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Sample records for rapidly growing tumors

  1. Intraoral tumor with rapid growing. Report of a case.

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    González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Cebrián-Carretero, Jose Luis; Gómez-García, Elena; del Castillo-Pardo de Vera, Jose Luis; del Val, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The appearance of an intraoral mass is common in our specialty. Most are benign lesions, but some are primary malignancies. Metastases account for less than 1% of all oral malignancies. An 86 year old woman was referred to our department with a large, asymptomatic, intraoral, fast-growing mass. She had no previous cancer history or other relevant physical findings. The radiology studies showed underlying bone erosion. The histological study showed a metastatic adenocarcinoma with a suspected origin in the abdomen. We were unable to identify it by non invasive diagnostic procedures. Given the patient's general status and despite the ominous prognosis of such lesions, we decided not to perform any aggressive therapy beyond removing the oral mass, in order to maintain her quality of life. There have been no local recurrences until this time.

  2. Management of Infections with Rapidly Growing

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    Jong Hwan Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM is not uncommon, andthe prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. Clinical diagnosis is difficult becausethere are no characteristic clinical features. There is also no standard antibiotic regimenfor treating RGM infection. A small series of patients with RGM infections was studied toexamine their treatments and outcomes.Methods A total of 5 patients who had developed postoperative infections from January2009 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially screened using amycobacteria rapid screening test (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-reverse blot hybridizationassay. To confirm mycobacterial infection, specimens were cultured for nontuberculousmycobacteria and analyzed by 16 S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene PCR.Results The patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization,and oral antibiotics were administered after discharge. The mean duration of follow-upwas 9 months, and all patients were completely cured of infection with a regimen of acombination of antibiotics plus surgical treatment. Although none of the patients developedrecurrence, there were complications at the site of infection, including hypertrophic scarring,pigmentation, and disfigurement.Conclusions Combination antibiotic therapy plus drainage of surgical abscesses appeared tobe effective for the RGM infections seen in our patients. Although neither the exact dosagenor a standardized regimen has been firmly established, we propose that our treatment canprovide an option for the management of rapidly growing mycobacterial infection.

  3. Rapidly Growing Esophageal Carcinosarcoma Reduced by Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Alone

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    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. It is generally treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to the protocols used for other esophageal cancers. However, the treatment of esophageal carcinosarcoma by radiotherapy alone before surgery has not been previously described. We report a patient with a rapidly growing esophageal carcinosarcoma that was efficiently reduced by neoadjuvant radiotherapy alone. A previously healthy 69-year-old man was admitted with dysphagia. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a small nodular polypoid lesion of about 10 mm in the middle esophagus. A second EGD 1 month later showed that the tumor had expanded into a huge mass. A biopsy specimen revealed that the tumor comprised squamous cell carcinoma with spindle cell components, and the tumor was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma which was diagnosed as stage I (T1bN0M0. Due to renal dysfunction, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy (40 Gy without chemotherapy. A third EGD 1 month later revealed remarkable tumor reduction. He then underwent total esophagectomy with regional lymph node dissection (pStage 0, pT1aN0M0. After surgical operation, the patient was followed up without adjuvant therapy. Whole body computed tomography revealed lung metastasis 14 months after surgery, and the patient died 2 months later. The neoadjuvant radiotherapy for esophageal carcinosarcoma was considered to have contributed to the subsequent surgery and his prolonged survival time. Thus, radiotherapy alone might be a suitable neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal carcinosarcomas.

  4. Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for rapid brain tumor histology

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    Yifan Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid histology of brain tissues with sufficient diagnostic information has the great potential to aid neurosurgeons during operations. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS microscopy is an emerging label-free imaging technique, with the intrinsic chemical resolutions to delineate brain tumors from normal tissues without the need of time-consuming tissue processing. Growing number of studies have shown SRS as a “virtual histology” tool for rapid diagnosis of various types of brain tumors. In this review, we focus on the basic principles and current developments of SRS microscopy, as well as its applications for brain tumor imaging.

  5. Neonatal airway obstruction caused by rapidly growing nasopharyngeal teratoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maartens, I.A.; Wassenberg, T.; Halbertsma, F.J.; Marres, H.A.M.; Andriessen, P.

    2009-01-01

    A case report is presented of a rapidly growing congenital nasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus) in a preterm infant, leading to severe upper airway obstruction. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography did not reveal the condition because the tumour masses were initially small and there was no

  6. Environmental and Social Programmes and Rapidly Growing Retailers

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    Peter JONES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks to provide an exploratory review of the extent to which the world’s fastest growing retailers are publicly reporting on their environmental and social commitments and programmes. The paper begins with an outline discussion of corporate environmental and social programmes and on public reporting processes. The paper draws its empirical material from the most recent information on environmental and social commitments and programmes posted on the world’s top twenty fastest growing retailers’ corporate web sites. While the majority of the world’s top twenty fastest growing retailers provide some public information on their commitment to environmental and social programmes there is marked variation in the extent, the nature and the detail of that information. The findings suggest that the integration of environmental and social programmes is not one of the hallmarks of rapidly growing retailers and in part this reflects the fact that many of the selected retailers are trading within emergent markets where price and availability are the principal factors driving consumer buying behaviour.

  7. Multiple gingival pregnancy tumors with rapid growth

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    Wei-Lian Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy gingivitis is an acute form of gingivitis that affects pregnant women, with a prevalence of 30%, possibly ranging up to 100%. Sometimes, pregnancy gingivitis shows a tendency toward a localized hyperplasia called gingival pyogenic granuloma. Pregnancy tumor is a benign gingival hyperplasia with the gingiva as the most commonly involved site, but rarely it involves almost the entire gingiva. A 22-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of gingival swelling that had lasted for 2 days. The lesions progressed rapidly and extensively, and almost all the gingiva was involved a week later. Generalized erythema, edema, hyperplasia, a hemorrhagic tendency, and several typical hemangiomatous masses were noted. Pregnancy was denied by the patient at the first and second visits, but was confirmed 2 weeks after the primary visit. The patient was given oral hygiene instructions. She recovered well, and the mass gradually regressed and had disappeared completely at the end of 12 weeks of pregnancy, without recurrence. The gingival lesions were finally diagnosed as multiple gingival pregnancy tumors. The patient delivered a healthy infant. An extensive and rapid growth of gingival pregnancy tumors during the early first month of pregnancy is a rare occurrence that is not familiar to dentists, gynecologists, and obstetricians. Those practitioners engaged in oral medicine and periodontology, primary care obstetrics, and gynecology should be aware of such gingival lesions to avoid misdiagnosis and overtreatment.

  8. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects passed down ...

  9. Biomass accumulation in rapidly growing loblolly pine and sweetgum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Thomas M.; Gresham, Charles A. [Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, P.O. Box 596, Georgetown, SC 29442 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees, growing in International Paper Company's study of intensive management on marginal agricultural land near Bainbridge GA, were destructively sampled at the end of the sixth growing season. All trees were single family blocks of genetically superior trees planted 2.5m apart on sub-soiled rows 3.6m apart and grown with complete competition control. Management treatments were: control, irrigation, irrigation plus fertilization, and irrigation plus fertilization plus pest control. Tree measures were basal diameter, DBH, height of live crown, diameter at base of live crown, and total height. Twenty trees of each species were destructively sampled. Stems were sectioned at 1m intervals, stem diameter determined at each end and sections were weighed green. Branches were removed and height, basal diameter, and length were measured on each branch. Branches were separated into foliated and unfoliated segments and weighed green. A stem disk and branch from each meter were returned to the lab to determine dry weight: green weight ratio. Foliated limb: foliage ratios were also determined from sub-sampled branches. Intensive culture resulted in larger growth differences for sweetgum (most intensive treatment 9.5m tall, 13.1cm DBH; control trees 5.0m tall, 6.3cm DBH) than in pine (most intensive treatment 10.3m tall, 17.7cm DBH; control, 7.6m tall, 13.4cm DBH). The pipe model of tree development explained dimensions of the upper 5m of crown with leaf biomass highly correlated to branch basal area (r{sup 2} from 0.697 to 0.947). There was a constant ratio of leaf biomass to branch basal area (50gm/cm{sup 2} for pine, 30gm/cm{sup 2} for sweetgum). We also found a constant ratio of bole basal area to cumulative branch basal area throughout the crowns. Rapidly growing pines produced about 49Mgha{sup -1} of stem biomass, 11Mgha{sup -1} of dead branch biomass, and 17Mgha{sup -1} of unfoliated branch biomass at

  10. An Intra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumor, Embedded in the Pancreas, Preoperatively Diagnosed as an Extragastric Growing Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

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    Mari Mizuno

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old woman was found to have a pancreatic tumor by abdominal ultrasound performed for a medical check-up. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a hypovascular tumor measuring 30 mm in diameter in the pancreatic tail. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was performed. An extragastric growing gastrointestinal stromal tumor was thereby diagnosed preoperatively, and surgical resection was planned. Laparoscopic surgery was attempted but conversion to open surgery was necessitated by extensive adhesions, and distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and partial gastrectomy were performed. The histological diagnosis was an intra-abdominal desmoid tumor. A desmoid tumor is a fibrous soft tissue tumor arising in the fascia and musculoaponeurotic tissues. It usually occurs in the extremities and abdominal wall, and only rarely in the abdominal cavity. We experienced a case with an intra-abdominal desmoid tumor that was histologically diagnosed after laparotomy, which had been preoperatively diagnosed as an extragastric growing gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Although rare, desmoid tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumors. Herein, we report this case with a literature review.

  11. Frequency of rapid growing mycobacteria among tuberculosis suspected patients in Basra-Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sulami, Amin A. Al; Taee, Asaad Al; Hasan, Zainab A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of rapid growing mycobacteria among tuberculosis suspected patients in Basra governorate and study their resistance to drugs. Methods...

  12. Evaluation of Various Culture Media for Detection of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

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    Preece, Clair L; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Perry, Audrey; Jones, Amanda L; Cummings, Stephen P; Perry, John D; Hogardt, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to overgrowth by rapidly growing species that colonize the lungs of patients with CF. Extended incubation on Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as an expedient culture method for the isolation of rapidly growing NTM in this setting. The aim of this study was to assess five selective media designed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex, along with two media designed for the isolation of mycobacteria (rapidly growing mycobacteria [RGM] medium and Middlebrook 7H11 agar), for their abilities to isolate NTM. All seven media were challenged with 147 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria and 185 isolates belonging to other species. RGM medium was then compared with the most selective brand of BCSA for the isolation of NTM from 224 sputum samples from patients with CF. Different agars designed for the isolation of B. cepacia complex varied considerably in their inhibition of other bacteria and fungi. RGM medium supported the growth of all isolates of mycobacteria and was more selective than any other medium. NTM were recovered from 17 of 224 sputum samples using RGM medium, compared with only 7 samples using the most selective brand of BCSA (P = 0.023). RGM medium offers a superior option, compared to other selective agars, for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with CF. Furthermore, the convenience of using RGM medium enables routine screening for rapidly growing NTM in all submitted sputum samples from patients with CF. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mass measles immunisation campaign, with a target coverage rate of 85 - 90%, was launched in Khayelitsha, a rapidly growing urban township in the Cape Town area. Cross-sectional surveys of the measles immunisation status of resident 6 - 23-month-old infants were conducted immediately before, immediately after, ...

  14. [Growing teratoma syndrome in a patient with intracranial germ cell tumor].

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    Zheludkova, O G; Shishkina, L V; Konovalov, A N; Ryzhova, M V; Kislyakov, A N; Ozerov, S S; Trunin, Yu Yu; Mazerkina, N A; Klimchuk, O V; Tarasova, E M

    2015-01-01

    A six-year-old patient with non-germinomatous germ cell tumor of the chiasmatic-sellar area developed polyuria and polydipsia as the first symptoms of the disease. Then there were signs of precocious puberty and vision impairment. MRI examination revealed a shiasmatic sellar tumor and occlusive hydrocephalus. Tumor marker levels in blood serum were elevated. The alpha-fetoprotein level was increased 5-fold; human chorionic gonadotropin 20-fold. These levels increased over time. The patient received 2 cycles of PEI multiagent chemotherapy (Ifosfamide 1.5 g/m(2), Cisplatin 20 mg/m(2), Etoposide 100 mg/m(2)) during 5 days and 1 cycle of second-line multiagent chemotherapy (Cisplatin 100 mg/m(2) for 1 day and Endoxan 1500 mg/m(2) for 2 days). Despite the decrease in tumor marker levels to normal values, the patient's vision still deteriorated. MRI examination revealed that tumor size increased and its structure changed. Total tumor resection led to vision improvement and regression of intracranial hypertension. Histological analysis of tumor tissue only revealed a mature teratoma. This phenomenon, known as growing teratoma syndrome, is very rare among patients with intracranial non-germinomatous germ cell tumors.

  15. Rapidly growing cystic vestibular schwannoma with sudden onset facial palsy, ten years after subtotal excision.

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    Dandinarasaiah, Manjunath; Grinblat, Golda; Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Taibah, Abdelkader; Sanna, Mario

    2017-07-19

    An elderly male patient diagnosed with a right-sided cystic vestibular schwannoma (CVS) at our center underwent a translabyrinthine approach with a subtotal excision to preserve the facial nerve (FN). The tumor grew slowly for the first 9 years but in the subsequent 2 years grew rapidly, with the patient developing a FN paralysis. Using the previous approach, a second surgery was done and the tumor was excised, leaving behind a sheath of tumor on the facial and lower cranial nerves. This case demonstrates that CVSs show unpredictable growth patterns and need to be followed up for a longer period of time. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Methodology for quantitative rapid multi-tracer PET tumor characterizations.

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    Kadrmas, Dan J; Hoffman, John M

    2013-10-04

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can image a wide variety of functional and physiological parameters in vivo using different radiotracers. As more is learned about the molecular basis for disease and treatment, the potential value of molecular imaging for characterizing and monitoring disease status has increased. Characterizing multiple aspects of tumor physiology by imaging multiple PET tracers in a single patient provides additional complementary information, and there is a significant body of literature supporting the potential value of multi-tracer PET imaging in oncology. However, imaging multiple PET tracers in a single patient presents a number of challenges. A number of techniques are under development for rapidly imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan, where signal-recovery processing algorithms are employed to recover various imaging endpoints for each tracer. Dynamic imaging is generally used with tracer injections staggered in time, and kinetic constraints are utilized to estimate each tracers' contribution to the multi-tracer imaging signal. This article summarizes past and ongoing work in multi-tracer PET tumor imaging, and then organizes and describes the main algorithmic approaches for achieving multi-tracer PET signal-recovery. While significant advances have been made, the complexity of the approach necessitates protocol design, optimization, and testing for each particular tracer combination and application. Rapid multi-tracer PET techniques have great potential for both research and clinical cancer imaging applications, and continued research in this area is warranted.

  17. Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov., a rapidly growing bacterium isolated from groundwater.

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    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2017-10-01

    A strain representing a rapidly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating and non-pigmented species of the genus Mycobacterium, designated strain S-I-6T, was isolated from groundwater at Daejeon in Korea. The strain grew at temperatures between 10 and 37 °C (optimal growth at 25 °C), between pH 4.0 and 9.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNAgene, hsp65, rpoB and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer indicated that strain S-I-6T belonged to the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium sphagni. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the bacterial strain was distinguished from its phylogenetic neighbours by chemotaxonomic properties and other biochemical characteristics. DNA-DNA relatedness among strain S-I-6T and the closest phylogenetic neighbour strongly support the proposal that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-I-6T (=KACC 17600T=NBRC 109805T=NCAIM B 02535T).

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria by microdilution - Experience of a tertiary care centre

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    Set R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.

  19. Designing Multicomponent Nanosystems for Rapid Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells.

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    Banerjee, Shashwat S; Khobragade, Vrushali; Khandare, Jayant

    2017-01-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood circulation holds immense promise as it predicts the overall probability of patient survival. Therefore, CTC-based technologies are gaining prominence as a "liquid biopsy" for cancer diagnostics and prognostics. Here, we describe the design and synthesis of two distinct multicomponent magnetic nanosystems for rapid capture and detection of CTCs. The multifunctional Magneto-Dendrimeric Nano System (MDNS) composed of an anchoring dendrimer that is conjugated to multiple agents such as near infrared (NIR) fluorescent cyanine 5 NHS (Cy5), glutathione (GSH), transferrin (Tf), and iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) for simultaneous tumor cell-specific affinity, multimodal high resolution confocal imaging, and cell isolation. The second nanosystem is a self-propelled microrocket that is composed of carbon nanotube (CNT), chemically conjugated with targeting ligand such as transferrin on the outer surface and Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the inner surface. The multicomponent nanosystems described here are highly efficient in targeting and isolating cancer cells thus benefiting early diagnosis and therapy of cancer.

  20. Growing Teratoma Syndrome After Treatment of a Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumor: A Case Report and a Review of Literature

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    W. Boukettaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing teratoma syndrome is a rare condition among patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors who present with enlarging metastatic masses during appropriate systemic chemotherapy and normalized serum markers. Retroperitoneal residual masses are a common finding after chemotherapy for the nonseminomatous tumors of the testis. These might contain mature teratoma, fibrotic tissue, or tumor. Mature teratoma, which is unresponsive to chemotherapy, might result from evolution of a malignant lesion during treatment or it might represent a metastasis from a focus of mature teratoma in the primary testicular tumor. This article reviews a case of a growing teratoma syndrome.

  1. Clinical management of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections in patients after mesotherapy.

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    Regnier, Stéphanie; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Guihot, Amelie; Deforges, Lionel; Carbonne, Anne; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric

    2009-11-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are expressing an interest in mesotherapy as a method of reducing body fat. Cutaneous infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria are a common complication of such procedures. We followed up patients who had developed cutaneous infections after undergoing mesotherapy during the period October 2006-January 2007. Sixteen patients were infected after mesotherapy injections performed by the same physician. All patients presented with painful, erythematous, draining subcutaneous nodules at the injection sites. All patients were treated with surgical drainage. Microbiological examination was performed on specimens that were obtained before and during the surgical procedure. Direct examination of skin smears demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in 25% of the specimens that were obtained before the procedure and 37% of the specimens obtained during the procedure; culture results were positive in 75% of the patients. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 11 patients, and Mycobacterium frederiksbergense was identified in 2 patients. Fourteen patients were treated with antibiotics, 6 received triple therapy as first-line treatment (tigecycline, tobramycin, and clarithromycin), and 8 received dual therapy (clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin). The mean duration of treatment was 14 weeks (range, 1-24 weeks). All of the patients except 1 were fully recovered 2 years after the onset of infection, with the mean time to healing estimated at 6.2 months (range, 1-15 months). This series of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections highlights the difficulties in treating such infections and suggests that in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics does not accurately predict their clinical efficacy.

  2. Rapid urbanization and the growing threat of violence and conflict: a 21st century crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak B; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-04-01

    As the global population is concentrated into complex environments, rapid urbanization increases the threat of conflict and insecurity. Many fast-growing cities create conditions of significant disparities in standards of living, which set up a natural environment for conflict over resources. As urban slums become a haven for criminal elements, youth gangs, and the arms trade, they also create insecurity for much of the population. Specific populations, such as women, migrants, and refugees, bear the brunt of this lack of security, with significant impacts on their livelihoods, health, and access to basic services. This lack of security and violence also has great costs to the general population, both economic and social. Cities have increasingly become the battlefield of recent conflicts as they serve as the seats of power and gateways to resources. International agencies, non-governmental organizations, and policy-makers must act to stem this tide of growing urban insecurity. Protecting urban populations and preventing future conflict will require better urban planning, investment in livelihood programs for youth, cooperation with local communities, enhanced policing, and strengthening the capacity of judicial systems.

  3. Cancer survivors in Switzerland: a rapidly growing population to care for

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors are a heterogeneous group with complex health problems. Data concerning its total number and growing dynamics for Switzerland are scarce and outdated. Methods Population and mortality data were retrieved from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office (FSO). Incidence and relative survival for invasive cancers were computed using data from the cancer registries Geneva (1970–2009), St. Gallen - Appenzell (1980–2010), Grisons & Glarus (1989–2010), and Valais (1989–2010). We estimated prevalence for 1990–2010 using the Prevalence, Incidence Approach MODel (PIAMOD) method. We calculated trends in prevalence estimates by Joinpoint analysis. Projections were extrapolated using the above models and based on time trends of the period 2007–2010. Results The estimated number of cancer survivors increased from 139′717 in 1990 (2.08% of the population) to 289′797 persons in 2010 (3.70%). The growth rate shows an exponential shape and was 3.3% per year in the period 2008 to 2010. Almost half of the survivors have a history of breast, prostate or colorectal cancer. Among cancer survivors, 55% are women but the increases have been more marked in men (p Switzerland. Conclusions There is a rapidly growing population of cancer survivors in Switzerland whose needs and concerns are largely unknown. PMID:23764068

  4. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M

    2016-08-01

    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  5. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species.

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    Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W

    2012-06-26

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO(2) balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (± 30) kg · ha(-1) · y(-1), double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (± 176) kg · ha(-1), whereas net losses of soil N (0-100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (± 915) kg · ha(-1) (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ(13)C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg · ha(-1) · y(-1). All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32-54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass.

  6. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS

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    Martina Kyselková

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

  7. The spatial biology of transcription and translation in rapidly growing Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath eBakshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP in live, rapidly growing E. coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0-3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20-30 min nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription

  8. An automated system for rapid non-destructive enumeration of growing microbes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roanna London

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The power and simplicity of visual colony counting have made it the mainstay of microbiological analysis for more than 130 years. A disadvantage of the method is the long time required to generate visible colonies from cells in a sample. New rapid testing technologies generally have failed to maintain one or more of the major advantages of culture-based methods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a new technology and platform that uses digital imaging of cellular autofluorescence to detect and enumerate growing microcolonies many generations before they become visible to the eye. The data presented demonstrate that the method preserves the viability of the microcolonies it detects, thus enabling generation of pure cultures for microbial identification. While visual colony counting detects Escherichia coli colonies containing about 5x10(6 cells, the new imaging method detects E. coli microcolonies when they contain about 120 cells and microcolonies of the yeast Candida albicans when they contain only about 12 cells. We demonstrate that digital imaging of microcolony autofluorescence detects a broad spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes and present a model for predicting the time to detection for individual strains. Results from the analysis of environmental samples from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants containing a mixture of unidentified microbes demonstrate the method's improved test turnaround times. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates a new technology and automated platform that substantially shortens test times while maintaining key advantages of the current methods.

  9. Mycobacterium celeriflavum sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic bacterium isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Çavuşoğlu, Cengiz; Borroni, Emanuele; Heidarieh, Parvin; Koksalan, Orhan Kaya; Cabibbe, Andrea Maurizio; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Mariottini, Alessandro; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Cittaro, Davide; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Lazarevic, Dejan; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Molinari, Gian Lorenzo; Camaggi, Anna; Tortoli, Enrico

    2015-02-01

    Six strains of a rapidly growing scotochromogenic mycobacterium were isolated from pulmonary specimens of independent patients. Biochemical and cultural tests were not suitable for their identification. The mycolic acid pattern analysed by HPLC was different from that of any other mycobacterium. Genotypic characterization, targeting seven housekeeping genes, revealed the presence of microheterogeneity in all of them. Different species were more closely related to the test strains in various regions: the type strain of Mycobacterium moriokaense showed 99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, and 91.5-96.5 % similarity for the remaining six regions. The whole genome sequences of the proposed type strain and that of M. moriokaense presented an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 82.9 %. Phylogenetic analysis produced poorly robust trees in most genes with the exception of rpoB and sodA where Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium novocastrense were the closest species. This phylogenetic relatedness was confirmed by the tree inferred from five concatenated genes, which was very robust. The polyphasic characterization of the test strains, supported by the ANI value, demonstrates that they belong to a previously unreported species, for which the name Mycobacterium celeriflavum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFPC-000207(T) ( = DSM 46765(T) = JCM 18439(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  10. Isolation of Rapidly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Wounds Following Combat-Related Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Lauren C; Homeyer, Diane C; Zapor, Michael; Hartzell, Joshua; Warkentien, Tyler; Weintrob, Amy C; Ganesan, Anuradha; Burgess, Timothy; Snesrud, Erik; Waterman, Paige; Nielsen, Lindsey; Ressner, Roseanne A

    2016-06-01

    Rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) have yet to be described in combat-related injuries. This study investigates the epidemiology, clinical findings, treatment, and outcomes of RGNTM infections among combat casualties wounded in Afghanistan from 2010 to 2012. Patients with RGNTM were identified from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry through the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study. Trauma history, surgical management, and clinical data were collected. Six isolates from patients requiring antimycobacterial therapy were sequenced. Seventeen cases were identified. Six cases, predominantly associated with Mycobacterium abscessus, required aggressive debridement and a median of 180 days of multidrug antimycobacterial therapy that included clofazimine. M. abscessus isolates expressed the erythromycin resistance methylase (erm(41)) gene for inducible macrolide resistance, yet there were no clinical treatment failures when macrolides were utilized in combination therapy. No clonal similarity between M. abscessus isolates was found. Eleven cases had positive wound cultures, but did not require antimycobacterial therapy. The median duration of time of injury to first detection of a RGNTM was 57 days. This represents the first report of RGNTM infections in war-wounded patients. RGNTM should be recognized as potential pathogens in grossly infected combat wounds. Surgical debridement and multidrug antimycobacterial therapy, when clinically indicated, was associated with satisfactory clinical outcomes. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  11. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpato, Richard [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Campi de Castro, Claudio [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Radiology, Cerqueira Cesar, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hadad, David Jamil [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Nucleo de Doencas Infecciosas, Department of Internal Medicine, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da [Laboratorio de Patologia PAT, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Filho, Ezequiel Leal [UNIMED Diagnostico, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Marcal, Leonardo P. [The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  12. Intraoperative Molecular Imaging for Rapid Assessment of Tumor Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    determine the depth of embedded tumor fragments in the excise tissue or surgical cavity. Pilot animal data with the Licor IRDye800CW-2DG imaging agent in...and the tumor immediately removed with adjacent normal tissue. All tissue were soaked for 5 – 20 minutes in a solution of Licor IRDye800CW-2DG and... Licor IRDye800CW-2DG, showing a cross section of the tumor mass. These images show a significant amount of non-specific uptake of the probe in

  13. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woller, Jessica L; Kim, Ki Beom; Behrents, Rolf G; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures) following rapid maxillary expansion in growing children. The CBCT scans of 25 consecutively treated RME patients (10 male, 15 female) with mean age of 12.3±2.6 years, were examined before expansion and immediately following the last activation of the expansion appliance. Statistically significant (Pmaxillary first molars due to RME was also statistically significant. There was no statistically significant displacement of the transpalatal suture. Rapid maxillary expansion results in significant displacement of the bones of circummaxillary sutures in growing children.

  14. Ovarian germ cell tumors with rhabdomyosarcomatous components and later development of growing teratoma syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jumaily Usama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Development of a sarcomatous component in a germ cell tumor is an uncommon phenomenon. Most cases reported have a grim prognosis. Growing teratoma syndrome is also an uncommon phenomenon and occurs in approximately 2% to 7% of non seminomatous germ cell tumors and should be treated surgically. Case presentation We report the case of a 12-year-old Asian girl with an ovarian mixed germ cell tumor containing a rhabdomyosarcomatous component. She was treated with a germ cell tumor chemotherapy regimen and rhabdomyosarcoma-specific chemotherapy. Towards the end of her treatment, she developed a retroperitoneal mass that was increasing in size. It was completely resected, revealing a mature teratoma, consistent with growing teratoma syndrome. She is still in complete remission approximately three years after presentation. Conclusion The presence of rhabdomyosarcoma in a germ cell tumor should be treated by a combined chemotherapy regimen (for germ cell tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma. In addition, development of a mass during or after therapy with normal serum markers should raise the possibility of growing teratoma syndrome that should be treated surgically.

  15. Two novel species of rapidly growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium lehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacterium neumannii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Sangal, Vartul; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Jando, Marlen; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Sutcliffe, Iain; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Two rapidly growing mycobacteria with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences were the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strains formed a well-supported subclade in the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely associated with the type strain of Mycobacterium novocastrense. Single and multilocus sequence analyses based on hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SN 1900T and SN 1904T are phylogenetically distinct but share several chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features that are are consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium. The two strains were distinguished by their different fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles, and by a combination of phenotypic features. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values for strains SN 1900T and SN 1904T were 61.0 % and 94.7 %, respectively; in turn, the corresponding dDDH and ANI values with M. novocastrense DSM 44203T were 41.4 % and 42.8 % and 89.3 % and 89.5 %, respectively. These results show that strains SN1900T and SN 1904T form new centres of taxonomic variation within the genus Mycobacterium. Consequently, strains SN 1900T (40T=CECT 8763T=DSM 43219T) and SN 1904T (2409T=CECT 8766T=DSM 43532T) are considered to represent novel species, for which the names Mycobacteriumlehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacteriumneumannii sp. nov. are proposed. A strain designated as 'Mycobacteriumacapulsensis' was shown to be a bona fide member of the putative novel species, M. lehmannii.

  16. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children

    OpenAIRE

    Woller,Jessica L.; Ki Beom Kim; Behrents, Rolf G.; Buschang, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures) following rapid maxillary expansion in gro...

  17. Gene expression in uterine leiomyoma from tumors likely to be growing (from black women over 35 and tumors likely to be non-growing (from white women over 35.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J Davis

    Full Text Available The study of uterine leiomyomata (fibroids provides a unique opportunity to investigate the physiological and molecular determinants of hormone dependent tumor growth and spontaneous tumor regression. We conducted a longitudinal clinical study of premenopausal women with leiomyoma that showed significantly different growth rates between white and black women depending on their age. Growth rates for leiomyoma were on average much higher from older black women than for older white women, and we now report gene expression pattern differences in tumors from these two groups of study participants. Total RNA from 52 leiomyoma and 8 myometrial samples were analyzed using Affymetrix Gene Chip expression arrays. Gene expression data was first compared between all leiomyoma and normal myometrium and then between leiomyoma from older black women (age 35 or older and from older white women. Genes that were found significant in pairwise comparisons were further analyzed for canonical pathways, networks and biological functions using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA software. Whereas our comparison of leiomyoma to myometrium produced a very large list of genes highly similar to numerous previous studies, distinct sets of genes and signaling pathways were identified in comparisons of older black and white women whose tumors were likely to be growing and non-growing, respectively. Key among these were genes associated with regulation of apoptosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare two groups of tumors that are likely to have different growth rates in order to reveal molecular signals likely to be influential in tumor growth.

  18. Papillary tumor of the pineal region: report of a rapidly progressive tumor with possible multicentric origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takashi S. [University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kirby, Patricia A. [University of Iowa, Department of Pathology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Buatti, John M. [University of Iowa, Department of Radiation Oncology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Moritani, Toshio [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is an uncommon tumor recently added to the WHO classification of CNS tumors. We report a case of PTPR in a young boy that was noteworthy for early CSF dissemination and relentless progression. In spite of intensive chemotherapy and comprehensive radiotherapy, the boy died. The neuroimaging appearance is unique with possible multicentric origin of the tumor and intense uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-pentetreotide. (orig.)

  19. Rapidly enlarging renal tumor during pregnancy: diagnostic and management dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kor Wei Tiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urological tumors diagnosed during pregnancy are rare. However, the incidence seems to be increasing largely due to advancements in modern imaging techniques and improved antenatal care. The diagnosis and management of renal tumors during pregnancy poses a dilemma to clinicians. This case report highlights the challenges in managing a large chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in a young primigravida patient. Proper antenatal assessment, a multidisciplinary team approach and appropriate discussion with patient are important determinants to achieve the best clinical outcomes for both the mother and the baby. 

  20. Mycobacterium iranicum sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic species isolated from clinical specimens on three different continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shojaei, H.; Daley, C.; Gitti, Z.; Hashemi, A.; Heidarieh, P.; Moore, E.R.; Naser, A.D.; Russo, C.; Ingen, J. van; Tortoli, E.

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of a novel, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic mycobacterial species is reported. Eight independent strains were isolated from clinical specimens from six different countries of the world, two in Iran, two in Italy and one in each of following countries: Greece, The

  1. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lione

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. Methods This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1–CS2. The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1 and after 1 year (T2. A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. Results RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. Conclusions The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular

  2. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, Roberta; Brunelli, Valerio; Franchi, Lorenzo; Pavoni, Chiara; Quiroga Souki, Bernardo; Cozza, Paola

    2017-11-06

    The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1-CS2). The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm) until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1) and after 1 year (T2). A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular response to the maxillary expansion protocol in class-II-growing

  3. [The diagnosis and treatment of rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai-Jin; Cheng, Zheng-Ping; Yin, Li; Wu, Yu-Yu; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Jun-Fang; Shi, Hai-Hong

    2009-06-01

    To study the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis (NTMK). It was retrospective case series study. Twelve eyes in 12 patients with NTMK following corneal foreign body trauma in 2007 were studied retrospectively including the case histories, clinical findings, laboratory examinations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The main laboratory examination included corneal scrapings by culturing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), corneal lesions by histopathologic examinations and TEM. The patients received local and systemic antibiotics therapy, lesion cleaning followed by cauterization with tincture of iodine (5%) and (or) keratoplasty. All cases had a history of corneal trauma, there was corneal metallic foreign body removal at one hospital in 11 cases, corneal reed trauma in 1 case. The characteristic signs involved grayish-blue crystalloid keratopathy, multifocal infiltrates, satellites, radical form changes in the Descemet's membrane. The results of laboratory examinations of the scrapings of the cornea infection were as follows: all cultures (12/12) were positive for rapidly growing mycobacteria, and isolates from 5 patients were all diagnosed as mycobacterium chelonae subspecies abscess; acid-fast staining revealed positive bacilli in all the 4 patients; seven of 8 patients were positive for bacterium by PCR. Transmission electron microscopy in all the 3 specimens showed many slender rod-shaped or short coarse-shaped bacteria which were phagocytized by monocytes, and some necrotic tissue. Infections in 10 eyes were resolved by combined treatment regimen including a combination of antimicrobial agents (amikacin, rifampin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and/or ofloxacin, etc.) and local lesion cleaning followed by cauterization with 5% tincture of iodine within 2-5 months; two cases resolved by keratoplasty which poorly responded to antibiotic therapy for 6 months

  4. Adaptive region-growing with maximum curvature strategy for tumor segmentation in 18F-FDG PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shan; Li, Laquan; Choi, Wookjin; Kang, Min Kyu; D'Souza, Warren D.; Lu, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Accurate tumor segmentation in PET is crucial in many oncology applications. We developed an adaptive region-growing (ARG) algorithm with a maximum curvature strategy (ARG_MC) for tumor segmentation in PET. The ARG_MC repeatedly applied a confidence connected region-growing algorithm with increasing relaxing factor f. The optimal relaxing factor (ORF) was then determined at the transition point on the f-volume curve, where the volume just grew from the tumor into the surrounding normal tissues. The ARG_MC along with five widely used algorithms were tested on a phantom with 6 spheres at different signal to background ratios and on two clinic datasets including 20 patients with esophageal cancer and 11 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The ARG_MC did not require any phantom calibration or any a priori knowledge of the tumor or PET scanner. The identified ORF varied with tumor types (mean ORF  =  9.61, 3.78 and 2.55 respectively for the phantom, esophageal cancer, and NHL datasets), and varied from one tumor to another. For the phantom, the ARG_MC ranked the second in segmentation accuracy with an average Dice similarity index (DSI) of 0.86, only slightly worse than Daisne’s adaptive thresholding method (DSI  =  0.87), which required phantom calibration. For both the esophageal cancer dataset and the NHL dataset, the ARG_MC had the highest accuracy with an average DSI of 0.87 and 0.84, respectively. The ARG_MC was robust to parameter settings and region of interest selection, and it did not depend on scanners, imaging protocols, or tumor types. Furthermore, the ARG_MC made no assumption about the tumor size or tumor uptake distribution, making it suitable for segmenting tumors with heterogeneous FDG uptake. In conclusion, the ARG_MC was accurate, robust and easy to use, it provides a highly potential tool for PET tumor segmentation in clinic.

  5. Multistate US Outbreak of Rapidly Growing Mycobacterial Infections Associated with Medical Tourism to the Dominican Republic, 2013-2014(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, David; Esposito, Douglas H; Gaines, Joanna; Ridpath, Alison; Barry, M Anita; Feldman, Katherine A; Mullins, Jocelyn; Burns, Rachel; Ahmad, Nina; Nyangoma, Edith N; Nguyen, Duc B; Perz, Joseph F; Moulton-Meissner, Heather A; Jensen, Bette J; Lin, Ying; Posivak-Khouly, Leah; Jani, Nisha; Morgan, Oliver W; Brunette, Gary W; Pritchard, P Scott; Greenbaum, Adena H; Rhee, Susan M; Blythe, David; Sotir, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During 2013, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in Baltimore, MD, USA, received report of 2 Maryland residents whose surgical sites were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria after cosmetic procedures at a clinic (clinic A) in the Dominican Republic. A multistate investigation was initiated; a probable case was defined as a surgical site infection unresponsive to therapy in a patient who had undergone cosmetic surgery in the Dominican Republic. We identified 21 case-patients in 6 states who had surgery in 1 of 5 Dominican Republic clinics; 13 (62%) had surgery at clinic A. Isolates from 12 (92%) of those patients were culture-positive for Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Of 9 clinic A case-patients with available data, all required therapeutic surgical intervention, 8 (92%) were hospitalized, and 7 (78%) required ≥3 months of antibacterial drug therapy. Healthcare providers should consider infection with rapidly growing mycobacteria in patients who have surgical site infections unresponsive to standard treatment.

  6. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas R. Cusumano; Vivy Tran; Aileen Tlamsa; Philip Chung; Robert Grossberg; Gregory Weston; Uzma N. Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors’ experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here. Methods: Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who pre...

  7. A novel culture medium for isolation of rapidly-growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Clair L; Perry, Audrey; Gray, Bethany; Kenna, Dervla T; Jones, Amanda L; Cummings, Stephen P; Robb, Ali; Thomas, Matthew F; Brodlie, Malcolm; O'Brien, Christopher J; Bourke, Stephen J; Perry, John D

    2016-03-01

    Isolation of mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to the overgrowth of cultures by other bacteria and fungi. In this setting, Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as a convenient and effective culture medium for the isolation of rapidly-growing, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). A novel selective culture medium (RGM medium) was evaluated for the isolation of rapidly-growing NTM from the sputum of children and adults with CF. A total of 118 isolates of rapidly-growing mycobacteria and 98 other bacteria and fungi were inoculated onto RGM medium. These were assessed for growth at 30°C over a seven day period. A total of 502 consecutive sputum samples were collected from 210 patients with CF. Each sample was homogenized and cultured onto RGM medium and also onto BCSA. Cultures were incubated for 10days at 30°C. Of 118 isolates of mycobacteria all but one grew well on RGM medium, whereas 94% of other bacteria and fungi were inhibited. A total of 55 sputum samples (from 33 distinct patients) yielded NTM using a combination of both RGM and BCSA (prevalence: 15.7%). NTM were recovered from 54 sputum samples using RGM medium compared with only 17 samples using BCSA (sensitivity 98% vs. 31%; P≤0.0001). A total of 419 isolates of non-mycobacteria were recovered from sputum samples on BCSA compared with 46 on RGM medium. RGM medium offers a simple and effective culture method for the isolation of rapidly-growing mycobacteria from sputum samples from patients with CF without decontamination of samples. RGM medium allows for the systematic screening of all sputum samples routinely referred for culture from patients with CF. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Contralateral trigeminal neuralgia in a rapidly growing vestibular schwannoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngbeom; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2018-01-01

    We present a rare case of vestibular schwannoma (VS) with contralateral trigeminal neuralgia. A 59 year-old woman presented with right-sided trigeminal neuralgia and a small VS in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) that was found via magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was administered medication; however, her symptoms gradually aggravated, and the size of the tumor increased. Two years after the initial diagnosis, the patient underwent surgical resection. After surgical resection, the patient's facial pain was improved. The trigeminal neuralgia appeared to be related to brainstem displacement caused by the contralateral VS. For VS with contralateral trigeminal neuralgia, surgical resection of the tumor should be considered as a possible treatment strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Woller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures following rapid maxillary expansion in growing children. METHODS: The CBCT scans of 25 consecutively treated RME patients (10 male, 15 female with mean age of 12.3 ± 2.6 years, were examined before expansion and immediately following the last activation of the expansion appliance. RESULTS: Statistically significant (P < 0.05 amounts of separation were found for the displacement of the bones of the frontonasal suture, the intermaxillary suture, the zygomaticomaxillary sutures, and the midpalatal suture. The change in angulation of the maxillary first molars due to RME was also statistically significant. There was no statistically significant displacement of the transpalatal suture. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid maxillary expansion results in significant displacement of the bones of circummaxillary sutures in growing children.

  10. The impact of entrepreneurial capital and rapidly growing firms: the Canadian example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    World-class competitiveness is no longer an option for firms seeking growth and survival in the increasingly competitive, dynamic and interconnected world. This paper expands on the concept of entrepreneurial capital and formalizes it as a catalyst that augments other productive factors. It provi...... hostile environments that also suffer from poor resources, this research offers significant lessons with implications for emerging firms, industries and associated regions that aspire to grow faster...

  11. Growing tumor vessels: more than one way to skin a cat - implications for angiogenesis targeted cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite de Oliveira, Rodrigo; Hamm, Alexander; Mazzone, Massimiliano

    2011-04-01

    represents a significant step forth in cancer therapy and in our understanding of cancer biology, but it is also clear that we need to learn how to use it. What is the biological consequence of VEGF-blockade? Does VEGF inhibition starve the tumor to death - as initially postulated - or does it rather foster malignancy? Can anti-VEGF(R) therapy favor tumor vessel formation by VEGF-independent means? Tumors are very diverse and plastic entities, able to adapt to the harshest conditions; this is also reflected by the tumor vasculature. Lessons from the bench to the bedside and vice versa have taught us that the diversity of signals underlying tumor vessel growth will likely be responsive (or resistant) to distinct therapeutic approaches. In this review, we propose a reflection of the different strategies tumors use to grow blood vessels and how these can have impact on the (un)success of current anti-angiogenic therapies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Male patients presenting with rapidly progressive puberty associated with malignant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jung Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In males, precocious puberty (PP is defined as the development of secondary sexual characteristics before age 9 years. PP is usually idiopathic; though, organic abnormalities including tumors are more frequently found in male patients with PP. However, advanced puberty in male also can be an important clinical manifestation in tumors. We report 2 cases of rapidly progressive puberty in males, each associated with a germ-cell tumor. First, an 11-year-old boy presented with mild fever and weight loss for 1 month. Physical examination revealed a pubertal stage of G3P3 with 10-mL testes. Investigations revealed advanced bone age (16 years with elevated basal luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels. An anterior mediastinal tumor was identified by chest radiography and computed tomography, and elevated α-fetoprotein (AFP and β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG levels were noted. Histopathologic analysis confirmed a yolk-sac tumor. Second, a 12-year-old boy presented with diplopia, polydipsia, and polyuria for 4 months. Physical examination revealed a pubertal stage of G3P3 with 8-mL testes. Bone age was advanced (16 years and laboratory tests indicated panhypopituitarism with elevated testosterone level. A mixed germ-cell tumor was diagnosed with elevated AFP and β-hCG levels. Of course, these patients also have other symptoms of suspecting tumors, however, rapidly progressive puberty can be the more earlier screening sign of tumors. Therefore, in male patients with accelerated or advanced puberty, malignancy should be considered, with evaluation of tumor markers. In addition, advanced puberty in male should be recognized more widely as a unique sign of neoplasm.

  13. Genome organization factor determines the few cells that make a tumor grow | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the September 30, 2016, issue of the journal Science, scientists led by former CCR postdoctoral fellow Paola Scaffidi report that an essential DNA-packing protein called linker histone H1.0 is present in varying levels in the cells of tumors, and plays an important role in determining which cells have the capacity to sustain the tumor’s growth.  Learn more...

  14. In-vitro evaluation of the adhesion to polypropylene sutures of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, N; Esteban, J; Kinnari, T J; Celdrán, A; Granizo, J J; Zafra, C

    2007-09-01

    The ability of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria (NPRGM) to attach to polypropylene sutures was evaluated using an in-vitro assay. Thirty clinical isolates and five culture collection strains of NPRGM, together with Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35983, were tested. Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae showed the highest attachment ability, which differed significantly from the results obtained with Mycobacterium peregrinum. According to these results, NPRGM are able to attach to polypropylene sutures, and the species implicated most frequently in human infection showed increased levels of attachment in comparison with the other mycobacteria studied.

  15. A rapidly growing moraine-dammed glacial lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah S.; Benn, Douglas I.; Dennis, Kathryn; Luckman, Adrian

    2012-04-01

    Moraine-dammed glacial lakes are becoming increasingly common in the Himalaya as a result of glacier mass loss, causing concern about glacier lake outburst flood risk. In addition to extant lakes, the potential exists for many more to form, as more glaciers ablate down to the level of potential moraine dams. In this paper, we document the recent rapid growth of, a moraine-dammed lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. Using a combination of ground-based mapping and sonar surveys, aerial photographs (< 1 m resolution), and ASTER imagery (15 m resolution), processes and rates of lake expansion have been determined. The lake first formed between 1984 and 1992 when collapse of an englacial conduit allowed water to accumulate at the level of a gap in the lateral moraine, ~km from the glacier terminus. Lake growth was initially slow, but since 2001 it has undergone exponential growth at an average rate of 10% y-1. In 2009, the lake area was 300,000 m2, and its volume was at least 2.2 million m3. Calving, subaqueous melting, and melting of subaerial ice faces all contribute to the expansion of the lake; but large-scale, full-height slab calving is now the dominant contributor to growth. Comparison with other lakes in the region indicate that lake growth will likely continue unchecked whilst the spillway remains at its current level and may attain a volume of hundreds of millions of cubic metres within the next few decades.

  16. Neonatal sepsis in a rapidly growing, tertiary neonatal intensive care unit: Trends over 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Ju Sun; Shin, Seung Han; Jung, Young Hwa; Kim, Ee-Kyung; Choi, Eun Hwa; Kim, Han-Suk; Lee, Hoan Jong; Choi, Jung-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    We investigated changes in the admission patterns of neonatal intensive care units and the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis following the rapid expansion and improvements in neonatal intensive care. Data on the admission of neonates with culture-proven sepsis between 1996 and 2013 (period I, 1996-2005; period II, 2006-2013) were collected retrospectively. The admission of extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants increased between periods I and II (11.1 vs 28.7 infants per 1000 live births, P sepsis among all infants and ELBW infants increased (all infants, 5.9 vs 12.7 cases per 1000 live births; ELBW infants, 189.5 vs 290.1 cases per 1000 live births). In ELBW infants, the incidence of sepsis caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS), significantly increased during period II (8.8 vs 25.4%, P = 0.039). On multivariate analysis, central vascular catheters and prolonged hospitalization were independently associated with increased sepsis rate, particularly CONS in ELBW infants. The inborn admission rate for ELBW infants has increased significantly and is accompanied by improved survival and longer hospital stay. The incidence of neonatal sepsis, particularly in ELBW infants, has also increased, and CONS has emerged as a major pathogen. Central vascular catheters and prolonged hospitalization could be independent risk factors for the increased sepsis rate, particularly sepsis due to CONS. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Imaging thiol redox status in murine tumors in vivo with rapid-scan electron paramagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Boris; Sundramoorthy, Subramanian V.; Krzykawska-Serda, Martyna; Maggio, Matthew C.; Tseytlin, Mark; Eaton, Gareth R.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Rosen, Gerald M.; Kao, Joseph P. Y.; Halpern, Howard J.

    2017-03-01

    Thiol redox status is an important physiologic parameter that affects the success or failure of cancer treatment. Rapid scan electron paramagnetic resonance (RS EPR) is a novel technique that has shown higher signal-to-noise ratio than conventional continuous-wave EPR in in vitro studies. Here we used RS EPR to acquire rapid three-dimensional images of the thiol redox status of tumors in living mice. This work presents, for the first time, in vivo RS EPR images of the kinetics of the reaction of 2H,15N-substituted disulfide-linked dinitroxide (PxSSPx) spin probe with intracellular glutathione. The cleavage rate is proportional to the intracellular glutathione concentration. Feasibility was demonstrated in a FSa fibrosarcoma tumor model in C3H mice. Similar to other in vivo and cell model studies, decreasing intracellular glutathione concentration by treating mice with L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) markedly altered the kinetic images.

  18. Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov., a rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species isolated from human clinical respiratory and blood culture specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto Enrique; Greninger, Alexander L; Ladutko, Lynn; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Jakubiec, Wesley; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Wallace, Richard J; Simmon, Keith E; Dunn, Bruce E; Jackoway, Gary; Vora, Surabhi B; Quinn, Kevin K; Qin, Xuan; Campbell, Sheldon

    2017-11-01

    A previously undescribed, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species of the genus Mycobacterium (represented by strains PB739 T and GK) was isolated from two clinical sources - the sputum of a 76-year-old patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of tuberculosis exposure and Mycobacterium avium complex isolated years prior; and the blood of a 15-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia status post bone marrow transplant. The isolates grew as dark orange colonies at 25-37 °C after 5 days, sharing features in common with other closely related species. Analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (1492 bp) of strain PB739 T demonstrated that the isolate shared 98.8 % relatedness with Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Partial 429 bp hsp65 and 744 bp rpoB region V sequence analyses revealed that the sequences of the novel isolate shared 94.8 and 92.1 % similarity with those of Mycobacterium neoaurum and Mycobacterium aurum, respectively. Biochemical profiling, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, HPLC/gas-liquid chromatography analyses and multilocus sequence typing support the taxonomic status of these isolates (PB739 T and GK) as representatives of a novel species. Both isolates were susceptible to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended antimicrobials for susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria including amikacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline/minocycline, imipenem, linezolid, clarithromycin and trimethropin/sulfamethoxazole. Both isolates PB739 T and GK showed intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin. We propose the name Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov. for this novel species and have deposited the type strain in the DSMZ and CIP culture collections. The type strain is PB739 T (=DSM 104744 T =CIP 111318 T ).

  19. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, Lucas R; Tran, Vivy; Tlamsa, Aileen; Chung, Philip; Grossberg, Robert; Weston, Gregory; Sarwar, Uzma N

    2017-10-01

    Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors' experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here. Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who presented at the Montefiore Medical Center (Bronx, New York, USA) between August 2015 and June 2016 were identified. A review of patient medical records was performed. Four patients who presented with culture-proven RGM infections at the sites of recent cosmetic procedures were identified. All patients were treated with a combination of antibiotics and aggressive surgical treatment. This case series of RGM infections following recent cosmetic surgeries abroad highlights the risks of medical tourism. Close monitoring of affected patients by surgical and infectious disease specialties is necessary, as aggressive surgical debridement combined with appropriate antibiotic regimens is needed to achieve cure. Given the increasing reports of post-surgical RGM infections, consultants should have a low threshold for suspecting RGM, as rapid diagnosis may accelerate the initiation of targeted treatment and minimize morbidity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov., a scotochromogenic, rapidly growing species is able to infect human macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Rizvi, A; Banerjee, S; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-11-01

    Gram-stain-positive, acid-fast-positive, rapidly growing, rod-shaped bacteria (designated as strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431) were isolated from paddy cultivated soils on the Western Ghats of India. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three strains among the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium tokaiense 47503T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Mycobacterium murale MA112/96T (98.8 %) and a few other Mycobacterium species. The level of DNA-DNA reassociation of the three strains with M. tokaiense DSM 44635T was 23.4±4 % (26.1±3 %, reciprocal analysis) and 21.4±2 % (22.1±4 %, reciprocal analysis). The three novel strains shared >99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA reassociation values >85 %. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences (3071 bp) of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) revealed that strain JC290T is clearly distinct from all other Mycobacteriumspecies. The three strains had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, unidentified phospholipids, unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified lipid as polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone for all three strains was MK-9(H2). Fatty acids were C17 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C19 : 1ω7c/C19 : 1ω6c for all the three strains. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431 are members of a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium and for which the name Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC290T (=KCTC 39560T=LMG 28809T).

  1. Miniaturized extinction culturing is the preferred strategy for rapid isolation of fast‐growing methane‐oxidizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefman, Sven; van der Ha, David; De Vos, Paul; Boon, Nico; Heylen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Summary Methane‐oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have a large potential as a microbial sink for the greenhouse gas methane as well as for biotechnological purposes. However, their application in biotechnology has so far been hampered, in part due to the relative slow growth rate of the available strains. To enable the availability of novel strains, this study compares the isolation of MOB by conventional dilution plating with miniaturized extinction culturing, both performed after an initial enrichment step. The extinction approach rendered 22 MOB isolates from four environmental samples, while no MOB could be isolated by plating. In most cases, extinction culturing immediately yielded MOB monocultures making laborious purification redundant. Both type I (Methylomonas spp.) and type II (Methylosinus sp.) MOB were isolated. The isolated methanotrophic diversity represented at least 11 different strains and several novel species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence dissimilarity. These strains possessed the particulate (100%) and soluble (64%) methane monooxygenase gene. Also, 73% of the strains could be linked to a highly active fast‐growing mixed MOB community. In conclusion, miniaturized extinction culturing was more efficient in rapidly isolating numerous MOB requiring little effort and fewer materials, compared with the more widely applied plating procedure. This miniaturized approach allowed straightforward isolation and could be very useful for subsequent screening of desired characteristics, in view of their future biotechnological potential. PMID:22070783

  2. Transferrin-mediated rapid targeting, isolation, and detection of circulating tumor cells by multifunctional magneto-dendritic nanosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Shashwat S; Jalota-Badhwar, Archana; Satavalekar, Sneha D; Bhansali, Sujit G; Aher, Naval D; Mascarenhas, Russel R; Paul, Debjani; Sharma, Somesh; Khandare, Jayant J

    2013-06-01

    A multicomponent magneto-dendritic nanosystem (MDNS) is designed for rapid tumor cell targeting, isolation, and high-resolution imaging by a facile bioconjugation approach. The highly efficient and rapid-acting MDNS provides a convenient platform for simultaneous isolation and high-resolution imaging of tumor cells, potentially leading towards an early diagnosis of cancer. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. CBCT-Guided Rapid Arc for stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) in lung tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fandino, J. M.; Silva, M. C.; Izquierdo, P.; Candal, A.; Diaz, I.; Fernandez, C.; Gesto, C.; Poncet, M.; Soto, M.; Triana, G.; Losada, C.; Marino, A.

    2013-07-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy has emerged as a standard treatment option for stage I non-small cell lung cancer in patients unfit for surgery, or who refuse surgery. An increasing number of prospective phase I/II trials, as well as large single and multicenter studies have reported local control rates to be in excess of 85% for early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Volumetric arc therapy RapidArc with tumor-based image guidance technique will be presented as well as our preliminary observations. (Author)

  4. Tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, J.U.; Heegaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer......oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer...

  5. Rapid spread of mouse mammary tumor virus in cultured human breast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günzburg Walter H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV as a causative agent in human breast carcinogenesis has recently been the subject of renewed interest. The proposed model is based on the detection of MMTV sequences in human breast cancer but not in healthy breast tissue. One of the main drawbacks to this model, however, was that until now human cells had not been demonstrated to sustain productive MMTV infection. Results Here, we show for the first time the rapid spread of mouse mammary tumor virus, MMTV(GR, in cultured human mammary cells (Hs578T, ultimately leading to the infection of every cell in culture. The replication of the virus was monitored by quantitative PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence imaging. The infected human cells expressed, upon cultivation with dexamethasone, MMTV structural proteins and released spiked B-type virions, the infectivity of which could be neutralized by anti-MMTV antibody. Replication of the virus was efficiently blocked by an inhibitor of reverse transcription, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. The human origin of the infected cells was confirmed by determining a number of integration sites hosting the provirus, which were unequivocally identified as human sequences. Conclusion Taken together, our results show that human cells can support replication of mouse mammary tumor virus.

  6. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).

  7. Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov., a rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium chelonae, isolated from marine teleost fish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Hanako; Wada, Shinpei; Kurata, Osamu; Katayama, Kinya; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-01

    A previously undescribed rapidly growing, non-pigmented mycobacterium was identified based on biochemical and nucleic acid analyses, as well as growth characteristics. Seven isolates were cultured from samples collected from five thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) and two farmed black scraper (Thamnaconus modestus). Bacterial growth occurred at 15-35 °C on Middlebrook 7H11 agar. The bacteria were positive for catalase activity at 68 °C and urease activity, intermediate for iron uptake, and negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, semi-quantitative catalase activity and arylsulfatase activity at day 3. No growth was observed on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with picric acid, and very little growth was observed in the presence of 5 % NaCl. α- and α'-mycolates were identified in the cell walls, and a unique profile of the fatty acid methyl esters and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles of the protein and cell-wall lipids were acquired. Sequence analysis revealed that the seven isolates shared identical sequences for the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65, recA and sodA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the five gene sequences confirmed that the isolates were unique, but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clarithromycin against this novel species was Mycobacterium salmoniphilum. The hsp65 PCR restriction enzyme analysis pattern differed from those of M. chelonae and M. salmoniphilum. Based on these findings, the name Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain being NJB0901T (=JCM 31611T=KCTC 39843T).

  8. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae–Mycobacterium abscessus group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M.; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and, in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae–Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M. abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1–2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values >70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results, demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, but constitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM 10906T ( = CCUG 66554T = LMG 28586T = INCQS 0733T). PMID:26358475

  9. A Platform for Rapid, Quantitative Assessment of Multiple Drug Combinations Simultaneously in Solid Tumors In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyoti Dey

    Full Text Available While advances in high-throughput screening have resulted in increased ability to identify synergistic anti-cancer drug combinations, validation of drug synergy in the in vivo setting and prioritization of combinations for clinical development remain low-throughput and resource intensive. Furthermore, there is currently no viable method for prospectively assessing drug synergy directly in human patients in order to potentially tailor therapies. To address these issues we have employed the previously described CIVO platform and developed a quantitative approach for investigating multiple combination hypotheses simultaneously in single living tumors. This platform provides a rapid, quantitative and cost effective approach to compare and prioritize drug combinations based on evidence of synergistic tumor cell killing in the live tumor context. Using a gemcitabine resistant model of pancreatic cancer, we efficiently investigated nine rationally selected Abraxane-based combinations employing only 19 xenografted mice. Among the drugs tested, the BCL2/BCLxL inhibitor ABT-263 was identified as the one agent that synergized with Abraxane® to enhance acute induction of localized apoptosis in this model of human pancreatic cancer. Importantly, results obtained with CIVO accurately predicted the outcome of systemic dosing studies in the same model where superior tumor regression induced by the Abraxane/ABT-263 combination was observed compared to that induced by either single agent. This supports expanded use of CIVO as an in vivo platform for expedited in vivo drug combination validation and sets the stage for performing toxicity-sparing drug combination studies directly in cancer patients with solid malignancies.

  10. A rapid and quantitative method to detect human circulating tumor cells in a preclinical animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shih-Hsin; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Huang, Li-Chi; Lin, Chun-Yu; Hsu, Kai-Wen; Hsieh, Wen-Shyang; Chi, Wei-Ming; Lee, Chia-Hwa

    2017-06-23

    As cancer metastasis is the deadliest aspect of cancer, causing 90% of human deaths, evaluating the molecular mechanisms underlying this process is the major interest to those in the drug development field. Both therapeutic target identification and proof-of-concept experimentation in anti-cancer drug development require appropriate animal models, such as xenograft tumor transplantation in transgenic and knockout mice. In the progression of cancer metastasis, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the most critical factor in determining the prognosis of cancer patients. Several studies have demonstrated that measuring CTC-specific markers in a clinical setting (e.g., flow cytometry) can provide a current status of cancer development in patients. However, this useful technique has rarely been applied in the real-time monitoring of CTCs in preclinical animal models. In this study, we designed a rapid and reliable detection method by combining a bioluminescent in vivo imaging system (IVIS) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)-based analysis to measure CTCs in animal blood. Using the IVIS Spectrum CT System with 3D-imaging on orthotropic-developed breast-tumor-bearing mice. In this manuscript, we established a quick and reliable method for measuring CTCs in a preclinical animal mode. The key to this technique is the use of specific human and mouse GUS primers on DNA/RNA of mouse peripheral blood under an absolute qPCR system. First, the high sensitivity of cancer cell detection on IVIS was presented by measuring the luciferase carried MDA-MB-231 cells from 5 to 5x10(11) cell numbers with great correlation (R(2) = 0.999). Next, the MDA-MB-231 cell numbers injected by tail vein and their IVIS radiance signals were strongly corrected with qPCR-calculated copy numbers (R(2) > 0.99). Furthermore, by applying an orthotropic implantation animal model, we successfully distinguished xenograft tumor-bearing mice and control mice with a significant difference (p < 0

  11. Semi-automated delineation of breast cancer tumors and subsequent materialization using three-dimensional printing (rapid prototyping).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Harz, Markus; Meier-Meitinger, Martina; Brehm, Barbara; Wacker, Till; Hahn, Horst K; Wagner, Florian; Wittenberg, Thomas; Beckmann, Matthias W; Uder, Michael; Fasching, Peter A; Emons, Julius

    2017-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has become widely available, and a few cases of its use in clinical practice have been described. The aim of this study was to explore facilities for the semi-automated delineation of breast cancer tumors and to assess the feasibility of 3D printing of breast cancer tumors. In a case series of five patients, different 3D imaging methods-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), and 3D ultrasound-were used to capture 3D data for breast cancer tumors. The volumes of the breast tumors were calculated to assess the comparability of the breast tumor models, and the MRI information was used to render models on a commercially available 3D printer to materialize the tumors. The tumor volumes calculated from the different 3D methods appeared to be comparable. Tumor models with volumes between 325 mm 3 and 7,770 mm 3 were printed and compared with the models rendered from MRI. The materialization of the tumors reflected the computer models of them. 3D printing (rapid prototyping) appears to be feasible. Scenarios for the clinical use of the technology might include presenting the model to the surgeon to provide a better understanding of the tumor's spatial characteristics in the breast, in order to improve decision-making in relation to neoadjuvant chemotherapy or surgical approaches. J. Surg. Oncol. 2017;115:238-242. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Rapid Multi-Tracer PET Tumor Imaging With 18F-FDG and Secondary Shorter-Lived Tracers

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Noel F.; McJames, Scott; Kadrmas, Dan J

    2009-01-01

    Rapid multi-tracer PET, where two to three PET tracers are rapidly scanned with staggered injections, can recover certain imaging measures for each tracer based on differences in tracer kinetics and decay. We previously showed that single-tracer imaging measures can be recovered to a certain extent from rapid dual-tracer 62Cu – PTSM (blood flow) + 62Cu — ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging. In this work, the feasibility of rapidly imaging 18F-FDG plus one or two of these shorter-lived secondary trac...

  13. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaritza Salas

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign and 47.5% (malignant. The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico.

  14. Neural networks combined with region growing techniques for tumor detection in [18F]-fluorothymidine dynamic positron emission tomography breast cancer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Zoltan; Kenny, Laura; Swingland, James; Bose, Subrata; Turheimer, Federico E.

    2013-03-01

    Early detection and precise localization of malignant tumors has been a primary challenge in medical imaging in recent years. Functional modalities play a continuously increasing role in these efforts. Image segmentation algorithms which enable automatic, accurate tumor visualization and quantification on noisy positron emission tomography (PET) images would significantly improve the quality of treatment planning processes and in turn, the success of treatments. In this work a novel multistep method has been applied in order to identify tumor regions in 4D dynamic [18F] fluorothymidine (FLT) PET studies of patients with locally advanced breast cancer. In order to eliminate the effect of inherently detectable high inhomogeneity inside tumors, specific voxel-kinetic classes were initially introduced by finding characteristic FLT-uptake curves with K-means algorithm on a set of voxels collected from each tumor. Image voxel sets were then split based on voxel time-activity curve (TAC) similarities, and models were generated separately on each voxel set. At first, artificial neural networks, in comparison with linear classification algorithms were applied to distinguish tumor and healthy regions relying on the characteristics of TACs of the individual voxels. The outputs of the best model with very high specificity were then used as input seeds for region shrinking and growing techniques, the application of which considerably enhanced the sensitivity and specificity (78.65% +/- 0.65% and 98.98% +/- 0.03%, respectively) of the final image segmentation model.

  15. Rapid analysis of vessel elements (RAVE): a tool for studying physiologic, pathologic and tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Marc E; Peirce, Shayn M; Kelly, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Quantification of microvascular network structure is important in a myriad of emerging research fields including microvessel remodeling in response to ischemia and drug therapy, tumor angiogenesis, and retinopathy. To mitigate analyst-specific variation in measurements and to ensure that measurements represent actual changes in vessel network structure and morphology, a reliable and automatic tool for quantifying microvascular network architecture is needed. Moreover, an analysis tool capable of acquiring and processing large data sets will facilitate advanced computational analysis and simulation of microvascular growth and remodeling processes and enable more high throughput discovery. To this end, we have produced an automatic and rapid vessel detection and quantification system using a MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) that vastly reduces time spent on analysis and greatly increases repeatability. Analysis yields numerical measures of vessel volume fraction, vessel length density, fractal dimension (a measure of tortuosity), and radii of murine vascular networks. Because our GUI is open sourced to all, it can be easily modified to measure parameters such as percent coverage of non-endothelial cells, number of loops in a vascular bed, amount of perfusion and two-dimensional branch angle. Importantly, the GUI is compatible with standard fluorescent staining and imaging protocols, but also has utility analyzing brightfield vascular images, obtained, for example, in dorsal skinfold chambers. A manually measured image can be typically completed in 20 minutes to 1 hour. In stark comparison, using our GUI, image analysis time is reduced to around 1 minute. This drastic reduction in analysis time coupled with increased repeatability makes this tool valuable for all vessel research especially those requiring rapid and reproducible results, such as anti-angiogenic drug screening.

  16. Rapid analysis of vessel elements (RAVE: a tool for studying physiologic, pathologic and tumor angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc E Seaman

    Full Text Available Quantification of microvascular network structure is important in a myriad of emerging research fields including microvessel remodeling in response to ischemia and drug therapy, tumor angiogenesis, and retinopathy. To mitigate analyst-specific variation in measurements and to ensure that measurements represent actual changes in vessel network structure and morphology, a reliable and automatic tool for quantifying microvascular network architecture is needed. Moreover, an analysis tool capable of acquiring and processing large data sets will facilitate advanced computational analysis and simulation of microvascular growth and remodeling processes and enable more high throughput discovery. To this end, we have produced an automatic and rapid vessel detection and quantification system using a MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI that vastly reduces time spent on analysis and greatly increases repeatability. Analysis yields numerical measures of vessel volume fraction, vessel length density, fractal dimension (a measure of tortuosity, and radii of murine vascular networks. Because our GUI is open sourced to all, it can be easily modified to measure parameters such as percent coverage of non-endothelial cells, number of loops in a vascular bed, amount of perfusion and two-dimensional branch angle. Importantly, the GUI is compatible with standard fluorescent staining and imaging protocols, but also has utility analyzing brightfield vascular images, obtained, for example, in dorsal skinfold chambers. A manually measured image can be typically completed in 20 minutes to 1 hour. In stark comparison, using our GUI, image analysis time is reduced to around 1 minute. This drastic reduction in analysis time coupled with increased repeatability makes this tool valuable for all vessel research especially those requiring rapid and reproducible results, such as anti-angiogenic drug screening.

  17. Rapid and accurate tumor-target bio-imaging through specific in vivo biosynthesis of a fluorescent europium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Wang, Jianling; Li, Qiwei; Dong, Xiawei; Ge, Wei; Chen, Yun; Jiang, Xuerui; Liu, Hongde; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-04-01

    A new and facile method for rapidly and accurately achieving tumor targeting fluorescent images has been explored using a specifically biosynthesized europium (Eu) complex in vivo and in vitro. It demonstrated that a fluorescent Eu complex could be bio-synthesized through a spontaneous molecular process in cancerous cells and tumors, but not prepared in normal cells and tissues. In addition, the proteomics analyses show that some biological pathways of metabolism, especially for NADPH production and glutamine metabolism, are remarkably affected during the relevant biosynthesis process, where molecular precursors of europium ions are reduced to fluorescent europium complexes inside cancerous cells or tumor tissues. These results proved that the specific self-biosynthesis of a fluorescent Eu complex by cancer cells or tumor tissues can provide a new strategy for accurate diagnosis and treatment strategies in the early stages of cancers and thus is beneficial for realizing precise surgical intervention based on the relevant cheap and readily available agents.

  18. Regulation of the efflux of putrescine and cadaverine from rapidly growing cultured RAW 264 cells by extracellular putrescine.

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandrawinata, R R; Byus, C V

    1995-01-01

    Cultures of the macrophage-like RAW 264 cells were adapted to divide normally in a synthetic serum-supplemented culture medium lacking any polyamines and diamine oxidase activity. These rapidly dividing cells actively effluxed large amounts of putrescine and cadaverine, compared with the intracellular levels, into the culture medium. The efflux of putrescine was stimulated by the amino acid ornithine, whereas efflux of cadaverine was inhibited. Relatively low levels of spermidine and N1-acety...

  19. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. Cusumano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: This case series of RGM infections following recent cosmetic surgeries abroad highlights the risks of medical tourism. Close monitoring of affected patients by surgical and infectious disease specialties is necessary, as aggressive surgical debridement combined with appropriate antibiotic regimens is needed to achieve cure. Given the increasing reports of post-surgical RGM infections, consultants should have a low threshold for suspecting RGM, as rapid diagnosis may accelerate the initiation of targeted treatment and minimize morbidity.

  20. Do farmers rapidly adapt to past growing conditions by sowing different proportions of early and late maturing cereals and cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short growing season of the northernmost European growing conditions, farmers are increasingly interested in expanding cultivation of later maturing crops at the expense of early maturing ones with lower yields. In this study we aimed to assess how the switching between spring cereals that differ in earliness was associated with different external factors. This was tested using unique datasets for regional cropping areas and cultivar use for the last 15 years. Early maturing barley was favored at the expense of later maturing wheat when a high number of days to crop maturity was required in the preceding year. In contrast, farmers reduced the barley area when a high number of cumulated degree days was required for a crop to mature in the previous year. A shift was recorded from early to late maturing cultivars. This study indicated that despite limited opportunities for farmers to alter land use, they readily responded to past conditions and used the knowledge gained for decision-making to reduce risk. This is a valuable operative model for studying adaptation to opportunities and constraints induced by climate change.

  1. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  2. Rapid tumor necrosis and massive hemorrhage induced by bevacizumab and paclitaxel combination therapy in a case of advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mayu Ono, Tokiko Ito, Toshiharu Kanai, Koichi Murayama, Hiroshi Koyama, Kazuma Maeno, Yasuhiro Mochizuki, Asumi Iesato, Toru Hanamura, Toshihiro Okada, Takayuki Watanabe, Ken-ichi ItoDivision of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery (II, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, JapanAbstract: Bevacizumab when combined with chemotherapy exerts significant activity against many solid tumors through tumor angiogenesis inhibition; however, it can induce severe side effects. We report the rare case of a 27-year-old premenopausal woman with locally advanced breast cancer that was marked by rapid tumor necrosis followed by massive hemorrhage shortly after bevacizumab and paclitaxel administration. On the basis of histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen and computed tomography findings, she was diagnosed with stage IV estrogen and progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-positive breast cancer with multiple organ metastases when she had entered gestational week 24. Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin®, fluorouracil therapy was initiated, but multiple liver metastases continued to progress. A healthy fetus was delivered by induced delivery and trastuzumab-based treatment was initiated. Although the multiple liver metastases were controlled successfully by trastuzumab combined with paclitaxel, the primary tumor continued to expand even after subsequent administration of three other treatment regimens including anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 agents and cytotoxic drugs. To inhibit primary tumor growth, a combination therapy with paclitaxel and bevacizumab was subsequently initiated. Following therapy initiation, however, the large tumor occupying the patient's entire left breast became necrotic and ulcerated rapidly. Furthermore, massive hemorrhage from the tumor occurred 5 weeks after bevacizumab-based therapy initiation. Although hemostasis was achieved by manual

  3. A blocking antibody to nerve growth factor attenuates skeletal pain induced by prostate tumor cells growing in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Kyle G; Kubota, Kazufumi; Sevcik, Molly A; Lindsay, Theodore H; Sotillo, Julio E; Ghilardi, Joseph R; Rosol, Thomas J; Boustany, Leila; Shelton, David L; Mantyh, Patrick W

    2005-10-15

    Prostate cancer is unique in that bone is often the only clinically detectable site of metastasis. Prostate tumors that have metastasized to bone frequently induce bone pain which can be difficult to fully control as it seems to be driven simultaneously by inflammatory, neuropathic, and tumorigenic mechanisms. As nerve growth factor (NGF) has been shown to modulate inflammatory and some neuropathic pain states in animal models, an NGF-sequestering antibody was administered in a prostate model of bone cancer where significant bone formation and bone destruction occur simultaneously in the mouse femur. Administration of a blocking antibody to NGF produced a significant reduction in both early and late stage bone cancer pain-related behaviors that was greater than or equivalent to that achieved with acute administration of 10 or 30 mg/kg of morphine sulfate. In contrast, this therapy did not influence tumor-induced bone remodeling, osteoblast proliferation, osteoclastogenesis, tumor growth, or markers of sensory or sympathetic innervation in the skin or bone. One rather unique aspect of the sensory innervation of bone, that may partially explain the analgesic efficacy of anti-NGF therapy in relieving prostate cancer-induced bone pain, is that nearly all nerve fibers that innervate the bone express trkA and p75, and these are the receptors through which NGF sensitizes and/or activates nociceptors. The present results suggest that anti-NGF therapy may be effective in reducing pain and enhancing the quality of life in patients with prostate tumor-induced bone cancer pain.

  4. Growing City and Rapid Land Use Transition: Assessing Multiple Hazards and Risks in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagawat Rimal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pokhara is one of the most naturally beautiful cities in the world with a unique geological setting. This important tourist city is under intense pressure from rapid urbanization and population growth. Multiple hazards and risks are rapidly increasing in Pokhara due to unsustainable land use practices, particularly the increase in built-up areas. This study examines the relationship among urbanization, land use/land cover dynamics and multiple hazard and risk analysis of the Pokhara valley from 1990 to 2013. We investigate some of the active hazards, such as floods, landslides, fire, sinkholes, land subsidence and earthquakes, and prepare an integrated multiple hazard risk map indicating the highly vulnerable zones. Land use and land cover maps from 1990 and 2013 from Landsat images (30 m resolution have been prepared and analyzed for the spatial dynamics of urbanization and the transition of land use and land cover. In the 23-year period, the built-up area more than doubled from 24.03 km² to 54.20 km². Although the landscape in the urban, peri-urban and rural areas appears to be fragmented, different drivers play pivotal roles in landscape change in these areas. The results provide substantial information for establishing innovative action plans for disaster risk management in the valley. Recommendations are made for the most suitable places for future urban expansion in the valley. This study is important for raising awareness among policy makers and other public officials to include multiple hazard risk mitigation in land use policies and plans. Establishing connections between urban expansions, escalating population growth and multiple hazards and risk assessment will also improve in modelling the latent impact of future catastrophes and emergency preparedness.

  5. Applying a 4D multiscale in vivo tumor growth model to the exploration of radiotherapy scheduling: The effects of weekend treatment gaps and p53 gene status on the response of fast growing solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra D. Dionysiou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at demonstrating clinically oriented applications of the multiscale four dimensional in vivo tumor growth simulation model previously developed by our research group. To this end the effect of weekend radiotherapy treatment gaps and p53 gene status on two virtual glioblastoma tumors differing only in p53 gene status is investigated in silico. Tumor response predictions concerning two rather extreme dose fractionation schedules (daily dose of 4.5 Gy administered in 3 equal fractions namely HART (Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy weekend less 54 Gy and CHART (Continuous HART 54 Gy are presented and compared. The model predictions suggest that, for the same p53 status, HART 54 Gy and CHART 54 Gy have almost the same long term effects on locoregional tumor control. However, no data have been located in the literature concerning a comparison of HART and CHART radiotherapy schedules for glioblastoma. As non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC may also be a fast growing and radiosensitive tumor, a comparison of the model predictions with the outcome of clinical studies concerning the response of NSCLC to HART 54 Gy and CHART 54 Gy is made. The model predictions are in accordance with corresponding clinical observations, thus strengthening the potential of the model.

  6. An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (southern Arizona): Major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Wonaschütz, Anna; Jarjour, Elias G; Hashimoto, Bryce I; Schichtel, Bret A; Betterton, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    This study reports a comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosol particle properties in relation to meteorological and back trajectory data in the southern Arizona region, which includes two of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States (Phoenix and Tucson). Multiple data sets (MODIS, AERONET, OMI/TOMS, MISR, GOCART, ground-based aerosol measurements) are used to examine monthly trends in aerosol composition, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and aerosol size. Fine soil, sulfate, and organics dominate PM2.5 mass in the region. Dust strongly influences the region between March and July owing to the dry and hot meteorological conditions and back trajectory patterns. Because monsoon precipitation begins typically in July, dust levels decrease, while AOD, sulfate, and organic aerosol reach their maximum levels because of summertime photochemistry and monsoon moisture. Evidence points to biogenic volatile organic compounds being a significant source of secondary organic aerosol in this region. Biomass burning also is shown to be a major contributor to the carbonaceous aerosol budget in the region, leading to enhanced organic and elemental carbon levels aloft at a sky-island site north of Tucson (Mt. Lemmon). Phoenix exhibits different monthly trends for aerosol components in comparison with the other sites owing to the strong influence of fossil carbon and anthropogenic dust. Trend analyses between 1988 and 2009 indicate that the strongest statistically significant trends are reductions in sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, and increases in fine soil during the spring (March-May) at select sites. These results can be explained by population growth, land-use changes, and improved source controls.

  7. Rapid immunocytochemistry based on alternating current electric field using squash smear preparation of central nervous system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Jun; Tanino, Mishie Ann; Takenami, Tomoko; Endoh, Tomoko; Urushido, Masana; Kato, Yasutaka; Wang, Lei; Kimura, Taichi; Tsuda, Masumi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The role of intraoperative pathological diagnosis for central nervous system (CNS) tumors is crucial for neurosurgery when determining the surgical procedure. Especially, treatment of carmustine (BCNU) wafers requires a conclusive diagnosis of high-grade glioma proven by intraoperative diagnosis. Recently, we demonstrated the usefulness of rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) that facilitates antigen-antibody reaction under alternative current (AC) electric field in the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors; however, a higher proportion of water and lipid in the brain parenchyma sometimes leads to freezing artifacts, resulting in poor quality of frozen sections. On the other hand, squash smear preparation of CNS tumors for cytology does not affect the frozen artifacts, and the importance of smear preparation is now being re-recognized as being better than that of the tissue sections. In this study, we established the rapid immunocytochemistry (R-ICC) protocol for squash smears of CNS tumors using AC electric field that takes only 22 min, and demonstrated its usefulness for semi-quantitative Ki-67/MIB-1 labeling index and CD 20 by R-ICC for intraoperative diagnosis. R-ICC by AC electric field may become a substantial tool for compensating R-IHC and will be applied for broad antibodies in the future.

  8. Discovery of PI-1840, a novel noncovalent and rapidly reversible proteasome inhibitor with anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Ozcan, Sevil; Tecleab, Awet; Sun, Ying; Lawrence, Harshani R; Sebti, Saïd M

    2014-04-25

    The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is effective in hematologic malignancies such as multiple myeloma but has little activity against solid tumors, acts covalently, and is associated with undesired side effects. Therefore, noncovalent inhibitors that are less toxic and more effective against solid tumors are desirable. Structure activity relationship studies led to the discovery of PI-1840, a potent and selective inhibitor for chymotrypsin-like (CT-L) (IC50 value = 27 ± 0.14 nm) over trypsin-like and peptidylglutamyl peptide hydrolyzing (IC50 values >100 μm) activities of the proteasome. Furthermore, PI-1840 is over 100-fold more selective for the constitutive proteasome over the immunoproteasome. Mass spectrometry and dialysis studies demonstrate that PI-1840 is a noncovalent and rapidly reversible CT-L inhibitor. In intact cancer cells, PI-1840 inhibits CT-L activity, induces the accumulation of proteasome substrates p27, Bax, and IκB-α, inhibits survival pathways and viability, and induces apoptosis. Furthermore, PI-1840 sensitizes human cancer cells to the mdm2/p53 disruptor, nutlin, and to the pan-Bcl-2 antagonist BH3-M6. Finally, in vivo, PI-1840 but not bortezomib suppresses the growth in nude mice of human breast tumor xenografts. These results warrant further evaluation of a noncovalent and rapidly reversible proteasome inhibitor as potential anticancer agents against solid tumors.

  9. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    concept of our modeling approach and describe its strengths and weaknesses. We furthermore use empirical data for the states of North and South Carolina to demonstrate how the modeling framework can be applied to a large, heterogeneous study system with diverse decision-making agents. Grimm et al. (2005) Pattern-Oriented Modeling of Agent-Based Complex Systems: Lessons from Ecology. Science 310, 987-991. Liu et al. (2013) Framing Sustainability in a Telecoupled World. Ecology and Society 18(2), 26. Meentemeyer et al. (2013) FUTURES: Multilevel Simulations of Merging Urban-Rural Landscape Structure Using a Stochastic Patch-Growing Algorithm. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103(4), 785-807.

  10. Nerve sheath tumor, benign neurogenic slow-growing solitary neurilemmoma of the left ulnar nerve: A case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andra Elena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper represent a report of a case with ulnar nerve schwannoma (neurilemmoma, benign neurogenic slow-growing, tumors originating from Schwann cells along the course of a nerve (1 (2 (3. Schwannomas are the most common tumors of the peripheral nerves which occur in the adults (0.8–2% (5. Usually they progress slowly and so they can remain painless swellings for a few years before other symptoms appear. Most of these lesions could be diagnosed clinically, are mobile in the longitudinal plane along the course of the involved nerve but not in the transverse plane (7. EMG, MRI, and ultrasonography are useful tools in the diagnosis. The definitive treatment of benign peripheral nerve schwannomatosis is complete enucleation of the tumor mass without damaging the intact nerve fascicles followed by confirmatory hystopathological examination (12. We present the case of a 62 years old right hand-dominant female who notice a slow increasing bulge over the inner aspect of her distal volar left forearm superior to the wrist, for a longer period of time not exactly specified; this was tracked and associated by pain, tingling and numbness over inner one and half fingers of her left hand in progress until the presentations. A diagnosis of soft-tissue tumor was presumed clinically. The other investigations were ultrasonography (US, nerve conduction studies (NCSs such as sensory nerve action potential (SNAP and compound muscle action potential (CMAP. In this case IRM was suggestive of a benign growth in her left ulnar nerve in the forearm region. Microsurgical techniques were used for ample enucleation of the tumor the distal volar left forearm. Subsequent histopathological examination confirmed the presumed diagnosis of a benign cellular schwannoma. At her last follow-up one month after surgery, the patient was neurological gradually improving sensory and motor function and she is highly satisfied with the results of surgery.

  11. A case of rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, autonomic dysregulation, and neural crest tumor: ROHHADNET syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaci, Ayhan; Catli, Gonul; Bayram, Erhan; Koroglu, Tolga; Olgun, Hatice Nur; Mutafoglu, Kamer; Hiz, Ayse Semra; Cakmakci, Handan; Bober, Ece

    2013-01-01

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare disorder that mimics both common obesity and genetic obesity syndromes along with several endocrine disorders during early childhood. We aim to present the clinical features, laboratory and imaging results, and treatment outcomes of a patient with ROHHAD syndrome. In this case report, we describe a 26-month-old boy who was admitted to our emergency department with dyspnea and cyanosis and was suspected to have ROHHAD syndrome due to his rapid-onset obesity and alveolar hypoventilation. A thoracal and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was performed to demonstrate a possible accompanying neural crest tumor and it provided a yet asymptomatic retroperitoneal ganglioneuroblastoma. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed as ROHHADNET syndrome. Because of the high prevalence of cardiorespiratory arrest and probability of accompanying tumors, early recognition of ROHHAD syndrome is important. To prevent presumptive mortality and morbidity, ROHHAD syndrome should be considered in all cases of rapid and early-onset obesity associated with hypothalamic-pituitary endocrine dysfunctions.

  12. Improved tumor targeting of radiolabeled RGD peptides using rapid dose fractionation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Frielink, C.; Dijkgraaf, I.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Edwards, D.S.; Liu, S.; Rajopadhye, M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Boerman, O.C.

    2004-01-01

    Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides preferentially bind to alphavbeta3 integrin, an integrin expressed on newly formed endothelial cells and on various tumor cells. When labeled with beta-emitting radionuclides, these peptides can be used for peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy of

  13. Case Report: Rapidly fatal Askin's tumor: a case report and literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 18-year-old male presented with a mass in the right anterior chest wall. Chest Computed tomography revealed a heterogenous mass of 19X13 cm in the right hemithorax with areas of necrosis. There was associated pleural effusion and infiltration of the soft parts of the chest wall. Bronchoscopy showed a tumor in middle ...

  14. [Rapid growing liposarcoma in retroperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, L.E.; Mynster, T.

    2008-01-01

    inhomogeneous tumour adhesive to the right kidney capsule was removed in toto from retroperitoneum. Histological diagnosis: Sclerosing, low differentiated liposarcoma. Besides radical surgery only radiation therapy may have effect in treatment of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/29...

  15. Rapid progression of mediastinal tumor within a few days: A case report of T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Tae Ran; Lee, Young Kyung; Jun, Hyun Jung; Jung, Eun Ah; Son, Jin Sung [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma is a highly aggressive tumor derived from lymphocyte of the thymus, which accounts for 2% of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease occurs most commonly in adolescent and young adult males. It often results in respiratory emergency because of high proliferation rate. In this case, we confirmed the rapid progression of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma through the chest CT scan with one week interval. Three days of empirical chemotherapy resulted in substantial reduction of mediastinal mass, pleural thickening and pleural effusion.

  16. CFD Modeling and Image Analysis of Exhaled Aerosols due to a Growing Bronchial Tumor: towards Non-Invasive Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Obstructive Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Jinxiang [Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant, MI (United States); Kim, JongWon [Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant, MI (United States); Si, Xiuhua A. [California Baptist Univ., Riverside, CA (United States); Corley, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kabilan, Senthil [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Shengyu [First Affliliated Hospital of Xi' an Medical Univ., Shaanxi (China)

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug de- livery protocol.

  17. CFD Modeling and Image Analysis of Exhaled Aerosols due to a Growing Bronchial Tumor: towards Non-Invasive Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Obstructive Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-02-06

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure vari-ations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagran-gian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respira-tions of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug de-livery protocol.

  18. Tumor-Selective Cytotoxicity of Nitidine Results from Its Rapid Accumulation into Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Iwasaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified a nitidine- (NTD- accumulating organelle and evaluated the net cytotoxicity of accumulated NTD. To evaluate tumor cell selectivity of the drug, we evaluated its selective cytotoxicity against 39 human cancer cell lines (JFCR39 panel, and the profile was compared with those of known anticancer drugs. Organelle specificity of NTD was visualized using organelle-targeted fluorescent proteins. Real-time analysis of cell growth, proliferation, and cytotoxicity was performed using the xCELLigence system. Selectivity of NTD in the JFCR39 panel was evaluated. Mitochondria-specific accumulation of NTD was observed. Real-time cytotoxicity analysis suggested that the mechanism of NTD-induced cell death is independent of the cell cycle. Short-term treatment indicated that this cytotoxicity only resulted from the accumulation of NTD into the mitochondria. The results from the JFCR39 panel indicated that NTD-mediated cytotoxicity resulted from unique mechanisms compared with those of other known anticancer drugs. These results suggested that the cytotoxicity of NTD is only induced by its accumulation in mitochondria. The drug triggered mitochondrial dysfunction in less than 2 h. Similarity analysis of the selectivity of NTD in 39 tumor cell lines strongly supported the unique tumor cell specificity of NTD. Thus, these features indicate that NTD may be a promising antitumor drug for new combination chemotherapies.

  19. Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peanut plants (aflatoxins) Excessive sunlight exposure Genetic problems Obesity Radiation exposure Viruses Types of tumors known to be caused by or linked with viruses are: Cervical cancer (human papillomavirus) Most anal cancers (human papillomavirus) Some ...

  20. Do teachers and students get the Ed-Tech products they need: The challenges of Ed-Tech procurement in a rapidly growing market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Morrison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ed-tech courseware products to support teaching and learning are being developed and made available for acquisition by school districts at a rapid rate. In this growing market, developers and providers face challenges with making their products visible to customers, while school district stakeholders must grapple with “discovering” which products of the many available best address their instructional needs. The present study presents the experiences with and perceptions about the procurement process from 47 superintendents representing diverse school districts in the U. S. Results indicate that, while improvements are desired in many aspects of the procurement process, the superintendents, overall, believe that, once desired products are identified, they are generally able to acquire them. Difficulties lie in tighter budgets, discovering products that are potentially the best choices, and evaluating the effectiveness of the products selected as options. These findings are presented and interpreted in relation to five major “Action Points” in the procurement process, and also with regard to implications for evaluating how educational technology impacts K-12 instruction.

  1. In Vitro Comparison of Ertapenem, Meropenem, and Imipenem against Isolates of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria and Nocardia by Use of Broth Microdilution and Etest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Killingley, Jessica; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Bridge, Linda; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    We compared the activities of the carbapenems ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem against 180 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and 170 isolates of Nocardia using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A subset of isolates was tested using the Etest. The rate of susceptibility to ertapenem and meropenem was limited and less than that to imipenem for the RGM. Analysis of major and minor discrepancies revealed that >90% of the isolates of Nocardia had higher MICs by the broth microdilution method than by Etest, in contrast to the lower broth microdilution MICs seen for >80% of the RGM. Imipenem remains the most active carbapenem against RGM, including Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus For Nocardia, imipenem was significantly more active only against Nocardia farcinica Although there may be utility in testing the activities of the newer carbapenems against Nocardia, their activities against the RGM should not be routinely tested. Testing by Etest is not recommended by the CLSI. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Fabrication of a two-level tumor bone repair biomaterial based on a rapid prototyping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai He; Yan Yongnian; Zhang Renji; Wang Xiaohong [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education and Center of Organ Manufacturing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Xinluan; Madhukar, Kumta Shekhar; Qin Ling [Department of Orthoapedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)], E-mail: wangxiaohong@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: kumta@cuhk.edu.hk, E-mail: qin@ort.cuhk.edu.hk

    2009-06-01

    After the removal of the giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone, it is necessary to fill the defects with adequate biomaterials. A new functional bone repair material with both stimulating osteoblast growth and inhibiting osteoclast activity has been developed with phosphorylated chitosan (P-chitosan) and disodium (1 {yields} 4)-2-deoxy-2-sulfoamino-{beta}-D-glucopyranuronan (S-chitosan) as the additives of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/calcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds based on a double-nozzle low-temperature deposition manufacturing technique. A computer-assisted design model was used and the optimal fabrication parameters were determined through the manipulation of a pure PLGA/TCP system. The microscopic structures, water absorbability and mechanical properties of the samples with different P-chitosan and S-chitosan concentrations were characterized correspondingly. The results suggested that this unique composite porous scaffold material is a potential candidate for the repair of large bone defects after a surgical removal of GCT.

  3. Novel photosensitizers trigger rapid death of malignant human cells and rodent tumor transplants via lipid photodamage and membrane permeabilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail M Moisenovich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apoptotic cascades may frequently be impaired in tumor cells; therefore, the approaches to circumvent these obstacles emerge as important therapeutic modalities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our novel derivatives of chlorin e(6, that is, its amide (compound 2 and boronated amide (compound 5 evoked no dark toxicity and demonstrated a significantly higher photosensitizing efficacy than chlorin e(6 against transplanted aggressive tumors such as B16 melanoma and M-1 sarcoma. Compound 5 showed superior therapeutic potency. Illumination with red light of mammalian tumor cells loaded with 0.1 µM of 5 caused rapid (within the initial minutes necrosis as determined by propidium iodide staining. The laser confocal microscopy-assisted analysis of cell death revealed the following order of events: prior to illumination, 5 accumulated in Golgi cysternae, endoplasmic reticulum and in some (but not all lysosomes. In response to light, the reactive oxygen species burst was concomitant with the drop of mitochondrial transmembrane electric potential, the dramatic changes of mitochondrial shape and the loss of integrity of mitochondria and lysosomes. Within 3-4 min post illumination, the plasma membrane became permeable for propidium iodide. Compounds 2 and 5 were one order of magnitude more potent than chlorin e(6 in photodamage of artificial liposomes monitored in a dye release assay. The latter effect depended on the content of non-saturated lipids; in liposomes consisting of saturated lipids no photodamage was detectable. The increased therapeutic efficacy of 5 compared with 2 was attributed to a striking difference in the ability of these photosensitizers to permeate through hydrophobic membrane interior as evidenced by measurements of voltage jump-induced relaxation of transmembrane current on planar lipid bilayers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The multimembrane photodestruction and cell necrosis induced by photoactivation of 2 and 5 are

  4. Optical Aptamer Probes of Fluorescent Imaging to Rapid Monitoring of Circulating Tumor Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yeon Hwang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence detecting of exogenous EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule or muc1 (mucin1 expression correlated to cancer metastasis using nanoparticles provides pivotal information on CTC (circulating tumor cell occurrence in a noninvasive tool. In this study, we study a new skill to detect extracellular EpCAM/muc1 using quantum dot-based aptamer beacon (QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB (aptamer linker beacon. The QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB was designed using QDs (quantum dots and probe. The EpCAM/muc1-targeting aptamer contains a Ep-CAM/muc1 binding sequence and BHQ1 (black hole quencher 1 or BHQ2 (black hole quencher2. In the absence of target EpCAM/muc1, the QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB forms a partial duplex loop-like aptamer beacon and remained in quenched state because the BHQ1/2 quenches the fluorescence signal-on of the QD-EpCAM/muc1 ALB. The binding of EpCAM/muc1 of CTC to the EpCAM/muc1 binding aptamer sequence of the EpCAM/muc1-targeting oligonucleotide triggered the dissociation of the BHQ1/2 quencher and subsequent signal-on of a green/red fluorescence signal. Furthermore, acute inflammation was stimulated by trigger such as caerulein in vivo, which resulted in increased fluorescent signal of the cy5.5-EpCAM/muc1 ALB during cancer metastasis due to exogenous expression of EpCAM/muc1 in Panc02-implanted mouse model.

  5. Evaluation of capillary and myofiber density in the pectoralis major muscles of rapidly growing, high-yield broiler chickens during increased heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, K S; Hamlin, G A; Lien, A R J; Bilgili, S F

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle development proceeds from early embryogenesis through marketing age in broiler chickens. While myofiber formation is essentially complete at hatching, myofiber hypertrophy can increase after hatch by assimilation of satellite cell nuclei into myofibers. As the diameter of the myofibers increases, capillary density peripheral to the myofiber is marginalized, limiting oxygen supply and subsequent diffusion into the myofiber, inducing microischemia. The superficial and deep pectoralis muscles constitute 25% of the total body weight in a market-age bird; thus compromise of those muscle groups can have profound economic impact on broiler production. We hypothesized that marginal capillary support relative to the hypertrophic myofibers increases the incidence of microischemia, especially in contemporary high-yield broilers under stressing conditions such as high environmental temperatures. We evaluated the following parameters in four different broiler strains at 39 and 53 days of age when reared under thermoneutral (20 to 25 C) versus hot (30 to 35 C) environmental conditions: capillary density, myofiber density and diameter, and degree of myodegeneration. Our data demonstrate that myofiber diameter significantly increased with age (P > or = 0.0001), while the absolute numbers of capillaries, blood vessels, and myofibers visible in five 400 x microscopic fields decreased (P > or = 0.0001). This is concomitant with marginalization of vascular support in rapidly growing myofibers. The myofiber diameter was significantly lower with hot environmental temperatures (P > or = 0.001); therefore, the absolute number of myofibers visible in five 400X microscopic fields was significantly higher. The incidence and subjective degree of myodegeneration characterized by loss of cross-striations, myocyte hyperrefractility, sarcoplasmic vacuolation, and nuclear pyknosis or loss also increased in hot conditions. Differences among strains were not observed.

  6. Point-of-use membrane filtration and hyperchlorination to prevent patient exposure to rapidly growing mycobacteria in the potable water supply of a skilled nursing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Chen, Tai-Ho; Keane, Tim; Toney, Nadege; Toney, Sean; Armbruster, Catherine R; Butler, W Ray; Arduino, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    Healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are frequently associated with contaminated tap water. A pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus in patients undergoing bronchoscopy was identified by 2 acute care hospitals. RGM was identified in bronchoscopy specimens of 28 patients, 25 of whom resided in the same skilled nursing facility (SNF). An investigation ruled out bronchoscopy procedures, specimen collection, and scope reprocessing at the hospitals as sources of transmission. To identify the reservoir for RGM within the SNF and evaluate 2 water system treatments, hyperchlorination and point-of-use (POU) membrane filters, to reduce RGM. A comparative in situ study of 2 water system treatments to prevent RGM transmission. An SNF specializing in care of patients requiring ventilator support. RGM and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria were examined in facility water before and after hyperchlorination and in a subsequent 24-week assessment of filtered water by colony enumeration on Middlebrook and R2A media. Mycobacterium chelonae was consistently isolated from the SNF water supply. Hyperchlorination reduced RGM by 1.5 log(10) initially, but the population returned to original levels within 90 days. Concentration of HPC bacteria also decreased temporarily. RGM were reduced below detection level in filtered water, a 3-log(10) reduction. HPC bacteria were not recovered from newly installed filters, although low quantities were found in water from 2-week-old filters. POU membrane filters may be a feasible prevention measure for healthcare facilities to limit exposure of sensitive individuals to RGM in potable water systems.

  7. Comparative study between IMRT planning and RapidArc® sliding window for head and neck tumors; Estudo comparativo de planejamento entre IMRT sliding window e RapidArc® para tumores de cabeca e pescoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirani, Luiz F.; Silva, Leonardo P.; Lima, Marilia B.; Bittencourt, Guilherme R.; Ferreira, Anne Caroline M.; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: nando_lfp@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    This study aims to evaluate the RapidArc (RA) technique in the treatment of head and neck tumors and compare the results of treatments with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the National Cancer Institute (INCA). Head and neck carcinomas have a natural history with relative expansion to others regions, especially in advanced levels. Faster treatments, with better coverage of the Planning Target Volume (PTV) and sparing more risks organs (ROs) are necessary and bring a better clinical impact. Ten patients with head and neck cancer, planned with IMRT technique were replanned using the RA technique. Some dosimetric indexes were calculated for both techniques, with the intention of verifying which of them, at the same time, would promote greater coverage of the PTV and preserve more healthy tissue. In terms of coverage, both indexes were similar. The RA technique was more efficient for delivered doses to ROs. The number of monitor units (MU), number of fields and treatments time estimated were lower than IMRT technique. Finally, the results have showed that the RA technique clearly reduces the treatment time, reducing the average and maximum dose to ROs and conforming the target as IMRT technique. (author)

  8. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  9. KRAS mutation testing in borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade ovarian carcinomas with a rapid, fully integrated molecular diagnostic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlecki, Pawel; Antosik, Paulina; Grzanka, Dariusz; Grabiec, Marek; Walentowicz-Sadlecka, Malgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of tumors, including various malignancies with distinct clinicopathologic and molecular features. Mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes are the most frequent genetic aberrations found in low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas and serous and mucinous borderline tumors. Implementation of targeted therapeutic strategies requires access to highly specific and highly sensitive diagnostic tests for rapid determination of mutation status. One candidate for such test is fully integrated, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based Idylla™ system for quick and simple detection of KRAS mutations in formaldehyde fixed-paraffin embedded tumor samples. The primary aim of this study was to verify whether fully integrated real-time polymerase chain reaction-based Idylla system may be useful in determination of KRAS mutation status in patients with borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade ovarian carcinomas. The study included tissue specimens from 37 patients with histopathologically verified ovarian masses, operated on at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nicolaus Copernicus University Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz (Poland) between January 2009 and June 2012. Based on histopathological examination of surgical specimens, 30 lesions were classified as low-grade ovarian carcinomas and 7 as borderline ovarian tumors. Seven patients examined with Idylla KRAS Mutation Test tested positive for KRAS mutation. No statistically significant association was found between the incidence of KRAS mutations and histopathological type of ovarian tumors. Mean survival of the study subjects was 48.51 months (range 3-60 months). Presence of KRAS mutation did not exert a significant effect on the duration of survival in our series. Our findings suggest that Idylla KRAS Mutation Test may be a useful tool for rapid detection of KRAS mutations in ovarian tumor tissue.

  10. Rapid development in vitro and in vivo of resistance to ceftazidime in biofilm-growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, N; Ciofu, O; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the development of resistance of biofilm-growing P. aeruginosa during treatment with ceftazidime. Biofilms were established in vitro using a modified Robbins device (MRD) and in vivo in the rat model of chronic lung infection. Three P. aeruginosa strains...

  11. High-content analysis of antibody phage-display library selection outputs identifies tumor selective macropinocytosis-dependent rapidly internalizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kevin D; Bidlingmaier, Scott M; Zhang, Yafeng; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Many forms of antibody-based targeted therapeutics, including antibody drug conjugates, utilize the internalizing function of the targeting antibody to gain intracellular entry into tumor cells. Ideal antibodies for developing such therapeutics should be capable of both tumor-selective binding and efficient endocytosis. The macropinocytosis pathway is capable of both rapid and bulk endocytosis, and recent studies have demonstrated that it is selectively up-regulated by cancer cells. We hypothesize that receptor-dependent macropinocytosis can be achieved using tumor-targeting antibodies that internalize via the macropinocytosis pathway, improving potency and selectivity of the antibody-based targeted therapeutic. Although phage antibody display libraries have been utilized to find antibodies that bind and internalize to target cells, no methods have been described to screen for antibodies that internalize specifically via macropinocytosis. We hereby describe a novel screening strategy to identify phage antibodies that bind and rapidly enter tumor cells via macropinocytosis. We utilized an automated microscopic imaging-based, High Content Analysis platform to identify novel internalizing phage antibodies that colocalize with macropinocytic markers from antibody libraries that we have generated previously by laser capture microdissection-based selection, which are enriched for internalizing antibodies binding to tumor cells in situ residing in their tissue microenvironment (Ruan, W., Sassoon, A., An, F., Simko, J. P., and Liu, B. (2006) Identification of clinically significant tumor antigens by selecting phage antibody library on tumor cells in situ using laser capture microdissection. Mol. Cell. Proteomics. 5, 2364-2373). Full-length human IgG molecules derived from macropinocytosing phage antibodies retained the ability to internalize via macropinocytosis, validating our screening strategy. The target antigen for a cross-species binding antibody with a highly active

  12. High-content Analysis of Antibody Phage-display Library Selection Outputs Identifies Tumor Selective Macropinocytosis-dependent Rapidly Internalizing Antibodies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kevin D.; Bidlingmaier, Scott M.; Zhang, Yafeng; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Many forms of antibody-based targeted therapeutics, including antibody drug conjugates, utilize the internalizing function of the targeting antibody to gain intracellular entry into tumor cells. Ideal antibodies for developing such therapeutics should be capable of both tumor-selective binding and efficient endocytosis. The macropinocytosis pathway is capable of both rapid and bulk endocytosis, and recent studies have demonstrated that it is selectively up-regulated by cancer cells. We hypothesize that receptor-dependent macropinocytosis can be achieved using tumor-targeting antibodies that internalize via the macropinocytosis pathway, improving potency and selectivity of the antibody-based targeted therapeutic. Although phage antibody display libraries have been utilized to find antibodies that bind and internalize to target cells, no methods have been described to screen for antibodies that internalize specifically via macropinocytosis. We hereby describe a novel screening strategy to identify phage antibodies that bind and rapidly enter tumor cells via macropinocytosis. We utilized an automated microscopic imaging-based, High Content Analysis platform to identify novel internalizing phage antibodies that colocalize with macropinocytic markers from antibody libraries that we have generated previously by laser capture microdissection-based selection, which are enriched for internalizing antibodies binding to tumor cells in situ residing in their tissue microenvironment (Ruan, W., Sassoon, A., An, F., Simko, J. P., and Liu, B. (2006) Identification of clinically significant tumor antigens by selecting phage antibody library on tumor cells in situ using laser capture microdissection. Mol. Cell. Proteomics. 5, 2364–2373). Full-length human IgG molecules derived from macropinocytosing phage antibodies retained the ability to internalize via macropinocytosis, validating our screening strategy. The target antigen for a cross-species binding antibody with a highly

  13. [A rapidly progressive orbital tumor in a seven-year-old girl revealing a primitive systemic vasculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Cécile; Borgnat, Florent; Chastang, Marie-Caroline; Fleury, Aude; Guibaud, Laurent; Dijoud, Frédérique

    2014-12-01

    Orbital tumor lesions in pediatric population encompass a wide range of pathological processes, which are very different in etiology and prognosis. They usually require an emergency in histological diagnosis because of their quick growth. Beside malignant and benign tumors, the inflammatory pseudo-tumors group included dysimmune orbital involvement secondary to systemic vasculitis such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (ex-Wegener's granulomatosis). We report the case of a seven-year-old girl suffering from a severe primitive ANCA vasculitis, revealed by an orbital mass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. High-Dose, Single-Fraction Irradiation Rapidly Reduces Tumor Vasculature and Perfusion in a Xenograft Model of Neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jani, Ashish; Shaikh, Fauzia; Barton, Sunjay [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Willis, Callen [Department of Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Banerjee, Debarshi [Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Mitchell, Jason [Department of Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Hernandez, Sonia L. [Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Hei, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Kadenhe-Chiweshe, Angela [Department of Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamashiro, Darrell J. [Department of Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Connolly, Eileen P., E-mail: epc2116@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To characterize the effects of high-dose radiation therapy (HDRT) on neuroblastoma tumor vasculature, including the endothelial cell (EC)–pericyte interaction as a potential target for combined treatment with antiangiogenic agents. Methods and Materials: The vascular effects of radiation therapy were examined in a xenograft model of high-risk neuroblastoma. In vivo 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (3D-CEUS) imaging and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed. Results: HDRT significantly reduced tumor blood volume 6 hours after irradiation compared with the lower doses used in conventionally fractionated radiation. There was a 63% decrease in tumor blood volume after 12-Gy radiation compared with a 24% decrease after 2 Gy. Analysis of tumor vasculature by lectin angiography showed a significant loss of small vessel ends at 6 hours. IHC revealed a significant loss of ECs at 6 and 72 hours after HDRT, with an accompanying loss of immature and mature pericytes at 72 hours. Conclusions: HDRT affects tumor vasculature in a manner not observed at lower doses. The main observation was an early reduction in tumor perfusion resulting from a reduction of small vessel ends with a corresponding loss of endothelial cells and pericytes.

  15. Evaluation of rapid dual-tracer 62Cu-PTSM + 62Cu-ATSM PET in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Noel F.; McJames, Scott; Rust, Thomas C.; Kadrmas, Dan J.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing methods for imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan with staggered injections, where imaging measures for each tracer are separated and recovered using differences in tracer kinetics and radioactive decay. In this work, signal separation performance for rapid dual-tracer 62Cu-PTSM (blood flow) + 62Cu-ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging was evaluated in a large animal model. Four dogs with pre-existing tumors received a series of dynamic PET scans with 62Cu-PTSM and 62Cu-ATSM, permitting evaluation of a rapid dual-tracer protocol designed by previous simulation work. Several imaging measures were computed from the dual-tracer data and compared with those from separate, single-tracer imaging. Static imaging measures (e.g. SUV) for each tracer were accurately recovered from dual-tracer data. The wash-in (k1) and wash-out (k2) rate parameters for both tracers were likewise well recovered (r = 0.87-0.99), but k3 was not accurately recovered for PTSM (r = 0.19) and moderately well recovered for ATSM (r = 0.70). Some degree of bias was noted, however, which may potentially be overcome through further refinement of the signal separation algorithms. This work demonstrates that complementary information regarding tumor blood flow and hypoxia can be acquired by a single dual-tracer PET scan, and also that the signal separation procedure works effectively for real physiologic data with realistic levels of kinetic model mismatch. Rapid multi-tracer PET has the potential to improve tumor assessment for image-guide therapy and monitoring, and further investigation with these and other tracers is warranted.

  16. Evaluation of rapid dual-tracer {sup 62}Cu-PTSM + {sup 62}Cu-ATSM PET in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Noel F; McJames, Scott; Rust, Thomas C; Kadrmas, Dan J [Utah Center of Advanced Imaging Research, University of Utah, 729 Arapeen Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84108-1218 (United States)

    2008-01-07

    We are developing methods for imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan with staggered injections, where imaging measures for each tracer are separated and recovered using differences in tracer kinetics and radioactive decay. In this work, signal separation performance for rapid dual-tracer {sup 62}Cu-PTSM (blood flow) + {sup 62}Cu-ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging was evaluated in a large animal model. Four dogs with pre-existing tumors received a series of dynamic PET scans with {sup 62}Cu-PTSM and {sup 62}Cu-ATSM, permitting evaluation of a rapid dual-tracer protocol designed by previous simulation work. Several imaging measures were computed from the dual-tracer data and compared with those from separate, single-tracer imaging. Static imaging measures (e.g. SUV) for each tracer were accurately recovered from dual-tracer data. The wash-in (k{sub 1}) and wash-out (k{sub 2}) rate parameters for both tracers were likewise well recovered (r = 0.87-0.99), but k{sub 3} was not accurately recovered for PTSM (r = 0.19) and moderately well recovered for ATSM (r = 0.70). Some degree of bias was noted, however, which may potentially be overcome through further refinement of the signal separation algorithms. This work demonstrates that complementary information regarding tumor blood flow and hypoxia can be acquired by a single dual-tracer PET scan, and also that the signal separation procedure works effectively for real physiologic data with realistic levels of kinetic model mismatch. Rapid multi-tracer PET has the potential to improve tumor assessment for image-guide therapy and monitoring, and further investigation with these and other tracers is warranted.

  17. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  18. PD0332991 (palbociclib) for treatment of pediatric intracranial growing teratoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kris Ann P; Petronio, Joseph; Bendel, Anne; Patterson, Richard; Vaughn, David J

    2015-06-01

    Growing teratoma syndrome is characterized by growth of mature teratoma elements of a mixed germ cell tumor despite resolution of immature/malignant elements with administration of chemotherapy. Surgical resection is the only known cure for growing teratoma syndrome but in the brain, complete resection may be impossible. In these instances, mature teratoma, although histologically benign, may be fatal. In this report, we present the case of a child with a large, rapidly growing, unresectable pineal region growing teratoma. PD0332991 was administered with stabilization of the solid, enhancing components of the mass. Minimal adverse effects were noted. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Confocal fluorescence microscopy for rapid evaluation of invasive tumor cellularity of inflammatory breast carcinoma core needle biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Jessica; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Kyrish, Matthew; Benveniste, Ana Paula; Yang, Wei; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Tissue sampling is a problematic issue for inflammatory breast carcinoma, and immediate evaluation following core needle biopsy is needed to evaluate specimen adequacy. We sought to determine if confocal fluorescence microscopy provides sufficient resolution to evaluate specimen adequacy by comparing invasive tumor cellularity estimated from standard histologic images to invasive tumor cellularity estimated from confocal images of breast core needle biopsy specimens. Grayscale confocal fluorescence images of breast core needle biopsy specimens were acquired following proflavine application. A breast-dedicated pathologist evaluated invasive tumor cellularity in histologic images with hematoxylin and eosin staining and in grayscale and false-colored confocal images of cores. Agreement between cellularity estimates was quantified using a kappa coefficient. 23 cores from 23 patients with suspected inflammatory breast carcinoma were imaged. Confocal images were acquired in an average of less than 2 min per core. Invasive tumor cellularity estimated from histologic and grayscale confocal images showed moderate agreement by kappa coefficient: κ = 0.48 ± 0.09 (p fluorescence microscopy can be performed immediately following specimen acquisition and could indicate the need for additional biopsies at the initial visit.

  20. Development of an in vitro Assay, Based on the BioFilm Ring Test®, for Rapid Profiling of Biofilm-Growing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Enea G; Toma, Luigi; Provot, Christian; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Sperduti, Isabella; Prignano, Grazia; Gallo, Maria T; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Bordignon, Valentina; Bernardi, Thierry; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biofilm represents a major virulence factor associated with chronic and recurrent infections. Pathogenic bacteria embedded in biofilms are highly resistant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics and therefore difficult to eradicate. Thus, reliable tests to assess biofilm formation by bacterial strains as well as the impact of chemicals or antibiotics on biofilm formation represent desirable tools for a most effective therapeutic management and microbiological risk control. Current methods to evaluate biofilm formation are usually time-consuming, costly, and hardly applicable in the clinical setting. The aim of the present study was to develop and assess a simple and reliable in vitro procedure for the characterization of biofilm-producing bacterial strains for future clinical applications based on the BioFilm Ring Test® (BRT) technology. The procedure developed for clinical testing (cBRT) can provide an accurate and timely (5 h) measurement of biofilm formation for the most common pathogenic bacteria seen in clinical practice. The results gathered by the cBRT assay were in agreement with the traditional crystal violet (CV) staining test, according to the κ coefficient test (κ = 0.623). However, the cBRT assay showed higher levels of specificity (92.2%) and accuracy (88.1%) as compared to CV. The results indicate that this procedure offers an easy, rapid and robust assay to test microbial biofilm and a promising tool for clinical microbiology.

  1. Benign Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cannot spread or invade other parts of your body. Even so, they can be dangerous if they press on vital organs, such as your brain. Tumors are made up of extra cells. Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as your body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, ...

  2. Rapid Water Uptake and Limited Storage Capacity at Height of Growing Season in Four Temperate Tree Species in a Central Pennsylvania Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, K.; Meinzer, F. C.; Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    rapid water uptake and tree water storage limited to about a month in duration. These findings are necessary for modeling of hydrologic parameters that are influenced by tree water age. They also indicate that trees on shallow soil in this catchment may be at risk if droughts lasting over a month occur more frequently in future years.

  3. Rapid synthesis of highly luminescent and stable Au20 nanoclusters for active tumor-targeted imaging in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pu; Yang, Xiao Xi; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Ning Wei; Xiong, Zu Hong; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Rapid synthesis of protein-stabilized Au20 nanoclusters (Au20NCs) with high fluorescence quantum yield (QY) up to ~15% is successfully achieved by manipulating the reaction kinetics. The as-obtained Au20NCs, identified by mass spectrometry, have an average size of 2.6 nm, with strong fluorescence emission at 620 nm (2.00 eV) upon excitation at either 370 nm (3.35 eV) or 470 nm (2.64 eV). The advantages of the as-obtained Au20NCs, including small sizes, high fluorescence QY, excellent photostability, non-toxicity, and good stability in biological media, make them ideal candidates as good luminescent probes for optical imaging in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the uptake of Au20NCs by both cancer cells and tumor-bearing nude mice can be improved by receptor-mediated internalization, compared with that by passive targeting. Because of their selective accumulation at the tumor sites, the Au20NC probes can be used as potential indicators for cancer diagnosis. This work not only provides a new understanding of the rapid synthesis of highly luminescent Au20NCs but also demonstrates that the functionalized-Au20NCs are excellent probes for active tumor-targeted imaging in vitro and in vivo.Rapid synthesis of protein-stabilized Au20 nanoclusters (Au20NCs) with high fluorescence quantum yield (QY) up to ~15% is successfully achieved by manipulating the reaction kinetics. The as-obtained Au20NCs, identified by mass spectrometry, have an average size of 2.6 nm, with strong fluorescence emission at 620 nm (2.00 eV) upon excitation at either 370 nm (3.35 eV) or 470 nm (2.64 eV). The advantages of the as-obtained Au20NCs, including small sizes, high fluorescence QY, excellent photostability, non-toxicity, and good stability in biological media, make them ideal candidates as good luminescent probes for optical imaging in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the uptake of Au20NCs by both cancer cells and tumor-bearing nude mice can be improved by receptor

  4. Rapid synthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of folic acid derivatives labeled with fluorine-18 for PET imaging of folate receptor-positive tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammaz, I. Al, E-mail: jammaz@kfshrc.edu.sa; Al-Otaibi, B.; Amer, S.; Okarvi, S.M.

    2011-10-15

    In an attempt to visualize folate receptors that overexpress on many cancers, [{sup 18}F]-fluorobenzene and pyridinecarbohydrazide-folate/methotrexate conjugates ([{sup 18}F]-1, [{sup 18}F]-2-folates and [{sup 18}F]-8, [{sup 18}F]-9-MTXs) were synthesized by the nucleophilic displacement reactions using ethyl-trimethylammonium-benzoate and pyridinecarboxylate precursors. The intermediates ethyl [{sup 18}F]-fluorinated benzene and pyridine esters were reacted with hydrazine to produce the [{sup 18}F]-fluorobenzene and pyridinecarbohydrazides, followed by coupling with N-hydroxysuccinimide-folate/MTX. Radiochemical yields were greater than 80% (decay corrected), with total synthesis time of less than 45 min. Radiochemical purities were always greater than 97% without high-performance liquid chromatography purification. These synthetic approaches hold considerable promise as rapid and simple method for the radiofluorination of folate derivatives with high radiochemical yield in short synthesis time. In vitro tests on KB cell line showed that significant amount of the radioconjugates were associated with cell fractions, and in vivo characterization in normal Balb/c mice revealed rapid blood clearance of these radioconjugates with excretion predominantly by the urinary and partially by the hepatobiliary systems. Biodistribution studies in nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts demonstrated significant tumor uptake and favorable biodistribution profile for [{sup 18}F]-2-folate over the other conjugates. The uptake in the tumors was blocked by excess coinjection of folic acid, suggesting a receptor-mediated process. Micro-positron emission tomography images of nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts confirmed these observations. These results demonstrate that [{sup 18}F]-2-folate may be useful as molecular probe for detecting and staging of folate receptor-positive cancers, such as ovarian cancer and their metastasis as well as monitoring tumor response

  5. Rapid synthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of folic acid derivatives labeled with fluorine-18 for PET imaging of folate receptor-positive tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jammaz, I; Al-Otaibi, B; Amer, S; Okarvi, S M

    2011-10-01

    In an attempt to visualize folate receptors that overexpress on many cancers, [(18)F]-fluorobenzene and pyridinecarbohydrazide-folate/methotrexate conjugates ([(18)F]-1, [(18)F]-2-folates and [(18)F]-8, [(18)F]-9-MTXs) were synthesized by the nucleophilic displacement reactions using ethyl-trimethylammonium-benzoate and pyridinecarboxylate precursors. The intermediates ethyl [(18)F]-fluorinated benzene and pyridine esters were reacted with hydrazine to produce the [(18)F]-fluorobenzene and pyridinecarbohydrazides, followed by coupling with N-hydroxysuccinimide-folate/MTX. Radiochemical yields were greater than 80% (decay corrected), with total synthesis time of less than 45 min. Radiochemical purities were always greater than 97% without high-performance liquid chromatography purification. These synthetic approaches hold considerable promise as rapid and simple method for the radiofluorination of folate derivatives with high radiochemical yield in short synthesis time. In vitro tests on KB cell line showed that significant amount of the radioconjugates were associated with cell fractions, and in vivo characterization in normal Balb/c mice revealed rapid blood clearance of these radioconjugates with excretion predominantly by the urinary and partially by the hepatobiliary systems. Biodistribution studies in nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts demonstrated significant tumor uptake and favorable biodistribution profile for [(18)F]-2-folate over the other conjugates. The uptake in the tumors was blocked by excess coinjection of folic acid, suggesting a receptor-mediated process. Micro-positron emission tomography images of nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts confirmed these observations. These results demonstrate that [(18)F]-2-folate may be useful as molecular probe for detecting and staging of folate receptor-positive cancers, such as ovarian cancer and their metastasis as well as monitoring tumor response to treatment. Copyright © 2011

  6. Paraneoplastic precocious puberty and excessively rapid somatic growth associated with pediatric malignant hepatic tumor: 1 report of 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Bahk, Yong Whee [Cathalic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-04-15

    Sexual precocity in a 28-months-old boy and markedly accelerated skeletal growth with large body in a 5 years and 5 months-old-girl are reported. The former resulted from human chorionic gonadotropin-producing hepatoblastoma and the latter from cerebral gigantism associated with hepatoma. These two different disorders are discussed on the common basis of rare association of malignant hepatic tumors with precocious sexual and / or somatic growth. The clinical manifestations, chemical abnormalities, and the radiologic findings are presented with a brief review of the literature.

  7. Dual-patterned immunofiltration (DIF) device for the rapid efficient negative selection of heterogeneous circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Jiyoon; Kang, Yoon-Tae; Kim, Young Jun; Cho, Young-Ho; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Hojoong; Moon, Byung-In; Kim, Ho Gak

    2016-11-29

    The analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is an emerging field for estimating the metastatic relapse and tumor burden of cancer patients. However, the isolation of CTCs is still challenging due to their ambiguity, rarity, and heterogeneity. Here, we present an anti-CD45 antibody based dual-patterned immunofiltration (DIF) device for the enrichment of heterogeneous CTC subtypes by effective elimination of leukocytes. Our uniquely designed dual-patterned layers significantly enhance the binding chance between immuno-patterns and leukocytes due to the fluidic whirling and the increased binding sites, thus achieving superior negative selection in terms of high-throughput and high purity. From the experiments using lung cancer cells, 97.07 ± 2.79% of leukocytes were eliminated with less than 10% loss of cancerous cells at the flow rate of 1 mL h(-1). To verify the device as a potential diagnostic tool, CTCs were collected from 11 cancer patients' blood and an average of 283.3 CTC-like cells were identified while less than 1 CTC-like cells were found from healthy donors. The samples were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to identify their heterogeneous characteristics. These remarkable results demonstrate that the present device could help to understand the unknown properties or undiscovered roles of CTCs with a non-biased view.

  8. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  9. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT.Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated.Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group.The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  10. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueling; Liu, Dongxu; Liu, Ju; Wu, Zizhong; Xie, Yongtao; Li, Liang; Liu, Hong; Guo, Tiantian; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE) treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30) was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated. Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A) of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI) of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn) of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR) ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group. The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  11. Rapid recurrence and bilateral lungs, multiple bone metastasis of malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the right occipital lobe: report of a case and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengrong; Yang, Hongjun; Weng, Desheng; Ding, Yanqing

    2015-07-09

    Intracranial malignant solitary fibrous tumor (MSFT) is extremely rare. The authors report a case of MSFT of the right occipital lobe with a rapid recurrence and bilateral lung, multiple bone metastasis. The patient was a 25-year-old male presenting with headache, nausea and visual disturbances without obvious cause. Three times right-side occipital craniotomies were performed and two times postoperative conformal radiotherapy were administered within one year. 4 months after the third time of right-side occipital craniotomy, the patient felt right chest pain and neck pain. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) showed tumor recurrence of the right occipital lobe and bilateral lung metastasis, multiple bone metastasis including: vertebrae, libs, the left iliac wing, sacrum, the right ischium and upper parts of both femurs. Ultrasound guided puncture biopsy of left-side back of the neck and CT guided puncture biopsy of the third lumbar vertebra were performed. General sample showed grayish white or grayish red with irregular shape. Histopathologically, the tumor was composed of areas of alternating hypercellularity and hypocellularity with spindle-shaped cells, which arranged as fascicular, storiform pattern or patternless pattern, with intervening irregular eosinophilic collagen bundles. Some areas showed hemangiopericytoma-like perivascular pattern and perivascular hyalinization. Tumor cells were pleomorphic with mitotic counts of more than 4 per 10 high power fields and showed coagulative necrosis. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were diffusely positive for vimentin and CD99, focal positive for CD34, bcl-2 and Actin. Ki-67 labelling index was more than 40%. The final pathological diagnosis was MSFT of the right occipital lobe, metastatic MSFT of left-side back of the neck and the third lumbar vertebra. The MSFT of the right occipital lobe with recurrence and bilateral lung, multiple bone metastasis is extremely rare. Although intracranial

  12. Clinical Application of Picodroplet Digital PCR Technology for Rapid Detection of EGFR T790M in Next-Generation Sequencing Libraries and DNA from Limited Tumor Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsu, Laetitia; Intrieri, Julie; Thampi, Linta; Yu, Helena; Riely, Gregory; Nafa, Khedoudja; Chandramohan, Raghu; Ladanyi, Marc; Arcila, Maria E

    2016-11-01

    Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a robust technology for comprehensive assessment of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas with acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, it may not provide sufficiently rapid and sensitive detection of the EGFR T790M mutation, the most clinically relevant resistance biomarker. Here, we describe a digital PCR (dPCR) assay for rapid T790M detection on aliquots of NGS libraries prepared for comprehensive profiling, fully maximizing broad genomic analysis on limited samples. Tumor DNAs from patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas and acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors were prepared for Memorial Sloan-Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets sequencing, a hybrid capture-based assay interrogating 410 cancer-related genes. Precapture library aliquots were used for rapid EGFR T790M testing by dPCR, and results were compared with NGS and locked nucleic acid-PCR Sanger sequencing (reference high sensitivity method). Seventy resistance samples showed 99% concordance with the reference high sensitivity method in accuracy studies. Input as low as 2.5 ng provided a sensitivity of 1% and improved further with increasing DNA input. dPCR on libraries required less DNA and showed better performance than direct genomic DNA. dPCR on NGS libraries is a robust and rapid approach to EGFR T790M testing, allowing most economical utilization of limited material for comprehensive assessment. The same assay can also be performed directly on any limited DNA source and cell-free DNA. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001040.htm Salivary gland tumors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the gland ...

  14. Identification of different subtypes of rapid growing Atypical Mycobacterium from water and soil sources: Using PCR-RFLP using hsp65 and rRNA 16s-23s genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varahram, Mohammad; Farnia, Parissa; Saif, Shima; Marashian, Mehran; Farnia, Poopak; Ghanavi, Jaladein; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2016-12-01

    Nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) are a diverse group of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans including skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal tract infection. Generally, NTM are classified into two categories: rapid (7days). In this study, we aimed to investigate NTM frequency and prevalence in environmental samples. Additionally, we tried to identify various subtypes of isolated rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM). Through a prospective descriptive cross-sectional study, water and soil samples were gathered from four neighboring towns around Tehran, the capital of Iran, at different geographic directions. Every 100m(2) of the studied areas gave one sample containing 6g of soil in 3-5cm depth deposited in 50mL sterile water as sampling media. After digestion and decontamination, DNA from culture-positive specimens (RGM) were extracted using phenol-chloroform methods. Then the molecular identification of species and subspecies were performed using 16s-23s rRNA and hsp65 gene. In total, 341 RGM were found, out of which 322 (94.4%) were identified and 20 (5.8%) could not be identified. The most frequent RGM was, Mycobacterium fortuitum (72; 22%), Mycobacterium senegalense (58; 17.7%), Mycobacterium parafortuitum (44; 13.4%) and Mycobacterium conceptionense type 1 (24; 7.2%), and Mycobacterium cheloni type 1 (20; 6.0%). As shown in Table 1, M. fortuitum had more subtypes (8), and the frequency of subtypes 1 (27.7%), 4 (16.6%), and 5 (13.8%) were higher. Among subtypes of M. senegalense, subtype 1 had a higher frequency (70.4%) in comparison to subtype 2 (29.5%). M. cheloni had just one subtype. Our results showed M. fortuitum as the most prominent strain isolated from environmental samples. The frequency was similar in different places, irrespective of climatic variations. Availability of various subtypes of M. fortuitum might indicate a large circulation of this RGM in soil and water of Iranian territory. This high prevalence of M. fortuitum might

  15. Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov., Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium arcueilense sp. nov., members of a novel group of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria recovered from a water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjek, Julie; Souded, Sabiha; Guerardel, Yann; Trivelli, Xavier; Bernut, Audrey; Kremer, Laurent; Welte, Benedicte; Joyeux, Michel; Dubrou, Sylvie; Euzeby, Jean-Paul; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Sapriel, Guillaume; Heym, Beate

    2016-09-01

    From our recent survey of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria in the Parisian water system, three groups of isolates (taxons 1-3) corresponding to possible novel species were selected for taxonomic study. The three taxa each formed creamy white, rough colonies, had an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C, hydrolyzed Tween 80, were catalase-positive at 22 °C and expressed arylsulfatase activity. All three were susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and tigecycline. The three taxa produced specific sets of mycolic acids, including one family that has never previously been described, as determined by thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The partial rpoB sequences (723 bp) showed 4-6 % divergence from each other and more than 5 % differences from the most similar species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 99 % identity within each species. The most similar sequences for 16S rRNA genes (98-99 % identity over 1444-1461 bp) were found in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, Mycobacterium septicum and Mycobacterium farcinogenes. The three taxa formed a new clade (bootstrap value, 99 %) on trees reconstructed from concatenated partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB sequences. The above results led us to propose three novel species for the three groups of isolates, namely Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov. [type strain 071T=ParisRGMnew_1T (CIP 110656T=DSM 46713T)], Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. [type strain 196T=ParisRGMnew_2T (CIP 110655T=DSM 46714T)] and Mycobacteriu marcueilense sp. nov. [type strain of 269T=ParisRGMnew_3T (CIP 110654T=DSM 46715T)].

  16. GASTROENTEROPANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Neuroendocrine tumors comprise heterogeneous group of neoplasms which originate from endocrine cells, both within endocrine organs and within the cells of diffuse endocrine system. These tumors have vari- able clinical behavior ranging from well-differentiated, slow growing tumors to ...

  17. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  18. Rapid decrease of circulating tumor DNA predicted the treatment effect of nivolumab in a lung cancer patient within only 5 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Iijima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a 1-month history of low back pain and was diagnosed as having stage IV EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. After treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and cytotoxic chemotherapy, nivolumab was started as fourth-line therapy. Remarkable regression of the primary tumor was observed, suggesting high anti-tumor activity of nivolumab. We retrospectively investigated the change in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA variant allele fractions in serial plasma samples before and after the nivolumab therapy. Targeted sequencing analysis showed tumor-derived TP53R249S and EGFRL858R mutations detectable in plasma, and the timing of decrease was only 5 days, much earlier than the appearance of radiological changes. Overall, these results suggest that ctDNA might reflect tumor burden and might be a surrogate marker of the therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint therapy.

  19. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Haeng Un; Koh, Kwang Joon [School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is a rare neoplasm arising in the first year of life. A 33-day-old female infant had an enlarged alveolar ridge on the right anterior maxilla. Intraoral examination revealed a nonulcerative swelling at the site. An intraoral radiograph showed an ill-defined radiolucency on the right anterior maxilla and displacement of primary incisors from their alveolar sockets. CT scans revealed an expansion of the surrounding bone and partial destruction of the anterior wall of the premaxilla. Histopathologic examination showed the cytoplasm of neuroblastic cells and eosinophilic, epithelioid cells frequently contained a dark brown granular pigment that stained positively to vimentin and HMB45, focally positive to NSE and cytokeratin. Four weeks after the operation, CT scans showed a rapidly growing soft tissue mass occupying right maxillary sinus encroaching to the orbit and nasal cavity. The final diagnosis was made as a malignant melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy.

  20. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  1. Regulation of Tumor Progression by Programmed Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing malignant tumors frequently encounter hypoxia and nutrient (e.g., glucose deprivation, which occurs because of insufficient blood supply. This results in necrotic cell death in the core region of solid tumors. Necrotic cells release their cellular cytoplasmic contents into the extracellular space, such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, which is a nonhistone nuclear protein, but acts as a proinflammatory and tumor-promoting cytokine when released by necrotic cells. These released molecules recruit immune and inflammatory cells, which exert tumor-promoting activity by inducing angiogenesis, proliferation, and invasion. Development of a necrotic core in cancer patients is also associated with poor prognosis. Conventionally, necrosis has been thought of as an unregulated process, unlike programmed cell death processes like apoptosis and autophagy. Recently, necrosis has been recognized as a programmed cell death, encompassing processes such as oncosis, necroptosis, and others. Metabolic stress-induced necrosis and its regulatory mechanisms have been poorly investigated until recently. Snail and Dlx-2, EMT-inducing transcription factors, are responsible for metabolic stress-induced necrosis in tumors. Snail and Dlx-2 contribute to tumor progression by promoting necrosis and inducing EMT and oncogenic metabolism. Oncogenic metabolism has been shown to play a role(s in initiating necrosis. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic stress-induced programmed necrosis that promote tumor progression and aggressiveness.

  2. Pediatric Ovarian Growing Teratoma Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Rentea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian immature teratoma is a germ cell tumor that comprises less than 1% of ovarian cancers and is treated with surgical debulking and chemotherapy depending on stage. Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS is the phenomenon of the growth of mature teratoma elements with normal tumor markers during or following chemotherapy for treatment of a malignant germ cell tumor. These tumors are associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to invasive and compressive growth as well as potential for malignant transformation. Current treatment modality is surgical resection. We discuss a 12-year-old female who presented following resection of a pure ovarian immature teratoma (grade 3, FIGO stage IIIC. Following chemotherapy and resection of a pelvic/liver recurrence demonstrating mature teratoma, she underwent molecular genetics based chemotherapeutic treatment. No standardized management protocol has been established for the treatment of GTS. The effect of chemotherapeutic agents for decreasing the volume of and prevention of expansion is unknown. We review in detail the history, diagnostic algorithm, and previous reported pediatric cases as well as treatment options for pediatric patients with GTS.

  3. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ...

  4. An Ambition to Grow

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Kemp; Hakkert, R.

    2006-01-01

    This report tries to gain insight in the willingness or ambition to grow of a small business owner. The main question of this report is therefore: Which factors influence the ambition to grow a business? To examine the ambition to grow an economic and a psychological perspective is given in this study.

  5. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Replication-defective recombinant Semliki Forest virus encoding GM-CSF as a vector system for rapid and facile generation of autologous human tumor cell vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withoff, S; Glazenburg, KL; van Veen, ML; Kraak, MMJ; Hospers, GAP; Storkel, S; de Vries, EGE; Wischut, J; Daemen, T

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the production of recombinant Semliki Forest virus encoding murine or human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the capacity of these vectors to transduce murine and human tumor cells ex vivo. High-titer stocks (up to 3 x 10(9) particles/ml) of

  7. [Case study: a calcified epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withofs, D; Neyt, L; Abeloos, J; De Clercq, C; Mommaerts, M

    1992-09-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor is a benign but locally aggressive tumor. Occasionally the term Pindborg tumor is used after the Danish pathologist who first described this tumor as an entity. The clinical feature is most commonly a slow-growing painless swelling. The tumor may show considerable roentgenographic variation. Usually this tumor shows characteristic histological features. Some variants can mimic malignant neoplasms. The invasive nature is not so obvious as that of an ameloblastoma, nevertheless it has to be treated in the same way. A long follow-up period is indicated since recurrence can occur after many years. A patient with a characteristic Pindborg tumor is presented.

  8. "Ruptured" malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditsatham C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chagkrit Ditsatham, Areewan Somwangprasert, Kirati Watcharachan, Phanchaporn WongmaneerungDivision of Head, Neck and Breast, Department of Surgery, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandAbstract: Phyllodes tumor or cystosarcoma phyllodes is a rare disease and is usually seen in middle-aged patients. Ruptured phyllodes tumor is a very rare condition. Our study reports patient presentation, diagnosis method, and treatment of an unusual case. A 58-year-old premenopausal female was diagnosed with a phyllodes tumor and presented with a rapidly growing mass for 2 months that ruptured 1 month later. She underwent simple mastectomy at the left side of her breast and received adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence was found 4 months after operation.Keywords: ruptured, malignant, phyllodes tumor, breast 

  9. Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast Metastasizing to the Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Kayode Ajenifuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare breast tumors that resemble fibroadenoma. They are composed of two types of tissues: stromal and glandular tissues. Unlike fibroadenoma, they are commonly found in the third decade of life and they tend to grow more rapidly. Depending on the relative components of the cells and mitotic activity, they are classified into benign, borderline, and malignant. They are usually present as a lump in the breast. Phyllodes tumors are usually managed by wide excision. The excision should be wide enough to ensure a tumor-free margin. Recurrence rate is very high and most recurrences are usually local. Metastasis to the vulva has not been reported.

  10. Cellular Potts modeling of tumor growth, tumor invasion and tumor evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Szabó (Andras); R.M.H. Merks (Roeland)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractDespite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated

  11. Peripheral and central aggressive form of Pindborg tumor of mandible - A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayakrishna, K; Soumithran, C S; Sobhana, C R; Biradar, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), or Pindborg tumor, is a rare and benign odontogenic neoplasm that affects the jaw. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor can be divided into 2 clinico-topographic variants: Intraosseous (central) or Extraosseous (peripheral), with an incidence of 94% and 6%, respectively. The intraosseous tumors have a predilection for the mandible, and most tumors arise in the molar and premolar region of the mandible. When present, extraosseous tumors are often located in the anterior jaw and involve the gingiva. In this article we present a unique rare variety of Pindborg tumor of mandible with both intraosseous & extraosseous presentation and also locally aggressive behavior. A 35 year old man presented with Pindborg tumor (CEOT) of mandible with both intraosseous and extraosseous variant in a single lesion, extending from right premolar region to the left molar region. CEOT is an uncommon neoplasm accounting for less than 1% of all odontogenic tumors. Although CEOT is considered less aggressive clinically than typical infiltrating ameloblastoma, but our case is a rarity which was aggressive and also rapidly progressive in short duration, with intra and extraosseous presentation. Hence it was managed surgically similar to a malignant lesion. Presentation of two different variants of an odontogenic tumor in a single lesion and aggressive behavior of rather slow growing tumor, mimicking malignant lesion definitely shows possibility of rare variations in different magnitude. Hence proper diagnosis for management with better prognosis of these kinds of tumors is very much essential.

  12. Peripheral and central aggressive form of Pindborg tumor of mandible – A rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayakrishna, K.; Soumithran, C.S.; Sobhana, C.R.; Biradar, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Inroduction The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), or Pindborg tumor, is a rare and benign odontogenic neoplasm that affects the jaw. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor can be divided into 2 clinico-topographic variants: Intraosseous (central) or Extraosseous (peripheral), with an incidence of 94% and 6%, respectively. The intraosseous tumors have a predilection for the mandible, and most tumors arise in the molar and premolar region of the mandible. When present, extraosseous tumors are often located in the anterior jaw and involve the gingiva. Purpose In this article we present a unique rare variety of Pindborg tumor of mandible with both intraosseous & extraosseous presentation and also locally aggressive behavior. Case report A 35 year old man presented with Pindborg tumor (CEOT) of mandible with both intraosseous and extraosseous variant in a single lesion, extending from right premolar region to the left molar region. Discussion CEOT is an uncommon neoplasm accounting for less than 1% of all odontogenic tumors. Although CEOT is considered less aggressive clinically than typical infiltrating ameloblastoma, but our case is a rarity which was aggressive and also rapidly progressive in short duration, with intra and extraosseous presentation. Hence it was managed surgically similar to a malignant lesion. Conclusion Presentation of two different variants of an odontogenic tumor in a single lesion and aggressive behavior of rather slow growing tumor, mimicking malignant lesion definitely shows possibility of rare variations in different magnitude. Hence proper diagnosis for management with better prognosis of these kinds of tumors is very much essential. PMID:25737906

  13. Tumor lysis syndrome associated with chemotherapy in primary retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma by ex vivo ATP-based tumor chemo-sensitivity assay (ATP-TCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Qing Qian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ke-Qing Qian1, Heng Ye1, Yi-Wen Xiao1, Yong-Yi Bao2, Chun-Jian Qi11Department of Oncology; 2Department of Pathology, the Changzhou No. 2 People’s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou, ChinaAbstract: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS, a result of rapid cell lysis following tumor therapy, is a well recognized complication during the treatment of rapidly growing tumors. TLS rarely occurs in solid tumors. We present a case report of TLS in a patient with primary retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma. TLS occurred in the patient after four days’ combinational chemotherapy with cisplatin, adriamycin, and dacarbazine. These drugs were selected on the basis of an ex vivo ATP-based tumor sensitivity assay. TLS was properly controlled in the patient with concomitant remission of the sarcoma. Therefore, precautions should be taken to avoid this potentially fatal complication during treatment of solid tumors, especially with tumors highly sensitive to drugs.Keywords: tumor lysis syndrome, retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma, ATP-based tumor sensitivity assay (ATP-TCA

  14. Melting ice, growing trade?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sami Bensassi; Julienne C. Stroeve; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Andrew P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR...

  15. In vivo neutron activation analysis of sodium and chlorine in tumor tissue after fast neutron therapy; Analyse par activation neutronique in vivo d`echanges de sodium et de chlore dans des tissus cancereux apres traitement par neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auberger, T.; Weissfloch, L. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany); Koester, L.; Knopf, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    1996-12-31

    In 12 patients with recurrences and metastases of different primaries (head and neck cancer, breast cancer, malignant melanoma, and osteosarcoma) who were treated with reactor fission neutrons the photon emission of irradiated tissue was measured after each radiotherapy fraction. Spectral analyses of the decay rates resulted in data for the exchange of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) between the irradiated tissue and the body. About 60 % of Na and Cl exchanged rapidly with a turnover half-life of 13{+-} 2 min. New defined mass exchange rates for Na and Cl amount to an average of 0.8 m val/min/kg of soft tissue. At the beginning of radiotherapy the turnover of the electrolytes in tissues with large tumor volumes was about twice that in tissues with small tumor volumes. Depending on the dose, neutron therapy led in all cases to variation in the metabolism. A maximum of Cl exchange and a minimum of Na exchange occurred after 10 Gy of neutrons (group of six previously untreated patients) or after 85 Gy (photon equivalent dose) of combined photon-neutron therapy. A significant increase in non-exchangeable fraction of Na from about 40 to 80 % was observed in after end of therapy. These results demonstrate for the first time the local response of the electrolyte metabolism to radiotherapy. (author). 9 refs.

  16. [Studies on the alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Meng-Hua; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yong-Gang; Yang, Cui-Ping; Su, Wei-Wei

    2011-05-01

    To study alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong. The rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MS/MS) was used to analyse alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong, and senkirkine was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography. Four alkaloids were identified as senkirkine, dehydrosenkirkine, monocrotaline and adonifoline, and senkirkine was firstly isolated from Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong. Senkirkine is the main component of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong.

  17. Novel route for rapid biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Calotropis procera L. latex and their cytotoxicity on tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne, Shrikant; Sharma, Ashwinikumar; Dhaygude, Mayur; Joglekar, Shreeram; Kodam, Kisan; Hudlikar, Manish

    2012-06-15

    This paper accounts for novel, low-cost, eco-friendly route for rapid biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles. Cysteine proteases present in the latex of Calotropis procera L. were used to fabricate copper nanoparticles from copper acetate. Copper nanoparticles were initially characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction technique (XRD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to estimate the size and shape of nanoparticles. The average size of copper nanoparticles was found to be 15 ± 1.7 nm. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) showed distinct peaks of copper. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to confirm capping behavior of the latex proteins that contributed to long term stability of copper nanoparticles (6 months) in aqueous medium. Copper nanoparticles synthesized by above method were monodisperse type. Cytotoxicity studies of latex stabilized copper nanoparticles were carried out on HeLa, A549 and BHK21 cell lines by MTT dye conversion assay. HeLa, A549 and BHK21 cells showed excellent viability even at 120 μM concentration of copper nanoparticles. This shows that copper nanoparticles synthesized by above method hold excellent biocompatibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  19. Growing Up with "1984."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  20. Growing through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and…

  1. Growing Old in Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liversage, Anika; Mirdal, Gretty Mizrahi

    2017-01-01

    Some studies on immigrants and ageing focus on the question of return; others focus on how immigrants, who grow old in their countries of destination, ‘age in place’, including whether they turn to their children or to public host country provisions for care and support. However, the issues of re...

  2. Highly active microbial phosphoantigen induces rapid yet sustained MEK/Erk- and PI-3K/Akt-mediated signal transduction in anti-tumor human gammadelta T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel V Correia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The unique responsiveness of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-cells, the major gammadelta subset of human peripheral blood, to non-peptidic prenyl pyrophosphate antigens constitutes the basis of current gammadelta T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy strategies. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for phosphoantigen-mediated activation of human gammadelta T-cells remain unclear. In particular, previous reports have described a very slow kinetics of activation of T-cell receptor (TCR-associated signal transduction pathways by isopentenyl pyrophosphate and bromohydrin pyrophosphate, seemingly incompatible with direct binding of these antigens to the Vgamma9Vdelta2 TCR. Here we have studied the most potent natural phosphoantigen yet identified, (E-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP, produced by Eubacteria and Protozoa, and examined its gammadelta T-cell activation and anti-tumor properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have performed a comparative study between HMB-PP and the anti-CD3epsilon monoclonal antibody OKT3, used as a reference inducer of bona fide TCR signaling, and followed multiple cellular and molecular gammadelta T-cell activation events. We show that HMB-PP activates MEK/Erk and PI-3K/Akt pathways as rapidly as OKT3, and induces an almost identical transcriptional profile in Vgamma9(+ T-cells. Moreover, MEK/Erk and PI-3K/Akt activities are indispensable for the cellular effects of HMB-PP, including gammadelta T-cell activation, proliferation and anti-tumor cytotoxicity, which are also abolished upon antibody blockade of the Vgamma9(+ TCR Surprisingly, HMB-PP treatment does not induce down-modulation of surface TCR levels, and thereby sustains gammadelta T-cell activation upon re-stimulation. This ultimately translates in potent human gammadelta T-cell anti-tumor function both in vitro and in vivo upon transplantation of human leukemia cells into lymphopenic mice, CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The development of

  3. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  4. Rapid tumor progression in a patient with HPV type 16 associated anal squamous cell carcinoma suffering from long-standing Crohn's disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer AK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common cancer of the anal region, typically associated with high-risk (hr HPV infection. Furthermore, there is evidence that Crohn's disease predisposes to adenocarcinoma in patients with perianal disease. Materials and methods: A 57-year old patient presenting with long history of Crohn's disease since the age of mid-twenties, went through several surgeries including ileocolectomy and anal fistula resection, combined with immunosuppressive therapy additionally periodically since 2008. One year before death (in 2015 a painful fistula was diagnosed with extensive high grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN-HG and evidence of invasive growth as non-keratinizing SCC. Tissue samples from several previous and current resection specimens were re-evaluated and extensively investigated for Crohn´s type inflammation, dysplasia and HPV both by immunohistochemistry (p16/Ki67 and molecular subtyping of HPV. Results: AIN-HG and invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma turned out to be strongly positive for p16/Ki67 staining and molecular analysis disclosed a HPV-16 subtype. In contrast, HPV-analysis was negative in all available previous tissue samples including one anal fistula resected five years before (in 2009 which was lined by non-keratinized squamous epithelium without any evidence of dysplasia. Thus, the patient was diagnosed as Crohn's disease with hr-HPV infection that rapidly (< 5ys progressed to AIN-HG and anal SCC. Finally, osseous metastases occurred and the patient died shortly after. Conclusions: This case of a patient diagnosed with SCC of the anal canal in combination with Crohn's disease as well as HPV Type 16 infection, points to the pathomechanism leading to dysplasia and finally cancer. We assume that immunosuppressive therapy in Crohn's disease may predispose to both persistent HPV infection and HPV related invasive anal carcinoma. The accelerated progression of HPV

  5. Geothermal Grows Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  6. Disseminated transmissible venereal tumor in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Sun; Kim, Yongbaek; Kang, Min-Soo; Oh, Sang-Yeon; Cho, Doo-Youn; Shin, Nam-Shik; Kim, Dae-Yong

    2006-01-01

    Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a well-documented transplantable tumor in dogs, with no breed or sex predilection and a low metastatic rate. In this report, a 2-year-old intact female Mastiff that had numerous, rapidly growing masses throughout the subcutis mainly at the dorsal body plane, the caudal half of the ventral abdomen, and around the vulva was euthanized due to poor prognosis. Neoplastic nodules similar to those seen in the subcutis were also noted in the lung, anterior mediastinum, liver, spleen, kidney, and superficial and deep lymph nodes in both abdominal and thoracic cavities. The neoplastic nodules from the subcutis as well as metastatic foci revealed similar cytologic and histologic features, which were consistent with canine TVT. By immunohistochemical staining, the neoplastic cells were positive for lysozyme and vimentin but were negative for cytokeratin, desmin, CD3, and CD79a. The diagnosis of the TVT was further supported by the identification and analysis of long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE) from paraffin-embedded tumor tissue. This case is a rare example of TVT with multiorgan metastasis. In this case, the polymerase chain reaction technique was useful in differential diagnosis of canine round cell tumors because this technique can be applied in retrospective as well as future study.

  7. The vulnerable, rapidly growing thoracic spine of the adolescent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at fault, refusing to allow a 'trivial complaint' to stand in the way of the success of the team in which their sons play a key role. Department of Orthopaedics, University .... hence the diagnosis of 'postural, non-structural, thoracic kyphosis'. In a small percentage of these cases, structural changes have been seen later, but with ...

  8. The vulnerable, rapidly growing thoracic spine of the adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolapse of disc tissue occurs into the verfebral body, causing a disturbance of growth but little if any pain. The vertebrae in the mid-thoracic region become wedge-shaped, and a kyphotic deformity results, the so-called Scheuermann's disease, or adolescent kyphosis. A plea is made for the screening of children exposed to ...

  9. Effects of photodynamic therapy on rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Min-Hsiu; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2011-01-05

    The authors investigated the antimicrobial effect of methylene blue (MB)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Mycobacterium fortuitum keratitis. In the in vitro study, the mycobacterial suspension and colonies were treated with the following: no MB, no light (normal control); MB and no light (dye control); light and no MB (light control); MB and light (PDT). Morphologic characteristics were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The bactericidal effects of combined PDT and antibiotic therapy (ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and amikacin) were determined using the broth microdilution technique. Twenty-one rabbits with Mycobacterium keratitis were randomly divided into three groups (no treatment, topical amikacin treatment, and PDT combined with amikacin treatment). The clinical features of keratitis were scored and graded before treatment and before euthanatization. The diseased corneas were trephined for quantitative bacteriologic analysis to determine the antibacterial efficacy of the treatment. In the in vitro tests, the bacterial count had a 2-log reduction immediately after PDT treatment at 100 J/cm(2) with 10(-3)% MB. After PDT at 100 J/cm(2) with 10(-2)% MB, almost no viable bacteria were detected. PDT had a synergistic antimicrobial effect in combination with antibiotics. The phototoxicity occurred in the cytoplasm first and then disrupted the mycobacterial cell walls by lysis. In the rabbit keratitis model, combined PDT resulted in significantly less bacterial burden (P PDT against Mycobacterium fortuitum. PDT could be a potential alternative treatment for nontuberculous mycobacterial corneal infections.

  10. Neuropsychology of music – a rapidly growing branch of psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Habe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between brain and music is of interest to musicians, psychologists and neuroscientists. In recent years no other area of psychology of music has seen as much advancement as neuropsychology of music. The aim of the article is to present some main issues in the neuropsychology of music abroad and in Slovenia, to classify research studies into larger categories and to predict the future development of this field.There are different levels of inquiry into the neuropsychology of music: (1 the analysis of normal and abnormal psychological and physiological functions to determine the principles and modes by which the human brain processes, codifies, stores, and produces music, and (2 a description of the clinical deficits in music perception or performance resulting from localized or diffuse damage to the nervous system. Main topics that occupy neuropsychology of music are neuropsychological models of musical processing, functional imaging of musical perception and cognition, and the use of music as a therapeutic and clinical tool. Although some important studies have already been conducted since the year 2003, in Slovenia we faced a "formal" turning point in acknowledging the importance of the connection between music, mind and brain with the Sinapsa's Week of the brain 2009 under the title Brain and music.

  11. Radionuclide imaging of tumor angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, I.; Boerman, O.C.

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a multistep process regulated by pro- and antiangiogenic factors. In order to grow and metastasize, tumors need a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. For growth beyond 1-2 mm in size, tumors are dependent on angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis is a new cancer treatment

  12. Spinal tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - spinal cord ... tissue) Myeloma (blood cancer that starts in the plasma cells of the bone marrow) A small number of spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Tumors that start in spinal tissue are ...

  13. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects ... are at risk should be screened for Wilms tumor every three months until they turn eight. Symptoms ...

  14. Improved Methods to Generate Spheroid Cultures from Tumor Cells, Tumor Cells & Fibroblasts or Tumor-Fragments: Microenvironment, Microvesicles and MiRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lao

    Full Text Available Diagnostic and prognostic indicators are key components to achieve the goal of personalized cancer therapy. Two distinct approaches to this goal include predicting response by genetic analysis and direct testing of possible therapies using cultures derived from biopsy specimens. Optimally, the latter method requires a rapid assessment, but growing xenograft tumors or developing patient-derived cell lines can involve a great deal of time and expense. Furthermore, tumor cells have much different responses when grown in 2D versus 3D tissue environments. Using a modification of existing methods, we show that it is possible to make tumor-fragment (TF spheroids in only 2-3 days. TF spheroids appear to closely model characteristics of the original tumor and may be used to assess critical therapy-modulating features of the microenvironment such as hypoxia. A similar method allows the reproducible development of spheroids from mixed tumor cells and fibroblasts (mixed-cell spheroids. Prior literature reports have shown highly variable development and properties of mixed-cell spheroids and this has hampered the detailed study of how individual tumor-cell components interact. In this study, we illustrate this approach and describe similarities and differences using two tumor models (U87 glioma and SQ20B squamous-cell carcinoma with supporting data from additional cell lines. We show that U87 and SQ20B spheroids predict a key microenvironmental factor in tumors (hypoxia and that SQ20B cells and spheroids generate similar numbers of microvesicles. We also present pilot data for miRNA expression under conditions of cells, tumors, and TF spheroids.

  15. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nathan; Runk, Dianne M

    2015-01-01

    Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3-0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10-30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumor will recur locally or metastasize. Distinguishing this subset of malignant phyllodes tumor is paramount. We present a case of malignant phyllodes which presented with metastatic disease. What is fascinating about this case is not only the initial presentation but also the aggressiveness of this variation of phyllodes tumor. The patient initially presented with a large mass which encompassed her whole right breast. On surgical pathology the mass measured roughly 31cm in diameter and weighed over 10kg. Within 5 weeks from surgery the patient had suffered brain metastases and also 6 local recurrent tumors. The patient passed roughly 11 weeks after her first visit to our office. Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Growing unculturable bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric J

    2012-08-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field.

  17. Epidemiological features of brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2. 2 of all tumors, and from all cancer­related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of brain tumors for benign and malignant tumors combined is 18.71 per 100,000 persons/year. The most common benign brain tumor in adults is meningioma, which is most present in women, and the most common malignant tumor is glioblastoma, which is most present in adult men. Due to high mortality, especially in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and significant brain tumor morbidity, there is a constant interest in understanding its etiology in order to possibly prevent tumor occurrence in future and enable more efficient treatment strategies for this fatal brain disease. Despite the continuously growing number of epidemiological studies on possible factors of tumor incidence, the etiology remains unclear. The only established environmental risk factor of gliomas is ionizing radiation exposure. Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields via cell phone use has gained a lot of attention as a potential risk factor of brain tumor development. However, studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive, so more definite results are still expected.

  18. Large-sized kidney tumor mimicking an extraorgan retroperitoneal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Reva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The retroperitoneal space may be a site for a broad spectrum of both rare benign and malignant tumors that are in turn a focus of primary or metastatic involvement. Sarcomas, lymphomas, and different epithelial tumors (of the kidney, adrenal, and pancreas constitute the bulk of retroperitoneal tumors. Detection of a large-sized tumor located at one of the renal poles may raise the question of whether this mass is a kidney tumor or an extraorgan retroperitoneal tumor adjacent to or growing into the kidney. In view of significant differences in treatment procedures for various retroperitoneal tumors, when the origin of the mass is unknown, there is a need for an individual approach to defining the optimal therapeutic and diagnostic tactics, by attracting specialists in allied fields. 

  19. Malignant Phylloides Tumor of Breast in a Pregnant Woman with Coincidental Nulliparous Vaginal Prolapse

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    Sabyasachi Ray

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant phylloides tumor is a relatively rare and rapidly growing tumor of the breast. Presentation during pregnancy is uncommon. Reports regarding malignancy in these tumors differ greatly in incidence, and most of them are stromal malignancies. We report this case in which 24-year old primigravid patient in the 36th week of her pregnancy had a malignant phylloides tumor of breast with sudden growth and fine needle aspiration cytology of the breast was positive for malignancy. Ultimately after her caesarean delivery, excision biopsy was in favor of a malignant process. Pregnancy with nulliparous prolapse is also a rare condition. Those conditions are not associated with each other, but presence of two rare conditions in the same time in the same person is unique.

  20. Rapid growth of left atrial myxoma after radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Alvarez, José; Martinez de Alegria, Anxo; Sierra Quiroga, Juan; Adrio Nazar, Belen; Rubio Taboada, Carola; Martinez Comendador, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Atrial myxoma is the most common benign tumor of the heart, but its appearance after radiofrequency ablation is very rare. We report a case in which an asymptomatic, rapidly growing cardiac myxoma arose in the left atrium after radiofrequency ablation. Two months after the procedure, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, performed to evaluate the right ventricular anatomy, revealed a 10 × 10-mm mass (assumed to be a thrombus) attached to the patient's left atrial septum. Three months later, transthoracic echocardiography revealed a larger mass, and the patient was diagnosed with myxoma. Two days later, a 20 × 20-mm myxoma weighing 37 g was excised. To our knowledge, the appearance of an atrial myxoma after radiofrequency ablation has been reported only once before. Whether tumor development is related to such ablation or is merely a coincidence is uncertain, but myxomas have developed after other instances of cardiac trauma.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies and Fc fragments for treating solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenbeis AM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrea M Eisenbeis, Stefan J GrauDepartment of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, GermanyAbstract: Advances in biotechnology, better understanding of pathophysiological processes, as well as the identification of an increasing number of molecular markers have facilitated the use of monoclonal antibodies and Fc fragments in various fields in medicine. In this context, a rapidly growing number of these substances have also emerged in the field of oncology. This review will summarize the currently approved monoclonal antibodies used for the treatment of solid tumors with a focus on their clinical application, biological background, and currently ongoing trials.Keywords: targeted therapy, monoclonal antibodies, cancer, biological therapy

  2. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation.

  3. Growing for different ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Gene expression profiling of fast- and slow- growing gonadotroph non-functioning pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Camilla Maria; Sundaram, Arvind Y M; Øystese, Kristin Astrid

    2018-01-01

    Objective Reliable biomarkers associated with aggressiveness of non-functioning gonadotroph adenomas (GAs) are lacking. As the growth of tumor remnants is highly variable, molecular markers for growth potential prediction are necessary. We hypothesized that fast- and slow - growing GAs present di...... expression in fast-growing tumors. In addition to MTDH, identified as an important contributor to aggressiveness, the other genes might represent markers for tumor growth potential and possible targets for drug therapy. ....

  5. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

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    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  6. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  7. Hypothalamic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothalamic glioma; Hypothalamus - tumor ... The exact cause of hypothalamic tumors is not known. It is likely that they result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In children, ...

  8. B16 melanoma tumor growth is delayed in mice in an age-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A major risk factor for cancer is increasing age, which suggests that syngeneic tumor implants in old mice would grow more rapidly. However, various reports have suggested that old mice are not as permissive to implanted tumor cells as young mice. In order to determine and characterize the age-related response to B16 melanoma, we implanted 5×105 tumor cells into 8, 16, 24, and 32-month-old male C57BL/6 (B6 and C57BL/6×BALB/c F1 (CB6 F1 mice subcutaneously in the inguinal and axillary spaces, or intradermally in the lateral flank. Results showed decreased tumor volume with increasing age, which varied according to mouse genetic background and the implanted site. The B6 strain showed robust tumor growth at 8 months of age at the inguinal implantation site, with an average tumor volume of 1341.25 mm3. The 16, 24, and 32-month age groups showed a decrease in tumor growth with tumor volumes of 563.69, 481.02, and 264.55 mm3, respectively (p≤0.001. The axillary implantation site was less permissive in 8-month-old B6 mice with an average tumor volume of 761.52 mm3. The 24- and 32-month age groups showed a similar decrease in tumor growth with tumor volumes of 440 and 178.19 mm3, respectively (p≤0.01. The CB6F1 strain was not as tumor permissive at 8 months of age as B6 mice with average tumor volumes of 446.96 and 426.91 mm3 for the inguinal and axillary sites, respectively. There was a decrease in tumor growth at 24 months of age at both inguinal and axillary sites with an average tumor volume of 271.02 and 249.12 mm3, respectively (p≤0.05. The strain dependence was not apparent in 8-month-old mice injected intradermally with B16 melanoma cells, with average tumor volumes of 736.82 and 842.85 mm3 for B6 and CB6 F1, respectively. However, a strain difference was seen in 32-month-old B6 mice with an average decrease in tumor volume of 250.83 mm3 (p≤0.01. In contrast, tumor growth significantly decreased earlier in CB6 F1 mice with average

  9. Effects of charged particles on human tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn D Held

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of charged particle therapy in cancer treatment is growing rapidly, in large part because the exquisite dose localization of charged particles allows for higher radiation doses to be given to tumor tissue while normal tissues are exposed to lower doses and decreased volumes of normal tissues are irradiated. In addition, charged particles heavier than protons have substantial potential clinical advantages because of their additional biological effects including greater cell killing effectiveness, decreased radiation resistance of hypoxic cells in tumors and reduced cell cycle dependence of radiation response. These biological advantages depend on many factors such as endpoint, cell or tissue type, dose, dose rate or fractionation, charged particle type and energy, and oxygen concentration. This review summarizes the unique biological advantages of charged particle therapy and highlights recent research and areas of particular research needs, such as quantification of Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE for various tumor types and radiation qualities, role of genetic background of tumor cells in determining response to charged particles, sensitivity of cancer stem-like cells to charged particles, role of charged particles in tumors with hypoxic fractions and importance of fractionation, including use of hypofractionation, with charged particles.

  10. Diagnostic problems of abdominal desmoid tumors in various locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzberg, B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty Hospital and Medical Faculty of Charles University, Alej Svobody 80, 30460 Pilsen (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: kreuzberg@fnplzen.cz; Koudelova, J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty Hospital and Medical Faculty of Charles University, Alej Svobody 80, 30460 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Ferda, J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty Hospital and Medical Faculty of Charles University, Alej Svobody 80, 30460 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Treska, V. [Department of Surgery, Faculty Hospital and Medical Faculty of Charles University, Alej Svobody 80, 30460 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Spidlen, V. [Department of Surgery, Faculty Hospital and Medical Faculty of Charles University, Alej Svobody 80, 30460 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Mukensnabl, P. [Sikl' s Department of Pathology, Faculty Hospital and Medical Faculty of Charles University, Alej Svobody 80, 30460 Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Background: Abdominal desmoid tumor is one of the forms of deep (musculoaponeurotic) fibromatosis. It occurs more often as a desmoid tumor in the abdominal wall, less often in various intra-abdominal locations. In this work, we performed retrospective study concerning diagnostic problems of this disease with the use of imaging techniques. Method: Four patients (three females and one male) were examined by postcontrast CT (computed tomography) and one of them also by MR (magnetic resonance). All findings were correlated with the operational findings and histologic examination. Results: The findings were typical only in the case with the lesion located in the abdominal wall, three described cases of the intra-abdominal desmoid provided a broad range of differentially diagnostic possibilities (metastases, GIT tumors, lymphomas, etc.). In particular, the findings in infiltrative processes in intra-abdominal location and retroperitoneal involvement were less typical. Ultimately, the histological findings were decisive. Conclusion: The possibility of the occurrence of intra-abdominal desmoid tumor must be considered particularly in younger individuals with rapidly growing tumorous process, which does not immediately arise from the surrounding organs (digestive tract, internal genitalia, etc.), and is located in the abdominal wall or in the abdominal cavity.

  11. Odontogenic Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    TAHSİNOĞLU, Melih

    2013-01-01

    DefinitionThe neoplasms that consist of the cells considered specialized for odontogenesis, and their product (dentin, enamel, cementum) are called odontogenic tumors.ClassificationTo initiate odontogenesis, epithelium is a must. Same rule holds for the odontogenic tumors: without odontogenic epithelium, odontogenic tumors cannot be, without the induction of odontogenic epithelium odontogenic mesenchyme cannot develop.

  12. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor - Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Kshar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT is a benign epithelial tumor that accounts for 3% of all odontogenic tumors. This tumor, most commonly found in maxillary arch, mimics a follicular cyst associated with an impacted tooth. Clinically, it presents as a slowly growing, painless mass, found more frequently in female patients and has a peak incidence in the second decade of life. Ranking four among the odontogenic tumors the AOT is not a particularly rare tumor. Surgical enucleation is the treatment of choice and recurrences have not been reported. In this article three cases of AOT are presented with characteristic clinical, radiographic and histological features.

  14. Targeting tumors with iodine-123 labeled deoxyuridine: distribution and DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, M L; Li, J; Kim, S M; Zhang, J J; Andrews, D

    1999-01-01

    5-lodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR), a thymidine analog, is transported through cell membrane and is incorporated into newly synthesized DNA during the S phase of mitotic cells. In rapidly growing brain tumors such as glioma, radioiodinated IUdR may be an efficient diagnostic as well as therapeutic agent and may provide a means to determine the proliferative activity of the tumor. IUdR was labeled with 123I (t1/2 = 13.3 h, gamma = 159 KeV, 83%) and injected i.v. into nude mice bearing human colorectal carcinoma LS174T. At 3 and 20 h postinjection, tumor uptake was 2.6 +/- 0.9% and 0.5 +/- 0.2%, respectively, of the injected dose per gram of tissue. Radioactivity in other tissues also declined as a function of time, but much more rapidly, yielding tumor-to-blood ratios of 16.4 +/- 2.2 and tumor-to-muscle ratios of 22.2 +/- 7.7 at 20 h postinjection. Of the radioactivity in the tumor, 12.6 +/- 0.9% was bound to DNA at 3 h and 25.2 +/- 2% at 20 h postinjection. A high (7 +/- 1.1% i.d.) uptake in thyroid at 3 h postinjection indicated dehalogenation in vivo.

  15. Giant benign phyllodes tumor with lactating changes in pregnancy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhitmaskul, Tapanutt; Asanprakit, Wichitra; Charoenthammaraksa, Sivinee; Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Supaporn, Surapong; Vassanasiri, Wichai; Sattaporn, Sukchai

    2015-08-01

    Phyllodes tumor in pregnancy is extremely rare. We present the first case ever reported of a giant benign phyllodes tumor with lactating changes during pregnancy. A 36-year-old female patient at the 32nd week of pregnancy presented with a huge mass in left breast for 5-6 months. Physical examination revealed a firm palpable 20 cm mass occupying the whole left breast. Ultrasound guided core needle biopsy demonstrated a fibroepithelial lesion suggestive of benign phyllodes tumor. She was scheduled for mastectomy three weeks after birth delivery. The microscopic examination of the resected specimen revealed the mass consisted mainly of lactating components with areas of hypercellular stroma and epithelial proliferation in leaf-like pattern. Finally, the pathological report confirmed a giant benign phyllodes tumor with lactating changes and frees all surgical margins. Phyllodes tumor in pregnancy is rare with just nine cases reported. It is unknown if the rapidly growing mass in pregnant patient is hormone-dependent. This is the first report of a giant benign phyllodes tumor with lactating changes in pregnant patient. In these large phyllodes tumors, heterogeneous stromal components are common. It is occasionally difficult to distinguish between benign phyllodes tumor with lactating changes and lactating adenoma. Because the surgical treatment and local recurrence rate are different between these two diseases, we need to clearly differentiate benign phyllodes tumors from other benign breast diseases. This case emphasizes the heterogeneity of giant phyllodes tumors. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly examine the resected specimen for possible additional components. The key point is that adequate and clear surgical margins in any phyllodes tumors must be achieved to reduce local recurrence.

  16. Odontogenic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysomali, Evanthia; Leventis, Minas; Titsinides, Savas; Kyriakopoulos, Vasileios; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to analyze the frequency and distribution of odontogenic tumors in a Greek population and compare the findings with those reported in the recent literature. Records of the Department of Oral Medicine and Pathology, Dental School, University of Athens, with histologic diagnosis of odontogenic tumors (based on the World Health Organization 2005 classification) were reviewed retrospectively from January 1970 to December 2011. A total of 652 cases of odontogenic tumors were reported. Of these, 651 (99.8%) were benign and only 1 (0.2%) was malignant. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor was the most frequent lesion (52.7%), followed by odontoma (18.9%) and ameloblastoma (16.1%). The mean age of patients was 38.0 years with a wide range (2.5-92 years). Odontogenic tumors are rare lesions and appear to show a definite geographic variation. In Athens, Greece, they are presented mainly by the keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and ameloblastoma.

  17. Lowering of tumor interstitial fluid pressure reduces tumor cell proliferation in a xenograft tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Matthias; Guschel, Maike; Bernd, August; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Kaufmann, Roland; Tandi, Christa; Wiig, Helge; Kippenberger, Stefan

    2006-02-01

    High tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) is a characteristic of most solid tumors. TIFP may hamper adequate uptake of macromolecular therapeutics in tumor tissue. In addition, TIFP generates mechanical forces affecting the tumor cortex, which might influence the growth parameters of tumor cells. This seems likely as, in other tissues (namely, blood vessels or the skin), mechanical stretch is known to trigger proliferation. Therefore, we hypothesize that TIFP-induced stretch modulates proliferation-associated parameters. Solid epithelial tumors (A431 and A549) were grown in Naval Medical Research Institute nude mice, generating a TIFP of about 10 mm Hg (A431) or 5 mm Hg (A549). Tumor drainage of the central cystic area led to a rapid decline of TIFP, together with visible relaxation of the tumor cortex. It was found by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis that TIFP lowering yields a decreased phosphorylation of proliferation-associated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and tumor relaxation. In confirmation, immunohistochemical staining showed a decrease of tumor-associated proliferation marker Ki-67 after TIFP lowering. These data suggest that the mechanical stretch induced by TIFP is a positive modulator of tumor proliferation.

  18. Lowering of Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure Reduces Tumor Cell Proliferation in a Xenograft Tumor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hofmann

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available High tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP is a characteristic of most solid tumors. TIFP may hamper adequate uptake of macromolecular therapeutics in tumor tissue. In addition, TIFP generates mechanical forces affecting the tumor cortex, which might influence the growth parameters of tumor cells. This seems likely as, in other tissues (namely, blood vessels or the skin, mechanical stretch is known to trigger proliferation. Therefore, we hypothesize that TIFP-induced stretch modulates proliferation-associated parameters. Solid epithelial tumors (A431 and A549 were grown in Naval Medical Research Institute nude mice, generating a TIFP of about 10 mm Hg (A431 or 5 mm Hg (A549. Tumor drainage of the central cystic area led to a rapid decline of TIFP, together with visible relaxation of the tumor cortex. It was found by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis that TIFP lowering yields a decreased phosphorylation of proliferation-associated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and tumor relaxation. In confirmation, immunohistochemical staining showed a decrease of tumor-associated proliferation marker Ki-67 after TIFP lowering. These data suggest that the mechanical stretch induced by TIFP is a positive modulator of tumor proliferation.

  19. Lowering of Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure Reduces Tumor Cell Proliferation in a Xenograft Tumor Model1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Matthias; Guschel, Maike; Bernd, August; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Kaufmann, Roland; Tandi, Christa; Wiig, Helge; Kippenberger, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract High tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) is a characteristic of most solid tumors. TIFP may hamper adequate uptake of macromolecular therapeutics in tumor tissue. In addition, TIFP generates mechanical forces affecting the tumor cortex, which might influence the growth parameters of tumor cells. This seems likely as, in other tissues (namely, blood vessels or the skin), mechanical stretch is known to trigger proliferation. Therefore, we hypothesize that TIFP-induced stretch modulates proliferation-associated parameters. Solid epithelial tumors (A431 and A549) were grown in Naval Medical Research Institute nude mice, generating a TIFP of about 10 mm Hg (A431) or 5 mm Hg (A549). Tumor drainage of the central cystic area led to a rapid decline of TIFP, together with visible relaxation of the tumor cortex. It was found by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis that TIFP lowering yields a decreased phosphorylation of proliferation-associated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and tumor relaxation. In confirmation, immunohistochemical staining showed a decrease of tumor-associated proliferation marker Ki-67 after TIFP lowering. These data suggest that the mechanical stretch induced by TIFP is a positive modulator of tumor proliferation. PMID:16611401

  20. A Case of Large Phyllodes Tumor Causing “Rupture” of the Breast: A Unique Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Nabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial tumors which constitute less than 1% of all known breast neoplasms. The importance of recognizing these tumors lies in the need to differentiate them from fibroadenomas and other benign breast lesions to avoid inappropriate surgical management. We report a case of large phyllodes tumor which caused rupture of the breast and presented as an external fungating breast mass, a presentation which is exceedingly rare. Case Presentation. A 32-year-old female presented with a 1-year history of a mass in her right breast and eruption of the mass through the skin for the last 3 months. On physical examination, an ulcerated, irregular, and nodular mass measuring  cms was found hanging in the lower and outer quadrant of the right breast. Ultrasonography revealed an exophytic mass with heterogeneous echotexture and vascularity. Under general anesthesia, the tumor was excised. The resected specimen was  cm in size and the tumor was not invasive to the surrounding tissues. Histological examination confirmed a benign case of Phyllodes tumor. Conclusion. Clinicians should be aware of the myriad ways in which Phyllodes can present. A rapidly growing breast mass in a female should raise strong suspicion for Phyllodes. It is necessary to differentiate it from fibroadenomas to avoid inappropriate surgical management which may lead to local recurrence.

  1. Mitotically Active Plexiform Fibrohistiocytic Tumor

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    Ebru Zemheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor is an intermediate malignant tumor situated in superficial soft tissues. It affects children and young adults. The tumor is most commonly located on upper extremities, whereas involvement of back region is rare. Mitotic activity is generally low (~3/10 HPF. It is rare, but it can exhibit aggressive behavior, so total excision with clear surgical margins and long-term followup is necessary to detect local recurrence and metastases. We report a child with a solid mass on back region which was found to be a mitotically active plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor (6/10 HPF after excision. Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor (PFT is a mesenchymal neoplasm of children, adolescents, and young adults. It is characterized by fibrohistiocytic cytomorphology and multinodular growth pattern. Clinically it is usually a slow-growing mass of upper extremities with frequent local recurrence and rare regional lymphatic and systemic metastasis (Fletcher et al. (2002, Enzinger and Zhang (1988, Remstein et al. (1999.

  2. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2011-01-01

    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...... signaling plays a fundamental role during development. Recent findings have shown that Notch signaling is dysregulated, and contributes to the malignant potential of these tumors. Growing evidence point towards an important role for cancer stem cells in the initiation and maintenance of glioma...... and medulloblastoma. In this chapter we will cover the present findings of Notch signaling in human glioma and medulloblastoma and try to create an overall picture of its relevance in the pathogenesis of these tumors....

  3. Pindborg tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Santhosh Kumar Caliaperoumal; Gowri, S.; J.Dinakar

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  4. Pindborg tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar Caliaperoumal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT, also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  5. Pindborg tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliaperoumal, Santhosh Kumar; Gowri, S; Dinakar, J

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  6. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts of the body; most commonly, the lungs, liver, bone, and/or brain. About 10% are stage IV. Stage V: Cancer is found in both kidneys at diagnosis (also called bilateral tumors). About 5% are stage V. Surgery is most often used to treat Wilms tumor. For stages I through IV, a ...

  7. Leydig cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - Leydig cell; Testicular tumor - Leydig; Testicular neoplasm ... The cause of this tumor is unknown. There are no known risk factors for this tumor. Unlike germ cell tumors of the testicles, this tumor ...

  8. Kallikrein 4 and matrix metalloproteinase-20 immunoexpression in malignant, benign and infiltrative odontogenic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; de Mesquita, Ricardo Alves; de Sousa, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado; Loyola, Adriano Motta

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20) (enamelysin) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4) are enzymes secreted by ameloblasts that play an important role in enamel matrix degradation during amelogenesis. However, studies have shown that neoplastic cells can produce such enzymes, which may affect the tumor infiltrative and metastatic behaviors. The aim of this study is to assess the biological role of MMP20 and KLK4 in odontogenic tumors. The enzymes were analyzed immunohistochemically in ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, keratocystic odontogenic tumor with or without recurrence and odontogenic carcinoma. Clinicopathological parameters were statistically correlated with protein expression using the Fisher's exact test. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon-independent methods were used to evaluate the differences in median values. Positive Immunoexpression was detected in all benign lesions, with a prevalence of 75-100% immunolabeled cells. Patients were predominantly young, Caucasian, female, with slow-growing tumors located in the mandible causing asymptomatic swelling. No KLK4 expression was seen in carcinomas, and the amount of MMP20-positive cells varied between 20% and 80%. Rapid evolution, recurrence and age >60 years characterized the malignant nature of these lesions. Data showed that KLK4 and MMP20 enzymes may not be crucial to tumoral infiltrative capacity, especially in malignant tumors, considering the diversity and peculiarity of these lesions. The significant immunoexpression in benign lesions, remarkably in AOT, is likely associated with differentiated tumor cells that can produce and degrade enamel matrix-like substances. This would be expected since the histogenesis of odontogenic tumors commonly comes from epithelium that recently performed a secretory activity in tooth formation.

  9. Growing Concerns With Workplace Incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Natasha Renee; Rogers, Bonnie

    2017-11-01

    Workplace incivility (WPI) is a growing issue across all public and private sectors. Occupational and environmental health nurses can educate employees and management about WPI, its risk factors and characteristics, and ways to reduce incidents of WPI.

  10. Mass spectrometry images acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelin in MDA-MB-231 breast tumor models[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Kamila; Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R.; Glunde, Kristine; Heeren, Ron M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The lipid compositions of different breast tumor microenvironments are largely unknown due to limitations in lipid imaging techniques. Imaging lipid distributions would enhance our understanding of processes occurring inside growing tumors, such as cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Recent developments in MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enable rapid and specific detection of lipids directly from thin tissue sections. In this study, we performed multimodal imaging of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines (PC), a lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and a sphingomyelin (SM) from different microenvironments of breast tumor xenograft models, which carried tdTomato red fluorescent protein as a hypoxia-response element-driven reporter gene. The MSI molecular lipid images revealed spatially heterogeneous lipid distributions within tumor tissue. Four of the most-abundant lipid species, namely PC(16:0/16:0), PC(16:0/18:1), PC(18:1/18:1), and PC(18:0/18:1), were localized in viable tumor regions, whereas LPC(16:0/0:0) was detected in necrotic tumor regions. We identified a heterogeneous distribution of palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, PC(16:0/22:1), and SM(d18:1/16:0) sodium adduct, which colocalized primarily with hypoxic tumor regions. For the first time, we have applied a multimodal imaging approach that has combined optical imaging and MALDI-MSI with ion mobility separation to spatially localize and structurally identify acylcarnitines and a variety of lipid species present in breast tumor xenograft models. PMID:22930811

  11. 5′-AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Supports the Growth of Aggressive Experimental Human Breast Cancer Tumors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderoute, Keith R.; Calaoagan, Joy M.; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [13C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. PMID:24993821

  12. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) supports the growth of aggressive experimental human breast cancer tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderoute, Keith R; Calaoagan, Joy M; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G

    2014-08-15

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [(13)C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Ma’ayeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient’s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  14. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ma'ayeh, Marwan

    2014-06-18

    This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient\\'s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  15. VRP immunotherapy targeting neu: treatment efficacy and evidence for immunoediting in a stringent rat mammary tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laust, Amanda K; Sur, Brandon W; Wang, Kehui; Hubby, Bolyn; Smith, Jonathan F; Nelson, Edward L

    2007-12-01

    The ability to overcome intrinsic tolerance to a strict "self" tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and successfully treat pre-existing tumor is the most stringent test for anti-tumor immunotherapeutic strategies. Although this capacity has been demonstrated in various models using complicated strategies that may not be readily translated into the clinical arena, straightforward antigen-specific immunotherapeutic strategies in the most stringent models of common epithelial cancers have largely failed to meet this standard. We employed an immunotherapeutic strategy using an alphavirus-based, virus-like replicon particle (VRP), which has in vivo tropism for dendritic cells, to elicit immune responses to the non-mutated TAA rat neu in an aggressive rat mammary tumor model. Using this VRP-based immunotherapeutic strategy targeting a single TAA, we generated effective anti-tumor immunity in the setting of pre-existing tumor resulting in the cure of 36% of rats over multiple experiments, P = 0.002. We also observed down-regulation of rat neu expression in tumors that showed initial responses followed by tumor escape with resumption of rapid tumor growth. These responses were accompanied by significant anti-tumor proliferative responses and CD8+ cellular tumor infiltrates, all of which were restricted to animals receiving the anti-neu immunotherapy. Together these data, obtained in a stringent "self" TAA model, indicate that the VRP-based antigen-specific immunotherapy elicits sufficiently potent immune responses to exert immunologic pressure, selection, and editing of the growing tumors, thus supporting the activity of this straightforward immunotherapy and suggesting that it is a promising platform upon which to build even more potent strategies.

  16. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  17. Statin and Bisphosphonate Induce Starvation in Fast-Growing Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Florian; Thaler, Roman; Spitzer, Silvia; Klaushofer, Klaus; Varga, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Statins and bisphosphonates are increasingly recognized as anti-cancer drugs, especially because of their cholesterol-lowering properties. However, these drugs act differently on various types of cancers. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of statins and bisphosphonates on the metabolism (NADP+/NADPH-relation) of highly proliferative tumor cell lines from different origins (PC-3 prostate carcinoma, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, U-2 OS osteosarcoma) versus cells with a slower proliferation rate like MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. Global gene expression analysis revealed that after 6 days of treatment with pharmacologic doses of the statin simvastatin and of the bisphosphonate ibandronate, simvastatin regulated more than twice as many genes as ibandronate, including many genes associated with cell cycle progression. Upregulation of starvation-markers and a reduction of metabolism and associated NADPH production, an increase in autophagy, and a concomitant downregulation of H3K27 methylation was most significant in the fast-growing cancer cell lines. This study provides possible explanations for clinical observations indicating a higher sensitivity of rapidly proliferating tumors to statins and bisphosphonates. PMID:28914765

  18. [Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor of the maxilla (Pindborg tumor)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Jäkel, K T; Friedrich, R E

    2004-02-01

    A male patient presented with an extraordinarily large calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT or Pindborg-tumor) that affected the maxilla. The disease became evident due to alterations in the facial aspect, in particular of the perioral region, caused by the expanding tumor. CEOT is characterised by the slowly growing mass of part of the jaws. Multilocular or extraosseous manifestations are extremely rare. Malignant transformation with metastases is rare. Radiography depicts characteristic, but not obligatory, areas of calcification inside the tumor. The surgical therapy for CEOT is complete local resection with safe margins. If tooth bearing parts of the jaws are affected, these teeth almost always have to be removed. The prognosis is excellent for overall survival. Local recurrences have rarely been reported but may be found even decades after primary treatment. Three years following surgical therapy there is no evidence of local recurrence. A long-term follow-up control is recommended.

  19. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reveal the vast diversity of genetic and epigenetic alterations that exist between brain tumors. This biological ... social workers, psychologists, and nurses. A supportive family environment is also helpful. Surgery GBM’s capacity to wildly ...

  20. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  1. Growing Patterns: Seeing beyond Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, mathematical patterns have been acknowledged as important early components of children's development of algebraic reasoning (NCTM 2000). In particular, growing patterns have attracted significant attention as a context that helps students develop an understanding of functional relationships (Lee and Freiman 2006; Moss et…

  2. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  3. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Mills, Anne M; Showalter, Shayna L

    2014-10-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare, fast-growing tumors that can be difficult to diagnose. A case study is featured about a young adult patient who lacked insurance and received a delayed diagnosis of malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast. This article includes pertinent clinical and age-specific considerations for comprehensive management.

  4. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  5. Monoclonal Antibody and an Antibody-Toxin Conjugate to a Cell Surface Proteoglycan of Melanoma Cells Suppress in vivo Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumol, T. F.; Wang, Q. C.; Reisfeld, R. A.; Kaplan, N. O.

    1983-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody directed against a cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of human melanoma cells, 9.2.27, and its diphtheria toxin A chain (DTA) conjugate were investigated for their effects on in vitro protein synthesis and in vivo tumor growth of human melanoma cells. The 9.2.27 IgG and its DTA conjugate display similar serological activities against melanoma target cells but only the conjugate can induce consistent in vitro inhibition of protein synthesis and toxicity in M21 melanoma cells. However, both 9.2.27 IgG and its DTA conjugate effect significant suppression of M21 tumor growth in vivo in an immunotherapy model of a rapidly growing tumor in athymic nu/nu mice, suggesting that other host mechanisms may mediate monoclonal antibody-induced tumor suppression.

  6. In Vitro Efficient Expansion of Tumor Cells Deriving from Different Types of Human Tumor Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Turin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining human tumor cell lines from fresh tumors is essential to advance our understanding of antitumor immune surveillance mechanisms and to develop new ex vivo strategies to generate an efficient anti-tumor response. The present study delineates a simple and rapid method for efficiently establishing primary cultures starting from tumor samples of different types, while maintaining the immuno-histochemical characteristics of the original tumor. We compared two different strategies to disaggregate tumor specimens. After short or long term in vitro expansion, cells analyzed for the presence of malignant cells demonstrated their neoplastic origin. Considering that tumor cells may be isolated in a closed system with high efficiency, we propose this methodology for the ex vivo expansion of tumor cells to be used to evaluate suitable new drugs or to generate tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes or vaccines.

  7. A case of collision tumor or transdifferentiation between malignant melanoma and leiomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jamshaid Ul-Mulk; Helle Rasmussen; Line Breiting; Elsebeth Siim

    2012-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was referred to the hospital due to a pigmented, asymptomatic nevus on her right arm that had changed in size and color. The histopathological examination showed a superficial spreading malignant melanoma, Clark level III, 2.26 mm in thickness. Two years later, the patient presented a 10 cm rapidly growing mass in her right axilla. The mass in the axilla measured 12.5 ΄ 9 ΄ cm. It revealed a lymph node metastases with a tumor growth composed of two different contiguous mor...

  8. A giant phyllodes tumor of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Schillebeeckx

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare, accounting for less than 1% of the breast tumors. They are mostly seen in women between 45 and 49 years old. These are fast growing tumors with a large spectrum of behavior (from benign to metastatic and can resemble fibroadenomas. Correct diagnosis mostly through core needle biopsy is important to decide whether a surgical excision has to be done. Here we report a case of a 57-year-old woman with a fast growing, ulcerated tumor in the left breast. Core needle biopsy suggested a malignant phyllodes tumor with heterologous liposarcomatous differentiation. Treatment with total mastectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy followed. Primary treatment is always surgery, whether radiotherapy or chemotherapy has to follow remains uncertain. There is a high-recurrence rate, especially when the surgical margins are narrow.

  9. Near infrared photoimmunotherapy rapidly elicits specific host immunity against cancer cells (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2017-02-01

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new molecularly-targeted cancer photo-therapy based on conjugating a near infrared silica-phthalocyanine dye, IR700, to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting cell-surface molecules. When exposed to NIR light, the conjugate induces a highly-selective necrotic/immunogenic cell death (ICD) only in target-positive, mAb-IR700-bound cancer cells. This cell death occurs as early as 1 minute after exposure to NIR light. Meanwhile, immediately adjacent target-negative cells are unharmed. Dynamic 3D-microscopy of live tumor cells undergoing NIR-PIT showed rapid swelling in treated cells immediately after light exposure, followed by irreversible morphologic changes such as bleb formation, and rupture of vesicles within several minutes. Furthermore, biological markers of ICD including relocation of HSP70/90 and calreticulin, and release of ATP and High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), were clearly detected immediately after NIR-PIT. When NIR-PIT was performed in a mixture of cancer cells and immature dendritic cells, maturation of immature dendritic cells was strongly induced rapidly after NIR-PIT. Alternatively, NIR-PIT can also target negative regulatory immune cells such as Treg only in the tumor bed. Treg targeting NIR-PIT against CD25 can deplete >80% of Treg in tumor bed within 20 min that induces activation of tumor cell-specific CD8+-T and NK cells within 1.5 hour, and then these activated cells killed cancer cells in local tumor within 1 day and also in distant tumors of the same cell origin within 2 days. In summary, cancer cell-targeting and immuno-suppressor cell-targeting NIR-PITs effectively induce innate and acquired immunity specifically against cancer cells growing in patients, respectively.

  10. Risk of borderline ovarian tumors among women with benign ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guleria, Sonia; Jensen, Allan; Kjær, Susanne K

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A growing number of studies suggest that some ovarian cancers can arise from benign and borderline ovarian tumors. However, studies on the association between benign and borderline ovarian tumors are lacking. We studied the overall- and histotype-specific risk of borderline ovarian...... tumors among women with a benign ovarian tumor. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study included all Danish women diagnosed with a benign ovarian tumor (n=139,466) during 1978-2012. The cohort was linked to the Danish Pathology Data Bank and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals...... (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Women with benign ovarian tumors had increased risks for subsequent borderline ovarian tumors (SIR 1.62, 95% CI 1.43-1.82), and this applied to both serous (SIR 1.69, 95% CI 1.39-2.03) and mucinous (SIR 1.75, 95% CI 1.45-2.10) histotypes of borderline ovarian tumors...

  11. Growing random networks with fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Ergun, G.; Rodgers, GJ

    2001-01-01

    Three models of growing random networks with fitness dependent growth rates are analysed using the rate equations for the distribution of their connectivities. In the first model (A), a network is built by connecting incoming nodes to nodes of connectivity $k$ and random additive fitness $\\eta$, with rate $(k-1)+ \\eta $. For $\\eta >0$ we find the connectivity distribution is power law with exponent $\\gamma=+2$. In the second model (B), the network is built by connecting nodes to nodes of conn...

  12. Neural-like growing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, Vitaliy A.

    2000-03-01

    On the basis of the analysis of scientific ideas reflecting the law in the structure and functioning the biological structures of a brain, and analysis and synthesis of knowledge, developed by various directions in Computer Science, also there were developed the bases of the theory of a new class neural-like growing networks, not having the analogue in world practice. In a base of neural-like growing networks the synthesis of knowledge developed by classical theories - semantic and neural of networks is. The first of them enable to form sense, as objects and connections between them in accordance with construction of the network. With thus each sense gets a separate a component of a network as top, connected to other tops. In common it quite corresponds to structure reflected in a brain, where each obvious concept is presented by certain structure and has designating symbol. Secondly, this network gets increased semantic clearness at the expense owing to formation not only connections between neural by elements, but also themselves of elements as such, i.e. here has a place not simply construction of a network by accommodation sense structures in environment neural of elements, and purely creation of most this environment, as of an equivalent of environment of memory. Thus neural-like growing networks are represented by the convenient apparatus for modeling of mechanisms of teleological thinking, as a fulfillment of certain psychophysiological of functions.

  13. Tumoral calcinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumoral calcinosis is an unusual clinical disorder in which large masses of calcium are deposited in the periarticular tissues of the body. The characteristic clinical, radiological and histopathological features of this disorder occurring in three middle aged female patients are reported.

  14. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Human Development (NICHD) National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) See all related organizations Publications Tumores de la glándula pituitaria Order NINDS Publications Definition The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  15. [Myopia, a growing health problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, J.W.; Polling, J.R.; Schans, A. van der; Verhoeven, V.J.; Klaver, C.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    - Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood, with a peak incidence between the ages of 13 to 15 years. - Especially high myopia, i.e. a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during

  16. Label-free electrochemical detection of human methyltransferase from tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Ariel L; Muren, Natalie B; Hill, Michael G; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2014-10-21

    The role of abnormal DNA methyltransferase activity in the development and progression of cancer is an essential and rapidly growing area of research, both for improved diagnosis and treatment. However, current technologies for the assessment of methyltransferase activity, particularly from crude tumor samples, limit this work because they rely on radioactivity or fluorescence and require bulky instrumentation. Here, we report an electrochemical platform that overcomes these limitations for the label-free detection of human DNA(cytosine-5)-methyltransferase1 (DNMT1) methyltransferase activity, enabling measurements from crude cultured colorectal cancer cell lysates (HCT116) and biopsied tumor tissues. Our multiplexed detection system involving patterning and detection from a secondary electrode array combines low-density DNA monolayer patterning and electrocatalytically amplified DNA charge transport chemistry to measure selectively and sensitively DNMT1 activity within these complex and congested cellular samples. Based on differences in DNMT1 activity measured with this assay, we distinguish colorectal tumor tissue from healthy adjacent tissue, illustrating the effectiveness of this two-electrode platform for clinical applications.

  17. Chylous Ascites in a Patient with Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Dietrich

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: We present the case of a 64-year-old patient who presented to his primary care physician with fatigue, worsening shortness of breath, abdominal discomfort and a rapidly growing abdominal girth, although he had lost 5 kg of weight within 3 months. He had a history of untreated hypertension, compensated renal insufficiency and COPD. Despite weight loss and fatigue, the patient did not experience any other constitutional symptoms such as fever, night sweats or loss of appetite. Investigations: Physical examination, blood tests, CT scan of the abdomen, MRI scan of the abdomen, fine needle biopsy, excisional biopsy, Video Capsule Endoscopy, histology, PET scan. Diagnosis: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, chylous ascites, chyloperitoneum. Management: Systemic chemotherapy, total parenteral nutrition and octreotide therapy. Conclusion: We describe the case of a patient in whom two extremely rare phenomena are present in combination: the diagnosis of an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and chylous ascites. While the tumor could be stabilized by different regimens of chemotherapy, the chyloperitoneum was treated with parenteral nutrition and subcutaneous octreotide injections, which resulted in a significant reduction of the amount of chylous ascites drained during regular paracentesis.

  18. [Neonatal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carla; Rocha, Gustavo; Grilo, Marta; Bianchi, Ricardo; Sotto Mayor, Tânia; Monteiro, Joaquim; Guimarães, Hercília

    2010-01-01

    Tumors affecting the fetus and newborn differ from those found in older children and adults, leading to new diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. To evaluate the main clinical aspects related to neonatal tumors. Retrospective analysis of clinical data from newborn patients admitted to the Service of Neonatology of São João Hospital between 1996 and 2006, with the diagnosis of tumor or neoplasia. Total = 32 cases, 16M/16F, birth weight: 3146 g (965-4590), gestational age 38 weeks (28-41), seven (22%) preterm, C-section rate 75% (n = 24), two with EXIT procedure. Teratoma (n = 8); lymphangioma (n = 7), neuroblastoma (n = 6), haemangioma (n = 5), other solid tumors (n = 6); acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 1). Prenatal diagnosis 50% (n = 16). Teratoma: immature (n = 3); mature (n = 5), sacrococcygeal location (n = 5); cervical (n = 3); total macroscopic resection (n = 8). Cystic lymphangioma: cervical location (n = 5); cervicothoracic location (n = 1); thoracoabdominal location (n = 1); total macroscopic resection (n = 7). NEUROBLASTOMA: abdominal location (n = 5); cervical location (n = 1); deletion 1p (n = 0); oncogene n-myc amplification (n = 0); stage I (n = 1); IIB (n = 1); III (n = 3); IV (n = 1). Chemotherapy (n = 5), according to the (n = 2), surgical resection (n = 4). Four patients remain without disease and two present with residual disease. OTHER SOLID TUMORS: Large haemangiomas (n = 5); scaly papiloma (n = 1); juvenile xanthogranuloma (n = 1); lipoblastoma (n = 1); nephroma (n = 1); nonclassified neoplasm, possible nervous sheath sarcoma (n = 1). All patients showed a good clinical evolution. Acute lymphoblast leukemia (n = 1), deceased. Pre-natal diagnosis allows the planning of a careful multidisciplinary approach. In these rare entities it is crucial to pursue international collaboration, ideally workgroup committees, aiming for better clinical knowledge and an improved prognosis.

  19. Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusalem, Osama Turki; Al-Masri, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    resection margin without stromal overgrowth. Conclusion: Rapid growth of phyllodes tumor does not necessarily imply malignancy. In our series, clinical tumor’s size was not the significant factor for recurrence. Local recurrence occur in patients who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, and it is highly significant when there is stromal over growth (P value tumor. PMID:26664294

  20. Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  1. Extra-Gastrointestinal retroperitoneal giant stromal tumor complicated with intra-tumoral hemorrhage: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciu B.A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are an uncommon sarcomas with mesenchymal origin that arises in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, most of the published reports describe such tumors located outside of the gastrointestinal tract, with similar pathological characteristics and are named extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We report the case of a patient suffering for a giant retroperitoneal extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor, complicated with intra-tumoral hemorrhage. The particularity of this case is the presence of the intra-tumoral hemorrhage in a retroperitoneal extragastrointestinal stromal tumor that grew rapidly in volume (in 1 week.

  2. A Rare Case of Breast Malignant Phyllodes Tumor With Metastases to the Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarek-Borowska, Bożenna; Bukala, Agnieszka; Syrek-Kaplita, Karolina; Ksiazek, Mariusz; Filipowska, Justyna; Gradalska-Lampart, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phyllodes tumors are rare breast neoplasms. Surgery is the treatment of choice. The role of postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still under dispute, as there are no equivocal prognostic factors. Treatment failure results in the occurrence of distant metastasis—mainly to the lungs, bones, liver, and brain. We have described the case of a woman with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast that was surgically treated. She did not receive adjuvant therapy because there is no consensus on the role of postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. One year following the surgery, the patient had left-sided nephrectomy performed because of a rapidly growing tumor of the kidney. Renal cancer was suspected; however, a histopathological examination revealed that it was a metastatic phyllodes tumor. At the same time, the patient was diagnosed as having metastases in the other kidney, the lungs, liver, and bones. Our case report describes not only an unusual localization of the metastases (in the kidneys), but also failure of the chemotherapy and the aggressive course of malignant phyllodes tumor. Identification of patients with high risk for distant metastasis and the introduction of uniform rules for the management of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy would make planning treatment as efficacious as possible. PMID:26287414

  3. A Rare Case of Breast Malignant Phyllodes Tumor With Metastases to the Kidney: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarek-Borowska, Bożenna; Bukala, Agnieszka; Syrek-Kaplita, Karolina; Ksiazek, Mariusz; Filipowska, Justyna; Gradalska-Lampart, Monika

    2015-08-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast neoplasms. Surgery is the treatment of choice. The role of postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still under dispute, as there are no equivocal prognostic factors. Treatment failure results in the occurrence of distant metastasis-mainly to the lungs, bones, liver, and brain. We have described the case of a woman with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast that was surgically treated. She did not receive adjuvant therapy because there is no consensus on the role of postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. One year following the surgery, the patient had left-sided nephrectomy performed because of a rapidly growing tumor of the kidney. Renal cancer was suspected; however, a histopathological examination revealed that it was a metastatic phyllodes tumor. At the same time, the patient was diagnosed as having metastases in the other kidney, the lungs, liver, and bones.Our case report describes not only an unusual localization of the metastases (in the kidneys), but also failure of the chemotherapy and the aggressive course of malignant phyllodes tumor. Identification of patients with high risk for distant metastasis and the introduction of uniform rules for the management of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy would make planning treatment as efficacious as possible.

  4. A case of extensive skull base tumor (ameloblastoma); Przypadek rozleglego guza podstawy czaszki (ameloblastoma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukwa, A.; Krajewski, R.; Sujkowska, U. [Klinika Otolaryngologiczna, Oddzial Stomatologii, Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The authors present a case of ameloblastoma originating from rt. maxilla and extensively invading skull base. First symptoms appeared 10 years earlier and 8 years before present hospitalization the tumor was removed from maxilla. Pathology showed malignant ameloblastoma. The patient presented with giant tumor occupying whole maxilla, growing into nasal cavity and nasopharynx, invading sphenoid bone, medial parts of pyramids and reaching foramen magnum posteriorly, causing difficulties in swallowing and obstruction of the upper airway. Reoperation using lateral rhinotomy approach was undertaken and the tumor was grossly totally removed from maxillary region and subtotally from the skull base. After four months there was huge recurrence in area of the mandible, peripharyngeal space and subtemporal fossa. The tumor was again removed. Pathology showed polycystic ameloblastoma in specimens from both reoperations. After another 4 months the patient developed signs of upper cervical spinal cord compression and died. In spite of benign histological appearance the extent of tumor infiltration and rapid recurrence after reoperation caused unsatisfactory outcome. (author)

  5. Tumor-induced tolerance and immune suppression depend on the C/EBPbeta transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo, Ilaria; Bosio, Erika; Solito, Samantha; Mesa, Circe; Fernandez, Audry; Dolcetti, Luigi; Ugel, Stefano; Sonda, Nada; Bicciato, Silvio; Falisi, Erika; Calabrese, Fiorella; Basso, Giuseppe; Zanovello, Paola; Cozzi, Emanuele; Mandruzzato, Susanna; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2010-06-25

    Tumor growth is associated with a profound alteration in myelopoiesis, leading to recruitment of immunosuppressive cells known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). We showed that among factors produced by various experimental tumors, the cytokines GM-CSF, G-CSF, and IL-6 allowed a rapid generation of MDSCs from precursors present in mouse and human bone marrow (BM). BM-MDSCs induced by GM-CSF+IL-6 possessed the highest tolerogenic activity, as revealed by the ability to impair the priming of CD8(+) T cells and allow long term acceptance of pancreatic islet allografts. Cytokines inducing MDSCs acted on a common molecular pathway and the immunoregulatory activity of both tumor-induced and BM-derived MDSCs was entirely dependent on the C/EBPbeta transcription factor. Adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes resulted in therapy of established tumors only in mice lacking C/EBPbeta in the myeloid compartment, suggesting that C/EBPbeta is a critical regulator of the immunosuppressive environment created by growing cancers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tumor thrombus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravina, Mudalsha; Hess, Søren; Chauhan, Mahesh Singh

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Thrombosis in cancer may manifest itself as venous thromboembolic disease or tumor thrombosis (TT). We present our experience with incidentally detected TT on FDG PET/CT in 21 oncologic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all FDG PET/CT examinations during a 5-year......-one patients were included; the most common malignancies were renal cell carcinoma (n=6), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=3), and lung cancer (n=3). Indication for the scan was initial staging (n=15) and suspected recurrence (n=6). Several vessels were affected, the most common was the inferior vena cava (n=14......), but most other major branches of the venous vasculature was represented, and some patients had thrombi in several vessels. FDG uptake was linear in 7 patients, linear with a dilated vessel in 6 patients, and focal in 7 patients. The mean SUVmax of the primary tumors was 10.3 (range, 2.6-31.2; median, 6...

  7. [Chalazion mimicking an eyelid tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hermies, F; Fayet, B; Meyer, A; Morel, X; Halhal, M; Elmaleh, C; Azan, F; Behar-Cohen, F; Renard, G

    2004-02-01

    A 3-year-old girl had a tumor growing for a month on the superior right eyelid, attached on the free margin of the eyelid and partially necrotic. A surgical excision was performed under general anesthesia. The histopathological study found an inflammatory lesion with epithelioid and giant cells, evidence of a granuloma, suggesting the diagnosis of chalazion. This case shows the various clinical presentations of this common and benign disease of the eyelid.

  8. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  9. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  10. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  11. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Benign Liver Tumors Back A tumor is an abnormal growth ... health risk. Frequently Asked Questions How are benign liver tumors detected? In most cases, benign liver tumors ...

  12. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  13. Brain tumor (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  14. Transport of Nutrients Determines Growth in Tissue Culture; Why apple shoots grow rapidly and tulip shoots grow slowly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tulip growth in vitro is seriously impaired by inferior transport in the shoots. As a result, tulip cannot be micropropagated commercially using conventional means. In contrast, apple shoots show high transport and are easily micropropagated.

  15. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  16. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  17. Growing Vertical in the Flatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua A

    2016-01-26

    The world of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures continues to expand at a rate much greater than anyone could have predicted 10 years ago, but if we are to make the leap from science to technology, many materials challenges must still be overcome. Recent advances, such as those by Liu et al. in this issue of ACS Nano, demonstrate that it is possible to grow rotationally commensurate 2D heterostructures, which could pave the way toward single crystal van der Waals solids. In this Perspective, I provide some insight into a few of the challenges associated with growth of heterostructures, and discuss some of the recent works that help us better understand synthetic realization of 2D heterostructures.

  18. Viking Disruptions or Growing Integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper...... demonstrates how formal network analysis can be combined with a contextual reading of evidence relating to a long-distance communication network in the past. A study of the combined distributions of ten vessel types in 152 settlement sites from the 10th century suggests the outline of the core structure...... of the network. The model implies that 10th century long-distance exchange in the North Sea region featured long-distance links equal to those of the Carolingian emporia trade, and represented a growth in terms of new axes of integration, above all the growing links between the Scandinavian Peninsula...

  19. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  20. Morphogenesis of Growing Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, Julien; Ben Amar, Martine

    2008-08-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to a noteworthy property of some soft tissues: their ability to grow. Many attempts have been made to model this behavior in biology, chemistry, and physics. Using the theory of finite elasticity, Rodriguez has postulated a multiplicative decomposition of the geometric deformation gradient into a growth-induced part and an elastic one needed to ensure compatibility of the body. In order to fully explore the consequences of this hypothesis, the equations describing thin elastic objects under finite growth are derived. Under appropriate scaling assumptions for the growth rates, the proposed model is of the Föppl von Kármán type. As an illustration, the circumferential growth of a free hyperelastic disk is studied.

  1. Impact of growing income inequality on sustainable development in China: a provincial-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.B.M.; Ma, J.

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of literature has documented the rapidly increasing income disparities that accompanied China's economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s, and the driving factors behind this. Growing income inequality in its turn may have important implications for the accumulation of physical capital,

  2. Front instabilities and invasiveness of simulated 3D avascular tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodem J Poplawski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We use the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model to simulate three-dimensional (3D, single-phenotype, avascular tumors growing in an homogeneous tissue matrix (TM supplying a single limiting nutrient. We study the effects of two parameters on tumor morphology: a diffusion-limitation parameter defined as the ratio of the tumor-substrate consumption rate to the substrate-transport rate, and the tumor-TM surface tension. This initial model omits necrosis and oxidative/hypoxic metabolism effects, which can further influence tumor morphology, but our simplified model still shows significant parameter dependencies. The diffusion-limitation parameter determines whether the growing solid tumor develops a smooth (noninvasive or fingered (invasive interface, as in our earlier two-dimensional (2D simulations. The sensitivity of 3D tumor morphology to tumor-TM surface tension increases with the size of the diffusion-limitation parameter, as in 2D. The 3D results are unexpectedly close to those in 2D. Our results therefore may justify using simpler 2D simulations of tumor growth, instead of more realistic but more computationally expensive 3D simulations. While geometrical artifacts mean that 2D sections of connected 3D tumors may be disconnected, the morphologies of 3D simulated tumors nevertheless correlate with the morphologies of their 2D sections, especially for low-surface-tension tumors, allowing the use of 2D sections to partially reconstruct medically-important 3D-tumor structures.

  3. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor:A Rare Abdominal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta Shaheen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare abdominal tumors which arise from the interstitial cells of Cajal in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric GISTs are the most commonly seen GIST tumors and may grow to a very large size. They are often associated with abdominal pain, anorexia and weight loss. Most of them can be detected by CT. These tumors have been found to harbor mutations in CD117 which causes constitutional activation of the tyrosine kinase signaling pathway and is considered to be pathognomic. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib have revolutionized the treatment of these tumors, which are otherwise resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Although surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment, tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been useful in prolonging the recurrence-free survival of these patients. Resistance to imatinib has been reported in GISTs with specific mutations. We present a case of gastric GIST which grew to a very large size and was associated with abdominal pain and weight loss. It was successfully resected and the patient was commenced on imatinib therapy.

  4. [Myopia, a growing health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tideman, J W L; Polling, J R; van der Schans, A; Verhoeven, V J M; Klaver, C C W

    2016-01-01

    - Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood, with a peak incidence between the ages of 13 to 15 years. - Especially high myopia, i.e. a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during adulthood due to structural abnormalities of the retina and optic nerve.- The cause of myopia is complex. Lifestyle factors in childhood, such as limited time spent outdoors and close work - such as reading and smartphone usage - are risk factors. Furthermore, genetic studies have revealed more than 100 factors associated with the development of myopia. - Pharmacological and optical interventions to inhibit myopia progression are increasingly applied. The use of atropine eye drops in children and has shown to be an effective treatment.

  5. Marine Natural Products as Inhibitors of Hypoxic Signaling in Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Dale G; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2009-06-01

    Marine natural products have become a major source of new chemical entities in the discovery of potential anticancer agents that potently suppress various antitumor molecular targets. As a consequence of insufficient vascularization, hypoxic regions form within rapidly growing solid tumor masses. Specific alterations of gene expression in these hypoxic tumor cells help facilitate the survival and metastatic spread of solid tumors. The transcriptional response to cellular hypoxia is primarily mediated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) that regulates the expression of more than 100 genes involved in cellular adaptation and survival under hypoxic stress. Clinical studies in cancer patients indicate that HIF-1 activation is directly correlated with advanced disease stages and treatment resistance. HIF-1 has emerged as an important tumor-selective molecular target for anticancer drug discovery. As a result, natural product-based inhibitors of HIF-1 activation have been identified from plants and microorganisms. Recently, structurally unique natural products from marine sponges, crinoids, and algae have been identified as HIF-1 activation inhibitors. The US National Cancer Institute's Open Repository of marine invertebrate and algae extracts has proven to be a valuable source of natural product HIF-1 inhibitors. Among the active compounds identified, certain marine natural products have also been shown to suppress the hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Some of these marine HIF-1 inhibitors act by interfering with the generation of mitochondrial signaling molecules in hypoxic cells. However, the precise mechanisms of action for many newly identified marine natural product HIF-1 inhibitors remain unresolved.

  6. Infection Dynamics on Growing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Cheng; Liu, Zonghua; Ye, Nong

    We consider the entire spectrum of architectures for large, growing, and complex networks, ranging from being heterogeneous (scale-free) to homogeneous (random or small-world), and investigate the infection dynamics by using a realistic three-state epidemiological model. In this framework, a node can be in one of the three states: susceptible (S), infected (I), or refractory (R), and the populations in the three groups are approximately described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. Our heuristic analysis predicts that, (1) regardless of the network architecture, there exists a substantial fraction of nodes that can never be infected, and (2) heterogeneous networks are relatively more robust against spread of infection as compared with homogeneous networks. These are confirmed numerically. We have also considered the problem of deliberate immunization for preventing wide spread of infection, with the result that targeted immunization can be quite effective for heterogeneous networks. We believe these results are important for a host of problems in many areas of natural science and engineering, and in social sciences as well.

  7. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  8. Case grows for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hileman, B.

    1999-08-09

    In the four years since the IPCC stated that 'the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate', evidence for anomalous warming has become more compelling, and as a result scientists have become more concerned that human-induced climate change has already arrived. The article summarises recent extra evidence on global temperatures, carbon dioxide measurements, ice shelf breakup, coral bleaching, unstable climates and improved climate models. At the time of the Kyoto conference, the US became keen on the idea that enhancing forest and soil carbon sequestration was a good way to offset emissions reduction targets. Congress is however under the opinion on that the Kyoto protocol presents a threat to the US economy, and senate is very unlikely to ratify the protocol during the Clinton Administration. The debate as to whether the US government should mandate major emission reduction or wait for more scientific certainty may continue for a number of years, but, growing concern of scientists and the public for the harmful effects of climate change may cause a change. 4 figs., 8 photos.

  9. Growing and evolving soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed.

  10. [Growing old differently: Transdisciplinary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, H-P

    2015-04-01

    Growing old differently: the phrase is intended to call something other to mind than merely the fact that images and forms of old age and aging have multiplied and diversified to an enormous extent. The suggestion put forward here is that otherness (as opposed to mere differences) should be positively reinforced. In other words, it is not just a matter of noting different forms of old age and aging but more than this, of seeking out opportunities for aging differently. In order to explore this, the article follows an older strand of theory, which has recently come to be frequently quoted in gerontology: the phenomenology of difference as reasoned analytically by Lévinas and Sartre and applied to gerontology by Améry and de Beauvoir. Here, opportunities for aging crucially depend on the way we look at it, how we observe and describe it and not least, how gerontology frames it. A distinction is made between two perspectives and their associated consequences for old age: alienation and alterity. Alienation means looking at old age above all as a disconcerting "other", as a perplexing, problematic deviation from the norm of vitality. Alterity, by contrast, refers to different options for living life in old age: options to be explored and opened up in contradistinction to cultural or academic alienation. Not least, the article appeals for diversity in scholarly approaches and for cross-disciplinary perspectives.

  11. Tumor Stiffening, a Key Determinant of Tumor Progression, is Reversed by Nanomaterial-Induced Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Iris; Silva, Amanda A K; Guilbert, Thomas; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Marchiol, Carmen; Natkhunarajah, Sharuja; Chamming's, Foucault; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Bianco, Alberto; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Renault, Gilles; Gazeau, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Tumor stiffening, stemming from aberrant production and organization of extracellular matrix (ECM), has been considered a predictive marker of tumor malignancy, non-invasively assessed by ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE). Being more than a passive marker, tumor stiffening restricts the delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to the tumor and per se could modulate cellular mechano-signaling, tissue inflammation and tumor progression. Current strategies to modify the tumor extracellular matrix are based on ECM-targeting chemical agents but also showed deleterious systemic effects. On-demand excitable nanomaterials have shown their ability to perturb the tumor microenvironment in a spatiotemporal-controlled manner and synergistically with chemotherapy. Here, we investigated the evolution of tumor stiffness as well as tumor integrity and progression, under the effect of mild hyperthermia and thermal ablation generated by light-exposed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in an epidermoid carcinoma mouse xenograft. SWE was used for real-time mapping of the tumor stiffness, both during the two near infrared irradiation sessions and over the days after the treatment. We observed a transient and reversible stiffening of the tumor tissue during laser irradiation, which was lowered at the second session of mild hyperthermia or photoablation. In contrast, over the days following photothermal treatment, the treated tumors exhibited a significant softening together with volume reduction, whereas non-treated growing tumors showed an increase of tumor rigidity. The organization of the collagen matrix and the distribution of CNTs revealed a spatio-temporal correlation between the presence of nanoheaters and the damages on collagen and cells. This study highlights nanohyperthermia as a promising adjuvant strategy to reverse tumor stiffening and normalize the mechanical tumor environment.

  12. Genetics of Adrenocortical Development and Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya

    2017-06-01

    This article links the understanding of developmental physiology of the adrenal cortex to adrenocortical tumor formation. Many molecular mechanisms that lead to formation of adrenocortical tumors have been discovered via next-generation sequencing approaches. The most frequently mutated genes in adrenocortical tumors are also factors in normal adrenal development and homeostasis, including those that alter the p53 and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. In addition, dysregulated protein kinase A signaling and ARMC5 mutations have been identified as key mediators of adrenocortical tumorigenesis. The growing understanding of genetic changes that orchestrate adrenocortical development and disease pave the way for potential targeted treatment strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  14. On the mechanics of thin films and growing surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Holland, M. A.

    2013-05-24

    Many living structures are coated by thin films, which have distinct mechanical properties from the bulk. In particular, these thin layers may grow faster or slower than the inner core. Differential growth creates a balanced interplay between tension and compression and plays a critical role in enhancing structural rigidity. Typical examples with a compressive outer surface and a tensile inner core are the petioles of celery, caladium, or rhubarb. While plant physiologists have studied the impact of tissue tension on plant rigidity for more than a century, the fundamental theory of growing surfaces remains poorly understood. Here, we establish a theoretical and computational framework for continua with growing surfaces and demonstrate its application to classical phenomena in plant growth. To allow the surface to grow independently of the bulk, we equip it with its own potential energy and its own surface stress. We derive the governing equations for growing surfaces of zero thickness and obtain their spatial discretization using the finite-element method. To illustrate the features of our new surface growth model we simulate the effects of growth-induced longitudinal tissue tension in a stalk of rhubarb. Our results demonstrate that different growth rates create a mechanical environment of axial tissue tension and residual stress, which can be released by peeling off the outer layer. Our novel framework for continua with growing surfaces has immediate biomedical applications beyond these classical model problems in botany: it can be easily extended to model and predict surface growth in asthma, gastritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, brain development, and tumor invasion. Beyond biology and medicine, surface growth models are valuable tools for material scientists when designing functionalized surfaces with distinct user-defined properties. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Bariatric amputee: A growing problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Jai; Hannett, Dominic P; Purcell, Steven

    2015-06-01

    This study reviewed prevalence of patients with lower limb amputations with above normal weight profile, with body mass index over 25, in seven disablement services centres managing their amputee rehabilitation in the United Kingdom. To review two clinical standards of practice in amputee rehabilitation. Ambulant lower limb amputees should have their body weight recorded on an electronic information system, with identification of cohort with body weight >100 kg. Lower limb amputees to be provided with suitable weight-rated prosthesis. Observational study of clinical practice. Data were collected from the Clinical Information Management Systems. Inclusion criteria--subjects were ambulant prosthetic users with some prosthetic intervention in the last 5 years and had at least one lower limb amputation. In 96% of patients, the weight record profile was maintained. In addition, 86% were under 100 kg, which is the most common weight limit of prosthetic componentry. Of 15,204 amputation levels, there were 1830 transfemoral and transtibial sites in users with body weight over 100 kg. In 60 cases, the prosthetic limb build was rated to be below the user body weight. In 96% of our patients, body weight was documented, and in 97%, the prosthetic limb builds were within stated body weight limits, but this may not be the case in all the other disablement services centres in the United Kingdom. Also, the incidence of obesity in the United Kingdom is a growing problem, and the health issues associated with obesity are further compounded in the amputee population. Prosthetic componentry has distinct weight limits which must be considered during prescription. As people with amputation approach the limits of specific components, clinicians are faced with the challenge of continued provision in a safe and suitable manner. This article reviews the amputee population and the current national profile to consider trends in provision and the incidence of these challenges. © The

  16. Biopsy in Musculoskeletal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharehdaghi

    2014-09-01

    other anatomic structures? (4 Carcinomas are homogeneous, and a simple CNB is usually sufficient for diagnosis, but in soft tissue sarcomas, the periphery of the tumor is the growing part and usually represents the authentic underlying malignancy. The center of the tumor may be hemorrhagic or necrotic, thus taking biopsy from this part may distract from the correct diagnosis.Extraosseus part of a bone sarcoma is as representative as bony component of the tumor. Violating the bone and weakening the cortex may predispose it to pathologic fracture, so biopsy of an extraosseus part is sufficient for the diagnosis if present (3. The biopsy tract “open or CNB” is contaminated by tumor cells and should be widely excised if a wide excision or amputation is performed. For this reason, excision of the biopsy incision or needle entrance should be planned along with the definitive tumor excision to prevent complications and the need for altering the treatment strategy (Figure A, B, C. Open incisional biopsy provides sufficient material for microscopic diagnosis as well as immune- histochemical, cytogenetic, or electron microscopic studies. It has some disadvantages such as wound healing problems, infection, tumor cell contamination, and nerve and vessel injuries (1. For open biopsies, the incision should be as small as necessary and longitudinal. Transverse incisions are not advisable. To perform an intraosseus biopsy, the window should be circular or oblong, and as small as needed to prevent a pathologic fracture. Closing this window by PMMA prevents tumor cell contamination. Compressing the PMMA exceeds the chance of metastasis. As a rule, culture what you biopsy and biopsy what you culture. Use of a tourniquet without exsanguinations helps better visualization and meticulous hemostasis which prevents spreading of the tumor cells in hematoma. Importantly, it should be deflated before closing the wound (3. The port of entry of drains, if necessary, must be in line and

  17. Cholecystokinin expression in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2016-01-01

    in different neuroendocrine tumors; cerebral gliomas and astrocytomas and specific pediatric tumors. Tumor hypersecretion of CCK was recently reported in a patient with a metastatic islet cell tumor and hypercholecystokininemia resulting in a novel tumor syndrome, the cholecystokininoma syndrome. This review...

  18. The Calcifying Epithelial Odonogenic Tumor : Report of a Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hosaka Mitsuo [Dental Research Institute, School of Dentisty, Nippon Dental university, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-15

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm which was first described by Pindborg in 1955 and accounts for less than 1% of all odontogenic tumors. The tumor occurs primarily in the molar-premolar region of the mandible, and 52% of cases are associated with an unerupted tooth. The clinical feature is most commonly a slow-growing painless swelling. The tumor may show considerable radiographic variation and usually characteristic histopathologic features. In this study, we report a case of the calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor on the left mandibular body and ramus area in a 28-year-old male with a brief review of the concerned literatures.

  19. In vivo photolabeling of tumor-infiltrating cells reveals highly regulated egress of T-cell subsets from tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcellan, Tommaso; Hampton, Henry R; Bailey, Jacqueline; Tomura, Michio; Brink, Robert; Chtanova, Tatyana

    2017-05-30

    Immune therapy is rapidly gaining prominence in the clinic as a major weapon against cancer. Whereas much attention has been focused on the infiltration of tumors by immune cells, the subsequent fate of these infiltrates remains largely unexplored. We therefore established a photoconversion-based model that allowed us to label tumor-infiltrating immune cells and follow their migration. Using this system, we identified a population of tumor-experienced cells that emigrate from primary tumors to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatic vessels. Although the majority of tumor-infiltrating cells were myeloid, T cells made up the largest population of tumor-egressing leukocytes. Strikingly, the subset composition of tumor-egressing T cells was greatly skewed compared with those that had infiltrated the tumor and those resident in the draining lymph node. Some T-cell subsets such as CD8 + T cells emigrated more readily; others including CD4 - CD8 - T cells were preferentially retained, suggesting that specific mechanisms guide immune cell egress from tumors. Furthermore, tumor-egressing T cells were more activated and displayed enhanced effector function in comparison with their lymph node counterparts. Finally, we demonstrated that tumor-infiltrating T cells migrate to distant secondary tumors and draining lymph nodes, highlighting a mechanism whereby tumor-experienced effector T cells may mediate antitumor immunity at metastatic sites. Thus, our results provide insights into migration and function of tumor-infiltrating immune cells and the role of these cells in tumor immunity outside of primary tumor deposits.

  20. [Using GFP retrovirus to label tumor cells and vascular endothelia cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, K; Xu, P; Gu, Q; Liu, W; Wang, F; Tian, Y; Chen, X; Li, C; Huang, Q

    2001-02-20

    To prepare retrovirus which carry GFP gene and are able to label living cells simply and rapidly. The recombinant retroviral vector pLNCX-GFP was constructed by inserting 780?bp GFP cDNA fragment into the MCS site of retroviral plasmid pLNCX. Both ecotropic packaging cell line ΦX-Eco and amphotropic packaging cell line ΦX-Ampho and PA317 were transfected by pLNCX-GFP with liposome. The supernate collected from transfected packaging cells was used to infect a variety of tumor cell lines and vascular endothelia cell lines. When packaging cells were transfected by retroviral vector pLNCX-GFP, the GFP expression could be observed in 25%-40% of cells and GFP retrovirus then could be detected, however G418 resistant clones showed more stable GFP expression and higher retrovirus titer. The GFP retrovirus from different packaging cell line showed variant ability to infect tumor cell lines and vascular endothelia cell lines and the tumor cells infected by GFP retrovirus showed stable GFP expression in vitro. GFP transduced tumor cells could grow in syngenic animal and continue expressing GFP. Using GFP retrovirus to label target cells represent an important advantage over conventional plasmid because they can efficiently transfer GFP gene into target cells and GFP can be stably expressed in target cells no matter in vitro or in vivo.

  1. Incidentally Discovered Extensive Squamous Metaplasia within Borderline Phyllodes Tumor: Presentation of a Rare Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğraş, Nesrin; Tolunay, Şahsine; Öz Atalay, Fatma; Gökgöz, Şehsuvar

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are uncommon biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms of breast, comprising less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. We therefore aimed to present the case with its microscopic findings. In this article, we report a 59-year-old female admitted to the general surgery department with a rapidly, enlarging, palpable mass in right breast. After histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as borderline phyllodes tumor with extensive squamous metaplasia. Metaplastic changes are infrequent in the stromal and epithelial component of these tumors. Extensive squamous metaplasia within phyllodes tumor is rare and may occur in benign, borderline and malign subtypes.

  2. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpna Gupta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm3 grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve

  3. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagan, Jonathan, E-mail: jdpagan@uams.edu; Przybyla, Beata; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Gupta, Kalpna [Vascular Biology Center and Division of Hematology-Oncology Transplantation, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MN 72223 (United States); Griffin, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC) were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm{sup 3}) grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve the

  4. Dynamical analysis of fractional order model of immunogenic tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Arshad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we examine the fractional order model of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to a growing tumor cell population. We investigate the long-term behavior of tumor growth and explore the conditions of tumor elimination analytically. We establish the conditions for the tumor-free equilibrium and tumor-infection equilibrium to be asymptotically stable and provide the expression of the basic reproduction number. Existence of physical significant tumor-infection equilibrium points is investigated analytically. We show that tumor growth rate, source rate of immune cells, and death rate of immune cells play vital role in tumor dynamics and system undergoes saddle-node and transcritical bifurcation based on these parameters. Furthermore, the effect of cancer treatment is discussed by varying the values of relevant parameters. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the analytical results.

  5. [Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szporek, Bozena J; Cieślik, Tadeusz; Jedrzejewski, Piotr W; Lipiarz, Ludwik Z

    2005-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm which was first described by Pindborg in 1955 representing only 1% of all odontogenic tumors. The tumor has an ectodermal odontogenic origin. This tumor are considered benign but can be locally aggressive in nature with recurrence rates of 10-15% reported. Surgical treatment varies from simply enucleation to partial resection of the affected bone. Since 1973 three cases only of the Pinborg tumor have been presented in the Polish literature. We described the case of a 44-year-old man with Pindborg tumor in the right maxilla. Standard x-ray examinations and CT scan were performed in order to obtain information about tumor's localization. Autors discuss the radiologic features of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor and treatment method and the relevant literature.

  6. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  7. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Needs a Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  8. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  9. Hand and Wrist Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Tumors and Wrist Tumors Email to a friend * ... are seen commonly. CAUSES Common Types of Wrist Hand Tumors Ganglion Cysts (Figure 1): This is the ...

  10. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Newly Diagnosed Neurological Exam ...

  11. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Headaches Seizures Memory Depression Mood ...

  12. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  13. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  14. DCB - Tumor Metastasis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor metastasis research examines the mechanisms that allow cancer cells to leave the primary tumor and spread to another part of the body. Learn about recent tumor metastasis research studies supported by the Division of Cancer Biology.

  15. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  16. Tumor hypoxia - A confounding or exploitable factor in interstitial brachytherapy? Effects of tissue trauma in an experimental rat tumor model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, AP; van Geel, CAJF; van Hooije, CMC; van der Kleij, AJ; Visser, AG

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential effects of tumor hypoxia induced by afterloading catheter implantation on the effectiveness of brachytherapy in a rat tumor model. Methods and Materials: Afterloading catheters (4) Here implanted in subcutaneously growing R1M rhabdomyosarcoma in female Wag/Rij

  17. Giant pindborg tumor (calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor): an unusual case report with radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Satya Ranjan; Lenka, Sthitaprajna; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Mishra, Sobhan

    2013-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors develop in the jaws from odontogenic tissues such as enamel organ, Hertwig epithelial root sheath, dental lamina, and so on. A variety of tumors unique to the maxilla and mandible are therefore seen. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare, aggressive, benign odontogenic tumor of epithelial origin accounting for only about 1% of all odontogenic tumors. It is eponymously called "Pindborg tumor", as it was first described by Pindborg in 1955. The origin of this locally invasive tumor remains unknown. It is thought to arise from stratum intermedium. It commonly affects the posterior mandible manifesting as a slow-growing asymptomatic swelling often associated with an impacted tooth. We report a case of CEOT, for which, owing to its huge size we have proposed the term "giant" Pindborg tumor (CEOT). This is probably the largest case of this tumor reported so far in the English literature. The present case also has the classic yet rare "driven snow" appearance of the tumor on radiographs.

  18. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Promote Malignant Progression of Breast Phyllodes Tumors by Inducing Myofibroblast Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yan; Chen, Jianing; Huang, Di; Yao, Yandan; Chen, Jiewen; Ding, Lin; Zeng, Jiayi; Su, Shicheng; Chao, Xue; Su, Fengxi; Yao, Herui; Hu, Hai; Song, Erwei

    2017-07-01

    Myofibroblast differentiation plays an important role in the malignant progression of phyllodes tumor, a fast-growing neoplasm derived from periductal stromal cells of the breast. Macrophages are frequently found in close proximity with myofibroblasts, but it is uncertain whether they are involved in the myofibroblast differentiation during phyllodes tumor progression. Here we show that increased density of tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) correlates with malignant progression of phyllodes tumor. We found that TAMs stimulated myofibroblast differentiation and promoted the proliferation and invasion of phyllodes tumor cells. Furthermore, we found that levels of the chemokine CCL18 in TAM was an independent prognostic factor of phyllodes tumor. Mechanistic investigations showed that CCL18 promoted expression of α-smooth muscle actin, a hallmark of myofibroblast, along with the proliferation and invasion of phyllodes tumor cells, and that CCL18-driven myofibroblast differentiation was mediated by an NF-κB/miR-21/PTEN/AKT signaling axis. In murine xenograft models of human phyllodes tumor, CCL18 accelerated tumor growth, induced myofibroblast differentiation, and promoted metastasis. Taken together, our findings indicated that TAM drives myofibroblast differentiation and malignant progression of phyllodes tumor through a CCL18-driven signaling cascade amenable to antibody disruption. Cancer Res; 77(13); 3605-18. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Circulating Tumor Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vicki Plaks; Charlotte D. Koopman; Zena Werb

    2013-01-01

    .... During successful dissemination, tumor cells invade the surrounding tissue of the primary tumor, intravasate into blood and lymphatic vessels, translocate to distant tissues, extravasate, adapt...

  20. Solitary fibrous tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bruzzone

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm which may be found everywhere in the body. It is now distinguished into two forms, pleural and extrapleural, which morphologically resemble each other. Abdomi­nal localizations are quite rare, with 10 cases only reported in bladder; rarely they can be source of paraneoplastic syndromes (i.e., hypoglycemia secondary to insulin-like growth factor. In April 2006 a 74-year-old white male presented with chills, diaphoresis and acute abdominal pain with hematuria. At admission in emergency he underwent an abdominal X-ray (no pathological findings and an ultrasound examination of the kidneys and urinary tract, which revealed a pelvic hyperechogenic neoformation measuring approximately 10¥8¥7 cm, compressing the bladder. Blood chemistry at admission revealed only a mild neutrophilic leucocytosis (WBC 16600, N 80%, L 11%, elevated fibrinogen and ESR, and hypoglycemia (38 mg/dL. Macro­scopic hematuria was evident, while urinocolture was negative. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the abdomen and pelvic region revealed a large round neoformation dislocating the bladder, with an evident contrast-enhanced periphery and a central necrotic area. Continuous infusion of glucose 5% solution was necessary in order to maintain blood glucose levels above 50 mg/dL. The patient underwent complete surgical resection of an ovoidal mass coated by adipose tissue, with well delimited margins; histological findings were consistent with solitary fibrous tumor (SFT. Hypoglycemia resolved completely with removal of the growth. In this case report we describe a SFT growing in the bladder, a quite rare localization, which presented a unique hypoglycemia. In contrast to the majority of cases reported in the literature, the behavior of this SFT was not aggressive, and, since the patient is still alive, surgical resection was considered conclusive.

  1. Dynamic MRI of parathyroid tumors in preoperative evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiji; Takano, Hideyuki; Ito, Hisao [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    2000-08-01

    Dynamic MRI was compared to enhanced CT and Tc-99m MIBI, in detection of the parathyroid tumors. STIR MR images achieved higher detectability than enhanced CT or Tc-99m MIBI. Time intensity curves were also drawn in the dynamic MRI. A case of adenocarcinoma showed rapid increase and following gradual decrease in intensity, which pattern is considered as malignant in many tumors of the other organs. However, it was not easy to differentiate parathyroid adenomas from thyroid gland or tumors. MRI was considered as one of the useful methods in detection of the parathyroid tumors. MRI may be useful in searching of heterotopic parathyroid tumors. (author)

  2. Critical Role of Aberrant Angiogenesis in the Development of Tumor Hypoxia and Associated Radioresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Multhoff, Gabriele, E-mail: Gabriele.multhoff@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Clinical Cooperation Group “Innate Immunity in Tumor Biology”, Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Radons, Jürgen [multimmune GmbH, Munich, Ismaningerstr. 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Vaupel, Peter [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2014-04-08

    Newly formed microvessels in most solid tumors show an abnormal morphology and thus do not fulfil the metabolic demands of the growing tumor mass. Due to the chaotic and heterogeneous tumor microcirculation, a hostile tumor microenvironment develops, that is characterized inter alia by local hypoxia, which in turn can stimulate the HIF-system. The latter can lead to tumor progression and may be involved in hypoxia-mediated radioresistance of tumor cells. Herein, cellular and molecular mechanisms in tumor angiogenesis are discussed that, among others, might impact hypoxia-related radioresistance.

  3. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  4. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  5. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  7. Risk of tumor flare after nivolumab treatment in patients with irradiated field recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tatsuya; Furuta, Hiromi; Hida, Toyoaki

    2017-03-01

    Nivolumab offers a statistically superior survival benefit over docetaxel in patients with advanced, previously treated squamous and non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, we unexpectedly encountered "tumor flare" that was associated with initially increased tumor lesion size and subsequently decreased tumor burden in patients with NSCLC treated with nivolumab, which is known as pseudoprogression. Tumor flare with rapid progression related to accelerated progression after nivolumab treatment has also been observed. Here we report two patients having early irradiated field recurrence who experienced "tumor flare" that showed pseudoprogression and rapid progression. In addition, we present a brief literature review on "tumor flare" after nivolumab treatment.

  8. Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

  9. Cardiac Tumors; Tumeurs cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, J.P.; Fernandez, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat Claude Bernard, Service d' Imagerie, 76 - Rouen (France); Mousseaux, E. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Service de Radiologie Cardio Vasculaire et Interventionnelle, 75 - Paris (France); Dacher, J.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles Nicolle, 75 - Rouen (France); Crochet, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Laennec, Centre Hemodynamique, Radiologie Thoracique et Vasculaire, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2004-04-01

    Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized. Most primary cardiac tumors are benign. The main role of imaging is to differentiate a cardiac tumor from thrombus and rare pseudo-tumors: tuberculoma, hydatid cyst. Echocardiography is the fist line imaging technique to detect cardiac tumors, but CT and MRl arc useful for further characterization and differential diagnosis. Myxoma of the left atrium is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor. It usually is pedunculated and sometimes calcified. Sarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor and usually presents as a sessile infiltrative tumor. Lymphoma and metastases are usually recognized by the presence of known tumor elsewhere of by characteristic direct contiguous involvement. Diagnosing primary and secondary pericardial tumors often is difficult. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis, characterization, pre-surgical evaluation and follow-up. (author)

  10. Magnetically controlled growing rods for scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metkar, Umesh; Kurra, Swamy; Quinzi, David; Albanese, Stephen; Lavelle, William F

    2017-02-01

    Early onset scoliosis can be both a disfiguring as well as a life threatening condition. When more conservative treatments fail, pediatric spinal surgeons are forced to consider operative interventions. Traditionally, these interventions have involved the insertion of a variety of implants into the patient with a limited number of anchor points controlling the spine. In the past, these pediatric patients have had multiple surgeries for elective lengthening of these devices to facilitate their growth while attempting to control the scoliosis. These patients often experience a physical and emotional toll from their multiple repeated surgeries. Growing spine techniques have also had a noted high complication rate due to implant dislodgement and infections. Recently, the development of non-invasively, self-lengthening growing rods has occurred. These devices have the potential to allow for the devices to be lengthened magnetically in a conscious patient in the surgeon's office. Areas covered: This review summarized previously published articles in the English literature using a key word search in PubMed for: 'magnetically controlled growing rods', 'Magec rods', 'magnetic growing rods' and 'growing rods'. Expert commentary: Magnetically controlled growing rods have an advantage over growing rods in lengthening the growing spine in the absence of repetitive surgeries.

  11. (GrOW) Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alejandra

    How many applications will be shortlisted at the end of the first stage? GrOW envisages that up to 4 selected teams will be asked to submit a full research proposal for review and funding consideration. How is the review process conducted? Upon receiving complete applications, a review process begins by the GrOW team, ...

  12. Tracer development for detection and characterization of neuroendocrine tumors with PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neels, Olivier Christiaan

    2008-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are slowly growing tumors which originate from neuroendocrine cells. These tumors can secrete several products. In case of overproduction of serotonin, symptoms such as flushing, diarrhea and right-sided heart disease can occur. Next to serotonin, other well known products are

  13. Giant Pindborg Tumor (Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor: An Unusual Case Report with Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Ranjan Misra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontogenic tumors develop in the jaws from odontogenic tissues such as enamel organ, Hertwig epithelial root sheath, dental lamina, and so on. A variety of tumors unique to the maxilla and mandible are therefore seen. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT is a rare, aggressive, benign odontogenic tumor of epithelial origin accounting for only about 1% of all odontogenic tumors. It is eponymously called ′′Pindborg tumor′′, as it was first described by Pindborg in 1955. The origin of this locally invasive tumor remains unknown. It is thought to arise from stratum intermedium. It commonly affects the posterior mandible manifesting as a slow-growing asymptomatic swelling often associated with an impacted tooth. We report a case of CEOT, for which, owing to its huge size we have proposed the term ′′giant′′ Pindborg tumor (CEOT. This is probably the largest case of this tumor reported so far in the English literature. The present case also has the classic yet rare ′′driven snow′′ appearance of the tumor on radiographs.

  14. Tumors in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Tascedda, F; Ottaviani, E.

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are ectopic masses of tissue formed by due to an abnormal cell proliferation. In this review tumors of several invertebrate species are examined. The description of tumors in invertebrates may be a difficult task, because the pathologists are usually inexperienced with invertebrate tissues, and the experts in invertebrate biology are not familiar with the description of tumors. As a consequence, the terminology used in defining the tumor type is related to that used in mammalian pathol...

  15. Growing wealth and growing pains: child and adolescent psychiatry in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Susan; Fung, Daniel; Hung, Se-Fong; Rey, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Several Asian regions have undergone a dramatic transformation, some becoming very affluent. This paper aims to ascertain how countries that are becoming wealthy have dealt with child and adolescent mental health issues. Population health status, child and adolescent mental health services, child psychiatry training, the number of child psychiatrists and related matters were examined in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore are ethnically, religiously, socially and politically very different. In spite of considerable wealth and a growing recognition that mental health problems in the young are increasing, they face similar problems--lack of access to treatment due to a dearth of services and a lack of child psychiatrists (2.5, 0.5 and 2.8 per million people, respectively). Because the number of child psychiatrists is so small, their ability to provide services, advocate, train, maintain a professional identity, and deal with future crises is very limited. Other rapidly developing countries can learn from this experience and should take action early to prevent a similar outcome.

  16. Tumor Heterogeneity in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turashvili, Gulisa; Brogi, Edi

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and differs greatly among different patients (intertumor heterogeneity) and even within each individual tumor (intratumor heterogeneity). Clinical and morphologic intertumor heterogeneity is reflected by staging systems and histopathologic classification of breast cancer. Heterogeneity in the expression of established prognostic and predictive biomarkers, hormone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 oncoprotein is the basis for targeted treatment. Molecular classifications are indicators of genetic tumor heterogeneity, which is probed with multigene assays and can lead to improved stratification into low- and high-risk groups for personalized therapy. Intratumor heterogeneity occurs at the morphologic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic levels, creating diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumor heterogeneity that are relevant to the development of treatment resistance is a major area of research. Despite the improved knowledge of the complex genetic and phenotypic features underpinning tumor heterogeneity, there has been only limited advancement in diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive strategies for breast cancer. The current guidelines for reporting of biomarkers aim to maximize patient eligibility for targeted therapy, but do not take into account intratumor heterogeneity. The molecular classification of breast cancer is not implemented in routine clinical practice. Additional studies and in-depth analysis are required to understand the clinical significance of rapidly accumulating data. This review highlights inter- and intratumor heterogeneity of breast carcinoma with special emphasis on pathologic findings, and provides insights into the clinical significance of molecular and cellular mechanisms of heterogeneity. PMID:29276709

  17. High efficiency diffusion molecular retention tumor targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding and RAD (control probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for (111 In(3+, a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or i.v. methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [(111In] RGD and [(111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [(111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by i.v.. The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide, which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light.

  18. Tumor angiogenic factor and human skin tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J E; Hubler, W R

    1975-03-01

    A transparent acrylic hamster cheek-pouch chamber was used to investigate the elaboration of a tumor angiogenic factor (TAF) by human cutaneous neoplasms; direct tumor implantations, transfilter diffusion, and soluble tumor extracts were used in the study. A diffusible and filterable TAF was extracted from cutaneous tumors and produced distinctive patterns of sequential vasodilatation, tortuosity, and neovascular proliferation in the cheek-pouch membrane. Malignant human neoplasms (eg, melanoma, basal cell epithelioma, squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma) produced striking neovascularization; vascular tumors (eg, Kaposi sarcoma, pyogenic granuloma, vascular histiocytoma) stimulated dramatic hyperemia and ectasia. Angiogenesis was conspicuously absent after implantation of control materials and nevoid or normal cutaneous components (with the exception of epidermis). Tumor angiogenic factor appears to induce direct stimulation of endothelial cell mitosis and may be essential for survival of nutritionally ravenous neoplastic tissues. The interference with TAF has therapeutic implications.

  19. Intraoperative Molecular Imaging for Rapid Assessment of Tumor Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    approach in animal models using a the MRI- FMT imaging system (Task 5). A description of the primary accomplishments and ongoing efforts follows...guided fluorescence molecular tomography ( FMT ) of ( ) ( ) ( ) tBP k NTNTT etCBP kRktCRtC + − ∗    + ++= 12121 2 1 9 two fluorescent probes in...administration, mice were imaged for an hour at approximately two minutes per frame using an MR-coupled FMT system. The imaging system is a spectrometer

  20. Pediatric brain tumors; Kindliche Hirntumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Bodea, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Muehl-Benninghaus, R.

    2017-09-15

    Brain tumors differ between children and adults both in histology and localization. Malignant gliomas and meningiomas predominate in adults while medulloblastomas and low-grade astrocytomas are the most frequent brain tumors in children. More than one half (50-70%) of pediatric brain tumors have an infratentorial location but only approximately 30% in adults. Brain tumors can be recognized in sonography, cranial computed tomography (CCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by their space-consuming character and by their divergent density and intensity in comparison to normal brain parenchyma. They can grow extrusively, even infiltrate the parenchyma or originate from it. Besides clinical symptoms and diagnostics this article describes the most common pediatric brain tumors, i.e. astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, brainstem glioma, craniopharyngioma, neurofibromatosis and ganglioglioma. The most important imaging criteria are outlined. (orig.) [German] Sowohl Histologie als auch Lokalisation von Hirntumoren unterscheiden sich bei Kindern und Erwachsenen. Waehrend maligne Gliome und Meningeome bei Erwachsenen vorherrschen, kommen bei Kindern ueberwiegend Medulloblastome und niedriggradige Astrozytome vor. Mehr als die Haelfte (50-70 %) aller kindlichen Hirntumoren sind infratentoriell lokalisiert, dagegen sind es bei Erwachsenen nur etwa 30 %. Im Ultraschall, in der kranialen CT (CCT) oder MRT koennen Hirntumoren durch ihren raumfordernden Charakter und ihrer zum normalen Parenchym abweichenden Dichte oder Signalintensitaet erkannt werden. Sie koennen verdraengend wachsen, z. T. auch das Parenchym infiltrieren oder von diesem ausgehen. Neben der klinischen Symptomatik und Diagnostik werden im vorliegenden Artikel die haeufigsten kindlichen Hirntumoren, das Astrozytom, Medulloblastom, Hirnstammgliom, Kraniopharyngeom, die Neurofibromatose und das Gangliogliom beschrieben. Die wichtigsten bildgebende Kriterien werden dargestellt. (orig.)

  1. Ultraviolet radiation-induced murine tumors produced in the absence of ultraviolet radiation-induced systemic tumor immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, S W; Greenoak, G E; Reeve, V E; Gallagher, C H

    1991-06-01

    Using micro-UV-irradiation versus whole-dorsal irradiation for inducing cutaneous carcinomas in Skh:HRI mice and an assay for UV radiation (UVR)-induced systemic tumor immunosuppression, the dependence upon systemic immunosuppression for the growth of UVR-induced carcinomas was examined. Squamous cell carcinomas were produced by repeated microirradiation of 0.8-cm2 middorsal skin with xenon are solar-simulated UVR. These tumors were excised from tumor-bearing animals who 7 days later were inoculated ventrally with a cloned UVR-induced squamous cell carcinoma cell line, the T51/6. This cell line only grows in UVR-induced immunosuppressed Skh:HRI mice. In two separate experiments T51/6 inocula failed to grow significantly in the previously tumor-bearing animals (1 of 13) and in unirradiated mice (0 of 19), whereas it grew in 100% (15 of 15) of animals given a whole-dorsal subcarcinogenic UVR dose from a filtered fluorescent tube solar simulator. No sinecomitant immune response to the T51/6 was found in previously UVR-induced tumor-bearing animals. In contrast to whole-dorsal UVR-induced tumors, microirradiation-induced squamous cell carcinomas, whose original growth environment lacked UVR-induced systemic tumor immunosuppression, did not grow preferentially in mice given an immunosuppressive dose of UVR. However both the whole-dorsal and microirradiation-induced tumors were shown to be poorly antigenic, since they lacked preferential growth in athymic nude mice. These observations provide evidence that UVR-induced systemic tumor immunosuppression is not necessary for the production of UVR-induced tumors. However, it does cause a positive selection pressure during tumor formation, independent of the carcinogenic effect of UVR, which affects the transplantation biology of a tumor.

  2. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  3. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  4. HLA-DR expression in tumor epithelium is an independent prognostic indicator in esophageal adenocarcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Margaret R; Michielsen, Adriana J; O'Sullivan, Katie E; Cathcart, Mary Clare; Feighery, Ronan; Doyle, Brendan; Watson, Jenny A; O'Farrell, Naoimh J; Ravi, Narayanasamy; Kay, Elaine; Reynolds, John V; Ryan, Elizabeth J; O'Sullivan, Jacintha

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis, and incidence is increasing rapidly in the Western world. Measurement of immune markers has been shown to have prognostic significance in a growing number of cancers, but whether this is true for EAC has yet to be evaluated. This study aimed to characterize HLA-DR expression in the esophagus across the inflammation to cancer progression sequence and to assess the prognostic significance of HLA-DR expression in EAC. Tissue microarrays (TMA) were constructed from esophageal tissue taken from patients at different stages in the cancer progression sequence; normal, esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus (BE), low- and high-grade dysplasia (LGD, HGD) and EAC. HLA-DR expression in tissue epithelium and stroma was assessed by immunohistochemistry. HLA-DR expression increased early in the inflammation to cancer progression sequence; with higher expression detected in esophagitis and BE compared to normal tissue. Patients with low (DR expression in the EAC tumor epithelium had significantly worse survival outcomes, compared to those with high expression, in both the tumor core (hazard ratio, HR = 2.178, p = 0.024, n = 70) and leading edge (HR = 2.86, p = 0.013, n = 41). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that low HLA-DR expression in leading edge tumor epithelium was an independent predictor of poor survival, associated with a 2.8-fold increase in disease-associated death (p = 0.023). This study shows that HLA-DR is an independent prognostic marker in EAC tumor epithelium. This may have implications for patient stratification strategies as well as EAC tumor immunology.

  5. Extraosseous calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, F W; Zielinski, R J; Wesley, R K

    1977-10-01

    A 20-year-old man presented with a painless enlargement of the maxillary gingiva with no bone involvement. Microscopic examination with special stains confirmed the diagnosis of a clear cell variant of a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor). This is the second reported case of such a variant in an extraosseous location.

  6. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 5. Abstract. Bronchial carcinoid tumors (BCTs) are an uncommon group of lung tumors. They commonly affect the young adults and the middle aged, the same age group affected by other more common chronic lung conditions such as ...

  7. Multifunctional upconversion nanoprobe for tumor fluorescence imaging and near-infrared thermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanchun; Chen, Qun; Wu, Baoyan; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    The combination of diagnostics and therapeutics is growing rapidly in cancer treatment. Here, using upconversion nanoparticles coated with chitosan conjugated with a targeting molecule and loaded with indocyanine green (ICG), an excitation-selectable nanoprobe with highly integrated functionalities, including the emission of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, strong optical absorption in the NIR region and high photostability was developed. After injected in mice, the nanoprobes targeted to the tumor vascular system. NIR lasers (980 and 808 nm) were then selectively applied to the mice. The results show that, the emitted upconversion fluorescence and NIR fluorescence can be used in a complementary manner for high signal/noise ratio and sensitive tumor imaging for more precise tumor localization; Highly effective photothermal therapy can be realized using 808 nm laser irradiation. The upconversion fluorescence at 654 nm is useful for monitoring treatment effect during thermal therapy. In summary, using the nanoprobes, outstanding therapeutic efficacy could be realized and the nanofabrication strategy would highlight the promise of upconversion nanoparticles in cancer theranostics.

  8. A case of collision tumor or transdifferentiation between malignant melanoma and leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Mulk, Jamshaid; Rasmussen, Helle; Breiting, Line; Siim, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman was referred to the hospital due to a pigmented, asymptomatic nevus on her right arm that had changed in size and color. The histopathological examination showed a superficial spreading malignant melanoma, Clark level III, 2.26 mm in thickness. Two years later, the patient presented a 10 cm rapidly growing mass in her right axilla. The mass in the axilla measured 12.5΄9΄cm. It revealed a lymph node metastases with a tumor growth composed of two different contiguous morphological and immunohistochemical components, respectively, melanosomes and leiomyosarcoma. The combination of a melanocytic nevus with other tumor of epidermal or adnexal origin has been described before, but still the co-existence of two different neoplasms within a lesion is still uncommon. The most common combination is basal cell carcinoma and melanocytic nevus or one of them together with a seborrheic keratosis. There have also been occasional reports of rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. However, mesenchymal differentiation, and in this case leiomysarcoma, with formation of heterologous elements in melanocytic tumor is very rare. Another plausible explanation may be that malignant melanoma cells could have transdifferentiated into a leiomyosarcomatoid phenotype with resulting metastases of either type. Malignant melanomas have shown a wide variety of cytological changes and can mimic carcinomas, lymphomas, and sarcomas. Spindle cell melanomas commonly simulate spindle cell carcinomas. It has also been documented that desmoplastic melanomas can change into fibroblastic, Schwannian, and myofibroblastic differentiation.

  9. Growing America's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  10. Spinal tumors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joaquim, Andrei Fernandes; Ghizoni, Enrico; Valadares, Marcelo Gomes Cordeiro; Appenzeller, Simone; Aguiar, Simone Dos Santos; Tedeschi, Helder

    2017-05-01

    Spinal tumors are rare in the pediatric population, presenting many specific peculiarities when compared to adults. We have performed a broad narrative review to describe the most common spinal tumors in children, discussing their main characteristics and management options. The authors have performed an extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature addressing the aforementioned objectives. Multimodality radiological studies (plain films, 3D computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging) are necessary for proper evaluation and differential diagnosis of spinal tumors in children. In selected cases nuclear medicine imaging is used to improve the chances of a more accurate diagnosis. As a general rule, a fine needle biopsy is recommended after radiological evaluation to confirm the tumor's histology. Primary bone tumors can be divided into benign bone tumors, mostly represented by vertebral hemangiomas, osteoid osteomas, osteoblastomas, aneurismal bone cysts, and eosinophilic granulomas, and malign or aggressive tumors, such as Ewing's or osteogenic sarcomas. Secondary bone tumors (spinal metastases) comprise different tumor histologies, and treatment is mainly based on tumor's radiosensitivity. The characteristics and treatment options of the main spinal tumors are discussed in details. Spinal tumors in children are rare lesions that demand a thorough understanding of their main characteristics for their proper management. Understanding the nuances of spinal tumors in children is of paramount importance for improving outcomes and chances of cure.

  11. Spinal tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Fernandes Joaquim

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Spinal tumors are rare in the pediatric population, presenting many specific peculiarities when compared to adults. We have performed a broad narrative review to describe the most common spinal tumors in children, discussing their main characteristics and management options. Method: The authors have performed an extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature addressing the aforementioned objectives. Results: Multimodality radiological studies (plain films, 3D computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging are necessary for proper evaluation and differential diagnosis of spinal tumors in children. In selected cases nuclear medicine imaging is used to improve the chances of a more accurate diagnosis. As a general rule, a fine needle biopsy is recommended after radiological evaluation to confirm the tumor's histology. Primary bone tumors can be divided into benign bone tumors, mostly represented by vertebral hemangiomas, osteoid osteomas, osteoblastomas, aneurismal bone cysts, and eosinophilic granulomas, and malign or aggressive tumors, such as Ewing's or osteogenic sarcomas. Secondary bone tumors (spinal metastases comprise different tumor histologies, and treatment is mainly based on tumor's radiosensitivity. The characteristics and treatment options of the main spinal tumors are discussed in details. Conclusion: Spinal tumors in children are rare lesions that demand a thorough understanding of their main characteristics for their proper management. Understanding the nuances of spinal tumors in children is of paramount importance for improving outcomes and chances of cure.

  12. Granulocytes as effective anticancer agent in experimental solid tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganjac, Morana; Poljak-Blazi, Marija; Kirac, Iva; Borovic, Suzana; Joerg Schaur, Rudolf; Zarkovic, Neven

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the effects of murine granulocytes on the growth of solid murine tumors when administrated in the vicinity of W256 carcinoma growing in Sprague Dawley rats, and in the vicinity of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) growing in BALBc mice. The administration of granulocytes significantly improved the survival of W256-bearing rats, and increased the tumor regression incidence from 17% up to 75%. Rats with regressing tumors had 2.5 times increased levels of granulocytes in peripheral blood, which were also cytotoxic in vitro for W256 carcinoma cells. However, blood levels of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 were similar between rats with regressing tumors and control healthy rats, suggesting that the observed regression of W256 carcinoma was caused by specific anticancer effects of the applied granulocytes. Anticancer effects of granulocytes were also found in BALBc mice bearing solid form of EAT, resulting in a 20% increase of survival in EAT-bearing mice. Therefore, the administration of granulocytes, isolated from healthy animals and applied at the site of solid tumors in rats and in mice, reduced experimental tumor growth, and extended the survival of tumor-bearing animals, while in some rats it even caused a W256 regression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Renaissance in tumor immunotherapy: possible combination with phototherapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses the combination of non-toxic dyes and harmless visible light to produce highly toxic reactive oxygen species that destroy tumors. The ideal cancer treatment should target both the primary tumor and the metastases with minimal toxicity. This is best accomplished by educating the body's immune system to recognize the tumor as foreign so that after the primary tumor is destroyed, distant metastases will also be eradicated. PDT may accomplish this feat and stimulate long-term, specific anti-tumor immunity. PDT causes an acute inflammatory response, the rapid induction of large amounts of necrotic and apoptotic tumor cells, induction of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPS) including heat-shock proteins, stimulates tumor antigen presentation to naïve T-cells, and generation of cytotoxic T-cells that can destroy distant tumor metastases. By using various syngeneic mouse tumors in immunocompetent mice, we have studied specific PDT regimens related to tumor type as well as mouse genotype and phenotype. We have investigated the role of tumor-associated antigens in PDT-induced immune response by choosing mouse tumors that express: model defined antigen, naturally-occurring cancer testis antigen, and oncogenic virus-derived antigen. We studied the synergistic combination of low-dose cyclophosphamide and PDT that unmasks the PDT-induced immune response by depleting the immunosuppressive T-regulatory cells. PDT combined with immunostimulants (toll-like receptor ligands) can synergistically maximize the generation of anti-tumor immunity by activating dendritic cells and switching immunosuppressive macrophages to a tumor rejection phenotype. Tumors expressing defined tumor-associated antigens with known MHC class I peptides allows anti-tumor immunity to be quantitatively compared.

  14. Recurrent malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinqin; Su, Jing; Lei, Yutao

    2017-12-01

    Phyllodes tumor is a rare fibro epithelial neoplasm of the breast. They resemble fibroadenomas clinically and can be mistakenly ignored sometimes. We report the case of a young woman with her first presentation to hospital due to a hypoglycemia and she underwent 2 excised fibroadenomas in the same breast before diagnosed of malignant phyllodes tumor. She was complaining about 2 masses presented in her right breast 4 months after mastectomy. Recurrent phyllodes tumor of the breast. We conducted an immediate autologous myocutaneous flap transplantation after a wide-excision. Postoperative radiotherapy was recommended. She was in good general condition without tumor relapses during 8 months of follow-up. Recurrent fibroadenomas in the same breast, especially those of large size with rapid growth rate, suggesting a high transformation possibility from fibroadenoma to phyllodes tumor. We recommend an extended tumor resection and immediate or delayed reconstruction of the breast for the recurrent phyllodes tumor with separately multiple relapses.

  15. Imaging of vascular tumors with an emphasis on ISSVA classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Taiki; Matsusako, Masaki; Mimura, Hidefumi; Osuga, Keigo; Matsui, Mizuko; Eto, Hikaru; Ohtake, Naoyuki; Manabe, Atsushi; Kusakawa, Isao; Tsutsumi, Yoshiyuki; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Kamo, Minobu; Saida, Yukihisa

    2013-12-01

    The International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification is becoming the international standard classification system for vascular tumors and vascular malformations. The ISSVA classification strictly distinguishes vascular tumors (neoplastic lesions) from vascular malformations (non-neoplastic lesions) based on whether there is a proliferation of vascular endothelial cells present, and it is an extremely useful classification system for determining therapeutic measures. For vascular tumors, it is clinically significant in terms of discriminating infantile hemangioma and rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma, which are expected to spontaneously regress, from other vascular tumors requiring treatment. Needless to say, clinical courses are important for diagnosis, and it is also important for radiologists to understand imaging findings on vascular tumors because such tumors have unique findings on diagnostic images. In this paper, vascular tumors are classified based on the ISSVA classification, and clinical and imaging findings are reviewed.

  16. Staging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: how we do it based on an evidence-based approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Shaunagh

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to other common types of malignant tumors, the vast majority of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are well differentiated and slowly growing with only a minority showing aggressive behavior. It is important to accurately stage patients radiologically so the correct treatment can be implemented and to improve prognosis. In this article, we critically appraise the current literature in an effort to establish the current role of radiologic imaging in the staging of neuroendocrine tumors. We also discuss our protocol for staging neuroendocrine tumors.

  17. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Family Donate Volunteer Justin's Hope Fund Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  18. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  19. Metastatic brain tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. A metastatic brain tumor is cancer that started in another part of the body ... of cancer rarely spread to the brain, such as colon cancer and prostate cancer. In other rare cases, a tumor can ...

  20. Rapidly- growing firms and their main characteristics: a longitudinal study from United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the topic of high-growth phenomenon and its agents. High-growth enterprises are primarily small and medium sized firms that attain very high-growth rates for at least five years. The paper presents a review of the pertinent literature to guide its formulation of hypotheses...... are relatively smaller enterprises and their high growth rates are not restricted to a particular location, industrial region, size or time period. The findings of this analysis point to a population of high-growth enterprises with diverse locations, sizes and times with important implications for scholarly...

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF LEGAL ORGANISATION OF RAPIDLY GROWING COMPANIES FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Novak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of a company’s legal form for the process of internationalisation using a sample of 1577 Slovenian companies. We refer to previous studies and on the basis of additional statistical data evaluate whether the choice of corporate legal structure influences a company’s ability to compete internationally. In the domestic market, most companies operate as limited liability companies; this is also the most frequent legal form in which companies enter foreign markets. We conclude that the form by itself does not influence the decision to go international.

  2. [Case report: Rapidly growing abdominal wall giant desmoid tumour during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Zertuche, Jorge Tadeo; Cardona-Huerta, Servando; Juárez-García, María Luisa; Valdés-Flores, Everardo; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique

    Desmoid tumours are one of the rarest tumours worldwide, with an estimated yearly incidence of 2-4 new cases per million people. They are soft tissue monoclonal neoplasms that originate from mesenchymal stem cells. It seems that the hormonal and immunological changes occurring during pregnancy may play a role in the severity and course of the disease. The case is presented on 28-year-old female in her fifth week of gestation, in whom an abdominal wall tumour was found attached to left adnexa and uterus while performing a prenatal ultrasound. The patient was followed up under clinical and ultrasonographic surveillance. When she presented with abnormal uterine activity at 38.2 weeks of gestation, she was admitted and obstetrics decided to perform a caesarean section. Tumour biopsy was taken during the procedure. Histopathology reported a desmoid fibromatosis. A contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan was performed, showing a tumour of 26×20.5×18cm, with well-defined borders in contact with the uterus, left adnexa, bladder and abdominal wall, with no evidence of infiltration to adjacent structures. A laparotomy, with tumour resection, hysterectomy and left salpingo-oophorectomy, components separation techniques, polypropylene mesh insertion, and drainage was performed. The final histopathology report was desmoid fibromatosis. There is no evidence of recurrence after 6 months follow-up. Desmoid tumours are locally aggressive and surgical resection with clear margins is the basis for the treatment of this disease, using radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy as an adjunct in the treatment. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Water resources in a rapidly growing region-Oakland County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    Oakland County is a suburban county in southeast Michigan. Population and demand for water grew steadily in the county over the 20th century, and these trends are expected to continue in coming decades. Roughly 75 percent of current water demand is met by imported water from the Detroit Water and Sewerage Division (DWSD), but water use from ground-water sources within the county still exceeds 43 million gallons per day. Because much of the population growth is in areas beyond the DWSD system, an additional 20-25 million gallons per day of supply may be necessary to meet future demands. Managing the wastewater produced while also protecting human and ecosystem health also may present challenges.

  4. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... However, laboratory protocols that are commonly used to investigate the presence of mycobacteria in clinical specimens are insufficient for isolation of these organisms form soil and natural water samples (Chilima et al., 2006). In spite of large –scale BCG trial conducted in our country during past decades, ...

  5. Case series: Rapidly growing squamous cell carcinoma after cutaneous surgical intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ibrahim

    2017-12-01

    This case series explores the various mechanisms of de-novo squamous cell carcinoma development in areas of cutaneous surgical intervention, including graft harvest. It also provides recommendations regarding the necessary precautions to avoid implantation of squamous cell carcinoma into distant sites. Lastly it highlights the importance of surveillance for any suspicious lesions arising from areas of previous cutaneous surgical intervention.

  6. Emerging Development Pathways of Urban Livestock Production in Rapidly Growing West Africa Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Roessler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we try to capture the degree of specialization or integration, and of intensification or extensification, of (peri- urban livestock production, along with the factors that influence such decisions and their impact on natural resource uses. A total of 181 and 187 structured questionnaires were completed in livestock-keeping households in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso and Tamale (Ghana. Categorical principal component and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify homogenous groups of livestock-keeping households. Cross tabulation and logistic regression analysis revealed factors that influence livestock husbandry, showing their impacts on resource use by livestock keepers in the two cities. A diversity of livestock species was kept, mostly integrated with crop farming. Yet, some households specialized in either sheep, pig or commercial milk production, and partly intensified their production. The decision to specialize and/or intensify livestock production is site-specific and influenced by the education level of the household head and security of land ownership. Higher inputs in livestock systems do not necessarily lead to higher outputs, and specialization inevitably leads to higher manure wastages. Therefore, links of livestock producers to crop farmers and markets for livestock manure must be strengthened to enable recycling of resources and limit negative externalities of specialized livestock production. Strategies need to be identified to improve livestock productivity by enhancing outputs as input use increases.

  7. Scar sarcoidosis on a finger mimicking a rapidly growing soft tissue tumour: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrichs Marcel-Philipp

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scar sarcoidosis is a rare and uncommon but specific cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. In general it arises in pre-existing scars deriving from mechanical traumas. As most surgeons dealing with scars might not be aware of cutaneous sarcoidosis and its different types of appearance the appropriate staging and treatment might be missed or at least delayed. To our knowledge this is the first case in literature of scar sarcoidosis on a finger. Case presentation We present a case of a 33-year-old carpenter who developed scar sarcoidosis on his right index finger 4 years after the tendon of the long digital flexor got accidentally cut by an angle grinder. He was referred due to a swelling of the finger suspected to be a malignant soft tissue tumour. The circumference of the affected finger had almost doubled, adding up to 94 mm. Incision biopsy revealed typical noncaseating granulomas. Further investigation showed a systemic extent of the disease with involvement of the lung. A systemic treatment with oral steroids led to an almost full regression of the swelling with restoration of function and resolution of lung infiltrates. Conclusion In case of a suspicious and/or progressive swelling a definite diagnosis should be achieved by biopsy within a short time to enable a proper treatment. If scar sarcoidosis is proven further investigation is necessary to exclude a systemical involvement. A surgical treatment of the swelling is not indicated.

  8. Scar sarcoidosis on a finger mimicking a rapidly growing soft tissue tumour: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Marcel-Philipp; Streitbürger, Arne; Gosheger, Georg; Surke, Carsten; Dierkes, Christian; Hardes, Jendrik

    2012-10-02

    Scar sarcoidosis is a rare and uncommon but specific cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. In general it arises in pre-existing scars deriving from mechanical traumas. As most surgeons dealing with scars might not be aware of cutaneous sarcoidosis and its different types of appearance the appropriate staging and treatment might be missed or at least delayed. To our knowledge this is the first case in literature of scar sarcoidosis on a finger. We present a case of a 33-year-old carpenter who developed scar sarcoidosis on his right index finger 4 years after the tendon of the long digital flexor got accidentally cut by an angle grinder. He was referred due to a swelling of the finger suspected to be a malignant soft tissue tumour. The circumference of the affected finger had almost doubled, adding up to 94 mm. Incision biopsy revealed typical noncaseating granulomas. Further investigation showed a systemic extent of the disease with involvement of the lung. A systemic treatment with oral steroids led to an almost full regression of the swelling with restoration of function and resolution of lung infiltrates. In case of a suspicious and/or progressive swelling a definite diagnosis should be achieved by biopsy within a short time to enable a proper treatment. If scar sarcoidosis is proven further investigation is necessary to exclude a systemical involvement. A surgical treatment of the swelling is not indicated.

  9. PET/MR - a rapidly growing technique of imaging in oncology and neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałyga, Alicja; Guzikowska-Ruszkowska, Izabela; Czepczyński, Rafał; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) has become a subject of interest for researchers in the recent several years. Positron emission tomography in combination with magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is the most recent imaging technique classified in the so called hybrid systems category. This review briefly discusses the development history of PET/MR scanners, the principle of their operation, of tandem systems, as well as fully integrated devices. Further, it summarizes recent reports on the application of PET/MR scans and their possible future role in oncological and non-oncological diagnostics. Recent reports regarding the application of PET/MR scanners show huge potential of simultaneously received images, which exceed the advantages of either of those scans used separately. However, the results so far remain uncertain and require further investigations, especially in terms of clinical studies, not only for scientific purposes.

  10. A rapidly growing electronic publishing trend: audiobooks for leisure and education

    OpenAIRE

    Engelen, J J

    2008-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the relatively new phenomenon of the purely commercial availability of audiobooks, sometimes also called “spoken books”, “talking books” or “narrated books”. Having the text of a book read aloud and recorded has been for a very long time the favourite solution to make books and other texts accessible for persons with a serious reading impairment such as blindness or low vision. Specialised production centres do exist in most countries of the world for producing th...

  11. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 350 soil samples were collected from different part of Uremia city and suburbs. We used 3% sodium lauryl sulfate and 1% NaOH for decontamination of soil samples. Of 350 samples, mycobacteria were isolated from 65 (18.3%) specimens. Mycobacterium fortuitum with 18(5.14) strains yielded the highest ...

  12. Peptostreptococcus productus strain that grows rapidly with CO as the energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorowitz, W H; Bryant, M P

    1984-05-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were enriched with a sewage digestor sludge inoculum and a mineral medium supplemented with B-vitamins and 0.05% yeast extract and with a 50% CO-30% N2-20% CO2 (2 atm [202 kPa]) gas phase. Microscopic observation revealed an abundance of gram-positive cocci, 1.0 by 1.4 micron, which occurred in pairs or chains. The coccus, strain U-1, was isolated by using roll tubes with CO as the energy source. Based on morphology, sugars fermented, fermentation products from glucose (H2, acetate, lactate, and succinate), and other features, strain U-1 was identified as Peptostreptococcus productus IIb (similar to the type strain). The doubling time with up to 50% CO was 1.5 h; acetate and CO2 were the major products. In addition, no significant change in the doubling time was observed with 90% CO. Some stock strains were also able to use CO, although not as well. Strain U-1 produced acetate during growth with H2-CO2. Other C1 compounds did not support growth. Most probable numbers of CO utilizers morphologically identical with strain U-1 were 7.5 X 10(6) and 1.1 X 10(5) cells per g for anaerobic digestor sludge and human feces, respectively.

  13. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... A total of 350 soil samples were collected from different part of Uremia city and suburbs. We used 3% sodium lauryl sulfate and 1% NaOH for decontamination of soil samples. Of 350 samples, mycobacteria were isolated from 65 (18.3%) specimens. Mycobacterium fortuitum with 18(5.14) strains yielded the.

  14. Mycobacterium aquaticum sp. nov., a rapidly growing species isolated from haemodialysis water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Trovato, Alberto; Droz, Sara; Haidarieh, Parvin; Borroni, Emanuele; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Mannino, Roberta; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Mariottini, Alessandro; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Tortoli, Enrico

    2017-09-01

    The characterization of five Iranian isolates, four from hospital haemodialysis water and one from the sputum of a patient, led to the detection of a novel mycobacterium species. The strains were characterized by mucoid colonies developing in 3-5 days at temperatures ranging from 25 to 37 °C. The biochemical test pattern was unremarkable while the HPLC profile of mycolic acids resembled that of Mycobacterium fortuitum. The sequences of three major housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB) were unique and differed from those of any other mycobacterium. Mycobacterium brisbanense, which is the species that shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.03 %), was distinct, as shown by the average nucleotide identity and by the genome to genome distance values (91.05 and 43.10 %, respectively). The strains are thus considered to represent a novel species of the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquaticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RW6T (=DSM 104277T=CIP111198T).

  15. Predictors of Postpartum Depression in Dubai, a Rapidly Growing Multicultural Society in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhammadi, Salwa M; Hashem, Lien Abou; Abusbeih, Zainah R; Alzaabi, Fatima S; Alnuaimi, Salama N; Jalabi, Ala F; Nair, Satish C; Carrick, Frederick R; Abdulrahman, Mahera

    2017-09-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem adversely affecting mothers, their newborns, and other members of the family. Although PPD is common and potentially dangerous, only a minority of the cases are identified in primary health care settings during routine care, and the majority of depressed mothers in the community lies unrecognized and therefore untreated. In this study, a total of 1500 mothers were approached randomly, 808 accepted to participate, and 504 were within the inclusion criteria (women who had a birth of a singleton full-term healthy infant, had an uncomplicated pregnancy, and were within their one week to six months postpartum). The participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. A total of 168 women had an EPDS score ≥10, yielding a crude prevalence rate of 33%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 14 out of 504 (3%), among which 11 (79%) had EPDS score of ≥10. We fitted multiple linear regression models to evaluate the predictors of variables measured on the EPDS scale. This model was statistically significant ppredictors. The findings of this study are anticipated to entail the government and policy makers in the region to pay more attention to the apparently high prevalence of unrevealed PPD in the community. It is crucial to enhance screening mechanisms for early detection, providing interventions to manage symptoms, and at the same time mandating local guidelines to address the PPD pathology as a high priority for the UAE population.

  16. Metal-organic frameworks: a rapidly growing class of versatile nanoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Scott T; Greathouse, Jeffery A; Allendorf, Mark D

    2011-01-11

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a new class of hybrid organic-inorganic supramolecular materials comprised of ordered networks formed from organic electron donor linkers and metal cations. They can exhibit extremely high surface areas, as well as tunable pore size and functionality, and can act as hosts for a variety of guest molecules. Since their discovery, MOFs have enjoyed extensive exploration, with applications ranging from gas storage to drug delivery to sensing. This review covers advances in the MOF field from the past three years, focusing on applications, including gas separation, catalysis, drug delivery, optical and electronic applications, and sensing. We also summarize recent work on methods for MOF synthesis and computational modeling.

  17. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate is attributed to the influx rate, campaign design and implementation, and factors related to child and career mobi- lity. Alternative immunisation strategies, with social awareness playing a key role, are being urgently investigated. S Air Med J 1989; 76: 157-159. Measles became a notifiable disease in the RSA in 1979.1.

  18. Application of lectins to tumor imaging radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Shuji; Jay, M.

    1986-11-01

    We investigated the in vitro binding of /sup 125/I-lectins to Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells and in vivo uptake of /sup 125/I-lectins in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST) bearing mice. In in vitro binding assays, phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA), pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA), and concanavalia agglutinin (Con A) showed a high affinity for EAT cells. The in vivo biodistribution of /sup 125/I-lectins showed /sup 125/I-PSA to be significantly taken up into EST tissues 24 h postinjection. After IV injection of /sup 125/I-PSA, uptake of the radioactivity into the tumor tissues reached a maximum at 6 h, and thereafter decreased. Rapid disappearance of the radioactivity from blood and its excretion into kidney soon after injection of /sup 125/I-PSA were observed. When compared with the biodistribution of /sup 67/Ga-citrate in EST bearing mice 24 h postinjection, tumor to liver (T/B), tumor to muscle (T/M), and tumor to blood (T/B) ratios were superior for /sup 125/I-PSA. At 6 h postinjection, the T/B-ratio of /sup 125/I-PSA was 2.5, and this value may be sufficient to enable discernable diagnostic images. Our results suggest that PSA might be a useful tumor imaging radiopharmaceutical.

  19. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Roberts; Dianne M. Runk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3–0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10–30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumo...

  20. Huge intrathoracic desmoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Majdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors are soft-tissue neoplasms arising from fascial or musculo-aponeurotic structures. Most reported thoracic desmoid tumors originate from the chest wall. However, intrathoracic desmoid tumors are rare. We present a case of a 35-year-old male patient complaining of mild shortness of breath. The patient was diagnosed to have a huge intrathoracic desmoid tumor, which was successfully resected.

  1. A dynamic cellular vertex model of growing epithelial tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Zhen; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2017-04-01

    Intercellular interactions play a significant role in a wide range of biological functions and processes at both the cellular and tissue scales, for example, embryogenesis, organogenesis, and cancer invasion. In this paper, a dynamic cellular vertex model is presented to study the morphomechanics of a growing epithelial monolayer. The regulating role of stresses in soft tissue growth is revealed. It is found that the cells originating from the same parent cell in the monolayer can orchestrate into clustering patterns as the tissue grows. Collective cell migration exhibits a feature of spatial correlation across multiple cells. Dynamic intercellular interactions can engender a variety of distinct tissue behaviors in a social context. Uniform cell proliferation may render high and heterogeneous residual compressive stresses, while stress-regulated proliferation can effectively release the stresses, reducing the stress heterogeneity in the tissue. The results highlight the critical role of mechanical factors in the growth and morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and help understand the development and invasion of epithelial tumors.

  2. Granular Cell Tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ultrastructure and immunochemical staining. 4 strongly suggest Schwann cell derivation . hyperplasia at the edges of the tumor. Necrosis within the tumor was absent, no mitosis was. Granular cell tumors are seldom diagnosed identified in the section and the edges of the accurately clinically. The lesion in this case was.

  3. Longitudinal Studies of Angiogenesis in Hormone-Dependent Shionogi Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor P. Wade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Vessel size imaging was used to assess changes in the average vessel size of Shionogi tumors throughout the tumor growth cycle. Changes in R2 and R2* relaxivities caused by the injection of a superparamagnetic contrast agent (ferumoxtran-10 were measured using a 2.35-T animal magnetic resonance imaging system, and average vessel size index (VSI was calculated for each stage of tumor progression: growth, regression, and relapse. Statistical analysis using Spearman rank correlation test showed no dependence between vessel size and tumor volume at any stage of the tumor growth cycle. Paired Student's t test was used to assess the statistical significance of the differences in average vessel size for the three stages of the tumor growth cycle. The average VSI for regressing tumors (15.1 ± 6.6 wm was significantly lower than that for growing tumors (35.2 ± 25.5 μm; P < .01. Relapsing tumors also had an average VSI (45.4 ± 41.8 μm higher than that of regressing tumors, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = .067. This study shows that VSI imaging is a viable method for the noninvasive monitoring of angiogenesis during the progression of a Shionogi tumor from androgen dependence to androgen independence.

  4. Tumores de la conjuntiva Conjunctiva tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara G Gómez Cabrera

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer los tumores de la conjuntiva más frecuentes en este medio, se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de 202 pacientes operados Hospital Oftalmológico "Ramón Pando Ferrer" con diagnóstico histológico de tumores conjuntivales, en el período comprendido entre enero de 1985 y diciembre de 1995; 116 pacientes (57 % fueron del sexo masculino y 86 (43 % del sexo femenino. El 30 % se encontraba en el grupo de edades entre los 31 y 50 años. El 61,9 % de las lesiones se localizaba en la conjuntiva bulbar. Se obtuvo un total de 17 diagnósticos histológicos. Los tumores de la conjuntiva se observaron con mayor frecuencia entre los 31 y lo 50 años de edad. El sexo masculino fue el más afectado en nuestra serie. Se localizan preferentemente en la conjuntiva bulbar. Los tumores más frecuentes fueron los pterigion, los nevus y los granulomasTo know the most frequent conjunctiva tumors in our setting, a descriptive retrospective study of 202 patients with histological diagnosis of conjunctival tumors, who underwent surgery at "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Ophthalmological Hospital from January 1985 to December 1995, was made. One hundred and sixteen patients (57 % were males and 86 (43 % were females. 30 % were in the age group 31-50. 61.9 % of the injuries were located in the bulbar conjunctiva. It was obtained a total of 17 histological diagnoses. The conjunctiva tumors were more frequently observed in patients aged 31-50. Males were the most affected in our series. These tumors are preferably located in the bulbar conjunctiva. The most common tumors were pterygion, nevus and granulomas

  5. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj; Sahai, Sharad; Singh, Sourav; Singh, Smita

    2011-07-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare entity and represents less than 1% of all odontogenic tumors. Dr. J J Pindborg (1958) first described four cases of this unusual lesion; subsequently Shafer et al coined the term Pindborg tumor. This lesion is a locally aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasm arising from epithelial tissue. It occurs most commonly in 4(th)-5(th)-6(th) decade of life and bears no gender predilection. A case of CEOT in a 50-year-old male arising in the left body region is described.

  6. Positron emission tomography in digestive neuroendocrine tumors: choice of the tracer; Apport de la tomographie par emission de positons dans les tumeurs endocrines digestives: choix du traceur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taieb, D.; Tessonnier, L.; Mundler, O. [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de La Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2009-11-15

    Digestive endocrine tumors represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasm sharing common characteristics such as their high density of peptide receptors, their ability to take up amino acids and de-carboxylate them into biogenic amines and their low glycolytic activity. These features are used for nuclear imaging targeting. To date, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is considered the 'gold standard' imaging procedure of well-differentiated tumors. Despite the significant contribution of SPECT/CT, the use of positron emission tomography imaging (PET) is growing rapidly. Three PET imaging modalities are currently available: {sup 68}Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs PET, {sup 18}F-dihydroxy-phenylalanine PET ({sup 18}F-DOPA) and {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose PET ({sup 18}F-F.D.G.). This article focuses on the current targets of molecular imaging and highlights the potential clinical applications of new targets. (authors)

  7. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  8. Successful pulmonary artery embolectomy in a patient with a saddle Wilms tumor embolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lindsey; Moore, Colin; Branchford, Brian; Greffe, Brian; Capocelli, Kelley; Kuder, Austine; Mehta, Inder; Mourani, Peter M

    2012-05-01

    Denys-Drash syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by ambiguous genitalia, cryptorchidism, nephrotic syndrome, and a high predilection for Wilms tumor with intravascular invasion. We report a 5-year-old male with Denys-Drash syndrome who rapidly developed Wilms tumor with vascular invasion, subsequent saddle tumor embolus, and required emergent embolectomy. This case illustrates the rapid emergence of Wilms tumor in a patient with Denys-Drash syndrome and the importance of considering embolectomy over thrombolytic therapy for PE in this population, given a high likelihood of tumor embolus. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Labeled Putrescine as a Probe in Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora; Goldman, Stephen S.; Flamm, Eugene S.; Cravioto, Humberto; Wolf, Alfred P.; Brodie, Jonathan D.

    1983-08-01

    The polyamine metabolism of transplanted N-nitrosomethylurea-derived rat glioma was determined with radiolabeled putrescine used as a marker for malignancy. The uptake of putrescine in vivo was complete within 5 minutes and was specific for tumor tissue. The conversion of putrescine to spermine and other metabolites by the tumor was rapid, in contrast to the case for adjacent normal brain. These results suggest that putrescine labeled with carbon-11 may be used as a positron-emission tomographic tracer for the selective metabolic imaging of brain tumor and may be used in an appropriate model as a marker for tumor growth rate.

  10. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...... into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets...... for therapeutic intervention. Here we provide an overview of the features of tumor-associated interstitial fluids, based on recent and updated information obtained mainly from our studies of breast cancer. Data from the study of interstitial fluids recovered from several other types of cancer are also discussed...

  11. Pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caplin, M E; Baudin, E; Ferolla, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary carcinoids (PCs) are rare tumors. As there is a paucity of randomized studies, this expert consensus document represents an initiative by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society to provide guidance on their management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bibliographical searches were...... carried out in PubMed for the terms 'pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial carcinoid tumors', 'pulmonary carcinoid', 'pulmonary typical/atypical carcinoid', and 'pulmonary carcinoid and diagnosis/treatment/epidemiology/prognosis'. A systematic review...... of the relevant literature was carried out, followed by expert review. RESULTS: PCs are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and include low- and intermediate-grade malignant tumors, i.e. typical (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC), respectively. Contrast CT scan is the diagnostic gold standard for PCs...

  12. Different manifestations of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevam Rubens Utumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor normally presents as apainless, slow-growing mass, involving both maxilla and mandible,primarily the anterior segment (incisor/canine area. It generallyaffects young adults in the third to fourth decades, with no genderpredilection. Computerized tomography images revealed importantcharacteristics that were not detected by panoramic radiography,such as fenestration, calcification and tooth-like structures. Thetypical microscopic feature of this lesion is the presence of variableamounts of aberrant epithelial cells, without nuclei, which arenamed “ghost cells”. In addition, dysplastic dentine can be foundand occasionally the cyst can be associated with an area of dentalhard tissue formation resembling an odontoma. The treatment forcalcifying cystic odontogenic tumor involves simple enucleationand curettage. The purpose of this article is to present two differentmanifestation of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor in whichcomputerized tomography, associated to clinical features, servedas an important tool for diagnosis, adequate surgical planning andfollow-up of patients.

  13. Surgical strategies for nonenhancing slow-growing gliomas with special reference to functional reorganization: review with own experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yutaka; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Kinoshita, Masashi; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Nonenhancing intrinsic brain tumors have been empirically treated with a strategy that has been adopted for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II gliomas (low-grade gliomas: LGGs), even though small parts of the tumors might have been diagnosed as WHO grade III gliomas after surgery. However, the best surgical strategy for nonenhancing gliomas, including LGGs, is still debatable. LGGs have the following features: slow growth, high possibility of histologically malignant transformation, and no clear border between the tumor and adjacent normal brain. We retrospectively examined 26 consecutive patients with nonenhancing gliomas who were surgically treated at Kanazawa University Hospital between January 2006 and May 2012, with special reference to functional reorganization, extent of resection (EOR), and functional mapping during awake surgery. These categories are closely related with the features of LGG, i.e. functional reorganization due to slow-growing nature, EOR with related malignant transformation, and functional mapping for delineating the unclear tumor border. Finally, we discuss surgical strategies for slow-growing gliomas that are represented by LGGs and nonenhancing gliomas. In conclusion, slow-growing gliomas tend to undergo functional reorganization, and the functional reorganization affects the presurgical evaluation for resectability based on tumor location related to eloquence. In the clinical setting, to definitely identify the reorganized functional regions, awake surgery is recommended. Therefore, awake surgery could increase the extent of the resection of the tumor without deficits, resulting in the delay of malignant transformation and increase in overall survival.

  14. The SGIA and the Common Growing Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu CIOVICA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human or virtual agents are presented in our lives daily. They serve our purposes and represent us in different many situations. Nowadays the number of virtual agents is increasing daily because they are cheaper, faster and more accurate than human agents. Our aim in this article is to define a new type of intelligent agent called SGIA – Self Growing Intelligent Agent and a new defining language for it. The SGIA agent is an intelligent agent with all the common agents’ characteristics and with other special one: that to learn and grow by itself in knowledge and size.

  15. Growing pioneer plants for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N. O.; Lutvynenko, T. L.; Korniichuk, O. S.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Voznyuk, T. M.; Kononuchenko, O.; Zaetz, I.; Rogutskyy, I. S.; Mytrokhyn, O. V.; Mashkovska, S. P.; Foing, B. H.; Kordyum, V. A.

    A precursory scenario of cultivating the first plants in a lunar greenhouse was elaborated in frames of a conceptual study to grow plants for a permanently manned lunar base. A prototype plant growth system represents an ornamental plant Tagetes patula L. for growing in a lunar rock anorthosite as a substrate. Microbial community anticipated to be in use to support a growth and development of the plant in a substrate of low bioavailability and provide an acceptable growth and blossoming of T. patula under growth limiting conditions.

  16. Blockade of Notch Signaling in Tumor-Bearing Mice May Lead to Tumor Regression, Progression, or Metastasis, Depending on Tumor Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Bin Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that blocking Notch signaling in tumor-bearing mice results in abortive angiogenesis and tumor regression. However, given that Notch signaling influences numerous cellular processes in vivo, a comprehensive evaluation of the effect of Notch inactivation on tumor growth would be favorable. In this study, we inoculated four cancer cell lines in mice with the conditional inactivation of recombination signal-binding protein-Jκ (RBP-J, which mediates signaling from all four mammalian Notch receptors. We found that whereas three tumors including hepatocarcinoma, lung cancer, and osteogenic sarcoma grew slower in the RBP-J-deficient mice, at least a melanoma, B16, grew significantly faster in the RBP-J-deficient mice than in the controls, suggesting that the RBP-J-deficient hosts could provide permissive cues for tumor growth. All these tumors showed increased microvessels and up-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, suggesting that whereas defective angiogenesis resulted in hypoxia, different tumors might grow differentially in the RBP-J-deleted mice. Similarly, increased infiltration of Gr1+/Mac1+ cells were noticed in tumors grown in the RBP-J-inactivated mice. Moreover, we found that when inoculated in the RBP-J knockout hosts, the H22 hepatoma cells had a high frequency of metastasis and lethality, suggesting that at least for H22, deficiency of environmental Notch signaling favored tumor metastasis. Our findings suggested that the general blockade of Notch signaling in tumor-bearing mice could lead to defective angiogenesis in tumors, but depending on tumor cell types, general inhibition of Notch signaling might result in tumor regression, progression, or metastasis.

  17. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  18. Growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E Marie; Shores, Andrew; Meintel, Sarah; Hathcock, John T

    2014-09-01

    Growing skull fractures have been reported in humans for many years, usually resulting from injury to the soft skull during the rapid growth period of an infant's life. Nestling raptors have thin, fragile skulls, a rapid growth rate, and compete aggressively for food items. Skull trauma may occur, which may lead to the development of a growing skull fracture. Growing skull fractures may be under-diagnosed in raptor rehabilitation facilities that do not have access to advanced technologic equipment. Three-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography was used to diagnose a growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). The lesion was surgically repaired and the animal was eventually returned to the wild. This is the first report of a growing skull fracture in an animal. In this case, 3-D computed topographic imaging was utilized to diagnose a growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk, surgical repair was performed, and the bird recovered completely and was ultimately released.

  19. Growing up Female: As Six become One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Karen; Balto, Sylvia

    1971-01-01

    Growing up Female: As Six Become One" is an excellent film for people of any age and appropriate for any group. The film explores the lives of six American women showing how they are socialized and what their roles in society are. (Author)

  20. Growing Languages with Metamorphic Syntax Macros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    simultaneously on multiple parse trees at once. The result is a highly flexible mechanism for growing new language constructs without resorting to compile-time programming. In fact, whole new languages can be defined at surprisingly low cost.This work is fully implemented as part of the bigwig system...

  1. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  2. What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: June 2015 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Why Do I Have Pain? How Do Pain Relievers Work? Growth Disorders I'm Growing Up - But Am I Normal? What Medicines Are and What They Do Feeling Too Tall or Too Short Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  3. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  4. Growing Up in Germany: A National Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krappmann, Lothar

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes a Federal Ministry of Youth report on the conditions under which children grow up in Germany. Notes manifold problems that children face under today's living conditions. Presents recommendations and suggestions for providing a network of measures, relationships, and institutions to support children's development and education in family,…

  5. Determination of responses of growing pigs to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-03-09

    Mar 9, 1998 ... The responses in growing pigs to balanced diets at different dietary energy levels are estimated from published data after recalculation of digestible energy (DE) iev- els using standard tables. Although responses in live weight gain (ADG), food intake (Fl), digestible energy intake (DEI) and food conversion ...

  6. How fast to northern hardwoods grow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapheal Zon; H.F. Scholz

    1929-01-01

    The knowledge of the rate at which trees grow in virgin forests, after clear cutting and under selective logging, is indispensable in any forest calculations or forest practice. The enactment of the Forest Crop Law, which brought under its operation about 175,000 acres of cut-over land during the first year, the example set by several progressive lumbermen in selective...

  7. Growing Up in an Alcoholic Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Stephanie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses problems faced by children growing up in an alcoholic family. Reviews four survivor roles of children of alcoholics (COAs): super-coper, scapegoat, lost child, and family mascot. Describes alcoholism as a disease of denial. Reviews the Children of Alcoholics movement begun by adult COAs to become advocates for COAs. (NB)

  8. Growing up as a Young Artist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2012-01-01

    "Growing Up as a Young Artist" is an illustrated book assignment that involves researching family scrapbooks, photo albums and films, and inquiring about family anecdotes for clues to one's artistic roots. Students creatively reflect on their early memories of imaginative events, as each page is filled with memories of creative activities they…

  9. Play Games to Grow up Bilingual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2007-01-01

    A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items, that...

  10. Play Games to Grow up Bilingual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2008-01-01

    A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items, that...

  11. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  12. growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermoregulation and evaporative water loss in growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus. M.H. Knight. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. With an increase in mass, weaned giant rat pups. Cricetomys gambianus, showed a corresponding decline in mass specific metabolism, conductance ...

  13. The Role of the Tumor Stroma in Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ben eDavidson; Claes eTrope; Reuven eReich

    2014-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment, consisting of stromal myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, and leukocytes, is growingly perceived to be a major contributor to the pathogenesis and disease progression in practically all cancer types. Stromal myofibroblasts produce angiogenic factors, proteases, growth factors, immune response-modulating proteins, anti-apoptotic proteins, and signaling molecules, and express surface receptors and respond to stimuli initiated in the tumor cells to establish a bi-direc...

  14. [Tumor genetic heterogeneity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ling; Chu, Jia-You; Wang, Ming-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Although the majority of spontaneous tumors derive from a single cell, people have come to realize intra-tumor heterogeneity of individual tumors. Human cancers frequently display substantial difference in phenotypic features, such as the degree of differentiation, cell proliferation rate, invasion and metastatic potential, response to therapy and many other aspects. Molecular biology studies have confirmed the occurrence of new mutations during the process of tumor progression, which provide more powerful evidences to show the existence of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity. This re-view will focus on recent major advances in the study of tumor genetic heterogeneity. Considering that genetic heterogene-ity analysis can provide important information to indicate how long normal cells transform into tumor cells and how to spread and migrate, we firstly describe experimental evidences of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity. Then we discuss the research value of genetic diversity in the evolutionary history of human individual tumor, introduce the two modes of the genetic heterogeneity - cancer stem cell model and the clonal evolution model, and summarize the implications of in-tra-tumor heterogeneity studies in metastasis and therapy. In addition, the article presents the research methods of genetic heterogeneity, including specific gene and genome-wide level, pointing out their strengths and limitations.

  15. CARROT SEED GROWING THROUGH WINTERING SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Zvedenuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research work on carrot seed growing through wintering seedlings carried out at laboratory of seed studies and seed production of Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture, on the soil of the first terrace at the rive Dniester were presented in the article. Seed bearing plants of garden carrot ‘Krasavka’ were the object of the study. The seeds were sown to produce the seedlings on 15-16 August. In the first decade of December the plants were covered with white agrotextile with density 23g/m2 that was removed at the beginning of April. The proportion of plant that passed the winter depending on a year of cultivation was 95-100% under argotextile, and 50-80% in open plot. The plants under agrotextile reached 28 cm a high and had 5-7 well-developed leaves, while those on the open plot were at phase of active foliage growing about 10-13 cm. long. Thus, for early mechanized planting in optimal terms the wintering seedlings grown under agrotextile had the best biometrical characteristics. Moreover the outcome of carrot seedlings was 1.2-1.25 million per hectare. Such quantity of seedlings was sufficient to plant 9-10 ha of carrot plants, where the coefficient of multiplication reached 9-10, and only 3 when growing seeds through mother plant as biennial culture. Viability of seed plants grown through seedlings was 100%. Losses of plant with weight 120-150 grams from damage caused by diseases was 23%. The seed yield, when growing seedlings was 639 kg/ha, but growing through plants was 332 kg/ha. The seed outcome suitable for precise mechanized sowing through seedling growing was 77%, where seed germination was 90%, with seed fraction 1.51 and >2.0 mm. It was essentially improved their yielding characteristics. Seed outcome from this fraction obtained through planting method was 32%. The proportion of seeds in fraction 1-1.5 mm was 68%. For mechanized single-seed sowing, the seeds can be used only after mini-coating. The seed

  16. Slow-growing craniopharyngioma masquarading as early-onset eating disorder: Two cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad Winkler, Laura; Andersen, Marianne; Hørder, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Craniopharyngiomas are slow-growing tumors, which can either be asymptomatic or present themselves with visual, neuropsychiatric or endocrine disturbances. Eating disorders (EDs) are syndromes with unknown etiology, associated with multiple endocrine abnormalities. In pediatric cases...... the possibility of an as yet unidentified structural hypothalamic disorder to be implicated in the etiopathogeny of ED. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord, 2009....

  17. Antigenotoxicity and Tumor Growing Inhibition by Leafy Brassica carinata and Sinigrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Baena, María-Dolores; Tasset, Inmaculada; Obregón-Cano, Sara; de Haro-Bailon, Antonio; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles

    2015-08-28

    Cruciferous vegetables are well known and worldwide consumed due to their health benefits and cancer prevention properties. As a desirable cruciferous plant, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) and its glucosinolate sinigrin were tested in the in vivo Drosophila melanogaster (SMART) and the in vitro HL60 (human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line) systems. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of plant samples confirmed the presence of sinigrin as principal B. carinata glucosinolate. SMART was performed by feeding D. melanogaster larvae either with different concentrations of plant/compound samples or combining them with hydrogen peroxide (a potent oxidative mutagen) being both antimutagenics. HL60 assays showed the tumoricidal activity of plant samples (IC50 = 0.28 mg·mL(-1)) and the breakdown products of sinigrin hydrolysis (IC50 = 2.71 µM). Our results enhance the potential of B. carinata as health promoter and chemopreventive in both systems and the leading role of sinigrin in these effects.

  18. Antigenotoxicity and Tumor Growing Inhibition by Leafy Brassica carinata and Sinigrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Lozano-Baena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cruciferous vegetables are well known and worldwide consumed due to their health benefits and cancer prevention properties. As a desirable cruciferous plant, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun and its glucosinolate sinigrin were tested in the in vivo Drosophila melanogaster (SMART and the in vitro HL60 (human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line systems. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of plant samples confirmed the presence of sinigrin as principal B. carinata glucosinolate. SMART was performed by feeding D. melanogaster larvae either with different concentrations of plant/compound samples or combining them with hydrogen peroxide (a potent oxidative mutagen being both antimutagenics. HL60 assays showed the tumoricidal activity of plant samples (IC50 = 0.28 mg·mL−1 and the breakdown products of sinigrin hydrolysis (IC50 = 2.71 µM. Our results enhance the potential of B. carinata as health promoter and chemopreventive in both systems and the leading role of sinigrin in these effects.

  19. Alpha v beta 3 integrin-targeting of intraperitoneally growing tumors with a radiolabeled RGD peptide.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, I.; Kruijtzer, J.A.; Frielink, C.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Liskamp, R.M.; Boerman, O.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths among females in the western world after cancer of the breast, colon and lung. The inability to control the disease within the peritoneal cavity is the major cause of treatment failure in patients with ovarian cancer. The majority of

  20. Angiographic features of rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma (RICH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konez, Orhan; Burrows, Patricia E. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Mulliken, John B. [Division of Plastic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Fishman, Steven J. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kozakewich, Harry P.W. [Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma (RICH) is a recently recognized entity in which the vascular tumor is fully developed at birth and undergoes rapid involution. Angiographic findings in two infants with congenital hemangioma are reported and compared with a more common postnatal infantile hemangioma and a congenital infantile fibrosarcoma. Congenital hemangiomas differed from infantile hemangiomas angiographically by inhomogeneous parenchymal staining, large and irregular feeding arteries in disorganized patterns, arterial aneurysms, direct arteriovenous shunts, and intravascular thrombi. Both infants had clinical evidence of a high-output cardiac failure and intralesional bleeding. This congenital high-flow vascular tumor is difficult to distinguish angiographically from arteriovenous malformation and congenital infantile fibrosarcoma. (orig.)

  1. Perspective on how laser-ablated particles grow in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, DongShi; Liu, Jun; Liang, ChangHao

    2017-07-01

    Laser ablation in liquids has emerged as a new branch of nanoscience for developing various nanomaterials with different shapes. However, how to design and control nanomaterial growth is still a challenge due to the unique chemical-physical process chain correlated with nanomaterial nucleation and growth, including plasma phase (generation and rapid quenching), gas (bubble) phase, and liquid phase. In this review, through summarizing the literature about this topic and comparing with the well-established particle growth mechanisms of the conventional wet chemistry technique, our perspective on the possible nanoparticle growth mechanisms or routes is presented, aiming at shedding light on how laser-ablated particles grow in liquids. From the microscopic viewpoint, the nanoparticle growth contains six mechanisms, including LaMer-like growth, coalescence, Ostwald ripening, particle (oriented) attachment, adsorbate-induced growth and reaction-induced growth. For each microscopic growth mechanism, the vivid growth scenes of some representative nanomaterials recorded by TEM and SEM measurements are displayed. Afterwards, the scenes from the macroscopic viewpoint for the large submicro- and micro-scale nanospheres and anisotropic nanostructures formation and evolution from one nanostructure into another one are presented. The panorama of how diverse nanomaterials grow during and after laser ablation in liquids shown in this review is intended to offer a overview for researchers to search for the possible mechanisms correlated to their synthesized nanomaterials, and more expectation is desired to better design and tailor the morphology of the nanocrystals synthesized by LAL technique.

  2. A large abdominal desmoid tumor associated with pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyaroj, Vichit; Yingsakmongkol, Narongchai; Pasukdee, Passakorn; Rermluk, Naparat

    2009-06-01

    Desmoid tumors are rare, benign tumors with locally aggressive behavior which originate from fascial or musculoaponeurotic structure. They are more common in young women than young man. The etiology of desmoid tumors are uncertain but may be related to operation, trauma or hormonal factors. The authors report a 17-year old woman, gravida 1, para 1 with a mass at her lower abdominal wall during the fifth month of gestation. She was biopsied during delivery in another hospital but was not given a definite diagnosis. The mass had grown rapidly after biopsy and delivery. The tumor measured 28 x 21 x 18 centimeters in size and 4,900 g in weight. Complete surgical excision was performed The pathological report was desmoid tumor (aggressive fibromatosis). She had no post-operative complication and no recurrent tumor in the 8 months after operation.

  3. A Structured Light-based System for Scanning Subcutaneous Tumors in Laboratory Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Girit, Ibrahim Cem; Jure-Kunkel, Maria; McIntyre, Kim W

    2008-01-01

    Tumor size or volume is often the primary endpoint in preclinical efficacy studies of anticancer drugs. Efficient and accurate measurement of such tumors is crucial to rapid evaluation of novel drug candidates. Currently available techniques for acquiring high-throughput data on tumor volume are time-consuming and prone to various inaccuracies and errors. The laser-scanning technology we describe here provides a convenient, high-throughput system for tumor measurement that reduces interoperat...

  4. Pediatric genetic ocular tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Rouhani, Behnaz; Ramasubramanian, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric genetic ocular tumors include malignancies like retinoblastoma and phakomatosis like neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. It is important to screen for ocular tumors both for visual prognosis and also for systemic implications. The phakomatosis comprise of multitude of benign tumors that are aysmptomatic but their detection can aid in the diagnosis of the syndrome. Retinoblastoma is the most common malignant int...

  5. Physiologic upper limit of pore size in the blood-tumor barrier of malignant solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Gary L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of large pores in the blood-tumor barrier (BTB of malignant solid tumor microvasculature makes the blood-tumor barrier more permeable to macromolecules than the endothelial barrier of most normal tissue microvasculature. The BTB of malignant solid tumors growing outside the brain, in peripheral tissues, is more permeable than that of similar tumors growing inside the brain. This has been previously attributed to the larger anatomic sizes of the pores within the BTB of peripheral tumors. Since in the physiological state in vivo a fibrous glycocalyx layer coats the pores of the BTB, it is possible that the effective physiologic pore size in the BTB of brain tumors and peripheral tumors is similar. If this were the case, then the higher permeability of the BTB of peripheral tumor would be attributable to the presence of a greater number of pores in the BTB of peripheral tumors. In this study, we probed in vivo the upper limit of pore size in the BTB of rodent malignant gliomas grown inside the brain, the orthotopic site, as well as outside the brain in temporalis skeletal muscle, the ectopic site. Methods Generation 5 (G5 through generation 8 (G8 polyamidoamine dendrimers were labeled with gadolinium (Gd-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid, an anionic MRI contrast agent. The respective Gd-dendrimer generations were visualized in vitro by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Following intravenous infusion of the respective Gd-dendrimer generations (Gd-G5, N = 6; Gd-G6, N = 6; Gd-G7, N = 5; Gd-G8, N = 5 the blood and tumor tissue pharmacokinetics of the Gd-dendrimer generations were visualized in vivo over 600 to 700 minutes by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. One additional animal was imaged in each Gd-dendrimer generation group for 175 minutes under continuous anesthesia for the creation of voxel-by-voxel Gd concentration maps. Results The estimated diameters of Gd-G7 dendrimers were 11 ± 1 nm and those of Gd-G8

  6. TUMORES ANEXIALES Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia M.,Mauricio; Orellana H,Ricardo; Cisterna C,Patricio; Gazitúa P.,Raimundo; Sepúlveda A.,Rodrigo

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la frecuencia de tumores anexiales en el embarazo, la histología tumoral y los resultados perinatales. Pacientes y método: Análisis retrospectivo de 33 pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor anexial y embarazo atendidas en el Servicio de Obstetricia del Hospital San Juan de Dios entre febrero de 2001 a julio de 2004. Resultados: La asociación tumor anexial y embarazo fue 1 en 424 embarazos. El tipo histológico más frecuente fue el cistoadenoma seroso (19,2%). La cirugía no alter...

  7. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, an uncommon tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Vasudevan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT in the maxilla in a young girl aged 14 years and its surgical management. We also review the literature and variations in the nomenclature and classifications of this interesting tumor. The review of literature gives an interesting picture regarding terminologies in the past and dilemma in classifying this tumor. The introduction of the name adenomatoid odontogenic tumour has resulted in the simpler and fruitful surgical management like enucleation and curettage with no reports of recurrences. In the past, similar lesion with the terminology like adeno ameloblastoma has resulted in unnecessary mutilating surgery. The conflicting views whether the lesion is being neoplasm or an anomalous hamartomatous growth is also being discussed.

  8. Probing the tumor microenvironment: collection and induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James K.; Padgen, Michael R.; Wang, Yarong; Entenberg, David; Gertler, Frank; Condeelis, John S.; Castracane, James

    2012-03-01

    The Nano Intravital Device, or NANIVID, is under development as an optically transparent, implantable tool to study the tumor microenvironment. Two etched glass substrates are sealed using a thin polymer membrane to create a reservoir with a single outlet. This reservoir is loaded with a hydrogel blend that contains growth factors or other chemicals to be delivered to the tumor microenvironment. When the device is implanted in the tumor, the hydrogel will swell and release these entrapped molecules, forming a gradient. Validation of the device has been performed in vitro using epidermal growth factor (EGF) and MenaINV, a highly invasive, rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. In both 2-D and 3-D environments, cells migrated toward the gradient of EGF released from the device. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of White Leghorn chicken eggs is being utilized to grow xenograft tumors that will be used for ex vivo cell collection. Device optimization is being performed for in vivo use as a tool to collect the invasive cell population. Preliminary cell collection experiments in vivo were performed using a mouse model of breast cancer. As a second application, the device is being explored as a delivery vehicle for chemicals that induce controlled changes in the tumor microenvironment. H2O2 was loaded in the device and generated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells near the device outlet. In the future, other induction targets will be explored, including hypoglycemia and the manipulation of extracellular matrix stiffness.

  9. Somatostatin receptors as markers for endocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reubi, J.C.

    1987-06-19

    Endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively rare neoplasias that secrete large amounts of peptide hormones such as insulin, glucagon, gastrin, or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). These substances are usually responsible for the distinct clinical features observed in patients with such tumors. Although most are relatively slow growing tumors, they may lead in early stages to dramatic symptoms such as hypoglycemia, gastric ulcerations, or watery diarrhea. Unfortunately they are often difficult to localize precisely at that stage. Somatostatin, a tetradecapeptide that inhibits peptide hormone release in various sites such as the pituitary, the pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract, has been shown recently to have beneficial effects when given chronically in the form of a stable non-degradable octapeptide analogue (SMS 201-995) in such gastrointestinal endocrine tumors. This essay demonstrates with autoradiographic techniques the very high density of somatostatin receptors in one case of human gastrinoma. A hematoxylineosin-stained histologic section reveals a well-defined, 2-mm-long tumor surrounded by normal tissue. After incubation of the section with an iodinated somatostatin analogue (/sup 125/I-(Leu, D-Trp, Tyr)-somatostatin-28), the distribution of somatostatin receptors was visualized on tritium-sensitive films after a one-week exposure of the section in x-ray cassettes.

  10. Tumor lymphangiogenesis and new drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Lothar C; Detmar, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, tumor-associated lymphatic vessels have been regarded as passive by-standers, serving simply as a drainage system for interstitial fluid generated within the tumor. However, with growing evidence that tumors actively induce lymphangiogenesis, and that the number of lymphatic vessels closely correlates with metastasis and clinical outcome in various types of cancer, this picture has changed dramatically in recent years. Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels have now emerged as a valid therapeutic target to control metastatic disease, and the first specific anti-lymphangiogenic drugs have recently entered clinical testing. Furthermore, we are just beginning to understand the whole functional spectrum of tumor-associated lymphatic vessels, which not only concerns transport of fluid and metastatic cells, but also includes the regulation of cancer stemness and specific inhibition of immune responses, opening new venues for therapeutic applications. Therefore, we predict that specific targeting of lymphatic vessels and their function will become an important tool for future cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Atypical proliferating mucinous tumors of gigantic dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likić-Lađević Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP are also known as atypically proliferating tumors. Ovarian tumors of LPM account for approximately 15% of all epithelial ovarian cancers. Mean age of occurrence is 40 years and they are 15-20 cm in diameter. Case report. A 32-year-old female patient was hospitalized as an urgent case with a large tumor mass that filled the entire abdomen. Cyst was 100 × 70 cm dimensions belonging to the right ovary and filled with 18 liters of content. Right adnexectomy, resection of the second ovary, as well as biopsy of the omentum were performed. Lymphadenectomy of the right iliac and obturator area was also performed. After receiving definitive histopathological results it was decided to perform a radical reoperation. On the 10th postoperative day relaparotomy, total hysterectomy and left adnexectomy were performed. The patient was released on the 6th postoperative day. She used to come to regular examinations up to date. Conclusion. This case is a proof that LMP tumors have low malignant potential, they grow slowly and can reach great proportions.

  12. Learning Topologies with the Growing Neural Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Esteban José; López-Rubio, Ezequiel

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a novel self-organizing model called growing neural forest (GNF) is presented. It is based on the growing neural gas (GNG), which learns a general graph with no special provisions for datasets with separated clusters. On the contrary, the proposed GNF learns a set of trees so that each tree represents a connected cluster of data. High dimensional datasets often contain large empty regions among clusters, so this proposal is better suited to them than other self-organizing models because it represents these separated clusters as connected components made of neurons. Experimental results are reported which show the self-organization capabilities of the model. Moreover, its suitability for unsupervised clustering and foreground detection applications is demonstrated. In particular, the GNF is shown to correctly discover the connected component structure of some datasets. Moreover, it outperforms some well-known foreground detectors both in quantitative and qualitative terms.

  13. Giant subungual glomus tumor: clinical, dermoscopy, imagiologic and surgery details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana Filipa; Correia, Osvaldo; Barreiros, Hugo; Haneke, Eckart

    2016-10-15

    Glomus tumor is a rare benign vascular hamartoma derived from the modified smooth muscle cells of the glomus body. Paroxysmal pain is the leading symptom. A 78-year-old woman presented at our clinic with a 50-year history of a slow growing painful purple blue tender nodule under the right fourth finger nail. Dermoscopy and magnetic ressonance confirmed the presence of a large subungual tumor and total surgical excision was performed after partial nail plate avulsion. Histologic examination confirmed a glomus tumor. After 1 year of follow-up, the nail grew with normal shape and neither complications nor recurrence were observed.

  14. [Extra-axial tumors of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühl-Benninghaus, R

    2017-09-01

    Extra-axial tumors are intracranial neoplasms but are not located within the brain parenchyma. The localization of intracranial neoplasms helps to narrow down the possible differential diagnoses and also plays a deciding role in the treatment strategy and the prognosis. For this reason exact localization of these lesions is extremely important. Extra-axial tumors are the most common neoplasms among adults. They can be divided in a broad spectrum of histopathological subgroups. The most common extra-axial tumors are meningiomas, which arise from the dura mater. In the vast majority of cases they are benign and slowly growing. Only a few rare subgroups show aggressive behavior.

  15. Fruit-Growing in Latvia – Industry and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmane Edīte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In all times, fruit trees for family use have been grown at Latvian farms. Yet these fruits obtained market value only after the land ownership reform in 19th century. This facilitated rapid area increase of different fruit crops, allowing supply with fruits not only the local market, but also for export to the largest cities of Russia. Especially fast development of fruit-growing was observed during the first independent republic (1919–1940. The demand for planting material increased, and plants were imported from Western Europe. Choice of unsuitable cultivars and rootstocks was the main reason of the massive orchard area loss during the following severe winters. After the Second World War, the Soviet powers supported only the establishment of large orchards for processing needs, 200-300 ha, which were unsuitable for the Latvian climate and terrain. At the same time, numbers of allotment gardens rapidly increased and part of their produce was sold also on the market. After regaining of independence and private property, interest in fresh fruit and berry production for market, as well as processing, renewed. It was hindered by lack of continuity in experience and knowledge. Diversity of terrain, soils and climate all demand considerate choice of suitable orchard location and cultivars. Direct use of foreign experience often led to failure. At present, development of the fruit industry is most of all hindered by lack of qualified specialists of different levels, which does not allow to establish an appropriate consulting system. Cooperation of growers for easier marketing also is developing too slowly. Insufficient economic and market research does not allow to balance the demand with increase of plantation area, especially for large-scale processing and export, so strategic guidance of the fruit industry is not possible. Development of fruit-growing is hindered also by a lack of continuous long-term support to horticultural science. As a

  16. DNA Tumor Viruses and Cell Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Darekar, Suhas; Kashuba, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Viruses play an important role in cancerogenesis. It is estimated that approximately 20% of all cancers are linked to infectious agents. The viral genes modulate the physiological machinery of infected cells that lead to cell transformation and development of cancer. One of the important adoptive responses by the cancer cells is their metabolic change to cope up with continuous requirement of cell survival and proliferation. In this review we will focus on how DNA viruses alter the glucose metabolism of transformed cells. Tumor DNA viruses enhance "aerobic" glycolysis upon virus-induced cell transformation, supporting rapid cell proliferation and showing the Warburg effect. Moreover, viral proteins enhance glucose uptake and controls tumor microenvironment, promoting metastasizing of the tumor cells.

  17. Efficient Communication Management in a Growing Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Alakotila, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the importance of organisational communication and to explain how communication should be managed for it to be effective. Two fast-growing companies were interviewed for the thesis, who give entail on how they have managed communication regarding the organisational changes. Organisational communication is divided into external, stakeholder and internal communication in this study. With the help of interviews from two case companies, researcher offers r...

  18. Transformational Leadership Which Can Grow Organizational Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Betty Yuliani

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis consist of 45 studies from 20 articles and 20860 subjects evaluated the correlation between Transformational leadership and Organizational commitment. Summary analysis provided support for the hypothesis that transformational leadership has a correlation on organizational commitment. The purpose of the study is to analyzed the data from the primer study and to support the hypothesis or refuse from the studies. Result indicated that transformational leadership can grow organiza...

  19. Shape of the growing front of biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Stone, Howard A.; Golestanian, Ramin

    2017-12-01

    The spatial organization of bacteria in dense biofilms is key to their collective behaviour, and understanding it will be important for medical and technological applications. Here we study the morphology of a compact biofilm that undergoes unidirectional growth, and determine the condition for the stability of the growing interface as a function of the nutrient concentration and mechanical tension. Our study suggests that transient behaviour may play an important role in shaping the structure of a biofilm.

  20. Economic Gardening and the Grow Kentucky Program

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Lynn W.; Allen, James E. IV

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Community and Economic Development Initiative of Kentucky (CEDIK) and the Kentucky Small Business Development Center (KSBDC), launched Grow Kentucky, Kentucky’s only certified Economic Gardening program. The program helps second-stage entrepreneurial growth companies penetrate existing markets, identify new markets, monitor competitors, track industry trends, locate customer clusters, use search engine optimization/social media for marketing and various other customized research....

  1. Growing Role of Retail in Distribution Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the growing role of retail trade (retail) in the channels of distribution of goods both in domestic and international markets. Technical-technological development has provided great opportunities for all production of material goods, so that the focus of problem in the economic possibilities of playing shifted from production to sales opportunities, or consumption. The ultimate consumers and their needs and requirements have become a central area of study, bas...

  2. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Martha [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-04-17

    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  3. Tumor carcinoide apendicular Appendiceal carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Vázquez Palanco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue dar a conocer un interesante caso de tumor carcinoide que se presentó con cuadro clínico de apendicitis aguda. El paciente fue un varón de 8 años de edad, al cual se realizó apendicectomía a causa de una apendicitis aguda. El resultado anatomopatológico confirmó un tumor de células endocrinas (argentafinoma, tumor carcinoide en el tercio distal del órgano, que infiltraba hasta la serosa, y apendicitis aguda supurada. El paciente fue enviado a un servicio de oncohematología para tratamiento oncoespecífico. Por lo inusual de estos tumores en edades tempranas y por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta no consecuente, decidimos presentar este caso a la comunidad científica nacional e internacional. Es extremadamente importante el seguimiento de los pacientes con apendicitis aguda y de las conclusiones del examen histológico, por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta inadecuada en una situación como esta.The objective of this paper was to make known an interesting case of carcinoid tumor that presented a clinical picture of acute appendicitis.The patient was an eight-year-old boy that underwent appendectomy due to an acute appendicitis. The anatomopathological report confirmed an endocrine cell tumor (argentaffinoma, carcinoid tumor in the distal third of the organ that infiltrated up to the serosa, and acute suppurative appendicitis. The patient was referred to an oncohematology service for oncospecific treatment. As it is a rare tumor at early ages, and taking into account what a inconsequent behavior may represent for the child, it was decided to present this case to the national and international scientific community. The follow-up of the patients with acute appendicitis and of the conclusions of the histological examination is extremely important considering what an inadequate conduct may represent for the child in a situation like this.

  4. Proportion of Uterine Malignant Tumors in Patients with Laparoscopic Myomectomy: A National Multicenter Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The proportion of malignancy is low after using morcellation in patients who undergo laparoscopic myomectomy. Patients with fast-growing uterine fibroids and abnormal ultrasonic tumor blood flow should be considered for malignant potential, and morcellation should be avoided.

  5. Whole-cell cancer vaccination: from autologous to allogeneic tumor- and dendritic cell-based vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruijl, de Tanja; Eertwegh, van den Alfons; Pinedo, Herbert; Scheper, Rik

    2008-01-01

    The Weld of tumor vaccination is currently undergoing a shift in focus, from individualized tailor-made vaccines to more generally applicable vaccine formulations. Although primarily predicated by Wnancial and logistic considerations, stemming from a growing awareness that clinical development

  6. A Novel Approach to Monitoring Prostate Tumor Oxygenation: Proton MRI of the Reporter Molecule Hexamethyldisiloxane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Weina

    2006-01-01

    Growing evidence iron experimental and clinical studies confirms that solid human tumors have foci of hypoxic cells, which have a profound influence on the therapeutic outcome of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy...

  7. A Novel Approach to Monitoring Prostate Tumor Oxygenation: Proton MRI of the Reporter Molecule Hexamethyldisiloxane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Weina

    2005-01-01

    Growing evidence from experimental and clinical studies confirms that solid human tumors have foci of hypoxic cells, which have a profound influence on the therapeutic outcome of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy...

  8. Uniform brain tumor distribution and tumor associated macrophage targeting of systemically administered dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Mishra, Manoj K; Mangraviti, Antonella; Hwang, Lee; Zhou, Jinyuan; Hanes, Justin; Brem, Henry; Olivi, Alessandro; Tyler, Betty; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M

    2015-06-01

    Effective blood-brain tumor barrier penetration and uniform solid tumor distribution can significantly enhance therapeutic delivery to brain tumors. Hydroxyl-functionalized, generation-4 poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, with their small size, near-neutral surface charge, and the ability to selectively localize in cells associated with neuroinflammation may offer new opportunities to address these challenges. In this study we characterized the intracranial tumor biodistribution of systemically delivered PAMAM dendrimers in an intracranial rodent gliosarcoma model using fluorescence-based quantification methods and high resolution confocal microscopy. We observed selective and homogeneous distribution of dendrimer throughout the solid tumor (∼6 mm) and peritumoral area within fifteen minutes after systemic administration, with subsequent accumulation and retention in tumor associated microglia/macrophages (TAMs). Neuroinflammation and TAMs have important growth promoting and pro-invasive effects in brain tumors. The rapid clearance of systemically administered dendrimers from major organs promises minimal off-target adverse effects of conjugated drugs. Therefore, selective delivery of immunomodulatory molecules to TAM, using hydroxyl PAMAM dendrimers, may hold promise for therapy of glioblastoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Minichromosome Maintenance Expression Defines Slow-Growing Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schimmack

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm (SI-NEN proliferation is quantified by Ki67 measurements which capture G1-G2M phases of the cell cycle. G0 and early G1 phases, typical of slow-growing cells, can be detected by minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM expression. We hypothesized that these replication licensing markers may provide clinically relevant information to augment Ki67 in low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasia. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining (IHC, Western blot analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and copy number variations of MCM2, MCM3, and Ki67 were undertaken in SI-NENs (n = 22. MCM and Ki67 expression was compared by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (tissue microarray, independent set [n = 55]. Forty-three pancreatic NENs and 14 normal tissues were included as controls. RESULTS: In SI-NENs, MCM2 (mean: 21.2%: range: 16%-25% and MCM3 (28.7%: 22%-34% were detected in significantly more cells than Ki67 (2.3%: 0%-7%, P < .01. MCM2 mRNA correlated with Ki67 IHC (P < .05. MCM3 protein expression was higher in metastases (38-fold than in normal small intestine (P = .06 and was largely absent in normal neuroendocrine cells. There was considerable variation at the MCM copy number level (0-4 copies. MCM3 expression in proliferating cells significantly predicted overall survival (P < .002. Combinations of Ki67 and MCM2/3 in algorithms differentiated low and higher proliferative lesions (overall survival: 12 vs 6.1 years, P = .06. MCM expression was not informative in pancreatic NENs. CONCLUSION: MCMs are expressed in a higher proportion of NEN cells than Ki67 in slow-growing small intestinal lesions and correlate with survival. Assessment can be used to augment Ki67 to improve prognostic classification in these low-grade tumors.

  10. Genomic signature of BRCA1 deficiency in sporadic basal-like breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosse, Simon A; Brandwijk, Kim I M; Mulder, Lennart; Wesseling, Jelle; Hannemann, Juliane; Nederlof, Petra M

    2011-02-01

    About 10-20% of all breast carcinomas show a basal-like phenotype, while ∼ 90% of breast tumors from BRCA1-mutation carriers are of this subtype. There is growing evidence that BRCA1-mutated tumors are not just a specific subset of the basal-like tumors, but that (the majority of) basal-like tumors show a dysfunctional BRCA1 pathway. This has major treatment implications, because emerging regimens specifically targeting DNA repair mechanisms would then be most effective against these tumors. To further understand the involvement of BRCA1 deficiency in sporadic basal-like tumors, we investigated 41 basal-like tumors for BRCA1 mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, BRCA1 promoter methylation, their genomic profile by array-CGH, and gene expression levels by whole genome expression arrays. Array-CGH results were compared to those of 34 proven BRCA1-mutated tumors. Basal-like tumors were subdivided into two equal groups: deficient and proficient in BRCA1 gene expression. The chromosomal makeup of BRCA1 deficient sporadic basal-like tumors was similar to that of BRCA1-mutated tumors. BRCA1 proficient sporadic basal-like tumors were more similar to nonbasal-like tumors. Only half of the basal-like breast tumors are actually deficient in BRCA1 expression. Gain of chromosome arm 3q is a marker for BRCA1 deficiency in hereditary and sporadic breast tumors. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Number of Single-Sex Schools Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Tal

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's office for civil rights has proposed amending the regulations governing Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972--which prohibits sex discrimination in programs that receive federal money--to allow more flexibility in offering single-sex schools or classes. This article discusses the rapid growth of…

  12. A Big Bang model of human colorectal tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottoriva, Andrea; Kang, Haeyoun; Ma, Zhicheng; Graham, Trevor A; Salomon, Matthew P; Zhao, Junsong; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Press, Michael F; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina

    2015-03-01

    What happens in early, still undetectable human malignancies is unknown because direct observations are impractical. Here we present and validate a 'Big Bang' model, whereby tumors grow predominantly as a single expansion producing numerous intermixed subclones that are not subject to stringent selection and where both public (clonal) and most detectable private (subclonal) alterations arise early during growth. Genomic profiling of 349 individual glands from 15 colorectal tumors showed an absence of selective sweeps, uniformly high intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) and subclone mixing in distant regions, as postulated by our model. We also verified the prediction that most detectable ITH originates from early private alterations and not from later clonal expansions, thus exposing the profile of the primordial tumor. Moreover, some tumors appear 'born to be bad', with subclone mixing indicative of early malignant potential. This new model provides a quantitative framework to interpret tumor growth dynamics and the origins of ITH, with important clinical implications.

  13. Pilocytic astrocytoma: A rare presentation as intraventricular tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Sidra; Akhunzada, Naveed Z.; Javed, Gohar; Uddin, Zeeshan; Khan, Yasir A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most prevalent central nervous system (CNS) tumor in pediatric population and accounts for an approximate of 5–6% of all gliomas. This neoplasm can occur at all levels of the neuraxis, with majority (67%) arising in the cerebellum and optic pathway. PAs are World Health Organization Grade I tumors and are the most benign of all astrocytomas characterized by an excellent prognosis. Other differentials include subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), ependymoma, meningioma, and low-grade gliomas such as pilocytic or diffuse astrocytoma; calcification is more commonly regarded as a feature of benign or slow-growing tumors. Case Description: We present a case of a 17-year-old female presenting with an unusual cause of hydrocephalus, a rare case of a calcified pilocytic astrocytoma as an intraventricular tumor. Conclusion: PA rarely presents as an intraventricular tumor and should be included in the differential diagnosis of a large mass with massive intratumoral calcification. PMID:28680735

  14. Pathophysiological Basis for the Formation of the Tumor Microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael R; Vaupel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Poor microenvironmental conditions are a characteristic feature of solid tumors. Such conditions occur because the tumor vascular supply, which develops from the normal host vasculature by the process of angiogenesis, is generally inadequate in meeting the oxygen and nutrient demands of the growing...... tumor mass. Regions of low oxygenation (hypoxia) is believed to be the most critical deficiency, since it has been well documented to play a significant role in influencing the response to conventional radiation and chemotherapy treatments, as well as influencing malignant progression in terms...... of aggressive growth and recurrence of the primary tumor and its metastatic spread. As a result, significant emphasis has been placed on finding clinically applicable approaches to identify those tumors that contain hypoxia and realistic methods to target this hypoxia. However, most studies consider hypoxia...

  15. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  16. Exposure to vibrations in wine growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Pessina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart the winter period, the activity in specialized agricultural cultivations (i.e. wine- and fruit-growing is distributed for a long period of the year. Some tasks, such as pesticide distribution, are repeated several times during the growing season. On the other hand, mechanization is one of the pillars on which is based the modern agriculture management. As a consequence, in wine growing the tractor driver has to be considered a worker potentially subjected to high level of vibrations, due to the poor machinery conditions often encountered, and sometimes to the rough soil surface of the vineyard combined with the high travelling speed adopted in carrying out many operations. About vibrations, the Italian Decree 81/08 basically refers to the European Directive 2002/44/CE, that provides some very strict limits of exposure, both for whole body and hand-arm districts. In Oltrepo pavese, a large hilly area located the south part of the Pavia province (Lombardy - Italy wine growing is the main agricultural activity; for this reason, a detailed survey on the vibration levels recorded at the tractor driver’s seat was carried out, in order to ascertain the real risk to which the operators are exposed. The activity in wine growing has been classified into 6 groups of similar tasks, as follows: 1. canopy management: pruning, trimming, binding, stripping, etc.; 2. soil management: harrowing, hoeing, subsoiling etc.; 3. inter-row management: chopping of pruning , pinching, grass mowing, etc.; 4. crop protection: pesticides and fungicides distribution, sulfidation, foliar fertilization, etc.; 5. grape harvesting: manual or mechanical; 6. transport: from the vineyard to the cellar. For each group of tasks, the vibration levels on 3 the traditional axes (x, y and z were recorded, and then an exposure time was calculated for each of them, in order to ascertain the risk level in comparison to what provided by the dedicated standard. Finally, a detailed

  17. Control of mammary tumor differentiation by SKI-606 (bosutinib).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbard, L; Cecena, G; Golas, J; Sawada, J; Ellies, L G; Charbono, A; Williams, R; Jimenez, R E; Wankell, M; Arndt, K T; DeJoy, S Q; Rollins, R A; Diesl, V; Follettie, M; Chen, L; Rosfjord, E; Cardiff, R D; Komatsu, M; Boschelli, F; Oshima, R G

    2011-01-20

    C-Src is infrequently mutated in human cancers but it mediates oncogenic signals of many activated growth factor receptors and thus remains a key target for cancer therapy. However, the broad function of Src in many cell types and processes requires evaluation of Src-targeted therapeutics within a normal developmental and immune-competent environment. In an effort to understand the appropriate clinical use of Src inhibitors, we tested an Src inhibitor, SKI-606 (bosutinib), in the MMTV-PyVmT transgenic mouse model of breast cancer. Tumor formation in this model is dependent on the presence of Src, but the necessity of Src kinase activity for tumor formation has not been determined. Furthermore, Src inhibitors have not been examined in an autochthonous tumor model that permits assessment of effects on different stages of tumor progression. Here we show that oral administration of SKI-606 inhibited the phosphorylation of Src in mammary tumors and caused a rapid decrease in the Ezh2 Polycomb group histone H3K27 methyltransferase and an increase in epithelial organization. SKI-606 prevented the appearance of palpable tumors in over 50% of the animals and stopped tumor growth in older animals with pre-existing tumors. These antitumor effects were accompanied by decreased cellular proliferation, altered tumor blood vessel organization and dramatically increased differentiation to lactational and epidermal cell fates. SKI-606 controls the development of mammary tumors by inducing differentiation.

  18. Rapid prototype modeling in a multimodality world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaut, Luc; Madewell, John; Yasko, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Introduction: Rapid prototype modeling (RPM) has been used in medicine principally for bones - that are easily extracted from CT data sets - for planning orthopaedic, plastic or maxillo-facial interventions, and/or for designing custom prostheses and implants. Based on newly available technology, highly valuable multimodality approaches can now be applied to RPM, particularly for complex musculo-skeletal (MSK) tumors where multimodality often transcends CT alone. Methods: CT data sets are acquired for primary evaluation of MSK tumors in parallel with other modalities (e.g., MR, PET, SPECT). In our approach, CT is first segmented to provide bony anatomy for RPM and all other data sets are then registered to the CT reference. Parametric information relevant to the tumor's characterization is then extracted from the multimodality space and merged with the CT anatomy to produce a hybrid RPM-ready model. This model - that also accommodates digital multimodality visualization - is then produced on the latest generation of 3D printers, which permits both shapes and colors. Results: Multimodality models of complex MSK tumors have been physically produced on modern RPM equipment. This new approach has been found to be a clear improvement over the previously disconnected physical RPM and digital multimodality visualization. Conclusions: New technical developments keep opening doors to sophisticated medical applications that can directly impact the quality of patient care. Although this early work still deals with bones as base models for RPM, its use to encompass soft tissues is already envisioned for future approaches.

  19. Skull Base Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    In skull base tumors associated with a low radiosensitivity for conventional radiotherapy (RT), irradiation with proton or carbon ion beams facilitates a safe and accurate application of high tumor doses due to the favorable beam localization properties of these particle beams. Cranial nerves, the brain stem and normal brain tissue can at the same time be optimally spared.

  20. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Vimal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  1. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  2. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  3. Ewing tumors in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Henk; Dirksen, Uta; Ranft, Andreas; Jürgens, Heribert

    2008-01-01

    Malignancies in infancy are extremely rare. Ewing tumors are hardly ever noted in these children. Since it is generally assumed that malignancies in infancy have an extremely poor outcome, we wanted to investigate whether this was also the case in Ewing tumors. We identified in the Munster data

  4. Atypically localized glomus tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meric Ugurlar

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: When a painful mass is found in the body, glomus tumors should be kept in mind. The consideration of symptoms, including pain, temperature sensitivity, point tenderness, and discoloration, common characteristics of glomus tumors, may aid diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(3.000: 112-117

  5. An inguinal hernia sac tumor of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazaki Hidehiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic hernia sac tumor from biliary malignancy is extremely rare with only one such case previously reported. We herein report an additional case of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting as a hernia sac tumor. Case presentation A 78-year-old man presented with an irreducible right inguinal hernia associated with a firm tumor, 2.0 cm in diameter. A computed tomography scan demonstrated a soft tissue density mass with heterogeneous enhancement within the right inguinal canal. The patient underwent a hernia repair and the hernia sac tumor was resected. Histological examination of the tumor revealed a metastatic adenocarcinoma suggesting the tumor was of pancreato-biliary origin. Further investigation using imaging studies disclosed a primary tumor in the upper bile duct. The patient died of the disease nine months after the resection. Conclusion Hernia sac tumors should be considered when an irreducible, growing mass appears within an inguinal hernia. Computed tomography may be useful for the early detection of hernia sac tumors from undiagnosed intra-abdominal malignancies.

  6. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  7. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  8. Pediatric genetic ocular tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Behnaz; Ramasubramanian, Aparna

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric genetic ocular tumors include malignancies like retinoblastoma and phakomatosis like neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. It is important to screen for ocular tumors both for visual prognosis and also for systemic implications. The phakomatosis comprise of multitude of benign tumors that are aysmptomatic but their detection can aid in the diagnosis of the syndrome. Retinoblastoma is the most common malignant intraocular tumor in childhood and with current treatment modalities, the survival is more than 95%. It is transmitted as an autosomal dominant fashion and hence the offsprings of all patients with the germline retinoblastoma need to be screened from birth. This review discusses the various pediatric genetic ocular tumors discussing the clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Oxygenation level and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor estimated by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Volovetsky, A. B.; Shilyagina, N. Yu.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Using diffuse optical spectroscopy the level of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor in comparison with normal muscle tissue of mice have been studied. Subcutaneously growing SKBR-3 was used as a tumor model. Continuous wave fiber probe diffuse optical spectroscopy system was employed. Optical properties extraction approach was based on diffusion approximation. Decreased blood oxygen saturation level and increased total hemoglobin content were demonstrated in the neoplasm. The main reason of such differences between tumor and norm was significant elevation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration in SKBR-3. The method can be useful for diagnosis of tumors as well as for study of blood flow parameters of tumor models with different angiogenic properties.

  10. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  11. Parallel evolution of tumor subclones mimics diversity between tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumor adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicines approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumor (intratumor heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumors (intertumor heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, we...

  12. Parallel in vivo and in vitro detection of functional somatostatin receptors in human endocrine pancreatic tumors: Consequences with regard to diagnosis, localization, and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamberts, S.W.; Hofland, L.J.; van Koetsveld, P.M.; Reubi, J.C.; Bruining, H.A.; Bakker, W.H.; Krenning, E.P. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherland))

    1990-09-01

    The effects of octreotide in vivo and in vitro on hormone release, in vivo ({sup 123}I)Tyr3-octreotide scanning, and in vitro ({sup 125}I)Tyr3-octreotide autoradiography were compared in five patients with endocrine pancreatic tumors. ({sup 123}I)Tyr3-octreotide scanning localized the primary tumor and/or previously unknown metastases in four of the five patients. The patient with a negative scan had an insulinoma that did not respond to octreotide in vivo. No Tyr3-octreotide-binding sites were subsequently found at autoradiography of the tumor, whereas somatostatin-14 receptors were present at a high density. In parallel, culture studies with the cells prepared from this adenoma showed that insulin release was not affected by octreotide, while both somatostatin-14 and -28 significantly suppressed hormone release. Culture studies of the tumor cells from two gastrinomas showed a dose-dependent inhibition of gastrin release by octreotide. Octreotide exerted direct antiproliferative effects in one of these gastrinomas, which had been shown to be rapidly growing in vivo. Both gastrinomas had specific somatostatin receptors, as measured by in vitro receptor autoradiography. Somatostatin release by the cultured somatostatinoma cells from one of these patients was suppressed by octreotide.

  13. Growing media constituents determine the microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media for horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Oliver; Reheul, Dirk; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Perneel, Maaike; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy food diet, however, the eco-sustainability of the production of these can still be significantly improved. European farmers and consumers spend an estimated €15.5 billion per year on inorganic fertilizers and the production of N-fertilizers results in a high carbon footprint. We investigated if fertilizer type and medium constituents determine microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media and can be used as a next step towards a more sustainable horticulture. We demonstrated that growing media constituents showed differences in urea hydrolysis, ammonia and nitrite oxidation and in carbon dioxide respiration rate. Interestingly, mixing of the growing media constituents resulted in a stimulation of the function of the microorganisms. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in an increase in amoA gene copy number by factor 100 compared to inorganic fertilizers. Our results support our hypothesis that the activity of the functional microbial community with respect to nitrogen turnover in an organic growing medium can be improved by selecting and mixing the appropriate growing media components with each other. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional microbial community in growing media and its potential role towards a more responsible horticulture. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Nurturing a growing field: Computers & Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Pebesma, Edzer

    2017-10-01

    Computational issues are becoming increasingly critical for virtually all fields of geoscience. This includes the development of improved algorithms and models, strategies for implementing high-performance computing, or the management and visualization of the large datasets provided by an ever-growing number of environmental sensors. Such issues are central to scientific fields as diverse as geological modeling, Earth observation, geophysics or climatology, to name just a few. Related computational advances, across a range of geoscience disciplines, are the core focus of Computers & Geosciences, which is thus a truly multidisciplinary journal.

  15. Parallelized seeded region growing using CUDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongjin; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Hyunna; Shin, Juneseuk; Seo, Jinwook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG) algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests.

  16. Growing Quality in Qualitative Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Macdonald PhD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methodologies are growing in popularity in health research; however, the integration of these methodologies into the clinical context is not always straightforward. In this article the author discusses some of the paradigmatic and methodological tensions that characterize the use of qualitative methodologies in clinical health research and showcase one solution to these tensions. The McGill Qualitative Health Research Group is a scholarly group of qualitative health researchers working together to advance a qualitative research agenda in clinical disciplines.

  17. Mapping Nutrients Crucial to a Growing Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnowski, J. R.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Over two billion people worldwide suffer from inadequate levels of micronutrients, mainly in the form of iodine, iron, and vitamin A deficiencies. With a growing population, producing crops that contain high amounts of these micronutrients is of increased importance. Addressing these deficiencies sustainably requires a detailed examination of the agricultural production of the micronutrients. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not enough of these important nutrients are produced to meet the nutritional needs of the global population, and to determine where nutrients are most deficient. We used area specific crop production data to map where and how much iron and vitamin A are produced from major crops.

  18. Growing in darkness: The etiolated lupin hypocotyls

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Bravo, José; Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Acosta, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Epigeal germination of a dicot, like lupin (Lupinus albus L.), produces a seedling with a characteristic hypocotyl, which grows in darkness showing a steep growth gradient with an elongation zone just below the apex. The role of phytohormones, such as auxin and ethylene, in etiolated hypocotyl growth has been the object of our research for some time. The recent cloning and expression of three genes of influx and efflux carriers for polar auxin transport (LaAUX1, LaPIN1 and LaPIN3) reinforces ...

  19. Campylobacter infection has different outcomes in fast- and slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L K; Sait, L C; Trantham, E K; Cogan, T A; Humphrey, T J

    2013-06-01

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently carried by poultry, but they are not believed to cause significant disease in these animals. Modern poultry breeds have been selected to grow rapidly under intensive conditions, but recently, consumers have moved toward purchasing birds produced in higher welfare, free-range or organic systems. Birds reared in these systems tend to be a slower growing breed and are fed a different diet. Birds reared in such systems are stocked at a lower density compared with the standard conventional broilers, and they have access to environmental enrichment, such as perches. In previous research, these slower growing birds have been shown to have different levels of Campylobacter carriage in commercial rearing conditions, but the reasons for, and effect of, these different levels are unknown; is it the bird breed, diet, or environmental conditions? In this study, experimental flocks of fast- and slow-growing breeds of broiler chickens were reared to a standard commercial slaughter weight, with their weight gain being measured during the growing period. At 21 days, birds were either infected with Campylobacter jejuni or given a placebo as control. Cohorts of birds were euthanatized at various intervals, and samples were taken for examination for Campylobacter. The fast-growing birds gained weight more rapidly than the slow-growing birds. By 2 days postinfection (dpi), C. jejuni was detected in the caeca and by enrichment from the liver and spleen samples from both breeds of birds. Low-level colonization persisted in the spleen and liver samples but was undetectable by 28 dpi. Fast- and slow-growing birds did not show detectably different levels of Campylobacter carriage. Infection with C. jejuni affected the incidence of hock marks and pododermatitis in both breeds of birds, but the differences were greater with the fast-growing breed compared with the uninfected control birds. In addition, the incidence of pododermatitis was significantly higher

  20. Congenital Disseminated Extrarenal Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjemaa, Sabah; Petit, Arnaud; Dainese, Linda; Bourdeaut, Franck; Lipsett, Jill; Coulomb, Aurore

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue tumors arising in association with genetic or malformation syndromes have been increasingly reported. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a highly aggressive neoplasm of infancy and young childhood, characterized by typical morphology and biallelic inactivation of the SMARCB1 (INI1/hSNF5/BAF47) gene on chromosome 22q.2 which encodes a subunit of the SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex. Congenital infantile disseminated MRT represents a unique clinicopathologic presentation of this tumor. We report a case occurring in a female neonate who presented at birth a voluminous left thigh mass. Surgical biopsy performed at day 9 showed morphology and immunoprofile of MRT. Staging evaluation identified hypercalcemia and distant nodules. The mass showed rapid growth. Despite chemotherapy, the tumor progressed with exteriorization through the biopsy scar. Chemotherapy was discontinued and treatment limited to palliative care and the child died on day 51. The tumor was homozygous for the SMARCB1 deletion with apparent de novo heterozygous germ line deletion in the infant, not identified in the parents.

  1. Usefulness of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of orbital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Kotake, Fumio; Muramatsu, Ryuji; Usui, Masahiko; Ebihara, Yoshiro [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    We studied four cases of orbital tumor by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The series comprised one case each of cavernous hemangioma, hemangiopericytoma, hemangioendothelioma and orbital schwannoma. Cavernous hemangioma showed gradual enhancement from the tumor margin, resulting in intense diffuse staining of the tumor mass in the late phase. Hemangiopericytoma showed rapid staining of the entire tumor. Hemangioendothelioma showed minimal staining of the tumor margin. Orbital schwannoma showed diffuse and rapid staining of the entire tumor. While postoperative recurrence was suspected in this case by standard MRI, dynamic MRI was suggestive of nonspecific scarring. Dynamic MRI was thus useful in the differential diagnosis of orbital tumors and in the evaluation of postoperative changes. (author)

  2. A kinetic model of tumor growth and its radiation response with an application to Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin Z; Hui, Susanta K

    2015-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model to simulate the growth of tumor volume and its response to a single fraction of high dose irradiation. We made several key assumptions of the model. Tumor volume is composed of proliferating (or dividing) cancer cells and non-dividing (or dead) cells. Tumor growth rate (or tumor volume doubling time, Td) is proportional to the ratio of the volumes of tumor vasculature and the tumor. The vascular volume grows slower than the tumor by introducing the vascular growth retardation factor, theta. Upon irradiation the proliferating cells gradually die over a fixed time period after irradiation. Dead cells are cleared away with cell clearance time, Tcl. The model was applied to simulate pre-treatment growth and post-treatment radiation response of rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumor and metastatic brain tumors of five patients who were treated by Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). By selecting appropriate model parameters, we showed the temporal variation of the tumors for both th...

  3. Solid cystic pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas with splenic metastasis: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yagmur

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In case of large slow growing pancreatic tumor with splenic metastasis, solid-cystic pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas should be considered in the diagnosis. Complete surgical resection is associated with long-term survival even in the presence of metastatic disease. Close follow-up is necessary after surgery.

  4. Anterior Abdominal Wall Desmoids Tumor in a Five Year Old Girl – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Desmoid tumors are rare, slow – growing, mesenchymal monoclinic proliferation. It may occur as intra-abdominal tumor usually affecting the mesentery of the intestine or it could be extra-abdominal in which they may affect the popliteal region, the chest wall or the anterior abdominal wall. Reports in children less than 10 ...

  5. Semi-automatic intracranial tumor segmentation and tumor tissue classification based on multiple MR protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, A.; Tschampa, H.; Müller, A.; Remmele, S.; Stehning, C.; Keupp, J.; Gieseke, J.; Schild, H. H.; Mürtz, P.

    2012-02-01

    Segmentation of intracranial tumors in Magnetic Resonance (MR) data sets and classification of the tumor tissue into vital, necrotic, and perifocal edematous areas is required in a variety of clinical applications. Manual delineation of the tumor tissue boundaries is a tedious and error-prone task, and reproducibility is problematic. Furthermore, tissue classification mostly requires information of several MR protocols and contrasts. Here we present a nearly automatic segmentation and classification algorithm for intracranial tumor tissue working on a combination of T1 weighted contrast enhanced (T1CE) and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) data sets. Both data types are included in MR intracranial tumor protocols that are used in clinical routine. The algorithm is based on a region growing technique. The main required user interaction is a mouse click to provide the starting point. The region growing thresholds are automatically adapted to the requirements of the actual data sets. If the segmentation result is not fully satisfying, the user is allowed to adapt the algorithmic parameters for final fine-tuning. We developed a user interface, where the data sets can be loaded, the segmentation can be started by a mouse click, the parameters can be amended, and the segmentation results can be saved. With this user interface, our segmentation tool can be used in the hospital on an image processing workstation or even directly on the MR scanner. This enables an extensive validation study. On the 20 clinical test cases of human intracranial tumors we investigated so far, the results were satisfying in 85% of the cases.

  6. Epilepsy and brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGLOT, DARIO J.; CHANG, EDWARD F.; VECHT, CHARLES J.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70–80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60–75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20–50% of patients with meningioma and 20–35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60–90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  7. Biofilm-growing intestinal anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelli, Gianfranco; Vuotto, Claudia; Cardines, Rita; Mastrantonio, Paola

    2012-07-01

    Sessile growth of anaerobic bacteria from the human intestinal tract has been poorly investigated, so far. We recently reported data on the close association existing between biliary stent clogging and polymicrobial biofilm development in its lumen. By exploiting the explanted stents as a rich source of anaerobic bacterial strains belonging to the genera Bacteroides, Clostridium, Fusobacterium, Finegoldia, Prevotella, and Veillonella, the present study focused on their ability to adhere, to grow in sessile mode and to form in vitro mono- or dual-species biofilms. Experiments on dual-species biofilm formation were planned on the basis of the anaerobic strains isolated from each clogged biliary stent, by selecting those in which a couple of anaerobic strains belonging to different species contributed to the polymicrobial biofilm development. Then, strains were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal if they are able to grow as mono- and/or dual-species biofilms. As far as we know, this is the first report on the ability to adhere and form mono/dual-species biofilms exhibited by strains belonging to the species Bacteroides oralis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium baratii, Clostridium fallax, Clostridium bifermentans, Finegoldia magna, and Fusobacterium necrophorum. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tracheotomy in growing rats: histological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Mônica Cecília Bochetti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare morphologically three different types of tracheotomy in growing rats, applying microsurgical technique. METHODS: EPM-1 Wistar growing rats (n=57 weighing 88gm and aged 35 days were randomized in four groups, according tracheotomy incision type (longitudinal, transverse and tracheal segment excision, and sham group. Following intramuscular anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine, the trachea was exposed and incised, according to the group, and a hand-made endotracheal cannula was inserted into the organ, under sterile conditions. This cannula was removed after 7 days, and animals have been sacrificed 30 days later. Tracheas samples were submitted to histological study, stained by hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome, evaluating fibrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and epidermoid metaplasia. RESULTS: There was more frequency of inflammatory infiltrate at the tracheal epithelium in the tracheal segment excision group (87% compared to the longitudinal (40% and transverse (36% incision groups (p=0.009. Evaluating epidermoid metaplasia, tracheal segment excision and the longitudinal groups presented 33% and 40%, respectively, compared to 0% of the transverse group (p=0.03. Concerning to fibrosis, in a global comparison (p=0.1 among the three groups there was no difference, however, compared to the longitudinal group the transverse group showed lower level of fibrosis (p=0.04. Sham group did not present any relevant morphologic alterations and it was used as reference pattern. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our data show that tracheal segment excision promotes more epithelium aggression and transverse tracheal incision shows less morphologic alterations.

  9. Immunotoxicity of ochratoxin A to growing gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R B; Elissalde, M H; Kubena, L F; Weaver, E A; Corrier, D E; Clement, B A

    1992-10-01

    Ochratoxin A (OA) was incorporated in the diets of growing gilts (mean body weight, 20.1 kg) at a concentration of 2.5 mg of OA/kg of feed and was fed continuously for 35 days. Humoral and cell-mediated immunologic measurements were evaluated to determine the effects of OA on immune function in swine. Cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin, PHA-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis, interleukin-2 production, total and isotype immunoglobulin concentrations, antibody response to chicken RBC, and macrophage activation were used to evaluate immune function. Gilts treated with OA had reduced cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to PHA, reduced delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin, decreased stimulation index for lymphoblastogenesis, decreased interleukin-2 production when lymphocytes were stimulated with concanavalin A, and decreased number and phagocytic activity of macrophages. Differences were not observed for total and isotype immunoglobulin concentrations, or humoral hemagglutination (chicken RBC) titer. These data indicate that OA may suppress cell-mediated immune response in growing swine.

  10. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  11. Automatic segmentation of meningioma from non-contrasted brain MRI integrating fuzzy clustering and region growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Chun-Chih

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become important in brain tumor diagnosis. Using this modality, physicians can locate specific pathologies by analyzing differences in tissue character presented in different types of MR images. This paper uses an algorithm integrating fuzzy-c-mean (FCM and region growing techniques for automated tumor image segmentation from patients with menigioma. Only non-contrasted T1 and T2 -weighted MR images are included in the analysis. The study's aims are to correctly locate tumors in the images, and to detect those situated in the midline position of the brain. Methods The study used non-contrasted T1- and T2-weighted MR images from 29 patients with menigioma. After FCM clustering, 32 groups of images from each patient group were put through the region-growing procedure for pixels aggregation. Later, using knowledge-based information, the system selected tumor-containing images from these groups and merged them into one tumor image. An alternative semi-supervised method was added at this stage for comparison with the automatic method. Finally, the tumor image was optimized by a morphology operator. Results from automatic segmentation were compared to the "ground truth" (GT on a pixel level. Overall data were then evaluated using a quantified system. Results The quantified parameters, including the "percent match" (PM and "correlation ratio" (CR, suggested a high match between GT and the present study's system, as well as a fair level of correspondence. The results were compatible with those from other related studies. The system successfully detected all of the tumors situated at the midline of brain. Six cases failed in the automatic group. One also failed in the semi-supervised alternative. The remaining five cases presented noticeable edema inside the brain. In the 23 successful cases, the PM and CR values in the two groups were highly related. Conclusions Results indicated

  12. Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus of Liver Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Ogawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of liver metastasis of lung carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT. Although the primary lesion of lung tumor remained unchanged, the patient rapidly developed wide-spread metastases and formed PVTT of liver metastasis. The primary lesion showed features of mixed Clara and bronchial surface epithelial cell component type adenocarcinoma with small foci of micropapillary pattern. Micropapillary pattern was observed in the metastatic lesions in the liver and PVTT. Micropapillary pattern lung adenocarcinoma may develop rapid metastases and cause PVTT associated with liver metastasis. We should perform a detailed examination to establish correct diagnosis.

  13. Identification and characterization of two novel truncated but functional isoforms of the somatostatin receptor subtype 5 differentially present in pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Prado, Mario; Gahete, Manuel D; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio J; Luque, Raúl M; Quintero, Ana; Webb, Susan M; Benito-López, Pedro; Leal, Alfonso; Schulz, Stefan; Gracia-Navarro, F; Malagón, María M; Castaño, Justo P

    2009-07-01

    Somatostatin and its related peptide cortistatin exert multiple actions on normal and tumoral tissue targets through a family of receptors termed somatostatin receptor (sst)1-5. Despite the considerable advances in the knowledge on these receptors and their (patho)physiological roles, there is still evidence that additional receptors for these peptides should exist to fully explain their actions. The growing number of spliced variants found in similar receptor families, often present in tumors, and results from our group obtained on sst5 from other species (pig) led us to explore the existence of new human sst5 isoforms. A rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR approach on samples from a human pituitary tumor and a cell line enabled identification of two novel alternatively spliced sst5 receptor variants. The sequences obtained encode putative proteins that correspond to truncated isoforms of five and four transmembrane domains (TMDs), accordingly named sst5TMD5 and sst5TMD4, respectively. Both novel receptors show a differential expression pattern in normal tissues and are also present in pituitary tumors of diverse etiology including nonfunctioning adenomas, corticotropinomas, somatotropinomas, and a prolactinoma. In contrast to the predominant plasma membrane localization of full-length sst5, both sst5TMD5 and sst5TMD4 show a preferentially intracellular localization. Despite their truncated nature, both receptors are functional, as shown by their ability to mediate selective, ligand-induced rises in free cytosolic calcium concentration. Specifically, whereas sst5TMD5 is selectivity activated by somatostatin compared with cortistatin, cells transfected with sst5TMD4 almost exclusively respond to cortistatin and not to somatostatin. Our results demonstrate the existence of two previously unidentified sst5 spliced variants with distinct distribution in normal tissues and pituitary tumors, unique ligand-selective signaling properties, and subcellular distribution

  14. Heterogeneity in MYC-induced mammary tumors contributes to escape from oncogene dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, J Y; Andrechek, E R; Cardiff, R D; Nevins, J R

    2012-05-17

    A hallmark of human cancer is heterogeneity, reflecting the complex series of changes resulting in the activation of oncogenes coupled with inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Breast cancer is no exception and indeed, many studies have revealed considerable complexity and heterogeneity in the population of primary breast tumors and substantial changes in a recurrent breast tumor that has acquired metastatic properties and drug resistance. We have made use of a Myc-inducible transgenic mouse model of breast cancer in which elimination of Myc activity following tumor development initially leads to a regression of a subset of tumors generally followed by de novo Myc-independent growth. We have observed that tumors that grow independent of Myc expression have gene profiles that are distinct from the primary tumors with characteristics indicative of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. Phenotypic analyses of Myc-independent tumors confirm the acquisition of an EMT phenotype suggested to be associated with invasive and migratory properties in human cancer cells. Further genomic analyses reveal mouse mammary tumors growing independent of myc have a higher probability of exhibiting a gene signature similar to that observed for human 'tumor-initiating' cells. Collectively, the data reveal genetic alterations that underlie tumor progression and an escape from Myc-dependent growth in a transgenic mouse model that can provide insights to what occurs in human cancers as they acquire drug resistance and metastatic properties.

  15. Targeted Imaging of Tumor-Associated Macrophages by Cyanine 7-Labeled Mannose in Xenograft Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jiang MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mannose receptor is considered as a hallmark of M2-oriented tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs, but its utility in TAMs was rarely reported. Therefore, deoxymannose (DM, a high-affinity ligand of mannose receptor, was labeled with near-infrared dye cyanine 7 (Cy7, and its feasibility of targeted imaging on TAMs was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The Cy7-DM was synthesized, and its binding affinity with induced TAMs in vitro, whole-body imaging in xenograft tumor mouse model in vivo, and the cellular localization in dissected tissues were evaluated. We demonstrated a high uptake of Cy7-DM by induced M2 macrophages and TAMs in tumor tissues. In vivo near-infrared live imaging visualized abundant TAMs in tumor lesions instead of inflammatory sites by Cy7-DM imaging, and the quantity of Cy7-DM signals in tumors was significantly higher than that shown in inflammatory sites from 1 to 8 hours of imaging. Our results suggest that mannose could rapidly and specifically target TAMs and is a promising candidate for targeted diagnosis of tumor with rich TAMs.

  16. COLLECTIVE LEARNING IN A LEARNING ORGANIZATION: GROWING TEAM LEARNING CULTURE TO SURVIVE AND DEVELOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Suryani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A learning organization has a deep culture of learning. It is constantly encourage its member to learn. This learning activity is not only for adapting to the rapid changing of its internal and external environment, but also for growing. The effort of a learning organization to create a conducive learning climate can be indicated by training its members. Working towards a learning organization has both its strengths and drawbacks. The strengths are it can improve the organization performance and organization survival. However, learning too rapid can lead to learning stress. Moreover it can lead to harsh internal competition.

  17. A Malignant Granular Cell Tumor Excised with Mohs Micrographic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Crowe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant granular cell tumors are extremely rare, aggressive neoplasms displaying rapid growth and frequent associated metastatic disease. Excision and evaluation for metastatic disease are mandatory. We present a 54-year-old patient with a malignant granular cell tumor, treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Cutaneous granular cell tumors are uncommon neoplasms, likely of perineural origin. Most follow a benign and uneventful course, with wide local excision being the treatment of choice (Enzinger, 1988. The malignant granular cell tumor is an extremely rare, aggressive variant, which provides a diagnostic challenge and management dilemma, especially with early presentation when it may be mistaken for other entities. There is also controversy regarding surgical management and follow-up of both benign and malignant granular cell tumors.

  18. Elastic plastic analysis of growing cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R; Drugan, W J; Sham, T L

    1979-05-01

    The elastic--plastic stress and deformation fields at the tip of a crack which grows in an ideally plastic solid under plane strain, shows small scale yielding conditions. Results of an asymptotic analysis suggests the existence of a crack tip stress state similar to that of the classical Prandtl field, but containing a zone of elastic unloading between the centered fan region and the trailing constant stress plastic region. The near tip expression for the rate of opening displacement delta at distance r from the growing tip is found to have the form delta-. = ..cap alpha.. J-./sigma/sub o/ + ..beta..(sigma/sub o//E) a-. ln(R/r) but the presence of the elastic wedge causes ..beta.. to have the revised value of 5.08 (for Poisson ratio ..nu.. = 0.3); also, (a = crack length, sigma/sub o/ = yield strength, E = elastic modulus, and J denotes the far-field value), and (1-..nu../sup 2/)K/sup 2//E for the small scale yielding conditions considered. The parameters ..cap alpha.. and R cannot be determined from the asymptotic analysis, but comparisons with finite element solutions suggest that, for small amounts of growth, ..cap alpha.. is approximately the same for stationary and growing cracks, and R scales approximately with the size of the plastic zone, being about 15% to 30% larger. For large scale yielding, a similar form applies with possible variations in ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.., in cases which maintain triaxial constraint at the crack tip. In the fully yielded case R is expected to be proportional to the dimension of the uncracked ligament. Model crack growth criterion requiring a critical delta at some fixed r from the tip, is re-examined in light of the more accurate solution. Results suggest that the J versus ..delta..a relation describing growth is dependent on the extent of yielding. It is suggested that this dependency might be small for highly ductile materials, provided that a similar triaxial constraint is maintained in all cases.

  19. A rare cutaneous tumor: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

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    Nuran Alli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP is a rare indolent cutaneous tumor which has been considered as a low-grade dermal and subcutaneous fibrohistiocytic neoplasm. DFSP expands slowly but recurs frequently leading to the general assumption that DFSP is a locally aggressive neoplasm. This low-grade/borderline tumor which is generally found on trunk and proximal extremities of adults has limited potential for metastasis. Clinical presentation is usually typical with a red-brown or skin coloured indurated plaque with multiple nodules or protuberances. Histopathology of DFSP is also characteristical which demonstrates storiform pattern of uniform spindle cells infiltrating deep into the subcutaneous fat tissue constituting honeycomb appearence. Here, we report a case of DFSP in a 50-year-old woman who presents with a twenty year history of slowly growing mass on her left femoral area.

  20. A Rare Tumor of the Orbit: Angiomyxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Türk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiomyxoma, which is a rare mesenchymal tumor, has a propensity for occurring in the trunk, head and neck, extremities, and the genital region. Development of the tumor in the orbit is extremely rare, and only a few studies have been reported to date. In this study, we present a 26-year-old female patient who was admitted with a complaint of growing mass at her left upper eyelid during the previous 9 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-demarcated lesion appearing as hypointense on T1- and hyperintense on T2- weighted images in the left orbit; the mass was totally excised. Histopathological examination revealed a tumor comprising spindle shaped cells in myxoid stroma sprinkled with small vascular structure. The tumor tissue was positive for alcian blue and vimentin, and not for S100 on staining. Histopathological examination led to the diagnosis of orbital angiomyxoma. The case was followed-up for 18 months without any evidence of recurrence. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 496-8

  1. [Malignant cartilage tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirnaerdt, M J; Hogendoorn, P C; Taminiau, A H; Bloem, J L

    1998-06-01

    Malignant cartilaginous tumors (chondrosarcomas) are, with a relative frequency of 20%, the second most common malignant tumors of bone after osteosarcoma. The diagnosis of chondrosarcoma can usually be made confidently based on combination of clinical information, radiographs, Gd-enhanced MR imaging, and histologic examination of a biopsy sample. The combination of these parameters is important because accuracy of histologic diagnosis is adversely affected by unrepresentative sampling of these usually large tumors. The prognosis of patients with chondrosarcoma becomes poorer with more axial location, higher histologic grade, larger tumor size and inadequate resection. By careful analysis of radiographs and Gd-enhanced MR imaging the radiologist has the ability to improve the management of patients with chondrosarcoma.

  2. Tumor estromal gastrointestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Mendívil

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores estromales gastrointestinales son los tumores mesenquimáticos más frecuentes. Se localizan con frecuencia en el estómago y sus manifestaciones clínicas son variadas. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 57 años que ingresó por hemorragia digestiva de dos días de evolución. Los estudios de imagen demostraron un tumor en pared gástrica. La paciente fue sometida a resección quirúrgica del tumor y el diagnóstico definitivo se realizó utilizando marcadores CD117 y CD34. A pesar de que el tratamiento definitivo es la resección quirúrgica, se ha desarrollado nuevos modelos de tratamiento utilizando terapia molecular dirigida. Diversos estudios están llevándose a cabo en la actualidad y algunos muestran resultados prometedores.

  3. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  4. Brain Tumors and Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help calm the mind. Meditation, guided imagery, music therapy, and yoga are just a few worth investigating. Home Donor and Privacy Policies Find Resources Disclaimer Donate Subscribe Login American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste ...

  5. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not they spread beyond the pituitary gland: 2 Pituitary adenomas (pronounced ad-n-OH-muhz ) are benign, meaning ... tumors fall into this category. Despite being benign, pituitary adenomas can make the pituitary gland produce too much ...

  6. [Markers of brain tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, R; Pezzotta, S; Bernini, F; Racagni, G

    1984-05-19

    Biological markers of tumors are compounds or enzymatic activities measurable in body fluids. Their presence or concentration must be linked to tumoral growth. The markers of the central nervous system tumors are detected in CSF. Alpha-feto-protein, carcinoembryonic antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, adenohypophyseal peptide hormones, enzymes, etc., have found some application in the early diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis. Other applications involve the early detection and recurrency of primary brain tumors, as well as the evaluation of efficacy of their therapy. The tests based on the CSF content of desmosterol and polyamines have been studied extensively. Their rationale is discussed and specificity, sensitivity, efficiency and predictive value are considered. Experimental results concerning a new possible biochemical marker, based on CSF concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, are reported.

  7. Spinal Cord Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may be more likely to affect the spine include breast, lung, prostate and multiple myeloma. Complications Both noncancerous and cancerous spinal tumors can compress the spinal cord and nerves, leading ...

  8. Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jinbo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor is rare and poses a challenge for diagnosis and management. We presented a case of primary hepatic carcinoid tumor in a 53-year-old female with a complaint of right upper abdominal pain. Computer tomography scans revealed a hypervascular mass in segment 4 of the liver. An ultrasonography-guided biopsy showed a carcinoid tumor. No other lesions were found by the radiological investigations. Surgery resection was performed and histopathological examination revealed a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor. Three years later, recurrence was found and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization was performed. After transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, the patient has been free of symptom and had no radiological disease progression for over 6 months. Surgical resection combination with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is effective to offer excellent palliation.

  9. Brain Tumor Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor surgery include: Seizures Weakness Balance/coordination difficulties Memory or cognitive problems Spinal fluid leakage Meningitis Brain swelling Stroke Excess fluid in the brain Coma Death Recovery Time Recovery time depends on: The procedure performed. ...

  10. Brain Tumors - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Brain Tumors URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/braintumors.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  11. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  12. Stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of Glomus Jugulare Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Emerson Magno; Brito, José Reginaldo; Mario, Susana Dias; de Melo, Suely Maymone; Benabou, Salomon

    2013-01-01

    Background: The glomus jugulare tumor is a slowly growing benign neoplasm originating from neural crest. There is a high morbidity associated with surgical resection of glomus jugulare. Radiosurgery play a relevant role as a therapeutic option in these tumors and its use has grown in popularity. The authors describe a retrospective series of 15 patients and reviewed the literature about the glomus jugulare tumors. Methods: We reviewed retrospectively the data of 15 patients treated with stereotactic linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery (LINAC) radiosurgery between 2006 and 2011. Results: The average tumor volume was 18.5 cm3. The radiation dose to the tumor margin ranged between 12 and 20 Gy. The neurological status improved in three patients and remained unchanged in 12 patients. One patient developed a transient 7th nerve palsy that improved after clinical treatment. All tumors remained stable in size on follow-up with resonance magnetic images. Conclusions: The radiosurgery is a safe and effective therapy for patients with glomus jugulare tumor. Despite the short follow-up period and the limited number of patients analyzed, we can infer that radiosurgery produce a tumor growth control with low morbidity, and may be used as a good option to surgical resection in selected cases. PMID:24349866

  13. Adrenocortical tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Ribeiro

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT are rare. In the USA, only about 25 new cases occur each year. In Southern Brazil, however, approximately 10 times that many cases are diagnosed each year. Most cases occur in the contiguous states of São Paulo and Paraná. The cause of this higher rate has not been identified. Familial genetic predisposition to cancer (p53 mutations and selected genetic syndromes (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome have been associated with childhood ACT in general but not with the Brazilian counterpart. Most of the affected children are young girls with classic endocrine syndromes (virilizing and/or Cushing. Levels of urinary 17-ketosteroids and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, which are abnormal in approximately 90% of the cases, provide the pivotal clue to a diagnosis of ACT. Typical imaging findings of pediatric ACT consist of a large, well-defined suprarenal tumor containing calcifications with a thin capsule and central necrosis or hemorrhage. The pathologic classification of pediatric ACT is troublesome. Even an experienced pathologist can find it difficult to differentiate carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery is the single most important procedure in the successful treatment of ACT. The role of chemotherapy in the management of childhood ACT has not been established although occasional tumors are responsive to mitotane or cisplatin-containing regimens. Because of the heterogeneity and rarity of the disease, prognostic factors have been difficult to establish in pediatric ACT. Patients with incomplete tumor resection or with metastatic disease at diagnosis have a dismal prognosis. In patients with localized and completely resected tumors, the size of the tumor has predictive value. Patients with large tumors have a much higher relapse rate than those with small tumors.

  14. Placental site trophoblastic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean eBouquet De Jolinière

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Trophoblastic tumors of placental site (PSTT are rare. They represent a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease. (GTD. They occur mainly in women who have a history of miscarriage, termination of pregnancy, or even a normal or pathological ongoing pregnancy. The clinical course is unpredictable. This malignancy has different characteristics from other gestational trophoblastic tumors.Following a clinical case that we encountered and treated, we conducted a literary research and review, focusing primarily on prognostic factors and treatment.

  15. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  16. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients......, but the examination is useful to diagnose a tumor in the renal pelvis and the ureter....

  17. Perlecan and tumor angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Couchman, John R

    2003-01-01

    Perlecan is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) of basement membranes (BMs) and connective tissues. The core protein of perlecan is divided into five domains based on sequence homology to other known proteins. Commonly, the N-terminal domain I of mammalian perlecan is substituted with thr...... have unwanted promoting effects on tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Understanding of these attributes at the molecular level may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention....

  18. Dietary supplementation of butyrate in growing rabbits

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    G. Radaelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The UE restrictions imposed on the antibiotic utilization in animal husbandry have increased the interest on alternative additives capable of improving animal digestive health. Among the numerous tested products, short chain fatty acids stimulated intestinal mucus production at different level and intestinal cells proliferation in rats (Meslin et al., 2001; Moreau et al., 2003. Short and medium chain fatty acids could also modulate intestinal microflora: in rabbits, the antimicrobial activity of caprilic and capric acids was proved on various strains of Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli (Marounek et al., 2002. The present trial aimed to evaluate the effect of butyrate inclusion and level on growth performance, health status, digestive physiology and slaughter traits in growing rabbits.

  19. Morphogenesis of filaments growing in flexible confinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, R.; Wittel, F. K.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-07-01

    Space-saving design is a requirement that is encountered in biological systems and the development of modern technological devices alike. Many living organisms dynamically pack their polymer chains, filaments or membranes inside deformable vesicles or soft tissue-like cell walls, chorions and buds. Surprisingly little is known about morphogenesis due to growth in flexible confinements—perhaps owing to the daunting complexity lying in the nonlinear feedback between packed material and expandable cavity. Here we show by experiments and simulations how geometric and material properties lead to a plethora of morphologies when elastic filaments are growing far beyond the equilibrium size of a flexible thin sheet they are confined in. Depending on friction, sheet flexibility and thickness, we identify four distinct morphological phases emerging from bifurcation and present the corresponding phase diagram. Four order parameters quantifying the transitions between these phases are proposed.

  20. THE FASTEST GROWING LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta NOWAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents trends in economic growth and development in twelve least developed countries from 2006 to 2015. The study is based on the data retrieved from the World Bank Database. During the analysed 10 years, seven Asian (Myanmar, Lao PDR, Bhutan, Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan and five African (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Angola, Sudan, and Mozambique LDCs had average annual GDP per capita growth rates higher than 4.0%. GDP has been largely generated through the services and industry sectors. A few LDCs sustained strong growth mainly because of foreign assistance and in other countries remittances were a significant source of development finance. Resource rich countries recorded high inflows of foreign direct investment. In a few fast growing LDCs the state has been heavily engaged in economy. The analysed LDCs substantially improved their development indicators.