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Sample records for rapidly identifying toxic

  1. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  2. Identifying the cause of toxicity in an algal whole effluent toxicity study - an unanticipated toxicant.

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    Naddy, Rami B; Tapp, Kelly; Rehner, Anita B; Pillard, David A; Schrage, Laura

    2011-10-01

    Toxicity was observed in whole effluent toxicity (WET) studies with the freshwater alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, in three consecutive monthly studies, (NOEC=50-75%). Toxicity was not observed to Ceriodaphnia dubia or the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas in concurrent studies. Selected toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests were conducted in a tiered approach to eliminate possible toxicants and progressively identify the causative agent. Filtration following alkaline adjustment (pH 10 or 11) was effective in eliminating significant growth effects and also reduced phosphate concentration. The TIE studies confirmed that the observed effluent toxicity was caused by excess ortho-phosphate in the effluent not by overstimulation or related to unfavorable N:P ratios; but due to direct toxicity. The 96-h 25% inhibition concentration (IC25) of ortho-phosphate to P. subcapitata was 3.4 mg L⁻¹ while the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration was 4.8 mg L⁻¹. This study illustrates the value of multi-species testing and also provides an example of an effective TIE using algae identifying an unanticipated toxicant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Benzodiazepine Synthesis and Rapid Toxicity Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, James T.; Boriraj, Grit

    2010-01-01

    A second-year organic chemistry laboratory experiment to introduce students to general concepts of medicinal chemistry is described. Within a single three-hour time window, students experience the synthesis of a biologically active small molecule and the assaying of its biological toxicity. Benzodiazepine rings are commonly found in antidepressant…

  4. A rapid mitochondrial toxicity assay utilizing rapidly changing cell energy metabolism.

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    Sanuki, Yosuke; Araki, Tetsuro; Nakazono, Osamu; Tsurui, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a major cause of safety-related drug-marketing withdrawals. Several drugs have been reported to disrupt mitochondrial function, resulting in hepatotoxicity. The development of a simple and effective in vitro assay to identify the potential for mitochondrial toxicity is thus desired to minimize the risk of causing hepatotoxicity and subsequent drug withdrawal. An in vitro test method called the "glucose-galactose" assay is often used in drug development but requires prior-culture of cells over several passages for mitochondrial adaptation, thereby restricting use of the assay. Here, we report a rapid version of this method with the same predictability as the original method. We found that replacing the glucose in the medium with galactose resulted in HepG2 cells immediately shifting their energy metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation due to drastic energy starvation; in addition, the intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by mitotoxicants when glucose in the medium was replaced with galactose. Using our proposed rapid method, mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells can be evaluated by drug exposure for one hour without a pre-culture step. This rapid assay for mitochondrial toxicity may be more suitable for high-throughput screening than the original method at an early stage of drug development.

  5. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  6. Identifying the cause of toxicity of a saline mine water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick A van Dam

    Full Text Available Elevated major ions (or salinity are recognised as being a key contributor to the toxicity of many mine waste waters but the complex interactions between the major ions and large inter-species variability in response to salinity, make it difficult to relate toxicity to causal factors. This study aimed to determine if the toxicity of a typical saline seepage water was solely due to its major ion constituents; and determine which major ions were the leading contributors to the toxicity. Standardised toxicity tests using two tropical freshwater species Chlorella sp. (alga and Moinodaphnia macleayi (cladoceran were used to compare the toxicity of 1 mine and synthetic seepage water; 2 key major ions (e.g. Na, Cl, SO4 and HCO3; 3 synthetic seepage water that were modified by excluding key major ions. For Chlorella sp., the toxicity of the seepage water was not solely due to its major ion concentrations because there were differences in effects caused by the mine seepage and synthetic seepage. However, for M. macleayi this hypothesis was supported because similar effects caused by mine seepage and synthetic seepage. Sulfate was identified as a major ion that could predict the toxicity of the synthetic waters, which might be expected as it was the dominant major ion in the seepage water. However, sulfate was not the primary cause of toxicity in the seepage water and electrical conductivity was a better predictor of effects. Ultimately, the results show that specific major ions do not clearly drive the toxicity of saline seepage waters and the effects are probably due to the electrical conductivity of the mine waste waters.

  7. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity.

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    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-05-19

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure-activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical-chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard.

  8. Rapid identifying high-influence nodes in complex networks

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    Song, Bo; Jiang, Guo-Ping; Song, Yu-Rong; Xia, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    A tiny fraction of influential individuals play a critical role in the dynamics on complex systems. Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks has theoretical and practical significance. Considering the uncertainties of network scale and topology, and the timeliness of dynamic behaviors in real networks, we propose a rapid identifying method (RIM) to find the fraction of high-influential nodes. Instead of ranking all nodes, our method only aims at ranking a small number of nodes in network. We set the high-influential nodes as initial spreaders, and evaluate the performance of RIM by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. The simulations show that in different networks, RIM performs well on rapid identifying high-influential nodes, which is verified by typical ranking methods, such as degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector centrality methods. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61374180 and 61373136), the Ministry of Education Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences Planning Fund Project, China (Grant No. 12YJAZH120), and the Six Projects Sponsoring Talent Summits of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. RLD201212).

  9. Multilocus DNA Sequence Comparisons Rapidly Identify Pathogenic Molds

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    Rakeman, Jennifer L.; Bui, Uyen; LaFe, Karen; Chen, Yi-Ching; Honeycutt, Rhonda J.; Cookson, Brad T.

    2005-01-01

    The increasing incidence of opportunistic fungal infections necessitates rapid and accurate identification of the associated fungi to facilitate optimal patient treatment. Traditional phenotype-based identification methods utilized in clinical laboratories rely on the production and recognition of reproductive structures, making identification difficult or impossible when these structures are not observed. We hypothesized that DNA sequence analysis of multiple loci is useful for rapidly identifying medically important molds. Our study included the analysis of the D1/D2 hypervariable region of the 28S ribosomal gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2 of the rRNA operon. Two hundred one strains, including 143 clinical isolates and 58 reference and type strains, representing 43 recognized species and one possible new species, were examined. We generated a phenotypically validated database of 118 diagnostic alleles. DNA length polymorphisms detected among ITS1 and ITS2 PCR products can differentiate 20 of 33 species of molds tested, and ITS DNA sequence analysis permits identification of all species tested. For 42 of 44 species tested, conspecific strains displayed >99% sequence identity at ITS1 and ITS2; sequevars were detected in two species. For all 44 species, identifications by genotypic and traditional phenotypic methods were 100% concordant. Because dendrograms based on ITS sequence analysis are similar in topology to 28S-based trees, we conclude that ITS sequences provide phylogenetically valid information and can be utilized to identify clinically important molds. Additionally, this phenotypically validated database of ITS sequences will be useful for identifying new species of pathogenic molds. PMID:16000456

  10. Rapid diagnostic test for identifying group B streptococcus.

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    Faro, Jonathan; Katz, Allan; Bishop, Karen; Riddle, Gerald; Faro, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal infection with Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) causes significant morbidity and mortality. A truly rapid diagnostic test for identifying GBS would allow for more timely initiation of antibiotic prophylaxis and also reduce the administration of antibiotics for the prevention of early onset neonatal GBS infection. A stock culture was formed from a laboratory reference strain of GBS and was diluted from 10 (7) to 10 (1) bacteria/mL. Specific concentrations were used to inoculate nitrocellulose membranes (NCMs) that had been coated previously with polyclonal rabbit antibody against GBS. After specific times, the NCMs were removed from the sheep blood agar medium, and horseradish-peroxidase conjugate polyclonal antibody against GBS was added. Bound antibody was detected with diaminobenzidine. After 6 hours of incubation, GBS was detected at concentrations from 10 (7) through 10 (4) bacterial/mL. After 4 hours of incubation, GBS was detected at concentrations from 10 (7) through 10 (5) bacteria/mL. GBS was not detected at 2 hours of incubation. Rapid growth and detection of GBS can be performed, and the results can be reliably attained as early as 4 hours. This is in marked contrast to the 48 to 72 hours required by current methods. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  11. Rapid toxicity assessment of sediments from estuarine ecosystems: A new tandem in vitro testing approach

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    Johnson, B. Thomas; Long, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    Microtox?? and Mutatox?? were used to evaluate the acute toxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, of organic sediment extracts from Pensacola Bay and St. Andrew Bay, two estuaries that cover about 273 and 127 km2, respectively, along the Gulf coast of Florida, USA. The sensitivity and selectivity of these two bioluminescent toxicity assays were demonstrated in validation studies with over 50 pesticides, genotoxins, and industrial pollutants, both as single compounds and in complex mixtures. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of insecticides, petroleum products, and polychlorinated biphenyls determined by Microtox all tended to group around the mean EC50 value of 1.2 (0.8) mg/L. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sensitivity of Mutatox was in general similar to that reported in the Ames test. Surficial sediment samples were collected, extracted with dichloromethane, evaporated and concentrated under nitrogen, dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, assayed for acute toxicity and genotoxicity, and compared with reference sediments. Samples with low EC50 values, and determined to be genotoxic, were detected in Massalina Bayou, Watson Bayou, East Bay, and St. Andrew Bay-East in St. Andrew Bay as well as Bayou Grande, Bayou Chico, and Bayou Texar in Pensacola Bay. An overview of these data sets analyzed by Spearman rank correlation showed a significant correlation between acute toxicity and genotoxicity (p < 0.05). Microtox and Mutatox in tandem was a sensitive, cost-effective, and rapid (<24 h) screening tool that identified troublesome areas of pollution and assessed the potential sediment toxicity of lipophilic contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Can turbidity caused by Corophium volutator (Pallas) activity be used to assess sediment toxicity rapidly?

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    Briggs, Andrew D; Greenwood, Naomi; Grant, Alastair

    2003-04-01

    The standard toxicity test organism, Corophium volutator, exhibits a behavioural response to contaminated sediments that causes increased turbidity of overlying water. We quantify the effects of this response to an estuarine sediment spiked with copper and hydrocarbon contaminated sediments from an oil installation in the North Sea. Turbidity measured 24 h after the start of a toxicity test shows a strong relationship with contaminant concentrations and with mortality after 10 days. Turbidity measurements can therefore give a rapid indication of sediment toxicity, permitting a reduction in storage time of sediments to be used in dilution series and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests, reducing the likelihood of contaminants degrading prior to testing.

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Identified Toxic Land Fills: Co-Occurrence Across States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ming

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that gene by environmental interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. We hypothesize that ASD are associated with early and repeated exposures to any of a number of toxicants or mixtures of toxicants. It is the cumulative effects of these repeated exposures acting upon genetically susceptible individuals that lead to the phenotypes of ASD. We report our initial observations of a considerable overlap of identified toxic landfills in the State of New Jersey and the residence of an ASD cohort, and a correlation between the identified toxic Superfund sites on each U.S. state and the total number of diagnosed cases of ASD in those states. The residence of 495 ASD patients in New Jersey by zip code and the toxic landfill sites were plotted on a map of Northern New Jersey. The area of highest ASD cases coincides with the highest density of toxic landfill sites while the area with lowest ASD cases has the lowest density of toxic landfill sites. Furthermore, the number of toxic Superfund sites and autism rate across 49 of the 50 states shows a statistically significant correlation (i.e. the number of identified superfund sites correlates with the rate of autism per 1000 residents in 49 of the states (p = 0.015; excluding the state of Oregon. These significant observations call for further organized studies to elucidate possible role(s of environmental toxicants contributing to the pathogenesis of ASD.

  14. Identifying genes that mediate anthracyline toxicity in immune cells

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    Amber eFrick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of the immune system in response to chemotherapeutic agents remains elusive. The interpatient variability observed in immune and chemotherapeutic cytotoxic responses is likely, at least in part, due to complex genetic differences. Through the use of a panel of genetically diverse mouse inbred strains, we developed a drug screening platform aimed at identifying genes underlying these chemotherapeutic cytotoxic effects on immune cells. Using genome-wide association studies (GWAS, we identified four genome-wide significant quantitative trait loci (QTL that contributed to the sensitivity of doxorubicin and idarubicin in immune cells. Of particular interest, a locus on chromosome 16 was significantly associated with cell viability following idarubicin administration (p = 5.01x10-8. Within this QTL lies App, which encodes amyloid beta precursor protein. Comparison of dose-response curves verified that T-cells in App knockout mice were more sensitive to idarubicin than those of C57BL/6J control mice (p < 0.05.In conclusion, the cellular screening approach coupled with GWAS led to the identification and subsequent validation of a gene involved in T-cell viability after idarubicin treatment. Previous studies have suggested a role for App in in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity to anticancer agents; the overexpression of App enhances resistance, while the knockdown of this gene is deleterious to cell viability. Thus, further investigations should include performing mechanistic studies, validating additional genes from the GWAS, including Ppfia1 and Ppfibp1, and ultimately translating the findings to in vivo and human studies.

  15. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity : Moving from research to regulatory testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, B|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068359802; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for

  16. Rapid Removal of Tetrabromobisphenol A by Ozonation in Water: Oxidation Products, Reaction Pathways and Toxicity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinghao; Huang, Qingguo; Lu, Junhe; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants and has attracted more and more attention. In this work, the parent TBBPA with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L was completely removed after 6 min of ozonation at pH 8.0, and alkaline conditions favored a more rapid removal than acidic and neutral conditions. The presence of typical anions and humic acid did not significantly affect the degradation of TBBPA. The quenching test using isopropanol indicated that direct ozone oxidation played a dominant role during this process. Seventeen reaction intermediates and products were identified using an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Notably, the generation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol was first observed in the degradation process of TBBPA. The evolution of reaction products showed that ozonation is an efficient treatment for removal of both TBBPA and intermediates. Sequential transformation of organic bromine to bromide and bromate was confirmed by ion chromatography analysis. Two primary reaction pathways that involve cleavage of central carbon atom and benzene ring cleavage concomitant with debromination were thus proposed and further justified by calculations of frontier electron densities. Furthermore, the total organic carbon data suggested a low mineralization rate, even after the complete removal of TBBPA. Meanwhile, the acute aqueous toxicity of reaction solutions to Photobacterium Phosphoreum and Daphnia magna was rapidly decreased during ozonation. In addition, no obvious difference in the attenuation of TBBPA was found by ozone oxidation using different water matrices, and the effectiveness in natural waters further demonstrates that ozonation can be adopted as a promising technique to treat TBBPA-contaminated waters. PMID:26430733

  17. Rapid Removal of Tetrabromobisphenol A by Ozonation in Water: Oxidation Products, Reaction Pathways and Toxicity Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijuan Qu

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants and has attracted more and more attention. In this work, the parent TBBPA with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L was completely removed after 6 min of ozonation at pH 8.0, and alkaline conditions favored a more rapid removal than acidic and neutral conditions. The presence of typical anions and humic acid did not significantly affect the degradation of TBBPA. The quenching test using isopropanol indicated that direct ozone oxidation played a dominant role during this process. Seventeen reaction intermediates and products were identified using an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Notably, the generation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol was first observed in the degradation process of TBBPA. The evolution of reaction products showed that ozonation is an efficient treatment for removal of both TBBPA and intermediates. Sequential transformation of organic bromine to bromide and bromate was confirmed by ion chromatography analysis. Two primary reaction pathways that involve cleavage of central carbon atom and benzene ring cleavage concomitant with debromination were thus proposed and further justified by calculations of frontier electron densities. Furthermore, the total organic carbon data suggested a low mineralization rate, even after the complete removal of TBBPA. Meanwhile, the acute aqueous toxicity of reaction solutions to Photobacterium Phosphoreum and Daphnia magna was rapidly decreased during ozonation. In addition, no obvious difference in the attenuation of TBBPA was found by ozone oxidation using different water matrices, and the effectiveness in natural waters further demonstrates that ozonation can be adopted as a promising technique to treat TBBPA-contaminated waters.

  18. Identifying the causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    A previous study found that coke leachates (CL) collected from oil sands field sites were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, the cause of toxicity was not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to generate CL in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity response of C. dubia and perform chronic toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests to identify the causes of CL toxicity. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at pH 5.5 and 9.5. Leachates were filtered on day 15 and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) was 6.3 and 28.7% (v/v) for pH 5.5 and 9.5 CLs, respectively. Trace element characterization of the CLs showed Ni and V levels to be well above their respective 7-d LC50s for C. dubia. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survival and reproduction in pH 5.5 CL, but not in pH 9.5 CL. Cationic and anionic resins removed toxicity of pH 5.5 CL only. Conversely, the toxicity of pH 9.5 CL was completely removed with an anion resin alone, suggesting that the pH 9.5 CL contained metals that formed oxyanions. Toxicity reappeared when Ni and V were added back to anion resin-treated CLs. The TIE results combined with the trace element chemistry suggest that both Ni and V are the cause of toxicity in pH 5.5 CL, whereas V appears to be the primary cause of toxicity in pH 9.5 CL. Environmental monitoring and risk assessments should therefore focus on the fate and toxicity of metals, especially Ni and V, in coke-amended oil sands reclamation landscapes. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  19. A rapidly deployable chemical sensing network for the real-time monitoring of toxic airborne contaminant releases in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepley, Jason J.; Lloyd, David R.

    2010-04-01

    We present findings of the DYCE project, which addresses the needs of military and blue light responders in providing a rapid, reliable on-scene analysis of the dispersion of toxic airborne contaminants following their malicious or accidental release into a rural, urban or industrial environment. We describe the development of a small network of ad-hoc deployable chemical and meteorological sensors capable of identifying and locating the source of the contaminant release, as well as monitoring and estimating the dispersion characteristics of the plume. We further present deployment planning methodologies to optimize the data gathering mission given a constrained asset base.

  20. Rapid determination of the toxicity of quantum dots with luminous bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lingling [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, No. 2 Tiansheng Road, Beibei District, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zheng Huzhi, E-mail: zhenghz@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, No. 2 Tiansheng Road, Beibei District, Chongqing 400715 (China); Long Yijuan; Gao Mei; Hao Jianyu; Du Juan; Mao Xiaojiao; Zhou Dongbo [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, No. 2 Tiansheng Road, Beibei District, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, a novel method so-called bioluminescence inhibition assay with luminous bacteria (Photobacterium phosphoreum) was introduced to evaluate the toxicity of quantum dots. The bioassay was based on measuring the decrease of the light emitted by luminous bacteria. With obvious advantages of simplicity, rapidity and sensitivity, it can dramatically improve the efficiency of probing the toxicity of QDs. Based on this method, we systemically explored the effect of the composition and surface modification on QDs' toxicity. The experiment of composition effect was performed using three kinds of QDs, namely CdSe, CdTe and ZnS-AgInS{sub 2} QDs with the same stabilizer - dihydrolipoic acid. As for the effect of different stabilizers, mercaptoacetic acid, L-cysteine and dihydrolipoic acid stabilized CdSe were researched, respectively. Our results demonstrated that both the composition and surface modification were the important factors affecting the toxicity of QDs. In addition, a concentration dependence of toxicity was also found.

  1. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary adaptation to toxic pollution in wild fish

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    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl h...

  2. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-06-01

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions. © 2014 SETAC.

  4. Identifying the causes of sediment-associated toxicity in urban waterways in South China: incorporating bioavailabillity-based measurements into whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoyi; Li, Huizhen; Ma, Ping; You, Jing

    2015-08-01

    Sediments in urban waterways of Guangzhou, China, were contaminated by a variety of chemicals and showed prevalent toxicity to benthic organisms. A combination of whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and bioavailability-based extraction was used to identify the causes of sediment toxicity. Of the 6 sediment samples collected, 4 caused 100% mortality to Chironomus dilutus in 10-d bioassays, and the potential toxicants were assessed using TIE in these sediments after dilution. The results of phase I characterization showed that organic contaminants were the principal contributors to the mortality of the midges in 2 sediments and that metals and organics jointly caused the mortality in the other 2 sediments. Ammonia played no role in the mortality for any samples. Conventional toxic unit analysis in phase II testing identified Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn as the toxic metals, with cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and fipronils being the toxic organics. To improve the accuracy of identifying the toxicants, 4-step sequential extraction and Tenax extraction were conducted to analyze the bioavailability of the metals and organics, respectively. Bioavailable toxic unit analysis narrowed the list of toxic contributors, and the putative toxicants included 3 metals (Zn, Ni, and Pb) and 3 pesticides (cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and fipronils). Metals contributed to the mortality in all sediments, but sediment dilution reduced the toxicity and confounded the characterization of toxicity contribution from metals in 2 sediments in phase I. Incorporating bioavailability-based measurements into whole-sediment TIE improved the accuracy of identifying the causative toxicants in urban waterways where multiple stressors occurred and contributed to sediment toxicity jointly. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. Rapid Assessment of the Toxicity of Fungal Compounds Using Luminescent Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijie Jian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Most tropical fruits after harvest are very perishable because of fungal infection. Since some pathogenic fungi can produce hazardous compounds such as mycotoxins, novel rapid and effective methods to assess those hazardous compounds are urgently needed. Herein we report that Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67, a luminescent bacterium, can be used to rapidly assess the toxicities of mycotoxins and cultures from mycotoxin-producing pathogens. A good correlation (R2 > 0.98 between concentrations of the mycotoxins (fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, patulin, and citrinin and the luminous intensity of V. qinghaiensis sp. Q67 was obtained. Furthermore, significant correlations (R2 > 0.96 between the amount of mycotoxin and the luminous intensity from the cultures of 10 major mycotoxin-producing pathogens were also observed. In addition, Fusarium proliferatum (half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 17.49% exhibited greater luminescence suppression than Fusarium semitectum (IC50 = 92.56% or Fusarium oxysporum (IC50 = 28.61%, which was in agreement with the existing higher levels of fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, and deoxynivalenol, which were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. These results suggest that V. qinghaiensis sp. Q67 is a promising alternative for the rapid evaluation of the toxicity of fungal mycotoxins.

  6. Functional Brain Activation Differences in Stuttering Identified with a Rapid fMRI Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Torrey; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech…

  7. Rapid evolution of tolerance to toxic Microcystis in two cladoceran grazers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaodong; Gao, Han; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Huishuang; Zhu, Xiao

    2016-04-28

    Evolutionary adaptation could assist organisms to cope with environmental changes, yet few experimental systems allow us to directly track evolutionary trajectory. Using experimental evolution, evolutionary tolerance to Microcystis aeruginosa was investigated in two cladocerans (Daphnia pulex and Simocephalus vetulus) to test the hypothesis that cladoceran grazers rapidly adapt to toxic cyanobacteria. After exposure for either three or six months, both grazers evolved a higher tolerance. The intrinsic rate of population increases in S. vetulus feeding on cyanobacteria was negatively correlated with that on green algae, which suggests that evolutionary adaptation in tolerance would carry a cost in the absence of cyanobacteria. However, the cyanobacterial selection resulted in a general increase in D. pulex when fed both cyanobacteria and green algae. Following a three-month relaxation of selection, S. vetulus in the selection line exhibited reverse evolution back to their original state when their diets were switched back to pure green algae. The present experimental evolution, both forwards and reverse, not only demonstrates the evolutionary responses of cladoceran grazers to toxic cyanobacterial cells in the laboratory, but also indicates that the grazer-cyanobacteria interaction would be an effective system to empirically study rapid evolution to environmental changes.

  8. Streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis with toxic shock syndrome and rapid fatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis (NF is a serious soft tissue infection with rapid progression of inflammatory process among superficial or deep fascia, systemic host response to infection leading to toxic shock syndrome (TSS, and multiple organ failure. Lethality is high. Case Outline. A 46-year-old male without co-morbidities was admitted to the Emergency Department with redness, swelling and pain on his right lower leg. He became sick two day s ea rlier with m alaise, chills and shivering. On admission he was hypotensive, anuric, with erythematous rash on his face, neck and chest, with acute ren al failure and elevated creatine phosphokinase level. During the next several hours, the changes on his right lower leg rapidly spread to the whole leg, followed by skin destruction and subcutaneo us bleeding, indicating NF. Aggressive antimicrobial, supportive and symptom atic therapy was initiated immediately and on the same evening surgical intervention was performed. Despite these measures, a rapid development of severe TSS, with lethal outcome, occurred in less than 40 hours after the admission. Stre ptococcus pyogenes (group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus was isolated from the throat, skin and tissue obtained duri ng the surgery. Conclusion. Necrotizing fasciitis is a very serious disease with unpre dictable course. For that reason doctors must devote a great deal of a ttention to early, i.e. timely diagnosis of this disease, whose treatment with a multid isciplinary approach is very important.

  9. Rapid effects of diverse toxic water pollutants on chlorophyll a fluorescence: variable responses among freshwater microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang Jae; Berges, John A; Young, Erica B

    2012-05-15

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence of microalgae is a compelling indicator of toxicity of dissolved water contaminants, because it is easily measured and responds rapidly. While different chl a fluorescence parameters have been examined, most studies have focused on single species and/or a narrow range of toxins. We assessed the utility of one chl a fluorescence parameter, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (F(v)/F(m)), for detecting effects of nine environmental pollutants from a range of toxin classes on 5 commonly found freshwater algal species, as well as the USEPA model species, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. F(v)/F(m) declined rapidly over glyphosate (glyphosate increased exponentially with concentration. F(v)/F(m) provides a sensitive and easily-measured parameter for rapid and cost-effective detection of effects of many dissolved toxins. Field-portable fluorometers will facilitate field testing, however distinct responses between different species may complicate net F(v)/F(m) signal from a community. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene... specific prohibitions—newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by...

  11. North Carolina Toxic Substance Incidents Program 2010-2015: Identifying Areas for Injury Prevention Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiffert, Samantha; Etienne, Suze; Hirsch, Annie; Langley, Ricky

    2017-08-06

    The National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP) is a surveillance system designed to capture acute toxic substance releases, factors contributing to the release, and any associated injuries. North Carolina has participated since 2010, when NTSIP was established. This article will present a descriptive statistical summary from 2010 to 2015 focused on releases that resulted in injuries in order to identify areas for public health prevention efforts. Of the 1690 toxic releases in North Carolina, 155 incidents resulted in injuries and 500 people were injured. Carbon monoxide injured the greatest number of people. Of the incidents that resulted in injuries, 68 occurred at private vehicles or residences (44%), injuring 124 people (25%). Over half of events where at least one responder was injured occurred at private vehicles or residences. Events occurring at private residences did not have a significant relationship between evacuations and injuries, while for industry-related events, the odds of an evacuation being ordered were 8.18 times greater (OR = 8.18, 95% CI = 5.19, 12.89) when there were injuries associated with an event. Intervention efforts should focus on preventing responder injuries while responding to private residence releases and educating the general public on how to prevent injuries by self-evacuating areas where hazardous chemicals have been released.

  12. North Carolina Toxic Substance Incidents Program 2010–2015: Identifying Areas for Injury Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiffert, Samantha; Etienne, Suze; Hirsch, Annie

    2017-01-01

    The National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP) is a surveillance system designed to capture acute toxic substance releases, factors contributing to the release, and any associated injuries. North Carolina has participated since 2010, when NTSIP was established. This article will present a descriptive statistical summary from 2010 to 2015 focused on releases that resulted in injuries in order to identify areas for public health prevention efforts. Of the 1690 toxic releases in North Carolina, 155 incidents resulted in injuries and 500 people were injured. Carbon monoxide injured the greatest number of people. Of the incidents that resulted in injuries, 68 occurred at private vehicles or residences (44%), injuring 124 people (25%). Over half of events where at least one responder was injured occurred at private vehicles or residences. Events occurring at private residences did not have a significant relationship between evacuations and injuries, while for industry-related events, the odds of an evacuation being ordered were 8.18 times greater (OR = 8.18, 95% CI = 5.19, 12.89) when there were injuries associated with an event. Intervention efforts should focus on preventing responder injuries while responding to private residence releases and educating the general public on how to prevent injuries by self-evacuating areas where hazardous chemicals have been released. PMID:29051448

  13. A rapid and sensitive p-benzoquinone-mediated bioassay for determination of heavy metal toxicity in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Zhai, Junfeng; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-06-07

    Determining and monitoring toxicity of chemicals in water are very important for human health and country security. Electrochemical measurement of respiratory chain activity is a rapid and reliable screening of the toxicity towards microorganisms. Here, we report a rapid and sensitive toxicity bioassay using p-benzoquinone as the artificial electron mediator and Escherichia coli as the test organism. Four heavy metal ions, Cu(2+), Ag(+), Hg(2+) and Co(2+), are tested as the model toxicants, and the corresponding 50% respiration inhibition concentrations (IC50) are determined to be 0.95, 8.14, 11.69 and 42.76 mg L(-1), respectively. Based on the IC50 values, the descending order of toxicity is: Cu(2+) > Ag(+) > Hg(2+) > Co(2+). The presented bioassay not only provides a good foundation for further toxicity tests using E. coli, but also the potential for expanding the technique to utilize other bacteria with complementary toxicity responses, thereby allowing use of the bioassay in a wide range of applications.

  14. Identifying hotspots and management of critical ecosystem services in rapidly urbanizing Yangtze River Delta Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenbo; Gibbs, David; Zhang, Lang; Ferrier, Graham; Cai, Yongli

    2017-04-15

    Rapid urbanization has altered many ecosystems, causing a decline in many ecosystem services, generating serious ecological crisis. To cope with these challenges, we presented a comprehensive framework comprising five core steps for identifying and managing hotspots of critical ecosystem services in a rapid urbanizing region. This framework was applied in the case study of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) Region. The study showed that there was large spatial heterogeneity in the hotspots of ecosystem services in the region, hotspots of supporting services and regulating services aggregately distributing in the southwest mountainous areas while hotspots of provisioning services mainly in the northeast plain, and hotspots of cultural services widespread in the waterbodies and southwest mountainous areas. The regionalization of the critical ecosystem services was made through the hotspot analysis. This study provided valuable information for environmental planning and management in a rapid urbanizing region and helped improve China's ecological redlines policy at regional scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of field-portable XRF analyzers for rapid screening of toxic elements in FDA-regulated products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Peter T; Jacobs, Richard; Baker, Peter E; Ferguson, Kelly; Webber, Siri

    2009-04-08

    Analytical instrumentation continues its amazing evolution, especially in regard to generating ever more sensitive, faster, and reliable measurements. Perhaps the most difficult challenges are making these instruments small enough to use in the field, equipping them with well-designed software that facilitates and simplifies their use by nonexperts while preserving enough of their analytical capabilities to render them useful for a wide variety of applications. Perhaps the most impressive and underappreciated example of instruments that meet these criteria are field-portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers. In the past, these analyzers have been routinely used for environmental applications (lead in paint and soil, metal particulates in air samples collected onto filters), geology studies (ore and soil analysis, precious metal identification), and recycling industries (alloy identification). However, their use in the analysis of toxic elements in food, food ingredients, dietary supplements, and medicinal and herbal products, especially within the FDA and regulatory environments, has been surprisingly limited to date. Although XRF will not replace atomic spectrometry techniques such as ICP-MS for sub-parts per million level analyses, it offers a number of significant advantages including minimal sample preparation, high sample throughputs, rapid and definitive identification of many toxic elements, and accurate quantitative results. As should be obvious from many recent news reports on elevated levels of toxic elements in children's lunchboxes, toys, and supplements, field-portable XRF analyzers can fill a very important niche and are becoming increasingly popular for a wide variety of elemental analysis applications. This perspective begins with a brief review of the theory of XRF to highlight the underlying principle, instrumentation, and spectra. It includes a discussion of various analytical figures of merit of XRF to illustrate its strengths and limitations

  16. Functional brain activation differences in stuttering identified with a rapid fMRI sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech motor and auditory brain activity in children who stutter closer to the age at which recovery from stuttering is documented. Rapid sequences may be preferred for individuals or populations who do not tolerate long scanning sessions. In this report, we document the application of a picture naming and phoneme monitoring task in three minute fMRI sequences with adults who stutter (AWS). If relevant brain differences are found in AWS with these approaches that conform to previous reports, then these approaches can be extended to younger populations. Pairwise contrasts of brain BOLD activity between AWS and normally fluent adults indicated the AWS showed higher BOLD activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right temporal lobe and sensorimotor cortices during picture naming and and higher activity in the right IFG during phoneme monitoring. The right lateralized pattern of BOLD activity together with higher activity in sensorimotor cortices is consistent with previous reports, which indicates rapid fMRI sequences can be considered for investigating stuttering in younger participants. PMID:22133409

  17. Rapid in situ toxicity testing with luminescent bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens and Vibrio fischeri adapted to a small portable luminometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masner, Petr; Javůrková, Barbora; Bláha, Luděk

    2017-02-01

    The present study demonstrates development of a rapid testing protocol based on a small portable luminometer using flash kinetic assessment of bacterial bioluminescence. The laboratory comparisons based on six model organic toxicants and two metals showed significant correlations between responses of freshwater bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens and standard marine bacterial species Vibrio fisheri. While P. luminescens was less sensitive in standard arrangements, the responses of both organisms were comparable in the newly introduced portable luminometer setup. The applicability and reproducibility of the portable luminometer protocol was further demonstrated in the assessment of 43 European wastewater effluents that were simultaneously tested for toxicity and analysed for 150 organic and 20 inorganic contaminants grouped into 13 major chemical classes. Clear association between the toxic responses in both compared bacterial species and the elevated levels of inorganic compounds (toxic metals), chlorophenols and benzotriazole anticorrosives was observed. The new protocol with a portable luminometer provides a fast (30 s) response and may be used as a tool for rapid in situ toxicity evaluation of freshwater environmental samples such as effluents.

  18. Rapid Staining Method to Detect and Identify Downy Mildew (Peronospora belbahrii in Basil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfina R. Koroch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Demand for fresh-market sweet basil continues to increase, but in 2009 a new pathogen emerged, threatening commercial field/greenhouse production and leading to high crop losses. This study describes a simple and effective staining method for rapid microscopic detection of basil downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii from leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum. Methods and Results: Fresh leaf sections infected with P. belbahrii were placed on a microscope slide, cleared with Visikol™, and stained with iodine solution followed by one drop of 70% sulfuric acid. Cell walls of the pathogen were stained with a distinct coloration, providing a high-contrast image between the pathogen and plant. Conclusions: This new staining method can be used successfully to identify downy mildew in basil, which then can significantly reduce its spread if identified early, coupled with mitigation strategies. This technique can facilitate the control of the disease, without expensive and specialized equipment.

  19. Identifying, managing and preventing skin maceration: a rapid review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, F; Giampieri, S; Graham, T; Grocott, P

    2017-04-02

    To identify the clinical empirical evidence for identifying, managing and preventing skin maceration in human subjects. A rapid review of the current literature was undertaken between 5 September and 19 September 2016 using the electronic databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, PUBMED and Cochrane, with the key words: skin macerat*, wound macerat*, moisture associated skin damage, wound exudate and hyper-hydration of skin, Results: Of 526 papers found using an electronic database search, four were identified as fitting the search parameters, and a further two were retrieved from a manual search of reference lists. There were three themes that emerged: how to identify and measure maceration, how to manage and reduce maceration once it has already occurred, and how to prevent skin maceration. Hyper-hydration can reach greater skin depths than previously thought, thus engendering more extensive damage potential, which in turn can impact on treatments and healing time. Realistically, the deeper the hyper-hydration issue, the more extensive the damage and it will take longer to recover-a problem compounded if the hyper-hydration is due to incontinence and skin is also exposed to urine and/or faeces. In relation to wound management, the authors advocate the removal of moisture away from the wound or skin, either through superabsorbent dressings, or by allowing the excess moisture to evaporate through semi-permeable dressings to reduce maceration, enhance patient comfort and encourage healing. However, we found no evidence regarding the limits of hydration of the dermis and epidermis and thereby the optimal conditions for managing exuding wounds and promoting skin health. Each of the six papers in this review calls for further research to help identify, treat and prevent maceration. Maceration causes patients' discomfort and pain as well as prolonging healing time and deserves more focused research. This rapid review highlights how limited the clinical empirical research is on

  20. Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, E.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Greer, E.I.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Rabeni, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    Standard methods for conducting toxicity tests imply that the condition of test organisms can be established using reference toxicity tests. However, only a limited number of studies have evaluated whether reference toxicity tests can actually be used to determine if organisms are in good condition at the start of a test. We evaluated the ability of reference toxicants to identify stress associated with starvation in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca using acute toxicity tests and four reference toxicants: KCl, CdCl2, sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), and carbaryl. Stress associated with severe starvation was observed with exposure of amphipods to carbaryl or NaPCP but not with exposure to KCl or CdCl2 (i.e., lower LC50 with severe starvation). Although the LC50s for NaPCP and carbaryl were statistically different between starved and fed amphipods, this difference may not be biologically significant given the variability expected in acute lethality tests. Stress associated with sieving, heat shock, or cold shock of amphipods before the start of a test was not evident with exposure to carbaryl or KCl as reference toxicants. The chemicals evaluated in this study provided minimal information about the condition of the organisms used to start a toxicity test. Laboratories should periodically perform reference toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of life stages or strains of test organisms. However, use of other test acceptability criteria required in standard methods such as minimum survival, growth, or reproduction of organisms in the control treatment at the end of a test, provides more useful information about the condition of organisms used to start a test compared to data generated from reference toxicity tests.

  1. Embryonic Zebrafish Model - A Well-Established Method for Rapidly Assessing the Toxicity of Homeopathic Drugs - Toxicity Evaluation of Homeopathic Drugs Using Zebrafish Embryo Model -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu R Gupta

    2016-12-01

    exposure times used in this study. The embryonic zebrafish model is recommended as a well-established method for rapidly assessing the toxicity of homeopathic drugs.

  2. Differences between visual hemifields in identifying rapidly presented target stimuli: Letters and digits, faces, and shapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz eAsanowicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The right hemisphere has been shown to play a dominant role in processing of visuo-spatial information. Recently, this role has been studied in the two-stream rapid serial visual presentation task. In this task, two alphanumerical targets are embedded in left and right simultaneous streams of rapidly changing letters. The second target (T2 is identified better in the left than in the right visual field. This difference has been interpreted as advantage of the right hemisphere (RH. However, a disadvantage of the left hemisphere (LH could not be excluded so far. The LH, specialized for processing of verbal stimuli, might be overloaded due to constant input of letters from both visual fields. In the present study, this overload hypothesis was tested by reducing demands on verbal processing (Experiments 1, and by overloading the RH with nonverbal stimuli: faces (Experiment 2 and irregular shapes (Experiment 3. The left visual field advantage proved to be largely independent from the level of verbal load and from stimulus type. Therefore, although not entirely disproving the overload hypothesis, these results suggest as the most parsimonious explanation this asymmetry reflects a RH advantage, presumably in perceptual and attentional processing, rather than a LH disadvantage caused by verbal overload.

  3. Usefulness of clinical data and rapid diagnostic tests to identify bacterial etiology in adult respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Toledano-Sierra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections are a common complaint and most of them, such as common cold and laryngitis, are viral in origin, so antibiotic use should be exceptional. However, there are other respiratory tract infections (sinusitis, pharyngitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where a bacterial etiology is responsible for a non-negligible percentage, and antibiotics are often empirically indicated. The aim of the study is to identify the strength of the data obtained from the symptoms, physical examination and rapid diagnostic methods in respiratory infections in which antibiotic use is frequently proposed in order to improve diagnosis and influence the decision to prescribe these drugs. The review concludes that history, physical examination and rapid tests are useful to guide the need for antibiotic treatment in diseases such as acute sinusitis, acute pharyngitis, exacerbation of lower respiratory tract infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, no isolated data is accurate enough by itself to confirm or rule out the need for antibiotics. Therefore, clinical prediction rules bring together history and physical examination, thereby improving the accuracy of the decision to indicate or not antibiotics.

  4. An under-recognized influenza epidemic identified by rapid influenza testing, southern Sri Lanka, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillekeratne, L Gayani; Bodinayake, Champica K; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Vidanagama, Dhammika; Devasiri, Vasantha; Arachchi, Wasantha Kodikara; Kurukulasooriya, Ruvini; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan; Østybe, Truls; Reller, Megan E; Woods, Christopher W

    2015-05-01

    Influenza accounts for a large burden of acute respiratory tract infections in high-income countries; data from lower-income settings are limited due to lack of confirmatory testing. Consecutive outpatients presenting to the largest tertiary care hospital in southern Sri Lanka were surveyed for influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as acute onset of fever ≥ 38.0°C and cough. Patients were administered a questionnaire and nasal/nasopharyngeal sampling for rapid influenza A/B testing. We enrolled 311 patients with ILI from March to November 2013: 170 (54.7%) children and 172 (55.3%) males. Approximately half (147, 47.3%) tested positive for influenza, but 253 (81.4%) were prescribed antibiotics. On bivariable analysis, symptoms associated with influenza included pain with breathing (P testing to identify an influenza epidemic in a setting in which testing is not routinely available. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. A Hidden Markov Movement Model for rapidly identifying behavioral states from animal tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whoriskey, Kim; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard

    2017-01-01

    animal tracking data with significant measurement error, a Bayesian state-space model called the first-Difference Correlated Random Walk with Switching (DCRWS) has often been used for this purpose. However, for aquatic animals, highly accurate tracking data of animal movement are now becoming more common....... 2. We developed a new Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for identifying behavioral states from animal tracks with negligible error, which we called the Hidden Markov Movement Model (HMMM). We implemented as the basis for the HMMM the process equation of the DCRWS, but we used the method of maximum...... likelihood and the R package TMB for rapid model fitting. 3. We compared the HMMM to a modified version of the DCRWS for highly accurate tracks, the DCRWSnome, and to a common HMM for animal tracks fitted with the R package moveHMM. We show that the HMMM is both accurate and suitable for multiple species...

  6. Portable Sensor for Rapid In Situ Measurement of Trace Toxic Metals in Water Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a sensor to detect select trace toxic heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Mn, Ni, and Zn) in water is proposed. Using an automatic side-stream sampling technique,...

  7. Use of rapid carbohydrate utilisation test for identifying "Streptococcus milleri group".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, J M; Ross, P W; Poxton, I R

    1991-01-01

    A short series of biochemical and serological tests were developed for the rapid presumptive identification of "Streptococcus milleri group" isolates. One hundred and seventy seven streptococcal isolates were recovered from the mouths of 10 out of 12 healthy adult volunteers by use of a simple sampling procedure and a single selective medium. In all, 127 oral "S milleri group" isolates were identified by biochemical and serological tests, confirming the indigenous nature of these streptococci in the mouth. Most (70.1%) of "S milleri group" isolates were non-haemolytic, 26% were alpha-haemolytic, and 3.9% beta-haemolytic. Fifty four (42.5%) were serologically typable, of which 46 were Lancefield group F, suggesting that the mouth is an important source of Lancefield group F streptococci. A collection of group F streptococci from a range of sources was indistinguishable from a collection of oral "S milleri group" isolates on the basis of the tests used, supporting the general synonymity of group F streptococcus with the broader "S milleri group". The battery of tests was cheap and simple to perform, and was capable of identifying "S milleri group" isolates from a range of sources, including variants with wide sugar fermentation patterns. PMID:2030154

  8. Identifying dietary differences between Scotland and England: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie; Barton, Karen L; Albani, Viviana; Anderson, Annie S; Wrieden, Wendy L

    2017-10-01

    Rates of premature mortality have been higher in Scotland than in England since the 1970s. Given the known association of diet with chronic disease, the study objective was to identify and synthesise evidence on current and historical differences in food and nutrient intakes in Scotland and England. A rapid review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was carried out. After an initial scoping search, Medline, CINAHL, Embase and Web of Science were searched. Relevant grey literature was also included. Inclusion criteria were: any date; measures of dietary intake; representative populations; cross-sectional or observational cohort studies; and English-language publications. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-sectional Studies. A narrative synthesis of extracted information was conducted. Fifty publications and reports were included in the review. Results indicated that children and adults in Scotland had lower intakes of vegetables and vitamins compared with those living in England. Higher intakes of salt in Scotland were also identified. Data were limited by small Scottish samples, difficulty in finding England-level data, lack of statistical testing and adjustment for key confounders. Further investigation of adequately powered and analysed surveys is required to examine more fully dietary differences between Scotland and England. This would provide greater insight into potential causes of excess mortality in Scotland compared with England and suitable policy recommendations to address these inequalities.

  9. Rapidly detecting disorder in rhythmic biological signals: a spectral entropy measure to identify cardiac arrhythmias

    CERN Document Server

    Staniczenko, Phillip P A; Jones, Nick S

    2008-01-01

    We consider the use of a running measure of power spectrum disorder to distinguish between the normal sinus rhythm of the heart and two forms of cardiac arrhythmia: atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. This is motivated by characteristic differences in the spectra of beats during the three rhythms. We plot patient data derived from 10-beat windows on a `disorder map' and identify rhythm-defining ranges in the level and variance of spectral entropy values. Employing the spectral entropy within an automatic arrhythmia detection algorithm enables the classification of periods of atrial fibrillation from the time series of patients' beats. When the algorithm is set to identify abnormal rhythms within 6s it agrees with 85.7% of the annotations of professional rhythm assessors; for a response time of 30s this becomes 89.5%, and with 60s it is 90.3%. The algorithm provides a rapid way to detect atrial fibrillation, demonstrating usable response times as low as six seconds. Measures of disorder in the frequency do...

  10. Rapid, computer vision-enabled murine screening system identifies neuropharmacological potential of two new mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L Roberds

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of predictive in vitro models for behavioral phenotypes impedes rapid advancement in neuropharmacology and psychopharmacology. In vivo behavioral assays are more predictive of activity in human disorders, but such assays are often highly resource-intensive. Here we describe the successful application of a computer vision-enabled system to identify potential neuropharmacological activity of two new mechanisms. The analytical system was trained using multiple drugs that are used clinically to treat depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, and other psychiatric or behavioral disorders. During blinded testing the PDE10 inhibitor TP-10 produced a signature of activity suggesting potential antipsychotic activity. This finding is consistent with TP-10’s activity in multiple rodent models that is similar to that of clinically used antipsychotic drugs. The CK1ε inhibitor PF-670462 produced a signature consistent with anxiolytic activity and, at the highest dose tested, behavioral effects similar to that of opiate analgesics. Neither TP-10 nor PF-670462 was included in the training set. Thus, computer vision-based behavioral analysis can facilitate drug discovery by identifying neuropharmacological effects of compounds acting through new mechanisms.

  11. Rapid, computer vision-enabled murine screening system identifies neuropharmacological potential of two new mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberds, Steven L; Filippov, Igor; Alexandrov, Vadim; Hanania, Taleen; Brunner, Dani

    2011-01-01

    The lack of predictive in vitro models for behavioral phenotypes impedes rapid advancement in neuropharmacology and psychopharmacology. In vivo behavioral assays are more predictive of activity in human disorders, but such assays are often highly resource-intensive. Here we describe the successful application of a computer vision-enabled system to identify potential neuropharmacological activity of two new mechanisms. The analytical system was trained using multiple drugs that are used clinically to treat depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, and other psychiatric or behavioral disorders. During blinded testing the PDE10 inhibitor TP-10 produced a signature of activity suggesting potential antipsychotic activity. This finding is consistent with TP-10's activity in multiple rodent models that is similar to that of clinically used antipsychotic drugs. The CK1ε inhibitor PF-670462 produced a signature consistent with anxiolytic activity and, at the highest dose tested, behavioral effects similar to that of opiate analgesics. Neither TP-10 nor PF-670462 was included in the training set. Thus, computer vision-based behavioral analysis can facilitate drug discovery by identifying neuropharmacological effects of compounds acting through new mechanisms.

  12. The California Hotspots Project: identifying regions of rapid diversification of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Edward Byrd; Koo, Michelle S; Conroy, Chris; Patton, James L; Moritz, Craig

    2008-01-01

    The high rate of anthropogenic impact on natural systems mandates protection of the evolutionary processes that generate and sustain biological diversity. Environmental drivers of diversification include spatial heterogeneity of abiotic and biotic agents of divergent selection, features that suppress gene flow, and climatic or geological processes that open new niche space. To explore how well such proxies perform as surrogates for conservation planning, we need first to map areas with rapid diversification -'evolutionary hotspots'. Here we combine estimates of range size and divergence time to map spatial patterns of neo-endemism for mammals of California, a global biodiversity hotspot. Neo-endemism is explored at two scales: (i) endemic species, weighted by the inverse of range size and mtDNA sequence divergence from sisters; and (ii) as a surrogate for spatial patterns of phenotypic divergence, endemic subspecies, again using inverse-weighting of range size. The species-level analysis revealed foci of narrowly endemic, young taxa in the central Sierra Nevada, northern and central coast, and Tehachapi and Peninsular Ranges. The subspecies endemism-richness analysis supported the last four areas as hotspots for diversification, but also highlighted additional coastal areas (Monterey to north of San Francisco Bay) and the Inyo Valley to the east. We suggest these hotspots reflect the major processes shaping mammal neo-endemism: steep environmental gradients, biotic admixture areas, and areas with recent geological/climate change. Anthropogenic changes to both environment and land use will have direct impacts on regions of rapid divergence. However, despite widespread changes to land cover in California, the majority of the hotspots identified here occur in areas with relatively intact ecological landscapes. The geographical scope of conserving evolutionary process is beyond the scale of any single agency or nongovernmental organization. Choosing which land to

  13. Toxicant induced changes on delayed fluorescence decay kinetics of cyanobacteria and green algae: a rapid and sensitive biotest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Leunert

    Full Text Available Algal tests have developed into routine tools for testing toxicity of pollutants in aquatic environments. Meanwhile, in addition to algal growth rates, an increasing number of fluorescence based methods are used for rapid and sensitive toxicity measures. The present study stresses the suitability of delayed fluorescence (DF as a promising parameter for biotests. DF is based on the recombination fluorescence at the reaction centre of photosystem II, which is emitted only by photosynthetically active cells. We analyzed the effects of three chemicals (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU, 3,5 Dichlorophenol (3,5 DCP and copper on the shape of the DF decay kinetics for potential use in phytoplankton toxicity tests. The short incubation tests were done with four phytoplankton species, with special emphasis on the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. All species exhibited a high sensitivity to DCMU, but cyanobacteria were more affected by copper and less by 3,5 DCP than the tested green algae. Analyses of changes in the DF decay curve in response to the added chemicals indicated the feasibility of the DF decay approach as a rapid and sensitive testing tool.

  14. A case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome due to Group G streptococci identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nei, Takahito; Akutsu, Koichi; Shima, Ayaka; Tsuboi, Ippei; Suzuki, Hiroomi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tanaka, Keiji; Shinoyama, Akihiro; Kojima, Yoshiko; Washio, Yohei; Okawa, Sakina; Sonobe, Kazunari; Norose, Yoshihiko; Saito, Ryoichi

    2012-12-01

    A 79-year-old man with a 3-month history of lymphedema of the lower limbs, and diabetes mellitus, was admitted to our hospital for suspected deep venous thrombosis. Several hours after admission, leg pain and purpura-like skin color appeared. On the 2nd hospital day, he was referred to our department for possible acute occlusive peripheral artery disease (PAD) and skin necrosis with blisters; however, computed tomography with contrast showed no occlusive lesions. He had already developed shock and necrotizing deep soft-tissue infections of the left lower leg. Laboratory findings revealed renal dysfunction and coagulation system collapse. Soon after PAD was ruled out, clinical findings suggested necrotizing deep soft-tissue infections, shock state, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and multiple organ failure. These symptoms led to a high suspicion of the well-recognized streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). With a high suspicion of STSS, we detected Group G β-hemolytic streptococci (GGS) from samples aspirated from the leg bullae, and the species was identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) by 16S-ribosomal RNA sequencing. However, unfortunately, surgical debridement was impossible due to the broad area of skin change. Despite adequate antimicrobial therapy and intensive care, the patient died on the 3rd hospital day. The M-protein gene (emm) typing of the isolated SDSE was revealed to be stG6792. This type of SDSE is the most frequent cause of STSS due to GGS in Japan. We consider it to be crucial to rapidly distinguish STSS from acute occlusive PAD to achieve life-saving interventions in patients with severe soft-tissue infections.

  15. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  16. A pharmacologically-based array to identify targets of cyclosporine A-induced toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarró, Eduard, E-mail: eduard.sarro@vhir.org [Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquímica de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Jacobs-Cachá, Conxita, E-mail: conxita.jacobs@vhir.org [Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Itarte, Emilio, E-mail: emili.itarte@uab.es [Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquímica de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Meseguer, Anna, E-mail: ana.meseguer@vhir.org [Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    Mechanisms of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity were generally thought to be hemodynamic in origin; however, there is now accumulating evidence of a direct tubular effect. Although genomic and proteomic experiments by our group and others provided overall information on genes and proteins up- or down-regulated by CsA in proximal tubule cells (PTC), a comprehensive view of events occurring after CsA exposure remains to be described. For this purpose, we applied a pharmacologic approach based on the use of known activities of a large panel of potentially protective compounds and evaluated their efficacy in preventing CsA toxicity in cultured mouse PTC. Our results show that compounds that blocked protein synthesis and apoptosis, together with the CK2 inhibitor DMAT and the PI3K inhibitor apigenin, were the most efficient in preventing CsA toxicity. We also identified GSK3, MMPs and PKC pathways as potential targets to prevent CsA damage. Additionally, heparinase-I and MAPK inhibitors afforded partial but significant protection. Interestingly, antioxidants and calcium metabolism-related compounds were unable to ameliorate CsA-induced cytotoxicity. Subsequent experiments allowed us to clarify the hierarchical relationship of targeted pathways after CsA treatment, with ER stress identified as an early effector of CsA toxicity, which leads to ROS generation, phenotypical changes and cell death. In summary, this work presents a novel experimental approach to characterizing cellular responses to cytotoxics while pointing to new targets to prevent CsA-induced toxicity in proximal tubule cells. Highlights: ► We used a novel pharmacological approach to elucidate cyclosporine (CsA) toxicity. ► The ability of a broad range of compounds to prevent CsA toxicity was evaluated. ► CsA toxicity was monitored using LDH release assay and PARP cleavage. ► Protein synthesis, PI3K, GSK3, MMP, PKC and caspase inhibitors prevented CsA toxicity. ► We also identified ER

  17. SeqAnt: A web service to rapidly identify and annotate DNA sequence variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Viren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enormous throughput and low cost of second-generation sequencing platforms now allow research and clinical geneticists to routinely perform single experiments that identify tens of thousands to millions of variant sites. Existing methods to annotate variant sites using information from publicly available databases via web browsers are too slow to be useful for the large sequencing datasets being routinely generated by geneticists. Because sequence annotation of variant sites is required before functional characterization can proceed, the lack of a high-throughput pipeline to efficiently annotate variant sites can act as a significant bottleneck in genetics research. Results SeqAnt (Sequence Annotator is an open source web service and software package that rapidly annotates DNA sequence variants and identifies recessive or compound heterozygous loci in human, mouse, fly, and worm genome sequencing experiments. Variants are characterized with respect to their functional type, frequency, and evolutionary conservation. Annotated variants can be viewed on a web browser, downloaded in a tab-delimited text file, or directly uploaded in a BED format to the UCSC genome browser. To demonstrate the speed of SeqAnt, we annotated a series of publicly available datasets that ranged in size from 37 to 3,439,107 variant sites. The total time to completely annotate these data completely ranged from 0.17 seconds to 28 minutes 49.8 seconds. Conclusion SeqAnt is an open source web service and software package that overcomes a critical bottleneck facing research and clinical geneticists using second-generation sequencing platforms. SeqAnt will prove especially useful for those investigators who lack dedicated bioinformatics personnel or infrastructure in their laboratories.

  18. Rapid multiplex PCR assay to identify respiratory viral pathogens: moving forward diagnosing the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layman, Clifton P; Gordon, Sarah M; Elegino-Steffens, Diane U; Agee, Willie; Barnhill, Jason; Hsue, Gunther

    2013-09-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) can be a serious burden to the healthcare system. The majority of URIs are viral in etiology, but definitive diagnosis can prove difficult due to frequently overlapping clinical presentations of viral and bacterial infections, and the variable sensitivity, and lengthy turn-around time of viral culture. We tested new automated nested multiplex PCR technology, the FilmArray(®) system, in the TAMC department of clinical investigations, to determine the feasibility of replacing the standard viral culture with a rapid turn-around system. We conducted a feasibility study using a single-blinded comparison study, comparing PCR results with archived viral culture results from a convenience sample of cryopreserved archived nasopharyngeal swabs from acutely ill ED patients who presented with complaints of URI symptoms. A total of 61 archived samples were processed. Viral culture had previously identified 31 positive specimens from these samples. The automated nested multiplex PCR detected 38 positive samples. In total, PCR was 94.5% concordant with the previously positive viral culture results. However, PCR was only 63.4% concordant with the negative viral culture results, owing to PCR detection of 11 additional viral pathogens not recovered on viral culture. The average time to process a sample was 75 minutes. We determined that an automated nested multiplex PCR is a feasible alternative to viral culture in an acute clinical setting. We were able to detect at least 94.5% as many viral pathogens as viral culture is able to identify, with a faster turn-around time.

  19. Use of rapid needs assessment as a tool to identify vaccination delays in Guatemala and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ardenne, Katie K; Darrow, Juliana; Furniss, Anna; Chavez, Catia; Hernandez, Herminio; Berman, Stephen; Asturias, Edwin J

    2016-03-29

    To explore the use of rapid needs assessment (RNA) surveys to determine the prevalence and factors contributing to delays in vaccination of children in two low middle-income countries (LMIC). Data from two RNA surveys performed as part of program improvement evaluations in Guatemala and Peru were used for this analysis. The primary endpoint was the timeliness of immunization with delay defined as administration of vaccines beyond 28 days from recommended age for DTwP-HepB-Hib (Penta) and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines, as well as past age-restrictions for rotavirus vaccine. Independent risk factors analyzed included child's gender, birth year, number of children in household, maternal age, maternal education, and food insecurity. Vaccine information was available from 811 children from 838 households surveyed. High rate of immunization delays was observed, with 75.6% of children in Guatemala and 57.8% of children in Peru being delayed for the third dose of Penta primary series. Factors associated with delayed vaccination in Guatemala included advanced maternal age and increased number of children in household. In Peru, significant associations were birth year before 2009, lower maternal education level, and increased number of children in household. RNA is a fast and effective method to identify timely vaccine coverage and derive a hypothesis of factors possibly associated with vaccination delay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid toxicity detection in water quality control utilizing automated multispecies biomonitoring for permanent space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E. L.; Young, R. C.; Smith, M. D.; Eagleson, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate proposed design characteristics and applications of automated biomonitoring devices for real-time toxicity detection in water quality control on-board permanent space stations. Simulated tests in downlinking transmissions of automated biomonitoring data to Earth-receiving stations were simulated using satellite data transmissions from remote Earth-based stations.

  1. Rapid in vitro tests to determine the toxicity of raw wastewater and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... toxicity of raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from 3 sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Raw wastewater ... Raw wastewater from all sewage treatment plants contained AChE inhibitors and sewage treatment ..... BOUSSETTA H (2009) Acute effects of chlorpyrifos-ethyl and.

  2. Selection of a Battery of Rapid Toxicity Sensors for Drinking Water Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Strategic Diagnostics, nc., Newark, DE) measured changes in natural bioluminescence roduced by the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri (Bulich, 1979...tates et al., 2003). Toxic substances decreased light output, hich was measured using a photometer.Vibrio fischeri supplied n a standard freeze-dried

  3. Chemopreventive agents attenuate rapid inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication induced by environmental toxicants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babica, Pavel; Čtveráčková, Lucie; Lenčešová, Zuzana; Trosko, J. E.; Upham, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 5 (2016), s. 827-837 ISSN 0163-5581 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12034 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : gap junctional intercellular communication * chemopreventive agents * environmental toxicants Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2016

  4. ToxiFly: Can Fruit Flies be Used to Identify Toxicity Pathways for Airborne Chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current high-throughput and alternative screening assays for chemical toxicity are unable to test volatile organic compounds (VOCs), thus limiting their scope. Further, the data generated by these assays require mechanistic information to link effects at molecular targets to adve...

  5. Toxicity profiling of marine surface sediments: a case study using rapid screening bioassays of exhaustive total extracts, elutriates and passive sampler extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vethaak, A.D.; Hamers, T.; Martinez-Gomez, C.; Kamstra, J.H.; de Weert, J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Smedes, F.

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out in the framework of the ICON project (Integrated Assessment of Contaminant Impacts on the North Sea) (Hylland et al., 2015) and aimed (1) to evaluate the toxicity of marine sediments using a battery of rapid toxicity bioassays, and; (2) to explore the applicability and

  6. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Jung [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Woongghi [Department of Biology, Chungnam University, Daejeon 306 764 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F{sub v}/F{sub m} of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR{sub max}) with median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC{sub 50} of 3.17 mM. The EC{sub 50} values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents.

  7. Potential uses of sea urchin embryos for identifying toxic chemicals: description of a bioassay incorporating cytologic, cytogenetic and embryologic endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hose, J.E.

    1985-08-01

    A method for evaluating pollutant genotoxicity, embryotoxicity and teratogenicity using sea urchin embryos has been developed and was tested using benzo(a)pyrene (BP). Initial results suggested that the bioassay may be a sensitive indicator of pollutant toxicity and mutagenicity since several endpoints can be simultaneously assessed. The bioassay is rapid, inexpensive and appears applicable to a variety of toxicants and delivery methods. The test is based upon the standard 48 h sea urchin development assay and incorporates cytologic-cytogenetic analysis of embryos. Following toxic exposure of gametes, fertilization success is assessed. Embryos then develop for 48 h at which time survival and teratogenesis are evaluated. A subsample of embryos is stained and dissociated into monolayers and mitotic configurations are examined using light microscopy. Embryo mitotic rates are used as an indicator of overall embryonic health. Cytotoxic effects are concomitantly evaluated. Genotoxicity is measured using two methods: (1) anaphase aberration analysis, a technique which assesses abnormalities in the chromosome configurations (such as bridges and fragments) as the groups of chromosomes move to opposite poles and (2) micronucleus formation, a procedure examining the incidence of smaller, secondary nuclei composed of whole chromosomes or chromatid fragments.

  8. Sensationalistic journalism and tales of snakebite: are rattlesnakes rapidly evolving more toxic venom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, William K; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2010-03-01

    Recent reports in the lay press have suggested that bites by rattlesnakes in the last several years have been more severe than those in the past. The explanation, often citing physicians, is that rattlesnakes are evolving more toxic venom, perhaps in response to anthropogenic causes. We suggest that other explanations are more parsimonious, including factors dependent on the snake and factors associated with the bite victim's response to envenomation. Although bites could become more severe from an increased proportion of bites from larger or more provoked snakes (ie, more venom injected), the venom itself evolves much too slowly to explain the severe symptoms occasionally seen. Increased snakebite severity could also result from a number of demographic changes in the victim profile, including age and body size, behavior toward the snake (provocation), anatomical site of bite, clothing, and general health including asthma prevalence and sensitivity to foreign antigens. Clinical management of bites also changes perpetually, rendering comparisons of snakebite severity over time tenuous. Clearly, careful study taking into consideration many factors will be essential to document temporal changes in snakebite severity or venom toxicity. Presently, no published evidence for these changes exists. The sensationalistic coverage of these atypical bites and accompanying speculation is highly misleading and can produce many detrimental results, such as inappropriate fear of the outdoors and snakes, and distraction from proven snakebite management needs, including a consistent supply of antivenom, adequate health care, and training. We urge healthcare providers to avoid propagating misinformation about snakes and snakebites. Copyright (c) 2010 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  10. Electrode Probes for the Rapid Assay of Seafood Toxicants. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    probes can provide rapid analyte determination in complex samples such as blood. For instance, diabetics can now use an electrochemical enzyme...control was incorporated in which there was no aOA/POD; 50 A1 PBS-Tween and 50 p1 of MeOH (45% in aquo ) were incubated for 30 minutes as above. The... complex samples such as fish tissue, urine and blood. 18 Referenoes (1) The Merck Index, loth Edition, M. Windholz, S. Budavari, R.F. Blumetti and E.S

  11. Identifying inequitable exposure to toxic air pollution in racialized and low-income neighbourhoods to support pollution prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Kershaw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental justice studies have confirmed a relationship between population characteristics such as low-income or minority status and the location of environmental health hazards. However, studies of the health risks from exposure to harmful substances often do not consider their toxicological characteristics. We used two different methods, the unit-hazard and the distance-based approach, to evaluate demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population residing near industrial facilities in the City of Toronto, Canada. In addition to the mass of air emissions obtained from the national pollutant release inventory (NPRI, we also considered their toxicity using toxic equivalency potential (TEP scores. Results from the unit-hazard approach indicate no significant difference in the proportion of low-income individuals living in host versus non-host census tracts (t(107 = 0.3, P = 0.735. However, using the distance-based approach, the proportion of low-income individuals was significantly higher (+5.1%, t(522 = 6.0, P <0.001 in host tracts, while the indicator for “racialized” communities (“visible minority” was 16.1% greater (t(521 = 7.2, P <0.001 within 2 km of a NPRI facility. When the most toxic facilities by non-carcinogenic TEP score were selected, the rate of visible minorities living near the most toxic NPRI facilities was significantly higher (+12.9%, t(352 = 3.5, P = 0.001 than near all other NPRI facilities. TEP scores were also used to identify areas in Toronto that face a double burden of poverty and air toxics exposure in order to prioritise pollution prevention.

  12. A rapid bioassay for detecting saxitoxins using a Daphnia acute toxicity test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrao-Filho, Aloysio da S., E-mail: aloysio@ioc.fiocruz.b [Laboratorio de Avaliacao e Promocao da Saude Ambiental, Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21045-900 (Brazil); Soares, Maria Carolina S., E-mail: mcarolsoares@gmail.co [Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-900 (Brazil); Freitas de Magalhaes, Valeria, E-mail: valeria@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Ecofisiologia e Toxicologia de Cianobacterias, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21949-900 (Brazil); Azevedo, Sandra M.F.O., E-mail: sazevedo@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Ecofisiologia e Toxicologia de Cianobacterias, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21949-900 (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    Bioassays using Daphnia pulex and Moina micrura were designed to detect cyanobacterial neurotoxins in raw water samples. Phytoplankton and cyanotoxins from seston were analyzed during 15 months in a eutrophic reservoir. Effective time to immobilize 50% of the exposed individuals (ET{sub 50}) was adopted as the endpoint. Paralysis of swimming movements was observed between approx0.5-3 h of exposure to lake water containing toxic cyanobacteria, followed by an almost complete recovery of the swimming activity within 24 h after being placed in control water. The same effects were observed in bioassays with a saxitoxin-producer strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii isolated from the reservoir. Regression analysis showed significant relationships between ET{sub 50}vs. cell density, biomass and saxitoxins content, suggesting that the paralysis of Daphnia in lake water samples was caused by saxitoxins found in C. raciborskii. Daphnia bioassay was found to be a sensitive method for detecting fast-acting neurotoxins in natural samples, with important advantages over mouse bioassays. - A new Daphnia bioassay, as an alternative to the mouse bioassay, is able to detect effects of fast-acting, potent neurotoxins in raw water.

  13. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Kim, Youn-Jung; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae; Shin, Woongghi; Han, Taejun

    2014-10-01

    Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETRmax) with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. The EC50 values for Fv/Fm, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid ammonia gas transport accounts for futile transmembrane cycling under NH3/NH4+ toxicity in plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T; Li, Mingyuan; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2013-12-01

    Futile transmembrane NH3/NH4(+) cycling in plant root cells, characterized by extremely rapid fluxes and high efflux to influx ratios, has been successfully linked to NH3/NH4(+) toxicity. Surprisingly, the fundamental question of which species of the conjugate pair (NH3 or NH4(+)) participates in such fluxes is unresolved. Using flux analyses with the short-lived radioisotope (13)N and electrophysiological, respiratory, and histochemical measurements, we show that futile cycling in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is predominately of the gaseous NH3 species, rather than the NH4(+) ion. Influx of (13)NH3/(13)NH4(+), which exceeded 200 µmol g(-1) h(-1), was not commensurate with membrane depolarization or increases in root respiration, suggesting electroneutral NH3 transport. Influx followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for NH3 (but not NH4(+)), as a function of external concentration (Km = 152 µm, Vmax = 205 µmol g(-1) h(-1)). Efflux of (13)NH3/(13)NH4(+) responded with a nearly identical Km. Pharmacological characterization of influx and efflux suggests mediation by aquaporins. Our study fundamentally revises the futile-cycling model by demonstrating that NH3 is the major permeating species across both plasmalemma and tonoplast of root cells under toxicity conditions.

  15. Potential uses of sea urchin embryos for identifying toxic chemicals: description of a bioassay incorporating cytologic, cytogenetic and embryologic endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hose, J E

    1985-08-01

    A method for evaluating pollutant genotoxicity, embryotoxicity and teratogenicity using sea urchin embryos has been developed and was tested using benzo(a)pyrene (BP). Initial results suggested that the bioassay may be a sensitive indicator of pollutant toxicity and mutagenicity since several endpoints can be simultaneously assessed. The bioassay is rapid, inexpensive and appears applicable to a variety of toxicants and delivery methods. The test is based upon the standard 48 h sea urchin development assay and incorporates cytologic-cytogenetic analysis of embryos. Following toxic exposure of gametes, fertilization success is assessed. Embryos then develop for 48 h at which time survival and teratogenesis are evaluated. A subsample of embryos is stained and dissociated into monolayers and mitotic configurations are examined using light microscopy. Embryo mitotic rates are used as an indicator of overall embryonic health. Cytotoxic effects are concomitantly evaluated. Genotoxicity is measured using two methods: (1) anaphase aberration analysis, a technique which assesses abnormalities in the chromosome configurations (such as bridges and fragments) as the groups of chromosomes move to opposite poles and (2) micronucleus formation, a procedure examining the incidence of smaller, secondary nuclei composed of whole chromosomes or chromatid fragments. These two measurements preclude the need to examine individual chromosomes for deletions and exchanges, a laborious process in most aquatic organisms which possess numerous relatively small chromosomes. This genotoxicity-teratogenicity test appears promising for laboratory evaluations of individual substances or of complex chemical mixtures as well as for environmental monitoring of nearshore areas. The standard development assay has been used to screen pharmaceuticals and environmental contaminants and some recent investigations have included mitotic aberration analysis. Experiments in our laboratory suggest that the

  16. Identifying Sources of Lift Production on Rapidly Pitching Trailing Edge Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Peter; Jones, Anya; Ol, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Recent work has delved into the design and quantification of the aerodynamic response of large trailing edge flaps. Ultimately, these flaps would be used as a control mechanism to provide an immediate aerodynamic response to the vehicle, e.g. in the event of a gust encounter. The present work explores the individual sources and contributions of lift in the case of a large, rapidly pitching trailing edge flap. The flap is 50% of the chord length, and thus produces large acceleration and pitch rate terms that dominate the lift production. In the experiment and simulations presented here, the front element remains fixed at a constant angle of attack, while the rear element pitches to a final incidence angle, which in this study ranges from 5 degrees to 40 degrees. Although the front element does not pitch throughout the motion, it is important to consider the time history of the lift distribution on that wing section and assess whether the rapid pitching of the aft element affects the forces experienced on the stationary front element. These results are then used to suggest a simplified method for predicting lift production of a wing with a large trailing flap.

  17. Nanotools and molecular techniques to rapidly identify and fight bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarelli, S; Girasole, M; Kasas, S; Longo, G

    2017-07-01

    Reducing the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is one of the major healthcare issues of our century. In addition to the increased mortality, infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria drastically enhance the healthcare costs, mainly because of the longer duration of illness and treatment. While in the last 20years, bacterial identification has been revolutionized by the introduction of new molecular techniques, the current phenotypic techniques to determine the susceptibilities of common Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria require at least two days from collection of clinical samples. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of new technologies to determine rapidly drug susceptibility in bacteria and to achieve faster diagnoses. These techniques would also lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to the insurgence of the resistance, greatly helping the quest for new antibacterial systems and drugs. In this review, we describe some of the tools most currently used in clinical and microbiological research to study bacteria and to address the challenge of infections. We discuss the most interesting advancements in the molecular susceptibility testing systems, with a particular focus on the many applications of the MALDI-TOF MS system. In the field of the phenotypic characterization protocols, we detail some of the most promising semi-automated commercial systems and we focus on some emerging developments in the field of nanomechanical sensors, which constitute a step towards the development of rapid and affordable point-of-care testing devices and techniques. While there is still no innovative technique that is capable of completely substituting for the conventional protocols and clinical practices, many exciting new experimental setups and tools could constitute the basis of the standard testing package of future microbiological tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanger, Paul; Klassen, Stephen; Mojica, Julius P; Lovell, John T; Moyers, Brook T; Baraoidan, Marietta; Naredo, Maria Elizabeth B; McNally, Kenneth L; Poland, Jesse; Bush, Daniel R; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E; McKay, John K

    2017-02-21

    To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution.

  19. A rapid and specific derivatization procedure to identify acyl-glucuronides by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Alfin D N; Wang, Wei Wei; Bessire, Andrew J; Sharma, Raman; Hagen, Anne E

    2010-07-30

    A simple procedure is described to identify acyl-glucuronides by coupled liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after derivatization to a hydroxamic acid with hydroxylamine. The reaction specificity obviates the need for isolation of the acyl-glucuronide from an extract. Glucuronides derived from carbamic acids, and alkyl- and aromatic amines, are inert to the derivatization reaction conditions, making the hydroxamic acid derivative a fingerprint for acyl-glucuronides. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Identifying HIV infection in South African women: How does a fourth generation HIV rapid test perform?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila Bhowan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV rapid tests (RT play an important role in tackling the HIV pandemic in South Africa. Third generation RT that detect HIV antibodies are currently used to diagnose HIV infection at the point of care. Determine Combo (DC is the first fourth generation RT that detects both p24 antigen (p24Ag and HIV antibodies (Ab, theoretically reducing the window period and increasing detection rates. Early detection of maternal HIV infection is important to mitigate the high risk of vertical transmission associated with acute maternal infection. Objectives: We assessed the performance of the DC RT against third generation RT in antenatal and post-partum women. Methods: Third generation RT Advance Quality and Acon were used in a serial algorithm to diagnose HIV infection in antenatal and post-partum women over six months at a tertiary hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. This data provided the reference against which the DC RT was compared on plasma and whole blood samples. Results: The 1019 participants comprised 345 (34% antenatal and 674 (66% post-partum women. Ninety women (8.8% tested HIV-positive of whom 59 (66% were tested antenatally, and 31 (34% post-partum yielding prevalence rates of 17.1% and 4.6% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the Ab component of DC on plasma antenatally was 100% (93.8% – 100% and 100% (98.6% – 100% respectively and post-partum was 100% (88.9% – 100% and 99.6% (98.8% – 99.9% respectively. One false positive and not a single true positive p24Ag was detected. Of 505 post-partum women who tested HIV-negative 6–12 months prior to enrolment, 12 (2.4% seroconverted. Conclusion: The fourth generation DC offered no advantage over current third generation RT in the diagnosis of HIV infection.

  1. A rapid and robust method of identifying transformed Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings following floral dip transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray John C

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The floral dip method of transformation by immersion of inflorescences in a suspension of Agrobacterium is the method of choice for Arabidopsis transformation. The presence of a marker, usually antibiotic- or herbicide-resistance, allows identification of transformed seedlings from untransformed seedlings. Seedling selection is a lengthy process which does not always lead to easily identifiable transformants. Selection for kanamycin-, phosphinothricin- and hygromycin B-resistance commonly takes 7–10 d and high seedling density and fungal contamination may result in failure to recover transformants. Results A method for identifying transformed seedlings in as little as 3.25 d has been developed. Arabidopsis T1 seeds obtained after floral dip transformation are plated on 1% agar containing MS medium and kanamycin, phosphinothricin or hygromycin B, as appropriate. After a 2-d stratification period, seeds are subjected to a regime of 4–6 h light, 48 h dark and 24 h light (3.25 d. Kanamycin-resistant and phosphinothricin-resistant seedlings are easily distinguished from non-resistant seedlings by green expanded cotyledons whereas non-resistant seedlings have pale unexpanded cotyledons. Seedlings grown on hygromycin B differ from those grown on kanamycin and phosphinothricin as both resistant and non-resistant seedlings are green. However, hygromycin B-resistant seedlings are easily identified as they have long hypocotyls (0.8–1.0 cm whereas non-resistant seedlings have short hypocotyls (0.2–0.4 cm. Conclusion The method presented here is an improvement on current selection methods as it allows quicker identification of transformed seedlings: transformed seedlings are easily discernable from non-transformants in as little as 3.25 d in comparison to the 7–10 d required for selection using current protocols.

  2. Rapid analysis of time series data to identify changes in electricity consumption patterns in UK secondary schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Graeme; Fleming, Paul; Ferreira, Vasco [Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Harris, Peter [Cheriton Technology Management Ltd., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents a methodology for energy professionals to identify potential electricity saving opportunities in buildings from the analysis of half-hourly electricity consumption data. The technique recommended in UK government good practice guidance for use with monthly gas data has been applied to half-hourly electricity data from 37 secondary schools. The technique monitors consumption over time, identifying any changes in patterns and quantifying their effects. It has the advantage of being both high resolution and quick to employ. The analysis produces results that allow energy professionals to rapidly detect changes in electricity consumption. (author)

  3. Virtual target screening to rapidly identify potential protein targets of natural products in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Pevzner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inherent biological viability and diversity of natural products make them a potentially rich source for new therapeutics. However, identification of bioactive compounds with desired therapeutic effects and identification of their protein targets is a laborious, expensive process. Extracts from organism samples may show desired activity in phenotypic assays but specific bioactive compounds must be isolated through further separation methods and protein targets must be identified by more specific phenotypic and in vitro experimental assays. Still, questions remain as to whether all relevant protein targets for a compound have been identified. The desire is to understand breadth of purposing for the compound to maximize its use and intellectual property, and to avoid further development of compounds with insurmountable adverse effects. Previously we developed a Virtual Target Screening system that computationally screens one or more compounds against a collection of virtual protein structures. By scoring each compound-protein interaction, we can compare against averaged scores of synthetic drug-like compounds to determine if a particular protein would be a potential target of a compound of interest. Here we provide examples of natural products screened through our system as we assess advantages and shortcomings of our current system in regards to natural product drug discovery.

  4. Virtual target screening to rapidly identify potential protein targets of natural products in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Pevzner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inherent biological viability and diversity of natural products make them a potentially rich source for new therapeutics. However, identification of bioactive compounds with desired therapeutic effects and identification of their protein targets is a laborious, expensive process. Extracts from organism samples may show desired activity in phenotypic assays but specific bioactive compounds must be isolated through further separation methods and protein targets must be identified by more specific phenotypic and in vitro experimental assays. Still, questions remain as to whether all relevant protein targets for a compound have been identified. The desire is to understand breadth of purposing for the compound to maximize its use and intellectual property, and to avoid further development of compounds with insurmountable adverse effects. Previously we developed a Virtual Target Screening system that computationally screens one or more compounds against a collection of virtual protein structures. By scoring each compound-protein interaction, we can compare against averaged scores of synthetic drug-like compounds to determine if a particular protein would be a potential target of a compound of interest. Here we provide examples of natural products screened through our system as we assess advantages and shortcomings of our current system in regards to natural product drug discovery.

  5. A rapid and simple method for identifying bacterial polar lipid components in wet biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Manh; Kim, Jaisoo

    2017-08-01

    There are marked differences between wet and freeze-dried cells with regard to the identification of polar lipid components. The determination of the polar lipid composition of freeze-dried cells is well established. However, several approaches to identifying polar lipid components in wet cells have met with limited success owing to the presence of non-polar compounds in the extracts, resulting in a lipid composition with a narrow scope. In this study, we surveyed the lipid profiles of the wet biomasses of three Gram-positive (Microbacterium lacticum, Rhodococcus koreensis, and Streptomyces longwoodensis) and two Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Novosphingobium capsulatum) bacteria; the results were comparable in quality to those obtained using a standard freeze-dried approach. Moreover, our improved method ensures simple lipid extraction. Overall, the results of the analysis showed minor lipid profile differences between the two approaches with regard to quantity, and lipid identification was consistent in both methods for all species.

  6. Nocturnal Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Latency for Identifying Patients With Narcolepsy/Hypocretin Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, Olivier; Moore, Hyatt; Jouhier, Laura; Drake, Christopher; Peppard, Paul E.; Han, Fang; Hong, Seung-Chul; Poli, Francesca; Plazzi, Giuseppe; O’Hara, Ruth; Haffen, Emmanuel; Roth, Thomas; Young, Terry; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Narcolepsy, a disorder associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02 and caused by hypocretin (orexin) deficiency, is diagnosed using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) following nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). In many patients, a short rapid eye movement sleep latency (REML) during the NPSG is also observed but not used diagnostically. OBJECTIVE To determine diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of nocturnal REML measures in narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observational study using receiver operating characteristic curves for NPSG REML and MSLT findings (sleep studies performed between May 1976 and September 2011 at university medical centers in the United States, China, Korea, and Europe) to determine optimal diagnostic cutoffs for narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency compared with different samples: controls, patients with other sleep disorders, patients with other hypersomnias, and patients with narcolepsy with normal hypocretin levels. Increasingly stringent comparisons were made. In a first comparison, 516 age- and sex-matched patients with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency were selected from 1749 patients and compared with 516 controls. In a second comparison, 749 successive patients undergoing sleep evaluation for any sleep disorders (low pretest probability for narcolepsy) were compared within groups by final diagnosis of narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. In the third comparison, 254 patients with a high pretest probability of having narcolepsy were compared within group by their final diagnosis. Finally, 118 patients with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency were compared with 118 age- and sex-matched patients with a diagnosis of narcolepsy but with normal hypocretin levels. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES Sensitivity and specificity of NPSG REML and MSLT as diagnostic tests for narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. This diagnosis was defined as narcolepsy associated with cataplexy plus HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity (no cerebrospinal

  7. Toxicogenomic and bioinformatics platforms to identify key molecular mechanisms of a curcumin-analogue DM-1 toxicity in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Érica Aparecida de; Lima, Diogenes Saulo de; Cardozo, Lucas Esteves; Souza, Garcia Ferreira de; de Souza, Nayane; Alves-Fernandes, Debora Kristina; Faião-Flores, Fernanda; Quincoces, José Agustín Pablo; Barros, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes; Nakaya, Helder I; Monteiro, Gisele; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi

    2017-11-01

    Melanoma is a highly invasive and metastatic cancer with high mortality rates and chemoresistance. Around 50% of melanomas are driven by activating mutations in BRAF that has led to the development of potent anti-BRAF inhibitors. However resistance to anti-BRAF therapy usually develops within a few months and consequently there is a need to identify alternative therapies that will bypass BRAF inhibitor resistance. The curcumin analogue DM-1 (sodium 4-[5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-3-oxo-penta-1,4-dienyl]-2-methoxy-phenolate) has substantial anti-tumor activity in melanoma, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we use a synthetic lethal genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify 211 genes implicated in sensitivity to DM-1 toxicity. From these 211 genes, 74 had close human orthologues implicated in oxidative phosphorylation, insulin signaling and iron and RNA metabolism. Further analysis identified 7 target genes (ADK, ATP6V0B, PEMT, TOP1, ZFP36, ZFP36L1, ZFP36L2) with differential expression during melanoma progression implicated in regulation of tumor progression, cell differentiation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Of these TOP1 and ADK were regulated by DM-1 in treatment-naïve and vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells respectively. These data reveal that the anticancer effect of curcumin analogues is likely to be mediated via multiple targets and identify several genes that represent candidates for combinatorial targeting in melanoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simple and Rapid Quantitative Determination of Thiol-Containing Toxicants Using Silver Nanoparticles as an Affinity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Tapadia, K.

    2017-01-01

    A rapid and low-cost nano-drop spectrophotometric method using citrate-modified silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for the determination of thiol-containing toxicants was developed. The introduction of thioglycolic acid (TGA) and thiourea (TU) reduced the overall surface charge of Ag NPs, resulting in aggregation of Ag NPs, and a colorimetric response that was individually correlated with the concentration of TGA and TU. Under optimum experimental conditions, the maximum molar absorptivity values for TGA and TU were 1.04 × 105 and 2.13 × 105 L × mol-1 × cm-1, respectively, at λmax of 415 nm. The linear range used was 0.5-2.5 mg/L for TGA, and 0.3-1.5 mg/L for TU. The detection limits (3S) and % relative standard deviation (RSD) for the method were found to be 3 ppb, 2 ppb, and ±1.13%, ±0.96% for TGA and TU, respectively. This new chromogenic method provided a facile and sensitive scheme for the determination of TGA and TU, and could be applied for the determination of thiol-containing biomolecules. This scheme was tested for the analysis of real samples such as urine, blood, and environmental samples.

  9. A Portable Cell Maintenance System for Rapid Toxicity Monitoring Final Report CRADA No. TC-02081-04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhou, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    The Phase I STTR research project was targeted at meeting the objectives and requirements stated in STTR solicitation A04-T028 for a Portable Cell Maintenance System for Rapid Toxicity Monitoring. In accordance with the requirements for STTR programs, collaboration was formed between a small business, Kionix, Inc., and The Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The collaboration included CytoDiscovery, Inc. (CDI) which, in collaboration with Kionix, provided access to membrane chip technology and provided program support and coordination. The objective of the overall program (excerpted from the original solicitation) was: “To develop a small, portable cell maintenance system for the transport, storage, and monitoring of viable vertebrate cells and tissues.” The goal of the Phase I project was to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving the program objectives utilizing a system comprised of a small-size, microfluidic chip-based cell maintenance cartridge (CMC) and a portable cell maintenance system (CMS) capable of housing a minimum of four CMCs. The system was designed to be capable of optimally maintaining multiple vertebrate cell types while supporting a wide variety of cellular assays.

  10. Identifying and quantifying medication errors: evaluation of rapidly discontinued medication orders submitted to a computerized physician order entry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Ross; Leonard, Charles E; Localio, A Russell; Cohen, Abigail; Auten, Ruthann; Strom, Brian L

    2008-01-01

    All methods of identifying medication prescribing errors are fraught with inaccuracies and systematic bias. A systematic, efficient, and inexpensive way of measuring and quantifying prescribing errors would be a useful step for reducing them. We ask if rapid discontinuations of prescription-orders--where physicians stop their orders within 2 hours--would be an expedient proxy for prescribing errors? To study this we analyzed CPOE-system medication orders entered and then discontinued within 2 hours. We investigated these phenomena in real time via interviews with corresponding ordering physicians. Each order was also independently reviewed by a clinical pharmacist or physicians. We found that of 114 rapidly discontinued orders by 75 physicians, two-thirds (35 of 53, PPV = 66; 95% CI = 53-77) of medication orders discontinued within 45 minutes were deemed inappropriate (overdose, underdose, etc.). Overall, 55% (63 of 114; 95% CI = 46-64%) of medication orders discontinued within 2 hours were deemed inappropriate. This measure offers a rapid, constant, inexpensive, and objective method to identify medication orders with a high probability of error. It may also serve as a screening and teaching mechanism for physicians-in-training.

  11. Gene expression profiling to identify the toxicities and potentially relevant human disease outcomes associated with environmental heavy metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korashy, Hesham M; Attafi, Ibraheem M; Famulski, Konrad S; Bakheet, Saleh A; Hafez, Mohammed M; Alsaad, Abdulaziz M S; Al-Ghadeer, Abdul Rahman M

    2017-02-01

    Heavy metals are the most commonly encountered toxic substances that increase susceptibility to various diseases after prolonged exposure. We have previously shown that healthy volunteers living near a mining area had significant contamination with heavy metals associated with significant changes in the expression of some detoxifying genes, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and DNA repair genes. However, alterations of most of the molecular target genes associated with diseases are still unknown. Thus, the aims of this study were to (a) evaluate the gene expression profile and (b) identify the toxicities and potentially relevant human disease outcomes associated with long-term human exposure to environmental heavy metals in mining area using microarray analysis. For this purpose, 40 healthy male volunteers who were residents of a heavy metal-polluted area (Mahd Al-Dhahab city, Saudi Arabia) and 20 healthy male volunteers who were residents of a non-heavy metal-polluted area were included in the study. Total RNA was isolated from whole blood using PAXgene Blood RNA tubes and then reversed transcribed and hybridized to the gene array using the Affymetrix U219 GeneChip. Microarray analysis showed about 2129 genes were identified and differentially altered, among which a shared set of 425 genes was differentially expressed in the heavy metal-exposed groups. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that the most altered gene-regulated diseases in heavy metal-exposed groups included hematological and developmental disorders and mostly renal and urological diseases. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction closely matched the microarray data for some genes tested. Importantly, changes in gene-related diseases were attributed to alterations in the genes encoded for protein synthesis. Renal and urological diseases were the diseases that were most frequently associated with the heavy metal-exposed group. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to validate these

  12. Rapid aquatic toxicity assay using incorporation of tritiated-thymidine into sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata, embryo: evaluation of toxicant exposure procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacci, D.E.; Jackim, E.

    1985-01-01

    Toxicity of substances in seawater was measured using growth inhibition of embryonic sea urchins during a short period after fertilization. Growth of Arbacia punctulata embryos was monitored by incorporation of tritium-labeled thymidine. The paper presents a comparison of toxicant exposure procedures using the Arbacia embryo thymidine incorporation test. Toxicant exposure began before, at the time of, or after fertilization and continued for 4 h following fertilization. In addition to the eight organic chemicals tested for comparison to acute toxicity values for other species, several chemicals with embryotoxic potentials (tumor promoters and teratogens) were tested to determine differential sensitivities of exposed life-stages: unfertilized egg, fertilization, and early embryo. EC50 values for any one substance were not significantly changed by exposure modification. Toxicity values for exposures that included fertilization as well as early embryo growth were at least as sensitive as post-fertilization exposure values for all compounds tested except one. Because of technical ease and potential sensitivity, toxicant exposure that includes fertilization as well as early embryo growth (but not unfertilized egg exposure) is recommended for future testing.

  13. Rapid screening of aquatic toxicity of several metal-based nanoparticles using the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, Lok R.; Silva, Thilini [Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Dubey, Brajesh, E-mail: bdubey@uoguelph.ca [Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); El Badawy, Amro M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tolaymat, Thabet M. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45224 (United States); Scheuerman, Phillip R. [Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Current understanding of potential toxicity of engineered nanomaterials to aquatic microorganisms is limited for risk assessment and management. Here we evaluate if the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign test can be used as an effective and rapid screening tool to test for potential aquatic toxicity of various metal-based nanoparticles (NPs). The MetPLATE bioassay is a heavy metal sensitive test based on {beta}-galactosidase activity in Escherichia coli. Five different types of metal-based NPs were screened for toxicity: (1) citrate coated nAg (Citrate-nanosilver), (2) polyvinylpyrrolidone coated nAg (PVP-nAg), (3) uncoated nZnO, (4) uncoated nTiO{sub 2} and (5) 1-Octadecylamine coated CdSe Quantum Dots (CdSe QDs); and compared with their corresponding ionic salt toxicity. Citrate-nAg was further fractionated into clean Citrate-nAg, unclean Citrate-nAg and permeate using a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system to eliminate residual ions and impurities from the stock Citrate-nAg suspension and also to differentiate between ionic- versus nano-specific toxicity. Our results showed that nAg, nZnO and CdSe QDs were less toxic than their corresponding ionic salts tested, while nano- or ionic form of TiO{sub 2} was not toxic as high as 2.5 g L{sup -1} to the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign bacteria. Although coating-dependent toxicity was noticeable between two types of Ag NPs evaluated, particle size and surface charge were not adequate to explain the observed toxicity; hence, the toxicity appeared to be material-specific. Overall, the toxicity followed the trend: CdCl{sub 2} > AgNO{sub 3} > PVP-nAg > unclean Citrate-nAg > clean Citrate-nAg > ZnSO{sub 4} > nZnO > CdSe QDs > nTiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}. These results indicate that an evaluation of {beta}-galactosidase inhibition in MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign E. coli can be an important consideration for rapid screening of metal-based NP toxicity, and should facilitate ecological risk assessment of these emerging contaminants. - Highlights

  14. A Novel Genetic Screen Identifies Modifiers of Age-Dependent Amyloid β Toxicity in the Drosophila Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiori-Carrasco, Lautaro F.; Marcora, María S.; Bocai, Nadia I.; Ceriani, M. Fernanda; Morelli, Laura; Castaño, Eduardo M.

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients begins many years before clinical onset. Such process has been proposed to be pathogenic through the toxicity of Aβ soluble oligomers leading to synaptic dysfunction, phospho-tau aggregation and neuronal loss. Yet, a massive accumulation of Aβ can be found in approximately 30% of aged individuals with preserved cognitive function. Therefore, within the frame of the “amyloid hypothesis”, compensatory mechanisms and/or additional neurotoxic or protective factors need to be considered and investigated. Here we describe a modifier genetic screen in Drosophila designed to identify genes that modulate toxicity of Aβ42 in the CNS. The expression of Aβ42 led to its accumulation in the brain and a moderate impairment of negative geotaxis at 18 days post-eclosion (d.p.e) as compared with genetic or parental controls. These flies were mated with a collection of lines carrying chromosomal deletions and negative geotaxis was assessed at 5 and 18 d.p.e. Our screen is the first to take into account all of the following features, relevant to sporadic AD: (1) pan-neuronal expression of wild-type Aβ42; (2) a quantifiable complex behavior; (3) Aβ neurotoxicity associated with progressive accumulation of the peptide; and (4) improvement or worsening of climbing ability only evident in aged animals. One hundred and ninety-nine deficiency (Df) lines accounting for ~6300 genes were analyzed. Six lines, including the deletion of 52 Drosophila genes with human orthologs, significantly modified Aβ42 neurotoxicity in 18-day-old flies. So far, we have validated CG11796 and identified CG17249 as a strong candidate (whose human orthologs are HPD and PRCC, respectively) by using RNAi or mutant hemizygous lines. PRCC encodes proline-rich protein PRCC (ppPRCC) of unknown function associated with papillary renal cell carcinoma. HPD encodes 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), a key

  15. Rapid and Sensitive Method To Identify Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cow's Milk by DNA Methylase Genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo, Silvia Leonor; Gilardoni, Liliana Rosa; Hoffman, Federico José

    2013-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is an infectious, chronic, and incurable disease that affects ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This bacterium is shed primarily through feces of infected cows but can be also excreted in colostrum and milk and might survive pasteurization. Since an association of genomic sequences of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn's disease has been described; it is of interest to rapidly detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk for human consumption. IS900 insertion is used as a target for PCR amplification to identify the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biological samples. Two target sequences were selected: IS1 (155 bp) and IS2 (94 bp). These fragments have a 100% identity among all M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains sequenced. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was specifically concentrated from milk samples by immunomagnetic separation prior to performing PCR. The amplicons were characterized using DNA methylase Genotyping, i.e., the amplicons were methylated with 6-methyl-adenine and digested with restriction enzymes to confirm their identity. The methylated amplicons from 100 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be visualized in a Western blot format using an anti-6-methyl-adenine monoclonal antibody. The use of DNA methyltransferase genotyping coupled to a scintillation proximity assay allows for the detection of up to 10 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis per ml of milk. This test is rapid and sensitive and allows for automation and thus multiple samples can be tested at the same time. PMID:23275511

  16. Rapid and sensitive method to identify Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cow's milk by DNA methylase genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo, Silvia Leonor; Gilardoni, Liliana Rosa; Hoffman, Federico José; Lopez, Osvaldo Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Paratuberculosis is an infectious, chronic, and incurable disease that affects ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This bacterium is shed primarily through feces of infected cows but can be also excreted in colostrum and milk and might survive pasteurization. Since an association of genomic sequences of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in patients with Crohn's disease has been described; it is of interest to rapidly detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk for human consumption. IS900 insertion is used as a target for PCR amplification to identify the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in biological samples. Two target sequences were selected: IS1 (155 bp) and IS2 (94 bp). These fragments have a 100% identity among all M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains sequenced. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was specifically concentrated from milk samples by immunomagnetic separation prior to performing PCR. The amplicons were characterized using DNA methylase Genotyping, i.e., the amplicons were methylated with 6-methyl-adenine and digested with restriction enzymes to confirm their identity. The methylated amplicons from 100 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be visualized in a Western blot format using an anti-6-methyl-adenine monoclonal antibody. The use of DNA methyltransferase genotyping coupled to a scintillation proximity assay allows for the detection of up to 10 CFU of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis per ml of milk. This test is rapid and sensitive and allows for automation and thus multiple samples can be tested at the same time.

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Rapid Latex Agglutination Test Using a Monoclonal Antibody To Identify Candida dubliniensis Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Beucher, Bertrand; David, Sandrine; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Robert, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Cell components of the dimorphic pathogenic fungus Candida dubliniensis were used to prepare monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). One MAb, designated 12F7-F2, was shown by indirect immunofluorescence to be specific for a surface antigen of Candida dubliniensis yeast cells. No reactivity was observed with other fungal genera or with other Candida species, including Candida albicans, that share many phenotypic features with C. dubliniensis. The use of different chemical and physical treatments for cell component extraction suggested that the specific epitope probably resides on a protein moiety absent from C. albicans. However, we failed to identify the target protein by Western blotting, owing to its sensitivity to heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate. MAb 12F7-F2 was further used to develop a commercial latex agglutination test to identify C. dubliniensis colonies (Bichro-dubli Fumouze test; Fumouze Diagnostics). The test was validated on yeast strains previously identified by PCR and on fresh clinical isolates; these included 46 C. dubliniensis isolates, 45 C. albicans isolates, and other yeast species. The test had 100% sensitivity and specificity for C. dubliniensis isolated on Sabouraud dextrose, CHROMagar Candida, and CandiSelect media and 97.8% sensitivity for C. dubliniensis grown on Candida ID medium. The test is rapid (5 min) and easy to use and may be recommended for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories and for epidemiological investigations. PMID:16390961

  18. Identifying the causes of sediment-associated toxicity in urban waterways of the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, W Tyler; Li, Huizhen; Lydy, Michael J; You, Jing

    2011-03-01

    Twenty-one sediments collected in urban waterways of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China were screened for acute toxicity using Chironomus dilutus in addition to being examined for potential contributors of sediment toxicity, including 19 organochlorine, five organophosphate, and nine pyrethroid insecticides, 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 27 polychlorinated biphenyls, 15 polybrominated diphenyl ethers, 12 metals, and ammonia. Fifteen of the 21 sediments exhibited acute toxicity to C. dilutus, with 33% of the samples exhibiting 100% mortality. This is one of the first studies in China which directly correlates a broad range of sediment-associated contaminants to ecological effects measured by bioassays. A toxic unit approach showed that pyrethroids contributed most to the observed toxicity; as cypermethrin alone was predicted to cause significant mortality in about half of the sites. Specific toxicity identification evaluation analysis confirmed pyrethroid toxicity. Other contaminants may also be supplemental contributors at a few sites. The current study suggests that pyrethroids are the principal cause of contamination and that future risk assessment and mitigation efforts in this area should focus primarily on pyrethroids but should not disregard other contaminants as potential risk is evident.

  19. Get Tough, Get Toxic, or Get a Bodyguard: Identifying Candidate Traits Conferring Belowground Resistance to Herbivores in Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ben D; Johnson, Scott N

    2016-01-01

    Grasses (Poaceae) are the fifth-largest plant family by species and their uses for crops, forage, fiber, and fuel make them the most economically important. In grasslands, which broadly-defined cover 40% of the Earth's terrestrial surface outside of Greenland and Antarctica, 40-60% of net primary productivity and 70-98% of invertebrate biomass occurs belowground, providing extensive scope for interactions between roots and rhizosphere invertebrates. Grasses invest 50-70% of fixed carbon into root construction, which suggests roots are high value tissues that should be defended from herbivores, but we know relatively little about such defenses. In this article, we identify candidate grass root defenses, including physical (tough) and chemical (toxic) resistance traits, together with indirect defenses involving recruitment of root herbivores' natural enemies. We draw on relevant literature to establish whether these defenses are present in grasses, and specifically in grass roots, and which herbivores of grasses are affected by these defenses. Physical defenses could include structural macro-molecules such as lignin, cellulose, suberin, and callose in addition to silica and calcium oxalate. Root hairs and rhizosheaths, a structural adaptation unique to grasses, might also play defensive roles. To date, only lignin and silica have been shown to negatively affect root herbivores. In terms of chemical resistance traits, nitrate, oxalic acid, terpenoids, alkaloids, amino acids, cyanogenic glycosides, benzoxazinoids, phenolics, and proteinase inhibitors have the potential to negatively affect grass root herbivores. Several good examples demonstrate the existence of indirect defenses in grass roots, including maize, which can recruit entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) via emission of (E)-β-caryophyllene, and similar defenses are likely to be common. In producing this review, we aimed to equip researchers with candidate root defenses for further research.

  20. Caged Gammarus as biomonitors identifying thresholds of toxic metal bioavailability that affect gammarid densities at the French national scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Alexandre; Chaumot, Arnaud; Recoura-Massaquant, Rémi; Chandesris, André; François, Adeline; Coquery, Marina; Ferréol, Martial; Geffard, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    Bioaccumulated concentrations of toxic elements in biomonitor invertebrate species have already been used to successfully link metal bioavailability and impairments of stream macroinvertebrate communities at the scale of the watershed. However, implementing this empirical comparative approach at a greater spatial scale remains a challenge due to the diversity of biogeographical contexts encompassed by regional and national scales. We showed in previous studies that the use of standard organisms caged permits the use of a common biomonitor over a far greater geographical range, while limiting the influence of confounding factors on levels of bioavailable contamination. In this study, levels of Cd, Hg, Ni and Pb contamination assessed by active biomonitoring with caged Gammarus fossarum were compared to abundances of on-site gammarids on 94 sites in France. Based on this national dataset of in situ bioassays, we first re-determined bioavailable background assessment concentrations (BBACs), i.e. concentrations measured in caged G. fossarum indicating a significant bioavailable contamination, which we had previously defined at a regional scale for these four metallic elements. On-site gammarid abundances were retrieved from monitoring programs implemented by French water agencies for the evaluation of ecological status for the European Water Framework Directive. These abundances were corrected for the influence of stream physico-chemical typology in order to permit a reliable comparison of gammarid densities between sites at the national scale. Clear trends of degradation of gammarid densities with increasing levels of bioaccumulated concentrations were identified for three of the four elements (Cd, Ni and Pb). Threshold concentrations in caged organisms above which the numbers of free-ranging gammarids were abnormally low - namely bioavailable ecological assessment concentrations (BEACs) - were determined. The reliability and validity of the BEACs, their comparison

  1. Rapid screening of toxic salbutamol, ractopamine, and clenbuterol in pork sample by high-performance liquid chromatography—UV method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunping Yan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatography–UV method was developed for the separation and quantification of salbutamol, ractopamine, and clenbuterol in pork. A mixture of acetonitrile–formic acid–ammonium acetate was used as the mobile phase to separate three β-agonists on a C18 column with gradient. The effects of the addition of formic acid and ammonium acetate to mobile phases on the separation of β-agonists were investigated. These additives can greatly improve the resolution and sensitivity. Under the optimized chromatographic condition, this separation does not need extra sample preparation. Complete baseline separation of three β-agonists was achieved in 0.99. Excellent method reproducibility was found by intra- and interday precisions with a relative standard deviation of < 3%. The detection limit (S/N = 3 was found to be <0.05 μg/L; this method can be used for routine screening of the β-agonist residues in foods of animal origin before being identified by confirmatory methods.

  2. Rapid sociometric mapping of community health workers to identify opinion leaders using an SMS platform: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeny, Thomas A; Petersen, Maya; Muga, Charles T; Lewis-Kulzer, Jayne; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Geng, Elvin H

    2017-06-26

    Using opinion leaders to accelerate the dissemination of evidence-based public health practices is a promising strategy for closing the gap between evidence and practice. Network interventions (using social network data to accelerate behavior change or improve organizational performance) are a promising but under-explored strategy. We aimed to use mobile phone technology to rapidly and inexpensively map a social network and identify opinion leaders among community health workers in a large HIV program in western Kenya. We administered a five-item socio-metric survey to community health workers using a mobile phone short message service (SMS)-based questionnaire. We used the survey results to construct and characterize a social network of opinion leaders among respondents. We calculated the extent to which a particular respondent was a popular point of reference ("degree centrality") and the influence of a respondent within the network ("eigenvector centrality"). Surveys were returned by 38/39 (97%) of peer health workers contacted; 52% were female. The median survey response time was 13.75 min (inter-quartile range, 8.8-38.7). The total cost of relaying survey questions through a secure cloud-based SMS aggregator was $8.46. The most connected individuals (high degree centrality) were also the most influential (high eigenvector centrality). The distribution of influence (eigenvector centrality) was highly skewed in favor of a single influential individual at each site. Leveraging increasing access to SMS technology, we mapped the network of influence among community health workers associated with a HIV treatment program in Kenya. Survey uptake was high, response rates were rapid, and the survey identified clear opinion leaders. In sum, we offer proof of concept that a "mobile health" (mHealth) approach can be used in resource-limited settings to efficiently map opinion leadership among health care workers and thus open the door to reproducible, feasible, and

  3. The Daily Readiness Huddle: a process to rapidly identify issues and foster improvement through problem-solving accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Lane F; Cherian, Shirley S; Chua, Kimberly B; Thankachan, Sam; Millecker, Laura A; Koroll, Alex G; Bisset, George S

    2017-01-01

    Because of the increasing complexities of providing imaging for pediatric health care services, a more reliable process to manage the daily delivery of care is necessary. Objective We describe our Daily Readiness Huddle and the effects of the process on problem identification and improvement. Our Daily Readiness Huddle has four elements: metrics review, clinical volume review, daily readiness assessment, and problem accountability. It is attended by radiologists, directors, managers, front-line staff with concerns, representatives from support services (information technology [IT] and biomedical engineering [biomed]), and representatives who join the meeting in a virtual format from off-site locations. Data are visually displayed on erasable whiteboards. The daily readiness assessment uses queues to determine whether anyone has concerns or outlier data in regard to S-MESA (Safety, Methods, Equipment, Supplies or Associates). Through this assessment, problems are identified and categorized as quick hits (will be resolved in 24-48 h, not requiring project management) and complex issues. Complex issues are assigned an owner, quality coach and report-back date. Additionally, projects are defined as improvements that are often strategic, are anticipated to take more than 60 days, and do not necessarily arise out of identified issues during the Daily Readiness Huddle. We tracked and calculated the mean, median and range of days to resolution and completion for complex issues and for projects during the first full year of implementing this process. During the first 12 months, 91 complex issues were identified and resolved, 11 projects were in progress and 33 completed, with 23 other projects active or in planning. Time to resolution of complex issues (in days) was mean 37.5, median 34.0, and range 1-105. For projects, time to completion (in days) was mean 86.0, median 84.0, and range 5-280. The Daily Readiness Huddle process has given us a framework to rapidly identify

  4. A rapid method for identifying and characterizing structural impacts using distributed sensors: An application for automotive pedestrian protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Andrew C.

    This research is motivated by recent activity to improve automotive safety, especially for pedestrians. In many parts of the world today, injuries and fatalities from road accidents are a significant problem. Safety features such as seat restraints and air bags provide considerable levels of protection for car occupants; however, no such protective measures currently exist for pedestrians. Drawing upon the success and effectiveness of occupant air bag systems, current research aims to develop similar devices for pedestrians. These active pedestrian protection systems deploy a safety feature such as an external air bag when a pedestrian is hit by a vehicle. Contact with the front bumper induces a body rotation that may result in a violent head collision. The deployable safety device provides a cushioning surface for the vulnerable pedestrian during impact. The challenge of such a system is an effective sensory unit that can rapidly and correctly discriminate pedestrian impacts from non-pedestrian ones. The fast kinematics of the automobile-pedestrian impact leaves a minimal amount of time for signal processing and computation. This research study focuses on a discrimination scheme that satisfies both the time and accuracy requirements for a proposed sensory system for pedestrian protection. A unique methodology was developed to identify structural impacts using dominant frequency features extracted from sensory data. Contact sensors mounted on the front bumper of an automobile measure the strain response from an impact event. The dominant frequencies obtained from these sensor signals are greatly influenced by the impact object's properties and can be used to discriminate between different objects. Extensive tests were conducted to gather sensor data and validate the proposed methodology and impact discrimination algorithm. Results of the impact tests indicate that the approach is sound, and the sensory system effectively identifies "pedestrian" impacts within a

  5. Rapid Quantification of the Toxic Alga Prymnesium parvum in Natural Samples by Use of a Specific Monoclonal Antibody and Solid-Phase Cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, N. J.; Bacchieri, R.; Hansen, Gert

    2006-01-01

    The increasing incidence of harmful algal blooms around the world and their associated health and economic effects require the development of methods to rapidly and accurately detect and enumerate the target species. Here we describe use of a solid-phase cytometer to detect and enumerate the toxi......-phase cytometer can be used to rapidly enumerate natural P. parvum cells and that it could be used to detect other toxic algae, with an appropriate antibody or DNA probe.......The increasing incidence of harmful algal blooms around the world and their associated health and economic effects require the development of methods to rapidly and accurately detect and enumerate the target species. Here we describe use of a solid-phase cytometer to detect and enumerate the toxic...... alga Prymnesium parvum in natural samples, using a specific monoclonal antibody and indirect immunofluorescence. The immunoglobulin G antibody 16E4 exhibited narrow specificity in that it recognized several P. parvum strains and a Prymnesium nemamethecum strain but it did not cross-react with P. parvum...

  6. Rapid adaptation of microalgae to bodies of water with extreme pollution from uranium mining: An explanation of how mesophilic organisms can rapidly colonise extremely toxic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Balboa, C.; Baselga-Cervera, B. [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Sanchez, A.; Igual, J.M. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), PO Box 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Lopez-Rodas, V. [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Costas, E., E-mail: ecostas@vet.ucm.es [Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Some microalgae species survive to extreme environments in ponds of residual waters from uranium mining. •Adaptation of microalgae to U arose very fast. •Spontaneous mutations that confer large adaptive value were able to produce the adaptation to residual waters of U mining. •Adaptation to more extreme waters of U mining is only possible after the recombination subsequent to sexual mating. •Resistant microalgae bio-adsorbs uranium to the cell wall and internalises uranium inside the cytoplasm. -- Abstract: Extreme environments may support communities of microalgae living at the limits of their tolerance. It is usually assumed that these extreme environments are inhabited by extremophile species. However, global anthropogenic environmental changes are generating new extreme environments, such as mining-effluent pools of residual waters from uranium mining with high U levels, acidity and radioactivity in Salamanca (Spain). Certain microalgal species have rapidly adapted to these extreme waters (uranium mining in this area began in 1960). Experiments have demonstrated that physiological acclimatisation would be unable to achieve adaptation. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal to microalgae by means of rare spontaneous mutations that occurred prior to the exposure to effluent waters from uranium mining. However, adaptation to the most extreme conditions was only possible after recombination through sexual mating because adaptation requires more than one mutation. Microalgae living in extreme environments could be the descendants of pre-selective mutants that confer significant adaptive value to extreme contamination. These “lucky mutants” could allow for the evolutionary rescue of populations faced with rapid environmental change.

  7. Novel immune-modulator identified by a rapid, functional screen of the parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of new sequencing technologies and informatic methods for identifying genes has made establishing gene product function a critical rate limiting step in progressing the molecular sciences. We present a method to functionally mine genomes for useful activities in vivo, using an unusual property of a member of the poxvirus family to demonstrate this screening approach. Results The genome of Parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus was sequenced, annotated, and then used to PCR-amplify its open-reading-frames. Employing a cloning-independent protocol, a viral expression-library was rapidly built and arrayed into sub-library pools. These were directly delivered into mice as expressible cassettes and assayed for an immune-modulating activity associated with parapoxvirus infection. The product of the B2L gene, a homolog of vaccinia F13L, was identified as the factor eliciting immune cell accumulation at sites of skin inoculation. Administration of purified B2 protein also elicited immune cell accumulation activity, and additionally was found to serve as an adjuvant for antigen-specific responses. Co-delivery of the B2L gene with an influenza gene-vaccine significantly improved protection in mice. Furthermore, delivery of the B2L expression construct, without antigen, non-specifically reduced tumor growth in murine models of cancer. Conclusion A streamlined, functional approach to genome-wide screening of a biological activity in vivo is presented. Its application to screening in mice for an immune activity elicited by the pathogen genome of Parapoxvirus ovis yielded a novel immunomodulator. In this inverted discovery method, it was possible to identify the adjuvant responsible for a function of interest prior to a mechanistic study of the adjuvant. The non-specific immune activity of this modulator, B2, is similar to that associated with administration of inactivated particles to a host or to a live viral infection. Administration

  8. An Immunoassay to Rapidly Measure Acetaminophen Protein Adducts Accurately Identifies Patients With Acute Liver Injury or Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dean W; Lee, William M; Hinson, Jack A; Bai, Shasha; Swearingen, Christopher J; Stravitz, R Todd; Reuben, Adrian; Letzig, Lynda; Simpson, Pippa M; Rule, Jody; Fontana, Robert J; Ganger, Daniel; Reddy, K Rajender; Liou, Iris; Fix, Oren; James, Laura P

    2017-04-01

    A rapid and reliable point-of-care assay to detect acetaminophen protein adducts in the serum of patients with acute liver injury could improve diagnosis and management. AcetaSTAT is a competitive immunoassay used to measure acetaminophen protein adducts formed by toxic metabolites in serum samples from patients. We compared the accuracy of AcetaSTAT vs high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC; a sensitive and specific quantitative analytic assay) to detect acetaminophen protein adducts. We collected serum samples from 19 healthy individuals (no liver injury, no recent acetaminophen use), 29 patients without acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury, and 33 patients with acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury participating in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry. Each serum sample was analyzed by AcetaSTAT (reported as test band amplitude) and HPLC-EC (the reference standard). We also collected data on patient age, sex, weight, level of alanine aminotransferase on test day and peak values, concentration of acetaminophen, diagnoses (by site investigator and causality review committee), and outcome after 21 days. Differences between groups were analyzed using the Fisher exact test for categoric variables and the Kruskal-Wallis test or rank-sum test for continuous variables. AcetaSTAT discriminated between patients with and without acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury; the median AcetaSTAT test band amplitude for patients with acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury was 584 (range, 222-1027) vs 3678 (range, 394-8289) for those without (P acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury with 100% sensitivity, 86.2% specificity, a positive predictive value of 89.2%, and a negative predictive value of 100%. Results from AcetaSTAT were positive in 4 subjects who received a causality review committee diagnosis of non-acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury; HPLC-EC and biochemical profiles were consistent with

  9. Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinstreuer, N.C., E-mail: kleinstreuer.nicole@epa.gov [NCCT, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 (United States); Smith, A.M.; West, P.R.; Conard, K.R.; Fontaine, B.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Weir-Hauptman, A.M. [Covance, Inc., Madison, WI 53704 (United States); Palmer, J.A. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Knudsen, T.B.; Dix, D.J. [NCCT, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 (United States); Donley, E.L.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Cezar, G.G. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Metabolomics analysis was performed on the supernatant of human embryonic stem (hES) cell cultures exposed to a blinded subset of 11 chemicals selected from the chemical library of EPA's ToxCast Trade-Mark-Sign chemical screening and prioritization research project. Metabolites from hES cultures were evaluated for known and novel signatures that may be indicative of developmental toxicity. Significant fold changes in endogenous metabolites were detected for 83 putatively annotated mass features in response to the subset of ToxCast chemicals. The annotations were mapped to specific human metabolic pathways. This revealed strong effects on pathways for nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism pathways. Predictivity for adverse outcomes in mammalian prenatal developmental toxicity studies used ToxRefDB and other sources of information, including Stemina Biomarker Discovery's predictive DevTox Registered-Sign model trained on 23 pharmaceutical agents of known developmental toxicity and differing potency. The model initially predicted developmental toxicity from the blinded ToxCast compounds in concordance with animal data with 73% accuracy. Retraining the model with data from the unblinded test compounds at one concentration level increased the predictive accuracy for the remaining concentrations to 83%. These preliminary results on a 11-chemical subset of the ToxCast chemical library indicate that metabolomics analysis of the hES secretome provides information valuable for predictive modeling and mechanistic understanding of mammalian developmental toxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested 11 environmental compounds in a hESC metabolomics platform. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant changes in secreted small molecule metabolites were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perturbed mass features map to pathways critical for normal

  10. Rs895819 in MIR27A improves the predictive value of DPYD variants to identify patients at risk of severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulendijks, Didier; Henricks, Linda M; Amstutz, Ursula; Froehlich, Tanja K; Largiadèr, Carlo R; Beijnen, Jos H; de Boer, Anthonius; Deenen, Maarten J; Cats, Annemieke; Schellens, Jan H M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether genotyping of MIR27A polymorphisms rs895819A>G and rs11671784C>T can be used to improve the predictive value of DPYD variants to identify patients at risk of severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity (FP-toxicity). Patients treated previously in a prospective study with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy were genotyped for rs895819 and rs11671784, and DPYD c.2846A>T, c.1679T>G, c.1129-5923C>G and c.1601G>A. The predictive value of MIR27A variants for early-onset grade ≥3 FP-toxicity, alone or in combination with DPYD variants, was tested in multivariable logistic regression models. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed, including previously published data. A total of 1,592 patients were included. Allele frequencies of rs895819 and rs11671784 were 0.331 and 0.020, respectively. In DPYD wild-type patients, MIR27A variants did not affect risk of FP-toxicity (OR 1.3 for ≥1 variant MIR27A allele vs. none, 95% CI: 0.87-1.82, p = 0.228). In contrast, in patients carrying DPYD variants, the presence of ≥1 rs895819 variant allele was associated with increased risk of FP-toxicity (OR 4.9, 95% CI: 1.24-19.7, p = 0.023). Rs11671784 was not associated with FP-toxicity (OR 2.9, 95% CI: 0.47-18.0, p = 0.253). Patients carrying a DPYD variant and rs895819 were at increased risk of FP-toxicity compared to patients wild type for rs895819 and DPYD (OR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.27-4.37, p = 0.007), while patients with a DPYD variant but without a MIR27A variant were not (OR 0.3 95% CI: 0.06-1.17, p = 0.081). In meta-analysis, rs895819 remained significantly associated with FP-toxicity in DPYD variant allele carriers, OR 5.4 (95% CI: 1.83-15.7, p = 0.002). This study demonstrates the clinical validity of combined MIR27A/DPYD screening to identify patients at risk of severe FP-toxicity. © 2016 UICC.

  11. Assessment by Ames test and comet assay of toxicity potential of polymer used to develop field-capable rapid-detection device to analyze environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Amanda; Bishop, Michelle; Bhattacharyya, Dhiman; Gleason, Karen; Torosian, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    There is need for devices that decrease detection time of food-borne pathogens from days to real-time. In this study, a rapid-detection device is being developed and assessed for potential cytotoxicity. The device is comprised of melt-spun polypropylene coupons coated via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) with 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), for conductivity and 3-Thiopheneethanol (3TE), allowing antibody attachment. The Ames test and comet assay have been used in this study to examine the toxicity potentials of EDOT, 3TE, and polymerized EDOT-co-3TE. For this study, Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1535 was used to assess the mutagenic potential of EDOT, 3TE and the copolymer. The average mutagenic potential of EDOT, 3TE and copolymer was calculated to be 0.86, 0.56, and 0.92, respectively. For mutagenic potential, on a scale from 0 to 1, close to 1 indicates low potential for toxicity, whereas a value of 0 indicates a high potential for toxicity. The comet assay is a single-cell gel electrophoresis technique that is widely used for this purpose. This assay measures toxicity based on the area or intensity of the comet-like shape that DNA fragments produce when DNA damage has occurred. Three cell lines were assessed; FRhK-4, BHK-21, and Vero cells. After averaging the results of all three strains, the tail intensity of the copolymer was 8.8 % and tail moment was 3.0, and is most similar to the untreated control, with average tail intensity of 5.7 % and tail moment of 1.7. The assays conducted in this study provide evidence that the copolymer is non-toxic to humans.

  12. Sediment toxicity of a rapidly biodegrading nonionic surfactant: Comparing the equilibrium partitioning approach with measurements in pore water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droge, Steven T J; Postma, Jaap F; Hermens, Joop L M

    2008-06-01

    The equilibrium partitioning theory (EqP) assumes that the toxicity of nonionic surfactants in sediment can be predicted from water-only toxicity data as long as the effect concentrations are properly normalized for chemical activity. Therefore, in marine sediment toxicity tests with the model alcohol ethoxylate (AE), C12EO8, freely dissolved concentrations were both measured via solid-phase microextraction and predicted using sorption coefficients. In fully equilibrated test systems (including the overlying water), both methods showed that concentrations in the pore water of the spiked sediment layer causing 50% mortality (LC50) to the amphipod Corophium volutator were in the same range as LC50 values for amphipods exposed to AE in seawater only. In the sediment systems, AE concentrations in the pore water remained constant up to 15 days, while concentrations in the water overlying the sediment decreased to less than 1% of initial concentrations within 6 days due to biodegradation. In such disequilibrated test systems, C. volutator survived pore water dissolved concentrations that were above the LC50. Apparently, this burrowing amphipod is able to exploit the low chemical activity in the overlying water as a refuge from sediment exposure.

  13. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing vegetation toxicity at the Savannah River Site - germination tests and root elongation trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Klaine, S.J.; Hook, D.D. [and others

    1996-01-01

    Plants form the basis of all ecosystems including wetlands. Although they are the most abundant life form and are the primary producers for all other organisms, they have received the least attention when it comes to environmental matters. Higher plants have rarely been used in ecotoxicity testing and may not respond in the same manner as algae, which have been used more frequently. The introduction of hazardous waste materials into wetland areas has the potential to alter and damage the ecological processes in these ecosystems. Measuring the impact of these contaminants on higher plants is therefore important and needs further research. Higher plants are useful for detecting both herbicidal toxicity and heavy metal toxicity. For phytotoxicity tests to be practical they must be simple, inexpensive, yet sensitive to a variety of contaminants. A difference between seed germination and root elongation tests is that seed germination tests measure toxicity associated with soils directly, while root elongation tests consider the indirect effects of water-soluble constituents that may be present in site samples.

  14. Pollution, toxicity, and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface river sediments of a large basin undergoing rapid economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenzhong; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yu; Shan, Baoqing; Song, Zhixin

    2017-05-01

    A comprehensive and detailed investigation of heavy metal pollution, toxicity, and ecological risk assessment was conducted for the surface river sediments of the Haihe Basin in China based on 220 sampling sites selected in 2013. The average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the sediments were 129 mg/kg, 63.4 mg/kg, 36.6 mg/kg, 50.0 mg/kg, and 202 mg/kg, respectively. As indicated by the geoaccumulation and pollution load indices, most surface river sediments of the Haihe Basin were contaminated with the investigated metals, especially in the junction region of the Zi Ya He and Hei Long Gang watersheds. The 5 heavy metals in the sediments all had anthropogenic sources, and the enrichment degrees followed the order Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr > Ni, with mean enrichment factors of 3.27, 2.77, 2.58, 1.81, and 1.44, respectively. According to the mean index of comprehensive potential ecological risk (38.9), the studied sediments of the Haihe Basin showed low potential ecological risk, but the sediments were potentially biologically toxic based on the mean probable effect concentration quotient (0.547), which may be the result of speciation of the 5 metals in the sediments. The results indicate that heavy metal pollution should be considered during the development of ecological restoration strategies in the Haihe Basin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1149-1155. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. "Identifying the hospitalised patient in crisis"-A consensus conference on the afferent limb of Rapid Response Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devita, M.A.; Smith, G.B.; Adam, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most reports of Rapid Response Systems (RRS) focus on the efferent, response component of the system, although evidence suggests that improved vital sign monitoring and recognition of a clinical crisis may have outcome benefits. There is no consensus regarding how best to detect patie...

  16. "Identifying the hospitalised patient in crisis"--a consensus conference on the afferent limb of rapid response systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVita, Michael A; Smith, Gary B; Adam, Sheila K

    2010-01-01

    Most reports of Rapid Response Systems (RRS) focus on the efferent, response component of the system, although evidence suggests that improved vital sign monitoring and recognition of a clinical crisis may have outcome benefits. There is no consensus regarding how best to detect patient deteriora...

  17. A rapid seedling resistance assay identifies wild tomato lines that are resistant to Psuedomonas syringe pv. tomato race 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae has historically been controlled by the Pto/Prf gene cluster. Emerging strains like P. syringae pv. tomato race 1 overcome resistance conferred by Pto/Prf, and can cause serious crop loss under appropriate environmental conditions. We developed a rapid ...

  18. Rapid Quantification of the Toxic Alga Prymnesium parvum in Natural Samples by Use of a Specific Monoclonal Antibody and Solid-Phase Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, N. J.; Bacchieri, R.; Hansen, G.; Tomas, C.; Lebaron, P.; Moreau, H.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing incidence of harmful algal blooms around the world and their associated health and economic effects require the development of methods to rapidly and accurately detect and enumerate the target species. Here we describe use of a solid-phase cytometer to detect and enumerate the toxic alga Prymnesium parvum in natural samples, using a specific monoclonal antibody and indirect immunofluorescence. The immunoglobulin G antibody 16E4 exhibited narrow specificity in that it recognized several P. parvum strains and a Prymnesium nemamethecum strain but it did not cross-react with P. parvum strains from Scandinavia or any other algal strains, including species of the closely related genus Chrysochromulina. Prymnesium sp. cells labeled with 16E4 were readily detected by the solid-phase cytometer because of the large fluorescence signal and the signal/noise ratio. Immunofluorescence detection and enumeration of cultured P. parvum cells preserved with different fixatives showed that the highest cell counts were obtained when cells were fixed with either glutaraldehyde or formaldehyde plus the cell protectant Pluronic F-68, whereas the use of formaldehyde alone resulted in significantly lower counts. Immunofluorescence labeling and analysis with the solid-phase cytometer of fixed natural samples from a bloom of P. parvum occurring in Lake Colorado in Texas gave cell counts that were close to those obtained by the traditional method of counting using light microscopy. These results show that a solid-phase cytometer can be used to rapidly enumerate natural P. parvum cells and that it could be used to detect other toxic algae, with an appropriate antibody or DNA probe. PMID:16391128

  19. Direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for rapid qualitative screening of toxic glycols in glycerin-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Randy L

    2013-06-01

    In 2007, the United States Food and Drug Administration released guidance recommending testing of glycerin used in regulated consumer products, such as cough syrup preparations, toothpaste, and other pharmaceutical and food products, for the toxic compounds ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. Regulatory laboratories routinely test glycerin, and products containing glycerin or related compounds for these toxic glycols, using an official gas chromatographic method, to ensure the safety of these products. The current work describes a companion technique to compliment this GC-FID method utilizing Orbitrap mass spectrometry with direct analysis in real time ionization to rapidly screen these samples qualitatively, with results in as little as five seconds, with no sample preparation required. This allows the more time and resource intensive method to be reserved for those rare cases when these compounds are detected, potentially greatly improving laboratory efficiency. The technique was evaluated for qualitative sensitivity and repeatability, and compared against the GC-FID method. The method appears to perform well against these metrics. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Rapid Ammonia Gas Transport Accounts for Futile Transmembrane Cycling under NH3/NH4+ Toxicity in Plant Roots1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Li, Mingyuan; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Futile transmembrane NH3/NH4+ cycling in plant root cells, characterized by extremely rapid fluxes and high efflux to influx ratios, has been successfully linked to NH3/NH4+ toxicity. Surprisingly, the fundamental question of which species of the conjugate pair (NH3 or NH4+) participates in such fluxes is unresolved. Using flux analyses with the short-lived radioisotope 13N and electrophysiological, respiratory, and histochemical measurements, we show that futile cycling in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is predominately of the gaseous NH3 species, rather than the NH4+ ion. Influx of 13NH3/13NH4+, which exceeded 200 µmol g–1 h–1, was not commensurate with membrane depolarization or increases in root respiration, suggesting electroneutral NH3 transport. Influx followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for NH3 (but not NH4+), as a function of external concentration (Km = 152 µm, Vmax = 205 µmol g–1 h–1). Efflux of 13NH3/13NH4+ responded with a nearly identical Km. Pharmacological characterization of influx and efflux suggests mediation by aquaporins. Our study fundamentally revises the futile-cycling model by demonstrating that NH3 is the major permeating species across both plasmalemma and tonoplast of root cells under toxicity conditions. PMID:24134887

  1. Studying a Drug-like, RNA-Focused Small Molecule Library Identifies Compounds That Inhibit RNA Toxicity in Myotonic Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Southern, Mark R; Disney, Matthew D

    2015-12-18

    There are many RNA targets in the transcriptome to which small molecule chemical probes and lead therapeutics are desired. However, identifying compounds that bind and modulate RNA function in cellulo is difficult. Although rational design approaches have been developed, they are still in their infancies and leave many RNAs "undruggable". In an effort to develop a small molecule library that is biased for binding RNA, we computationally identified "drug-like" compounds from screening collections that have favorable properties for binding RNA and for suitability as lead drugs. As proof-of-concept, this collection was screened for binding to and modulating the cellular dysfunction of the expanded repeating RNA (r(CUG)(exp)) that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1. Hit compounds bind the target in cellulo, as determined by the target identification approach Competitive Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-down (C-ChemCLIP), and selectively improve several disease-associated defects. The best compounds identified from our 320-member library are more potent in cellulo than compounds identified by high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns against this RNA. Furthermore, the compound collection has a higher hit rate (9% compared to 0.01-3%), and the bioactive compounds identified are not charged; thus, RNA can be "drugged" with compounds that have favorable pharmacological properties. Finally, this RNA-focused small molecule library may serve as a useful starting point to identify lead "drug-like" chemical probes that affect the biological (dys)function of other RNA targets by direct target engagement.

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis in Three Fusarium Pathogens Identifies Rapidly Evolving Chromosomes and Genes Associated with Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperschneider, Jana; Gardiner, Donald M.; Thatcher, Louise F.; Lyons, Rebecca; Singh, Karam B.; Manners, John M.; Taylor, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens and hosts are in an ongoing arms race and genes involved in host–pathogen interactions are likely to undergo diversifying selection. Fusarium plant pathogens have evolved diverse infection strategies, but how they interact with their hosts in the biotrophic infection stage remains puzzling. To address this, we analyzed the genomes of three Fusarium plant pathogens for genes that are under diversifying selection. We found a two-speed genome structure both on the chromosome and gene group level. Diversifying selection acts strongly on the dispensable chromosomes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and on distinct core chromosome regions in Fusarium graminearum, all of which have associations with virulence. Members of two gene groups evolve rapidly, namely those that encode proteins with an N-terminal [SG]-P-C-[KR]-P sequence motif and proteins that are conserved predominantly in pathogens. Specifically, 29 F. graminearum genes are rapidly evolving, in planta induced and encode secreted proteins, strongly pointing toward effector function. In summary, diversifying selection in Fusarium is strongly reflected as genomic footprints and can be used to predict a small gene set likely to be involved in host–pathogen interactions for experimental verification. PMID:25994930

  3. Genome-wide association study identifies chromosome 10q24.32 variants associated with arsenic metabolism and toxicity phenotypes in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L Pierce

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a major public health issue in many countries, increasing risk for a wide array of diseases, including cancer. There is inter-individual variation in arsenic metabolism efficiency and susceptibility to arsenic toxicity; however, the basis of this variation is not well understood. Here, we have performed the first genome-wide association study (GWAS of arsenic-related metabolism and toxicity phenotypes to improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which arsenic affects health. Using data on urinary arsenic metabolite concentrations and approximately 300,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for 1,313 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi individuals, we identified genome-wide significant association signals (P<5×10(-8 for percentages of both monomethylarsonic acid (MMA and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA near the AS3MT gene (arsenite methyltransferase; 10q24.32, with five genetic variants showing independent associations. In a follow-up analysis of 1,085 individuals with arsenic-induced premalignant skin lesions (the classical sign of arsenic toxicity and 1,794 controls, we show that one of these five variants (rs9527 is also associated with skin lesion risk (P = 0.0005. Using a subset of individuals with prospectively measured arsenic (n = 769, we show that rs9527 interacts with arsenic to influence incident skin lesion risk (P = 0.01. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL analyses of genome-wide expression data from 950 individual's lymphocyte RNA suggest that several of our lead SNPs represent cis-eQTLs for AS3MT (P = 10(-12 and neighboring gene C10orf32 (P = 10(-44, which are involved in C10orf32-AS3MT read-through transcription. This is the largest and most comprehensive genomic investigation of arsenic metabolism and toxicity to date, the only GWAS of any arsenic-related trait, and the first study to implicate 10q24.32 variants in both arsenic metabolism and arsenical

  4. Recent Trends in Rapid Environmental Monitoring of Pathogens and Toxicants: Potential of Nanoparticle-Based Biosensor and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Thasiphu, Thalisa; Weon, Jong-Il; Boonprasert, Rattana; Tuitemwong, Kooranee; Tuitemwong, Pravate

    2015-01-01

    Of global concern, environmental pollution adversely affects human health and socioeconomic development. The presence of environmental contaminants, especially bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens and their toxins as well as chemical substances, poses serious public health concerns. Nanoparticle-based biosensors are considered as potential tools for rapid, specific, and highly sensitive detection of the analyte of interest (both biotic and abiotic contaminants). In particular, there are several limitations of conventional detection methods for water-borne pathogens due to low concentrations and interference with various enzymatic inhibitors in the environmental samples. The increase of cells to detection levels requires long incubation time. This review describes current state of biosensor nanotechnology, the advantage over conventional detection methods, and the challenges due to testing of environmental samples. The major approach is to use nanoparticles as signal reporter to increase output rather than spending time to increase cell concentrations. Trends in future development of novel detection devices and their advantages over other environmental monitoring methodologies are also discussed. PMID:25884032

  5. Recent Trends in Rapid Environmental Monitoring of Pathogens and Toxicants: Potential of Nanoparticle-Based Biosensor and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeyaporn Koedrith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Of global concern, environmental pollution adversely affects human health and socioeconomic development. The presence of environmental contaminants, especially bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens and their toxins as well as chemical substances, poses serious public health concerns. Nanoparticle-based biosensors are considered as potential tools for rapid, specific, and highly sensitive detection of the analyte of interest (both biotic and abiotic contaminants. In particular, there are several limitations of conventional detection methods for water-borne pathogens due to low concentrations and interference with various enzymatic inhibitors in the environmental samples. The increase of cells to detection levels requires long incubation time. This review describes current state of biosensor nanotechnology, the advantage over conventional detection methods, and the challenges due to testing of environmental samples. The major approach is to use nanoparticles as signal reporter to increase output rather than spending time to increase cell concentrations. Trends in future development of novel detection devices and their advantages over other environmental monitoring methodologies are also discussed.

  6. Expediting citation screening using PICo-based title-only screening for identifying studies in scoping searches and rapid reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rathbone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citation screening for scoping searches and rapid review is time-consuming and inefficient, often requiring days or sometimes months to complete. We examined the reliability of PICo-based title-only screening using keyword searches based on the PICo elements—Participants, Interventions, and Comparators, but not the Outcomes. Methods A convenience sample of 10 datasets, derived from the literature searches of completed systematic reviews, was used to test PICo-based title-only screening. Search terms for screening were generated from the inclusion criteria of each review, specifically the PICo elements—Participants, Interventions and Comparators. Synonyms for the PICo terms were sought, including alternatives for clinical conditions, trade names of generic drugs and abbreviations for clinical conditions, interventions and comparators. The MeSH database, Wikipedia, Google searches and online thesauri were used to assist generating terms. Title-only screening was performed by five reviewers independently in Endnote X7 reference management software using OR Boolean operator. Outcome measures were recall of included studies and the reduction in screening effort. Recall is the proportion of included studies retrieved using PICo title-only screening out of the total number of included studies in the original reviews. The percentage reduction in screening effort is the proportion of records not needing screening because the method eliminates them from the screen set. Results Across the 10 reviews, the reduction in screening effort ranged from 11 to 78% with a median reduction of 53%. In nine systematic reviews, the recall of included studies was 100%. In one review (oxygen therapy, four of five reviewers missed the same included study (median recall 67%. A post hoc analysis was performed on the dataset with the lowest reduction in screening effort (11%, and it was rescreened using only the intervention and comparator keywords and

  7. Expediting citation screening using PICo-based title-only screening for identifying studies in scoping searches and rapid reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbone, John; Albarqouni, Loai; Bakhit, Mina; Beller, Elaine; Byambasuren, Oyungerel; Hoffmann, Tammy; Scott, Anna Mae; Glasziou, Paul

    2017-11-25

    Citation screening for scoping searches and rapid review is time-consuming and inefficient, often requiring days or sometimes months to complete. We examined the reliability of PICo-based title-only screening using keyword searches based on the PICo elements-Participants, Interventions, and Comparators, but not the Outcomes. A convenience sample of 10 datasets, derived from the literature searches of completed systematic reviews, was used to test PICo-based title-only screening. Search terms for screening were generated from the inclusion criteria of each review, specifically the PICo elements-Participants, Interventions and Comparators. Synonyms for the PICo terms were sought, including alternatives for clinical conditions, trade names of generic drugs and abbreviations for clinical conditions, interventions and comparators. The MeSH database, Wikipedia, Google searches and online thesauri were used to assist generating terms. Title-only screening was performed by five reviewers independently in Endnote X7 reference management software using OR Boolean operator. Outcome measures were recall of included studies and the reduction in screening effort. Recall is the proportion of included studies retrieved using PICo title-only screening out of the total number of included studies in the original reviews. The percentage reduction in screening effort is the proportion of records not needing screening because the method eliminates them from the screen set. Across the 10 reviews, the reduction in screening effort ranged from 11 to 78% with a median reduction of 53%. In nine systematic reviews, the recall of included studies was 100%. In one review (oxygen therapy), four of five reviewers missed the same included study (median recall 67%). A post hoc analysis was performed on the dataset with the lowest reduction in screening effort (11%), and it was rescreened using only the intervention and comparator keywords and omitting keywords for participants. The reduction in

  8. Optical Whole-Genome Restriction Mapping as a Tool for Rapidly Distinguishing and Identifying Bacterial Contaminants in Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    mapping is a technology in which a genome is linearized on a surface and digested with specific restriction enzymes , giving an arrangement of the genome... enzyme . Finally, we demonstrated that optical restriction maps were successfully obtained and the correct organism identified within a clinical matrix...is a technology in which a genome is linearized on a surface and digested with specific restriction enzymes , giving an arrangement of the genome

  9. Towards identifying nurse educator competencies required for simulation-based learning: A systemised rapid review and synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Rikke Buus; Topping, Annie; Rekola, Leena

    2015-01-01

    . Following critical appraisal, the articles were analyzed using an inductive approach to extract statements for categorization and synthesis as competency statements. Results: This review confirmed that there was a modest amount of empirical evidence on which to base a competency framework. Those papers...... that provided descriptions of educator preparation identified simulation- based workshops, or experiential training, as the most common approaches for enhancing skills. SBL was not associated with any one theoretical perspective. Delivery of SBL appeared to demand competencies associated with planning...

  10. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, Agustina; Easdale, Tomás A; Grau, H Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1) y(-1)) and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2) ha(-1) y(-1)). Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis) into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species), rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively). However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  11. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Malizia

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1 y(-1 and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2 ha(-1 y(-1. Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species, rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively. However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  12. Rapid-Throughput Skeletal Phenotyping of 100 Knockout Mice Identifies 9 New Genes That Determine Bone Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogakos, Apostolos; White, Jacqueline K.; Evans, Holly; Jacques, Richard M.; van der Spek, Anne H.; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Ryder, Edward; Sunter, David; Boyde, Alan; Campbell, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common polygenic disease and global healthcare priority but its genetic basis remains largely unknown. We report a high-throughput multi-parameter phenotype screen to identify functionally significant skeletal phenotypes in mice generated by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project and discover novel genes that may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The integrated use of primary phenotype data with quantitative x-ray microradiography, micro-computed tomography, statistical approaches and biomechanical testing in 100 unselected knockout mouse strains identified nine new genetic determinants of bone mass and strength. These nine new genes include five whose deletion results in low bone mass and four whose deletion results in high bone mass. None of the nine genes have been implicated previously in skeletal disorders and detailed analysis of the biomechanical consequences of their deletion revealed a novel functional classification of bone structure and strength. The organ-specific and disease-focused strategy described in this study can be applied to any biological system or tractable polygenic disease, thus providing a general basis to define gene function in a system-specific manner. Application of the approach to diseases affecting other physiological systems will help to realize the full potential of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium. PMID:22876197

  13. Rapid-throughput skeletal phenotyping of 100 knockout mice identifies 9 new genes that determine bone strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J H Duncan Bassett

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common polygenic disease and global healthcare priority but its genetic basis remains largely unknown. We report a high-throughput multi-parameter phenotype screen to identify functionally significant skeletal phenotypes in mice generated by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project and discover novel genes that may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The integrated use of primary phenotype data with quantitative x-ray microradiography, micro-computed tomography, statistical approaches and biomechanical testing in 100 unselected knockout mouse strains identified nine new genetic determinants of bone mass and strength. These nine new genes include five whose deletion results in low bone mass and four whose deletion results in high bone mass. None of the nine genes have been implicated previously in skeletal disorders and detailed analysis of the biomechanical consequences of their deletion revealed a novel functional classification of bone structure and strength. The organ-specific and disease-focused strategy described in this study can be applied to any biological system or tractable polygenic disease, thus providing a general basis to define gene function in a system-specific manner. Application of the approach to diseases affecting other physiological systems will help to realize the full potential of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium.

  14. A quantitative high-resolution genetic profile rapidly identifies sequence determinants of hepatitis C viral fitness and drug sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangfei Qi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Widely used chemical genetic screens have greatly facilitated the identification of many antiviral agents. However, the regions of interaction and inhibitory mechanisms of many therapeutic candidates have yet to be elucidated. Previous chemical screens identified Daclatasvir (BMS-790052 as a potent nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A inhibitor for Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection with an unclear inhibitory mechanism. Here we have developed a quantitative high-resolution genetic (qHRG approach to systematically map the drug-protein interactions between Daclatasvir and NS5A and profile genetic barriers to Daclatasvir resistance. We implemented saturation mutagenesis in combination with next-generation sequencing technology to systematically quantify the effect of every possible amino acid substitution in the drug-targeted region (domain IA of NS5A on replication fitness and sensitivity to Daclatasvir. This enabled determination of the residues governing drug-protein interactions. The relative fitness and drug sensitivity profiles also provide a comprehensive reference of the genetic barriers for all possible single amino acid changes during viral evolution, which we utilized to predict clinical outcomes using mathematical models. We envision that this high-resolution profiling methodology will be useful for next-generation drug development to select drugs with higher fitness costs to resistance, and also for informing the rational use of drugs based on viral variant spectra from patients.

  15. Towards development of a rapid and effective non-destructive testing strategy to identify brominated flame retardants in the plastics of consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Christie; Banks, Andrew; Brandsma, Sicco; Baduel, Christine; Thai, Phong; Eaglesham, Geoff; Heffernan, Amy; Leonards, Pim; Bainton, Paul; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) once extensively used in the plastics of a wide range of consumer products. The listing of certain congeners that are constituents of commercial PBDE mixtures (including c-octaBDE) in the Stockholm Convention and tightening regulation of many other BFRs in recent years have created the need for a rapid and effective method of identifying BFR-containing plastics. A three-tiered testing strategy comparing results from non-destructive testing (X-ray fluorescence (XRF)) (n=1714), a surface wipe test (n=137) and destructive chemical analysis (n=48) was undertaken to systematically identify BFRs in a wide range of consumer products. XRF rapidly identified bromine in 92% of products later confirmed to contain BFRs. Surface wipes of products identified tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), c-octaBDE congeners and BDE-209 with relatively high accuracy (>75%) when confirmed by destructive chemical analysis. A relationship between the amounts of BFRs detected in surface wipes and subsequent destructive testing shows promise in predicting not only the types of BFRs present but also estimating the concentrations present. Information about the types of products that may contain persistent BFRs will assist regulators in implementing policies to further reduce the occurrence of these chemicals in consumer products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by rapidly progressive group A hemolytic streptococcal infection during postoperative chemotherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Yuya; Tsuji, Kousuke; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Katakura, Satomi; Kisu, Iori; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe infectious disease caused by group A hemolytic streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). This condition is a serious disease that involves rapidly progressive septic shock. We experienced a case of STSS caused by primary peritonitis during treatment with paclitaxel and cisplatin (TP therapy) as postoperative chemotherapy for cervical cancer. STSS mostly develops after extremity pain, but initial influenza-like symptoms of fever, chill, myalgia and gastrointestinal symptoms may also occur. TP therapy is used to treat many cancers, including gynecological cancer, but may cause adverse reactions of neuropathy and nephrotoxicity and sometimes fever, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain and general malaise. The case reported here indicates that development of STSS can be delayed after chemotherapy and that primary STSS symptoms may be overlooked because they may be viewed as adverse reactions to chemotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of STSS during chemotherapy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. The future of toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Melvin E; Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Croteau, Maxine; Westphal, Margit; Krewski, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    In 2007, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a report, "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy," that proposes a paradigm shift for toxicity testing of environmental agents. The vision is based on the notion that exposure to environmental agents leads to adverse health outcomes through the perturbation of toxicity pathways that are operative in humans. Implementation of the NRC vision will involve a fundamental change in the assessment of toxicity of environmental agents, moving away from adverse health outcomes observed in experimental animals to the identification of critical perturbations of toxicity pathways. Pathway perturbations will be identified using in vitro assays and quantified for dose response using methods in computational toxicology and other recent scientific advances in basic biology. Implementation of the NRC vision will require a major research effort, not unlike that required to successfully map the human genome, extending over 10 to 20 years, involving the broad scientific community to map important toxicity pathways operative in humans. This article provides an overview of the scientific tools and technologies that will form the core of the NRC vision for toxicity testing. Of particular importance will be the development of rapidly performed in vitro screening assays using human cells and cell lines or human tissue surrogates to efficiently identify environmental agents producing critical pathway perturbations. In addition to the overview of the NRC vision, this study documents the reaction by a number of stakeholder groups since 2007, including the scientific, risk assessment, regulatory, and animal welfare communities.

  18. Validation of a rapid type 1 diabetes autoantibody screening assay for community-based screening of organ donors to identify subjects at increased risk for the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserfall, C; Montgomery, E; Yu, L; Michels, A; Gianani, R; Pugliese, A; Nierras, C; Kaddis, J S; Schatz, D A; Bonifacio, E; Atkinson, M A

    2016-07-01

    The Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD) programme was developed in response to an unmet research need for human pancreatic tissue obtained from individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus and people at increased risk [i.e. autoantibody (AAb)-positive] for the disease. This necessitated the establishment of a type 1 diabetes-specific AAb screening platform for organ procurement organizations (OPOs). Assay protocols for commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) determining AAb against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma-associated protein-2 (IA-2A) and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8A) were modified to identify AAb-positive donors within strict time requirements associated with organ donation programmes. These rapid elisas were evaluated by the international islet AAb standardization programme (IASP) and used by OPO laboratories as an adjunct to routine serological tests evaluating donors for organ transplantation. The rapid elisas performed well in three IASPs (2011, 2013, 2015) with 98-100% specificity for all three assays, including sensitivities of 64-82% (GADA), 60-64% (IA-2A) and 62-68% (ZnT8A). Since 2009, nPOD has screened 4442 organ donors by rapid elisa; 250 (5·6%) were identified as positive for one AAb and 14 (0.3%) for multiple AAb with 20 of these cases received by nPOD for follow-up studies (14 GADA+, two IA-2A(+) , four multiple AAb-positive). Rapid screening for type 1 diabetes-associated AAb in organ donors is feasible, allowing for identification of non-diabetic, high-risk individuals and procurement of valuable tissues for natural history studies of this disease. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  19. Rare HIV-1 transmitted/founder lineages identified by deep viral sequencing contribute to rapid shifts in dominant quasispecies during acute and early infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Buell, Eric; Chenine, Agnes-Laurence; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Thomas, Rasmi; Harbolick, Elizabeth A.; Bose, Meera; Pham, Phuc; Oropeza, Celina; Poltavee, Kultida; O’Sullivan, Anne Marie; Costanzo, Margaret C.; Warren, Joanna A.; Slike, Bonnie; Li, Hui; Peachman, Kristina K.; Gao, Feng; Cicala, Claudia; Arthos, James; O’Connell, Robert J.; Sinei, Samuel; Maganga, Lucas; Rao, Mangala; Marovich, Mary A.; Krebs, Shelly J.; Rolland, Morgane; Shaw, George M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to inform the rational design of HIV-1 preventive and cure interventions it is critical to understand the events occurring during acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). Using viral deep sequencing on six participants from the early capture acute infection RV217 cohort, we have studied HIV-1 evolution in plasma collected twice weekly during the first weeks following the advent of viremia. The analysis of infections established by multiple transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses revealed novel viral profiles that included: a) the low-level persistence of minor T/F variants, b) the rapid replacement of the major T/F by a minor T/F, and c) an initial expansion of the minor T/F followed by a quick collapse of the same minor T/F to low frequency. In most participants, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) escape was first detected at the end of peak viremia downslope, proceeded at higher rates than previously measured in HIV-1 infection, and usually occurred through the exploration of multiple mutational pathways within an epitope. The rapid emergence of CTL escape variants suggests a strong and early CTL response. Minor T/F viral strains can contribute to rapid and varied profiles of HIV-1 quasispecies evolution during AHI. Overall, our results demonstrate that early, deep, and frequent sampling is needed to investigate viral/host interaction during AHI, which could help identify prerequisites for prevention and cure of HIV-1 infection. PMID:28759651

  20. Rare HIV-1 transmitted/founder lineages identified by deep viral sequencing contribute to rapid shifts in dominant quasispecies during acute and early infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H Kijak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to inform the rational design of HIV-1 preventive and cure interventions it is critical to understand the events occurring during acute HIV-1 infection (AHI. Using viral deep sequencing on six participants from the early capture acute infection RV217 cohort, we have studied HIV-1 evolution in plasma collected twice weekly during the first weeks following the advent of viremia. The analysis of infections established by multiple transmitted/founder (T/F viruses revealed novel viral profiles that included: a the low-level persistence of minor T/F variants, b the rapid replacement of the major T/F by a minor T/F, and c an initial expansion of the minor T/F followed by a quick collapse of the same minor T/F to low frequency. In most participants, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL escape was first detected at the end of peak viremia downslope, proceeded at higher rates than previously measured in HIV-1 infection, and usually occurred through the exploration of multiple mutational pathways within an epitope. The rapid emergence of CTL escape variants suggests a strong and early CTL response. Minor T/F viral strains can contribute to rapid and varied profiles of HIV-1 quasispecies evolution during AHI. Overall, our results demonstrate that early, deep, and frequent sampling is needed to investigate viral/host interaction during AHI, which could help identify prerequisites for prevention and cure of HIV-1 infection.

  1. [Toxic megacolon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppkes, M; Ganslmayer, M; Strauß, R; Neurath, M F

    2015-10-01

    Toxic megacolon constitutes a feared, life-threatening complication of severe intestinal inflammation and is a challenge for interdisciplinary medical care. Specific aspects of conservative treatment based on current scientific evidence derived from guidelines, qualified reviews, and scientific studies are presented, which provide a rational approach and maximize therapeutic success. This work is based on a selective literature review and the authors' experience of many years in gastroenterology and intensive care. Toxic megacolon requires a rapid interdisciplinary assessment. Depending on the underlying etiology, an individual treatment concept needs to be developed. If an infectious or inflammatory cause is probable, a conservative approach can reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality. A step-wise approach with controlled reevaluations of the response to therapy after 72 h and 7 days avoids uncontrolled delay of surgical options further ensuring patient safety. Despite a decreasing incidence of toxic megacolon, it remains an interdisciplinary therapeutic challenge.

  2. Application of a Healthcare Failure Modes and Effects Analysis to Identify and Mitigate Potential Risks in the Implementation of a National Prehospital Pediatric Rapid Sequence Intubation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ian; Castle, Nicholas; Al Shaikh, Loua Asad

    2017-12-15

    Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) has become the de facto airway method of choice in the emergency airway management of adult and pediatric patients. There is significant controversy regarding pediatric RSI in the prehospital setting, given not only the complexities inherent in both the procedure and patient population, but in variations in emergency medical service models, prehospital qualifications, scope of practice, and patient exposure too. A Healthcare Failure Mode and Effects Analysis was conducted to identify and mitigate potential hazards in the national implementation of a prehospital pediatric RSI program. A process map and potential failure points were developed and identified. Probabilities, severity, and hazards scores were calculated for each failure point, and actions items developed to address these. One hundred four potential failure points were identified among 44 subprocesses, divided between nine major processes. In terms of severity, most were classified as either major (n = 39 [37.5%]) or catastrophic (n = 35 [33.7%]) with just more than half falling within the uncommon category (n = 56 [53.9%]) in terms of probability. Five strategic actions items were identified to mitigate against the failure points meeting criteria for action. To monitor the success of these, 11 quality and performance indicators were developed for concurrent implementation. The Healthcare Failure Mode and Effects Analysis represents a simple yet comprehensive first step toward risk analysis of complex procedures within the prehospital emergency care setting. Application of the methodology provided guidance for the consensus identification of hazards associated with prehospital pediatric RSI and appropriate actions to mitigate them.

  3. A rapid two-step algorithm detects and identifies clinical macrolide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in clinical bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuedong; Nie, Shuping; Xia, Chengjing; Huang, Lie; He, Ying; Wu, Runxiang; Zhang, Li

    2014-07-01

    Aiming to identify macrolide and beta-lactam resistance in clinical bacterial isolates rapidly and accurately, a two-step algorithm was developed based on detection of eight antibiotic resistance genes. Targeting at genes linked to bacterial macrolide (msrA, ermA, ermB, and ermC) and beta-lactam (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9) antibiotic resistances, this method includes a multiplex real-time PCR, a melting temperature profile analysis as well as a liquid bead microarray assay. Liquid bead microarray assay is applied only when indistinguishable Tm profile is observed. The clinical validity of this method was assessed on clinical bacterial isolates. Among the total 580 isolates that were determined by our diagnostic method, 75% of them were identified by the multiplex real-time PCR with melting temperature analysis alone, while the remaining 25% required both multiplex real-time PCR with melting temperature analysis and liquid bead microarray assay for identification. Compared with the traditional phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility test, an overall agreement of 81.2% (kappa=0.614, 95% CI=0.550-0.679) was observed, with a sensitivity and specificity of 87.7% and 73% respectively. Besides, the average test turnaround time is 3.9h, which is much shorter in comparison with more than 24h for the traditional phenotypic tests. Having the advantages of the shorter operating time and comparable high sensitivity and specificity with the traditional phenotypic test, our two-step algorithm provides an efficient tool for rapid determination of macrolide and beta-lactam antibiotic resistances in clinical bacterial isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High-content analysis of antibody phage-display library selection outputs identifies tumor selective macropinocytosis-dependent rapidly internalizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kevin D; Bidlingmaier, Scott M; Zhang, Yafeng; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Many forms of antibody-based targeted therapeutics, including antibody drug conjugates, utilize the internalizing function of the targeting antibody to gain intracellular entry into tumor cells. Ideal antibodies for developing such therapeutics should be capable of both tumor-selective binding and efficient endocytosis. The macropinocytosis pathway is capable of both rapid and bulk endocytosis, and recent studies have demonstrated that it is selectively up-regulated by cancer cells. We hypothesize that receptor-dependent macropinocytosis can be achieved using tumor-targeting antibodies that internalize via the macropinocytosis pathway, improving potency and selectivity of the antibody-based targeted therapeutic. Although phage antibody display libraries have been utilized to find antibodies that bind and internalize to target cells, no methods have been described to screen for antibodies that internalize specifically via macropinocytosis. We hereby describe a novel screening strategy to identify phage antibodies that bind and rapidly enter tumor cells via macropinocytosis. We utilized an automated microscopic imaging-based, High Content Analysis platform to identify novel internalizing phage antibodies that colocalize with macropinocytic markers from antibody libraries that we have generated previously by laser capture microdissection-based selection, which are enriched for internalizing antibodies binding to tumor cells in situ residing in their tissue microenvironment (Ruan, W., Sassoon, A., An, F., Simko, J. P., and Liu, B. (2006) Identification of clinically significant tumor antigens by selecting phage antibody library on tumor cells in situ using laser capture microdissection. Mol. Cell. Proteomics. 5, 2364-2373). Full-length human IgG molecules derived from macropinocytosing phage antibodies retained the ability to internalize via macropinocytosis, validating our screening strategy. The target antigen for a cross-species binding antibody with a highly active

  5. High-content Analysis of Antibody Phage-display Library Selection Outputs Identifies Tumor Selective Macropinocytosis-dependent Rapidly Internalizing Antibodies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kevin D.; Bidlingmaier, Scott M.; Zhang, Yafeng; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Many forms of antibody-based targeted therapeutics, including antibody drug conjugates, utilize the internalizing function of the targeting antibody to gain intracellular entry into tumor cells. Ideal antibodies for developing such therapeutics should be capable of both tumor-selective binding and efficient endocytosis. The macropinocytosis pathway is capable of both rapid and bulk endocytosis, and recent studies have demonstrated that it is selectively up-regulated by cancer cells. We hypothesize that receptor-dependent macropinocytosis can be achieved using tumor-targeting antibodies that internalize via the macropinocytosis pathway, improving potency and selectivity of the antibody-based targeted therapeutic. Although phage antibody display libraries have been utilized to find antibodies that bind and internalize to target cells, no methods have been described to screen for antibodies that internalize specifically via macropinocytosis. We hereby describe a novel screening strategy to identify phage antibodies that bind and rapidly enter tumor cells via macropinocytosis. We utilized an automated microscopic imaging-based, High Content Analysis platform to identify novel internalizing phage antibodies that colocalize with macropinocytic markers from antibody libraries that we have generated previously by laser capture microdissection-based selection, which are enriched for internalizing antibodies binding to tumor cells in situ residing in their tissue microenvironment (Ruan, W., Sassoon, A., An, F., Simko, J. P., and Liu, B. (2006) Identification of clinically significant tumor antigens by selecting phage antibody library on tumor cells in situ using laser capture microdissection. Mol. Cell. Proteomics. 5, 2364–2373). Full-length human IgG molecules derived from macropinocytosing phage antibodies retained the ability to internalize via macropinocytosis, validating our screening strategy. The target antigen for a cross-species binding antibody with a highly

  6. Discovery in PET/CT of an acute pulmonary toxicity with rapidly fatal bleomycin; Decouverte en TEP/TDM d'une toxicite pulmonaire aigue a la bleomycine rapidement fatale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Dortz, L.; Ben Fredj, M.; Lenoir, L.; Bahri, H.; Devillers, A.; Garin, E. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, Service de medecine nucleaire, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: we report the case of a patient treated by chemotherapy for a Hodgkin disease showing after treatment an important pulmonary uptake that appears bilateral and symmetric on PET in connection with an acute toxicity at the preclinical stage. Conclusions: an intense and diffuse pulmonary uptake of the {sup 18}F.D.G. during the chemotherapy, including particularly the bleomycin, can reveal an acute serious pulmonary toxicity and potentially deadly at the pre-symptomatic stage. (N.C.)

  7. Identifying Toxic Impacts of Metals Potentially Released during Deep-Sea Mining—A Synthesis of the Challenges to Quantifying Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hauton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In January 2017, the International Seabed Authority released a discussion paper on the development of Environmental Regulations for deep-sea mining (DSM within the Area Beyond National Jurisdiction (the “Area”. With the release of this paper, the prospect for commercial mining in the Area within the next decade has become very real. Moreover, within nations' Exclusive Economic Zones, the exploitation of deep-sea mineral ore resources could take place on very much shorter time scales and, indeed, may have already started. However, potentially toxic metal mixtures may be released at sea during different stages of the mining process and in different physical phases (dissolved or particulate. As toxicants, metals can disrupt organism physiology and performance, and therefore may impact whole populations, leading to ecosystem scale effects. A challenge to the prediction of toxicity is that deep-sea ore deposits include complex mixtures of minerals, including potentially toxic metals such as copper, cadmium, zinc, and lead, as well as rare earth elements. Whereas the individual toxicity of some of these dissolved metals has been established in laboratory studies, the complex and variable mineral composition of seabed resources makes the a priori prediction of the toxic risk of DSM extremely challenging. Furthermore, although extensive data quantify the toxicity of metals in solution in shallow-water organisms, these may not be representative of the toxicity in deep-sea organisms, which may differ biochemically and physiologically and which will experience those toxicants under conditions of low temperature, high hydrostatic pressure, and potentially altered pH. In this synthesis, we present a summation of recent advances in our understanding of the potential toxic impacts of metal exposure to deep-sea meio- to megafauna at low temperature and high pressure, and consider the limitation of deriving lethal limits based on the paradigm of exposure to

  8. Ensembling and filtering: an effective and rapid in silico multitarget drug-design strategy to identify RIPK1 and RIPK3 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, S M; Rajanikant, G K

    2015-12-01

    Necroptosis, a programmed necrosis pathway, is witnessed in diverse human diseases and is primarily regulated by receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3. Ablation or inhibition of these individual proteins, or both, has been shown to be protective in various in vitro and in vivo disease models involving necroptosis. In this study, we propose an effective and rapid virtual screening strategy to identify multitarget inhibitors of both RIPK1 and RIPK3. It involves ensemble pharmacophore-based screening (EPS) of a compound database, post-EPS filtration (PEPSF) of the ligand hits, and multiple dockings. Structurally diverse inhibitors were identified through ensemble pharmacophore features, and the speed of this process was enhanced by filtering out the compounds containing cross-features. The stability of these inhibitors with both of the proteins was verified by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Graphical Abstract A generalized workflow employed in this study. Subsequent utilization of EPS and PEPSF might lead to reduced computational time and load.

  9. The triple-negative (CD34-/HLA-DR-/CD11b-) profile rapidly and specifically identifies an acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K; Gupta, R; Singh, M K; Sarkar, M K; Gupta, A; Nityanand, S

    2017-10-06

    The genetic testing to confirm or rule out an acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) typically takes a minimum of 24-72 hours. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) on the other hand provides rapid and objective information to differentiate APL from non-APL. FCI features, with single-tube 8-color combination using CD45, CD34, HAL-DR, CD11b, CD13, CD33, and CD117 and CD64, were compared for the 30 consecutive APL and 30 non-APL acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases which morphologically mimicked an APL. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytogenetic or molecular genetic testing in the form of t (15:17) (q22; q21)/variant translocations or PML-RARA fusion transcript analysis. The APL cells lacked CD34, HLA-DR, and CD11b in 90%, 90%, and 93.3% cases, respectively. Myeloid antigens such as CD33, CD13, CD117, and CD64 were expressed in 96.7%, 96.7%, 76.7%, and 70% cases, respectively. The dual negative profiles, CD34-/HLA-DR- or HLA-DR-/CD11b-, were noted in 90% and 93.3% cases. The triple-negative (CD34-/HLA-DR-/CD11b-) profile was noted in 90% of the cases. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of CD34-/HLA-DR- and HLA-DR-/CD11b- profiles for the diagnosis of APL were found to be 90%, 80% & 81.1% and 93.3%, 86.7%& 87.5%, respectively. Combining the above two profiles resulted in a triple-negative profile (CD34-, HLA-DR- and CD11b-), which had a better specificity (93.3%) and positive predictive value (93.1%), with similar sensitivity. FCI is a rapid and reliable modality for the diagnosis of an APL. The triple-negative profile (CD34-/HLA-DR-/CD11b-) rapidly and specifically identifies an APL case. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Rapid Screening Technique To Identify Sudan Dyes (I to IV) in Adulterated Tomato Sauce, Chilli Powder, and Palm Oil by Innovative High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciuto, Simona; Esposito, Giovanna; Dell'Atti, Luana; Guglielmetti, Chiara; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Martucci, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    Sudan dyes are synthetic azo dyes used by industry in a variety of applications. Classified as carcinogenic, they are not allowed in foodstuffs; however, their presence as adulterants in food products has been regularly reported. Here, we describe an innovative screening method to detect Sudan I, II, III, and IV in tomato sauce, palm oil, and chilli powder. The method entails minimal sample preparation, completely avoiding the liquid chromatography phase, followed by detection and identification through atmospheric pressure chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in positive ionization mode. Analytes were efficiently identified and detected in samples, fortified both with individual analytes and with their mixture, with an error in mass identification less than 5 ppm. Limits of identification of the analytes in the fortified samples were 0.5 to 1 mg/kg, depending on the dye and matrix. The method had a linear range of 0.05 to 5 mg/kg and good linear relationships (R2 > 0.98). Repeatability was satisfactory, with a coefficient of variation lower than 20%. The method was applied to detect the dyes in real adulterated chilli samples, previously found positive by confirmatory high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and ELISA, and in commercial products purchased from supermarkets. In all positive samples, analytes were correctly identified with an error in mass identification lower than 5 ppm, while none of the 45 commercial samples analyzed were found to be contaminated. The proposed new assay is sensitive, with a limit of identification, for all the three matrices, complying with the limits defined by the European Union (0.5 to 1 mg/kg) for analytical methods. Compared with conventional methods, the new assay is rapid and inexpensive and characterized by a high throughput; thus, it could be suitable as screening technique to identify Sudan dyes in adulterated food products.

  11. Identifying the incidence of rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in patients taking lamotrigine: a systematic review of 122 randomized controlled trials*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Romi; Amber, Kyle T.

    2017-01-01

    Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug used for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and numerous off-label uses. The development of rash significantly affects its use. The most concerning of these adverse reactions is Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials using lamotrigine as a monotherapy to quantify the incidence of cutaneous reactions, particularly Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Of a total of 4,364 papers regarding lamotrigine, 122 studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total, 18,698 patients were included with 1,570 (8.3%) of patients experiencing an adverse dermatologic reaction. The incidence of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis was 0.04%. PMID:28225977

  12. Identifying the incidence of rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in patients taking lamotrigine: a systematic review of 122 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Romi; Amber, Kyle T

    2017-01-01

    Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug used for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and numerous off-label uses. The development of rash significantly affects its use. The most concerning of these adverse reactions is Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials using lamotrigine as a monotherapy to quantify the incidence of cutaneous reactions, particularly Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Of a total of 4,364 papers regarding lamotrigine, 122 studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total, 18,698 patients were included with 1,570 (8.3%) of patients experiencing an adverse dermatologic reaction. The incidence of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis was 0.04%.

  13. Informing Antibiotic Treatment Decisions: Evaluating Rapid Molecular Diagnostics To Identify Susceptibility and Resistance to Carbapenems against Acinetobacter spp. in PRIMERS III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Scott R; Hujer, Andrea M; Jiang, Hongyu; Hill, Carol B; Hujer, Kristine M; Mediavilla, Jose R; Manca, Claudia; Tran, Thuy Tien T; Domitrovic, T Nicholas; Higgins, Paul G; Seifert, Harald; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Patel, Robin; Jacobs, Michael R; Chen, Liang; Sampath, Rangarajan; Hall, Thomas; Marzan, Christine; Fowler, Vance G; Chambers, Henry F; Bonomo, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The widespread dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. has created significant therapeutic challenges. At present, rapid molecular diagnostics (RMDs) that can identify this phenotype are not commercially available. Two RMD platforms, PCR combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) and molecular beacons (MB), for detecting genes conferring resistance/susceptibility to carbapenems in Acinetobacter spp. were evaluated. An archived collection of 200 clinical Acinetobacter sp. isolates was tested. Predictive values for susceptibility and resistance were estimated as a function of susceptibility prevalence and were based on the absence or presence of beta-lactamase (bla) NDM, VIM, IMP, KPC, and OXA carbapenemase genes (e.g., blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24/40, and blaOXA-58 found in this study) against the reference standard of MIC determinations. According to the interpretation of MICs, 49% (n = 98) of the isolates were carbapenem resistant (as defined by either resistance or intermediate resistance to imipenem). The susceptibility sensitivities (95% confidence interval [CI]) for imipenem were 82% (74%, 89%) and 92% (85%, 97%) for PCR/ESI-MS and MB, respectively. Resistance sensitivities (95% CI) for imipenem were 95% (88%, 98%) and 88% (80%, 94%) for PCR/ESI-MS and MB, respectively. PRIMERS III establishes that RMDs can discriminate between carbapenem resistance and susceptibility in Acinetobacter spp. In the context of a known prevalence of resistance, SPVs and RPVs can inform clinicians regarding the best choice for empiric antimicrobial therapy against this multidrug-resistant pathogen. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Toxic Alcohol Ingestion: Prompt Recognition And Management In The Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gillian A; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Identifying patients with potential toxic alcohol exposure and initiating appropriate management is critical to avoid significant patient morbidity. Sources of toxic alcohol exposure include ethylene glycol, methanol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and isopropanol. Treatment considerations include the antidotes fomepizole and ethanol, and hemodialysis for removal of the parent compound and its toxic metabolites. Additional interventions include adjunctive therapies that may improve acidosis and enhance clearance of the toxic alcohol or metabolites. This issue reviews common sources of alcohol exposure, basic mechanisms of toxicity, physical examination and laboratory findings that may guide rapid assessment and management, and indications for treatment.

  15. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing the toxicity of terrestrial waste sites at the Savannah River Site using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Sydow, S.N. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site. Survival was assessed in several uncontaminated soils, including sandy loams and clayey loams, as well as in soils contaminated with coal fines, ash, diesel fuel, and heavy metals. In addition, behavior responses, changes in biomass, and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were assessed as sublethal indicators of toxicity. The results indicate excellent survival of Eisenia foetida in uncontaminated sandy and clayey soils. No amendment of these uncontaminated soils or addition of food was necessary to sustain the worms for the 14-day test period. In contaminated soils, no significant mortality was observed, except in soils which have very low pH (< 3). However, sublethal responses were observed in earthworms exposed to several of the contaminated soils. These responses included worms clumping on the surface of the soil, worms clumping between the sides of the test container and the soil, increased burrowing times, reductions in biomass, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals in worm tissue.

  16. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... on characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational settings...

  17. Rapid screening and confirmation of drugs and toxic compounds in biological specimens using liquid chromatography/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry and automated library search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Ray H; Lin, Dong-Liang; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) technology have provided an opportunity for the development of more specific approaches to achieve the 'screen' and 'confirmation' goals in a single analytical step. For this purpose, this study adapts the electrospray ionization ion trap LC/MS/MS instrumentation (LC/ESI-MS/MS) for the screening and confirmation of over 800 drugs and toxic compounds in biological specimens. Liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction protocols were coupled to LC/ESI-MS/MS using a 1.8-microm particle size analytical column operated at 50 degrees C. Gradient elution of the analytes was conducted using a solvent system composed of methanol and water containing 0.1% formic acid. Positive-ion ESI-MS/MS spectra and retention times for each of the 800 drugs and toxic compounds were first established using 1-10 microg/mL standard solutions. This spectra and retention time information was then transferred to the library and searched by the identification algorithm for the confirmation of compounds found in test specimens - based on retention time matches and scores of fit, reverse fit, and purity resulting from the searching process. The established method was found highly effective when applied to the analyses of postmortem specimens (blood, urine, and hair) and external proficiency test samples provided by the College of American Pathology (CAP). The development of this approach has significantly improved the efficiency of our routine laboratory operation that was based on a two-step (immunoassay and GC/MS) approach in the past. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The Department of Veterans Affairs Nutritional Status Classification Scheme Allows for Rapid Assessment of Nutritional Status Prior to Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation and Identifies Patients at High Risk of Transplant-Related Complications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toro, Juan J; Haile, David J; Chao, Ju-Hsien; Schneider, Deanna; Jewell, Pamela S; Lee, Shuko; Freytes, César O

    2009-01-01

    ... of Veterans Affairs (VA) developed a Nutritional Status Classification Scheme (NSCS) to identify nutritionally compromised inpatients rapidly and reliably. The VA-NSCS takes into account a combination of body weight, routine laboratory tests, and clinical and dietary history. The VA-NSCS is routinely utilized for the nutritional evaluation ...

  19. Poor sequestration of toxic host plant cardenolides and their rapid loss in the milkweed butterfly Danaus chrysippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae: Danaini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, Dietrich; Wunder, Cora; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-06-01

    Butterflies of the genus Danaus are known to sequester toxic cardenolides from milkweed host plants (Apocynaceae). In particular, Danaus plexippus efficiently sequesters and stores these compounds, whereas D. chrysippus, is considered to poorly sequester cardenolides. To estimate its sequestration capability compared with that of D. plexippus, larvae of both species were jointly reared on Asclepias curassavica and the major cardenolides of the host plant, calotropin and calactin, were analyzed in adults sampled at different time intervals after eclosion. Both cardenolides were detected in body and wings of D. plexippus. Whereas the calotropin-concentration remained constant over a period of 24 days, that of calactin steadily decreased. In the body, but not in the wings of D. chrysippus, calactin only was detected in low amounts, which was then almost completely lost during the following 8 days after eclosion, suggesting that in contrast to D. plexippus, cardenolides seem to be less important for that butterfly's defence against predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Network Analysis of Toxic Chemicals and Symptoms: Implications for Designing First-Responder Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavnani, Suresh K; Abraham, Annie; Demeniuk, Christopher; Gebrekristos, Messeret; Gong, Abe; Nainwal, Satyendra; Vallabha, Gautam K.; Richardson, Rudy J.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid and accurate identification of toxic chemicals is critical for saving lives in emergency situations. However, first-responder systems such as WISER typically require a large number of inputs before a chemical can be identified. To address this problem, we used networks to visualize and analyze the complex relationship between toxic chemicals and their symptoms. The results explain why current approaches require a large number of inputs and help to identify regularities related to th...

  1. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay-A rapid detection tool for identifying red fox (Vulpes vulpes) DNA in the carcasses of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Teresa; van Neer, Abbo; Becker, André; Grilo, Miguel Luca; Siebert, Ursula; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Carcasses of wild animals are often visited by different scavengers. However, determining which scavenger caused certain types of bite marks is particularly difficult and knowledge thereof is lacking. Therefore, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay (target sequence cytochrome b) was developed to detect red fox DNA in carcasses of harbour porpoises. The MSwab™ method for direct testing without prior DNA isolation was validated. As a detection device, the portable real-time fluorometer Genie® II was used, which yields rapid results and can be used in field studies without huge laboratory equipment. In addition to in vitro evaluation and validation, a stranded and scavenged harbour porpoise carcass was successfully examined for red fox DNA residues. The developed LAMP method is a valuable diagnostic tool for confirming presumable red fox bite wounds in harbour porpoises without further DNA isolation steps.

  2. The toxicity of NaF on BmN cells and a comparative proteomics approach to identify protein expression changes in cells under NaF-stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang; Chen, Huiqing [Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Yao, Chun [Department of Stomatology, Zhenjiang First People’s Hospital, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Chang, Cheng; Xia, Hengchuan; Zhang, Chunxia; Zhou, Yang; Yao, Qin [Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Chen, Keping, E-mail: kpchen@ujs.edu.cn [Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • On the cellular level, we identified IC{sub 50} of NaF on BmN cell by flow cytometry. • High concentration of NaF gives effect on BmN cell morphology. • Five significantly differential proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. • ALDH2 and WPH were up-regulated, while CRT and SCF were down-regulated, providing new information for metabolic pathway of fluoride. - Abstract: Fluorides negatively affect the development of organisms and are a threat to human health and environmental safety. In this study, Bombyx mori N cell line (BmN) were used to explore effects of NaF on insect cells. We found that 8 h (hrs) culture with high concentration of NaF (≥1 mM) induced significantly morphological changes. Dose-response curves of 72 h continuously cultured BmN treated with NaF showed that the half inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) value was 56.60 μM. Treatment of BmN with 100 and 300 μM of NaF induced apoptosis and necrosis. 2-D electrophoresis of whole cell extracted from BmN showed that treatment with 300 μM NaF up-regulated 32 proteins and down-regulated 11 proteins when compared with controls. We identified 5 different proteins by MALDI-TOF MS, and 4 of them were identified for the first time, including 2 up-regulated proteins (mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2 and prohibitin protein WPH) and 2 down-regulated proteins (calreticulin precursor CRT and DNA supercoiling factor SCF). These observations were further confirmed by fluorescence quantitative PCR. Together, our data suggest that these target proteins could be regarded as targets influenced by NaF and also provide clues for studies on the response metabolism pathway under NaF stress.

  3. Rapid methodology via mass spectrometry to quantify addition of soybean oil in extra virgin olive oil: A comparison with traditional methods adopted by food industry to identify fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Roberta; Vágula, Julianna Matias; de Lima Figueiredo, Ingrid; Claus, Thiago; Galuch, Marilia Bellanda; Santos Junior, Oscar Oliveira; Visentainer, Jesui Vergilio

    2017-12-01

    Fast and innovative methodology to monitors the addition of soybean oil in extra virgin olive oil was developed employing ESI-MS with ionization operating in positive mode. A certified extra virgin olive oil and refined soybean oil samples were analyzed by direct infusion, the identification of a natural lipid marker present only in soybean oil (m/z 886.68 [TAG+NH4]+) was possible. The certified extra virgin olive oil was purposely adulterated with soybean oil in different levels (1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 70, 90%) being possible to observe that the new methodology is able to detect even small fraud concentration, such as 1% (v/v). Additionally, commercial samples were analyzed and were observed the addition of soybean oil as a common fraud in this segment. This powerful analytical method proposed could be applied as routine analysis by control organization, as well as food industries, considering its pronounced advantages; simplicity, rapidity, elevated detectability and minor amounts of sample and solvent consumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  5. Comparison of rapid MMP-8 and interleukin-6 point-of-care tests to identify intra-amniotic inflammation/infection and impending preterm delivery in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaemsaithong, Piya; Romero, Roberto; Docheva, Nikolina; Chaiyasit, Noppadol; Bhatti, Gaurav; Pacora, Percy; Hassan, Sonia S; Yeo, Lami; Erez, Offer

    2018-01-01

    Among patients presenting with preterm labor and intact membranes, those with intra-amniotic inflammation have adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. The diagnosis of intra-amniotic inflammation can easily be made by detecting an elevated concentration of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 or the enzyme neutrophil collagenase, also known as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8. The diagnostic performances of MMP-8 and IL-6 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests are similar. Recently, a rapid test has become available for point-of-care determination of either MMP-8 or IL-6. The objectives of this study were to compare the diagnostic indices and predictive values between the rapid MMP-8 and IL-6 tests for the identification of intra-amniotic inflammation in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. We performed a retrospective cohort study including 124 women with singleton pregnancies who presented with symptoms of preterm labor and underwent transabdominal amniocentesis for the evaluation of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC). MIAC was defined according to amniotic fluid culture results (aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as genital Mycoplasmas). Amniotic fluid white blood cell (WBC) counts were determined using a hemocytometer chamber. An elevated amniotic fluid MMP-8 concentration was assessed using Yoon's MMP-8 Check ® (cutoff: 10 ng/mL). An elevated amniotic fluid IL-6 concentration was scored when there was a positive result for the lateral flow-based immunoassay (cutoff: ≥745 pg/mL and ≥1000 pg/mL). In order to objectively compare rapid MMP-8 and rapid IL-6 tests to identify intra-amniotic inflammation, an amniotic fluid WBC count of ≥50 cells/mm 3 was used to define intra-amniotic inflammation. (1) The rapid tests had the same sensitivity for the detection of intra-amniotic inflammation [85.7% (18/21) for all]; (2) the specificity of the rapid MMP-8 test was higher than that of the rapid IL-6 test (cutoff: 745

  6. A simple and rapid method to identify and quantitatively analyze triterpenoid saponins in Ardisia crenata using ultrafast liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Li, Wei; Wang, Hanqing; Kuang, Xinzhu; Li, Qin; Wang, Yinghua; Xie, Peng; Koike, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Ardisia plant species have been used in traditional medicines, and their bioactive constituents of 13,28-epoxy triterpenoid saponins have excellent biological activities for new drug development. In this study, a fast and simple method based on ultrafast liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS) was developed to simultaneously identify and quantitatively analyze triterpenoid saponins in Ardisia crenata extracts. In total, 22 triterpenoid saponins, including two new compounds, were identified from A. crenata. The method exhibited good linearity, precision and recovery for the quantitative analysis of eight marker saponins. A relative quantitative method was also developed using one major saponin (ardisiacrispin B) as the standard to break through the choke-point of the lack of standards in phytochemical analysis. The method was successfully applied to quantitatively analyze saponins in commercially available plant samples. This study describes the first systematic analysis of 13,28-epoxy-oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins in the genus Ardisia using LC-ESI-MS. The results can provide the chemical support for further biological studies, phytochemotaxonomical studies and quality control of triterpenoid saponins in medicinal plants of the genus Ardisia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid diagnostic test supply chain and consumption study in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique: estimating stock shortages and identifying drivers of stock-outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselback, Leah; Crawford, Jessica; Chaluco, Timoteo; Rajagopal, Sharanya; Prosser, Wendy; Watson, Noel

    2014-08-02

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are particularly useful in low-resource settings where follow-through on traditional laboratory diagnosis is challenging or lacking. The availability of these tests depends on supply chain processes within the distribution system. In Mozambique, stock-outs of malaria RDTs are fairly common at health facilities. A longitudinal cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate drivers of stock shortages in the Cabo Delgado province. Data were collected from purposively sampled health facilities, using monthly cross-sectional surveys between October 2011 and May 2012. Estimates of lost consumption (consumption not met due to stock-outs) served as the primary quantitative indicator of stock shortages. This is a better measure of the magnitude of stock-outs than binary indicators that only measure frequency of stock-outs at a given facility. Using a case study based methodology, distribution system characteristics were qualitatively analysed to examine causes of stock-outs at the provincial, district and health centre levels. 15 health facilities were surveyed over 120 time points. Stock-out patterns varied by data source; average monthly proportions of 59%, 17% and 17% of health centres reported a stock-out on stock cards, laboratory and pharmacy forms, respectively. Estimates of lost consumption percentage were significantly high; ranging from 0% to 149%; with a weighted average of 78%. Each ten-unit increase in monthly-observed consumption was associated with a nine-unit increase in lost consumption percentage indicating that higher rates of stock-outs occurred at higher levels of observed consumption. Causes of stock-outs included inaccurate tracking of lost consumption, insufficient sophistication in inventory management and replenishment, and poor process compliance by facility workers, all arguably stemming from inadequate attention to the design and implementation of the distribution system. Substantially high levels of RDT

  8. Rapid diagnostic test supply chain and consumption study in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique: estimating stock shortages and identifying drivers of stock-outs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are particularly useful in low-resource settings where follow-through on traditional laboratory diagnosis is challenging or lacking. The availability of these tests depends on supply chain processes within the distribution system. In Mozambique, stock-outs of malaria RDTs are fairly common at health facilities. A longitudinal cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate drivers of stock shortages in the Cabo Delgado province. Methods Data were collected from purposively sampled health facilities, using monthly cross-sectional surveys between October 2011 and May 2012. Estimates of lost consumption (consumption not met due to stock-outs) served as the primary quantitative indicator of stock shortages. This is a better measure of the magnitude of stock-outs than binary indicators that only measure frequency of stock-outs at a given facility. Using a case study based methodology, distribution system characteristics were qualitatively analysed to examine causes of stock-outs at the provincial, district and health centre levels. Results 15 health facilities were surveyed over 120 time points. Stock-out patterns varied by data source; average monthly proportions of 59%, 17% and 17% of health centres reported a stock-out on stock cards, laboratory and pharmacy forms, respectively. Estimates of lost consumption percentage were significantly high; ranging from 0% to 149%; with a weighted average of 78%. Each ten-unit increase in monthly-observed consumption was associated with a nine-unit increase in lost consumption percentage indicating that higher rates of stock-outs occurred at higher levels of observed consumption. Causes of stock-outs included inaccurate tracking of lost consumption, insufficient sophistication in inventory management and replenishment, and poor process compliance by facility workers, all arguably stemming from inadequate attention to the design and implementation of the distribution system

  9. Clinical performance of the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid test to correctly differentiate HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection in screening algorithms using third and fourth generation assays and to identify cross reactivity with the HIV-1 Western Blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eric M; Harb, Socorro; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W

    2013-12-01

    An accurate and rapid serologic method to differentiate HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection is required since the confirmatory HIV-1 Western Blot (WB) may demonstrate cross-reactivity with HIV-2 antibodies. To evaluate the performance of the Bio-Rad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid assay as a supplemental test to correctly identify HIV-2 infection and identify HIV-1 WB cross-reactivity with HIV-2 in clinical samples tested at an academic medical center. Between August 2008 and July 2012, clinical samples were screened for HIV using either 3rd- or 4th-generation HIV-1/2 antibody or combination antibody and HIV-1 p24 antigen assays, respectively. All repeatedly reactive samples were reflexed for Multispot rapid testing. Multispot HIV-2 and HIV-1 and HIV-2-reactive samples were further tested using an HIV-2 immunoblot assay and HIV-1 or HIV-2 RNA assays when possible. The HIV-1 WB was performed routinely for additional confirmation and to assess for HIV-2 antibody cross-reactivity. Of 46,061 samples screened, 890 (89.6%) of 993 repeatedly reactive samples were also Multispot-reactive: 882 for HIV-1; three for only HIV-2; and five for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. All three HIV-2-only Multispot-positives along with a single dually reactive HIV-1/2 Multispot-positive were also HIV-2 immunoblot-positive; the latter was HIV-1 RNA negative and HIV-2 RNA positive. The Multispot rapid test performed well as a supplemental test for HIV-1/2 diagnostic testing. Four new HIV-2 infections (0.45%) were identified from among 890 Multispot-reactive tests. The use of HIV-1 WB alone to confirm HIV-1/2 screening assays may underestimate the true prevalence of HIV-2 infection in the United States. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Rapid Screening Assay Identifies Monotherapy with Interferon-ß and Combination Therapies with Nucleoside Analogs as Effective Inhibitors of Ebola Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D S McCarthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To date there are no approved antiviral drugs for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD. While a number of candidate drugs have shown limited efficacy in vitro and/or in non-human primate studies, differences in experimental methodologies make it difficult to compare their therapeutic effectiveness. Using an in vitro model of Ebola Zaire replication with transcription-competent virus like particles (trVLPs, requiring only level 2 biosafety containment, we compared the activities of the type I interferons (IFNs IFN-α and IFN-ß, a panel of viral polymerase inhibitors (lamivudine (3TC, zidovudine (AZT tenofovir (TFV, favipiravir (FPV, the active metabolite of brincidofovir, cidofovir (CDF, and the estrogen receptor modulator, toremifene (TOR, in inhibiting viral replication in dose-response and time course studies. We also tested 28 two- and 56 three-drug combinations against Ebola replication. IFN-α and IFN-ß inhibited viral replication 24 hours post-infection (IC50 0.038μM and 0.016μM, respectively. 3TC, AZT and TFV inhibited Ebola replication when used alone (50-62% or in combination (87%. They exhibited lower IC50 (0.98-6.2μM compared with FPV (36.8μM, when administered 24 hours post-infection. Unexpectedly, CDF had a narrow therapeutic window (6.25-25μM. When dosed >50μM, CDF treatment enhanced viral infection. IFN-ß exhibited strong synergy with 3TC (97.3% inhibition or in triple combination with 3TC and AZT (95.8% inhibition. This study demonstrates that IFNs and viral polymerase inhibitors may have utility in EVD. We identified several 2 and 3 drug combinations with strong anti-Ebola activity, confirmed in studies using fully infectious ZEBOV, providing a rationale for testing combination therapies in animal models of lethal Ebola challenge. These studies open up new possibilities for novel therapeutic options, in particular combination therapies, which could prevent and treat Ebola infection and potentially reduce drug

  11. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  12. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–based signaling pathway as a shared target of selection. This suggests evolutionary constraint on adaptive solutions to complex toxicant mixtures at each site. However, distinct molecular variants apparently contribute to adaptive pathway modification among tolerant populations. Selection also targets other toxicity-mediatinggenes and genes of connected signaling pathways; this indicates complex tolerance phenotypes and potentially compensatory adaptations. Molecular changes are consistent with selection on standing genetic variation. In killifish, high nucleotide diversityhas likely been a crucial substrate for selective sweeps to propel rapid adaptation. This manuscript describes genomic evaluations that contribute to our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary risks associated with chronic contaminant exposures to wildlife populations. Here, we assessed genetic patterns associated with long-term response to an important class of highly toxic environmental pollutants. Specifically, chemical-specific tolerance has rapidly and repeatedly evolved in an estuarine fish species resident to estuaries of the Atlantic U.S. coast. We used laboratory studies to ch

  13. Role of net baryon density on rapidity width of identified particles from the lowest energies available at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron to those at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nur; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb

    2017-08-01

    Widths of the rapidity distributions of various identified hadrons generated with the UrQMD-3.4 event generator at all the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies have been presented and compared with the existing experimental results. An increase in the width of the rapidity distribution of Λ could be seen with both Monte Carlo (MC) and experimental data for the studied energies. Using MC data, the study has been extended to Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. A similar jump, as observed in the plot of rapidity width versus rest mass at Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and all SPS energies, persists even at RHIC and LHC energies, confirming its universal nature from AGS to the highest LHC energies. Such observation indicates that pair production may not be the only mechanism of particle production at the highest LHC energies. However, with MC data, the separate mass scaling for mesons and baryons is found to exist even at the top LHC energy.

  14. Antimony toxicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms...

  15. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  16. The department of veterans affairs nutritional status classification scheme allows for rapid assessment of nutritional status prior to autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and identifies patients at high risk of transplant-related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Juan J; Haile, David J; Chao, Ju-Hsien; Schneider, Deanna; Jewell, Pamela S; Lee, Shuko; Freytes, César O

    2009-09-01

    The nutritional assessment of patients prior to autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) is labor intensive. A simple method of nutritional assessment prior to APSCT would be extremely helpful, especially if this method could identify patients at high risk of transplant-related complications. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) developed a Nutritional Status Classification Scheme (NSCS) to identify nutritionally compromised inpatients rapidly and reliably. The objective of this study was to determine if the use of the VA-NSCS could be utilized as a tool for the evaluation of patients prior to APBSCT and to determine if this tool could be used to identify patients at high risk of transplant-related complications. The nutritional status of 128 patients who underwent APBSCT was assessed by a registered dietician, utilizing the VA-NSCS, upon admission to the hospital and prior to conditioning regimen. Patients with moderately compromised nutritional status pretransplantation experienced a higher incidence of infections, longer duration of diarrhea, and longer length of hospital stay when compared to patients with normal or mildly compromised nutritional status. Our study demonstrates that the VA-NSCS, a simple and inexpensive tool to assess nutritional status, was useful in determining the pretransplant nutritional status of patients with lymphogenous malignancies who underwent APBSCT. In addition, this method was able to identify patients at a higher risk of posttransplant complications. Future studies should be undertaken to determine the optimal method for the nutritional assessment of autologous stem cell transplant candidates.

  17. Development of a rapid method for identifying carryover contamination of positive control DNA, using a chimeric positive control and restriction enzyme for the diagnosis of white spot syndrome virus by nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Jun; Kwon, Se Ryun

    2014-12-01

    Chimeric positive plasmids have been developed to minimize false-positive reactions caused by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) contamination. Here, we developed a rapid method for identifying false-positive results while detecting white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by nested PCR, using chimeric positive plasmids. The results of PCRs using WSSV diagnostic primer sets showed PCR products of a similar size (WSSV 1st PCR product, 1,447 bp; WSSV 2nd PCR product, 941 bp) using WSSV chimeric plasmids or DNA from shrimp infected with WSSV. The PCR products were digested with DraI for 1 h at 37 °C. The digested chimeric DNA separated into two DNA bands; however, the WSSV-infected shrimp DNA did not separate. Thus, chimeric plasmid DNA may be used as positive control DNA instead of DNA from WSSV-infected shrimp, in order to prevent PCR contamination. Thus, the use of restriction enzyme digestion allowed us to rapidly distinguish between WSSV DNA and WSSV chimeric plasmid DNA.

  18. Antimony Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically. PMID:21318007

  19. Physician Beware: Severe Cyanide Toxicity from Amygdalin Tablets Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tam; Nguyen, Cham; Tran, Phu N

    2017-01-01

    Despite the risk of cyanide toxicity and lack of efficacy, amygdalin is still used as alternative cancer treatment. Due to the highly lethal nature of cyanide toxicity, many patients die before getting medical care. Herein, we describe the case of a 73-year-old female with metastatic pancreatic cancer who developed cyanide toxicity from taking amygdalin. Detailed history and physical examination prompted rapid clinical recognition and treatment with hydroxocobalamin, leading to resolution of her cyanide toxicity. Rapid clinical diagnosis and treatment of cyanide toxicity can rapidly improve patients' clinical outcome and survival. Inquiries for any forms of ingestion should be attempted in patients with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of poisoning.

  20. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  1. Studying toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkus, A.; LeBlanc, L.; Kim, C.; Van Beneden, R.; Mayer, G.

    2006-01-01

    With funding from the George Mitchell Center for the Environment at the University of Maine, a team of scientists used a simple laboratory-based sediment resuspension design, and two well-established aquatic toxicology models, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), to evaluate if resuspension of Penobscot river sediment significantly elevates the toxicity of river water and to provide preliminary information on the types of chemicals likely to desorb during resuspension. The group collected sediments from two sites with known chemical contamination downstream of the Great Works and Veazie dams. The sediments were examined to determine the dynamics of PAH desorption and degradation under different resuspension frequencies. The scientists used clarified water from resuspension experiments for toxicity tests with the water-flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and other aquatic test organisms to infer toxicity from sediments from northern California rivers. Data from the study will help ascertain whether metals and/or xenoestrogens are present in the desorption water and give insight into possible avenues of sediment remediation.

  2. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  3. Autophagy as a Possible Underlying Mechanism of Nanomaterial Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cohignac

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of nanotechnologies is raising safety concerns because of the potential effects of engineered nanomaterials on human health, particularly at the respiratory level. Since the last decades, many in vivo studies have been interested in the pulmonary effects of different classes of nanomaterials. It has been shown that some of them can induce toxic effects, essentially depending on their physico-chemical characteristics, but other studies did not identify such effects. Inflammation and oxidative stress are currently the two main mechanisms described to explain the observed toxicity. However, the exact underlying mechanism(s still remain(s unknown and autophagy could represent an interesting candidate. Autophagy is a physiological process in which cytoplasmic components are digested via a lysosomal pathway. It has been shown that autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis and the progression of human diseases, and is able to modulate the oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses. A growing amount of literature suggests that a link between nanomaterial toxicity and autophagy impairment could exist. In this review, we will first summarize what is known about the respiratory effects of nanomaterials and we will then discuss the possible involvement of autophagy in this toxicity. This review should help understand why autophagy impairment could be taken as a promising candidate to fully understand nanomaterials toxicity.

  4. Toxicity of Uranium Adsorbent Materials using the Microtox Toxicity Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jiyeon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jeters, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonheyo, George T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the toxicity of a diverse range of natural and synthetic materials used to extract uranium from seawater. The uranium adsorbent materials are being developed as part of the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Resources Program. The goal of this effort was to identify whether deployment of a farm of these materials into the marine environment would have any toxic effects on marine organisms.

  5. [Toxic methemoglobinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, P; Neuhaus, H

    2011-04-01

    A 19 year-old female patient suffered from severe hypoxemia after an ambulant surgery for splayfeet. Local anesthesia had been performed with prilocain and bupivacain. Methemoglobinemia was suspected and treated with ascorbine acid and methylene blue. The patient was then admitted to hospital. The patient was well orientated and awake. She complained of a mild headache and general illness. There was marked central cyanosis. A blood sample was dark-red to brownish. The periphere oxygen saturation was 85%. A cardiac ultrasound and a chest X ray were without pathological findings. Initial arterial blood gas analysis showed a concentration of methemoglobin of 24%. On intensive care clinical and laboratory findings quickly resolved and methemoglobin concentration normalized after one day. The patient had no symptoms anymore and was discharged the next day. In treatment-resistent hypoxemia after local anesthesia toxic methemoglobinaemia should be suspected. Therapy of choice is immediate administration of methylene blue. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. A single-blinded, single-centre, controlled study in healthy adult smokers to identify the effects of a reduced toxicant prototype cigarette on biomarkers of exposure and of biological effect versus commercial cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, Christopher J; Newland, Nik; Eldridge, Alison; Graff, Don; Meyer, Ingo

    2013-07-29

    Despite universal acceptance that smoking is harmful, a substantial number of adults continue to smoke. The development of potential reduced exposure products (more recently termed modified risk tobacco products) has been suggested as a way to reduce the risks of tobacco smoking. This trial is designed to investigate whether changes in toxicant exposure after switching from a commercial to reduced toxicant prototype (RTP) cigarette (7 mg International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) tar yield) can be assessed by measurement of biomarkers and other factors. The primary objective is to descriptively assess changes in selected biomarkers of exposure (BoE) and biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE) within participants and within and between groups after switching. Secondary objectives are to assess similarly changes in other biomarkers, quality of life, smoking behaviours, physiological measures, mouth-level exposure to toxicants and sensory perception. This trial will assess current smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers in a single-centre single-blind, controlled clinical trial with a forced-switching design and in-clinic (residential) and ambulatory (non-residential) periods. Smokers will be aged 23-55 years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5 years) and non-smokers 28-55 years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5 years, plus minimum 5 years since last smoked). Smokers will be allowed to smoke freely at all times. We will assess changes in selected BoE and BoBE and effective dose in urine and blood after switching. Creatinine concentrations in serum, creatinine clearance in urine, cotinine concentration in saliva, diaries and collection of spent cigarette filters will be used to assess compliance with the study protocol. Mouth-level exposure to toxins will be assessed by filter analysis. Data from this study are expected to improve scientific understanding of the effects of RTP cigarettes on BoE and BoBE, and give insights into study design for clinical

  7. Control of toxic marine dinoflagellate blooms by serial parasitic killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambouvet, Aurelie; Morin, Pascal; Marie, Dominique; Guillou, Laure

    2008-11-21

    The marine dinoflagellates commonly responsible for toxic red tides are parasitized by other dinoflagellate species. Using culture-independent environmental ribosomal RNA sequences and fluorescence markers, we identified host-specific infections among several species. Each parasitoid produces 60 to 400 offspring, leading to extraordinarily rapid control of the host's population. During 3 consecutive years of observation in a natural estuary, all dinoflagellates observed were chronically infected, and a given host species was infected by a single genetically distinct parasite year after year. Our observations in natural ecosystems suggest that although bloom-forming dinoflagellates may escape control by grazing organisms, they eventually succumb to parasite attack.

  8. Toxic metals and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Sarkar, Shuvasree; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-11-17

    The earth's resources are finite, and it can no longer be considered a source of inexhaustible bounty for the human population. However, this realization has not been able to contain the human desire for rapid industrialization. The collateral to overusing environmental resources is the high-level contamination of undesirable toxic metals, leading to bioaccumulation and cellular damage. Cytopathological features of biological systems represent a key variable in several diseases. A review of the literature revealed that autophagy (PCDII), a high-capacity process, may consist of selective elimination of vital organelles and/or proteins that intiate mechanisms of cytoprotection and homeostasis in different biological systems under normal physiological and stress conditions. However, the biological system does survive under various environmental stressors. Currently, there is no consensus that specifies a particular response as being a dependable biomarker of toxicology. Autophagy has been recorded as the initial response of a cell to a toxic metal in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Various signaling pathways are triggered through cellular proteins and/or protein kinases that can lead to autophagy, apoptosis (or necroptosis), and necrosis. Although the role of autophagy in tumorigenesis is associated with promoting tumor cell survival and/or acting as a tumor suppressive mechanism, PCDII in metal-induced toxicity has not been extensively studied. The aim of this review is to analyze the comparative cytotoxicity of metals/metalloids and nanoparticles (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and metal-NP) in cells enduring autophagy. It is noted that metals/metalloids and nanoparticles prefer ATG8/LC3 as a potent inducer of autophagy in several cell lines or animal cells. MAP kinases, death protein kinases, PI3K, AKT, mTOR, and AMP kinase have been found to be the major components of autophagy induction or inhibition in the context of cellular responses to metals/metalloids and

  9. Antiepileptic drugs toxicity: A case of toxic epidermal necrolysis in patient with phenytoin prophylaxis post-cranial radiation for brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQuliti, Khalid; Ratrout, Basem; AlZaki, Alaa

    2014-09-01

    Treatment of epilepsy with antiepileptic drugs (AED) is effective and remains the principal mode of management. A group of adverse effects and drug toxicity can develop immediately or later in the course of treatment. AEDs also have the potential of precipitating idiosyncratic adverse effects including serious cutaneous, hematological and hepatic events. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare but severe cutaneous adverse reactions are related to or caused by a variety of medications including AEDs, they carry a high mortality and morbidity rate, accurate diagnosis and rapid treatment may improve the prognosis. To characterize the clinical features and methods of differentiating Stevens-Johnson syndrome from toxic epidermal necrolysis using a case study and to identify other factors that may contribute to this critical illness. Clinical knowledge of potential sever adverse reaction of AEDs is essential and may overcome treatment failure with major impact on health-related quality of life in people with epilepsy.

  10. Molecular toxicity of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Ling; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Xing, Gengmei

    2014-10-01

    With the rapid developments in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnlogy, more and more nanomaterials and their based consumer products have been used into our daily life. The safety concerns of nanomaterials have been well recognized by the scientific community and the public. Molecular mechanism of interactions between nanomaterials and biosystems is the most essential topic and final core of the biosafety. In the last two decades, nanotoxicology developed very fast and toxicity phenomena of nanomaterials have been reported. To achieve better understanding and detoxication of nanomaterials, thorough studies of nanotoxicity at molecular level are important. The interactions between nanomaterials and biomolecules have been widely investigated as the first step toward the molecular nanotoxicology. The consequences of such interactions have been discussed in the literature. Besides this, the chemical mechanism of nanotoxicology is gaining more attention, which would lead to a better design of nontoxic nanomaterials. In this review, we focus on the molecular nanotoxicology and explore the toxicity of nanomaterials at molecular level. The molecular level studies of nanotoxicology are summarized and the published nanotoxicological data are revisited.

  11. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  12. Battling malaria in rural Zambia with modern technology: a qualitative study on the value of cell phones, geographical information systems, asymptomatic carriers and rapid diagnostic tests to identify, treat and control malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nygren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade much progress has been made in reducing malaria transmission in Macha, Southern Province, Zambia. Introduction of artemisinin combination therapies as well as mass screenings of asymptomatic carriers is believed to have contributed the most. When an endemic malaria situation is moving towards a non-endemic situation the resident population loses acquired immunity and therefore active case detection and efficient surveillance is crucial to prevent epidemic outbreaks. Our purpose was to evaluate the impact of cell phone surveillance and geographical information systems on malaria control in Macha. Furthermore, it evaluates what screening and treatment of asymptomatic carriers and implementation of rapid diagnostic tests in rural health care has led to. Ten in-depth semistructured interviews, field observations and data collection were performed at the Macha Research Trust and at surrounding rural health centers. This qualitative method was inspired by rapid assessment procedure. The cell phone surveillance has been easily integrated in health care, and its integration with Geographical Information Systems has provided the ability to follow malaria transmission on a weekly basis. In addition, active case detection of asymptomatic carriers has been fruitful, which is reflected in it soon being applied nationwide. Furthermore, rapid diagnostic tests have provided rural health centers with reliable malaria diagnostics, thereby decreasing excessive malaria treatments and selection for drug resistance. This report reflects the importance of asymptomatic carriers in targeting malaria elimination, as well as development of effective surveillance systems when transmission decreases. Such an approach would be cost-efficient in the long run through positive effects in reduced child mortality and relief in health care.

  13. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  14. Toxicity assessment of sediment cores from Santa Monica Bay, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Darrin; Bay, Steven; Jirik, Andrew; Brown, Jeffrey; Alexander, Clark

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 1997, sediment core samples were taken at 25 stations in Santa Monica Bay. Toxicity testing was performed on 4-cm sections of the entire length of each core using purple sea urchin fertilization and amphipod survival tests. The sea urchin test identified sections as being toxic at six stations, all located near current or former Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP) wastewater outfall locations. The amphipod test identified sections from 17 stations as having toxic sediments. The stations having toxic sediments were scattered throughout the bay and toxicity was identified at numerous core depths. Spatial and temporal patterns indicated that toxicity was most strongly associated with the historical disposal of municipal wastewater sludge. Many of the sections toxic to the amphipods did not have chemical levels expected to cause toxicity and were in locations where a source of toxicity was not apparent.

  15. Optical nanosphere sensor based on shell-by-shell fabrication for removal of toxic metals from human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, S A; Abdellatef, S; Ismael, M; Shahat, A

    2013-06-01

    Because toxic heavy metals tend to bioaccumulate, they represent a substantial human health hazard. Various methods are used to identify and quantify toxic metals in biological tissues and environment fluids, but a simple, rapid, and inexpensive system has yet to be developed. To reduce the necessity for instrument-dependent analysis, we developed a single, pH-dependent, nanosphere (NS) sensor for naked-eye detection and removal of toxic metal ions from drinking water and physiological systems (i.e., blood). The design platform for the optical NS sensor is composed of double mesoporous core-shell silica NSs fabricated by one-pot, template-guided synthesis with anionic surfactant. The dense shell-by-shell NS construction generated a unique hierarchical NS sensor with a hollow cage interior to enable accessibility for continuous monitoring of several different toxic metal ions and efficient multi-ion sensing and removal capabilities with respect to reversibility, longevity, selectivity, and signal stability. Here, we examined the application of the NS sensor for the removal of toxic metals (e.g., lead ions from a physiological system, such as human blood). The findings show that this sensor design has potential for the rapid screening of blood lead levels so that the effects of lead toxicity can be avoided. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  17. Tier 3 Toxicity Value White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this white paper is to articulate the issues pertaining to Tier 3 toxicity values and provide recommendations on processes that will improve the transparency and consistency of identifying, evaluating, selecting, and documenting Tier 3 toxicity values for use in the Superfund and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) programs. This white paper will be used to assist regional risk assessors in selecting Tier 3 toxicity values as well as provide the foundation for future regional and national efforts to improve guidance and policy on Tier 3 toxicity values.

  18. Toxic Workplace Environment: In Search for the Toxic Behaviours in Organizations with a Research in Healthcare Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Secil Bal TASTAN

    2017-01-01

    This study provides information on how to identify a toxic workplace; identifies the types of toxic worker behavior, including abusive supervision and workplace mobbing; discusses how toxic workplaces affect employees at all levels; and describes how toxic workplaces can become hostile work environments. For achieving knowledge about how such kind of behaviors and attitudes are perceived by the employees in the selected organizations, a qualitative study was designed. Following the qualitativ...

  19. Identifying Low-risk Patients for Early Discharge From Emergency Department Without Using Subjective Descriptions of Chest Pain: Insights From Providing Rapid Out of Hospital Acute Cardiovascular Treatment (PROACT) 3 and 4 Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrvand, Nariman; Zheng, Yinggan; Armstrong, Paul W; Welsh, Robert C; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2017-06-01

    Several accelerated diagnostic protocols (ADPs) have been developed to allow emergency department (ED) physicians to identify appropriate patients for safe early discharge after presentation with symptom of chest pain. Most ADPs require chest pain to be described and modify the algorithm based on the subjective chest pain characteristics. We investigated the performance of three established major ADPs simplified by eliminating the need for chest pain as a descriptor. We pooled patients from PROACT-3 and -4 trials, in which patients presenting to emergency medical services with chest pain or dyspnea were enrolled. The simplified Vancouver Chest Pain Rule (sVCPR), the simplified Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain Score (sEDACS) ADP and the Accelerated Diagnostic protocol to Assess Patients with chest pain using contemporary troponins as the only biomarker (ADAPT-ADP) were compared using the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (NPV). The primary outcome of interest was 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE); the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) occurring within 30 days after ED presentation was also explored. A total of 1,081 patients were included (median age = 67 years, 53% male, median GRACE score = 113) of which 222 ACS diagnoses and 150 cardiac events occurred within 30 days after index ED presentation. The sVCPR, sEDACS ≥ 3, and ADAPT-ADP, respectively, identified 9.7, 13.3, and 4.1% of patients as low risk with a sensitivity and NPV of 100% for the primary outcome of 30-day MACE. The sEDACS-ADP identified 24.2% of patients as low risk with a cut-point score of 4 (sensitivity of 98.0% and NPV of 98.8%). The sVCPR, sEDACS ≥ 3, and ADAPT-ADP, respectively, had NPVs of 98.1, 95.8, and 93.3% in identifying patients at higher risk of ACS diagnosis within 30 days after index ED visit. The diagnostic protocols performed well without their chest pain characteristics component. Further studies are

  20. A Miniscale Algal Toxicity Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arensberg, Pia; Hemmingsen, Vicky H.; Nyholm, Niels

    1995-01-01

    A simple miniscale (approx. 1 - 2.5 ml) toxicity test procedure with the freshwater green algaSelenastrum capricornutum is described. The procedure fulfils the validity criteria of the ISO (International Association for Standardization) standard test protocol. Practically identical concentration...... and test volumes (down to 1 ml) could also be used. Tissue culture treated polystyrene microplates were found toxic to algae and thus unusable. pH control is achieved more easily in the minitest than in larger size shake flasks due to greater turbulence and a larger surface/volume ratio which both...... facilitates CO2 mass transfer. Uniform illumination of the individual units of a minitest setup is obtained readily due to the small area that has to be illuminated. Using the rapidly growing green alga S. capricornutum as test organism, it is proposed generally to reduce the standard test duration from 3...

  1. Rapid and high-capacity ultrasonic assisted adsorption of ternary toxic anionic dyes onto MOF-5-activated carbon: Artificial neural networks, partial least squares, desirability function and isotherm and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Hanieh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar; Azghandi, Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi

    2017-07-01

    The present paper focused on the ultrasonic assisted simultaneous removal of fast green (FG), eosin Y (EY) and quinine yellow (QY) from aqueous media following using MOF-5 as a metal organic framework and activated carbon hybrid (AC-MOF-5). The structure and morphology of AC-MOF-5 was identified by SEM, FTIR and XRD analysis. The interactive and main effects of variables such as pH, initial dyes concentration (mgL -1 ), adsorbent dosage (mg) and sonication time (min) on removal percentage were studied by central composite design (CCD), subsequent desirability function (DF) permit to achieved real variable experimental condition. Optimized values were found 7.06, 5.68, 7.59 and 5.04mgL -1 , 0.02g and 2.55min for pH, FG, EY and QY concentration, adsorbent dosage and sonication time, respectively. Under this conditions removal percentage were obtained 98.1%, 98.1% and 91.91% for FG, EY and QY, respectively. Two models, namely partial least squares (PLS) and multi-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model were used for building up to construct an empirical model to predict the dyes under study removal behavior. The obtained results show that ANN and PLS model is a powerful tool for prediction of under-study dyes adsorption by AC-MOF-5. The evaluation and estimation of equilibrium data from traditional isotherm models display that the Langmuir model indicated the best fit to the equilibrium data with maximum adsorption capacity of 21.230, 20.242 and 18.621mgg -1 , for FG, EY and QY, respectively, while the adsorption rate efficiently follows the pseudo-second-order model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physician Beware: Severe Cyanide Toxicity from Amygdalin Tablets Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Dang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the risk of cyanide toxicity and lack of efficacy, amygdalin is still used as alternative cancer treatment. Due to the highly lethal nature of cyanide toxicity, many patients die before getting medical care. Herein, we describe the case of a 73-year-old female with metastatic pancreatic cancer who developed cyanide toxicity from taking amygdalin. Detailed history and physical examination prompted rapid clinical recognition and treatment with hydroxocobalamin, leading to resolution of her cyanide toxicity. Rapid clinical diagnosis and treatment of cyanide toxicity can rapidly improve patients’ clinical outcome and survival. Inquiries for any forms of ingestion should be attempted in patients with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of poisoning.

  3. Cellular Metabolomics for Exposure and Toxicity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed NMR automation and cell quench methods for cell culture-based metabolomics to study chemical exposure and toxicity. Our flow automation method is robust and free of cross contamination. The direct cell quench method is rapid and effective. Cell culture-based met...

  4. Jatropha toxicity--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus

    2010-08-01

    Jatropha is a nonedible oil seed plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family. Global awareness of sustainable and alternative energy resources has propelled research on Jatropha oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production. During the past two decades, several cultivation projects were undertaken to produce Jatropha oil. In future, the increased cultivation of toxic Jatropha plants and utilization of its agro-industrial by-products may raise the frequency of contact with humans, animals, and other organisms. An attempt was thus made to present known information on toxicity of Jatropha plants. The toxicity of Jatropha plant extracts from fruit, seed, oil, roots, latex, bark, and leaf to a number of species, from microorganisms to higher animals, is well established. Broadly, these extracts possess moluscicidal, piscicidal, insecticidal, rodenticidal, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties, and exert adverse effects on animals including rats, poultry, and ruminants. The toxicity attributed to these seeds due to their accidental consumption by children is also well documented. An attempt was also made to identify areas that need further study. The information provided in this review may aid in enhancing awareness in agroindustries involved in the cultivation, harvesting, and utilization of Jatropha plants and its products with respect to the potential toxicity of Jatropha, and consequently in application and enforcement of occupational safety measures. Data on the wide range of bioactivities of Jatropha and its products were collated and it is hoped will create new avenues for exploiting these chemicals by the phamaceutical industry to develop chemotherapeutic agents.

  5. Emerging exposures of developmental toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Mary S; Buckley, Jessie P; Engel, Stephanie M; McConnell, Rob S; Barr, Dana B

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to identify emerging developmental toxicants that are understudied in children's health. Exposures may arise from new products designed to improve utility, to reduce toxicity, or to replace undesirable chemicals. Exposures to less-toxic chemicals may also be significant if they are very commonly used, thereby generating widespread exposure. Sources of exposure include the workplace, personal, home, and office products; food, water, and air. We describe eight exposure categories that contain numerous potential developmental toxicants. References are discussed if reported in PubMed during the past decade at least 10 times more frequently than in 1990-2000. Examples included phthalates, phenols, sunscreens, pesticides, halogenated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl coatings, nanoparticles, e-cigarettes, and dietary polyphenols. Replacements are often close structural homologs of their precursors. We suggest biomonitoring as preferred means of exposure assessment to emerging chemicals. Some existing analytic methods would require minimal modification to measure these exposures, but others require toxicokinetic and analytic investigation. A deliberate strategy for biomonitoring of emerging replacement chemicals is warranted, especially in view of concerns regarding developmental toxicity. To prevent adverse health effects, it is important to characterize such exposures before they become widely disseminated.

  6. Human cardiotoxic drugs delivered by soaking and microinjection induce cardiovascular toxicity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Jing; Xu, Yi-Qiao; He, Jian-Hui; Yu, Hang-Ping; Huang, Chang-Jiang; Gao, Ji-Min; Dong, Qiao-Xiang; Xuan, Yao-Xian; Li, Chun-Qi

    2014-02-01

    Cardiovascular toxicity is a major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry and predictive screening models to identify and eliminate pharmaceuticals with the potential to cause cardiovascular toxicity in humans are urgently needed. In this study, taking advantage of the transparency of larval zebrafish, Danio rerio, we assessed cardiovascular toxicity of seven known human cardiotoxic drugs (aspirin, clomipramine hydrochloride, cyclophosphamide, nimodipine, quinidine, terfenadine and verapamil hydrochloride) and two non-cardiovascular toxicity drugs (gentamicin sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride) in zebrafish using six specific phenotypic endpoints: heart rate, heart rhythm, pericardial edema, circulation, hemorrhage and thrombosis. All the tested drugs were delivered into zebrafish by direct soaking and yolk sac microinjection, respectively, and cardiovascular toxicity was quantitatively or qualitatively assessed at 4 and 24 h post drug treatment. The results showed that aspirin accelerated the zebrafish heart rate (tachycardia), whereas clomipramine hydrochloride, cyclophosphamide, nimodipine, quinidine, terfenadine and verapamil hydrochloride induced bradycardia. Quinidine and terfenadine also caused atrioventricular (AV) block. Nimodipine treatment resulted in atrial arrest with much slower but regular ventricular heart beating. All the tested human cardiotoxic drugs also induced pericardial edema and circulatory disturbance in zebrafish. There was no sign of cardiovascular toxicity in zebrafish treated with non-cardiotoxic drugs gentamicin sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride. The overall prediction success rate for cardiotoxic drugs and non-cardiotoxic drugs in zebrafish were 100% (9/9) as compared with human results, suggesting that zebrafish is an excellent animal model for rapid in vivo cardiovascular toxicity screening. The procedures we developed in this report for assessing cardiovascular toxicity in zebrafish were suitable for drugs delivered

  7. Toxic hemolytic anemias.

    OpenAIRE

    ZEMANOVÁ, Vendula

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with toxic hemolytic anemias which are often unheeded. There are described laboratory signs of hemolytic anemias, their dividing into the various groups and it focuses mainly to toxic and drug-related hemolytic anemias and their causations.

  8. Vaginal microbicides: detecting toxicities in vivo that paradoxically increase pathogen transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abusuwwa Raed

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbicides must protect against STD pathogens without causing unacceptable toxic effects. Microbicides based on nonoxynol-9 (N9 and other detergents disrupt sperm, HSV and HIV membranes, and these agents are effective contraceptives. But paradoxically N9 fails to protect women against HIV and other STD pathogens, most likely because it causes toxic effects that increase susceptibility. The mouse HSV-2 vaginal transmission model reported here: (a Directly tests for toxic effects that increase susceptibility to HSV-2, (b Determines in vivo whether a microbicide can protect against HSV-2 transmission without causing toxicities that increase susceptibility, and (c Identifies those toxic effects that best correlate with the increased HSV susceptibility. Methods Susceptibility was evaluated in progestin-treated mice by delivering a low-dose viral inoculum (0.1 ID50 at various times after delivering the candidate microbicide to detect whether the candidate increased the fraction of mice infected. Ten agents were tested – five detergents: nonionic (N9, cationic (benzalkonium chloride, BZK, anionic (sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS, the pair of detergents in C31G (C14AO and C16B; one surface active agent (chlorhexidine; two non-detergents (BufferGel®, and sulfonated polystyrene, SPS; and HEC placebo gel (hydroxyethylcellulose. Toxic effects were evaluated by histology, uptake of a 'dead cell' dye, colposcopy, enumeration of vaginal macrophages, and measurement of inflammatory cytokines. Results A single dose of N9 protected against HSV-2 for a few minutes but then rapidly increased susceptibility, which reached maximum at 12 hours. When applied at the minimal concentration needed for brief partial protection, all five detergents caused a subsequent increase in susceptibility at 12 hours of ~20–30-fold. Surprisingly, colposcopy failed to detect visible signs of the N9 toxic effect that increased susceptibility at 12 hours. Toxic

  9. Polymerization of Vinylpyrrolidone to Form a Neutral Coating on Anionic Nanomaterials in Aqueous Suspension for Rapid Sedimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Edward P. C.; Zafar Iqbal; Sherif Nour

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials in water present an array of identifiable potential hazards to ecological and human health. There is no general consensus about the influence of anionic or cationic charge on the toxicity of nanomaterials on environmental ecology. One challenge is the limited number of scalable technologies available for the removal of charged nanomaterials from water. A new method based on polymer coating has been developed in our laboratory for rapid sedimentation of nanomaterials in aqueous s...

  10. Analysis of Proteins That Rapidly Change Upon Mechanistic/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Repression Identifies Parkinson Protein 7 (PARK7) as a Novel Protein Aberrantly Expressed in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, Farr; Namjoshi, Sanjeev; Song, Ehwang; Dilly, Geoffrey A; Schoenhard, Grant; Zemelman, Boris V; Mechref, Yehia; Raab-Graham, Kimberly F

    2016-02-01

    Many biological processes involve the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Thus, the challenge of deciphering mTORC1-mediated functions during normal and pathological states in the central nervous system is challenging. Because mTORC1 is at the core of translation, we have investigated mTORC1 function in global and regional protein expression. Activation of mTORC1 has been generally regarded to promote translation. Few but recent works have shown that suppression of mTORC1 can also promote local protein synthesis. Moreover, excessive mTORC1 activation during diseased states represses basal and activity-induced protein synthesis. To determine the role of mTORC1 activation in protein expression, we have used an unbiased, large-scale proteomic approach. We provide evidence that a brief repression of mTORC1 activity in vivo by rapamycin has little effect globally, yet leads to a significant remodeling of synaptic proteins, in particular those proteins that reside in the postsynaptic density. We have also found that curtailing the activity of mTORC1 bidirectionally alters the expression of proteins associated with epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorder-neurological disorders that exhibit elevated mTORC1 activity. Through a protein-protein interaction network analysis, we have identified common proteins shared among these mTORC1-related diseases. One such protein is Parkinson protein 7, which has been implicated in Parkinson's disease, yet not associated with epilepsy, Alzheimers disease, or autism spectrum disorder. To verify our finding, we provide evidence that the protein expression of Parkinson protein 7, including new protein synthesis, is sensitive to mTORC1 inhibition. Using a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex, a disease that displays both epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder phenotypes and has overactive mTORC1 signaling, we show that Parkinson protein 7 protein is elevated in the dendrites and colocalizes

  11. Analysis of Proteins That Rapidly Change Upon Mechanistic/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Repression Identifies Parkinson Protein 7 (PARK7) as a Novel Protein Aberrantly Expressed in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, Farr; Namjoshi, Sanjeev; Song, Ehwang; Dilly, Geoffrey A.; Schoenhard, Grant; Zemelman, Boris V.; Mechref, Yehia; Raab-Graham, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    Many biological processes involve the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Thus, the challenge of deciphering mTORC1-mediated functions during normal and pathological states in the central nervous system is challenging. Because mTORC1 is at the core of translation, we have investigated mTORC1 function in global and regional protein expression. Activation of mTORC1 has been generally regarded to promote translation. Few but recent works have shown that suppression of mTORC1 can also promote local protein synthesis. Moreover, excessive mTORC1 activation during diseased states represses basal and activity-induced protein synthesis. To determine the role of mTORC1 activation in protein expression, we have used an unbiased, large-scale proteomic approach. We provide evidence that a brief repression of mTORC1 activity in vivo by rapamycin has little effect globally, yet leads to a significant remodeling of synaptic proteins, in particular those proteins that reside in the postsynaptic density. We have also found that curtailing the activity of mTORC1 bidirectionally alters the expression of proteins associated with epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorder—neurological disorders that exhibit elevated mTORC1 activity. Through a protein–protein interaction network analysis, we have identified common proteins shared among these mTORC1-related diseases. One such protein is Parkinson protein 7, which has been implicated in Parkinson's disease, yet not associated with epilepsy, Alzheimers disease, or autism spectrum disorder. To verify our finding, we provide evidence that the protein expression of Parkinson protein 7, including new protein synthesis, is sensitive to mTORC1 inhibition. Using a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex, a disease that displays both epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder phenotypes and has overactive mTORC1 signaling, we show that Parkinson protein 7 protein is elevated in the dendrites and

  12. Influence of surface chemical properties on the toxicity of engineered zinc oxide nanoparticles to embryonic zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitao Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs are widely used in a variety of products, thus understanding their health and environmental impacts is necessary to appropriately manage their risks. To keep pace with the rapid increase in products utilizing engineered ZnO NPs, rapid in silico toxicity test methods based on knowledge of comprehensive in vivo and in vitro toxic responses are beneficial in determining potential nanoparticle impacts. To achieve or enhance their desired function, chemical modifications are often performed on the NPs surface; however, the roles of these alterations play in determining the toxicity of ZnO NPs are still not well understood. As such, we investigated the toxicity of 17 diverse ZnO NPs varying in both size and surface chemistry to developing zebrafish (exposure concentrations ranging from 0.016 to 250 mg/L. Despite assessing a suite of 19 different developmental, behavioural and morphological endpoints in addition to mortality in this study, mortality was the most common endpoint observed for all of the ZnO NP types tested. ZnO NPs with surface chemical modification, regardless of the type, resulted in mortality at 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf while uncoated particles did not induce significant mortality until 120 hpf. Using eight intrinsic chemical properties that relate to the outermost surface chemistry of the engineered ZnO nanoparticles, the highly dimensional toxicity data were converted to a 2-dimensional data set through principal component analysis (PCA. Euclidean distance was used to partition different NPs into several groups based on converted data (score which were directly related to changes in the outermost surface chemistry. Kriging estimations were then used to develop a contour map based on mortality data as a response. This study illustrates how the intrinsic properties of NPs, including surface chemical modifications and capping agents, are useful to separate and identify ZnO NP toxicity to

  13. Bridging environmental mixtures and toxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Sarah E; Smith, Brian W; Tanguay, Robert L; Anderson, Kim A

    2012-12-01

    Biological Response Indicator Devices Gauging Environmental Stressors (BRIDGES) is a bioanalytical tool that combines passive sampling with the embryonic zebrafish developmental toxicity bioassay to provide a quantitative measure of the toxicity of bioavailable complex mixtures. Passive sampling devices (PSDs), which sequester and concentrate bioavailable organic contaminants from the environment, were deployed in the Willamette and Columbia Rivers within and outside of the Portland Harbor Superfund site in Portland, OR, USA. Six sampling events were conducted in the summer and fall of 2009 and 2010. Passive sampling device extracts were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds and screened for 1,201 chemicals of concern using deconvolution-reporting software. The developmental toxicity of the extracts was analyzed using the embryonic zebrafish bioassay. The BRIDGES tool provided site-specific, temporally resolved information about environmental contaminant mixtures and their toxicity. Multivariate modeling approaches were applied to paired chemical and toxic effects data sets to help unravel chemistry-toxicity associations. Modeling elucidated spatial and temporal trends in PAH concentrations and the toxicity of the samples and identified a subset of PAH analytes that were the most highly correlated with observed toxicity. Although the present study highlights the complexity of discerning specific bioactive compounds in complex mixtures, it demonstrates methods for associating toxic effects with chemical characteristics of environmental samples. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  14. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  15. Ecotoxicological effect of ketamine: Evidence of acute, chronic and photolysis toxicity to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shih-Wei; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen

    2017-09-01

    Ketamine has been increasingly used in medicine and has the potential for abuse or illicit use around the world. Ketamine cannot be removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants. Although ketamine and its metabolite norketamine have been detected to a significant degree in effluents and aquatic environments, their ecotoxicity effects in aquatic organisms remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of ketamine and its metabolite, along with the chronic reproductive toxicity of ketamine (5-100μg/L) to Daphnia magna. Multiple environmental scenarios were also evaluated, including drug mixtures and sunlight irradiation toxicity. Ketamine and norketamine caused acute toxicity to D. magna, with half lethal concentration (LC 50 ) values of 30.93 and 25.35mg/L, respectively, after 48h of exposure. Irradiated solutions of ketamine (20mg/L) significantly increased the mortality of D. magna; pre-irradiation durations up to 2h rapidly increased the death rate to 100%. A new photolysis byproduct (M.W. 241) of norketamine that accumulates during irradiation was identified for the first time. The relevant environmental concentration of ketamine produced significant reproductive toxicity effects in D. magna, as revealed by the reduction of the number of total live offspring by 33.6-49.8% (p ketamine concentration cannot be ignored and warrant further examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. IDENTIFYING TOXIC LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS AND TOOLS TO FACILITATE THEIR DISCOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-31

    Air Force leaders focus group is comprised of seven retired or active duty Air Force leaders with the grades of Colonel through Major General. They...Changing office staff - Speaking negatively of staff or subordinate support; calling them timid , weak, sensitive. Perspectives of Superiors - High

  17. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyer, R.A. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  18. Rapid Simultaneous Removal of Toxic Anions [HSeO3]-, [SeO3]2-, and [SeO4]2-, and Metals Hg2+, Cu2+, and Cd2+by MoS42-Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijiao; Islam, Saiful M; Xiao, Chengliang; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Hongyun; Yuan, Mengwei; Sun, Genban; Li, Huifeng; Ma, Shulan; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2017-09-13

    We demonstrate fast, highly efficient concurrent removal of toxic oxoanions of Se(VI) (SeO 4 2- ) and Se(IV) (SeO 3 2- /HSeO 3 - ) and heavy metal ions of Hg 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Cd 2+ by the MoS 4 2- intercalated Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (MgAl-MoS 4 -LDH, abbr. MoS 4 -LDH). Using the MoS 4 -LDH as a sorbent, we observe that the presence of Hg 2+ ions greatly promotes the capture of SeO 4 2- , while the three metal ions (Hg 2+ , Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ ) enable a remarkable improvement in the removal of SeO 3 2- /HSeO 3 - . For the pair Se(VI)+Hg 2+ , the MoS 4 -LDH exhibits outstanding removal rates (>99.9%) for both Hg 2+ and Se(VI), compared to 81% removal for SeO 4 2- alone. For individual SeO 3 2- (without metal ions), 99.1% Se(IV) removal is achieved, while ≥99.9% removals are reached in the presence of Hg 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Cd 2+ . Simultaneously, the removal rates for these metal ions are also >99.9%, and nearly all concentrations of the elements can be reduced to exceptionally rapid, showing >99.5% removals for Hg 2+ within 1 min and ∼99.0% removal for Se(VI) within 30 min, as well as >99.5% removals for pairs Cu 2+ and Se(IV) within 10 min, and Cd 2+ and Se(IV) within 30 min. During the sorption of SeO 3 2- /HSeO 3 - , reduction of Se(IV) occurs to Se 0 caused by the S 2- sites in MoS 4 2- . Sorption kinetics for the oxoanions follows a pseudo-second-order model consistent with chemisorption. The intercalated material of MoS 4 -LDH is very promising as a highly effective filter for decontamination of water with toxic Se(IV)/Se(VI) oxoanions along with heavy metals such as Hg 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Cu 2+ .

  19. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  20. Using a rapidly identifiable access code system in the OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, D G; Weingarten, L

    1987-01-01

    To ensure that this system works, each staff member makes an entry into the computer or on the master chart when an item is taken from the supply area. He or she is also expected to check for outdated instrumentation and proper placement on the shelf. The coding system has increased the staff's organization and productivity. It has been successful because it uses a numerical system instead of a memory-based system, and because all instrumentation are categorized and stored according to specialty. The simplicity of the system that allows for quicker access to instrumentation also makes it inexpensive to implement.

  1. Assessing the toxic effects of ethylene glycol ethers using Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Mumtaz, Moiz; Gombar, Vijay

    2011-07-15

    Experimental determination of toxicity profiles consumes a great deal of time, money, and other resources. Consequently, businesses, societies, and regulators strive for reliable alternatives such as Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship (QSTR) models to fill gaps in toxicity profiles of compounds of concern to human health. The use of glycol ethers and their health effects have recently attracted the attention of international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO). The board members of Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (CICAD) recently identified inadequate testing as well as gaps in toxicity profiles of ethylene glycol mono-n-alkyl ethers (EGEs). The CICAD board requested the ATSDR Computational Toxicology and Methods Development Laboratory to conduct QSTR assessments of certain specific toxicity endpoints for these chemicals. In order to evaluate the potential health effects of EGEs, CICAD proposed a critical QSTR analysis of the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and developmental effects of EGEs and other selected chemicals. We report here results of the application of QSTRs to assess rodent carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and developmental toxicity of four EGEs: 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-propoxyethanol, and 2-butoxyethanol and their metabolites. Neither mutagenicity nor carcinogenicity is indicated for the parent compounds, but these compounds are predicted to be developmental toxicants. The predicted toxicity effects were subjected to reverse QSTR (rQSTR) analysis to identify structural attributes that may be the main drivers of the developmental toxicity potential of these compounds. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Bio-testing integral toxicity of corrosion inhibitors, biocides and oil hydrocarbons in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugunov, V.A.; Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Fomchenkov, V.M.; Novikov, I.A. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years bioassays have been widely used for assessing levels of contamination of the environment. This is due to the fact that test-organisms provide a general response to toxicants present in samples. Based on microorganisms as test objects, it is possible to develop cheap, sensitive and rapid assays to identify environmental xenobiotics and toxicants. The objective of the research was to develop different microbiological assays for assessing integral toxicity of water environments polluted with corrosion inhibitors, biocides and hydrocarbons in oil- and gas-processing industry. Bio-luminescent, electro-orientational, osmo-optic and microorganism reducing activity assays were used for express evaluation of integral toxicity. They are found to determine promptly integral toxicity of water environments containing various pollutants (oil, oil products, corrosion inhibitors, biocides). Results conclude that the assays may be used for analyzing integral toxicity of water polluted with hydrocarbons, as well as for monitoring of water changes as a result of biodegradation of pollutants by microorganisms and their associations. Using a kit of different assays, it is also possible to evaluate ecological safety of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and their compositions. Bioassays used as a kit are more effective than each assay individually, allowing one to get complete characterization of a reaction of bacterial test organisms to different environments. (authors)

  3. Females and Toxic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    than uplifting followers. Toxic leadership plummets productivity and applies brakes to organizational growth , causing progress to screech to a halt...uplifting followers. Toxic leadership plummets productivity and applies brakes to organizational growth , causing progress to screech to a halt.”5...FEMALES AND TOXIC LEADERSHIP A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in

  4. CHEMICAL TOXICITY OF URANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Cam

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Uranium, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust, is an alpha emitter radioactive element from the actinide group. For this reason, U-235 and U-238, are uranium isotopes with long half lives, have got radiological toxicity. But, for natural-isotopic-composition uranium (NatU, there is greater risk from chemical toxicity than radiological toxicity. When uranium is get into the body with anyway, also its chemical toxicity must be thought. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 215-220

  5. Hydrocarbon toxicity: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoehlen, L M; Tekulve, K J; Nañagas, K A

    2014-06-01

    Clinical effects of hydrocarbon exposure have been reported since 1897. These substances are ubiquitous, and their exposures are common. The specific hydrocarbon and route of exposure will determine the clinical effect, and an understanding of this is helpful in the care of the hydrocarbon-exposed patient. To complete a comprehensive review of the literature on hydrocarbon toxicity and summarize the findings. Relevant literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed/OVID) and Cochrane Library databases (inclusive of years 1975-2013), as well as from multiple toxicology textbooks. Bibliographies of the identified articles were also reviewed. Search terms included combinations of the following: hydrocarbons, inhalants, encephalopathy, coma, cognitive deficits, inhalant abuse, huffing, sudden sniffing death, toluene, renal tubular acidosis, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmia, dermatitis, and aspiration pneumonitis. All pertinent clinical trials, observational studies, and case reports relevant to hydrocarbon exposure and published in English were reviewed. Chronic, occupational hydrocarbon toxicity was not included. Exposure to hydrocarbons occurs through one of the following routes: inhalation, ingestion with or without aspiration, or dermal exposure. Inhalational abuse is associated with central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, and arrhythmia. The exact mechanism of the CNS depression is unknown, but experimental evidence suggests effects on NMDA, dopamine, and GABA receptors. Chronic toluene inhalation causes a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis associated with hypokalemia. Halogenated hydrocarbon abuse can cause a fatal malignant arrhythmia, termed "sudden sniffing death". Individuals who regularly abuse hydrocarbons are more likely to be polysubstance users, exhibit criminal or violent behavior, and develop memory and other cognitive deficits. Heavy, long-term use results in cerebellar dysfunction, encephalopathy, weakness, and dementia

  6. [Arsine: an unknown industrial chemical toxic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantamura, J; Dorandeu, F; Burnat, P; Renard, C

    2011-07-01

    Arsines family includes many compounds with various toxicities. Arsenic trihydride or arsine is the most toxic form of arsenic. Powerful haemolytic gas, it has never been used as a chemical weapon because its toxicity is not immediate and it is non persistent. However, cases of industrial poisoning with arsine are still identified in spite of a strict regulation at work. It is also identified as a potential toxic of chemical terrorism. This agent, of which the mechanism of action is still not well defined, is badly recognized because of intoxications rarity. However, fast detection means are available. Health professionals and especially those who are involved in piratox plan need to learn to recognize arsine intoxication (hematuria, oliguria, haemolytic anemia) in order to provide early, specific treatment and avoid damages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxic proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved to synthesize a variety of noxious compounds to cope with unfavorable circumstances, among which a large group of toxic proteins that play a critical role in plant defense against predators and microbes. Up to now, a wide range of harmful proteins have been discovered in different plants, including lectins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, ureases, arcelins, antimicrobial peptides and pore-forming toxins. To fulfill their role in plant defense, these proteins exhibit various degrees of toxicity towards animals, insects, bacteria or fungi. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the toxic effects and mode of action of these plant proteins in order to explore their possible applications. Indeed, because of their biological activities, toxic plant proteins are also considered as potentially useful tools in crop protection and in biomedical applications, such as cancer treatment. Genes encoding toxic plant proteins have been introduced into crop genomes using genetic engineering technology in order to increase the plant's resistance against pathogens and diseases. Despite the availability of ample information on toxic plant proteins, very few publications have attempted to summarize the research progress made during the last decades. This review focuses on the diversity of toxic plant proteins in view of their toxicity as well as their mode of action. Furthermore, an outlook towards the biological role(s) of these proteins and their potential applications is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa S. Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3, the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N and arsenic (As, which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

  9. Microbial fuel-cell-based toxicity sensor for fast monitoring of acidic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu J; Lefebvre, Olivier; Tan, Zi; Ng, How Y

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater may contain various potential toxicants. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a device in which bacteria convert the chemical energy into electricity. If a toxic event occurs, microbial activity is inhibited and thus the power output of the MFC decreases. Therefore, an MFC could serve as an early toxicity warning device. A real-time biomonitoring system was developed using MFCs to detect the inflow of toxic substances into wastewater treatment systems. After the MFCs reached steady state, a toxic incident was created by adding HCl into the wastewater to alter its pH. Consequently, a rapid decrease in voltage was observed immediately, followed by a subsequent recovery. The optimal MFC design was a single-chamber air cathode MFC, where the anode and cathode were separated by a Selemion proton exchange membrane. Under an external resistance of 5 Ω, the maximum power averaged 0.23 ± 0.023 mW with domestic wastewater. The optimized MFC showed high sensitivity and fast recovery when exposed to the acidic toxic event. When the hydraulic retention time was decreased from 22 to 3.5 min, sensitivity of the MFC increased substantially. Finally, the extent of inhibition observed was found to be related to the toxicity level, suggesting that a dosage-response relationship exists.

  10. Associated bacterial flora, growth, and toxicity of cultured benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis and Gambierdiscus toxicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Tosteson, T. R.; Ballantine, D.L.; Tosteson, C G; Hensley, V; Bardales, A T

    1989-01-01

    The growth, toxicity, and associated bacterial flora of 10 clonal cultures of the toxic benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis and Gambierdiscus toxicus isolated from the coastal waters of southwest Puerto Rico have been examined. Clonal cultures of O. lenticularis grew more rapidly and at broader temperature ranges than those of G. toxicus. All five Ostreopsis clones were toxic, while only one of the five Gambierdiscus clones was poisonous. The degree of toxicity among poisonous clo...

  11. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  12. Electronic Cigarette Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Michaels, David; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity.

  13. Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A.; Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Thompson, John W.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Haynes, Christy L.

    2012-07-01

    Nanoparticle toxicology, an emergent field, works toward establishing the hazard of nanoparticles, and therefore their potential risk, in light of the increased use and likelihood of exposure. Analytical chemists can provide an essential tool kit for the advancement of this field by exploiting expertise in sample complexity and preparation as well as method and technology development. Herein, we discuss experimental considerations for performing in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies, with a focus on nanoparticle characterization, relevant model cell systems, and toxicity assay choices. Additionally, we present three case studies (of silver, titanium dioxide, and carbon nanotube toxicity) to highlight the important toxicological considerations of these commonly used nanoparticles.

  14. Liquid Nicotine Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Baum, Carl R

    2015-07-01

    E-cigarettes, also known as electronic nicotine delivery systems and electronic cigarettes, are advertised as a healthier alternative product to tobacco cigarettes despite limited data on the consequences of e-cigarette use. Currently, there are no US Food and Drug Administration or other federal regulations of e-cigarettes, and calls to poison control centers regarding liquid nicotine toxicity, especially in children, are on the rise. This article presents the background and mechanism of action of e-cigarettes as well as up-to-date details of the toxicity of liquid nicotine. We also present management strategies in the setting of liquid nicotine toxicity.

  15. Emerging Patterns for Engineered Nanomaterials in the Environment: A Review of Fate and Toxicity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, K.; Keller, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The technical complexity of measuring ENM fate and transport processes in all environments necessitates identifying trends in these same processes. As part of our research, we collected emerging information on the environmental fate and toxicity of many ENMs and investigated transportation and transformation processes in air, water, and soil. Generally, studies suggest that (i) ENMs will have limited transport in the atmosphere, because they settle rapidly; (ii) ENMs are more stable in freshwater and stormwater than in seawater or groundwater primarily due to variations in ionic strength and the presence of natural organic matter; and (iii) in soil, the fate of ENMs strongly depends on the size of the ENM aggregates and groundwater chemistry, as well as pore and soil particle size. Emerging patterns regarding ENM fate, transport, and exposure combined with emerging information on toxicity indicate the risk is low for most ENMs although current exposure estimates compared with current data on toxicity indicate that at current production and release levels, exposure to Ag, nZVI, and ZnO may cause a toxic response to freshwater and marine species.

  16. Unknown toxic exposures. Arts and crafts materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabo, T N

    1997-03-01

    1. Arts and crafts material containing toxic chemicals have been found to be hazardous to human health. 2. Artists/craftspersons, who also may be employed in industry, often are unaware or not adequately informed about the toxic nature of many art products. 3. The occupational health nurse is in a critical position to identify and monitor the worker exposed to toxic chemicals both in the workplace and at home/art studio. 4. Education about hazardous substances can prevent illness or injury. With expertise in public health, occupational health nurses are in a key position to provide community education about the dangers of toxic art materials to the general public and the health care community.

  17. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  18. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  19. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  20. Local anaesthetic toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment strategies. Introduction ... depression and central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity increased .... requiring analgesic therapy beyond that of surgery. ..... Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 2006;91:1 –82. 32.

  1. [Toxicity of hydroxyquinoline derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashov, D; Simeonov, S P; Drumev, D; Peĭnikova, Ts; Dzhurov, A

    1980-01-01

    We studied a 90 day toxicity in dogs of the compound broxyquinoline + broxaldine--5:1 (enteroquin), applied orally and daily in doses of 0.1 and 0.2/kg t/24 h. We established the toxic manifestations during the period after the 15th day of the treatment: leukopenia, neutropenia and lymphocytosis (by 0.2 kg t/24 h). After the second and fifth day we observed a decrease of appetite, depression of the CNS, paralyses, arrhythmia, progressing loss in weight, proteinorrhea (more pronounced with those receiving 0.2/kg t (24 h); lethal consequence with some part of the animals 25% (ba 0.1/kg t) and 50% (by 0.2 kg t). We found out pathohistologically necrobiotic changes in the medulla oblongata and the kidneys, toxic distrophy of the liver, blood-vessel injuries. The toxic changes observed can be interpreted in connection with the presence of a species specific reaction.

  2. Recurrent amiodarone pulmonary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chendrasekhar, A; Barke, R A; Druck, P

    1996-01-01

    Amiodarone, a widely used antiarrhythmic drug, is associated with pulmonary toxicity, with an estimated mortality of 1% to 33%. Standard treatment for amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT) has been discontinuance of the drug and steroid therapy. We report a case of APT that recurred after withdrawal of steroids and failed to respond to reinstatement of steroid therapy. Recurrent APT is a rare clinical entity that has been reported only twice in recent literature.

  3. [Toxic alcohol poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulicki, Paweł; Głogowski, Tomasz

    Accidental or intentional poisonings with ethylene glycol or methanol constitute a serious toxicological problem in many countries. Both alcohols are quickly metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to toxic metabolites responsible for high anion gap severe metabolic acidosis and profound neurological, cardiopulmonary, renal disturbances and death. In the early period, the competing inhibition the alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol or fomepizol may successfully prevent the formation of the toxic metabolites. Once severe acidosis develops an emergency hemodialysis is required.

  4. Toxicity of parking lot runoff after application of simulated rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, D; Tiefenthaler, L; Bay, S

    2004-08-01

    Stormwater runoff is an important source of toxic substances to the marine environment, but the effects of antecedent dry period, rainfall intensity, and duration on the toxicity of runoff are not well understood. In this study, simulated rainfall was applied to parking lots to examine the toxicity of runoff while controlling for antecedent period, intensity, and duration of rainfall. Parking areas were divided into high and low use and maintained and unmaintained treatments. The parking stalls were cleaned by pressure washing at time zero. Simulated rainfall was then applied to subplots of the parking lots so that antecedent periods of 1, 2, and 3 months were achieved, and all of the runoff was collected for analysis. On a separate parking lot, rainfall was applied at a variety of intensities and durations after a 3-month antecedent period. Runoff samples were tested for toxicity using the purple sea urchin fertilization test. Every runoff sample tested was found to be toxic. Mean toxicity for the sea urchin fertilization test ranged from 2.0 to 12.1 acute toxic units. The toxicity increased rapidly during the first month but then decreased approximately to precleaning levels and remained there. No difference in toxicity was found between the different levels of use or maintenance treatments. The intensity and duration of rainfall were inversely related to degree of toxicity. For all intensities tested, toxicity was always greatest in the first sampling time interval. Dissolved zinc was most likely the primary cause of toxicity based on toxicant characterization of selected runoff samples.

  5. Screening of Compounds Toxicity against Human Monocytic cell line-THP-1 by Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pick Neora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide rapid increase in bacterial resistance to numerous antibiotics requires on-going development of new drugs to enter the market. As the development of new antibiotics is lengthy and costly, early monitoring of compound's toxicity is essential in the development of novel agents. Our interest is in a rapid, simple, high throughput screening method to assess cytotoxicity induced by potential agents. Some intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary site of infection is human alveolar macrophages. Thus, evaluation of candidate drugs for macrophage toxicity is crucial. Protocols for high throughput drug toxicity screening of macrophages using flow cytometry are lacking in the literature. For this application we modified a preexisting technique, propidium iodide (PI exclusion staining and utilized it for rapid toxicity tests. Samples were prepared in 96 well plates and analyzed by flow cytometry, which allowed for rapid, inexpensive and precise assessment of compound's toxicity associated with cell death.

  6. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  7. Assessing aluminium toxicity in streams affected by acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, A S; Webster-Brown, J G

    2013-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has degraded water quality and ecology in streams on the Stockton Plateau, the site of New Zealand's largest open-cast coal mining operation. This has previously been attributed largely to the effects of acidity and elevated aluminium (Al) concentrations. However, the toxicity of dissolved Al is dependent on speciation, which is influenced by pH which affects Al hydrolysis, as well as the concentrations of organic carbon and sulphate which complex Al. Methods for the assessment of the toxic fraction of Al, by chemical analysis and geochemical modelling, have been investigated in selected streams on the Stockton Plateau, where dissolved Al concentrations ranged from 0.034 to 27 mg L(-1). Modelling using PHREEQC indicated that between 0.2 and 85% of the dissolved Al was present as the free ion Al(3+), the most toxic Al species, which dominated in waters of pH = 3.8-4.8. Al-sulphate complexation reduced the Al(3+) concentration at lower pH, while Al-organic and -hydroxide complexes dominated at higher pH. Macroinvertebrate richness in the streams identified an Al(3+) 'threshold' of approximately 0.42 mg/L, above which taxa declined rapidly. Colorimetric 'Aluminon' analysis on unpreserved, unfiltered waters provided a better estimation of Al(3+) concentrations than inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on filtered, acidified waters. The Aluminon method does not react with particulate Al or strong Al complexes, often registering as little as 53% of the dissolved Al concentration determined by ICP-MS.

  8. The Toxicity of Mustard and Mustard Lewisite to Terrestrial Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-24

    sensitivity of Vibrio fischeri to HD and HL was evaluated by testing the 1000 mg!L stock solutions immediately after preparation, to reduce loss of the...enumeration. An attempt was made to expose Vibrio fischeri directly to HD so that exposure to products of rapid hydrolysis could be avoided, by adding...loss of compounds by hydrolysis. Despite apparent insolubility of the products in water, both HD and HL were toxic to Vibrio fischeri . HD toxicity

  9. Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for High-throughput Toxicity Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig; Block, Ines; List, Markus

    RNAs with known killing effects as a model system to demonstrate that RPPA-based protein quantification can serve as substitute readout of cell viability, hereby reliably reflecting toxicity. In terms of automation, cell exposure, protein harvest, serial dilution and sample reformatting were performed using...... beneficially in automated high-throughput toxicity testing. An advantage of using RPPAs is that, in addition to the baseline toxicity readout, they allow testing of multiple markers of toxicity, such as inflammatory responses, which do not necessarily cumulate in cell death. We used transfection of si...... a robotic screening platform. Furthermore, we automated sample tracking and data analysis by developing a bundled bioinformatics tool named “MIRACLE”. Automation and RPPA-based viability/toxicity readouts enable rapid testing of large sample numbers, while granting the possibility for flexible consecutive...

  10. [Toxicity of puffer fish fins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shunichi; Ichimaru, Shunichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Tamao; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji

    2007-10-01

    Puffer fish is prized as a Japanese traditional food and its fin is also used in the cuisine. However, whether the fin is edible or not is determined for convenience from the toxicity of skin, since little information is available about the toxicity of puffer fish fins. In the present study, we examined the toxicity of fins and skin of three toxic species, Takifugu vermicularis, T. snyderi, and T. porphyreus. The toxicity of T. vermicularis fins (puffer fish with toxic skin also have toxic fins.

  11. Organophosphorus insecticides: Toxic effects and bioanalytical tests for evaluating toxicity during degradation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Mirjana B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus insecticides have been the most applied group of insecticides for the last two decades. Their main toxic effects are related to irreversible inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Actually, they covalently bind to serine OH group in the enzyme active site forming phosphorylated enzyme that cannot hydrolyze acetylcholine. Organophosphorus insecticides in the environment undergo the natural degradation pathway including mainly homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis (especially at high pH generating non-inhibiting products. Additionally, thio organophosphates are easily oxidized by naturally present oxidants and UV light, forming more toxic and stable oxons. Thus, oxidative degradation procedures, generally referred as advanced oxidation processes (AOP, have been applied for their efficient removal from contaminated waters. The most applied bioassays to monitor the organophosphate toxicity i.e. the detoxification degree during AOP are Vibrio fischeri and AChE bioassays. Vibrio fischeri toxicity test exploits bioluminescence as the measure of luciferase activity of this marine bacterium, whereas AChE bioassay is based on AChE activity inhibition. Both bioanalytical techniques are rapid (several minutes, simple, sensitive and reproducible. Vibrio fischeri test seems to be a versatile indicator of toxic compounds generated in AOP for organophosphorus insecticides degradation. However, detection of neurotoxic AChE inhibitors, which can be formed in AOP of some organophosphates, requires AChE bioassays. Therefore, AChE toxicity test is more appropriate for monitoring the degradation processes of thio organophosphates, because more toxic oxo organophosphates might be formed and overlooked by Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition. In addition, during organophosphates removal by AOP, compounds with strong genotoxic potential may be formed, which cannot be detected by standard toxicity tests. For this reason, determination of

  12. Mercury Toxicity: A Family Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahşan Yıldırım

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased levels of environmental pollution have exposed mankind to foreign matters. In this article, five individuals within the age range of 20 and 54 from the same family, who were poisoned from liquid form mercury, are presented. Case Report: The first case presented to our clinic with cough, fever, night sweat.The patient with clinical findings of neutropenia, anemia and pneumonia who rapidly developed ARDS and died on the fourth day of hospitalization. Her WBC count: 0.4 (4,3 - 10,3 x 10³ / mm³, Hb: 10.8 (11.5-16.0 g/dL. The second case, presented with bicytopenia 1.3 (4,3 - 10,3 x 10³ / mm³, PLT: 88 x 10³(150– 400 x10³ /mm³. Toxic peripheral neuropathy was identified in both second and third cases. PLT count of third case was 123 x 10³ (150– 400 x10³ /ml. The fourth and fifth cases, presented with fatigue and headache. There were no positive findings in these two patients apart from high levels of mercury in the blood. Conclusion: With this case presentation involving a family, we describe clinical presentations of varying degrees among individual members of the same family, who were exposed to liquid form mercury through contact and inhalation. We believe that heavy metal exposure should be considered in patients presenting with various symptoms involving several systems including the cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological systems, although heavy metal exposure is rare. Our case differs from others since it involves a family.

  13. Using single-species toxicity tests, community-level responses, and toxicity identification evaluations to investigate effluent impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, L.; Clayton, S.A.; Yu, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Wood, R.M.; Yin, D.

    2000-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are increasingly used to monitor compliance of consented discharges, but few studies have related toxicity measured using WET tests to receiving water impacts. Here the authors adopt a four-stage procedure to investigate the toxicity and biological impact of a point source discharge and to identify the major toxicants. In stage 1, standard WET tests were employed to determine the toxicity of the effluent. This was then followed by an assessment of receiving water toxicity using in situ deployment of indigenous (Gammarus pulex) and standard (Daphnia magna) test species. The third stage involved the use of biological survey techniques to assess the impact of the discharge on the structure and functioning of the benthic macroinvertebrate community. In stage 4, toxicity identification evaluations (TIE) were used to identify toxic components in the effluent. Receiving-water toxicity and ecological impact detected downstream of the discharge were consistent with the results of WET tests performed on the effluent. Downstream of the discharge, there was a reduction in D. magna survival, in G. pulex survival and feeding rate, in detritus processing, and in biotic indices based on macroinvertebrate community structure. The TIE studies suggested that chlorine was the principal toxicant in the effluent.

  14. Sediment toxicity in the Duluth-Superior Harbor: Use of Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign} as screening assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.; Hubbard, C. [Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Paul, MN (United States); Schubauer-Berigan, J. [Univ. of South Carolina, Georgetown, SC (United States). Baruch Marine Inst.; Tesser, G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted in the Duluth-Superior Harbor at 40 sites as part of an integrated sediment assessment during the fall of 1993. Two rapid assays conducted with Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign}) were compared with three standard US EPA sediment toxicity tests: Hyalella azteca (acute tests) and Chironomus tentans (acute and sub-lethal tests). The response in the two microbial assays was also evaluated for sensitivity to various contaminants analyzed simultaneously in the Duluth-Superior Harbor sediments. Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign} were found to be sensitive to approximately one-third and one-half the sediments, respectively; Chironomus tentans was sensitive to 15% of the sediments (either acutely or sub-lethally), while Hyalella azteca was not sensitive to any of the sediments. In almost all cases, Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign} correctly identified samples that were toxic to the chironomid, making it useful as a screening tool for toxicity, to reduce the number of sites to be tested with the benthic organisms. The subsequent application of Microtox{reg_sign} as a screen for sediment toxicity in an EMAP survey in the St. Louis River (MN) estuary will be discussed. Correlation of Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign} toxicity to environmental contaminants found in the sediments will be presented.

  15. Acute Toxicity of Vildagliptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Peter; Martin, Lori; Keselica, Michael; Gunson, Diane; Skuba, Elizabeth; Lapadula, Dan; Hayes, Michael; Bentley, Phil; Busch, Steve

    2017-01-01

    This article describes acute toxicity data in cynomolgus monkeys following oral treatment with vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor. Acute toxicity symptoms in cynomolgus monkeys include edema formation of the extremities, tails, and face associated with skeletal muscle necrosis, and elevations of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase activities in the serum; hypothermia; hypotension; tachycardia; moribundity; and death in a few isolated instances. In surviving animals, symptoms were reversible even if treatment was continued. Cynomolgus monkeys from Mauritius appear more sensitive than monkeys of Asian origin. The underlying mechanism(s) of these symptoms in cynomolgus monkeys is currently not well understood, although a vascular mechanism including initial vasoconstriction and subsequent vascular leakage in distal extremities may play a role. The monkey data are reviewed and discussed in the context of other preclinical and clinical data, and it is concluded that acute toxicity following vildagliptin treatment is a monkey-specific phenomenon without relevance for humans.

  16. Localisation of antinutrients and qualitative identification of toxic components in Jatropha curcas seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus

    2012-05-01

    Jatropha curcas seed oil is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. The seeds contain major toxic (phorbol esters, PEs) and antinutritional (phytate and trypsin inhibitor) factors. In the present study the localisation of antinutrients and a rapid qualitative method for detecting the presence of PEs were investigated. Kernels were separated into cotyledon, hypocotyl, kernel coat and endosperm. The majority of phytate (96.5%), trypsin inhibitor (95.3%) and PEs (85.7%) were localised in the endosperm. Based on PEs, a qualitative method was developed to differentiate between toxic and non-toxic Jatropha genotypes. In this method, PEs were easily detected by passing methanol extracts of kernels (Jatropha toxic and non-toxic genotypes) through a solid phase extraction (SPE) column and measuring the absorption of the resulting eluates at 280 nm. For raw kernels, SPE eluates with absorbance ≥ 0.056 were considered as toxic and those with absorbance ≤0.032 as non-toxic. For defatted kernel meals, SPE eluates with absorbance ≥ 0.059 were considered as toxic and those with absorbance ≤0.043 as non-toxic. The majority of antinutrients/toxic compounds are localised in the endosperm of the kernel. The qualitative method developed for rapid identification of toxic PEs could be useful in screening the toxicity of Jatropha-based products in the biodiesel industry. Further confirmation of PEs should be established by high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Bacterial and enzymatic bioassays for toxicity testing in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitton, G; Koopman, B

    1992-01-01

    Microbioassays using bacteria or enzymes are increasingly applied to measure chemical toxicity in the environment. Attractive features of these assays may include low cost, rapid response to toxicants, high sample throughput, modest laboratory equipment and space requirements, low sample volume, portability, and reproducible responses. Enzymatic tests rely on measurement of either enzyme activity or enzyme biosynthesis. Dehydrogenases are the enzymes most used in toxicity testing. Assay of dehydrogenase activity is conveniently carried out using oxidoreduction dyes such as tetrazolium salts. Other enzyme activity tests utilize ATPases, esterases, phosphatases, urease, luciferase, beta-galactosidase, protease, amylase, or beta-glucosidase. Recently, the inhibition of enzyme (beta-galactosidase, tryptophanase, alpha-glucosidase) biosynthesis has been explored as a basis for toxicity testing. Enzyme biosynthesis was found to be generally more sensitive to organic chemicals than enzyme activity. Bacterial toxicity tests are based on bioluminescence, motility, growth, viability, ATP, oxygen uptake, nitrification, or heat production. An important aspect of bacterial tests is the permeability of cells to environmental toxicants, particularly organic chemicals of hydrophobic nature. Physical, chemical, and genetic alterations of the outer membrane of E. coli have been found to affect test sensitivity to organic toxicants. Several microbioassays are now commercially available. The names of the assays and their basis are: Microtox (bioluminescence), Polytox (respiration), ECHA Biocide Monitor (dehydrogenase activity), Toxi-Chromotest (enzyme biosynthesis), and MetPAD (enzyme activity). An important feature common to these tests is the provision of standardized cultures of bacteria in freeze-dried form. Two of the more recent applications of microbioassays are in sediment toxicity testing and toxicity reduction evaluation. Sediment pore water may be assayed directly or

  18. The toxicity of refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents toxicity data and exposure limits for refrigerants. The data address both acute (short-term, single exposure) and chronic (long-term, repeated exposure) effects, with emphasis on the former. The refrigerants covered include those in common use for the last decade, those used as components in alternatives, and selected candidates for future replacements. The paper also reviews the toxicity indicators used in both safety standards and building, mechanical, and fire codes. It then outlines current classification methods for refrigerant safety and relates them to standard and code usage.

  19. Comparison of phenolic and volatile profiles of edible and toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To identify them, a chemical comparison of edible and toxic forms was done in order to highlight differences between both forms. Dichloromethane leaf extracts from toxic and edible trees were analyzed by gas chromatography. Phenolic profile and volatile compounds from fruits extracts were studied respectively by High ...

  20. In Vitro Toxicity Assessment Technique for Volatile ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is tasked with evaluating the human health, environmental, and wildlife effects of over 80,000 chemicals registered for use in the environment and commerce. The challenge is that sparse chemical data exists; traditional toxicity testing methods are slow, costly, involve animal studies, and cannot keep up with a chemical registry that typically grows by at least 1000 chemicals every year. In recent years, High Throughput Screening (HTS) has been used in order to prioritize chemicals for traditional toxicity screening or to complement traditional toxicity studies. HTS is an in vitro approach of rapidly assaying a large number of chemicals for biochemical activity using robotics and automation. However, no method currently exists for screening volatile chemicals such as air pollutants in a HTS fashion. Additionally, significant uncertainty regarding in vitro to in in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) remains. An approach to bridge the IVIVE gap and the current lack of ability to screen volatile chemicals in a HTS fashion is by using a probe molecule (PrM) technique. The proposed technique uses chemicals with empirical human pharmacokinetic data as PrMs to study toxicity of molecules with no known data for gas-phase analysis. We are currently studying the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme CYP2A6 using transfected BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cell line. The CYP2A6 pathway activity is studied by the formation of cotinine from nicot

  1. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  2. Defining Moments in MMWR History: Toxic-Shock Syndrome -- 1980

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-03

    In the late 1970s and early 1980s, an outbreak of a disease called Toxic Shock Syndrome made healthy women sick. CDC’s disease detectives helped unravel the link between Toxic Shock Syndrome and high-absorbency tampons. MMWR was the first scientific publication to break the news of these cases. In this podcast, Dr. Kathy Shands, former chief of CDC’s Toxic Shock Syndrome Task Force, recalls her experience working with state epidemiologists to identify the link between toxic shock syndrome and tampon use.  Created: 11/3/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/3/2017.

  3. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  4. Nanomaterials and Retinal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuroretina should be considered as a potential site of nanomaterial toxicity. Engineered nanomaterials may reach the retina through three potential routes of exposure including; intra­ vitreal injection of therapeutics; blood-borne delivery in the retinal vasculature an...

  5. Respiratory Toxicity Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advancement in high throughput genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques have accelerated pace of lung biomarker discovery. A recent growth in the discovery of new lung toxicity/disease biomarkers have led to significant advances in our understanding of pathological proce...

  6. ANTIRETROVIRAl TOXICITY IN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vertical transmission prophylaxis (VrP), and the other is treatment for symptomatic HIV infection. Fig. 7. Disease profile ofHN-positivechildren in the Italian. Collaborative Multicentric Study. Antiretroviral (ARV) toxicity is an important issue that must be fully appreciated by prescribing doctors. While the benefits of therapy are ...

  7. Monosodium Glutamate Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    on the brain, it is used as a major taste enhancer in most eateries and cafeteria in Nigeria. However, information is scanty on the potential of Sida acuta leaf ethanolic extract. (SALEE) to mitigate MSG-induced effect on the brain. This study aimed to investigate the possible toxic effect of MSG, a natural constituent of many ...

  8. [Toxicity study of realgar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Aihua; Li, Chunying; Wang, Jinhua; Xue, Baoyun; Li, Hua; Yang, Bing; Wang, Jingyu; Xie, Qing; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the toxicity of realgar and provide the scientific basis for safety use of realgar in clinic. Acute toxicity was tested by single oral administration. Chronic toxicity of realgar was tested at different dose levels (5, 10, 20, 80, 160 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) which correspond to 1/2, 1, 2, 8, 16 times of human dose levels. The rats were treated with the test substances through oral administration once daily for successively 90 days. Urinary qualitative test, blood routine examination, serum chemistry measurement, and histomorphologic observation were conducted at day 30, 60 and 90. Toxic changes related to the treatment of realgar and no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was evaluated. With the content of 90% total arsenic and 1.696 mg x g(-1) soluble asenic, LD50 of Realgar with oral administration was 20.5 g x kg(-1) (corresponding to 34.8 mg x kg(-1) soluble arsenic), equivalent to 12 812 times of clinical daily dose for an adult. Realgar can cause kidney toxicity or/and liver toxicity after administration for over 30, 60 or 90 days respectively. The kidney was more sensitive to realgar than liver. Based on repeated dose toxicity study, NOAELs were 160 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) for 30 day's administration, 20 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) for 60 day's administration, 10 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) for 90 day's administration respectively. Thus, for safety use of realgar, it is recommended that the daily doses of realgar (with soluble arsenic realgar can cause kidney and liver pathological change, so the doses and administration duration should be limited. The suggestion is as follows: realgar which contains soluble arsenic < or = 1.7 mg x g(-1) should be used less than 2 weeks at daily dose 160 mg, less than 4 weeks at the dose of 20 mg and less than 6 weeks at the dose of 10 mg.

  9. Status and applications of echinoid (phylum echinodermata) toxicity test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay, S.; Burgess, R.; Nacci, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). The status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are described. The most frequently used test methods consist of short-term exposures of sea urchin sperm or embryos; these tests can be easily conducted at all times of the year by using species with complementary spawning cycles or laboratory conditioned populations of a single species. Data from reference toxicant and effluent toxicity tests are summarized. Information on the precision and sensitivity of echinoid test methods are limited and preclude rigorous comparisons with other test methods. The available data indicate that the sensitivity and precision of these methods are comparable to short-term chronic methods for other marine invertebrates and fish. Recent application of the sperm test in toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) and studies of effluent toxicity decay and sediment toxicity illustrate the versatility of this rapid (10 to 60 min exposure) test method. Embryo tests typically use a 48 to 96 h exposure period and measure the occurrence of embryo malformations. Most recent applications of the embryo test have been for the assessment of sediment elutriate toxicity. Adult echinoderms are not frequently used to assess effluent or receiving water toxicity. Recent studies have had success in using the adult life stage of urchins and sand dollars to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on growth, behavior, and bioaccumulation.

  10. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...

  11. Developmental evolution facilitates rapid adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Travisano, Michael

    2017-11-21

    Developmental evolution has frequently been identified as a mode for rapid adaptation, but direct observations of the selective benefits and associated mechanisms of developmental evolution are necessarily challenging to obtain. Here we show rapid evolution of greatly increased rates of dispersal by developmental changes when populations experience stringent selection. Replicate populations of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride underwent 85 serial transfers, under conditions initially favoring growth but not dispersal. T. citrinoviride populations shifted away from multicellular growth toward increased dispersal by producing one thousand times more single-celled asexual conidial spores, three times sooner than the ancestral genotype. Conidia of selected lines also germinated fifty percent faster. Gene expression changed substantially between the ancestral and selected fungi, especially for spore production and growth, demonstrating rapid evolution of tight regulatory control for down-regulation of growth and up-regulation of conidia production between 18 and 24 hours of growth. These changes involved both developmentally fixed and plastic changes in gene expression, showing that complex developmental changes can serve as a mechanism for rapid adaptation.

  12. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  13. Toxicity of individual naphthenic acids to Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Rowland, Steven J

    2011-11-15

    Numerous studies have suggested that the toxicity of organic compounds containing at least one carboxylic acid group and broadly classified as "naphthenic acids", is of environmental concern. For example, the acute toxicity of the more than 1 billion m(3) of oil sands process-affected water and the hormonal activity of some offshore produced waters has been attributed to the acids. However, experimental evidence for the toxicity of the individual acids causing these effects has not been very forthcoming. Instead, most data have been gathered from assays of incompletely characterized extracts of the water, which may contain other toxic constituents. An alternative approach is to assay the individual identified toxicants. Since numerous petroleum-derived naphthenic acids and some in oil sands process water, have recently been identified, we were able to measure the toxicity of some individual acids to the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri. Thirty-five pure individual acids were either synthesized or purchased for this purpose. We also used the US EPA ECOSAR computer model to predict the toxicity of each acid to the water flea, Daphnia magna. Both are well-accepted toxicological screening end points. The results show how toxic some of the naphthenic acids really are (e.g., V. fischeri Effective Concentrations for 50% response (EC(50)) 0.004 to 0.7 mM) and reveal the influence of hydrophobicity and aqueous solubility on the toxicities. Comparison with measured toxicities of other known, but more minor, constituents of oil sands process water, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylphenols, helps place these toxicities into a wider context. Given the reported toxicological effects of naphthenic acids to other organisms (e.g., fish, plants), the toxicities of the acids to further end points should now be determined.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis , neem oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), remains a major pest of brassica crops worldwide. Chemical control of this pest remains difficult due to the rapid development of resistance to insecticides and to their effect on natural enemies. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), ...

  15. A Mini-Nitrification Test for Toxicity Screening, Minntox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Dyreborg, Søren; Menck, C.

    1994-01-01

    There is a high demand for a rapid, simple, and inexpensive test for screening of the toxicity of wastewater, polluted groundwater and chemicals in order to protect sewage treatment plants and aquatic and terrestrial recipients. The mini-nitrification test, MINNTOX, presented here, fulfils...

  16. Toxic trace elements at gastrointestinal level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M; Calatayud, M; Jadán Piedra, C; Chiocchetti, G M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2015-12-01

    Many trace elements are considered essential [iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu)], whereas others may be harmful [lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As)], depending on their concentration and chemical form. In most cases, the diet is the main pathway by which they enter our organism. The presence of toxic trace elements in food has been known for a long time, and many of the food matrices that carry them have been identified. This has led to the appearance of legislation and recommendations concerning consumption. Given that the main route of exposure is oral, passage through the gastrointestinal tract plays a fundamental role in their entry into the organism, where they exert their toxic effect. Although the digestive system can be considered to be of crucial importance in their toxicity, in most cases we do not know the events that occur during the passage of these elements through the gastrointestinal tract and of ascertaining whether they may have some kind of toxic effect on it. The aim of this review is to summarize available information on this subject, concentrating on the toxic trace elements that are of greatest interest for organizations concerned with food safety and health: Pb, Cd, Hg and As. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CHEMICAL STRUCTURE INDEXING OF TOXICITY DATA ON ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standardized chemical structure annotation of public toxicity databases and information resources is playing an increasingly important role in the 'flattening' and integration of diverse sets of biological activity data on the Internet. This review discusses public initiatives that are accelerating the pace of this transformation, with particular reference to toxicology-related chemical information. Chemical content annotators, structure locator services, large structure/data aggregator web sites, structure browsers, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) International Chemical Identifier (InChI) codes, toxicity data models and public chemical/biological activity profiling initiatives are all playing a role in overcoming barriers to the integration of toxicity data, and are bringing researchers closer to the reality of a mineable chemical Semantic Web. An example of this integration of data is provided by the collaboration among researchers involved with the Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) project, the Carcinogenic Potency Project, projects at the National Cancer Institute and the PubChem database. Standardizing chemical structure annotation of public toxicity databases

  18. Animal Toxicity of Phytopathogenic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, C. E.; Hamilton, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    Twelve genera of phytopathogenic fungi comprising 27 species previously reported to produce phytotoxins were tested concurrently for animal and plant toxicity. There appeared to be no direct relationship between plant and animal toxicity. PMID:5059620

  19. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  20. Bismuth Toxicity Masquerading as Alzheimer's Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, William K.

    1998-03-01

    A 76-year old white married female had rapid onset dementia with myoclonus and was admitted to an HMO hospital where she was initially diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease. The physician- husband suggested that the condition might be due to the Pepto-Bismol which she had taken chronically to control her irritable bowel syndrome. An elevated serum bismuth level of 242 &mgr;g/L (normal is 5 &mgr;g/L) established bismuth toxicity as the cause of the dementia. With treatment the patient returned to a normal mental state. The possibility of bismuth encephalopathy needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of possible Alzheimer's dementia.

  1. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  2. The identification and treatment of toxic megacolon secondary to pseudomembranous colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, Megan M

    2008-01-01

    Toxic megacolon is an infrequently occurring, potentially life-threatening complication of pseudomembranous colitis. Although toxic megacolon may be considered rare, incidence is expected to increase because of the rapidly increased prevalence of pseudomembranous colitis. This article discusses the pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for toxic megacolon secondary to pseudomembranous colitis. Critical care nurses should be aware of the disease to intervene early and increase the chance of the patient's survival.

  3. Acute toxicity assessment of crude lead-extract from electronic waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead, with its toxic emission and pollution, is one of the hazardous chemical components of electronic wastes (e-wastes) rapidly generated in developing countries. This study assessed the environmental health effects of crude lead extracted from e-wastes materials, as determined by its acute toxicity (rat, oral). Diluted ...

  4. Kombucha--toxicity alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Kombucha mushroom, also known as Manchurian mushroom, is a mail-order product touted to lower blood pressure and raise T-cell counts. No controlled trials have been conducted to test these claims. Aspergillus, a mold that may grow on the Kombucha mushroom, attacks the brain and may be fatal to persons with weakened immune systems. Reported toxicity reactions have included stomach problems and yeast infections. Taking Kombucha in combination with other drugs may affect the drugs potency.

  5. Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    cancer in dogs and humans1 and mice and humans.2 The information for inert metal toxicity in humans is foreign-body carcinogenesis data related to...high dose of Thorotrast® (> 0.4 Bq/g) developed fibrosarcomas from perivascular leakage of some injections.19 Plutonium fragments have been injected...into the footpads of dogs to simulate the plutonium-contaminated wounds of plutonium machinists.2" The plutonium was translocated to the local lymph

  6. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  7. Comparison of Toxicities to Vibrio fischeri and Fish Based on Discrimination of Excess Toxicity from Baseline Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao H; Yu, Yang; Huang, Tao; Qin, Wei C; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2016-01-01

    Investigations on the relationship of toxicities between species play an important role in the understanding of toxic mechanisms to environmental organisms. In this paper, the toxicity data of 949 chemicals to fish and 1470 chemicals to V. fischeri were used to investigate the modes of action (MOAs) between species. The results show that although there is a positive interspecies correlation, the relationship is poor. Analysis on the excess toxicity calculated from toxic ratios (TR) shows that many chemicals have close toxicities and share the same MOAs between the two species. Linear relationships between the toxicities and octanol/water partition coefficient (log KOW) for baseline and less inert compounds indicate that the internal critical concentrations (CBRs) approach a constant both to fish and V. fischeri for neutral hydrophobic compounds. These compounds share the same toxic mechanisms and bio-uptake processes between species. On the other hand, some hydrophilic compounds exhibit different toxic effects with greatly different log TR values between V. fischeri and fish species. These hydrophilic compounds were identified as reactive MOAs to V. fischeri, but not to fish. The interspecies correlation is improved by adding a hydrophobic descriptor into the correlation equation. This indicates that the differences in the toxic ratios between fish and V. fischeri for these hydrophilic compounds can be partly attributed to the differences of bioconcentration between the two species, rather than the differences of reactivity with the target macromolecules. These hydrophilic compounds may more easily pass through the cell membrane of V. fischeri than the gill and skin of fish, react with the target macromolecules and exhibit excess toxicity. The compounds with log KOW > 7 exhibiting very low toxicity (log TR < -1) to both species indicate that the bioconcentration potential of a chemical plays a very important role in the identification of excess toxicity and MOAs.

  8. Comparison of Toxicities to Vibrio fischeri and Fish Based on Discrimination of Excess Toxicity from Baseline Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao H Wang

    Full Text Available Investigations on the relationship of toxicities between species play an important role in the understanding of toxic mechanisms to environmental organisms. In this paper, the toxicity data of 949 chemicals to fish and 1470 chemicals to V. fischeri were used to investigate the modes of action (MOAs between species. The results show that although there is a positive interspecies correlation, the relationship is poor. Analysis on the excess toxicity calculated from toxic ratios (TR shows that many chemicals have close toxicities and share the same MOAs between the two species. Linear relationships between the toxicities and octanol/water partition coefficient (log KOW for baseline and less inert compounds indicate that the internal critical concentrations (CBRs approach a constant both to fish and V. fischeri for neutral hydrophobic compounds. These compounds share the same toxic mechanisms and bio-uptake processes between species. On the other hand, some hydrophilic compounds exhibit different toxic effects with greatly different log TR values between V. fischeri and fish species. These hydrophilic compounds were identified as reactive MOAs to V. fischeri, but not to fish. The interspecies correlation is improved by adding a hydrophobic descriptor into the correlation equation. This indicates that the differences in the toxic ratios between fish and V. fischeri for these hydrophilic compounds can be partly attributed to the differences of bioconcentration between the two species, rather than the differences of reactivity with the target macromolecules. These hydrophilic compounds may more easily pass through the cell membrane of V. fischeri than the gill and skin of fish, react with the target macromolecules and exhibit excess toxicity. The compounds with log KOW > 7 exhibiting very low toxicity (log TR < -1 to both species indicate that the bioconcentration potential of a chemical plays a very important role in the identification of excess

  9. Toxicity of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Behzadi, Shahed; Laurent, Sophie; Forrest, M Laird; Stroeve, Pieter; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2012-03-21

    Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. There are few studies of the long-term consequences of nanoparticles on human health, but governmental agencies, including the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and Japan's Ministry of Health, have recently raised the question of whether seemingly innocuous materials such as carbon-based nanotubes should be treated with the same caution afforded known carcinogens such as asbestos. Since nanomaterials are increasing a part of everyday consumer products, manufacturing processes, and medical products, it is imperative that both workers and end-users be protected from inhalation of potentially toxic NPs. It also suggests that NPs may need to be sequestered into products so that the NPs are not released into the atmosphere during the product's life or during recycling. Further, non-inhalation routes of NP absorption, including dermal and medical injectables, must be studied in order to understand possible toxic effects. Fewer studies to date have addressed whether the body can eventually eliminate nanomaterials to prevent particle build-up in tissues or organs. This critical review discusses the biophysicochemical properties of various nanomaterials with emphasis on currently available toxicology data and methodologies for evaluating nanoparticle toxicity (286 references).

  10. Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Wolkove

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent commonly used to treat supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. This drug is an iodine-containing compound that tends to accumulate in several organs, including the lungs. It has been associated with a variety of adverse events. Of these events, the most serious is amiodarone pulmonary toxicity. Although the incidence of this complication has decreased with the use of lower doses of amiodarone, it can occur with any dose. Because amiodarone is widely used, all clinicians should be vigilant of this possibility. Pulmonary toxicity usually manifests as an acute or subacute pneumonitis, typically with diffuse infiltrates on chest x-ray and high-resolution computed tomography. Other, more localized, forms of pulmonary toxicity may occur, including pleural disease, migratory infiltrates, and single or multiple nodules. With early detection, the prognosis is good. Most patients diagnosed promptly respond well to the withdrawal of amiodarone and the administration of corticosteroids, which are usually given for four to 12 months. It is important that physicians be familiar with amiodarone treatment guidelines and follow published recommendations for the monitoring of pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary adverse effects.

  11. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkove, Norman; Baltzan, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent commonly used to treat supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. This drug is an iodine-containing compound that tends to accumulate in several organs, including the lungs. It has been associated with a variety of adverse events. Of these events, the most serious is amiodarone pulmonary toxicity. Although the incidence of this complication has decreased with the use of lower doses of amiodarone, it can occur with any dose. Because amiodarone is widely used, all clinicians should be vigilant of this possibility. Pulmonary toxicity usually manifests as an acute or subacute pneumonitis, typically with diffuse infiltrates on chest x-ray and high-resolution computed tomography. Other, more localized, forms of pulmonary toxicity may occur, including pleural disease, migratory infiltrates, and single or multiple nodules. With early detection, the prognosis is good. Most patients diagnosed promptly respond well to the withdrawal of amiodarone and the administration of corticosteroids, which are usually given for four to 12 months. It is important that physicians be familiar with amiodarone treatment guidelines and follow published recommendations for the monitoring of pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary adverse effects. PMID:19399307

  12. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  13. Cupriavidus necator JMP134 rapidly reduces furfural with a Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qunrui; Metthew Lam, L K; Xun, Luying

    2011-11-01

    Ethanol is a renewable biofuel, and it can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass. The biomass is usually converted to hydrolysates that consist of sugar and sugar derivatives, such as furfural. Yeast ferments sugar to ethanol, but furfural higher than 3 mM is inhibitory. It can take several days for yeast cells to reduce furfural to non-inhibitory furfuryl alcohol before producing ethanol. Bioreduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol before fermentation may relieve yeast from furfural toxicity. We observed that Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a strict aerobe, rapidly reduced 17 mM furfural to less than 3 mM within 14 min with cell turbidity of 1.0 at 600 nm at 50°C. The rapid reduction consumed ethanol. The "furfural reductase" (FurX) was purified, and it oxidized ethanol to acetaldehyde and reduced furfural to furfuryl alcohol with NAD(+) as the cofactor. The protein was identified with mass spectrometry fingerprinting to be a hypothetical protein belonging to Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase family. The furX-inactivation mutant of C. necator JMP134 lost the ability to rapidly reduce furfural, and Escherichia coli producing recombinant FurX gained the ability. Thus, an alcohol dehydrogenase enabled bacteria to rapidly reduce furfural with ethanol as the reducing power.

  14. Identifying Metabolically Active Chemicals Using a Consensus Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Model for Estrogen Receptor Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional toxicity testing provides insight into the mechanisms underlying toxicological responses but requires a high investment in a large number of resources. The new paradigm of testing approaches involves rapid screening studies able to evaluate thousands of chemicals acro...

  15. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  16. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Ma’ayeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient’s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  17. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ma'ayeh, Marwan

    2014-06-18

    This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient\\'s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  18. Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Yvan; Regenstreif, Philippe; Fanton, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray

  19. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  20. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  1. Impact of rapid urbanisation and industrialisation on river sediment metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayzoun, H; Garnier, C; Durrieu, G; Lenoble, V; Bancon-Montigny, C; Ouammou, A; Mounier, S

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at evidencing contaminant inputs from a rapidly growing population and the accompanying anthropogenic activities to river sediments. The Fez metropolitan area and its impacts on the Sebou's sediments (the main Moroccan river) were chosen as a case study. The Fez agglomeration is surrounded by the river Fez, receiving the wastewaters of this developing city and then flowing into the Sebou. The sediment cores from the Fez and Sebou Rivers were extracted and analysed for major elements, butyltins and toxic metals. Normalised enrichment factors and geoaccumulation index were calculated. Toxicity risk was assessed by two sets of sediment quality guideline (SQG) indices. A moderate level of contamination by butyltins was observed, with monobutyltin being the dominant species across all sites and depths. The lowest level of metal pollution was identified in the Sebou's sediments in upstream of Fez city, whilst the Fez' sediments were heavily polluted and exhibited bottom-up accumulation trends, which is a clear signature of recent inputs from the untreated wastewaters of Fez city. Consequently, the sediments of Fez and Sebou at the downstream of the confluence were found to be potentially toxic, according to the SQG levels. This finding is concerned with aquatic organisms, as well as to the riverside population, which is certainly exposed to these pollutants through the daily use of water. This study suggests that although Morocco has adopted environmental regulations aiming at restricting pollutant discharges into the natural ecosystems, such regulations are neither well respected by the main polluters nor efficiently enforced by the authorities.

  2. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  3. Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a “Toxicity Identification Evaluation” (TIE), which is the focus of this...

  4. Rapid evolution meets invasive species control: The potential for pesticide resistance in sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Erin S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.; Birceanu, Oana; Christie, Mark R.; Criger, Lori A.; Hinderer, Julia L.M.; Hollingworth, Robert M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Lantz, Stephen R.; Li, Weiming; Miller, James R.; Morrison, Bruce J.; Mota-Sanchez, David; Muir, Andrew M.; Sepulveda, Maria S.; Steeves, Todd B.; Walter, Lisa; Westman, Erin; Wirgin, Isaac; Wilkie, Michael P.

    2018-01-01

    Rapid evolution of pest, pathogen and wildlife populations can have undesirable effects; for example, when insects evolve resistance to pesticides or fishes evolve smaller body size in response to harvest. A destructive invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) has been controlled with the pesticide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) since the 1950s. We evaluated the likelihood of sea lamprey evolving resistance to TFM by (1) reviewing sea lamprey life history and control; (2) identifying physiological and behavioural resistance strategies; (3) estimating the strength of selection from TFM; (4) assessing the timeline for evolution; and (5) analyzing historical toxicity data for evidence of resistance. The number of sea lamprey generations exposed to TFM was within the range observed for fish populations where rapid evolution has occurred. Mortality from TFM was estimated as 82-90%, suggesting significant selective pressure. However, 57 years of toxicity data revealed no increase in lethal concentrations of TFM. Vigilance and the development of alternative controls are required to prevent this aquatic invasive species from evolving strategies to evade control.

  5. Aluminium toxicity in chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, J; Bertholf, R L; Wills, M R

    1985-08-01

    Aluminium is a ubiquitous element in the environment and has been demonstrated to be toxic, especially in individuals with impaired renal function. Not much is known about the biochemistry of aluminium and the mechanisms of its toxic effects. Most of the interest in aluminium has been in the clinical setting of the haemodialysis unit. Here aluminium toxicity occurs due to contamination of dialysis solutions, and treatment of the patients with aluminium-containing phosphate binding gels. Aluminium has been shown to be the major contributor to the dialysis encephalopathy syndrome and an osteomalacic component of dialysis osteodystrophy. Other clinical disturbances associated with aluminium toxicity are a microcytic anaemia and metastatic extraskeletal calcification. Aluminium overload can be treated effectively by chelation therapy with desferrioxamine and haemodialysis. Aluminium is readily transferred from the dialysate to the patient's bloodstream during haemodialysis. Once transferred, the aluminium is tightly bound to non-dialysable plasma constituents. Very low concentrations of dialysate aluminium in the range of 10-15 micrograms/l are recommended to guard against toxic effects. Very few studies have been directed towards the separation of the various plasma species which bind aluminium. Gel filtration chromatography has been used to identify five major fractions, one of which is of low molecular weight and the others appear to be protein-aluminium complexes. Recommendations on aluminium monitoring have been published and provide 'safe' and toxic concentrations. Also, the frequency of monitoring has been addressed. Major problems exist with the analytical methods for measuring aluminium which result from inaccurate techniques and contamination difficulties. The most widely used analytical technique is electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry which can provide reliable measurements in the hands of a careful analyst.

  6. Is LSD toxic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David E; Grob, Charles S

    2018-02-01

    LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was discovered almost 75 years ago, and has been the object of episodic controversy since then. While initially explored as an adjunctive psychiatric treatment, its recreational use by the general public has persisted and on occasion has been associated with adverse outcomes, particularly when the drug is taken under suboptimal conditions. LSD's potential to cause psychological disturbance (bad trips) has been long understood, and has rarely been associated with accidental deaths and suicide. From a physiological perspective, however, LSD is known to be non-toxic and medically safe when taken at standard dosages (50-200μg). The scientific literature, along with recent media reports, have unfortunately implicated "LSD toxicity" in five cases of sudden death. On close examination, however, two of these fatalities were associated with ingestion of massive overdoses, two were evidently in individuals with psychological agitation after taking standard doses of LSD who were then placed in maximal physical restraint positions (hogtied) by police, following which they suffered fatal cardiovascular collapse, and one case of extreme hyperthermia leading to death that was likely caused by a drug substituted for LSD with strong effects on central nervous system temperature regulation (e.g. 25i-NBOMe). Given the renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of LSD and other psychedelic drugs, it is important that an accurate understanding be established of the true causes of such fatalities that had been erroneously attributed to LSD toxicity, including massive overdoses, excessive physical restraints, and psychoactive drugs other than LSD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D. [ABB/Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    1993-10-26

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  8. Lidocaine Toxicity During Attempted Epistaxis Cautery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Elizabeth; Thornton, Matthew D

    2016-09-01

    Epistaxis is a common problem that occurs in up to 60% of the general population, and is a common emergency department (ED) complaint. The use of lidocaine for analgesia is common when cauterization is required for bleeds that are refractory to manual compression. Although the use of lidocaine is generally thought of as a benign intervention, it is not completely without risk. We present the case of a 19-year-old man who presented to the ED with persistent anterior epistaxis. He developed severe lidocaine toxicity resulting from topical anesthesia applied prior to intranasal cautery for the epistaxis. This toxicity, which manifested as seizures, bradycardia, hypotension, nausea, and emesis, was rapidly recognized and appropriately treated, with a good clinical outcome for the patient. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We present this case to increase awareness among emergency physicians of the potential complications of the intranasal use of topical lidocaine, something that is generally considered a benign intervention. We also discuss the pathophysiology and management of lidocaine toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A scoping review of rapid review methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-09-16

    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  10. In silico toxicology: computational methods for the prediction of chemical toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Raies, Arwa B.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the toxicity of chemicals is necessary to identify their harmful effects on humans, animals, plants, or the environment. It is also one of the main steps in drug design. Animal models have been used for a long time for toxicity testing. However, in vivo animal tests are constrained by time, ethical considerations, and financial burden. Therefore, computational methods for estimating the toxicity of chemicals are considered useful. In silico toxicology is one type of toxicity asses...

  11. Microfluidics for Antibiotic Susceptibility and Toxicity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Dai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a major concern for worldwide policy makers as very few new antibiotics have been developed in the last twenty-five years. To prevent the death of millions of people worldwide, there is an urgent need for a cheap, fast and accurate set of tools and techniques that can help to discover and develop new antimicrobial drugs. In the past decade, microfluidic platforms have emerged as potential systems for conducting pharmacological studies. Recent studies have demonstrated that microfluidic platforms can perform rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests to evaluate antimicrobial drugs’ efficacy. In addition, the development of cell-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip platforms have enabled the early drug testing, providing more accurate insights into conventional cell cultures on the drug pharmacokinetics and toxicity, at the early and cheaper stage of drug development, i.e., prior to animal and human testing. In this review, we focus on the recent developments of microfluidic platforms for rapid antibiotics susceptibility testing, investigating bacterial persistence and non-growing but metabolically active (NGMA bacteria, evaluating antibiotic effectiveness on biofilms and combinatorial effect of antibiotics, as well as microfluidic platforms that can be used for in vitro antibiotic toxicity testing.

  12. Nanoparticle toxicity and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevenslik, T, E-mail: nanoqed@gmail.com [QED Radiations, Discovery Bay, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2011-07-06

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have provided significant advancements in cancer treatment. But as in any technology, there is a darkside. Experiments have shown NPs in body fluids pose a health risk by causing DNA damage that in of itself may lead to cancer. To avoid the dilemma that NPs are toxic to both cancer cells and DNA alike, the mechanism of NP toxicity must be understood so that the safe use of NPs may go forward. Reactive oxidative species (ROS) of peroxide and hydroxyl radicals damage the DNA by chemical reaction, but require NPs provide energies of about 5 eV not possible by surface effects. Only electromagnetic (EM) radiations beyond ultraviolet (UV) levels may explain the toxicity of NPs. Indeed, experiments show DNA damage from <100 nm NPs mimic the same reaction pathways of conventional sources of ionizing radiation, Hence, it is reasonable to hypothesize that NPs produce their own source of UV radiation, albeit at low intensity. Ionizing radiation from NPs at UV levels is consistent with the theory of QED induced EM radiation. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. By this theory, fine < 100 nm NPs absorb low frequency thermal energy in the far infrared (FIR) from collisions with the water molecules in body fluids. Since quantum mechanics (QM) precludes NPs from having specific heat, absorbed EM collision energy cannot be conserved by an increase in temperature. But total internal reflection (TIR) momentarily confines the absorbed EM energy within the NP. Conservation proceeds by the creation of QED photons by frequency up-conversion of the absorbed EM energy to the TIR confinement frequency, typically beyond the UV. Subsequently, the QED photons upon scattering from atoms within the NP avoid TIR confinement and leak UV to the surroundings, thereby explaining the remarkable toxicity of NPs. But QED radiation need not be limited to natural or man-made NPs. Extensions suggest UV radiation is produced from biological NPs within the body, e.g., enzyme induced

  13. Neurological oxygen toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmery, Scott; Sykes, Oliver

    2012-10-01

    SCUBA diving has several risks associated with it from breathing air under pressure--nitrogen narcosis, barotrauma and decompression sickness (the bends). Trimix SCUBA diving involves regulating mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen and helium in an attempt to overcome the risks of narcosis and decompression sickness during deep dives, but introduces other potential hazards such as hypoxia and oxygen toxicity convulsions. This study reports on a seizure during the ascent phase, its potential causes and management and discusses the hazards posed to the diver and his rescuer by an emergency ascent to the surface.

  14. Toxicity of electronic waste leachates to Daphnia magna: screening and toxicity identification evaluation of different products, components, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithner, Delilah; Halling, Maja; Dave, Göran

    2012-05-01

    Electronic waste has become one of the fastest growing waste problems in the world. It contains both toxic metals and toxic organics. The aim of this study was to (1) investigate to what extent toxicants can leach from different electronic products, components, and materials into water and (2) identify which group of toxicants (metals or hydrophobic organics) that is causing toxicity. Components from five discarded electronic products (cell phone, computer, phone modem, keyboard, and computer mouse) were leached in deionised water for 3 days at 23°C in concentrations of 25 g/l for metal components, 50 g/l for mixed-material components, and 100 g/l for plastic components. The water phase was tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Eighteen of 68 leachates showed toxicity (with immobility of D. magna ≥ 50% after 48 h) and came from metal or mixed-material components. The 8 most toxic leachates, with 48 h EC(50)s ranging from 0.4 to 20 g/l, came from 2 circuit sheets (key board), integrated drive electronics (IDE) cable clips (computer), metal studs (computer), a circuit board (computer mouse), a cord (phone modem), mixed parts (cell phone), and a circuit board (key board). All 5 electronic products were represented among them. Toxicity identification evaluations (with C18 and CM resins filtrations and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid addition) indicated that metals caused the toxicity in the majority of the most toxic leachates. Overall, this study has shown that electronic waste can leach toxic compounds also during short-term leaching with pure water.

  15. Diagnosis of toxic alcohols: limitations of present methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and propylene glycol intoxications are associated with cellular dysfunction and an increased risk of death. Adverse effects can develop quickly; thus, there is a need for methods for rapidly detecting their presence. To examine the value and limitations of present methods to diagnose patients with possible toxic alcohol exposure. I searched MEDLINE for articles published between 1969 and 2014 using the terms: toxic alcohols, serum osmolality, serum osmol gap, serum anion gap, metabolic acidosis, methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and fomepizole. Each article was reviewed for additional references. The diagnosis of toxic alcohol exposure is often made on the basis of this history and physical findings along with an increase in the serum osmol and anion gaps. However, an increase in the osmol and/or anion gaps is not always present. Definitive detection in blood requires gas or liquid chromatography, laborious and expensive procedures which are not always available. Newer methods including a qualitative colorimetric test for detection of all alcohols or enzymatic tests for a specific alcohol might allow for more rapid diagnosis. Exposure to toxic alcohols is associated with cellular dysfunction and increased risk of death. Treatment, if initiated early, can markedly improve outcome, but present methods of diagnosis including changes in serum osmol and anion gap, and use of gas or liquid chromatography have important limitations. Development of more rapid and effective tests for detection of these intoxications is essential for optimal care of patients.

  16. Review of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Harris

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a rare but life threatening mucocutaneous reaction to drugs or their metabolites. It is characterised by widespread keratinocyte apoptosis and sloughing of the skin, erosions of the mucous membranes, painful blistering, and severe systemic disturbance. The pathophysiology of TEN is incompletely understood. Historically, it has been regarded as a drug-induced immune reaction initiated by cytotoxic lymphocytes via a human leukocyte antigen (HLA-restricted pathway. Several mediators have been identified as contributors to the cell death seen in TEN, including; granulysin, soluble Fas ligand, perforin/granzyme, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. Currently, granulysin is accepted as the most important mediator of T cell proliferation. There is uncertainty around the accepted management of TEN. The lack of definitive management guidelines for TEN is explained in part by the rarity of the disease and its high mortality rate, which makes it difficult to conduct randomised control trials on emerging therapies. Developments have been made in pharmacogenomics, with numerous HLA alleles identified; however, these have largely been ethnically specific. These associations have translated into screening recommendations for Han Chinese.

  17. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  18. Effect of heating rate on toxicity of pyrolysis gases from some synthetic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Soriano, J. A.; Kosola, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of heating rate on the toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from some synthetic polymers was investigate, using a screening test method. The synthetic polymers were polyethylene, polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, polycarbonate, ABS, polyaryl sulfone, polyether sulfone, and polyphenylene sulfide. The toxicants from the sulfur-containing polymers appeared to act more rapidly than the toxicants from the other polymers. It is not known whether this effect is due primarily to differences in concentration or in the nature of the toxicants. The carbon monoxide concentrations found do not account for the observed results.

  19. Effect of low-purity Fenton reagents on toxicity of textile dyeing effluent to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Joorim; Yoo, Jisu; Nam, Gwiwoong; Jung, Jinho

    2017-09-20

    This study aimed to identify the source of toxicity in textile dyeing effluent collected from February to July 2016, using Daphnia magna as a test organism. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures were used to identify the toxicants in textile dyeing effluent, and Jar testing to simulate the Fenton process was conducted to identify the source of toxicants. Textile dyeing effluent was acutely toxic to D. magna [from 1.5 to 9.7 toxic units (TU)] during the study period. TIE results showed that Zn derived from the Fenton process was a key toxicant in textile dyeing effluent. Additionally, Jar testing revealed that low-purity Fenton reagents (FeCl2 and FeSO4), which contained large amounts of Zn (89 838 and 610 mg L-1, respectively), were the source of toxicity. Although we were unable to conclusively identify the residual toxicity (approx. 1.4 TU of 9.71 TU) attributable to unknown toxicants in textile dyeing effluent, the findings of this study suggest that careful operation of the Fenton treatment process could contribute to eliminating its unintended toxic effects on aquatic organisms.

  20. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  1. Monitoring Toxic Ionic Liquids in Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) with Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI-MSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Consuelo J.; Tata, Alessandra; de Campos, Michel L.; Peng, Chun; Ifa, Demian R.

    2017-06-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry imaging has become an increasingly powerful technique for the direct analysis of biological tissues in the open environment with minimal sample preparation and fast analysis times. In this study, we introduce desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) as a novel, rapid, and sensitive approach to localize the accumulation of a mildly toxic ionic liquid (IL), AMMOENG 130 in zebrafish ( Danio rerio). The work demonstrates that DESI-MSI has the potential to rapidly monitor the accumulation of IL pollutants in aquatic organisms. AMMOENG 130 is a quaternary ammonium-based IL reported to be broadly used as a surfactant in commercialized detergents. It is known to exhibit acute toxicity to zebrafish causing extensive damage to gill secondary lamellae and increasing membrane permeability. Zebrafish were exposed to the IL in a static 96-h exposure study in concentrations near the LC50 of 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/L. DESI-MS analysis of zebrafish gills demonstrated the appearance of a dealkylated AMMOENG 130 metabolite in the lowest concentration of exposure identified by a high resolution hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer as the trimethylstearylammonium ion, [C21H46N]+. With DESI-MSI, the accumulation of AMMOENG 130 and its dealkylated metabolite in zebrafish tissue was found in the nervous and respiratory systems. AMMOENG 130 and the metabolite were capable of penetrating the blood brain barrier of the fish with significant accumulation in the brain. Hence, we report for the first time the simultaneous characterization, distribution, and metabolism of a toxic IL in whole body zebrafish analyzed by DESI-MSI. This ambient mass spectrometry imaging technique shows great promise for the direct analysis of biological tissues to qualitatively monitor foreign, toxic, and persistent compounds in aquatic organisms from the environment. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Toxic factors and autism

    OpenAIRE

    Charalampos Depastas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder. Today it has observed a continuing and rapid increase in its prevalence. Autism increase, in combination with unknown factors that cause it, so far, has drawn the interest of several researchers (from different scientific fields). It could be characterized as a multiple-factors disorder. In recent decades, many researchers have implicated mainly environmental, chemical, genetic, hereditary, and biological factors. The present article focus...

  3. Neurobehavioral toxicity of cadmium sulfate to the planarian Dugesia dorotocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, E.; Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The authors are developing bioassays which use planarians (free-living platyhelminthes) for the rapid determination of various types of toxicity, including acute mortality, tumorigenicity, and short-term neurobehavioral responses. Their motivation for using these animals is due to their importance as components of the aquatic ecology of unpolluted streams their sensitivity to low concentrations of environmental toxicants and the presence of a sensitive neurological system with a true brain which allows for complex social behavior. A previous paper described the results of a neurobehavioral bioassay using phenol in a crossover study. This paper reports a similar crossover study using cadmium sulfate.

  4. Brunfelsia spp (yesterday, today, tomorrow) toxicity in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Cowan, S; Child, G

    2008-06-01

    Four dogs were treated for acute toxicity following ingestion of the popular garden shrub 'Yesterday, today, tomorrow' (Brunfelsia spp). Clinical signs included vomiting, diarrhoea, muscle tremors, anxiousness, opisthotonus and seizures. All dogs recovered following treatment with any or all of general anaesthetic, gastric lavage, enema, diazepam, phenobarbitone or propofol sedation. Brunfelsia spp toxicity should be considered in young, previously healthy dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs that rapidly progress to muscle tremors and seizures. Examination of faeces was required for diagnosis in all cases. Owners should also be questioned thoroughly about their dogs' access to such plants.

  5. Biological control of toxic cyanobacteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlela, L

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available • If successful, the biocontrol agent may produce conformational changes to the cyanobacterial toxins or reduced eco-toxicity effects • The laboratory study may give insight into the factors inhibiting the natural balance of predatory bacteria... studies have been done on the eco-toxicity resulting from biocontrol as well as the changes to cyanotoxins, if any. Research Plan The study will be conducted at whole cell level and with specific metabolites and toxins, with eco-toxicity studied...

  6. Steven johnsons syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri ram Anne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN and Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS are severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions that predominantly involve the skin and mucous membranes. They are characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typically hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and more or less severe epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. Drugs are assumed or identified as the main cause of SJS/TEN in most cases, but Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Herpes simplex virus infections are well documented causes alongside rare cases in which the etiology remains unknown. Several drugs are at "high" risk of inducing TEN/SJS including: Allopurinol, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other sulfonamide-antibiotics, aminopenicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and NSAID's of the oxicam-type. Differential diagnosis includes linear IgA dermatosis and paraneoplastic pemphigus, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP, disseminated fixed bullous drug eruption and staphyloccocal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS. Due to the high risk of mortality, management of patients with SJS/TEN requires rapid diagnosis, identification and interruption of the culprit drug, specialized supportive care ideally in an intensive care unit, and consideration of immunomodulating agents such as high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

  7. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  8. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  9. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  10. Review of Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationships for Acute Mammalian Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglika Lessigiarska

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR models for acute mammalian toxicity published in the last decade. A number of QSAR models based on cytotoxicity data from mammalian cell lines are also included because of their possible use as a surrogate system for predicting acute toxicity to mammals. On the basis of the review, the following conclusions can be made: i a relatively small number of models for in vivo toxicity are published in the literature. This is due to the nature of the endpoint - acute systemic toxicity is usually related to whole body phenomena and therefore is very complex. The complexity of the mechanisms involved leads to difficulties in the QSAR modelling; ii most QSAR models identify hydrophobicity as a parameter of high importance for the modelled toxicity. In addition, many models indicate the role of the electronic and steric effects; iii most of the literature-based models are restricted to single chemical classes. Models based on more heterogeneous data sets are those incorporated in expert systems. In general, the QSAR models for mammalian toxicity identified in this review are considered useful for investigating the mechanisms of toxicity of defined chemical classes. However, for predictive purposes in the regulatory assessment of chemicals most of the models require additional information to satisfy internationally agreed validation principles. In addition, the development of new models covering larger chemical domains would be useful for the regulatory assessment of chemicals.

  11. Discriminating modes of toxic action in mice using toxicity in BALB/c mouse fibroblast (3T3) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Yan, Lichen; Zheng, Shanshan; Wang, Yue; Wang, Xiaohong; Fan, Lingyun; Li, Chao; Zhao, Yuanhui; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether toxicity in mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells) could predict toxicity in mice. Synthesized data on toxicity was subjected to regression analysis and it was observed that relationship of toxicities between mice and 3T3 cells was not strong (R2 = 0.41). Inclusion of molecular descriptors (e.g. ionization, pKa) improved the regression to R2 = 0.56, indicating that this relationship is influenced by kinetic processes of chemicals or specific toxic mechanisms associated to the compounds. However, to determine if we were able to discriminate modes of action (MOAs) in mice using the toxicities generated from 3T3 cells, compounds were first classified into "baseline" and "reactive" guided by the toxic ratio (TR) for each compound in mice. Sequence, binomial and recursive partitioning analyses provided strong predictions of MOAs in mice based upon toxicities in 3T3 cells. The correct classification of MOAs based on these methods was 86%. Nearly all the baseline compounds predicted from toxicities in 3T3 cells were identified as baseline compounds from the TR in mice. The incorrect assignment of MOAs for some compounds is hypothesized to be due to experimental uncertainty that exists in toxicity assays for both mice and 3T3 cells. Conversely, lack of assignment can also arise because some reactive compounds have MOAs that are different in mice compared to 3T3 cells. The methods developed here are novel and contribute to efforts to reduce animal numbers in toxicity tests that are used to evaluate risks associated with organic pollutants in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tapentadol toxicity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borys, Douglas; Stanton, Matthew; Gummin, David; Drott, Tracy

    2015-02-01

    Tapentadol (Nucynta) is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in adults. Tapentadol's mechanism of action consists of acting as an agonist on the μ-opioid receptor and by inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine. There are no published reports on the toxicity of tapentadol in pediatric patients. The goals of this study are to describe the incidence, medical outcomes, clinical effects, and treatment secondary to tapentadol exposure. This retrospective observational study used data from the National Poison Data System. Inclusion criteria were exposure to tapentadol from November 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013; age 0 to 17 years; single ingestion; and followed to a known outcome. There were 104 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Eighty patients were aged ≤ 6, 2-year-olds the most common age group (60.6%). There were 52 male and 52 female patients. Of the 104 patients, 93 had unintentional exposures. No deaths were reported. Sixty-two of the patients had no effect, 34 had minor effects, 6 had moderate and 2 had major effects. Thirty patients reported drowsiness and lethargy. Other effects reported included nausea, vomiting, miosis, tachycardia, respiratory depression, dizziness/vertigo, coma, dyspnea, pallor, vomiting, edema, hives/welts, slurred speech, pruritus, and hallucinations/delusions. Fifty-three patients were reported to have no medical intervention. This is the first study examining the toxic effects of tapentadol in a pediatric population. Although a majority of the patients in this review developed no effect from their exposure, two had life-threatening events. The most common effects reported were opioidlike. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Lab-on-a-chip for rapid electrochemical detection of nerve agent Sarin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Hsih-Yin; Loke, Weng Keong; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a lab-on-a-chip for the detection of Sarin nerve agent based on rapid electrochemical detection. The chemical warfare agent Sarin (C4H10FO2P, O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is a highly toxic organophosphate that induces rapid respiratory depression, seizures and death w...

  14. RAPID-N: Assessing and mapping the risk of natural-hazard impact at industrial installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents (so-called Natech accidents) at hazardous installations can have major consequences due to the potential for release of hazardous materials, fires and explosions. Effective Natech risk reduction requires the identification of areas where this risk is high. However, recent studies have shown that there are hardly any methodologies and tools that would allow authorities to identify these areas. To work towards closing this gap, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre has developed the rapid Natech risk assessment and mapping framework RAPID-N. The tool, which is implemented in an online web-based environment, is unique in that it contains all functionalities required for running a full Natech risk analysis simulation (natural hazards severity estimation, equipment damage probability and severity calculation, modeling of the consequences of loss of containment scenarios) and for visualizing its results. The output of RAPID-N are risk summary reports and interactive risk maps which can be used for decision making. Currently, the tool focuses on Natech risk due to earthquakes at industrial installations. However, it will be extended to also analyse and map Natech risk due to floods in the near future. RAPID-N is available at http://rapidn.jrc.ec.europa.eu. This presentation will discuss the results of case-study calculations performed for selected flammable and toxic substances to test the capabilities of RAPID-N both for single- and multi-site earthquake Natech risk assessment. For this purpose, an Istanbul earthquake scenario provided by the Turkish government was used. The results of the exercise show that RAPID-N is a valuable decision-support tool that assesses the Natech risk and maps the consequence end-point distances. These end-point distances are currently defined by 7 kPa overpressure for Vapour Cloud Explosions, 2nd degree burns for pool fire (which is equivalent to a heat radiation of 5 kW/m2 for 40s

  15. Endothelial toxicity of unusual nucleotide metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikant-Malecka, Iwona; Sielicka, Alicja; Kaniewska, Ewa; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Slominska, Ewa M

    2015-08-01

    Endothelium plays a pivotal role in the vascular tone regulation, platelet aggregation, regulation of immune response, inflammation and angiogenesis and its dysfunction is an earliest event in the development of cardiovascular disease. All these processes are affected by endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial toxicity induced by metabolites present in blood is a common scenario in pathology. This involves physiological metabolites such as asymmetric dimethylarginine or homocysteine that are normally excreted by kidneys, but accumulate in pathological conditions, adversely affecting function of endothelium. Our group identified new molecule with potential endothelial toxicity: 4-pirydone-3-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribonucleoside (4PYR). This nucleoside is most likely produced by oxidation of nicotinamide containing precursor by aldehyde oxidase. 4PYR easy crosses cell membrane and become phosphorylated inside the cell giving rise to mono-, di- and triphospates (4PYMP, 4PYDP and 4PYTP). There is considerable evidence that 4PYR is toxic in endothelium and other cell types by disrupting cell energetics evident as ATP depletion. Endothelial dysfunction in the in vitro and in vivo experiments is, however, evident only after prolonged exposure to 4PYR while acute cardiovascular effects are minor. 4PYR endothelial toxicity could be particularly important in patients with chronic renal disease where accumulation of 4PYR and its metabolites is particularly prominent. 4PYR metabolism and toxicity could be blocked by application of nucleoside transport inhibitors and we have proven efficiency of such intervention. We believe that blocking metabolism of endothelial nucleoside toxins such as 4PYR could become important strategy for endothelial targeted therapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  16. Implementation of rapid diagnostics with antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minejima, Emi; Wong-Beringer, Annie

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship (ASP) is an intervention-based program to improve patient outcomes to infection while limiting spread of resistance and unintended consequences. Many rapid diagnostic tools are now FDA cleared for clinical use, with three evaluated across multiple settings: Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, Verigene, and FilmArray. Areas covered: This review will focus on studies published that evaluated ASP intervention with rapid diagnostic implementation on outcomes of infection. A description of the key ASP personnel, rapid diagnostic notification methods, hours of notification, and scope of ASP intervention is summarized. Expert commentary: It is critical that ASPs continually re-evaluate and evolve with technological advances. Rapid diagnostic tools are powerful in their ability to identify organisms quickly. A trained clinician is needed to evaluate the results and interact with the providers to educate them on result interpretation and optimal antimicrobial selection to maximize treatment success.

  17. The effects of physicochemical properties of CeO2 nanoparticles on toxicity to soil denitrification processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Jessica Teague

    The studies presented in this thesis identify the impact of NP CeO 2 on soil denitrifying microbial communities and reveal that physical and chemical characteristics including particle size, speciation, concentration, pH, and presence of ligands are key to predicting environmental fate and reactivity of NP CeO2 in the soil. A review of the literature in Chapter 1 revealed a widespread lack of toxicological information for soil exposures to NP CeO2. Soil denitrifying bacteria are a keystone species because they serve an important role in the global nitrogen cycle controlling the atmospheric nitrogen input. Soil denitrifiers are important to this study because the reducing conditions during denitrification could induce phase transformation of Ce(IV) to Ce(III), potentially influencing the toxicity of Ce. Cerium is well known for being the only lanthanide that is thermodynamically stable in both the trivalent and tetravalent state in low temperature geochemical environments. Using well characterized NP Ce(IV)O 2 as well as bulk soluble Ce(III), batch denitrification experiments were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of Ce species to the denitrifying community in a Toccoa sandy loam soil. The statistical analysis on the antimicrobial effect on soil denitrifiers was conducted using both steady-state evaluation and zero-order kinetic models in order to compare the toxicity of the Ce(III) species to the NPs. These studies, presented in Chapter 3, show that soluble Ce(III) is far more toxic than Ce(IV)O2 NPs when an equal total concentration of Ce is used, though both species exhibit toxicity to the denitrifiers via statistically significant inhibition of soil denitrification processes. Particle-size dependent toxicity, species-dependent toxicity, and concentration-dependent toxicity were all observed in this study for both the steady-state and the kinetic evaluations. The possibility of toxicity enhancement and diminishment via dissolution and ligand complexation

  18. Characterization of toxic conditions above Wilson's Creek National Battlefield Park, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, T.S.; Nimmo, D.W.R.; Tessari, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Wilson's Creek has an extensive history of toxicity from both point and nonpoint sources. Seven-day chronic daphnid (Ceriodaphnia dubia) bioassays identified one toxic site in the Wilson's Creek watershed. Procedures for the characterization phase of a Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) were modified for chronic assessment and performed on four water samples from the toxic site. The characterization involved chemical/physical alterations of samples, combined with bioassays, to help in identification of the class(es) of toxicants; followed by chemical analyses. To help understand the additivity of mixtures, toxic units were derived. Successive samples contained concentrations of copper, cadmium, nickel and zinc that literature values describe as being chronically toxic to daphnids. Summed chronic toxic units for these values greatly exceeded ambient toxic units, and more than accounted for observed toxicity. Substantial fluctuations in water quality occurred over the five sampling periods of the characterization studies and a Test of Methods, June through August, 1991. This variability illustrates the difficulty in detecting and documenting nonpoint sources of pollution. Tests using living organisms, in conjunction with toxicity identification methods, on samples taken over time appear to be appropriate for detecting acute and chronic toxicity in areas impacted by intermittent point and nonpoint-source toxicity.

  19. Externalization of the Toxic Introject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Michael

    1975-01-01

    The therapist encounters patients who have incorporated toxic introjects. Therapy helps them to provide room for incorporation of a healthy object by externalizing the toxic introject. This technique is illustrated with several cases and comparison is made between the use of this technique in the treatment of adults and children. (Author)

  20. Toxic Leadership in Educational Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James E.

    2014-01-01

    While research on the traits and skills of effective leaders is plentiful, only recently has the phenomenon of toxic leadership begun to be investigated. This research report focuses on toxic leadership in educational organizations--its prevalence, as well as the characteristics and early indicators. Using mixed methods, the study found four…

  1. One Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Health and toxic cyanobacteria Blooms of toxic freshwater blue-green algae or cyanobacteria (HABs) have been in the news after HABs associated with human and animal health problems have been reported in Florida, California and Utah during 2016. HABs occur in warm, slow moving...

  2. The toxicity of X material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, J.L.

    1943-12-31

    This report addresses toxicity (largely chemical) of Manhattan Project materials from the point of worker protection. Known chemical toxicities of X material (uranium), nitrous fumes, fluorine, vanadium, magnesium, and lime are described followed by safe exposure levels, symptoms of exposure, and treatment recommendations. The report closes with an overview of general policy in a question and answer format.

  3. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  4. Occurrence and potential combined toxicity of dissolved organic contaminants in the Forth estuary and Firth of Forth, Scotland assessed using passive samplers and an algal toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelogu, Emmanuel S; Pollard, Pat; Dymond, Peter; Robinson, Craig D; Webster, Lynda; McKenzie, Craig; Dobson, Judy; Bresnan, Eileen; Moffat, Colin F

    2013-09-01

    As an alternative procedure to conventional water quality assessment, the presence and combined toxicity of dissolved organic contaminants in water at five sites in the Forth estuary and the Firth of Forth, Scotland, United Kingdom was investigated using silicone rubber passive sampling devices (SR-PSDs) and an algal growth inhibition bioassay. SR-PSDs were deployed in water at the five sites for ~2 months. Following retrieval, extracts from the deployed SR-PSDs were assessed for both algal growth inhibition and the occurrence of a wide range of organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and a variety of plant protection products (PPPs; commonly referred to collectively as 'pesticides'). The 72 h algal growth inhibition test was performed using a native marine phytoplankton (Diacronema lutheri) in 24 well microplates. Freely dissolved (e.g. bioavailable) concentrations of PAHs and PCBs were determined using performance reference compounds (PRCs). The algal toxicity tests exhibited varied effects at the five sites indicating the presence of, and exposure to, phytotoxic compounds and their potential toxicity in the Forth. The individual and total dissolved concentrations of 40 PAHs and 32 PCBs measured in the study were relatively low and showed input of petrogenic, atmospheric and sewage related sources. Several pesticides of diverse polarities were identified in the water suggesting sources from both riverine input and direct discharges. The study thus illustrates the value of combining bioassays and chemical analysis (with effective sampling technique) for a realistic and rapid assessment of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Protection against Radiotherapy-Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Hall

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is a highly utilized therapy in the treatment of malignancies with up to 60% of cancer patients receiving radiation therapy as a part of their treatment regimen. Radiation therapy does, however, cause a wide range of adverse effects that can be severe and cause permanent damage to the patient. In an attempt to minimize these effects, a small number of compounds have been identified and are in use clinically for the prevention and treatment of radiation associated toxicities. Furthermore, there are a number of emerging therapies being developed for use as agents that protect against radiation-induced toxicities. The aim of this review was to evaluate and summarise the evidence that exists for both the known radioprotectant agents and the agents that show promise as future radioprotectant agents.

  6. Reversal of opioid-induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrenik P Ostwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioids are commonly used for pain control in palliative care setting. Accumulation of active metabolites of opioids can cause a well-recognized toxidrome including respiratory depression (RD, decreased conscious level, pinpoint pupils, and drop in blood pressure. Opioid toxicity is often associated with amount ingested and its speed of absorption in the body. This can have life-threatening effects on various body systems. Naloxone is an opioid antagonist that competitively binds to opioid receptors and reverses all their effects. The indication for use is RD because of known or suspected opioid overdose. This article presents a case report of 61-year-old female, a case of advanced pancreatic cancer, progressed on disease-modifying treatments and referred to palliative care for best supportive care. She developed features of morphine toxicity that was promptly identified and managed with use of naloxone and other supportive measures.

  7. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of banks interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the companys detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the companys detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a good host is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the managers powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the other hand issuing

  8. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  9. Pyrosequencing as a tool for rapid fish species identification and commercial fraud detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Battisti, Cristian; Marciano, Sabrina; Magnabosco, Cristian; Busato, Sara; Arcangeli, Giuseppe; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2014-01-08

    The increased consumption of fish products, as well as the occurrence of exotic fish species in the Mediterranean Sea and in the fish market, has increased the risk of commercial fraud. Furthermore, the great amount of processed seafood products has greatly limited the application of classic identification systems. DNA-based identification allows a clear and unambiguous detection of polymorphisms between species, permitting differentiation and identification of both commercial fraud and introduction of species with potential toxic effects on humans. In this study, a novel DNA-based approach for differentiation of fish species based on pyrosequencing technology has been developed. Raw and processed fish products were tested, and up to 25 species of fish belonging to Clupeiformes and Pleuronectiformes groups were uniquely and rapidly identified. The proper identification based on short and unique genetic sequence signatures demonstrates that this approach is promising and cost-effective for large-scale surveys.

  10. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates.The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies.Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a).The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity data

  11. Surviving streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan Thayur R

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and associated myositis caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus pyogenes generally have a poor outcome despite aggressive operative treatment. Frequently the diagnosis is missed initially as the clinical features are non-specific. The progression to a toxic state is rapid and unless definitive treatment measures are initiated early, the end result can be catastrophic. We report a previously healthy patient who had features of toxic shock syndrome due to alpha haemolytic (viridans streptococcus mitis which was treated successfully with antibiotics, aggressive intensive care support including the use of a 'sepsis care bundle', monitoring and continuous multidisciplinary review. Life and limb threatening emergencies due to streptococcus mitis in an immune-competent person are rare and to our knowledge, have not previously been described in the English scientific literature. Successful outcome is possible provided a high degree of suspicion is maintained and the patient is intensively monitored.

  12. Use of the multispecies freshwater biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in response to toxicant exposure in sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Anita J; Gerhardt, Almut; Dick, Jaimie T A; McKenna, Maria; Berges, John A

    2006-07-01

    Automated sediment toxicity testing and biomonitoring has grown rapidly. This study tested the suitability of the marine amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) for sediment biomonitoring using the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor (MFB). Two experiments were undertaken to (1) characterize individual behaviors of C. volutator using the MFB and (2) examine behavioral changes in response to sediment spiked with the pesticide Bioban. Four behaviors were visually identified (walking, swimming, grooming and falling) and characterized in the MFB as different patterns of locomotor activity (0-2 Hz range). Ventilation was not visually observed but was detected by the MFB (2-8 Hz). No clear diel activity patterns were detected. The MFB detected an overall increase in C. volutator locomotor activity after Bioban addition to the sediments (56, 100, 121 mg kg(-1)). C. volutator was more active (both locomotion and ventilation) in the water column than the spiked sediment. C. volutator appears a sensitive and appropriate species for behavioral sediment toxicity assessment and biomonitoring.

  13. Sperm shape abnormalities induced by energy-related hydrocarbons and industrial chemicals. Progress report, January 1-June 30, 1979. [Methods of screening for toxic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A.J.

    1979-07-23

    Using existing and new biological screening and testing systems, the presence of carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and physiologic or metabolically toxic agents associated with coal and oil shale extraction, conversion or utilization was identified. The purpose of the study is to further develop and apply the detection of morphologically abnormal mammalian sperm as a rapid, simple, quantitative assay of the pathologic response of the male gonad to toxic agents associated with the recovery, process stream, and emission of nonnuclear sources of energy, with primary attention to substances from in situ coal gasification and in situ oil-shale extraction. Changes in mouse sperm head dimensions following low dose x-ray exposure have been compiled and analyzed.

  14. Toxicity of energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Brian J; Ganetsky, Michael; Babu, Kavita M

    2012-04-01

    'Energy drinks', 'energy shots' and other energy products have exploded in popularity in the past several years; however, their use is not without risk. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in energy drinks, and excessive consumption may acutely cause caffeine intoxication, resulting in tachycardia, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death. The effects of chronic high-dose caffeine intake in children and adolescents are unknown. Caffeine may raise blood pressure, disrupt adolescent sleep patterns, exacerbate psychiatric disease, cause physiologic dependence, and increase the risk of subsequent addiction. Coingestion of caffeine and ethanol has been associated with increased risk-taking behaviors, harm to adolescent users, impaired driving, and increased use of other illicit substances. The toxicity of ingredients often present in energy drinks, such as taurine, niacin, and pyridoxine, is less well defined. Recent and significant literature describing adverse events associated with energy drink use are reviewed. Although prior studies have examined the effects of caffeine in adolescents, energy drinks should be considered a novel exposure. The high doses of caffeine, often in combination with ingredients with unknown safety profiles, mandates urgent research on the safety of energy drink use in children and adolescents. Regulation of pediatric energy drink use may be a necessary step once the health effects are further characterized.

  15. Overcoming ammonium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittsánszky, András; Pilinszky, Katalin; Gyulai, Gábor; Komives, Tamas

    2015-02-01

    Ammonia (ammonium ion under physiological conditions) is one of the key nitrogen sources in cellular amino acid biosynthesis. It is continuously produced in living organisms by a number of biochemical processes, but its accumulation in cells leads to tissue damage. Current knowledge suggests that a few enzymes and transporters are responsible for maintaining the delicate balance of ammonium fluxes in plant tissues. In this study we analyze the data in the scientific literature and the publicly available information on the dozens of biochemical reactions in which endogenous ammonium is produced or consumed, the enzymes that catalyze them, and the enzyme and transporter mutants listed in plant metabolic and genetic databases (Plant Metabolic Network, TAIR, and Genevestigator). Our compiled data show a surprisingly high number of little-studied reactions that might influence cellular ammonium concentrations. The role of ammonium in apoptosis, its relation to oxidative stress, and alterations in ammonium metabolism induced by environmental stress need to be explored in order to develop methods to manage ammonium toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Song Fengrui, E-mail: songfr@ciac.jl.cn [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in

  17. Digestion of Plastic Materials for the Determination of Toxic Metals with a Microwave Oven for Household Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SAKURAI, Hiroki; NORO, Junji; KAWASE, Akira; FUJINAMI, Masanori; OGUMA, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    A rapid sample-digestion method for the determination of toxic metals, cadmium, chromium, and lead, in polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride has been developed by using a microwave oven for household use...

  18. Characterization and toxicity of citral incorporated with nanostructured lipid carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Noraini Nordin; Swee Keong Yeap; Nur Rizi Zamberi; Nadiah Abu; Nurul Elyani Mohamad; Heshu Sulaiman Rahman; Chee Wun How; Mas Jaffri Masarudin; Rasedee Abdullah; Noorjahan Banu Alitheen

    2018-01-01

    The nanoparticle as a cancer drug delivery vehicle is rapidly under investigation due to its promising applicability as a novel drug delivery system for anticancer agents. This study describes the development, characterization and toxicity studies of a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) system for citral. Citral was loaded into the NLC using high pressure homogenization methods. The characterizations of NLC-citral were then determined through various methods. Based on Transmission Electron Mi...

  19. Thoughts on identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    As business processes and information transactions have become an inextricably intertwined with the Web, the importance of assignment, registration, discovery, and maintenance of identifiers has increased. In spite of this, integrated frameworks for managing identifiers have been slow to emerge. Instead, identification systems arise (quite naturally) from immediate business needs without consideration for how they fit into larger information architectures. In addition, many legacy identifier systems further complicate the landscape, making it difficult for content managers to select and deploy identifier systems that meet both the business case and long term information management objectives. This presentation will outline a model for evaluating identifier applications and the functional requirements of the systems necessary to support them. The model is based on a layered analysis of the characteristics of identifier systems, including: * Functional characteristics * Technology * Policy * Business * Social T...

  20. Amiodarone Pulmonary, Neuromuscular and Ophthalmologic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen EA Burns

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone is an iodinated benzofuran derivative class III antiarrhythmic that is highly effective in suppressing ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. It is also associated with an imposing side effect profile, which often limits its use. Numerous adverse effects have been documented including skin discolouration, photosensitivity, hepatitis, thyroid dysfunction, corneal deposits, pulmonary fibrosis, bone marrow suppression and drug interactions. These side effects are thought to be correlated with the total cumulative dose of amiodarone, but idiopathic reactions have been reported. The majority of adverse reactions resolve with discontinuation of the drug; however, rapid progression may occur, which may be fatal. The present report documents a patient who had a combination of serious amiodarone toxicities that, once recognized, were treated and eventually resulted in a good outcome.

  1. Rapid and efficient degradation of bisphenol A by chloroperoxidase from Caldariomyces fumago: product analysis and ecotoxicity evaluation of the degraded solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaobo; Li, Haiyun; Jiang, Yucheng; Hu, Mancheng; Li, Shuni; Zhai, Quanguo

    2016-09-01

    To degrade enzymatically bisphenol A (BPA) that causes serious environmental concerns and is difficult to be degraded by chemical or physical methods. BPA (150 mg l(-1)) was completely degraded by chloroperoxidase (CPO)/H2O2 within 7 min at room temperature, atmospheric pressure with the enzyme at 6 μg CPO ml(-1). The degradation products were identified by HPLC-MS, which suggested involvement of multiple steps. Enzymatic treatment followed by existing bioremediation technologies (activated sludge) enhanced removal of COD from 9 to 54 %. Using an ecotoxicity evaluation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa, the degradation products had a lower toxicity than BPA. BPA can be degraded rapidly and efficiently under mild conditions with chloroperoxidase at 6 μg ml(-1). The degradation products had a lower toxicity than BPA.

  2. Identifiability in stochastic models

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.

  3. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  4. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  5. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  6. Bilateral putaminal necrosis and bronopol toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivisano, Marina; Carapelle, Elena; Martino, Tommaso; Specchio, Luigi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Among alcohols, methanol intoxication is the most frequently associated with cerebral toxicity, causing retinal damage and putaminal necrosis. This consequence is believed to be due to the transformation of methanol into formic acid. We describe the case of a patient who presented with acute impairment of consciousness and tetraparesis after she had been drinking several bottles of a topical antiseptic solution (Lysoform Medical) containing 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propandiol (bronopol) among excipients, in order to lose weight during previous months. Moreover, she had been on a strict slimming diet. Soon after admission, a severe respiratory and metabolic impairment became rapidly evident, requiring an intensive care unit admission. Cerebral MRI showed the presence of bilateral putaminal necrosis. She recovered in 10 days, surprisingly, without any evident clinical neurological signs. Methanol, also bronopol, when diluted in aqueous solution, at warm temperature and/or higher pH, may release formaldehyde, which is converted into formic acid, a basal ganglia toxic compound. PMID:25697297

  7. [Acute onset pulmonary toxicity associated to amiodarone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro Gonçalo; Saraiva, Fátima; Carreira, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Amiodarone is a potent anti-arrhythmic drug with a well-known potential chronic pulmonary toxicity. We describe a case of acute pulmonary toxicity (APT) induced by amiodarone in a 57 year old patient submitted to a perfusion of 900 mg in just 6 hours, to control an auricular flutter with rapid ventricular response. During the administration, the patient developed hemodynamic instability and oxygen dessaturation that led to an electrical cardioversion with return of sinus rhythm. Still, the patient continued in progressive respiratory deterioration with acute bilateral infiltrates on chest x-ray and apparent normal cardiac filling pressures confirmed by echocardiography. Anon-cardiogenic pulmonar edema progressing to clinico-physiological ARDS criteria was diagnosed. Expeditive therapeutic measures were undertaken, namely by initiation of non-invasive positive airway pressure support, that attained a good result.Albeit rare, amiodarone-induced APT might have severe consequences, namely progression to ALI/ARDS with a high mortality index.As it is a frequently prescribed drug, there should be a high clinical suspicion towards this phenomenon, allowing precocious therapeutic measures to be taken in a timely fashion to prevent the associated unfavorable outcome.

  8. C. elegans-on-a-chip for in situ and in vivo Ag nanoparticles’ uptake and toxicity assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Yun Jeong; Hong, Sung Jin; Chung, Sang Kug; Park, Tai Hyun; Choi, Shin Sik

    2017-01-01

    Nanomaterials are extensively used in consumer products and medical applications, but little is known about their environmental and biological toxicities. Moreover, the toxicity analysis requires sophisticated instruments and labor-intensive experiments. Here we report a microfluidic chip incorporated with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that rapidly displays the changes in body growth and gene expression specifically responsive to the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). C. elegans were cultured in microfluidic chambers in the presence or absence of AgNPs and were consequently transferred to wedge-shaped channels, which immobilized the animals, allowing the evaluation of parameters such as length, moving distance, and fluorescence from the reporter gene. The AgNPs reduced the length of C. elegans body, which was easily identified in the channel of chip. In addition, the decrease of body width enabled the worm to advance the longer distance compared to the animal without nanoparticles in a wedge-shaped channel. The transgenic marker DNA, mtl-2::gfp was highly expressed upon the uptake of AgNPs, resulting in green fluorescence emission. The comparative investigation using gold nanoparticles and heavy-metal ions indicated that these parameters are specific to AgNPs. These results demonstrate that C. elegans-on-a-chip has a great potential as a rapid and specific nanoparticle detection or nanotoxicity assessment system.

  9. A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF TOXIC LEADERSHIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Definitions of Toxic Leadership ...3 Table 1: Definitions of Toxic Leadership ... leadership . However, there are differing explanations as to the cause, solution, and even the definition of toxic leadership . This research contains

  10. Biological control of toxic cyanobacteri

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlela, Luyanda L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available and applications • If successful, the biocontrol agents may produce conformational changes to the cyanobacterial toxins or reduced eco-toxicity effects • The laboratory study may give insight into the factors inhibiting the natural balance of predatory... on the eco-toxicity resulting from biocontrol as well as the changes to cyanotoxins, if any. Research Plan The study will be conducted at whole cell level and with specific metabolites and toxins, with eco-toxicity studied at three trophic levels...

  11. Developmental Exposure to Environmental Toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Alison J; Mooney, Sandra; Kapoor, Shiv S; White, Kimberly M R; Bearer, Cynthia; El Metwally, Dina

    2015-10-01

    Children interact with the physical environment differently than adults, and are uniquely susceptible to environmental toxicants. Routes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and target organ toxicities vary as children grow and develop. This article summarizes the sources of exposure and known adverse effects of toxicants that are ubiquitous in our environment, including tobacco smoke, ethanol, solvents, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants, and pesticides. Preventive strategies that may be used in counseling children and their families are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Imatinib-induced pulmonary toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúd; Morales-Victorino, Neisser

    2009-01-01

    Antineoplasic agent-induced pulmonary toxicity is an important cause of respiratory failure. These novel antineoplastic agents include imatinib mesylate, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is encoded by the Bcr-Abl gen created by the Philadelphia chromosome abnormality in chronic myeloid leukemia. Pulmonary toxicity of imatinib is directly related to the dose used. The more severe pulmonary manifestations include pleural effusion by water retention and interstitial pneumonitis. We report the first case published in Mexico ofimatinib-induced pulmonary toxicity and its management in the intensive care unit of the Medica Sur Clinic Foundation.

  13. Toxicity of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    de Azavedo, J C; Arbuthnott, J P

    1984-01-01

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus associated with toxic shock syndrome produce toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST 1), which is lethal to conventional rabbits and acts synergistically with gram-negative lipopolysaccharide. The lethal effect of TSST 1 was examined in specific-pathogen-free rabbits on the basis that these rabbits, being less colonized by gram-negative bacteria, would be less susceptible than conventional animals. Although there was no significant difference in mortality between s...

  14. Defining surgical therapy for pseudomembranous colitis with toxic megacolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Loren; Carling, Tobias; Fitzgerald, Tamara N; Bell, Robert L; Duffy, Andrew J; Longo, Walter E; Roberts, Kurt E

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis has increased in incidence and severity over the past 10 years. Toxic megacolon is a rare but reported presentation of severe pseudomembranous colitis. This article reviews the reported cases of Clostridium difficile with toxic megacolon in the literature and introduces an additional case that underscores the importance of early diagnosis in guiding appropriate therapy. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify previous reports of pseudomembranous colitis presenting with toxic megacolon, and the outcomes of each of these cases was analyzed. The review was focused on atypical presentations in immunocompromised patients. Seventeen cases of C. difficile colitis presenting as toxic megacolon were identified. The overall mortality rate was 50% (9/18). Fifteen patients underwent surgery with an associated mortality rate of 50%. Thirteen patients had a subtotal colectomy. Seven of the patients (39%) were taking immunosuppressant medications, and 5 (28%) patients presented with atypical symptoms. Three (76%) of those were immunosuppressed. In several cases, failure to make an early diagnosis of C. difficile colitis resulted in a worse outcome because appropriate therapy was delayed. Toxic megacolon is well-established as an unusual presentation of C. difficile colitis. These patients are less likely to present with typical symptoms such as diarrhea or typical risk factors like recent administration of antibiotics, so diagnosis can be a challenge. A patient presenting with toxic megacolon without a history of inflammatory bowel disease should be assumed to have C. difficile colitis until proven otherwise, and medical or surgical therapy administered accordingly.

  15. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  17. Toxicity test of xanthone from mangosteen on zebrafish embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordin, Muhammad Akram Mohd; Noor, Mahanem Mat; Kamaruddin, Wan Mohd Aizat Wan; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul

    2016-11-01

    Xanthone is a chemical compound identified in mangosteen pericarp. A previous study showed that xanthone has anti-proliferating effect on cancer cells. In this study we investigate the toxicity level of xanthone in zebrafish embryo to for future reference on other animal model. We employed Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) assay to determine the toxicity level of different concentrations of xanthone. Embryos were observed at 24, 48 and 72 hours post fertilization (hpf) under microscope at 4× magnification. The extract showed toxicity effect on embryo at concentrations of 250, 125 and 62.5 µg/mL. Concentrations at 15.63, 7.81 and 3.91 µg / mL of xanthone did not harm the embryos and showed 100% of survival.

  18. Genomes2Drugs: identifies target proteins and lead drugs from proteome data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Toomey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome sequencing and bioinformatics have provided the full hypothetical proteome of many pathogenic organisms. Advances in microarray and mass spectrometry have also yielded large output datasets of possible target proteins/genes. However, the challenge remains to identify new targets for drug discovery from this wealth of information. Further analysis includes bioinformatics and/or molecular biology tools to validate the findings. This is time consuming and expensive, and could fail to yield novel drugs if protein purification and crystallography is impossible. To pre-empt this, a researcher may want to rapidly filter the output datasets for proteins that show good homology to proteins that have already been structurally characterised or proteins that are already targets for known drugs. Critically, those researchers developing novel antibiotics need to select out the proteins that show close homology to any human proteins, as future inhibitors are likely to cross-react with the host protein, causing off-target toxicity effects later in clinical trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To solve many of these issues, we have developed a free online resource called Genomes2Drugs which ranks sequences to identify proteins that are (i homologous to previously crystallized proteins or (ii targets of known drugs, but are (iii not homologous to human proteins. When tested using the Plasmodium falciparum malarial genome the program correctly enriched the ranked list of proteins with known drug target proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genomes2Drugs rapidly identifies proteins that are likely to succeed in drug discovery pipelines. This free online resource helps in the identification of potential drug targets. Importantly, the program further highlights proteins that are likely to be inhibited by FDA-approved drugs. These drugs can then be rapidly moved into Phase IV clinical studies under 'change-of-application' patents.

  19. Genomes2Drugs: identifies target proteins and lead drugs from proteome data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome sequencing and bioinformatics have provided the full hypothetical proteome of many pathogenic organisms. Advances in microarray and mass spectrometry have also yielded large output datasets of possible target proteins\\/genes. However, the challenge remains to identify new targets for drug discovery from this wealth of information. Further analysis includes bioinformatics and\\/or molecular biology tools to validate the findings. This is time consuming and expensive, and could fail to yield novel drugs if protein purification and crystallography is impossible. To pre-empt this, a researcher may want to rapidly filter the output datasets for proteins that show good homology to proteins that have already been structurally characterised or proteins that are already targets for known drugs. Critically, those researchers developing novel antibiotics need to select out the proteins that show close homology to any human proteins, as future inhibitors are likely to cross-react with the host protein, causing off-target toxicity effects later in clinical trials. METHODOLOGY\\/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To solve many of these issues, we have developed a free online resource called Genomes2Drugs which ranks sequences to identify proteins that are (i) homologous to previously crystallized proteins or (ii) targets of known drugs, but are (iii) not homologous to human proteins. When tested using the Plasmodium falciparum malarial genome the program correctly enriched the ranked list of proteins with known drug target proteins. CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Genomes2Drugs rapidly identifies proteins that are likely to succeed in drug discovery pipelines. This free online resource helps in the identification of potential drug targets. Importantly, the program further highlights proteins that are likely to be inhibited by FDA-approved drugs. These drugs can then be rapidly moved into Phase IV clinical studies under \\'change-of-application\\' patents.

  20. Low toxicity rocket propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrazine (N2H4) and its hypergolic mate nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) are used on virtually all spacecraft and on a large number of launch vehicles. In recent years however, there has been an effort in identifying and developing alternatives to replace hydrazine as a rocket propellant.

  1. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and anaerobic toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The municipal solid waste (MSW of large cities, in particular in developing countries, is mainly disposed of in landfills (LFs, whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic digestion tests. The acute toxicity assays with Daphnia pulex presented a toxic unit (TU value of 49.5%, which indicates that these leachates should not be directly discharged into water sources or percolate into the soil because they would affect the ecosystems served by these waters. According to statistical analyses, the leachate toxicity is mainly associated with the inorganic fraction, with chlorides, calcium hardness and calcium having the greatest influence on the toxicity. The anaerobic toxicity assays showed that in the exposure stage, the methanogenic activity exceeded that of the control, which suggests that the anaerobic bacteria easily adapted to the leachate. Therefore, this treatment could be an alternative to mitigate the toxicity of the studied leachates. The inhibition presented in the recovery stage, represented by a reduction of the methanogenic activity, could arise because the amount of supplied substrate was not enough to fulfill the carbon and nutrient requirements of the bacterial population present.

  2. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and Anaerobic Toxicity Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The municipal solid waste (MSW of large cities, in particular in developing countries, is mainly disposed of in landfills (LFs, whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic digestion tests. The acute toxicity assays with Daphnia pulex presented a toxic unit (TU value of 49.5%, which indicates that these leachates should not be directly discharged into water sources or percolate into the soil because they would affect the ecosystems served by these waters. According to statistical analyses, the leachate toxicity is mainly associated with the inorganic fraction, with chlorides, calcium hardness and calcium having the greatest influence on the toxicity. The anaerobic toxicity assays showed that in the exposure stage, the methanogenic activity exceeded that of the control, which suggests that the anaerobic bacteria easily adapted to the leachate. Therefore, this treatment could be an alternative to mitigate the toxicity of the studied leachates. The inhibition presented in the recovery stage, represented by a reduction of the methanogenic activity, could arise because the amount of supplied substrate was not enough to fulfill the carbon and nutrient requirements of the bacterial population present.

  3. Studies on the toxicity of industrial waste to Macrobrachium dayanum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, S.R.; Mathur, R.P.

    1974-01-01

    The toxic substances in industrial wastes, if discharged untreated into the stream can rapidly harm the aquatic life. It is, therefore, necessary to know the permissible concentration of various wastes. This paper presents data obtained from a series of static bioassay experiments conducted to establish the median tolerance limits (TL/sub m/). The distillery waste and the mixed pulp and paper waste were taken and the range of their toxicity was evaluated. Macrobrachium dayanum, a crustacean, was chosen as the test animal because of experimental convenience and suitability. The results on toxicity indicate that distillery waste is more toxic than the mixed pulp and paper factory waste. The toxicity of distillery waste is due to sulphides and H/sub 2/S. The mixed pulp and paper waste contain colloidal particles of cellulose and lignin which are lethal. The statistical analysis shows that both of the wastes are lethal to the animals separately in their natural form. The difference in survival rates is highly significant.

  4. Non-Toxic HAN Monopropellant Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have...

  5. Campylobacter colitis: Rare cause of toxic megacolon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kwok, MBBS

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Toxic megacolon should be considered in a patient with Campylobacter colitis who becomes critically unwell. Despite treatment, toxic megacolon is associated with a significant risk of mortality.

  6. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates for...

  7. Methylmercury toxicity and functional programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adverse health effects of developmental toxicants may induce abnormal functional programming that leads to lasting functional deficits. This notion is considered from epidemiological evidence using developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity as an example. MOST IMPORTANT FINDINGS: Accumula...

  8. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  9. TOXIC AND DRUG INDUCED MYOPATHIES

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Although the ?do no harm? dogma of Hippocrates is faithfully followed by all practitioners, drugs used for therapeutic interventions either alone or in combination, may sometimes cause unexpected toxicity to the muscles, resulting in a varying degree of symptomatology, from mild discomfort and inconvenience to permanent damage and disability. The clinician should suspect a toxic myopathy when a patient without a pre-existing muscle disease develops myalgia, fatigue, weakn...

  10. Identifiability of nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunali, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    The parameter identifiability problem of deterministic, nonlinear dynamical control systems is studied in the framework of differential geometric systems theory. The relations between nonlinear observability, nonlinear functional expansions and identifiability are investigated and necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for a class of nonlinear systems. In a different approach, by using the uniqueness theorem of nonlinear system realization theory, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for another class of nonlinear systems. These results provide an insight to the identifiability problem of nonlinear systems. The results are illustrated by examples that also show the effectiveness of the conditions obtained. Finally, some possible research topics in this area are suggested.

  11. Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: Part 1: role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Lyn

    2002-12-01

    Mercury exposure is the second-most common cause of toxic metal poisoning. Public health concern over mercury exposure, due to contamination of fish with methylmercury and the elemental mercury content of dental amalgams, has long been a topic of political and medical debate. Although the toxicology of mercury is complex, there is evidence for antioxidant protection in the prevention of neurological and renal damage caused by mercury toxicity. Alpha-lipoic acid, a coenzyme of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, has been used in Germany as an antioxidant and approved treatment for diabetic polyneuropathy for 40 years. Research has attempted to identify the role of antioxidants, glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid specifically, in both mitigation of heavy metal toxicity and direct chelation of heavy metals. This review of the literature will assess the role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity.

  12. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  14. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  15. Multiple mitigation mechanisms: Effects of submerged plants on the toxicity of nine insecticides to aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that regulate contaminant impacts in nature is an increasingly important challenge. For insecticides in surface waters, the ability of aquatic plants to sorb, or bind, hydrophobic compounds has been identified as a primary mechanism by which toxicity can be mitigated (i.e. the sorption-based model). However, recent research shows that submerged plants can also rapidly mitigate the toxicity of the less hydrophobic insecticide malathion via alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. the hydrolysis-based model) driven by increased water pH resulting from photosynthesis. However, it is still unknown how generalizable these mitigation mechanisms are across the wide variety of insecticides applied today, and whether any general rules can be ascertained about which types of chemicals may be mitigated by each mechanism. We quantified the degree to which the submerged plant Elodea canadensis mitigated acute (48-h) toxicity to Daphnia magna using nine commonly applied insecticides spanning three chemical classes (carbamates: aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran; organophosphates: malathion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos; pyrethroids: permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin). We found that insecticides possessing either high octanol-water partition coefficients (log K ow ) values (i.e. pyrethroids) or high susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. carbamates and malathion) were all mitigated to some degree by E. canadensis, while the plant had no effect on insecticides possessing intermediate log K ow values and low susceptibility to hydrolysis (i.e. chlorpyrifos and diazinon). Our results provide the first general insights into which types of insecticides are likely to be mitigated by different mechanisms based on known chemical properties. We suggest that current models and mitigation strategies would be improved by the consideration of both mitigation models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced toxicity polyester resins and microvascular pre-preg tapes for advanced composites manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poillucci, Richard

    Advanced composites manufacturing broadly encapsulates topics ranging from matrix chemistries to automated machines that lay-up fiber-reinforced materials. Environmental regulations are stimulating research to reduce matrix resin formulation toxicity. At present, composites fabricated with polyester resins expose workers to the risk of contact with and inhalation of styrene monomer, which is a potential carcinogen, neurotoxin, and respiratory irritant. The first primary goal of this thesis is to reduce the toxicity associated with polyester resins by: (1) identification of potential monomers to replace styrene, (2) determination of monomer solubility within the polyester, and (3) investigation of approaches to rapidly screen a large resin composition parameter space. Monomers are identified based on their ability to react with polyester and their toxicity as determined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and a green screen method. Solubilities were determined by the Hoftyzer -- Van Krevelen method, Hansen solubility parameter database, and experimental mixing of monomers. A combinatorial microfluidic mixing device is designed and tested to obtain distinct resin compositions from two input chemistries. The push for safer materials is complemented by a thrust for multifunctional composites. The second primary goal of this thesis is to design and implement the manufacture of sacrificial fiber materials suitable for use in automated fiber placement of microvascaular multifunctional composites. Two key advancements are required to achieve this goal: (1) development of a roll-to-roll method to place sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber pre-preg tape; and (2) demonstration of feasible manufacture of microvascular carbon fiber plates with automated fiber placement. An automated method for placing sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber tapes is designed and a prototype implemented. Carbon fiber tows with manual placement of sacrificial fibers is implemented within an

  17. Rapid Hepatitis B Vaccination in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Özcan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is a very important method in prevention of HBV.Especially rapid immunization takes an important place in subjects at highrisk. We have injected HBV vaccine to health workers who are attending inour hospital by rapid immunisation programme (at 0, 1 and 2 months andaimed to identify it’s efficiacy. Eighty seven subjects (69% male, 31%female were included to our study. Median age was 34 for male and 32 forwomen. We obtained 90% achievement of immunity rate after theprogramme finished. There were no significant difference between maleend female groups, and age groups. The non-responder rate was 11.6% inmale, and 7.4% in female. This rate was 6% in under 40 years old group,and 22.7% in 40 or older group. This difference was significant in twogroups statistically (p=0.02. The rapid immunization programme, weperformed has nearly the same success results as in standard programme.

  18. Optimization of process parameters for the rapid biosynthesis of hematite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Kumar; Sen, Shampa

    2016-06-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles are widely used in various applications including gas sensors, pigments owing to its low cost, environmental friendliness, non-toxicity and high resistance to corrosion. These nanoparticles were generally synthesized by different chemical methods. In the present study, nanoparticles were synthesized rapidly without heat treatment by biosynthesis approach using culture supernatant of Bacillus cereus SVK1. The physiochemical parameters for rapid synthesis were optimized by using UV-visible spectroscopy. The time taken for hematite nanoparticle synthesis was found to increase with the increasing concentration of the precursor. This might be due to the inadequate proportion of quantity of biomolecules present in the culture supernatant to the precursor which led to delayed bioreduction. Greater quantities of culture supernatant with respect to precursor lead to rapid synthesis of hematite nanoparticles. The nucleation of the hematite nucleus happens more easily when the solution pH was less than 10. The optimum parameters identified for the rapid biosynthesis of hematite nanoparticles were pH9, 37°C (temperature) and 1mM ferric chloride as precursor. The particles were well crystallized hexagonal structured hematite nanoparticles and are predominantly (110)-oriented. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to contain predominantly iron (73.47%) and oxygen (22.58%) as evidenced by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis. Hematite nanoparticles of 15-40nm diameters were biosynthesized in 48h under optimized conditions, compared to 21days before optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho Lourenço de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961, and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964 turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982, as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970, I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975 and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986 holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved.

  20. Lead Toxicity to the Performance, Viability, And Community Composition of Activated Sludge Microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, L; Zhi, W; Liu, YS; Karyala, S; Vikesland, PJ; Chen, X; Zhang, HS

    2015-01-20

    Lead (Pb) is a prominent toxic metal in natural and engineered systems. Current knowledge on Pb toxicity to the activated sludge has been limited to short-term (<= 24 h) toxicity. The effect of extended Pb exposure on process performance, bacterial viability, and community compositions remains unknown. We quantified the 24-h and 7-day Pb toxicity to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removal, bacterial viability, and community compositions using lab-scale experiments. Our results showed that 7-day toxicity was significantly higher than the short-term 24-h toxicity. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were more susceptible than the heterotrophs to Pb toxicity. The specific oxygen uptake rate responded quickly to Pb addition and could serve as a rapid indicator for detecting Pb pollutions. Microbial viability decreased linearly with the amount of added Pb at extended exposure. The bacterial community diversity was markedly reduced with elevated Pb concentrations. Surface analysis suggested that the adsorbed form of Pb could have contributed to its toxicity along with the dissolved form. Our study provides for the first time a systematic investigation of the effect of extended exposure of Pb on the performance and microbiology of aerobic treatment processes, and it indicates that long-term Pb toxicity has been underappreciated by previous studies.

  1. Toxic stress and child refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the phenomenon of toxic stress and its impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees. Almost two decades ago, researchers found that recurring adverse childhood events (ACEs; e.g., physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction such as substance abuse, mental illness, and criminal behavior) were associated with a significant increase in serious illnesses during adulthood. Illnesses include heart, lung, and liver disease, cancer, and bone fractures. The scientists reported that experiencing four or more ACEs during childhood significantly increases the risk for toxic stress. Toxic stress is defined as the exposure to extreme, frequent, and persistent adverse events without the presence of a supportive caretaker. There is a paucity of literature related to toxic stress and child refugees. However, it has been clearly established that the prolonged brutal and traumatizing war in Syria is having a profound impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees at a distressing rate. Prevention of toxic stress should be a primary goal of all pediatric healthcare professionals working with child refugees. While this seems daunting given the population, and the seemingly insurmountable stressors they experience, some basic interventions should be considered. Providing basic anticipatory guidance to parents and caregivers of child refugees, to encourage positive parenting and strengthening support networks, will be highly effective in developing the requisite buffers that mitigate the effects of stress and avoid toxic stress. Efforts should also be focused on addressing caregiver stress and improving their ability to provide safe, reliable, and nurturing care that will help to mitigate any stress response experienced by a child. It is critical that greater awareness be placed on the effects of toxic stress on child refugees who are exposed to significant adverse events early in life

  2. [Cognitive impairment in a toxic lesion of the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katamanova, E V; Rukavishnikov, V S; Lakhman, O L; Shevchenko, O I; Denisova, I A

    2015-01-01

    To identify features of cognitive impairment in patients with toxic (mercury or alcohol) encephalopathy. The study involved 36 patients with chronic mercury intoxication and 30 people with chronic alcoholism. A control group included 30 age-matched healthy men who were not exposed to toxic substances and alcohol abuse. All patients underwent neuropsychological examination, which involved a set of neuropsychological Luria rated memory status, praxis, gnosis and speeches. MMSE and FAB were used for the diagnosis of moderate cognitive impairment. Computer electroencephalography and cognitive evoked potentials method were used as well. The diffuse brain injury in toxic encephalopathy (alcohol and mercury) on EEG, and according to the results of neuropsychological testing was identified. Changes in analytical and synthetic thinking, audio-verbal, long-term, visual memory, reciprocal coordination, finger gnosis, impressive speech were observed in mercury encephalopathy. Functional failure of the frontal lobe and the premotor area of the left hemisphere were revealed in alcoholic encephalopathy.

  3. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  4. Long-term trends in the intensity and relative toxicity of herbicide use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniss, Andrew R.

    2017-04-01

    Herbicide use is among the most criticized aspects of modern farming, especially as it relates to genetically engineered (GE) crops. Many previous analyses have used flawed metrics to evaluate herbicide intensity and toxicity trends. Here, I show that herbicide use intensity increased over the last 25 years in maize, cotton, rice and wheat. Although GE crops have been previously implicated in increasing herbicide use, herbicide increases were more rapid in non-GE crops. Even as herbicide use increased, chronic toxicity associated with herbicide use decreased in two out of six crops, while acute toxicity decreased in four out of six crops. In the final year for which data were available (2014 or 2015), glyphosate accounted for 26% of maize, 43% of soybean and 45% of cotton herbicide applications. However, due to relatively low chronic toxicity, glyphosate contributed only 0.1, 0.3 and 3.5% of the chronic toxicity hazard in those crops, respectively.

  5. Identifying learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Grace

    2016-12-14

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.

  6. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

    1998-12-08

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was

  7. A rapid analysis of plasma/serum ethylene and propylene glycol by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Alexandra; Morris, Cory; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    A rapid headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed for the analysis of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol in plasma and serum specimens using 1,3-propanediol as the internal standard. The method employed a single-step derivitization using phenylboronic acid, was linear to 200 mg/dL and had a lower limit of quantitation of 1 mg/dL suitable for clinical analyses. The analytical method described allows for laboratories with HS-GC instrumentation to analyze ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol on a single instrument with rapid switch-over from alcohols to glycols analysis. In addition to the novel HS-GC method, a retrospective analysis of patient specimens containing ethylene glycol and propylene glycol was also described. A total of 36 patients ingested ethylene glycol, including 3 patients who presented with two separate admissions for ethylene glycol toxicity. Laboratory studies on presentation to hospital for these patients showed both osmolal and anion gap in 13 patients, osmolal but not anion gap in 13 patients, anion but not osmolal gap in 8 patients, and 1 patient with neither an osmolal nor anion gap. Acidosis on arterial blood gas was present in 13 cases. Only one fatality was seen; this was a patient with initial serum ethylene glycol concentration of 1282 mg/dL who died on third day of hospitalization. Propylene glycol was common in patients being managed for toxic ingestions, and was often attributed to iatrogenic administration of propylene glycol-containing medications such as activated charcoal and intravenous lorazepam. In six patients, propylene glycol contributed to an abnormally high osmolal gap. The common presence of propylene glycol in hospitalized patients emphasizes the importance of being able to identify both ethylene glycol and propylene glycol by chromatographic methods.

  8. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  9. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  10. PCR-Based Method for the Detection of Toxic Mushrooms Causing Food-Poisoning Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Chie; Masayama, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Sakuma, Daisuke; Kajimura, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    In this study, species-specific identification of five toxic mushrooms, Chlorophyllum molybdites, Gymnopilus junonius, Hypholoma fasciculare, Pleurocybella porrigens, and Tricholoma ustale, which have been involved in food-poisoning incidents in Japan, was investigated. Specific primer pairs targeting internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were designed for PCR detection. The specific amplicons were obtained from fresh, cooked, and simulated gastric fluid (SGF)-treated samples. No amplicons were detected from other mushrooms with similar morphology. Our method using one-step extraction of mushrooms allows rapid detection within 2.5 hr. It could be utilized for rapid identification or screening of toxic mushrooms.

  11. Movement disorders due to bilirubin toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica; Vassar, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Advances in the care of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia have decreased the incidence of kernicterus. However, neonatal exposure to high levels of bilirubin continues to cause severe motor symptoms and cerebral palsy (CP). Exposure to moderate levels of unconjugated bilirubin may also cause damage to the developing central nervous system, specifically the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Brain lesions identified using magnetic resonance imaging following extreme hyperbilirubinemia have been linked to dyskinetic CP. Newer imaging techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging or single-photon emission computed tomography, allow quantification of more subtle white matter injury following presumed exposure to unbound bilirubin, and may explain more subtle movement disorders. New categories of bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction, either independently or characterized by subtle bilirubin encephalopathy, following moderate hyperbilirubinemia have been implicated in long-term motor function. Further research is needed to identify subtle impairments resulting from moderate to severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, understand the influence of perinatal risk factors on bilirubin toxicity, and develop neuroprotective treatment strategies to prevent movement disorders due to bilirubin toxicity. PMID:25524299

  12. Baclofen Toxicity in Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Erin; Kothari, Niraj R; Roberts, John K; Sparks, Matthew A

    2018-02-01

    Baclofen, a commonly prescribed muscle relaxant, is primarily excreted via the kidneys; toxicity is a potentially serious adverse outcome in patients with decreased kidney function. We describe a patient with end-stage kidney disease receiving hemodialysis who developed neurotoxicity and hemodynamic instability after receiving baclofen for muscle spasms. In this case, prompt recognition of baclofen toxicity and urgent hemodialysis were effective in reversing this toxicity. This case is used to examine the pharmacokinetics and pathophysiology of baclofen toxicity and discuss appropriate diagnosis and management of baclofen toxicity. We recommend reducing the baclofen dose in patients who have moderately reduced kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 30-60mL/min/1.73m 2 ) and avoiding use in patients with severely reduced kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30mL/min/1.73m 2 ) or on renal replacement therapy. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  14. Dirty Money: A Matter of Bacterial Survival, Adherence, and Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriesekoop, Frank; Chen, Jing; Oldaker, Jenna; Besnard, Flavien; Smith, Reece; Leversha, William; Smith-Arnold, Cheralee; Worrall, Julie; Rufray, Emily; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao; Scannell, Amalia; Russell, Cryn

    2016-11-23

    In this study we report the underlying reasons to why bacteria are present on banknotes and coins. Despite the use of credit cards, mobile phone apps, near-field-communication systems, and cryptocurrencies such as bitcoins which are replacing the use of hard currencies, cash exchanges still make up a significant means of exchange for a wide range of purchases. The literature is awash with data that highlights that both coins and banknotes are frequently identified as fomites for a wide range of microorganisms. However, most of these publications fail to provide any insight into the extent to which bacteria adhere and persist on money. We treated the various currencies used in this study as microcosms, and the bacterial loading from human hands as the corresponding microbiome. We show that the substrate from which banknotes are produced have a significant influence on both the survival and adherence of bacteria to banknotes. Smooth, polymer surfaces provide a poor means of adherence and survival, while coarser and more fibrous surfaces provide strong bacterial adherence and an environment to survive on. Coins were found to be strongly inhibitory to bacteria with a relatively rapid decline in survival on almost all coin surfaces tested. The inhibitory influence of coins was demonstrated through the use of antimicrobial disks made from coins. Despite the toxic effects of coins on many bacteria, bacteria do have the ability to adapt to the presence of coins in their environment which goes some way to explain the persistent presence of low levels of bacteria on coins in circulation.

  15. The toxicity of dietary trans fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Riya; Pierce, Grant N

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death today. Trans fatty acids have been identified as an important cause of cardiovascular disease and the resulting clinical end points such as strokes and heart attacks. Although legislative efforts have limited the trans fats in our diet, significant amounts remain. Understanding the impact trans fats have on our body, therefore, remains a critical focus of study. In addition, paradoxically, recent research has now identified an important cardioprotective role for a sub-category of trans fats, the ruminant trans fats. Learning more about the mechanisms responsible for not only the toxic actions of trans fats but also their potential as beneficial compounds within our diet is essential to modulate cardiovascular disease today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting the toxicity of neat and weathered crude oil: toxic potential and the toxicity of saturated mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Toro, Dominic M; McGrath, Joy A; Stubblefield, William A

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity of oils can be understood using the concept of toxic potential, or the toxicity of each individual component of the oil at the water solubility of that component. Using the target lipid model to describe the toxicity and the observed relationship of the solubility of oil components to log (Kow), it is demonstrated that components with lower log (Kow) have greater toxic potential than those with higher log (Kow). Weathering removes the lower-log (Kow) chemicals with greater toxic potential, leaving the higher-log (Kow) chemicals with lower toxic potential. The replacement of more toxically potent compounds with less toxically potent compounds lowers the toxicity of the aqueous phase in equilibrium with the oil. Observations confirm that weathering lowers the toxicity of oil. The idea that weathering increases toxicity is based on the erroneous use of the total petroleum hydrocarbons or the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration as if either were a single chemical that can be used to gauge the toxicity of a mixture, regardless of its makeup. The toxicity of the individual PAHs that comprise the mixture varies. Converting the concentrations to toxic units (TUs) normalizes the differences in toxicity. A concentration of one TU resulting from the PAHs in the mixture implies toxicity regardless of the specific PAHs that are present. However, it is impossible to judge whether 1 microg/L of total PAHs is toxic without knowing the PAHs in the mixture. The use of toxic potential and TUs eliminates this confusion, puts the chemicals on the same footing, and allows an intuitive understanding of the effects of weathering.

  17. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  18. The Danger of Toxic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic (harmful gases enter building interiors partly from outdoors (sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, smog and acid rains, partly originate indoors - as a result of human activity (carbon monoxide, tobacco smoke, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons and also emanate from building materials (formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds. The human organism is most often exposed to cigarette smoke (especially nonsmokers are endangered, as cigarette smoke devastes the pulmonary and cardiovasculary system and to smog entering from outdoors, paradoxically during sunny weather. Preventing toxic production is the most effective measure, e.g., by coaxing to coax smokers out of "civilized" areas, by using energy rationally (i.e., conserving energy, to turn to pure fuels and to increase energy production by non-combustion technologies. Besides ventilation and air filtration, the toxic gases can be removed to a remarkable extent by plants (by which decay the substances into nontoxic gases, and by air ionization. Review article.

  19. Aluminium Toxicity Targets in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium (Al is the third most abundant metallic element in soil but becomes available to plants only when the soil pH drops below 5.5. At those conditions, plants present several signals of Al toxicity. As reported by literature, major consequences of Al exposure are the decrease of plant production and the inhibition of root growth. The root growth inhibition may be directly/indirectly responsible for the loss of plant production. In this paper the most remarkable symptoms of Al toxicity in plants and the latest findings in this area are addressed. Root growth inhibition, ROS production, alterations on root cell wall and plasma membrane, nutrient unbalances, callose accumulation, and disturbance of cytoplasmic Ca2+ homeostasis, among other signals of Al toxicity are discussed, and, when possible, the behavior of Al-tolerant versus Al-sensitive genotypes under Al is compared.

  20. Determination of toxic metals in salt deposits in Bormanda, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lawal

    3,12,13,14,15,16 . Chromium and Arsenic were not detected in any salt sample. Generally, the results of this study revealed the occurrence of some toxic metals in association with the soil salt deposits. Therefore, it is important to undertake Hazard Analysis and Critical Control. Point (HACCP) studies to identify and integrate.

  1. Acute and Subchronic Oral Toxicity Assessment of the Ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oil from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Food Chem. Toxicol 2013; 53: 52–61. 20. Saravanan N, Nalini N. Hemidesmus indicus protects against ethanol-induced liver toxicity. Cell Mol Biol. Lett 2008; 13: 20–37. 21. Ramaiah SK. Preclinical safety assessment: Current gaps, challenges, and approaches in identifying translatable ...

  2. Oral acute toxicity study of selected botanical pesticide plants used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    used plants were identified and selected for biosafety assessments namely: Ocimum gratissimum,. Tithonia diversifolia, Eucalyptus ... Key words: Oral acute toxicity, biopesticide, plant extracts, Lake Victoria Basin. INTRODUCTION. There is a ..... breathing (hyperventilation), excess loss of saliva. (salivation) and death of ...

  3. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a form of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) a rare but life-threatening hypersensitivity reactions that affect the skin and mucous membranes. The most common triggers are drugs, but they can also be triggered by infections. Granulysin has been recently identified as the major molecule ...

  4. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  5. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  6. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Unspecified Toxic Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intro to the unspecified toxic chemicals module, when to list toxic chemicals as a candidate cause, ways to measure toxic chemicals, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for toxic chemicals, toxic chemicals module references and literature reviews.

  7. Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the salinity-tolerance of Oreochromis niloticus and the influence of salinity changes on the acute toxicities of copper sulphate (CuSO4) and lead nitrate (Pb[NO3]2) against the fish species. On the basis of daily mortality assessment, O. niloticus was found to be unable to survive in media with salinity ...

  8. [Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, A; Berg, M; Stopp, M; Ukena, D; Schieffer, H

    1997-12-01

    Amiodarone is highly effective in suppressing ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The most serious adverse reaction is pulmonary toxicity. The mechanisms involved in amiodarone-induced pulmonary injury are incompletely understood. Several forms of pulmonary disease occur including interstitial pneumonitis, fibrosis or organizing pneumonia. The incidence is generally lower with lower maintenance doses (amiodarone. The diagnosis of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity is one of exclusion. Treatment consists primarily of stopping amiodarone application. Corticosteroid therapy can be life-saving for severe cases and for patients in whom withdrawl of amiodarone is not possible.

  9. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  10. USE OF CARBOXYLESTERASE ACTIVITY TO REMOVE PYRETHROID-ASSOCIATED TOXICITY TO CERIODAPHNIA DUBIA AND HYALELLA AZTECA IN TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Craig E.; Miller, Jeff L.; Miller, Mike J.; Phillips, Bryn M.; Huntley, Sarah A.; Gee, Shirley J.; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in the use and application of pyrethroid insecticides have resulted in concern regarding potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. Methods for the detection of pyrethroids in receiving waters are required to monitor environmental levels of these insecticides. One method employed for the identification of causes of toxicity in aquatic samples is the toxicity identification evaluation (TIE); however, current TIE protocols do not include specific methods for pyrethroid detection. Recent work identified carboxylesterase treatment as a useful method for removing/detecting pyrethroid-associated toxicity. The present study has extended this earlier work and examined the ability of carboxylesterase activity to remove permethrin- and bifenthrin-associated toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca in a variety of matrices, including laboratory water, Sacramento River (CA, USA) water, and Salinas River (CA, USA) interstitial water. Esterase activity successfully removed 1,000 ng/L of permethrin-associated toxicity and 600 ng/L of bifenthrin-associated toxicity to C. dubia in Sacramento River water. In interstitial water, 200 ng/L of permethrin-associated toxicity and 60 ng/L of bifenthrin-associated toxicity to H. azteca were removed. The selectivity of the method was validated using heat-inactivated enzyme and bovine serum albumin, demonstrating that catalytically active esterase is required. Further studies showed that the enzyme is not significantly inhibited by metals. Matrix effects on esterase activity were examined with municipal effluent and seawater in addition to the matrices discussed above. Results confirmed that the esterase retains catalytic function in a diverse array of matrices, suggesting that this technique can be adapted to a variety of aquatic samples. These data demonstrate the utility of carboxylesterase treatment as a viable step to detect the presence of pyrethroids in receiving waters. PMID:16629136

  11. Recent Developments in Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations: Innovations in Manipulations and Endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods were developed primarily in the late 1990s and early 2000s in research programs dedicated to developing manipulations and endpoints to characterize and identify causes of toxicity to benthic freshwater and marine org...

  12. A specialist toxicity database (TRACE) is more effective than its larger, commercially available counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.A.; Copestake, P.T.; Robinson, L.

    2000-01-01

    The retrieval precision and recall of a specialist bibliographic toxicity database (TRACE) and a range of widely available bibliographic databases used to identify toxicity papers were compared. The analysis indicated that the larger size and resources of the major bibliographic databases did not,

  13. Temporal pattern of toxicity in runoff from the Tijuana River Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersberg, Richard M; Daft, Daniel; Yorkey, Darryl

    2004-02-01

    Samples were collected from the Tijuana River under both dry weather (baseflow) conditions and during wet weather, and tested for toxicity using Ceriodaphnia dubia tests. Toxicity of waters in the Tijuana River was generally low under baseflow conditions, but increased markedly during high flow runoff events. In order to determine the temporal pattern of toxicity during individual rain events, sequential grab samples were collected using an autosampler at 5-7 h intervals after the start of the rain event, and tested for acute toxicity. In all cases, peak toxicity values (ranging from 2.8 to 5.8TU) for each storm occurred within the first 1-2 h of initiation of the rain event, and were statistically higher (using the 95% CL) for each of the pre-storm base flow values. However, there was no statistically significant correlation (p<0.05) between flow rate and toxicity when all storm data was pooled. Additionally, we used toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to attempt to identify the classes of chemicals that account for this early storm toxicity. Solid phase extraction was the only treatment that showed consistent and significant (P<0.05) removal of toxicity. These TIEs, conducted on the most toxic sample of the river's flow during runoff events, suggest that non-polar organics may be responsible for such toxicity. The temporal pattern of toxicity, both during a given storm event and seasonally, indicates that wash-off from the watershed by rainfall may deplete the supply of toxicity available for wash-off in subsequent events, so that a clearly consistent relationship between flow and toxicity was not evident.

  14. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  15. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  16. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  17. Is drug-induced toxicity a good predictor of response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer? -A prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh JP

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is an integral part of multi-modality approach in the management of locally advanced breast cancer and it is vital to predict the response in order to tailor the regime for a patient. The common final pathway in the tumor cell death is believed to be apoptosis or programmed cell death and chemotherapeutic drugs like other DNA-damaging agents act on rapidly multiplying cells including both the tumor and the normal cells by following the same common final pathway. This could account for both the toxic effects and the response. Absence or decreased apoptosis has been found to be associated with chemo resistance. The change in expression of apoptotic markers (Bcl-2 and Bax proteins brought about by various chemotherapeutic regimens is being used to identify drug resistance in the tumor cells. A prospective clinical study was conducted to assess whether chemotherapy induced toxic effects could serve as reliable predictors of apoptosis or response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Methods 50 cases of locally advanced breast cancer after complete routine and metastatic work up were subjected to trucut biopsy and the tissue evaluated immunohistochemically for apoptotic markers (bcl-2/bax ratio. Three cycles of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy using FAC regime (5-fluorouracil, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide were given at three weekly intervals and patients assessed for clinical response as well as toxicity after each cycle. Modified radical mastectomy was performed in all patients three weeks after the last cycle and the specimen were re-evaluated for any change in the bcl-2/bax ratio. The clinical response, immunohistochemical response and the drug-induced toxicity were correlated and compared. Descriptive studies were performed with SPSS version 10 and the significance of response was assessed using paired t-test. Significance of correlation between various variables was

  18. Parameters Symptomatic for Boron Toxicity in Leaves of Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Cervilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of boron (B toxicity has risen in areas of intensive agriculture close to the Mediterranean sea. The objective of this research was to study the how B toxicity (0.5 and 2 mM B affects the time course of different indicators of abiotic stress in leaves of two tomato genotypes having different sensitivity to B toxicity (cv. Kosaco and cv. Josefina. Under the treatments of 0.5 and 2 mM B, the tomato plants showed a loss of biomass and foliar area. At the same time, in the leaves of both cultivars, the B concentration increased rapidly from the first day of the experiment. These results were more pronounced in the cv. Josefina, indicating greater sensitivity than in cv. Kosaco with respect to excessive B in the environment. The levels of O2 •− and anthocyanins presented a higher correlation coefficient (r>0.9 than did the levels of B in the leaf, followed by other indicators of stress, such as GPX, chlorophyll b and proline (r>0.8. Our results indicate that these parameters could be used to evaluate the stress level as well as to develop models that could help prevent the damage inflicted by B toxicity in tomato plants.

  19. Toxicity outcome in patients treated with modulated arc radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, Rafael E.; Gonzalez, Maria F.; Barahona, Kaory; Ixquiac, Milton E.; Lucero, Juan F.; Montenegro, Erick; Lopez Guerra, Jose L.; Jaén, Javier; Linares, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study evaluates the acute toxicity outcome in patients treated with RapidArc for localized prostate cancer. Background Modern technologies allow the delivery of high doses to the prostate while lowering the dose to the neighbouring organs at risk. Whether this dosimetric advantage translates into clinical benefit is not well known. Materials and methods Between December 2009 and May 2012, 45 patients with primary prostate adenocarcinoma were treated using RapidArc. All patients received 1.8 Gy per fraction, the median dose to the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, pelvic lymph nodes and surgical bed was 80 Gy (range, 77.4–81 Gy), 50.4 Gy, 50.4 Gy and 77.4 Gy (range, 75.6–79.2 Gy), respectively. Results The time between the last session and the last treatment follow up was a median of 10 months (range, 3–24 months). The incidence of grade 3 acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity was 2.2% and 15.5%, respectively. Grade 2 acute GI and GU toxicity occurred in 30% and 27% of patients, respectively. No grade 4 acute GI and GU toxicity were observed. Older patients (>median) or patients with V60 higher than 35% had significantly higher rates of grade ≥2 acute GI toxicity compared with the younger ones. Conclusions RapidArc in the treatment of localized prostate cancer is tolerated well with no Grade >3 GI and GU toxicities. Older patients or patients with higher V60 had significantly higher rates of grade ≥2 acute GI toxicity. Further research is necessary to assess definitive late toxicity and tumour control outcome. PMID:25061516

  20. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  1. Toxicity of a secondary-treated sewage effluent to marine biota in Bass Strait, Australia: development of action trigger values for a toxicity monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Merrin S; Stauber, Jennifer L; Binet, Monique T; Molloy, Robert; Gregory, David

    2008-01-01

    Melbourne Water's Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP) produces a secondary-treated sewage effluent which is chlorinated and discharged into Bass Strait at Boags Rocks, Victoria, Australia. Disappearance of the sensitive brown seaweed Hormosira banksii from rock platforms immediately adjacent to the shore-line discharge was identified in the early 1990s. Subsequently, Melbourne Water and CSIRO undertook an environmental impact assessment and review of land and marine effluent disposal options, which included ambient water quality monitoring, biological monitoring, bioaccumulation studies and toxicity testing of existing effluent to assess the nature and magnitude of the environmental effects. This paper presents data from the toxicity monitoring programs since 2001. Chronic toxicity testing using macroalgal germination and cell division (H. banksii), microalgal growth rate (Nitzschia closterium) and scallop larval development (Chlamys asperrima), confirmed that ammonia was the major cause of effluent toxicity. Results from this toxicity monitoring program were used to develop action trigger values for toxicity for each species, which were then used in a refined monitoring program in 2005-2007. An upgrade of the ETP is in progress to improve nitrification/denitrification in order to reduce ammonia concentrations and the toxicity of the effluent. Toxicity testing with a simulated upgraded effluent confirmed that ammonia concentrations and toxicity were reduced. Estimated "safe" dilutions of effluent, calculated using species sensitivity distributions, decreased from 1:140-300 for existing ETP effluent to 1:20 for nitrified effluent, further confirming that treatment improvements should reduce the impact on marine biota in the vicinity of the discharge.

  2. Random Cell Identifiers Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bestak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite integration of advanced functions that enable Femto Access Points (FAPs to be deployed in a plug-and-play manner, the femtocell concept still cause several opened issues to be resolved. One of them represents an assignment of Physical Cell Identifiers (PCIs to FAPs. This paper analyses a random based assignment algorithm in LTE systems operating in diverse femtocell scenarios. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparing the number of confusions for various femtocell densities, PCI ranges and knowledge of vicinity. Simulation results show that better knowledge of vicinity can significantly reduce the number of confusions events.

  3. Characterization of plastic packaging additives: Food contact, stability and toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Cherif Lahimer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plastic additives are analyzed by spectrometric (FTIR, ICP-AES and chromatographic (GC/MS, HPLC methods in order to define their stability, purity and toxicity. All findings relate to the compounds identified in our packaging and their effect on human health. We wanted to show that some additives contain heavy metals (lead, cobalt, nickel, copper, etc., highly toxic phtalates (Dibutyl phtalate or DBP and contaminants (Non-intentionally added substances: NIAS, degradation products. Some additives used are even carcinogenic or tumorigenic.

  4. Subacute toxicity of propyl gallate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik JJTWA; Danse LHJC; Helleman PW; van Leeuwen FXR; Speijers GJA; Vaessen HAMG

    1986-01-01

    The 4 week oral toxicity of propyl gallate in rats, exposed to 0, 1000, 5000 and 25000 mg/kg feed, was investigated. Parameters studied comprised growth, food and water intake, biochemistry, hematology, organ weights and histopathology. In the highest dose group both females and males gained less

  5. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaHann, T.

    1995-11-01

    ISU`s Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents.

  6. Gossypol Toxicity from Cottonseed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cristina N. Gadelha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gossypol is a phenolic compound produced by pigment glands in cotton stems, leaves, seeds, and flower buds (Gossypium spp.. Cottonseed meal is a by-product of cotton that is used for animal feeding because it is rich in oil and proteins. However, gossypol toxicity limits cottonseed use in animal feed. High concentrations of free gossypol may be responsible for acute clinical signs of gossypol poisoning which include respiratory distress, impaired body weight gain, anorexia, weakness, apathy, and death after several days. However, the most common toxic effects is the impairment of male and female reproduction. Another important toxic effect of gossypol is its interference with immune function, reducing an animal’s resistance to infections and impairing the efficiency of vaccines. Preventive procedures to limit gossypol toxicity involve treatment of the cottonseed product to reduce the concentration of free gossypol with the most common treatment being exposure to heat. However, free gossypol can be released from the bound form during digestion. Agronomic selection has produced cotton varieties devoid of glands producing gossypol, but these varieties are not normally grown because they are less productive and are more vulnerable to attacks by insects.

  7. Niagara River Toxics Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2007 Progress Report of the Niagara River Toxics Management Plan (NRTMP) summarizes progress made by the four parties in dealing with the 18 “Priority Toxics” through reductions in point and non-point sources to the Niagara River.

  8. The Biochemistry of Alcohol Toxicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 10. The Biochemistry of Alochol Toxicity. B Ramachandra Murty. General Article Volume 9 Issue 10 October 2004 pp 41-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/10/0041-0047 ...

  9. Holiday Plants with Toxic Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabrina N. Evens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima, English holly (Ilex aquifolium, American holly (Ilex opaca,bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara, Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum, Americanmistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum, and European mistletoe (Viscum album.

  10. Toxicity assessment using different bioassays and microbial biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sedky H A; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Hussein, Mohamed A M; Abskharon, Romany; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity assessment of water streams, wastewater, and contaminated sediments, is a very important part of environmental pollution monitoring. Evaluation of biological effects using a rapid, sensitive and cost effective method can indicate specific information on ecotoxicity assessment. Recently, different biological assays for toxicity assessment based on higher and lower organisms such as fish, invertebrates, plants and algal cells, and microbial bioassays have been used. This review focuses on microbial biosensors as an analytical device for environmental, food, and biomedical applications. Different techniques which are commonly used in microbial biosensing include amperometry, potentiometry, conductometry, voltammetry, microbial fuel cells, fluorescence, bioluminescence, and colorimetry. Examples of the use of different microbial biosensors in assessing a variety of environments are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ACUTE RETINAL DAMAGE AFTER USING A TOXIC PERFLUORO-OCTANE FOR VITREO-RETINAL SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J Carlos; Coco, Rosa M; Fernandez-Bueno, Ivan; Alonso-Alonso, Maria L; Medina, Jesús; Sanz-Arranz, Aurelio; Rull, Fernando; Gayoso, Manuel J; Dueñas, Antonio; Garcia-Gutierrez, Maria T; Gonzalez-Buendia, Lucia; Delgado-Tirado, Santiago; Abecia, Emilio; Ruiz-Miguel, Miguel; Serrano, Miguel A; Ruiz-Moreno, Jose M; Srivastava, Girish K

    2017-06-01

    To describe a series of retinal acute toxicity cases with severe visual loss after intraocular use of a toxic perfluoro-octane (PFO). The clinical presentation is described, and the likely causes are analyzed. New biological methods for testing safety of intraocular medical devices are proposed. Information regarding a series of eyes suffering acute severe events after intraocular use of a toxic PFO was analyzed. Four types of spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and chromatography were used to identify the potential PFO contaminants. Cultures of human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and porcine neuroretina were used to quantify the toxicity of the suspect PFO lots. Of 117 cases of intraocular toxicity, 96 were considered clearly related to the use of PFO. Fifty-three cases had no light perception, and 97 had no measurable visual acuity. Retinal necrosis (n = 38) and vascular occlusion (n = 33) were the most characteristic findings. Two hydroxyl compounds, perfluorooctanoic acid and dodecafluoro-1-heptanol, and benzene derivatives were identified as the suspected toxic agents. While existing toxicity testing failed, we proposed new tests that demonstrated clear toxicity. Protocols to determine cytotoxicity of intraocular medical devices should be revised to assure safety. Acute toxic events should be reported to health authorities and scientific media.

  12. In silico toxicology: computational methods for the prediction of chemical toxicity

    KAUST Repository

    Raies, Arwa B.

    2016-01-06

    Determining the toxicity of chemicals is necessary to identify their harmful effects on humans, animals, plants, or the environment. It is also one of the main steps in drug design. Animal models have been used for a long time for toxicity testing. However, in vivo animal tests are constrained by time, ethical considerations, and financial burden. Therefore, computational methods for estimating the toxicity of chemicals are considered useful. In silico toxicology is one type of toxicity assessment that uses computational methods to analyze, simulate, visualize, or predict the toxicity of chemicals. In silico toxicology aims to complement existing toxicity tests to predict toxicity, prioritize chemicals, guide toxicity tests, and minimize late-stage failures in drugs design. There are various methods for generating models to predict toxicity endpoints. We provide a comprehensive overview, explain, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of the existing modeling methods and algorithms for toxicity prediction with a particular (but not exclusive) emphasis on computational tools that can implement these methods and refer to expert systems that deploy the prediction models. Finally, we briefly review a number of new research directions in in silico toxicology and provide recommendations for designing in silico models.

  13. Toxicity of 13 different antibiotics towards freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and their modes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling; Huang, Tao; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Xiaohong; Su, Limin; Li, Chao; Zhao, Yuanhui

    2017-02-01

    Although modes of action (MOAs) play a key role in the understanding of the toxic mechanism of chemicals, the MOAs have not been investigated for antibiotics to green algae. This paper is to discriminate excess toxicity from baseline level and investigate the MOAs of 13 different antibiotics to algae by using the determined toxicity values. Comparison of the toxicities shows that the inhibitors of protein synthesis to bacteria, such as azithromycin, doxycycline, florfenicol and oxytetracycline, exhibit significantly toxic effects to algae. On the other hand, the cell wall synthesis inhibitors, such as cefotaxime and amoxicillin, show relatively low toxic effects to the algae. The concentrations determined by HPLC indicate that quinocetone and amoxicillin can be easily photodegraded or hydrolyzed during the toxic tests. The toxic effects of quinocetone and amoxicillin to the algae are attributed to not only their parent compounds, but also their metabolites. Investigation on the mode of action shows that, except rifampicin, all the tested antibiotics exhibit excess toxicity to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (P. subcapitata). These antibiotics can be identified as reactive modes of action to the algae. They act as electrophilic mechanism of action to P. subcapitata. These results are valuable for the understanding of the toxic mechanism to algae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid prototyping in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Márk Horváth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even if it sound a bit incredible rapid prototyping (RPT as production method has been used for decades in other professions. Nevertheless medical science just started discover the possibilities of this technology and use the offered benefits of 3D printing. In this paper authors have investigated the pharmaceutical usage of rapid prototyping.

  15. Global Microbial Identifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    Human and animal populations are increasingly confronted with emerging and re-emerging infections and often such infections are exchanged between these populations, e.g. through food. A more effective and uniform approach to the prevention of these microbial threats is essential. The technological......-source systems. There is therefore an obvious need to develop a global system of whole microbial genome databases to aggregate, share, mine and use microbiological genomic data, to address global public health and clinical challenges, and most importantly to identify and diagnose infectious diseases. The global...... of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect outbreaks and emerging pathogens. To harness the full potential of WGS, a shared global database of genomes linked to relevant metadata and the necessary software tools needs to be generated, hence the global...

  16. Actionable Persistent Identifier Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Weigel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Identifiers (PIDs have lately received a lot of attention from scientific infrastructure projects and communities that aim to employ them for management of massive amounts of research data and metadata objects. Such usage scenarios, however, require additional facilities to enable automated data management with PIDs. In this article, we present a conceptual framework that is based on the idea of using common abstract data types (ADTs in combination with PIDs. This provides a well-defined interface layer that abstracts from both underlying PID systems and higher-level applications. Our practical implementation is based on the Handle System, yet the fundamental concept of PID-based ADTs is transferable to other infrastructures, and it is well suited to achieve interoperability between them.

  17. Identifying potential academic leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Design Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Setting Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants A total of 687 faculty members. Main outcome measures Variables related to respondents’ willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Results Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one’s current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Conclusion Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members. PMID:27331226

  18. Toxic dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Lesley L; Smith, Kirsty F; Munday, Rex; Selwood, Andy I; McNabb, Paul S; Holland, Patrick T; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine

    2010-10-01

    Dinoflagellate species isolated from the green calcareous seaweed, Halimeda sp. J.V. Lamouroux, growing in Rarotongan lagoons, included Gambierdiscus australes Faust & Chinain, Coolia monotis Meunier, Amphidinium carterae Hulburth, Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge, P. cf. maculosum Faust and species in the genus Ostreopsis Schmidt. Isolates were identified to species level by scanning electron microscopy and/or DNA sequence analysis. Culture extracts of G. australes isolate CAWD149 gave a response of 0.04 pg P-CTX-1 equiv. per cell by an N2A cytotoxicity assay (equivalent to ca 0.4 pg CTX-3C cell(-1)). However, ciguatoxins were not detected by LC-MS/MS. Partitioned fractions of the cell extracts potentially containing maitotoxin were found to be very toxic to mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. A. carterae was also of interest as extracts of mass cultures caused respiratory paralysis in mice at high doses, both by i.p. injection and by oral administration. The Rarotongan isolate fell into a different clade to New Zealand A. carterae isolates, based on DNA sequence analysis, and also had a different toxin profile. As A. carterae co-occurred with G. australes, it may contribute to human poisonings attributed to CTX and warrants further investigation. A crude extract of C. monotis was of low toxicity to mice by i.p. injection, and an extract of Ostreopsis sp. was negative in the palytoxin haemolysis neutralisation assay. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute Liver Failure Secondary to Niacin Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Ellsworth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit for evaluation of acute liver failure. He was recently released from an alcohol treatment center with acute onset of chest pain. Cardiac workup was negative but he was found to have abnormal coagulation studies and elevated liver transaminases. Other evaluations included a normal toxicology screen and negative acetaminophen level. Autoimmune and infectious workups were normal providing no identifiable cause of his acute liver failure. He initially denied any ingestions or illicit drug use but on further query he admitted taking niacin in an attempt to obscure the results of an upcoming drug test. Niacin has been touted on the Internet as an aid to help pass urine drug tests though there is no evidence to support this practice. Niacin toxicity has been associated with serious multisystem organ failure and fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation. Pediatric providers should be aware of the risks associated with niacin toxicity and other experimental medical therapies that may be described on the Internet or other nonreputable sources.

  20. [Liver toxicity of drugs of plant origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, F; Seitz, H K; Hahn, E G; Schuppan, D

    2001-03-01

    Herbal drugs are widely used and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Recently, reports have mounted about hepatotoxicity of herbal remedies which ranges from mild liver enzyme alterations to chronic liver disease and liver failure. Hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbs has been recognized, e.g. during treatment of patients with atopic eczema. However, the toxic compounds remain to be determined. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease may result from pyrrolizidine alkaloids which are contained in numerous plants worldwide. Teucrium chamaedrys, commonly referred to as germander, may cause hepatitis and even liver cirrhosis. Significant hepatotoxicity has also been observed after the ingestion of chaparral. Recently, greater celandine, which is widely used for biliary disorders and dyspepsia, was identified as a cause of cholestatic hepatitis. Hepatotoxic reactions have also been observed after the ingestion of Atractylis gummifera, Callilepsis laureola, Senna, Kavapyrone and Pulegium. The aim of this review is to summarize potentially hepatotoxic herbal remedies, to further elucidate their mechanisms of toxicity and thereby underline the likelihood of plants to be the cause of liver damage.

  1. Glucarpidase to combat toxic levels of methotrexate in patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green JM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jacalyn M GreenDepartment of Biochemistry, Midwestern University, IL, USAAbstract: In January 2012, glucarpidase (Voraxaze® received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration for intravenous treatment of toxic plasma methotrexate concentrations due to impaired renal clearance. Methotrexate, an antifolate agent, has been used for over 60 years in the treatment of various cancers. High-dose methotrexate has been particularly useful in the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. However, even with aggressive hydration and urine alkalinization, such regimens can lead to acute renal dysfunction, as indicated by decreases in urine production and concomitant increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Because methotrexate is largely excreted by the kidneys, this can greatly potentiate tissue damage. Toxic levels of blood methotrexate can be rapidly and effectively decreased by intravenous administration of glucarpidase. Glucarpidase is a recombinant form of carboxypeptidase G2, a bacterial enzyme that rapidly cleaves methotrexate to form the amino acid glutamate and 2,4-diamino-N10-methylpteroic acid. Catabolites of methotrexate are much less toxic than the parent compound, and are primarily excreted by hepatic mechanisms. Glucarpidase has been available on a compassionate basis since the 1990s, and a variety of case reports and larger clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of this drug in patients ranging in age from infants to the elderly and in a variety of races and ethnic groups. Glucarpidase should not be administered within 2 hours of leucovorin, because this agent is a reduced folate which competes with methotrexate for the enzyme and glucarpidase inactivates leucovorin. Side effects of glucarpidase are rare and relatively mild, and include paraesthesia, flushing, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and headache. Glucarpidase has seen limited use in intrathecal treatment of methotrexate toxicity for which it

  2. Glucarpidase to combat toxic levels of methotrexate in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jacalyn M

    2012-01-01

    In January 2012, glucarpidase (Voraxaze(®)) received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration for intravenous treatment of toxic plasma methotrexate concentrations due to impaired renal clearance. Methotrexate, an antifolate agent, has been used for over 60 years in the treatment of various cancers. High-dose methotrexate has been particularly useful in the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. However, even with aggressive hydration and urine alkalinization, such regimens can lead to acute renal dysfunction, as indicated by decreases in urine production and concomitant increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Because methotrexate is largely excreted by the kidneys, this can greatly potentiate tissue damage. Toxic levels of blood methotrexate can be rapidly and effectively decreased by intravenous administration of glucarpidase. Glucarpidase is a recombinant form of carboxypeptidase G2, a bacterial enzyme that rapidly cleaves methotrexate to form the amino acid glutamate and 2,4-diamino-N(10)-methylpteroic acid. Catabolites of methotrexate are much less toxic than the parent compound, and are primarily excreted by hepatic mechanisms. Glucarpidase has been available on a compassionate basis since the 1990s, and a variety of case reports and larger clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of this drug in patients ranging in age from infants to the elderly and in a variety of races and ethnic groups. Glucarpidase should not be administered within 2 hours of leucovorin, because this agent is a reduced folate which competes with methotrexate for the enzyme and glucarpidase inactivates leucovorin. Side effects of glucarpidase are rare and relatively mild, and include paraesthesia, flushing, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and headache. Glucarpidase has seen limited use in intrathecal treatment of methotrexate toxicity for which it is also effective. Future applications of this enzyme in chemotherapy continue to be an active

  3. DOE contractor's meeting on chemical toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) is required to determine the potential health and environmental effects associated with energy production and use. To ensure appropriate communication among investigators and scientific disciplines that these research studies represent, OHER has sponsored workshops. This document provides a compilation of activities at the Third Annual DOE/OHER Workshop. This year's workshop was broadened to include all OHER activities identified as within the chemical effects area. The workshop consisted of eight sessions entitled Isolation and Detection of Toxic chemicals; Adduct Formation and Repair; Chemical Toxicity (Posters); Metabolism and Genotoxicity; Inhalation Toxicology; Gene Regulation; Metals Toxicity; and Biological Mechanisms. This document contains abstracts of the information presented by session.

  4. Rare Manifestation of Digoxin Toxicity: Right Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dalvir; Zaidi, Samana

    2016-01-01

    A 76-year-old female, with medical history significant for systolic congestive heart failure, who presented to the emergency department with lethargy and abdominal pain with diarrhea for the past 3 weeks. Due to hypotension, the patient received multiple boluses of isotonic saline and was started on norepinephrine. Laboratories were significant for severe digoxin toxicity (29 ng/mL), in setting of acute kidney injury. Electrocardiogram (EKG) revealed a new right bundle branch block (RBBB). She was given Digibind and her repeat digoxin level was 20 ng/mL. Repeat EKG showed resolved RBBB. This case identifies that patients with digoxin toxicity are at risk for RBBB. This is a rare finding and is not commonly recognized. Emergency medicine physicians are often the first to encounter patients with digoxin toxicity and need to be aware of such EKG findings. PMID:28104974

  5. Rapidly progressive young-onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Brendan J; Boeve, Bradley F; Josephs, Keith A

    2009-03-01

    To characterize a cohort of individuals who have experienced rapidly progressive dementia with onset before age 45. Very little data regarding the clinical features or clinical spectrum of rapidly progressive young-onset dementia (RP-YOD) is available, primarily consisting of case reports or small series. A search of the Mayo Clinic medical record was employed to identify patients who had onset before age 45 of rapidly progressive dementia. All available medical records, laboratory data, neuroimaging studies, and pathologic data were reviewed. Twenty-two patients met the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Behavioral and affective disorders, cerebellar dysfunction, and visual and/or oculomotor dysfunction were common early clinical features within the cohort, as were clinical features often associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Diagnostic testing identified an etiology in most patients. Presentations of RP-YOD result from a variety of etiologies and significant overlap in clinical features is observed. Clinical features often associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease seem to be common within the entire cohort of RP-YOD patients. Diagnostic studies aided in establishing a diagnosis in most patients, however 5 had uncertain diagnoses despite exhaustive evaluation.

  6. Oleander toxicity: an examination of human and animal toxic exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, S D; Boor, P J

    1996-05-03

    The oleander is an attractive and hardy shrub that thrives in tropical and subtropical regions. The common pink oleander, Nerium oleander, and the yellow oleander, Thevetia peruviana, are the principle oleander representatives of the family Apocynaceae. Oleanders contain within their tissues cardenolides that are capable of exerting positive inotropic effects on the hearts of animals and humans. The cardiotonic properties of oleanders have been exploited therapeutically and as an instrument of suicide since antiquity. The basis for the physiological action of the oleander cardenolides is similar to that of the classic digitalis glycosides, i.e. inhibition of plasmalemma Na+,K+ ATPase. Differences in toxicity and extracardiac effects exist between the oleander and digitalis cardenolides, however. Toxic exposures of humans and wildlife to oleander cardenolides occur with regularity throughout geographic regions where these plants grow. The human mortality associated with oleander ingestion is generally very low, even in cases of intentional consumption (suicide attempts). Experimental animal models have been successfully utilized to evaluate various treatment protocols designed to manage toxic oleander exposures. The data reviewed here indicate that small children and domestic livestock are at increased risk of oleander poisoning. Both experimental and established therapeutic measures involved in detoxification are discussed.

  7. Elucidation of compounds from toxic fraction of Heracleum persicum extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mofasseri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Heracleum persicum (Golparis a native medicinal plant of Iran which belongs to Apiaceae family. The fruits of the plant have been used as spice for flavoring. They have also showed carminative, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and cytotoxic properties. In this study, toxicity of different fractions of Heracleum persicum was evaluated and phytochemical compounds of toxic fraction(s were elucidated. Methods: Ripe fruits of H. persicum were extracted with 80% methanol and fractionated by different solvents (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. The toxicity of different fractions was evaluated by brine shrimp (Artemia salinalethality test. This test has been provided by US National Cancer Institute and has been used to evaluate the toxic characteristics of different types of plant extracts, heavy metals, pesticides, food additives and medicinal compounds. The toxic fraction was selected for further purification until achievement of pure compounds. Results: The toxicity evaluation showed that 100 μg⁄mL of the chloroform fraction showed the highest (97% lethality percentage. Four furanocoumarins were separated and identified from the chloroform fraction using different chromatographic techniques and were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR and MS spectroscopic methods. Elucidated compounds were bergapten, isopimpinellin, 5-(3-methyl but-2-enyloxy-7H-furo-[2,3-f] chromen-7-one and 5-methoxy-7H-furo[2,3-f]chromen-7-one which the two last mentioned components were characterized for the first time. Conclusion: It was concluded that furanocoumarins of H. persicum could be introduced as cytotoxic compounds.

  8. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test for identification of new therapeutics and drug combinations against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Weingarten, Rebecca A; Xu, Miao; Southall, Noel; Dai, Sheng; Shinn, Paul; Sanderson, Philip E; Williamson, Peter R; Frank, Karen M; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Current antimicrobial susceptibility testing has limited screening capability for identifying empirical antibiotic combinations to treat severe bacterial infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms. We developed a new antimicrobial susceptibility assay using automated ultra-high-throughput screen technology in combination with a simple bacterial growth assay. A rapid screening of 5170 approved drugs and other compounds identified 25 compounds with activities against MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae. To further improve the efficacy and reduce the effective drug concentrations, we applied a targeted drug combination approach that integrates drugs' clinical antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints, achievable plasma concentrations, clinical toxicities and mechanisms of action to identify optimal drug combinations. Three sets of three-drug combinations were identified with broad-spectrum activities against 10 MDR clinical isolates including K. pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli. Colistin–auranofin–ceftazidime and colistin–auranofin–rifabutin suppressed >80% growth of all 10 MDR strains; while rifabutin–colistin–imipenem inhibited >75% of these strains except two Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. The results demonstrate this new assay has potential as a real-time method to identify new drugs and effective drug combinations to combat severe clinical infections with MDR organisms. PMID:27826141

  9. Fatal toxic epidermal necrolysis in a patient on teriflunomide treatment for relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschenfeld, Gaspard; Servy, Amandine; Valeyrie-Allanore, Laurence; de Prost, Nicolas; Cecchini, Jérôme

    2015-10-01

    We report a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis in a 46-year-old woman on teriflunomide treatment. Such a severe adverse cutaneous drug reaction with this new therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis should be early recognized in order to ensure the rapid withdrawal of the drug. © The Author(s), 2015.

  10. Molecular targeted therapy in modern oncology: Imaging assessment of treatment response and toxicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, Katherine M.; Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; DiPiro, Pamela J.; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.; Shinagare, Atul B. [Dept. of of Imaging, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Oncology is a rapidly evolving field with a shift toward personalized cancer treatment. The use of therapies targeted to the molecular features of individual tumors and the tumor microenvironment has become much more common. In this review, anti-angiogenic and other molecular targeted therapies are discussed, with a focus on typical and atypical response patterns and imaging manifestations of drug toxicities.

  11. Stevens-Johnson syndrome progressing to toxic epidermal necrolysis with haloperidol and carbamazepine combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine and other anticonvulsants are commoner cause of severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions such as erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS. We report a case of SJS rapidly progressing to TEN with a combination of haloperidol and carbamazepine in a patient with bipolar affective disorder. The pathophysiological mechanism underlying this reaction is discussed.

  12. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  13. Toxic chemicals: risk prevention through use reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Thomas E; Sachdev, Jayanti A; Engleman, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    ... on the actual toxicity of chemicals currently in use, discusses variables that contribute to the relative toxicity of a substance, compares alternate emphases in existing programs for reducing environmental...

  14. Boron toxicity in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaratnam, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    Potted oil palms were treated with fertilizer of borate-46 at several concentrations and the plants were observed for boron toxicity effects. Toxicity symptoms were apparent at high rates but not at rates equivalent to typical Malaysian soils.

  15. Toxicity and Phototoxicity of Chemical Sun Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, S.T.; Christensen, T

    2000-07-01

    Two chemical sun filters that are ingredients in sunscreen products have been tested for their dark toxicity and possible toxicity to mouse cells after UV irradiation. Increased toxicity as a result of breakdown of a UVB filter, octyl methoxycinnamate, was observed. UV radiation absorbed by the pure chemical sunscreen may lead to breakdown to more reactive chemical compounds than the unexposed sunscreen filter. The UVA filter included in our tests, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, was also toxic in the dark, however, it was the more photostable of the two and no additional significant toxicity was induced by UV irradiation. It can be concluded that the two sun filters are toxic to cells in the dark, but the biological role of this dark toxicity in the skin is not clear. Unstable sun filters may be broken down by UV to form photoproducts that are potentially toxic. (author)

  16. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals by Groupings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) makes available information for more than 600 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or released...

  17. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, VJ; Arts, JHE; Kuper, CF; Slootweg, PJ; Woutersen, RA

    2001-01-01

    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and

  18. Boron toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). I. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of tolerance to boron toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, K; Uemura, S; Shimizu, A; Okumoto, Y; Matoh, T

    2008-06-01

    Boron toxicity tolerance of rice plants was studied. Modern japonica subspecies such as Koshihikari, Nipponbare, and Sasanishiki were tolerant, whereas indica subspecies such as Kasalath and IR36 were intolerant to excessive application of boron (B), even though their shoot B contents under B toxicity were not significantly different. Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of japonica Nekken-1 and indica IR36 were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to identify the gene responsible for B toxicity tolerance. A major QTL that could explain 45% of the phenotypic variation was detected in chromosome 4. The QTL was confirmed using a population derived from a recombinant inbred line which is heterogenic at the QTL region. The QTL was also confirmed in other chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs).

  19. Biological cellular response to carbon nanoparticle toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panessa-Warren, B. J.; Warren, J. B.; Wong, S. S.; Misewich, J. A.

    2006-08-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have increased the development and production of many new nanomaterials with unique characteristics for industrial and biomedical uses. The size of these new nanoparticles (cytotoxicity to carbon nanoparticles characteristic of lipid membrane peroxidation, gene down regulation of adhesive proteins, and increased cell death (necrosis, apoptosis), as well as images of nontoxic carbon nanoparticle interactions with human cells. Although it is imperative that nanomaterials be systematically tested for their biocompatibility and safety for industrial and biomedical use, there are now ways to develop and redesign these materials to be less cytotoxic, and even benign to cell systems. With this new opportunity to utilize the unique properties of nanoparticles for research, industry and medicine, there is a responsibility to test and optimize these new nanomaterials early during the development process, to eliminate or ameliorate identified toxic characteristics.

  20. Predicting dietborne metal toxicity from metal influxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    Dietborne metal uptake prevails for many species in nature. However, the links between dietary metal exposure and toxicity are not well understood. Sources of uncertainty include the lack of suitable tracers to quantify exposure for metals such as copper, the difficulty to assess dietary processes such as food ingestion rate, and the complexity to link metal bioaccumulation and effects. We characterized dietborne copper, nickel, and cadmium influxes in a freshwater gastropod exposed to diatoms labeled with enriched stable metal isotopes. Metal influxes in Lymnaea stagnalis correlated linearly with dietborne metal concentrations over a range encompassing most environmental exposures. Dietary Cd and Ni uptake rate constants (kuf) were, respectively, 3.3 and 2.3 times higher than that for Cu. Detoxification rate constants (k detox) were similar among metals and appeared 100 times higher than efflux rate constants (ke). Extremely high Cu concentrations reduced feeding rates, causing the relationship between exposure and influx to deviate from linearity; i.e., Cu uptake rates leveled off between 1500 and 1800 nmol g-1 day-1. L. stagnalis rapidly takes up Cu, Cd, and Ni from food but detoxifies the accumulated metals, instead of reducing uptake or intensifying excretion. Above a threshold uptake rate, however, the detoxification capabilities of L. stagnalis are overwhelmed.

  1. Ombud’s Corner: toxic tales

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2015-01-01

    Gossip comes with a high dose of toxicity that spreads and propagates. It differs from harmless everyday conversations in that it often tends to be inflammatory or embarrassing to people, and feeds off a negative emotional charge, which is hurtful, damaging and insidious… So, ask yourselves about that last juicy story you just heard: is it something you would repeat in front of the person concerned?   Gossip is a silent killer. In the workplace, it can be very destructive and often leads to strained relationships and a complete breakdown of trust between co-workers. As the word spreads rapidly, diffused and slightly modified at each step through the familiar game of what here might be called ‘Cernese whispers’, gossip can induce negative biases about people that tend to be invisible but long-lasting, and wreak far reaching consequences on people’s careers whilst the source remains buried or unidentified. Have you ever been in a situation where som...

  2. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review Cold Smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1993-12-01

    Cold Smoke is a dense white smoke produced by the reaction of titanium tetrachloride and aqueous ammonia aerosols. Early studies on the toxicity of this nonpyrotechnically generated smoke indicated that the smoke itself is essentially non-toxic (i.e. exhibits to systemic toxicity or organ damage due to exposure) under normal deployment conditions. The purpose of this evaluation was to review and summarize the recent literature data available on the toxicity of Cold Smoke, its chemical constituents, and its starting materials.

  3. Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, padolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, pAdolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

  4. Cetuximab-associated pulmonary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Wei; Peters, Matthew; Loneragan, Robert; Clarke, Stephen

    2009-04-01

    There is increasing evidence for the use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in head and neck, non-small-cell lung, and colorectal cancers. We report the case of a 78-year-old man with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) involving liver and lung who received cetuximab plus irinotecan as third-line treatment. Two months later, he presented with signs and symptoms consistent with bronchiolotis obliterans organizing pneumonia secondary to cetuximab. Reports of cetuximab-associated pulmonary toxicity are rare, although there have been extensive reports of interstitial fibrosis with the use of other EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. There are many causes of pulmonary infiltrates in patients treated for advanced CRC, and this case highlights the importance of considering drug toxicity.

  5. Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eStolzberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs or aging which affects ~14% of the general population. For over a quarter century, auditory scientists have used the salicylate toxicity model to investigate candidate biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying phantom sound perception. In this review, we summarize some of the intriguing biochemical and physiological effects associated with salicylate-induced tinnitus, some of which occur in the periphery and others in the central nervous system. The relevance and general utility of the salicylate toxicity model in understanding phantom sound perception in general are discussed.

  6. Engineered Nanoparticle (Eco)Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa

    dispersion protocol development. This may serve as a basis for the development of a harmonized dispersion protocol for ENPs. Natural organic matter (NOM) and aging of suspensions prior to testing were employed in an attempt to stabilize aqueous suspensions of three different ENPs. While NOM helped...... in stabilizing ZnO ENPs suspensions, it caused agglomeration in TiO2 ENP stock suspensions and an underestimation of toxicity for Ag ENPs. Likewise, aging only aided in the stability of ZnO ENPs. It was concluded that NOM can mitigate or eliminate toxicity of Ag ENPs and is not recommended for use. The ratio...... of NOM to ENP proved to be important in stabilizing non-capped ENPs. Another attempt towards stable suspensions involved adjusting different standard testing parameters, such as the pH and ionic strength of the test media. It was found that point of zero charge measurements should be conducted prior...

  7. Toxicity of ethion in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha, R D; Gyrd-Hansen, N

    1990-02-01

    Cholinesterase activities were measured in plasma and in red blood cells from 6 goats after iv injection of the organophosphorus insecticide ethion at 3 different dose levels--2 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Plasma levels of ethion after injection were established. At 2 mg/kg no signs of toxicity were observed and the blood cholinesterase activity remained above 65% of the control value. After administration of the higher doses the goats showed signs of severe toxicity corresponding to increased parasympathetic stimulation. Cholinesterase activities in blood were reduced to approximately 10% of the control value for the 5 mg/kg group and to approximately 5% for the 10 mg/kg group. Reactivation of cholinesterase activity in blood cells and plasma by means of pralidoxime was very efficient during the first 24 hr after administration of ethion, but was insignificant after 72 hours.

  8. Toxicity of weight loss agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, May; Ewald, Michele Burns

    2012-06-01

    With the rise of the obesity epidemic in the United States over the last several decades and the medical complications seen with it, weight loss and dieting have become a national public health concern. Because of their increased use and availability through internet sales, several different dieting agents were reviewed for potential toxicity. These included: syrup of ipecac, cathartics, human chorionic gonadotropin hormone, 2,4 Dinitrophenol, guar gum, phenylpropanolamine, ma huang/ ephedra, caffeine, clenbuterol, fenfluramine, sibutramine, thyroid hormone, orlistat and cannabinoid antagonists. With the internet making even banned products readily accessible, healthcare providers need to be aware of the potential toxicities of a wide range of weight loss agents. Our review covered topics we thought to be most historically significant as well as pertinent to the practice of medical toxicology today.

  9. The Effect of Toxic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    leaders are a product of their environment, unlike corporations that hire mid-level and senior level managers to guide their organizations; the...01674544. 5 Tomas Giberson and others, "Leadership and Organizational Culture: Linking Ceo Characteristics to Cultural Values," Journal of Business...Craig; Lim. 23 David Lease, "From Great to Ghastly: How Toxic Organizational Cultures Poison Companies the Rise and Fall of Enron , Worldcom, Healthsouth

  10. Dietary zinc and its toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantzsch, H.J.

    1973-01-01

    First signs of Zn-toxicity in rats appeared at 1000 to 2000 ppm Zn in food. They were characterized by growth inhibition by the appearance of a microcytic hypochromic anemia by a reversible impairment of the ability to reproduce by disturbances in fat metabolism and by Zn-accumulation especially in the liver and the skeleton. Available results in the literature concerning alimentary Zn-toxicity in horses are few. At a daily doses of 8000 mg Zn during gestation there were no noticeable adverse effects either in the mare or the foal. While with young lambs addition of Zn of up to 1000 ppm enhanced growth, food intake and feed efficiency, with older lambs it gave rise to depressions. Available results of experiments with milk cows are equally insufficient. At Zn-concentration of 40 to 80 ppm, which may be reached in normal foodstuff, there appears to be a disturbance in the metabolism of cellulose in the rumen. In spite of this fact and notwithstanding the insufficiently examined influence of high Zn-concentrations in food on the Cu-metabolism, the limit of Zn-tolerance can be given at 1000 mg per kg of food. If dissolved, Zn is far more toxic. With calves there wre no signs of clinical toxicity up to Zn-concentrations in the food of 3000 ppm. Above 900 ppm there appeared depression in growth and deterioration in the feed efficiency. Ae 1700 ppm there was a decrease infood intake. Increased Zn-intake lead to a growing Zn-accumulation in several organs and tissues, with the accumulation in the liver, bones, kidneys, pancreas and the gastrointestinal tract being of special significance. With cessation of Zn-intake in food, Zn-accumulation slowly disappeared. As a result of high Zn-intake there appears to be synergistic and antagonistic interdependent effects with the metabolism of other trace elements (Cu, Fe) and minerals (Ca, Na, P).

  11. Allergy and "toxic mold syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, David A; Nordness, Mark E; Zacharisen, Michael C; Kurup, Viswanath P; Fink, Jordan N

    2005-02-01

    "Toxic mold syndrome" is a controversial diagnosis associated with exposure to mold-contaminated environments. Molds are known to induce asthma and allergic rhinitis through IgE-mediated mechanisms, to cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis through other immune mechanisms, and to cause life-threatening primary and secondary infections in immunocompromised patients. Mold metabolites may be irritants and may be involved in "sick building syndrome." Patients with environmental mold exposure have presented with atypical constitutional and systemic symptoms, associating those symptoms with the contaminated environment. To characterize the clinical features and possible etiology of symptoms in patients with chief complaints related to mold exposure. Review of patients presenting to an allergy and asthma center with the chief complaint of toxic mold exposure. Symptoms were recorded, and physical examinations, skin prick/puncture tests, and intracutaneous tests were performed. A total of 65 individuals aged 1 1/2 to 52 years were studied. Symptoms included rhinitis (62%), cough (52%), headache (34%), respiratory symptoms (34%), central nervous system symptoms (25%), and fatigue (23%). Physical examination revealed pale nasal mucosa, pharyngeal "cobblestoning," and rhinorrhea. Fifty-three percent (33/62) of the patients had skin reactions to molds. Mold-exposed patients can present with a variety of IgE- and non-IgE-mediated symptoms. Mycotoxins, irritation by spores, or metabolites may be culprits in non-IgE presentations; environmental assays have not been perfected. Symptoms attributable to the toxic effects of molds and not attributable to IgE or other immune mechanisms need further evaluation as to pathogenesis. Allergic, rather than toxic, responses seemed to be the major cause of symptoms in the studied group.

  12. Toxicity of 56 substances to trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Toxicity data of substances to higher plants is needed for the purpose of risk assessment, site evaluation, phytoremediation, and plant protection. However, the results from the most common phytotoxicity tests, like the OECD algae and Lemna test, are not necessarily valid for higher terrestrial...... toxicity test is a robust method for relating uptake, accumulation, and metabolism of substances to the toxicity to trees....

  13. Joint toxic effects on Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    In polluted areas organisms are generally exposed to mixtures of toxic chemicals rather than a single toxicant only. Since the number of mixture toxicity studies with regard to soil systems is limited, the research in this thesis was focused on investigating ecotoxicological consequences of combined

  14. CAESAR models for developmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piclin Nadège

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new REACH legislation requires assessment of a large number of chemicals in the European market for several endpoints. Developmental toxicity is one of the most difficult endpoints to assess, on account of the complexity, length and costs of experiments. Following the encouragement of QSAR (in silico methods provided in the REACH itself, the CAESAR project has developed several models. Results Two QSAR models for developmental toxicity have been developed, using different statistical/mathematical methods. Both models performed well. The first makes a classification based on a random forest algorithm, while the second is based on an adaptive fuzzy partition algorithm. The first model has been implemented and inserted into the CAESAR on-line application, which is java-based software that allows everyone to freely use the models. Conclusions The CAESAR QSAR models have been developed with the aim to minimize false negatives in order to make them more usable for REACH. The CAESAR on-line application ensures that both industry and regulators can easily access and use the developmental toxicity model (as well as the models for the other four endpoints.

  15. Determinants of carbon nanotube toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanone, Sophie; Andujar, Pascal; Kermanizadeh, Ali; Boczkowski, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    In the last few years questions have been raised regarding the potential toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to humans and environment. It is believed that the physico-chemical characteristics of these materials are key determinants of CNT interaction with living organisms, and hence determine their toxicity. As for other nanomaterials, the most important of these characteristics are the length, diameter, surface area, tendency to agglomerate, bio-durability, presence and nature of catalyst residues as well as chemical functionalization of the CNT. This review highlights the recent advancements in the understanding of the CNT properties which are essential in determining CNT toxicity. Hence the focus is on CNT dimensions, surface properties, bio-durability and corona formation as these fields have evolved greatly in recent years. A deeper understanding of these events and their underlying mechanisms could provide a molecular explanation of the biological and physiological responses following CNT administration and therefore help in the development of safe by design materials. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phosphorylated amyloid-beta: the toxic intermediate in alzheimer's disease neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Nathaniel G N

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorylated Amyloid-beta (Abeta) was identified in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Using an anti-sense peptide approach the human cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK-1) was identified as being responsible for Abeta phosphorylation. The phosphorylated Abeta peptide showed increased neurotoxicity and reduced ability to form Congo red-positive fibrils. Mutation of the serine 26 residue and inhibition of Abeta phosphorylation by the CDK-1 inhibitor olomoucine prevented Abeta toxicity, suggesting that the phosphorylated Abeta peptide represents a toxic intermediate. Cannabinoids prevented phosphorylated Abeta toxicity. The results from this study suggest that Abeta phosphorylation could play a role in AD pathology and represent a novel therapeutic target.

  17. Rapid Data Assimilation in the Indoor Environment: theory and examples from real-time interpretation of indoor plumes of airborne chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok; Sohn, Michael; Sreedharan, Priya

    2008-09-01

    Releases of acutely toxic airborne contaminants in or near a building can lead to significant human exposures unless prompt response measures are identified and implemented. Commonly, possible responses include conflicting strategies, such as shutting the ventilation system off versus running it in a purge (100percent outside air) mode, or having occupants evacuate versus sheltering in place. The right choice depends in part on quickly identifying the source locations, the amounts released, and the likely future dispersion routes of the pollutants. This paper summarizes recent developments to provide such estimates in real time using an approach called Bayesian Monte Carlo updating. This approach rapidly interprets measurements of airborne pollutant concentrations from multiple sensors placed in the building and computes best estimates and uncertainties of the release conditions. The algorithm is fast, capable of continuously updating the estimates as measurements stream in from sensors. The approach is employed, as illustration, to conduct two specific investigations under different situations.

  18. Rapid Data Assimilation in the Indoor Environment: Theory and Examples from Real-Time Interpretation of Indoor Plumes of Airborne Chemical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok; Gadgil, Ashok; Sohn, Michael; Sreedharan, Priya

    2007-08-01

    Releases of acutely toxic airborne contaminants in or near a building can lead to significant human exposures unless prompt response measures are identified and implemented. Possible responses include conflicting options, such as shutting the ventilation system off versus running it in a purge (100 percent outside air) mode, or having occupants evacuate versus sheltering in place. The right choice depends in part on quickly identifying the source location, the amount released, and the likely future dispersion of the pollutant. This paper summarizes recent developments to provide such estimates in real time using an approach called Bayesian Monte Carlo updating. This approach rapidly interprets measurements of airborne pollutant concentrations from multiple sensors placed in the building, and computes best estimates and uncertainties of the release conditions. The algorithm is fast, and can continuously update the estimates as measurements stream in from sensors. As an illustration, two specific applications of the approach are described.

  19. Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as major maternal care problems. When data for women with SAMM were combined with data for maternal deaths, however, these problems were dearly identified, and remedial action could be taken. Including SAMM in maternal death audits increases the rapidity with which health system problems can be identified.

  20. Campylobacter jejuni-induced severe colitis--a rare cause of toxic megacolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A; Rünzi, M; Peitgen, K; von Birgelen, C; Gerken, G

    2000-04-01

    The development of toxic megacolon as a sequel of infectious colitis is rare. We have observed the very rare case of a campylobacter jejuni-induced toxic megacolon. A 28-year-old man was admitted with severe enterocolitis and appearance of blood in stools. He had been treated with loperamide without success. Two days after admission stool cultures revealed campylobacter jejuni and then an oral antibiotic therapy was started. On the fifth day clinical performance deteriorated again with development of toxic megacolon and consecutive subtotal colectomy. Rectoscopy before discharge after 13 days showed a normal mucosa. The unusual course with first improvement and then rapid deterioration despite adequate therapy was observed in 4 other cases, which may also be a hint of ensuing megacolon. Even in usually harmless enterocolitis like campylobacter infection, predisposing factors such as loperamide are known to precipitate toxic megacolon and should be considered in clinical practice.