w/i hc; {rho} = 0.637 between UIP-w/o hc and NSIP; {rho} = 0.007 between UIP-w/i hc and NSIP). The serial changes of the pulmonary function in the NSIP patients were different from those noted for the UIP-w/i hc and UIP-w/o hc patients ({rho} = 0.440 between UIP-w/o and UIP-w/i hc; {rho} = 0.022 between UIP-w/o hc and NSIP; {rho} =0.003 between UIP-w/i hc and NSIP). Five (14%) of the 35 patients with UIP-w/o hc, 16 (46%) of the 35 patients with UIP-w/i hc and three (12%) of the 25 patients with NSIP died ({rho} = 0.002, comparison for the three groups). On CT, NSIP and UIP-w/o hc patients have similar patterns of parenchymal abnormalities and

  3. Reactive Granulomatous Dermatitis: A Review of Palisaded Neutrophilic and Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Drug Reaction, and a Proposed Reclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbach, Misha; English, Joseph C

    2015-07-01

    The terms "palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis," "interstitial granulomatous dermatitis," and the subset "interstitial granulomatous drug reaction" are a source of confusion. There exists substantial overlap among the entities with few strict distinguishing features. We review the literature and highlight areas of distinction and overlap, and propose a streamlined diagnostic workup for patients presenting with this cutaneous reaction pattern. Because the systemic disease associations and requisite workup are similar, and the etiopathogenesis is poorly understood but likely similar among these entities, we propose the simplified unifying term "reactive granulomatous dermatitis" to encompass these entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. TED of boron in the presence of EOR defects: the use of the theory of Ostwald ripening to calculate Si-interstitial supersaturation in the vicinity of extrinsic defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafos, C.; Alquier, D.; Martinez, A.; Mathiot, D.; Claverie, A.

    1996-05-01

    When end-of-range defects are located close to or within doping profiles they render diffusion "anomalous" by both enhancing the dopant diffusivity and trapping it, both phenomena decreasing with time. Upon annealing, these defects grow in size and their density is reduced through the emission and capture of Si-interstitial atoms by a coarsening process called Ostwald ripening. In this paper, we report on how, by coupling the Ostwald ripening theory with TEM observations of the time evolution of the dislocation loops upon annealing, quantitative information allowing the enhanced diffusivity to be understood can be extracted. Indeed, during the coarsening process, a supersaturation, {C}/{C e}, of Si self-interstitial atoms is maintained between the loops and decreases with time. The enhanced diffusivity is assumed to be linked to the evolution of this interstitial supersaturation during annealing through the interstitial component of boron diffusion. We show that C drastically decreases during the first second of the anneal to asymptotically reach a value just above the equilibrium concentration Ce. This rapid decay is precisely at the origin of the transient enhanced diffusivity of dopants in the vicinity of the loops.

  5. A study on applying Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shunichi; Komiya, Yoshiaki; Uchida, Ikuhiro; Tashiro, Kazuyoshi

    1999-01-01

    To investigate applicability of Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy, 93 cases of oral squamous carcinoma were examined. The patients underwent Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy as thorough therapy in our hospital. The criteria of applying Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy was diameter of within 5 cm and depth within 2 cm of tumor size. Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy was applied to 82 cases of tongue, 10 cases of oral floor and one case of lower lip carcinomas. The local control rate was 92.5%, and secondary neck metastasis was 32.3% in all cases applied Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy. The results were not bad compared with surgical treatment. However, the 5-year cumulative survival rate was 64.9%, which was not good enough at the result to obtain a good local control rate and secondary neck metastasis rate. The result was relative to low treatment result of local recurrence cases with Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy. To improve the result, it is important to distinguish local recurrence from radioinduced ulcer, and to start early secondary treatment. The cases in which cervical lymph node metastasis was found as the first examination underwent neck dessection after Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy. The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 83.3% in N1 cases and 40.6% in N2 cases, and the result of N2 cases was poorer than N1 cases with a significant difference. The results indicate that a needle having a diameter of within 5 cm, depth of within 2 cm and less than N1 can be applied during Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy for complete cure of cancer. (author)

  6. Do you really know precise radiologic–pathologic correlation of usual interstitial pneumonia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johkoh, Takeshi, E-mail: johkoht@aol.com [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Itami (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromotsu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Fukuoka, Junya; Tanaka, Tomonori [Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Toyama (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology and Center for Diagnostic Imaging, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Takahashi, Masashi [Department of Radiology, Shiga Medical University, Otsu (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Kondo, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki [Department of Respiratory and Allergic Medicine, Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Although usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common chronic interstitial pneumonia, understanding of pathologic backgrounds of CT findings has still not been enough. Since honeycombing on either scanning microgram or CT is essential for diagnosis of UIP in 2010 ATS-ERS-JRS-ALAT guide line, the role of radiologists has become much more important. We will summarize common and uncommon CT findings with radiologic–pathological correlation.

  7. Interstitial Lung Disease in a 70-Year-Old Man with Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Hampton W; Frye, Jeanetta W

    2018-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease is a rare but increasingly recognized extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease that can have devastating consequences if left untreated. We report a case of ulcerative colitis-associated interstitial lung disease presenting with acute hypoxic respiratory failure during an ulcerative colitis flare. Gastroenterologists and pulmonologists should be aware of the numerous bronchopulmonary signs and symptoms that can suggest systemic illness in inflammatory bowel disease.

  8. Recurrent nitrofurantoin-induced giant cell interstitial pneumonia: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP is a rare form of chronic interstitial pneumonia typically associated with hard metal exposure. Only two cases of GIP induced by nitrofurantoin have been reported in the medical literature. We are reporting a case of recurrent nitrofurantoin-induced GIP. Although extremely rare, GIP needs to be included in the differential diagnosis in patients with chronic nitrofurantoin use who present with respiratory illness.

  9. Interstitial Lung Disease due to Siderosis in a Lathe Machine Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothi, D; Satija, B; Kumar, S; Kaur, Omkar

    2015-01-01

    Since its first description in 1936, siderosis of lung has been considered a benign pneumoconiosis due to absence of significant clinical symptoms or respiratory impairment. Subsequently, authors have questioned the non-fibrogenic property of iron. However, siderosis causing interstitial lung disease with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern has not been described in the past. We report a case of UIP on high resolution computed tomography, proven to be siderosis on transbronchial lung biopsy in a lathe machine worker.

  10. Application of interstitial radiotherapy for cancers of the tongue and oral caving mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamyatin, O.A.; Vakhramova, M.P.; Razorenova, E.V.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with new procedures of interstitial, complex and combined treatment of cancer of the tongue and mucosa of fundus of the oral cavity with time space-differentiated doses of radiation. If indicated, cervical lymph nodes undergo surgery at the final stage of therapy. Interstitial radiotherapy has proved a highly-effective radical component of said treatment for cancers of the tongue and oral cavity

  11. [Effects of two submerged macrophytes on dissolved inorganic nitrogen in overlying water and interstitial water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Bin; Li, Yang; Sun, Gong-Xian

    2014-06-01

    Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) and Vallisneria spiralis L. (V. spiralis L.) were studied as model submerged macrophytes. The effects of the submerged macrophytes on the forms and concentration of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the overlying water and the interstitial water, as well as the diffusion flux of DIN in the water-sediment interface were investigated by batch simulation experiment. The results indicated that the removal effect of DIN in the overlying water was better than that in the interstitial water by submerged macrophytes. The removal efficiency of DIN in the overlying water and the interstitial water followed the order of NO2(-) -N > NH4(+) -N > NO3(-) -N. The removal rate of DIN by C. demersum was higher than that of V. spiralis L. in the overlying water, while the result was converse in the interstitial water. C. demersum and V. spiralis L. decreased the diffusion flux of NH4(+) -N and NO2(-) -N, and increased the diffusion flux of NO3(-) -N significantly. Consequently, NO3(-) -N replaced NH4(+) -N and became the main form of DIN, which diffused from the interstitial water to the overlying water. The impact of the diffusion flux of NO3(-) -N between C. demersum and V. spiralis L. showed no significant difference, and the result was the same for NH4(+) -N. C. demersum and V. spiralis L. increased the width of variation of the three nitrogen forms to total DIN in the overlying water and the interstitial water, the influence on the ratio of DIN by C. demersum was greater than that of V. spiralis L. in the overlying water, while the result was opposite in the interstitial water. In general, C. demersum had more influence in the overlying water, while V. spiralis L. had more influence in the interstitial water, and the influence of DIN diffusion flux was not significant.

  12. Small interstitial clusters as opposite defect recombinators in decomposing solid solutions under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, A.N.; Trushin, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt was made to make allowance for the role of binary and ternary interstitials in the kinetics of radiation point defects both in the presence and in the absence of coherent preseparation. It is shown that in solid solutions, decomposing under irradiation, recombination with binary and ternary interstitials proceeds more quickly than directly, and this difference is more pronounced (from 2 up to 20 time growth) due to defect flow for preseparation at the stage of coherent preseparation formation

  13. Fundamental Study of a Combined Hyperthermia System with RF Capacitive Heating and Interstitial Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, Yoshiaki; Hori, Junichi; 斉藤, 義明; 堀, 潤一

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial RF heating with an inserted electrode allows the heating position selection in a subject, but the narrow heating region is problematic. This study elucidates development of new interstitial RF heating methods, combining with external RF heating using paired electrodes, heating the subject broadly in advance in order to selectively extend the heating region. Two kinds of heating system were developed by controlling a differential mode and a common mode of RF currents. Heating expe...

  14. Interstitial lung disease pattern turned out to be a predominantly lepidic lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Hammen, Dr. Med

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 46-year-old woman without any medical history who presented to our Respiratory Department with exertional dyspnoea for the last 6 weeks associated with non-productive cough. Chest radiography showed bilateral diffuse interstitial opacity. Bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies performed during flexible bronchoscopy as a step in the diagnostic workup of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia showed cells of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

  15. A comparison of visual and quantitative methods to identify interstitial lung abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Kliment, Corrine R.; Araki, Tetsuro; Doyle, Tracy J.; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Jos?e; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Ross, James C.; Est?par, Ra?l San Jos?; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Lederer, David J.; Schwartz, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that individuals with interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) on a chest computed tomogram (CT) may have an increased risk to develop a clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD). Although methods used to identify individuals with ILA on chest CT have included both automated quantitative and qualitative visual inspection methods, there has been not direct comparison between these two methods. To investigate this relationship, we created lung density met...

  16. Do you really know precise radiologic–pathologic correlation of usual interstitial pneumonia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johkoh, Takeshi; Sumikawa, Hiromotsu; Fukuoka, Junya; Tanaka, Tomonori; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Takahashi, Masashi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Although usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common chronic interstitial pneumonia, understanding of pathologic backgrounds of CT findings has still not been enough. Since honeycombing on either scanning microgram or CT is essential for diagnosis of UIP in 2010 ATS-ERS-JRS-ALAT guide line, the role of radiologists has become much more important. We will summarize common and uncommon CT findings with radiologic–pathological correlation.

  17. Molecular dynamics study of interstitial-solute interactions in irradiated Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan, N.V.; Lam, N.Q.; Dagens, L.; Adda, Y.

    1981-11-01

    The stable configurations and binding energies of interstitial and di-interstitial-solute complexes in Al-Be, Al-Ca, Al-K, Al-Li, Al-Mg and Al-Zn alloys were calculated using the molecular dynamics technique in conjunction with interatomic potentials derived entirely from theoretical considerations and not fitted to any experimental data. All the results reported in this work are thus of first-principles nature

  18. Measuring progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, sociological examinations of genetics, therapeutic cloning, neuroscience and tissue engineering have suggested that 'life itself' is currently being transformed through technique with profound implications for the ways in which we understand and govern ourselves and others...... in much the same way that mortality rates, life expectancy or morbidity rates can. By analysing the concrete ways in which human progress has been globally measured and taxonomised in the past two centuries or so, I will show how global stratifications of countries according to their states...

  19. Effect of impurities on the growth of {113} interstitial clusters in silicon under electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, K.; Hamada, K.; Satoh, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth and shrinkage of interstitial clusters on {113} planes were investigated in electron irradiated Czochralski grown silicon (Cz-Si), floating-zone silicon (Fz-Si), and impurity-doped Fz-Si (HT-Fz-Si) using a high voltage electron microscope. In Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters were formed only near the beam incident surface after a long incubation period, and shrank on subsequent irradiation from the backside of the specimen. In Cz-Si and HT-Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters nucleated uniformly throughout the specimen without incubation, and began to shrink under prolonged irradiation at higher electron beam intensity. At lower beam intensity, however, the {113} interstitial cluster grew stably. These results demonstrate that the {113} interstitial cluster cannot grow without a continuous supply of impurities during electron irradiation. Detailed kinetics of {113} interstitial cluster growth and shrinkage in silicon, including the effects of impurities, are proposed. Then, experimental results are analyzed using rate equations based on these kinetics.

  20. Is a linear probe helpful in diagnosing diseases of pulmonary interstitial spaces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Buda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In a lung ultrasound examination, interstitial lung lesions are visible as numerous B-line artifacts, and are best recorded with the use of a convex probe. Interstitial lung lesions may result from many conditions, including cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, or interstitial lung disease. Hence difficulties in the differential diagnostics of the above clinical conditions. This article presents cases of patients suffering from interstitial lung lesions discovered in the course of lung ultrasound examination. The patients were examined with a 3.5–5.0 MHz convex probe and a 7.0–11.0 MHz linear probe. Ultrasound images have been analysed, and differences in the imaging with both probes in patients with interstitial lung lesions have been detailed. The use of a linear probe in patients with interstitial lung lesions (discovered with a convex or a micro-convex probe provides additional information on the source of the origin of the lesions.

  1. Clinical and Genetic Associations of Objectively Identified Interstitial Changes in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Samuel Y; Harmouche, Rola; Putman, Rachel K; Ross, James C; Diaz, Alejandro A; Hunninghake, Gary M; Onieva Onieva, Jorge; Martinez, Fernando J; Choi, Augustine M; Lynch, David A; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George R

    2017-10-01

    Smoking-related lung injury may manifest on CT scans as both emphysema and interstitial changes. We have developed an automated method to quantify interstitial changes and hypothesized that this measurement would be associated with lung function, quality of life, mortality, and a mucin 5B (MUC5B) polymorphism. Using CT scans from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD Study, we objectively labeled lung parenchyma as a tissue subtype. We calculated the percentage of the lung occupied by interstitial subtypes. A total of 8,345 participants had clinical and CT scanning data available. A 5% absolute increase in interstitial changes was associated with an absolute decrease in FVC % predicted of 2.47% (P percentage of lung with interstitial changes. Objective interstitial changes on CT scans were associated with impaired lung function, worse quality of life, increased mortality, and more copies of a MUC5B promoter polymorphism, suggesting that these changes may be a marker of susceptibility to smoking-related lung injury, detectable even in those who are healthy by other measures. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nature of the Interstitials in Titanium Dioxide and Their Impact on Transmission Coefficient: Ab Initio Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ab initio calculations about the properties of the interstitials doping in the rutile TiO2 and their impact on the transport coefficients are reported. As the doping of the Zr or Ti interstitials in the TiO2, the lattice Ti4+ ions acquire the excess electrons so reduced to the Ti3+ or Ti2+ ions. However, the Cu interstitials could not lose enough electrons to reduce the lattice Ti4+ ions. Furthermore, the Ti or Cu interstitials in the ZrO2 also are unable to promote the lattice Zr4+ ions to form the lattice Zr3+ or Zr2+ ions. The high transport coefficients are observed in the defected TiO2 with the Ti or Zr interstitials as the high concentration of the Ti3+ or Ti2+ ions. So, the Zr interstitials are the favorable choice for the extra-doping to improve the transport properties in the TiO2-based resistive random access memory.

  3. Progressivity Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rather than a scientific text, the author contributes a concise memorandum from the originator of the idea who has managed the campaign for the conversion of the military barracks into a creative cluster between 1988 and 2002, when he parted ways with Metelkova due to conflicting views on the center’s future. His views shed light on a distant period of time from a perspective of a participant–observer. The information is abundantly supported by primary sources, also available online. However, some of the presented hypotheses are heavily influenced by his personal experiences of xenophobia, elitism, and predatorial behavior, which were already then discernible on the so-called alternative scene as well – so much so that they obstructed the implementation of progressive programs. The author claims that, in spite of the substantially different reality today, the myths and prejudices concerning Metelkova must be done away with in order to enhance its progressive nature. Above all, the paper calls for an objective view on internal antagonisms, mainly originating in deep class divisions between the users. These make a clear distinction between truly marginal ndividuals and the overambitious beau-bourgeois, as the author labels the large part of users of Metelkova of »his« time. On these grounds, he argues for a robust approach to ban all forms of xenophobia and self-ghettoization.

  4. PSA bounce phenomenon after transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Masashi; Lederer, J.L.; Fukagai, Takashi; Yoshida, Hideki; Shimada, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    We described the temporarily increase phenomenon in prostate-specific antigen level (PSA bounce) after transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy (TIPPB) for localized prostate cancer. From December 1998 to May 2003, 500 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with TIPPB using iodine-125 or palladium-103. We examined 200 patients who have more than 2-year PSA follow-up. Median follow-up length was 1,069 days (range, 712-1,411 days). No patient received neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy. PSA determinations were performed every 3 months for the first 2 years after procedure, and every 6 months hereafter. PSA bounce was defined as an increase of 0.1 ng/ml or greater above the preceding PSA level after implant followed by a subsequent decrease below that level. The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) consensus panel criteria 1996 were used to define biochemical failure. PSA bounce was observed in 40% (80/200) of the cases receiving TIPPB. The median time to PSA bounce was 13 months from the day of implant. The median magnitude of the PSA bounce was 0.3 ng/ml from the pre-bounce level. Twelve cases demonstrated biochemical failure according to the ASTRO consensus guidelines of three consecutive rises in PSA. Ten of these subsequently showed a drop in PSA, consistent with biologic control of their disease. Two cases remain classified as apparent biochemical failures. A transient rise in the PSA following TIPPB, the so-called ''bounce'' is a common occurrence. The apparent PSA control of ten of twelve cases failing by the ASTRO criteria raises some concern. Further observation will be necessary to determine ways to discriminate these from true disease progression. (author)

  5. Long-Term Outcome for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Treated With Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Lief, Jonathan; Adamovich, Edward; Wallner, Kent E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To present the largest series of prostate cancer brachytherapy patients treated with modern brachytherapy techniques and postimplant day 0 dosimetric evaluation. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and July 2006, 1,656 consecutive patients were treated with permanent interstitial brachytherapy. Risk group stratification was carried out according to the Mt. Sinai guidelines. Median follow-up was 7.0 years. The median day 0 minimum dose covering at least 90% of the target volume was 118.8% of the prescription dose. Cause of death was determined for each deceased patient. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on the evaluated survival parameters. Results: At 12 years, biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 95.6%, 98.2%, and 72.6%, respectively. For low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, bPFS was 98.6%, 96.5%, and 90.5%; CSS was 99.8%, 99.3%, and 95.2%; and OS was 77.5%, 71.1%, and 69.2%, respectively. For biochemically controlled patients, the median posttreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration was 0.02 ng/ml. bPFS was most closely related to percent positive biopsy specimens and risk group, while Gleason score was the strongest predictor of CSS. OS was best predicted by patient age, hypertension, diabetes, and tobacco use. At 12 years, biochemical failure and cause-specific mortality were 1.8% and 0.2%, 5.1% and 2.1%, and 10.4% and 7.1% for Gleason scores 5 to 6 and 7 and ≥8, respectively. Conclusions: Excellent long-term outcomes are achievable with high-quality brachytherapy for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients. These results compare favorably to alternative treatment modalities including radical prostatectomy.

  6. Hypersensitivity pneumonia-nonspecific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis histopathologic presentation: a study in diagnosis and long-term management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Robert L; Andrews, Charles P

    2003-02-01

    Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis (NSIP) has been classified a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis. We have shown that cases of NSIP without demonstrable serum precipitins may be caused by inhalation of high levels of mold and/or bacteria in closed environments. We report a patient with a clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of NSIP without serum precipitins caused by a microbial contamination in her home. Her case was converted from an acute to an insidious clinical presentation by inadequate remediation. A prolonged avoidance-challenge technique demonstrated that this case of NSIP was a form of hypersensitivity pneumonia that was reversible by effective remediation. The patient was identified by compatible signs and symptoms, roentgenographic studies, pulmonary function tests, and a transbronchial lung biopsy. She was further evaluated with a detailed environmental history, serologic tests, and investigation of the home environment. An environmental avoidance and challenge technique was performed to confirm cause and effect and to determine that remediation had been effective. Review of the biopsy showed NSIP and failed to reveal any non-caseating granuloma formation. Investigation of the home revealed a Cladosporium species contamination of the air conditioning system and Penicillium species beneath an entryway carpet. Serum precipitins to commercial antigens of common mold to the south Texas area were negative. Avoidance and challenge techniques confirmed the home as the causative environment in this case of NSIP. The patient has been free of signs and symptoms and has taken no medication for interstitial lung disease over the past 30 months. Some cases of NSIP may be caused by inhalation of microbial antigen(s) in a closed environment. An environmental challenge technique was an effective method to determine the causative environment and confirm that remediation had been effective. Inadequate remediation may lead to symptomatic

  7. Occupational Exposures and Subclinical Interstitial Lung Disease. The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) Air and Lung Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Coralynn S; Doney, Brent C; Podolanczuk, Anna J; Hooper, Laura G; Seixas, Noah S; Hoffman, Eric A; Kawut, Steven M; Vedal, Sverre; Raghu, Ganesh; Barr, R Graham; Lederer, David J; Kaufman, Joel D

    2017-10-15

    The impact of a broad range of occupational exposures on subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been studied. To determine whether occupational exposures to vapors, gas, dust, and fumes (VGDF) are associated with high-attenuation areas (HAA) and interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA), which are quantitative and qualitative computed tomography (CT)-based measurements of subclinical ILD, respectively. We performed analyses of participants enrolled in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), a population-based cohort aged 45-84 years at recruitment. HAA was measured at baseline and on serial cardiac CT scans in 5,702 participants. ILA was ascertained in a subset of 2,312 participants who underwent full-lung CT scanning at 10-year follow-up. Occupational exposures were assessed by self-reported VGDF exposure and by job-exposure matrix (JEM). Linear mixed models and logistic regression were used to determine whether occupational exposures were associated with log-transformed HAA and ILA. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, employment status, tobacco use, and scanner technology. Each JEM score increment in VGDF exposure was associated with 2.64% greater HAA (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-4.19%). Self-reported vapors/gas exposure was associated with an increased odds of ILA among those currently employed (1.76-fold; 95% CI, 1.09-2.84) and those less than 65 years old (1.97-fold; 95% CI, 1.16-3.35). There was no consistent evidence that occupational exposures were associated with progression of HAA over the follow-up period. JEM-assigned and self-reported exposures to VGDF were associated with measurements of subclinical ILD in community-dwelling adults.

  8. 1.5 T conventional MR-guided iodine-125 interstitial implants for hepatocellular carcinoma: Feasibility and preliminary clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhengyu; Lin Jun; Lin Cong; Li Yinguan; Chen Shaoming; Hu Jianping; Hu Rui; Chen Jin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and therapeutic efficacy of 1.5 T conventional MR-guided percutaneous interstitial implantation of I-125 radioactive seeds in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: The institutional ethics committee approved this study. After imformed consent was obtained, twenty-three patients suffering from a total of 65 HCC lesions were treated with I-125 seed permanent interstitial implantation under the guidance of a 1.5 T conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. The FSE T2WI, T1 FSPGR, FIESTA 2D, 3D Dyn T1WI sequences were used to guide an 18G MR-compatible needle inserted into the lesions to introduce the I-125 seeds. The response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) were used to evaluate the curative effect. Results: The needle and I-125 seed were seen clearly on MRI images. The final dose delivered to total decay was 173.46 ± 32.44 Gy (range, 110–270 Gy) as calculated by postoperative TPS. The complete response (CR) was seen in 22 lesions (33.8%), partial response (PR) in 24 lesions (36.9%), stable disease (SD) in 9 lesions (13.8%), and progressive disease (PD) in 10 lesions (15.4%). The post-operative alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was decreased (t = 3.117, P = 0.005 < 0.05). Two patients were observed a small area of subcapsular bleeding that did not lead to any symptoms or clinical sequelae. Conclusion: MR-guided I-125 implantation for HCC is technically feasible and effective.

  9. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is associated with hyperthyroidism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. DESIGN: Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. RESULTS: Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, p<0.001. The conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to controls, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.27∼3.66. Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53 compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population.

  10. Interstitial telomere-like repeats in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Wakana; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Sugiyama, Ryuji; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2002-02-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomal ends are protected by telomeres, which are thought to play an important role in ensuring the complete replication of chromosomes. On the other hand, non-functional telomere-like repeats in the interchromosomal regions (interstitial telomeric repeats; ITRs) have been reported in several eukaryotes. In this study, we identified eight ITRs in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, each consisting of complete and degenerate 300- to 1200-bp sequences. The ITRs were grouped into three classes (class IA-B, class II, and class IIIA-E) based on the degeneracy of the telomeric repeats in ITRs. The telomeric repeats of the two ITRs in class I were conserved for the most part, whereas the single ITR in class II, and the five ITRs in class III were relatively degenerated. In addition, degenerate ITRs were surrounded by common sequences that shared 70-100% homology to each other; these are named ITR-adjacent sequences (IAS). Although the genomic regions around ITRs in class I lacked IAS, those around ITRs in class II contained IAS (IASa), and those around five ITRs in class III had nine types of IAS (IASb, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, and j). Ten IAS types in classes II and III showed no significant homology to each other. The chromosomal locations of ITRs and IAS were not category-related, but most of them were adjacent to, or part of, a centromere. These results show that the A. thaliana genome has undergone chromosomal rearrangements, such as end-fusions and segmental duplications.

  11. The Glycoprofile Patterns of Endothelial Cells in Usual Interstitial Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Barkhordari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED FOR DUPLICATE PUBLICATION] Background: The pathological classification of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis has been a matter of debate and controversy for histopathologists. Objective: To identify and specify the glycotypes of capillary endothelial cells in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP compared to those found in normal tissue. Methods: Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 16 cases of UIP were studied by lectin histochemistry with a panel of 27 biotinylated lectins and an avidin-peroxidase revealing system. Results: High expression of several classes of glycan was seen de novo in capillary endothelial cells from patients with UIP including small complex and bi/tri-antennary bisected complex N-linked sequences bolund by Concanavalin A and erythro-phytohemagglutinin, respectively, GalNAca1 residues bound by Helix pomatia and Maclura pomifera agglutinins, and L-fucosylated derivatives of type II glycan chains recognized by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I. Glycans bound by agglutinins from Lycopersicon esculentum (β1,4GlcNAc and Wisteria floribunda (GalNAc as well as GlcNAc oligomers bound by Phytolacca americana and succinylated Wheat Germ agglutinin were also seen in the capillary endothelial cells of UIP. In contrast, L-fucosylated derivatives of type I glycan chains were absent in cells from cases of UIP when Anguilla anguilla agglutinin was applied, unlike the situation in normal tissue. Conclusion: These results may indicate existence of two distinct populations of endothelial cell in UIP with markedly different patterns of glycosylation, reflecting a pattern of differentiation and angiogenesis, which is not detectable morphologically.

  12. Prevalence of asymptomatic coronary disease in fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassagnes, Lucie; Gaillard, Vianney; Monge, Emmanuel; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Delhaye, Cédric; Molinari, Francesco; Petyt, Grégory; Hossein-Foucher, Claude; Wallaert, Benoit; Duhamel, Alain; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of growing body of interest on the association between fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (f-IIP) and ischaemic heart disease, we initiated this prospective study to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with f-IIP. Methods: Forty-two patients with f-IIP underwent noninvasive screening for CAD that included (a) a chest CT examination enabling calculation of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, then depiction of coronary artery stenosis; and (b) stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Patients with significant coronary abnormalities, defined by a CAC score >400 or coronary artery stenosis >50% at CT and/or perfusion defect >5% at MPS, were referred to the cardiologist. Coronary angiography was indicated in presence of a perfusion defect >10% at MPS or significant left main or proximal left anterior descending stenosis whatever MPS findings. Results: Combining CT and MPS, significant abnormalities were detected in 32/42 patients (76%). The cardiologist: (a) did not consider further investigation in 21 patients (CT abnormalities but no ischaemia at MPS: 12/21; false-positive findings at MPS: 3/21; poor respiratory condition: 6/21); (b) proceeded to coronary angiography in 11 patients which confirmed significant stenoses in 5 patients (5/42; 12%). In the worst-case-scenario (i.e., inclusion of 6 patients with significant coronary artery abnormalities who were not investigated due to poor respiratory condition), the prevalence of CAD reached 26% (11/42). Conclusion: In the studied population of patients with f-IIP, asymptomatic CAD ranged between 12% and 26%

  13. Relationship between the prognosis of interstitial pneumonia and its comorbidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Ohkuni, Yoshihiro; Makino, Hideki; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Motojima, Shinji; Kaneko, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the prognosis of chronic interstitial pneumonia (IP) and its comorbidities, we conducted a retrospective study for clinically and radiologically diagnosed IP. We assessed comorbidities by using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). We classified 224 patients given clinical diagnoses of chronic IP (excluding the patients who had clear causes such as collagen disease, infection, drugs or radiation) in our institution between April 2000 and June 2010, into 2 groups; those with clinical diagnoses of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF: 108 cases) and those with other chronic IP but without honeycomb lung (116 cases); and analyzed their backgrounds and comorbidities. We also classified them into survival and non-survival groups to assess their prognostic factors. Although the smoking status of patients with clinically diagnosed IPF was higher, and SpO2 was lower than those with other chronic IP without honeycomb lung, the mean age, comorbidities and CCI did not differ between them. The 5-year overall survival of the clinically-diagnosed IPF group was lower than that of the other chronic IP without honeycomb lung group (50.8% vs. 76.3%, p<0.01). In cases of other chronic IP without honeycomb lung, the CCI of non-survival cases was higher than that of survival cases (4.05 vs. 2.47, p<0.01), although patient backgrounds did not differ between survival and non-survival cases in those with clinically diagnosed IPF (CCI: 2.32 vs. 2.98, p=0.70). Our analysis revealed the possibility that comorbidities and CCI were prognostic factors in other chronic IP cases without honeycomb lung, although the prognosis of IPF was not affected by their comorbidity. (author)

  14. Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis Is Associated with Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Ching-Chun; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. Design Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. Results Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, phyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27∼3.66). Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53) compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. Conclusions Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population. PMID:23991081

  15. Optical diagnosis of interstitial cystitis / painful bladder syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn

    2013-03-01

    Background: Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is defined as a syndrome of urgency, frequency, and suprapubic pain in the absence of positive urine culture or obvious bladder pathology. As no specific etiology has been identified yet, no specific methodology exists for diagnosis of this condition. One potential etiology of PBS/IC is inflammation of the bladder mucosa associated with abnormal angiogenesis and ulcerative lesions. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using transcutaneous near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the bladder to monitor tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics as a means of differentiating subjects diagnosed with PBS/IC from those with other bladder conditions. Methods: Twenty-four adult patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction were divided into 2 groups, PBS/IC and non-PBS/IC after standard diagnostic investigations. Detrusor oxygen saturation percentage (TSI%) was measured in all subjects while they were at rest in a supine position, using a spatially resolved (SR) NIRS instrument. Mean values of detrusor TSI% were significantly different between the two groups (74.2%+/-4.9 in PBS/IC vs. 63.6%+/-5.5 in non-PBS/IC, P<0.0005). Results: Noninvasive NIRS interrogation of the bladder demonstrated that patients diagnosed as having PBS/IC had significantly higher detrusor oxygen saturation at rest. Conclusions: SR-NIRS as a feasible non-noninvasive entity for use in the evaluation of patients for the presence or absence of physiologic changes associated with PBS/IC.

  16. Contemporary challenges for specialist nursing in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Anne Marie; Olive, Sandra; Lines, Sarah; Murphy, Anna; Hocking, Julie; Newell, Karen; Morris, Helen; Harris, Emma; Dixon, Catherine; Agnew, Sarah; Burge, Geraldine

    2018-03-01

    The role of clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) in interstitial lung disease (ILD) is evolving in response to clinical guidelines and the growth of clinical research. The role is well established in the UK, although more ILD posts are needed to ensure supply meets clinical demand. This phenomenon is also happening across Europe. An appreciation of the similarities and differences between CNS and advanced nurse practitioners is important given the challenges in defining, developing and supporting this nursing specialisation. Globally, different models exist. In some countries charitable organisations take a leading role in supporting patients. Many European centres look to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines and quality standards as a template to develop and evaluate the role of the ILD CNS. We present a UK perspective in the context of a government subsidised healthcare system to promote professional discussion and debate regarding the future of nursing practice in the ILD specialty. ILDs are often complex and associated with significant mortality, morbidity and co-morbid conditions that require a technical healthcare skill setThere is worldwide shortage of nurses, low retention rates and retirement of many skilled nursesCollaboration across the ILD interdisciplinary community is needed to safeguard the future of our professions and high-quality patient careThe ILD interdisciplinary and nurse network has identified key priorities to help secure the future of the ILD clinical and academic nurse specialism. To explain the similarities and differences between clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) and advanced nurse practitioners (ANPs) in the context of ILD specialismTo review contemporary nursing specialism in the UK's government subsidised healthcare systemTo stimulate discussion and debate across the European/international respiratory community regarding the clinical and academic development of the ILD CNSTo identify key priorities that will

  17. Prevalence of asymptomatic coronary disease in fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassagnes, Lucie; Gaillard, Vianney [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Monge, Emmanuel [Department of Pulmonology, Center of Competence for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Faivre, Jean-Baptiste [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Delhaye, Cédric [Department of Cardiology, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Molinari, Francesco [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Petyt, Grégory; Hossein-Foucher, Claude [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Salengro, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Wallaert, Benoit [Department of Pulmonology, Center of Competence for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain [Department of Medical Statistics (EA 2694), Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Remy, Jacques [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Remy-Jardin, Martine, E-mail: martine.remy@chru-lille.fr [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Because of growing body of interest on the association between fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (f-IIP) and ischaemic heart disease, we initiated this prospective study to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with f-IIP. Methods: Forty-two patients with f-IIP underwent noninvasive screening for CAD that included (a) a chest CT examination enabling calculation of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, then depiction of coronary artery stenosis; and (b) stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Patients with significant coronary abnormalities, defined by a CAC score >400 or coronary artery stenosis >50% at CT and/or perfusion defect >5% at MPS, were referred to the cardiologist. Coronary angiography was indicated in presence of a perfusion defect >10% at MPS or significant left main or proximal left anterior descending stenosis whatever MPS findings. Results: Combining CT and MPS, significant abnormalities were detected in 32/42 patients (76%). The cardiologist: (a) did not consider further investigation in 21 patients (CT abnormalities but no ischaemia at MPS: 12/21; false-positive findings at MPS: 3/21; poor respiratory condition: 6/21); (b) proceeded to coronary angiography in 11 patients which confirmed significant stenoses in 5 patients (5/42; 12%). In the worst-case-scenario (i.e., inclusion of 6 patients with significant coronary artery abnormalities who were not investigated due to poor respiratory condition), the prevalence of CAD reached 26% (11/42). Conclusion: In the studied population of patients with f-IIP, asymptomatic CAD ranged between 12% and 26%.

  18. Perivascular Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Human ColonSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-An Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC closely associate with nerves and smooth muscles to modulate gut motility. In the ICC microenvironment, although the circulating hormones/factors have been shown to influence ICC activities, the association between ICC and microvessels in the gut wall has not been described. We applied three-dimensional (3D vascular histology with c-kit staining to identify the perivascular ICC and characterize their morphologic and population features in the human colon wall. Methods: Full-thickness colons were obtained from colectomies performed for colorectal cancer. We targeted the colon wall away from the tumor site. Confocal microscopy with optical clearing (use of immersion solution to reduce scattering in optical imaging was performed to simultaneously reveal the ICC and vascular networks in space. 3D image rendering and projection were digitally conducted to illustrate the ICC–vessel contact patterns. Results: Perivascular ICC were identified in the submucosal border, myenteric plexus, and circular and longitudinal muscles via high-definition 3D microscopy. Through in-depth image projection, we specified two contact patterns—the intimate cell body-to-vessel contact (type I, 18% of ICC in circular muscle and the long-distance process-to-vessel contact (type II, 16%—to classify perivascular ICC. Particularly, type I perivascular ICC were detected with elevated c-kit staining levels and were routinely found in clusters, making them readily distinguishable from other ICC in the network. Conclusions: We propose a new subclass of ICC that closely associates with microvessels in the human colon. Our finding suggests a functional relationship between these mural ICC and microvessels based on the morphologic proximity. Keywords: 3D Histology, c-kit, ICC, Mural Cells

  19. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is associated with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Ching-Chun; Li, Hsien-Chang; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, phyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27∼3.66). Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53) compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population.

  20. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  1. Interstitial near-infrared photoimmunotherapy: effective treatment areas and light doses needed for use with fiber optic diffusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Shuhei; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Sato, Kazuhide; Ogata, Fusa; Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2018-02-16

    Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT), a promising cancer therapy utilizing an antibody-photoabsorber conjugate (APC) and NIR light, which induces rapid necrotic cell death only in APC-bound cells. Effective NIR-PIT in mouse models has been achieved using superficial light illumination (SLI) with light emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, but in the clinical setting, fiber optic diffusers have been employed to deliver light to deeper tumors. However, the performance of NIR light in tissue delivered by fiber optic diffusers is poorly understood. Here, we investigated NIR-PIT using a cylindrical fiber optic diffuser in a mouse model of A431 tumors. NIR-PIT with 100 J/cm, the same light dose used in clinical trials of NIR-PIT, was applied after insertion of the diffuser within the tumor bed, and then both bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging were analyzed to assess the therapeutic efficacy. The diffuser can deliver adequate NIR light dose for effective NIR-PIT to the A431 tumor at a distance of approximately 1 cm around the light source at 100 J/cm. At 50 J/cm NIR light effective NIR-PIT was reduced to a distance of 5 - 7 mm diameter around the light source. These results indicate that the energy of interstitial light (measured in Joules/cm) administered via a fiber diffuser determines the depth of effective NIR-PIT around the diffuser and determines the spacing at which such diffusers should be placed to entirely cover the tumor. Thermal measurements demonstrate that interstitial light for NIR-PIT does not cause damage to the skin overlying the diffuser.

  2. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    1979-01-01

    Progress Report, covering the period up to the end of 1979 year, was sent to the IAEA according to the research agreement No. 1971 /CF. This work covered the following fields: preparation and dummy irradiation experiments with a new experimental capsule of ''CHOUCA-M'' type; measurement of temperature fields and design of specimen holders; measurement of neutron energy spectrum in the irradiation place in our experimental reactor of VVR-S type (Nuclear Research Institute) using a set of activation detectors; unification and calibration of the measurement of neutron fluence with the use of Fe, Cu, Mn-Mg and Co-Al monitors; development and improvement of the measuring apparatus and technique for the dynamic testing of pre-cracked specimens with determination of dynamic parameters of fracture mechanics; preparation and manufacture of testing specimens from the Japanese steels - forging, plate and weld metal; preparation of the irradiation capsule for assembling

  3. An interstitial miniature antenna for localized in vivo 31P spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, M.; Wust, P.; Faehling, H.; Richter, R.; Vogl, T.; Semmler, W.; Wolf, K.J.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    Phosphorus spectroscopy can be used to assess response in tumor therapy and to monitor response. Methodical problems of localisation and contamination make it more difficult to interpret and reproduce the spectra. Interstitial and endoluminal spectroscopy antennas placed directly within or close to the tumor could provide help in this problem. We developed an interstitial 31 P MRS antenna together with a tuning network which can be used in thermometry catheters for hyperthermia within an internal lumen of 1.1 mm in diameter. A prototype of this type of miniature antenna suitable for use in Siemens MRI scanners at 1.5 T was described spectroscopically with regard to excitation profile, range and SNR. Results: In terms of quality, the excitation profiles of the interstitial antennas in relation to orientation correspond to those of comparable but considerably larger endocavitary antennas and catheter coils for MR imaging and spectroscopy. Maximum sensitivity was achieved by aligning the coil normal perpendicular to the B 0 field. Signal losses of up to 50% have to be reckoned with when using other orientations. The maximum range of the interstitial antenna was determined using spectroscopy and was found to be 5 mm, i.e. 9 times coil radius. The sensitivity of the studied type of interstitial antenna allows in vivo 31 P spectroscopy to be performed despite the unusually low axial dimension (coil radius r=0.55 mm). The prototype of the described interstitial antenna was used to measure an in vivo spectrum from the back muscle of a rabbit in 10 min. Nevertheless, the detection volume of at least some ml necessary for 31 P spectroscopy results mainly from the large antenna length. Conclusion: The sensitivity of the interstitial antenna needs to be further improved in order to assess treatment response in patients. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Comparison between Japanese and French interstitial brachytherapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nose, Takayuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Kinji; Inoue, Toshihiko

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial brachytherapy is the optimal radiotherapy modality for head and neck cancer because the highest dose conformity can be achieved, and implanted tubes can move synchronously with the tumor movement. Compared with radical surgery, interstitial brachytherapy can achieve equivalent local control with less morbidity and less functional deficit. In Japan, because of technical limitations, interstitial brachytherapy has been confined to treatment of small tongue cancers. To improve our head and neck cancer treatment, technical limitations should be eliminated and a wider indication for interstitial brachytherapy should be achieved. In France, interstitial brachytherapy has been technically more developed and widely indicated than in Japan. We analyzed the differences between Japanese (Osaka) and French (Lyon and Nancy) techniques, to improve our interstitial brachytherapy. Implant devices and techniques: French applicators (Longcip 1) are more flexible and more suitable for loop techniques of the soft palate, the base of the tongue, and the vallecula, than applicators available in Japan. Various implant techniques are established especially for the oropharynx in France. Mandibular protection: Lead blocks used in France can more effectively shield the mandible than our silicone spacers. We showed the dosimetric results in an experimental treatment setting. Dose specification: The five-mm dose specification method used in Japan can work only for easy cases, such as small oral tongue cancers and mouth floor cancers. For complicated implants, such as for the oropharynx, the CTV-based dose specification method used in France is essential for sufficient irradiation. Indications: The indication for head and neck interstitial brachytherapy in Japan is limited mostly to small oral tongue cancers. The indication in France is wider, including the oral cavity, the oropharynx, and postoperative cases. We can refine our head and neck cancer treatment if we combine French

  5. Flock worker's lung: chronic interstitial lung disease in the nylon flocking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, D G; Crausman, R S; Durand, K T; Nayer, A; Kuhn, C

    1998-08-15

    Two young men working at a nylon flocking plant in Rhode Island developed interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. Similar clusters at the same company's Canadian plant were reported previously. To define the extent, clinicopathologic features, and potential causes of the apparent disease outbreak. Case-finding survey and retrospective cohort study. Academic occupational medicine program. All workers employed at the Rhode Island plant on or after 15 June 1990. Symptomatic employees had chest radiography, pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography, and serologic testing. Those with unexplained radiographic or pulmonary function abnormalities underwent bronchoalveolar lavage, lung biopsy, or both. The case definition of "flock worker's lung" required histologic evidence of interstitial lung disease (or lavage evidence of lung inflammation) not explained by another condition. Eight cases of flock worker's lung were identified at the Rhode Island plant. Three cases were characterized by a high proportion of eosinophils (25% to 40%) in lavage fluid. Six of the seven patients who had biopsy had histologic findings of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and the seventh had bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. All seven of these patients had peribronchovascular interstitial lymphoid nodules, usually with germinal centers, and most had lymphocytic bronchiolitis and interstitial fibrosis. All improved after leaving work. Review of the Canadian tissue specimens showed many similar histologic findings. Among the 165-member study cohort, a 48-fold or greater increase was seen in the sex-adjusted incidence rate of all interstitial lung disease. Work in the nylon flocking industry poses substantial risk for a previously unrecognized occupational interstitial lung disease. Nylon fiber is the suspected cause of this condition.

  6. High dose rate versus low dose rate interstitial radiotherapy for carcinoma of the floor of mouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Yamazaki, Hideya; Koizumi, Masahiko; Kagawa, Kazufumi; Yoshida, Ken; Shiomi, Hiroya; Imai, Atsushi; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Tanaka, Eichii; Nose, Takayuki; Teshima, Teruki; Furukawa, Souhei; Fuchihata, Hajime

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with cancer of the floor of mouth are treated with radiation because of functional and cosmetic reasons. We evaluate the treatment results of high dose rate (HDR) and low dose rate (LDR) interstitial radiation for cancer of the floor of mouth. Methods and Materials: From January 1980 through March 1996, 41 patients with cancer of the floor of mouth were treated with LDR interstitial radiation using 198 Au grains, and from April 1992 through March 1996 16 patients with HDR interstitial radiation. There were 26 T1 tumors, 30 T2 tumors, and 1 T3 tumor. For 21 patients treated with interstitial radiation alone, a total radiation dose of interstitial therapy was 60 Gy/10 fractions/6-7 days in HDR and 85 Gy within 1 week in LDR. For 36 patients treated with a combination therapy, a total dose of 30 to 40 Gy of external radiation and a total dose of 48 Gy/8 fractions/5-6 days in HDR or 65 Gy within 1 week in LDR were delivered. Results: Two- and 5-year local control rates of patients treated with HDR interstitial radiation were 94% and 94%, and those with LDR were 75% and 69%, respectively. Local control rate of patients treated with HDR brachytherapy was slightly higher than that with 198 Au grains (p = 0.113). For late complication, bone exposure or ulcer occurred in 6 of 16 (38%) patients treated with HDR and 13 of 41 (32%) patients treated with LDR. Conclusion: HDR fractionated interstitial brachytherapy can be an alternative to LDR brachytherapy for cancer of the floor of mouth and eliminate radiation exposure for the medical staff

  7. Immune profile and Epstein-Barr virus infection in acute interstitial nephritis: an immunohistochemical study in 78 patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mansur, Abdurrezagh

    2011-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and is characterised by a dense interstitial cellular infiltrate, which has not been well defined. Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and AIN. The purpose of our study was to define the nature of the interstitial immune infiltrate and to investigate the possibility of renal infection with EBV.

  8. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    (electrical slow waves of depolarization) of the smooth musculature and are involved in neurotransmission. By integration of ICC functions, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the neuromuscular control of gastrointestinal motility, opening novel therapeutic perspectives. In this article...

  9. Rectal complications associated with transperineal interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelblum, Daphna Y.; Potters, Louis

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: As transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy (TIPPB) grows in acceptance as an option in the treatment of organ-confined prostate cancer, its associated toxicities are being defined. This clinical report documents rectal toxicity from a large cohort of men treated by a single practitioner for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Eight hundred twenty-five men were treated from September 1992 to September 1998 with TIPPB. One hundred-forty were treated in conjunction with external beam irradiation (EBRT) and 685 with TIPPB alone. All patients were implanted under real-time ultrasound guidance. No dose-volume histogram analysis was performed for this study. All patients were followed at 5 weeks after the procedure, then every 3-6 months thereafter. Rectal morbidity was graded by a modified RTOG toxicity scale. Therapy to control symptoms was recommended on an individual basis. Results: The median follow-up for the cohort is 48 months. A total of 77 patients (9.4%) reported Grade 1 toxicity at some time following an implant whereas 54 patients (6.6%) reported Grade 2 toxicity. The peak post-TIPPB time for experiencing rectal toxicity was 8 months at which time Grade 1 and 2 rectal toxicity was reported in 9.5% of the patients. This improved over the subsequent months and resolved in all patients by 3((1)/(2)) years. Four patients (0.5%) reported Grade 3 rectal toxicity with rectal ulceration identified on colonoscopy at 1 year from implant. Two of the four patients had colonic manipulation in the radiated portion of the colon which subsequently caused it to bleed. None of the patients required blood product transfusion. In 3 of the 4 patients the Grade 3 rectal toxicity has resolved spontaneously and 1 patient continues to heal at the time of this report. No patient required hospitalization or surgical intervention. Conclusion: TIPPB is a tolerable and acceptable treatment option when used alone in early-stage, organ

  10. Populations of subplate and interstitial neurons in fetal and adult human telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judaš, Miloš; Sedmak, Goran; Pletikos, Mihovil; Jovanov-Milošević, Nataša

    2010-10-01

    In the adult human telencephalon, subcortical (gyral) white matter contains a special population of interstitial neurons considered to be surviving descendants of fetal subplate neurons [Kostovic & Rakic (1980) Cytology and the time of origin of interstitial neurons in the white matter in infant and adult human and monkey telencephalon. J Neurocytol9, 219]. We designate this population of cells as superficial (gyral) interstitial neurons and describe their morphology and distribution in the postnatal and adult human cerebrum. Human fetal subplate neurons cannot be regarded as interstitial, because the subplate zone is an essential part of the fetal cortex, the major site of synaptogenesis and the 'waiting' compartment for growing cortical afferents, and contains both projection neurons and interneurons with distinct input-output connectivity. However, although the subplate zone is a transient fetal structure, many subplate neurons survive postnatally as superficial (gyral) interstitial neurons. The fetal white matter is represented by the intermediate zone and well-defined deep periventricular tracts of growing axons, such as the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, internal and external capsule, and the fountainhead of the corona radiata. These tracts gradually occupy the territory of transient fetal subventricular and ventricular zones.The human fetal white matter also contains distinct populations of deep fetal interstitial neurons, which, by virtue of their location, morphology, molecular phenotypes and advanced level of dendritic maturation, remain distinct from subplate neurons and neurons in adjacent structures (e.g. basal ganglia, basal forebrain). We describe the morphological, histochemical (nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase) and immunocytochemical (neuron-specific nuclear protein, microtubule-associated protein-2, calbindin, calretinin, neuropeptide Y) features of both deep fetal interstitial neurons and deep (periventricular

  11. Clinical significance of determination of serum MMP9 and P III P levels in patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Cuiying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of determination of serum matrix metallo-proteinase-9 (MMP 9 ) and type III pro-collagen peptide (PIIIP) levels in patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. Methods: Serum MMP 9 (with ELISA) and PIIIP(with RIA) levels were determined in 46 patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and 30 controls. Results: Serum MMP 9 and PIIIP levels in patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis were significantly higher than those in controls (P 9 and PIIIP might be used as clinical diagnostic markers for pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. (authors)

  12. Disseminated dendriform pulmonary ossification associated with usual interstitial pneumonia: incidence and thin-section CT-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Sung; Chung, Myung Jin [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joungho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea); Chung, Man Pyo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Choi, Yong Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the incidence of disseminated pulmonary dendriform ossification in usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and to correlate thin-section computed tomography (CT) and histopathologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed thin-section CT and pathologic specimens of biopsy-proven usual interstitial pneumonia (75 patients, 57 men and 18 women, mean age 60 years, range 29-83 years) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (44 patients, 9 men and 35 women, mean age 55 years, range 20-73 years). On review of CT and histopathologic specimens, diffuse dendriform ossification was identified in five (four men and one woman, age range 41-68 years, mean 58 years) of 75 patients (6.7%) with usual interstitial pneumonia. It was not seen in any of 44 patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. With thin-section CT (osteoporosis window; window width 818, level 273), disseminated dendriform pulmonary ossification was detected as multiple tiny calcifications in bibasilar subpleural lungs (100% sensitive and 100% specific when compared with histopathologic findings as the gold standard). The thin-section CT finding of multiple tiny calcifications in bibasilar subpleural lungs might be of some help in the differential diagnosis between usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, considering they were not seen in any patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (0%, 0/44) in our series. (orig.)

  13. Disseminated dendriform pulmonary ossification associated with usual interstitial pneumonia: incidence and thin-section CT-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Sung; Chung, Myung Jin; Han, Joungho; Chung, Man Pyo; Choi, Yong Soo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the incidence of disseminated pulmonary dendriform ossification in usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and to correlate thin-section computed tomography (CT) and histopathologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed thin-section CT and pathologic specimens of biopsy-proven usual interstitial pneumonia (75 patients, 57 men and 18 women, mean age 60 years, range 29-83 years) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (44 patients, 9 men and 35 women, mean age 55 years, range 20-73 years). On review of CT and histopathologic specimens, diffuse dendriform ossification was identified in five (four men and one woman, age range 41-68 years, mean 58 years) of 75 patients (6.7%) with usual interstitial pneumonia. It was not seen in any of 44 patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. With thin-section CT (osteoporosis window; window width 818, level 273), disseminated dendriform pulmonary ossification was detected as multiple tiny calcifications in bibasilar subpleural lungs (100% sensitive and 100% specific when compared with histopathologic findings as the gold standard). The thin-section CT finding of multiple tiny calcifications in bibasilar subpleural lungs might be of some help in the differential diagnosis between usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, considering they were not seen in any patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (0%, 0/44) in our series. (orig.)

  14. Cumulative damage effect of 32P-colloidal chromic phosphate interstitial delivery on beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Qi; Liu Lu; Liu Zhiyong; Huang Peilin; Lan Xinghao; Gao Hailin; Wu Qinghua; Sun Jin; Huang Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility and safety of 3 '2P-colloidal chromic phosphate interstitial injection.Methods: Ten Beagle dogs were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 2) according to different doses (185 and 370 MBq), different sites (gluteus maximus and liver) and cold colloid as a control group. At different time-points after surgery, the weights of dogs were measured, and the blood and blood biochemical inspections were examined. ECT imaging was performed and histomorphology was observed dynamically. The radioactive counts of body surface for 90 days, blood for 12 weeks and urine and feces for 30 days were measured continuously. Measured data were expressed by mean ± standard error ((x-bar) ± s) and SPSS 13.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: ECT imaging demonstrated that the whole liver imaging was obtained although the radioactive distribution was uneven in liver groups, and the radioactivity concentrated continuously in the area of injection, but no liver imaging in muscle groups. Dogs in group 4 lost weight progressively and reduced by 2.7 kg till 45 d after operation. While the mean weight increments in the other groups were 3.0, 1.6, 0.8 and 3.1 kg in order. In group 4, PLT and RBC reduced obviously. Dogs died at 23 or 45 d.AST and ALT were elevated sharply before death. In the other groups, blood and blood biochemistry inspection showed there were no significant statistical differences. The highest radioactive counts after operation were obtained from the injection spot, while the urinary bladder and the spleen were followed. The peak of blood cpm in liver groups presented at 5 min.Peak values were 0.5 x 10 7 /min and 1.0 x 10 7 /min, respectively. The blood cpm in the muscle groups was always maintained at 3 x l0 5 /min. Histology study showed the hyperemia dropsy changes in muscle groups and 185 MBq liver group in 4 weeks, while after 8 weeks the organizational structure restored normally. There were partial liver cells

  15. Clinical role in biopsy after interstitial irradiation to squamous cell carcinoma of tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomoichi

    1995-01-01

    The clinical role of biopsy after interstitial irradiation therapy was evaluated in 44 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of tongue on which biopsy was done in our hospital. More residual tumors were observed in the induration-positive groups compared to those of the induration-negative groups. No tumor was histologically observed in 71.4% of the induration-positive groups. On the adjacent and covering mucous membranes, epithelial dysplasia was detected in 15 patients, 1 of them was Grade III and 9 were Grade IV. Two patients had recurrence. In the initial stage of interstitial irradiation, reaction of stoma showed decrease of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, regeneration and dilation of vessels after 6 weeks. The regeneration of collagen fiber increased within 3-14 weeks after irradiation, followed by decrease of its activity. After interstitial irradiation, 2 of 9 Grade IIb patients treated by surgery and 2 by re-interstitial irradiation survived. One of 3 Grade III patients manifested recurrence and was treated by surgery. All patients were alive. Fourteen of 17 Grade IV patients under careful observation were still alive. Eleven of 15 patients treated by total neck dissection after interstitial irradiation survived. Four Grade IV patients showed recurrence. Two-year primary lesion control rate was 91.2% and the survival rate for 5 year was 74.0%. (S.Y.). 54 refs

  16. Clinical role in biopsy after interstitial irradiation to squamous cell carcinoma of tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tomoichi [Kanagawa Dental Coll., Yokosuka (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    The clinical role of biopsy after interstitial irradiation therapy was evaluated in 44 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of tongue on which biopsy was done in our hospital. More residual tumors were observed in the induration-positive groups compared to those of the induration-negative groups. No tumor was histologically observed in 71.4% of the induration-positive groups. On the adjacent and covering mucous membranes, epithelial dysplasia was detected in 15 patients, 1 of them was Grade III and 9 were Grade IV. Two patients had recurrence. In the initial stage of interstitial irradiation, reaction of stoma showed decrease of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, regeneration and dilation of vessels after 6 weeks. The regeneration of collagen fiber increased within 3-14 weeks after irradiation, followed by decrease of its activity. After interstitial irradiation, 2 of 9 Grade IIb patients treated by surgery and 2 by re-interstitial irradiation survived. One of 3 Grade III patients manifested recurrence and was treated by surgery. All patients were alive. Fourteen of 17 Grade IV patients under careful observation were still alive. Eleven of 15 patients treated by total neck dissection after interstitial irradiation survived. Four Grade IV patients showed recurrence. Two-year primary lesion control rate was 91.2% and the survival rate for 5 year was 74.0%. (S.Y.). 54 refs.

  17. High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of penile carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petera, J.; Odrazka, K.; Zouhar, M.; Bedrosova, J.; Dolezel, M. [Dept. of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Charles Univ. Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2004-02-01

    Background: interstitial low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy allows conservative treatment of T1-T2 penile carcinoma. High-dose-rate (HDR) is often considered to be dangerous for interstitial implants because of a higher risk of complications, but numerous reports suggest that results may be comparable to LDR. Nevertheless, there are no data in the literature available regarding HDR interstitial brachytherapy for carcinoma of the penis. Case report: a 64-year-old man with T1 NO MO epidermoid carcinoma of the glans is reported. Interstitial HDR brachytherapy was performed using the stainless hollow needle technique and a breast template for fixation and good geometry. The dose delivered was 18 x 3 Gy twice daily. Results: after 232 days from brachytherapy, the patient was without any evidence of the tumor, experienced no serious radiation-induced complications, and had a fully functional organ. Conclusion: HDR interstitial brachytherapy is feasible in selected case of penis carcinoma, when careful planning and small single fractions are used. (orig.)

  18. One dimensional motion of interstitial clusters and void growth in Ni and Ni alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiie, T.; Ishizaki, T.; Xu, Q.; Satoh, Y.; Kiritani, M.

    2002-12-01

    One dimensional (1-D) motion of interstitial clusters is important for the microstructural evolution in metals. In this paper, the effect of 2 at.% alloying with elements Si (volume size factor to Ni: -5.81%), Cu (7.18%), Ge (14.76%) and Sn (74.08%) in Ni on 1-D motion of interstitial clusters and void growth was studied. In neutron irradiated pure Ni, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge, well developed dislocation networks and voids in the matrix, and no defects near grain boundaries were observed at 573 K to a dose of 0.4 dpa by transmission electron microscopy. No voids were formed and only interstitial type dislocation loops were observed near grain boundaries in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn. The reaction kinetics analysis which included the point defect flow into planar sink revealed the existence of 1-D motion of interstitial clusters in Ni, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge, and lack of such motion in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn. In Ni-Sn and Ni-Si, the alloying elements will trap interstitial clusters and thereby reduce the cluster mobility, which lead to the reduction in void growth.

  19. Expression of Nestin, Vimentin, and NCAM by Renal Interstitial Cells after Ischemic Tubular Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vansthertem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the distribution of various markers expressed by interstitial cells in rat kidneys after ischemic injury (35 minutes during regeneration of S3 tubules of outer stripe of outer medulla (OSOM. Groups of experimental animals (n=4 were sacrificed every two hours during the first 24 hours post-ischemia as well as 2, 3, 7, 14 days post-ischemia. The occurrence of lineage markers was analyzed on kidney sections by immunohistochemistry and morphometry during the process of tubular regeneration. In postischemic kidneys, interstitial cell proliferation, assessed by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA labeling, was prominent in outer medulla and reach a maximum between 24 and 72 hours after reperfusion. This population was characterized by the coexpression of vimentin and nestin. The density of -Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM positive interstitial cells increased transiently (18–72 hours in the vicinity of altered tubules. We have also localized a small population of α-Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA-positive cells confined to chronically altered areas and characterized by a small proliferative index. In conclusion, we observed in the postischemic kidney a marked proliferation of interstitial cells that underwent transient phenotypical modifications. These interstitial cells could be implicated in processes leading to renal fibrosis.

  20. Blood and interstitial flow in the hierarchical pore space architecture of bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Stephen C; Cardoso, Luis

    2015-03-18

    There are two main types of fluid in bone tissue, blood and interstitial fluid. The chemical composition of these fluids varies with time and location in bone. Blood arrives through the arterial system containing oxygen and other nutrients and the blood components depart via the venous system containing less oxygen and reduced nutrition. Within the bone, as within other tissues, substances pass from the blood through the arterial walls into the interstitial fluid. The movement of the interstitial fluid carries these substances to the cells within the bone and, at the same time, carries off the waste materials from the cells. Bone tissue would not live without these fluid movements. The development of a model for poroelastic materials with hierarchical pore space architecture for the description of blood flow and interstitial fluid flow in living bone tissue is reviewed. The model is applied to the problem of determining the exchange of pore fluid between the vascular porosity and the lacunar-canalicular porosity in bone tissue due to cyclic mechanical loading and blood pressure. These results are basic to the understanding of interstitial flow in bone tissue that, in turn, is basic to understanding of nutrient transport from the vasculature to the bone cells buried in the bone tissue and to the process of mechanotransduction by these cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.