WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly growing segment

  1. Towards Automatic Image Segmentation Using Optimised Region Growing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazab, Mamoun; Islam, Mofakharul; Venkatraman, Sitalakshmi

    Image analysis is being adopted extensively in many applications such as digital forensics, medical treatment, industrial inspection, etc. primarily for diagnostic purposes. Hence, there is a growing interest among researches in developing new segmentation techniques to aid the diagnosis process. Manual segmentation of images is labour intensive, extremely time consuming and prone to human errors and hence an automated real-time technique is warranted in such applications. There is no universally applicable automated segmentation technique that will work for all images as the image segmentation is quite complex and unique depending upon the domain application. Hence, to fill the gap, this paper presents an efficient segmentation algorithm that can segment a digital image of interest into a more meaningful arrangement of regions and objects. Our algorithm combines region growing approach with optimised elimination of false boundaries to arrive at more meaningful segments automatically. We demonstrate this using X-ray teeth images that were taken for real-life dental diagnosis.

  2. Satellite communications - The ground segment grows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulloch, C.; Rubin, P. W.

    1984-11-01

    The types of satellite telecommunication services and the markets for associated earth stations, i.e., antennas, are outlined. No fine line exists between fixed-service, mobile service and broadcast categories for satellite-ground transmissions. All transmissions are basically broadcast, can be received by anyone with appropriate equipment, and can originate at one point and be received at multiple points. Private data transmission services, delivering at a rate of 1.48 Mbps, are opening foreign markets once dominated by government telephone services, which were only capable of 64 kbps rates. Ku-band 14/11 GHz links are used increasingly to avoid saturation problems. DBS is still in its infancy while its main competition, satellite-cable distribution points, is an established system. Mobile services will increase rapidly with operational status for small, nondirectional antennas. A Japanese manufacturer currently supplies 35 percent of the world nonmilitary antenna demand, about 3000 to date. The figure will increase too, loosely, 10,000-20,000 by the year 2000.

  3. Management of Infections with Rapidly Growing

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    Jong Hwan Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM is not uncommon, andthe prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. Clinical diagnosis is difficult becausethere are no characteristic clinical features. There is also no standard antibiotic regimenfor treating RGM infection. A small series of patients with RGM infections was studied toexamine their treatments and outcomes.Methods A total of 5 patients who had developed postoperative infections from January2009 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially screened using amycobacteria rapid screening test (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-reverse blot hybridizationassay. To confirm mycobacterial infection, specimens were cultured for nontuberculousmycobacteria and analyzed by 16 S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene PCR.Results The patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization,and oral antibiotics were administered after discharge. The mean duration of follow-upwas 9 months, and all patients were completely cured of infection with a regimen of acombination of antibiotics plus surgical treatment. Although none of the patients developedrecurrence, there were complications at the site of infection, including hypertrophic scarring,pigmentation, and disfigurement.Conclusions Combination antibiotic therapy plus drainage of surgical abscesses appeared tobe effective for the RGM infections seen in our patients. Although neither the exact dosagenor a standardized regimen has been firmly established, we propose that our treatment canprovide an option for the management of rapidly growing mycobacterial infection.

  4. SAR Imagery Segmentation by Statistical Region Growing and Hierarchical Merging

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    Ushizima, Daniela Mayumi; Carvalho, E.A.; Medeiros, F.N.S.; Martins, C.I.O.; Marques, R.C.P.; Oliveira, I.N.S.

    2010-05-22

    This paper presents an approach to accomplish synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image segmentation, which are corrupted by speckle noise. Some ordinary segmentation techniques may require speckle filtering previously. Our approach performs radar image segmentation using the original noisy pixels as input data, eliminating preprocessing steps, an advantage over most of the current methods. The algorithm comprises a statistical region growing procedure combined with hierarchical region merging to extract regions of interest from SAR images. The region growing step over-segments the input image to enable region aggregation by employing a combination of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test with a hierarchical stepwise optimization (HSWO) algorithm for the process coordination. We have tested and assessed the proposed technique on artificially speckled image and real SAR data containing different types of targets.

  5. Three-dimensional CT image segmentation by volume growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongping; Conners, Richard W.; Araman, Philip A.

    1991-11-01

    The research reported in this paper is aimed at locating, identifying, and quantifying internal (anatomical or physiological) structures, by 3-D image segmentation. Computerized tomography (CT) images of an object are first processed on a slice-by-slice basis, generating a stack of image slices that have been smoothed and pre-segmented. The image smoothing operation is executed by a spatially adaptive filter, and the 2-D pre-segmentation is achieved by a thresholding process whereby each individual pixel in the input image space is consistently assigned a label, according to its CT number, i.e., the gray-level value. Given a sequence of pre-segmented images as 3-D input scene (a stack of image slices), the spatial connectivity that exists among neighboring image pixels is utilized in a volume growing process which generates a number of well-defined volumetric regions or image solides, each representing an individual anatomical or physiological structure in the input scene. The 3-D segmentation is implemented using a volume growing process so that the aspect of pixel spatial connectivity is incorporated into the image segmentation procedure. To initialize the volume growing process for each volumetric region in the input 3-D scene, a seed location for a region is defined and loaded into a queue data structure called seed queue. The volume growing process consists of a set of procedures that perform different operations on the volumetric data of a CT image sequence. Examples of experiment of the described system with CT image data of several hardwood logs are given to demonstrate usefulness and flexibility of this approach. This allows solutions to industrial web inspection, as well as to several problems in medical image analysis where low-level image segmentation plays an important role toward successful image interpretation tasks.

  6. Yarn image segmentation using the region growing algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabijańska, Anna

    2011-11-01

    This paper is about the development of the image segmentation algorithm for the industrial measurement system. Specifically, the problem of segmentation of textile yarn images is considered. The algorithm developed for yarn hairiness analyzer is introduced. It aims at extracting single fibers protruding from the yarn core. The algorithm is a region growing-based approach where the growth of the region is guided and constrained by the coherence enhancing diffusion filter. Results of the proposed method are presented and compared with the results provided by the traditional clustering approaches and recent, well-established segmentation methods. The comparison proves that the proposed segmentation algorithm provides high quality results and significantly outperforms other methods in number of fibers extracted from the background.

  7. Video Segmentation Using Fast Marching and Region Growing Algorithms

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    Eftychis Sifakis

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm presented in this paper is comprised of three main stages: (1 classification of the image sequence and, in the case of a moving camera, parametric motion estimation, (2 change detection having as reference a fixed frame, an appropriately selected frame or a displaced frame, and (3 object localization using local colour features. The image sequence classification is based on statistical tests on the frame difference. The change detection module uses a two-label fast marching algorithm. Finally, the object localization uses a region growing algorithm based on the colour similarity. Video object segmentation results are shown using the COST 211 data set.

  8. Biomass accumulation in rapidly growing loblolly pine and sweetgum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Thomas M.; Gresham, Charles A. [Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, P.O. Box 596, Georgetown, SC 29442 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees, growing in International Paper Company's study of intensive management on marginal agricultural land near Bainbridge GA, were destructively sampled at the end of the sixth growing season. All trees were single family blocks of genetically superior trees planted 2.5m apart on sub-soiled rows 3.6m apart and grown with complete competition control. Management treatments were: control, irrigation, irrigation plus fertilization, and irrigation plus fertilization plus pest control. Tree measures were basal diameter, DBH, height of live crown, diameter at base of live crown, and total height. Twenty trees of each species were destructively sampled. Stems were sectioned at 1m intervals, stem diameter determined at each end and sections were weighed green. Branches were removed and height, basal diameter, and length were measured on each branch. Branches were separated into foliated and unfoliated segments and weighed green. A stem disk and branch from each meter were returned to the lab to determine dry weight: green weight ratio. Foliated limb: foliage ratios were also determined from sub-sampled branches. Intensive culture resulted in larger growth differences for sweetgum (most intensive treatment 9.5m tall, 13.1cm DBH; control trees 5.0m tall, 6.3cm DBH) than in pine (most intensive treatment 10.3m tall, 17.7cm DBH; control, 7.6m tall, 13.4cm DBH). The pipe model of tree development explained dimensions of the upper 5m of crown with leaf biomass highly correlated to branch basal area (r{sup 2} from 0.697 to 0.947). There was a constant ratio of leaf biomass to branch basal area (50gm/cm{sup 2} for pine, 30gm/cm{sup 2} for sweetgum). We also found a constant ratio of bole basal area to cumulative branch basal area throughout the crowns. Rapidly growing pines produced about 49Mgha{sup -1} of stem biomass, 11Mgha{sup -1} of dead branch biomass, and 17Mgha{sup -1} of unfoliated branch biomass at

  9. Neonatal airway obstruction caused by rapidly growing nasopharyngeal teratoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maartens, I.A.; Wassenberg, T.; Halbertsma, F.J.; Marres, H.A.M.; Andriessen, P.

    2009-01-01

    A case report is presented of a rapidly growing congenital nasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus) in a preterm infant, leading to severe upper airway obstruction. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography did not reveal the condition because the tumour masses were initially small and there was no

  10. Image segmentation by iterative parallel region growing with application to data compression and image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.

    1988-01-01

    Image segmentation can be a key step in data compression and image analysis. However, the segmentation results produced by most previous approaches to region growing are suspect because they depend on the order in which portions of the image are processed. An iterative parallel segmentation algorithm avoids this problem by performing globally best merges first. Such a segmentation approach, and two implementations of the approach on NASA's Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) are described. Application of the segmentation approach to data compression and image analysis is then described, and results of such application are given for a LANDSAT Thematic Mapper image.

  11. Environmental and Social Programmes and Rapidly Growing Retailers

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    Peter JONES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks to provide an exploratory review of the extent to which the world’s fastest growing retailers are publicly reporting on their environmental and social commitments and programmes. The paper begins with an outline discussion of corporate environmental and social programmes and on public reporting processes. The paper draws its empirical material from the most recent information on environmental and social commitments and programmes posted on the world’s top twenty fastest growing retailers’ corporate web sites. While the majority of the world’s top twenty fastest growing retailers provide some public information on their commitment to environmental and social programmes there is marked variation in the extent, the nature and the detail of that information. The findings suggest that the integration of environmental and social programmes is not one of the hallmarks of rapidly growing retailers and in part this reflects the fact that many of the selected retailers are trading within emergent markets where price and availability are the principal factors driving consumer buying behaviour.

  12. Segmentation of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Infection Using Modified Automatic Seeded Region Growing

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    Nordin Abdul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the image segmentation process of positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT imaging, previous works used information in CT only for segmenting the image without utilizing the information that can be provided by PET. This paper proposes to utilize the hot spot values in PET to guide the segmentation in CT, in automatic image segmentation using seeded region growing (SRG technique. This automatic segmentation routine can be used as part of automatic diagnostic tools. In addition to the original initial seed selection using hot spot values in PET, this paper also introduces a new SRG growing criterion, the sliding windows. Fourteen images of patients having extrapulmonary tuberculosis have been examined using the above-mentioned method. To evaluate the performance of the modified SRG, three fidelity criteria are measured: percentage of under-segmentation area, percentage of over-segmentation area, and average time consumption. In terms of the under-segmentation percentage, SRG with average of the region growing criterion shows the least error percentage (51.85%. Meanwhile, SRG with local averaging and variance yielded the best results (2.67% for the over-segmentation percentage. In terms of the time complexity, the modified SRG with local averaging and variance growing criterion shows the best performance with 5.273 s average execution time. The results indicate that the proposed methods yield fairly good performance in terms of the over- and under-segmentation area. The results also demonstrated that the hot spot values in PET can be used to guide the automatic segmentation in CT image.

  13. Graph-based region growing for mass-segmentation in digital mammography

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    Chu, Yong; Li, Lihua; Clark, Robert A.

    2002-05-01

    Mass segmentation is a vital step in CAD mass detection and classification. A challenge for mass segmentation in mammograms is that masses may contact with some surrounding tissues, which have the similar intensity. In this paper, a novel graph-based algorithm has been proposed to segment masses in mammograms. In the proposed algorithm, the procedure of region growing is represented as a growing tree whose root is the selected seed. Active leaves, which have the ability to grow, in the connection area between adjacent regions are deleted to stop growing, then separating the adjacent regions while keeping the spiculation of masses, which is a primary sign of malignancy for masses. The new constrained segmentation was tested with 20 cases in USF moffitt mammography database against the conventional region growing algorithm. The segmented mass regions were evaluated in terms of the overlap area with annotations made by the radiologist. We found that the new graph-based segmentation more closely match radiologists' outlines of these masses.

  14. Kidney segmentation in CT sequences using SKFCM and improved GrowCut algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong; Kang, Wei; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Shuliang

    2015-01-01

    Organ segmentation is an important step in computer-aided diagnosis and pathology detection. Accurate kidney segmentation in abdominal computed tomography (CT) sequences is an essential and crucial task for surgical planning and navigation in kidney tumor ablation. However, kidney segmentation in CT is a substantially challenging work because the intensity values of kidney parenchyma are similar to those of adjacent structures. In this paper, a coarse-to-fine method was applied to segment kidney from CT images, which consists two stages including rough segmentation and refined segmentation. The rough segmentation is based on a kernel fuzzy C-means algorithm with spatial information (SKFCM) algorithm and the refined segmentation is implemented with improved GrowCut (IGC) algorithm. The SKFCM algorithm introduces a kernel function and spatial constraint into fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) algorithm. The IGC algorithm makes good use of the continuity of CT sequences in space which can automatically generate the seed labels and improve the efficiency of segmentation. The experimental results performed on the whole dataset of abdominal CT images have shown that the proposed method is accurate and efficient. The method provides a sensitivity of 95.46% with specificity of 99.82% and performs better than other related methods. Our method achieves high accuracy in kidney segmentation and considerably reduces the time and labor required for contour delineation. In addition, the method can be expanded to 3D segmentation directly without modification.

  15. SEGMENTATION OF LARGE UNSTRUCTURED POINT CLOUDS USING OCTREE-BASED REGION GROWING AND CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELDS

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    M. Bassier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Point cloud segmentation is a crucial step in scene understanding and interpretation. The goal is to decompose the initial data into sets of workable clusters with similar properties. Additionally, it is a key aspect in the automated procedure from point cloud data to BIM. Current approaches typically only segment a single type of primitive such as planes or cylinders. Also, current algorithms suffer from oversegmenting the data and are often sensor or scene dependent. In this work, a method is presented to automatically segment large unstructured point clouds of buildings. More specifically, the segmentation is formulated as a graph optimisation problem. First, the data is oversegmented with a greedy octree-based region growing method. The growing is conditioned on the segmentation of planes as well as smooth surfaces. Next, the candidate clusters are represented by a Conditional Random Field after which the most likely configuration of candidate clusters is computed given a set of local and contextual features. The experiments prove that the used method is a fast and reliable framework for unstructured point cloud segmentation. Processing speeds up to 40,000 points per second are recorded for the region growing. Additionally, the recall and precision of the graph clustering is approximately 80%. Overall, nearly 22% of oversegmentation is reduced by clustering the data. These clusters will be classified and used as a basis for the reconstruction of BIM models.

  16. Rapidly Growing Esophageal Carcinosarcoma Reduced by Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Alone

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    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. It is generally treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to the protocols used for other esophageal cancers. However, the treatment of esophageal carcinosarcoma by radiotherapy alone before surgery has not been previously described. We report a patient with a rapidly growing esophageal carcinosarcoma that was efficiently reduced by neoadjuvant radiotherapy alone. A previously healthy 69-year-old man was admitted with dysphagia. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a small nodular polypoid lesion of about 10 mm in the middle esophagus. A second EGD 1 month later showed that the tumor had expanded into a huge mass. A biopsy specimen revealed that the tumor comprised squamous cell carcinoma with spindle cell components, and the tumor was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma which was diagnosed as stage I (T1bN0M0. Due to renal dysfunction, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy (40 Gy without chemotherapy. A third EGD 1 month later revealed remarkable tumor reduction. He then underwent total esophagectomy with regional lymph node dissection (pStage 0, pT1aN0M0. After surgical operation, the patient was followed up without adjuvant therapy. Whole body computed tomography revealed lung metastasis 14 months after surgery, and the patient died 2 months later. The neoadjuvant radiotherapy for esophageal carcinosarcoma was considered to have contributed to the subsequent surgery and his prolonged survival time. Thus, radiotherapy alone might be a suitable neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal carcinosarcomas.

  17. Rapid diagnosis of aneuploidy using segmental duplication quantitative fluorescent PCR.

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    Xiangdong Kong

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was use a simple and rapid procedure, called segmental duplication quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (SD-QF-PCR, for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies. This method is based on the co-amplification of segmental duplications located on two different chromosomes using a single pair of fluorescent primers. The PCR products of different sizes were subsequently analyzed through capillary electrophoresis, and the aneuploidies were determined based on the relative dosage between the two chromosomes. Each primer set, containing five pairs of primers, was designed to simultaneously detect aneuploidies located on chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X and Y in a single reaction. We applied these two primer sets to DNA samples isolated from individuals with trisomy 21 (n = 36; trisomy 18 (n = 6; trisomy 13 (n = 4; 45, X (n = 5; 47, XXX (n = 3; 48, XXYY (n = 2; and unaffected controls (n = 40. We evaluated the performance of this method using the karyotyping results. A correct and unambiguous diagnosis with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, was achieved for clinical samples examined. Thus, the present study demonstrates that SD-QF-PCR is a robust, rapid and sensitive method for the diagnosis of common aneuploidies, and these analyses can be performed in less than 4 hours for a single sample, providing a competitive alternative for routine use.

  18. Level Set Based Hippocampus Segmentation in MR Images with Improved Initialization Using Region Growing

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    Xiaoliang Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus has been known as one of the most important structures referred to as Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders. However, segmentation of the hippocampus from MR images is still a challenging task due to its small size, complex shape, low contrast, and discontinuous boundaries. For the accurate and efficient detection of the hippocampus, a new image segmentation method based on adaptive region growing and level set algorithm is proposed. Firstly, adaptive region growing and morphological operations are performed in the target regions and its output is used for the initial contour of level set evolution method. Then, an improved edge-based level set method utilizing global Gaussian distributions with different means and variances is developed to implement the accurate segmentation. Finally, gradient descent method is adopted to get the minimization of the energy equation. As proved by experiment results, the proposed method can ideally extract the contours of the hippocampus that are very close to manual segmentation drawn by specialists.

  19. Automated Segmentation of Coronary Arteries Based on Statistical Region Growing and Heuristic Decision Method

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    Yun Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The segmentation of coronary arteries is a vital process that helps cardiovascular radiologists detect and quantify stenosis. In this paper, we propose a fully automated coronary artery segmentation from cardiac data volume. The method is built on a statistics region growing together with a heuristic decision. First, the heart region is extracted using a multi-atlas-based approach. Second, the vessel structures are enhanced via a 3D multiscale line filter. Next, seed points are detected automatically through a threshold preprocessing and a subsequent morphological operation. Based on the set of detected seed points, a statistics-based region growing is applied. Finally, results are obtained by setting conservative parameters. A heuristic decision method is then used to obtain the desired result automatically because parameters in region growing vary in different patients, and the segmentation requires full automation. The experiments are carried out on a dataset that includes eight-patient multivendor cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA volume data. The DICE similarity index, mean distance, and Hausdorff distance metrics are employed to compare the proposed algorithm with two state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of performing complete, robust, and accurate extraction of coronary arteries.

  20. CAMSHIFT IMPROVEMENT WITH MEAN-SHIFT SEGMENTATION, REGION GROWING, AND SURF METHOD

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    Ferdinan Ferdinan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available CAMSHIFT algorithm has been widely used in object tracking. CAMSHIFT utilizescolor features as the model object. Thus, original CAMSHIFT may fail when the object color issimilar with the background color. In this study, we propose CAMSHIFT tracker combined withmean-shift segmentation, region growing, and SURF in order to improve the tracking accuracy.The mean-shift segmentation and region growing are applied in object localization phase to extractthe important parts of the object. Hue-distance, saturation, and value are used to calculate theBhattacharyya distance to judge whether the tracked object is lost. Once the object is judged lost,SURF is used to find the lost object, and CAMSHIFT can retrack the object. The Object trackingsystem is built with OpenCV. Some measurements of accuracy have done using frame-basedmetrics. We use datasets BoBoT (Bonn Benchmark on Tracking to measure accuracy of thesystem. The results demonstrate that CAMSHIFT combined with mean-shift segmentation, regiongrowing, and SURF method has higher accuracy than the previous methods.

  1. Intraoral tumor with rapid growing. Report of a case.

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    González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Cebrián-Carretero, Jose Luis; Gómez-García, Elena; del Castillo-Pardo de Vera, Jose Luis; del Val, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The appearance of an intraoral mass is common in our specialty. Most are benign lesions, but some are primary malignancies. Metastases account for less than 1% of all oral malignancies. An 86 year old woman was referred to our department with a large, asymptomatic, intraoral, fast-growing mass. She had no previous cancer history or other relevant physical findings. The radiology studies showed underlying bone erosion. The histological study showed a metastatic adenocarcinoma with a suspected origin in the abdomen. We were unable to identify it by non invasive diagnostic procedures. Given the patient's general status and despite the ominous prognosis of such lesions, we decided not to perform any aggressive therapy beyond removing the oral mass, in order to maintain her quality of life. There have been no local recurrences until this time.

  2. A Study on the Application of Fuzzy Information Seeded Region Growing in Brain MRI Tissue Segmentation

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    Chuin-Mu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After long-term clinical trials, MRI has been proven to be used in humans harmlessly, and it is popularly used in medical diagnosis. Although MR is highly sensitive, it provides abundant organization information. Therefore, how to transform the multi-spectral images which is easier to be used for doctor’s clinical diagnosis. In this thesis, the fuzzy bidirectional edge detection method is used to solve conventional SRG problem of growing order in the initial seed stages. In order to overcome the problems of the different regions, although it is the same Euclidean distance for region growing and merging process stages, we present the peak detection method to improve them. The standard deviation target generation process (SDTGP is applied to guarantee the regions merging process does not cause over- or undersegmentation. Experimental results reveal that FISRG segments a multispectral MR image much more effectively than FAST and K-means.

  3. Frequency of rapid growing mycobacteria among tuberculosis suspected patients in Basra-Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sulami, Amin A. Al; Taee, Asaad Al; Hasan, Zainab A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of rapid growing mycobacteria among tuberculosis suspected patients in Basra governorate and study their resistance to drugs. Methods...

  4. Automatic segmentation of meningioma from non-contrasted brain MRI integrating fuzzy clustering and region growing

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    Liao Chun-Chih

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become important in brain tumor diagnosis. Using this modality, physicians can locate specific pathologies by analyzing differences in tissue character presented in different types of MR images. This paper uses an algorithm integrating fuzzy-c-mean (FCM and region growing techniques for automated tumor image segmentation from patients with menigioma. Only non-contrasted T1 and T2 -weighted MR images are included in the analysis. The study's aims are to correctly locate tumors in the images, and to detect those situated in the midline position of the brain. Methods The study used non-contrasted T1- and T2-weighted MR images from 29 patients with menigioma. After FCM clustering, 32 groups of images from each patient group were put through the region-growing procedure for pixels aggregation. Later, using knowledge-based information, the system selected tumor-containing images from these groups and merged them into one tumor image. An alternative semi-supervised method was added at this stage for comparison with the automatic method. Finally, the tumor image was optimized by a morphology operator. Results from automatic segmentation were compared to the "ground truth" (GT on a pixel level. Overall data were then evaluated using a quantified system. Results The quantified parameters, including the "percent match" (PM and "correlation ratio" (CR, suggested a high match between GT and the present study's system, as well as a fair level of correspondence. The results were compatible with those from other related studies. The system successfully detected all of the tumors situated at the midline of brain. Six cases failed in the automatic group. One also failed in the semi-supervised alternative. The remaining five cases presented noticeable edema inside the brain. In the 23 successful cases, the PM and CR values in the two groups were highly related. Conclusions Results indicated

  5. A Self-Calibrating Multi-Band Region Growing Approach to Segmentation of Single and Multi-Band Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, D W

    2002-12-20

    Image segmentation transforms pixel-level information from raw images to a higher level of abstraction in which related pixels are grouped into disjoint spatial regions. Such regions typically correspond to natural or man-made objects or structures, natural variations in land cover, etc. For many image interpretation tasks (such as land use assessment, automatic target cueing, defining relationships between objects, etc.), segmentation can be an important early step. Remotely sensed images (e.g., multi-spectral and hyperspectral images) often contain many spectral bands (i.e., multiple layers of 2D images). Multi-band images are important because they contain more information than single-band images. Objects or natural variations that are readily apparent in certain spectral bands may be invisible in 2D broadband images. In this paper, the classical region growing approach to image segmentation is generalized from single to multi-band images. While it is widely recognized that the quality of image segmentation is affected by which segmentation algorithm is used, this paper shows that algorithm parameter values can have an even more profound effect. A novel self-calibration framework is developed for automatically selecting parameter values that produce segmentations that most closely resemble a calibration edge map (derived separately using a simple edge detector). Although the framework is generic in the sense that it can imbed any core segmentation algorithm, this paper only demonstrates self-calibration with multi-band region growing. The framework is applied to a variety of AVIRIS image blocks at different spectral resolutions, in an effort to assess the impact of spectral resolution on segmentation quality. The image segmentations are assessed quantitatively, and it is shown that segmentation quality does not generally appear to be highly correlated with spectral resolution.

  6. Evaluation of Various Culture Media for Detection of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Clair L; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Perry, Audrey; Jones, Amanda L; Cummings, Stephen P; Perry, John D; Hogardt, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to overgrowth by rapidly growing species that colonize the lungs of patients with CF. Extended incubation on Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as an expedient culture method for the isolation of rapidly growing NTM in this setting. The aim of this study was to assess five selective media designed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex, along with two media designed for the isolation of mycobacteria (rapidly growing mycobacteria [RGM] medium and Middlebrook 7H11 agar), for their abilities to isolate NTM. All seven media were challenged with 147 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria and 185 isolates belonging to other species. RGM medium was then compared with the most selective brand of BCSA for the isolation of NTM from 224 sputum samples from patients with CF. Different agars designed for the isolation of B. cepacia complex varied considerably in their inhibition of other bacteria and fungi. RGM medium supported the growth of all isolates of mycobacteria and was more selective than any other medium. NTM were recovered from 17 of 224 sputum samples using RGM medium, compared with only 7 samples using the most selective brand of BCSA (P = 0.023). RGM medium offers a superior option, compared to other selective agars, for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with CF. Furthermore, the convenience of using RGM medium enables routine screening for rapidly growing NTM in all submitted sputum samples from patients with CF. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mass measles immunisation campaign, with a target coverage rate of 85 - 90%, was launched in Khayelitsha, a rapidly growing urban township in the Cape Town area. Cross-sectional surveys of the measles immunisation status of resident 6 - 23-month-old infants were conducted immediately before, immediately after, ...

  8. Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov., a rapidly growing bacterium isolated from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2017-10-01

    A strain representing a rapidly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating and non-pigmented species of the genus Mycobacterium, designated strain S-I-6T, was isolated from groundwater at Daejeon in Korea. The strain grew at temperatures between 10 and 37 °C (optimal growth at 25 °C), between pH 4.0 and 9.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNAgene, hsp65, rpoB and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer indicated that strain S-I-6T belonged to the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium sphagni. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the bacterial strain was distinguished from its phylogenetic neighbours by chemotaxonomic properties and other biochemical characteristics. DNA-DNA relatedness among strain S-I-6T and the closest phylogenetic neighbour strongly support the proposal that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-I-6T (=KACC 17600T=NBRC 109805T=NCAIM B 02535T).

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria by microdilution - Experience of a tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Set R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.

  10. Clinical management of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections in patients after mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Stéphanie; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Guihot, Amelie; Deforges, Lionel; Carbonne, Anne; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric

    2009-11-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are expressing an interest in mesotherapy as a method of reducing body fat. Cutaneous infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria are a common complication of such procedures. We followed up patients who had developed cutaneous infections after undergoing mesotherapy during the period October 2006-January 2007. Sixteen patients were infected after mesotherapy injections performed by the same physician. All patients presented with painful, erythematous, draining subcutaneous nodules at the injection sites. All patients were treated with surgical drainage. Microbiological examination was performed on specimens that were obtained before and during the surgical procedure. Direct examination of skin smears demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in 25% of the specimens that were obtained before the procedure and 37% of the specimens obtained during the procedure; culture results were positive in 75% of the patients. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 11 patients, and Mycobacterium frederiksbergense was identified in 2 patients. Fourteen patients were treated with antibiotics, 6 received triple therapy as first-line treatment (tigecycline, tobramycin, and clarithromycin), and 8 received dual therapy (clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin). The mean duration of treatment was 14 weeks (range, 1-24 weeks). All of the patients except 1 were fully recovered 2 years after the onset of infection, with the mean time to healing estimated at 6.2 months (range, 1-15 months). This series of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections highlights the difficulties in treating such infections and suggests that in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics does not accurately predict their clinical efficacy.

  11. Localization and segmentation of optic disc in retinal images using circular Hough transform and grow-cut algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Muhammad; Fraz, Muhammad Moazam; Barman, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    Automated retinal image analysis has been emerging as an important diagnostic tool for early detection of eye-related diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we have presented a robust methodology for optic disc detection and boundary segmentation, which can be seen as the preliminary step in the development of a computer-assisted diagnostic system for glaucoma in retinal images. The proposed method is based on morphological operations, the circular Hough transform and the grow-cut algorithm. The morphological operators are used to enhance the optic disc and remove the retinal vasculature and other pathologies. The optic disc center is approximated using the circular Hough transform, and the grow-cut algorithm is employed to precisely segment the optic disc boundary. The method is quantitatively evaluated on five publicly available retinal image databases DRIVE, DIARETDB1, CHASE_DB1, DRIONS-DB, Messidor and one local Shifa Hospital Database. The method achieves an optic disc detection success rate of 100% for these databases with the exception of 99.09% and 99.25% for the DRIONS-DB, Messidor, and ONHSD databases, respectively. The optic disc boundary detection achieved an average spatial overlap of 78.6%, 85.12%, 83.23%, 85.1%, 87.93%, 80.1%, and 86.1%, respectively, for these databases. This unique method has shown significant improvement over existing methods in terms of detection and boundary extraction of the optic disc.

  12. Adaptive region-growing with maximum curvature strategy for tumor segmentation in 18F-FDG PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shan; Li, Laquan; Choi, Wookjin; Kang, Min Kyu; D'Souza, Warren D.; Lu, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Accurate tumor segmentation in PET is crucial in many oncology applications. We developed an adaptive region-growing (ARG) algorithm with a maximum curvature strategy (ARG_MC) for tumor segmentation in PET. The ARG_MC repeatedly applied a confidence connected region-growing algorithm with increasing relaxing factor f. The optimal relaxing factor (ORF) was then determined at the transition point on the f-volume curve, where the volume just grew from the tumor into the surrounding normal tissues. The ARG_MC along with five widely used algorithms were tested on a phantom with 6 spheres at different signal to background ratios and on two clinic datasets including 20 patients with esophageal cancer and 11 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The ARG_MC did not require any phantom calibration or any a priori knowledge of the tumor or PET scanner. The identified ORF varied with tumor types (mean ORF  =  9.61, 3.78 and 2.55 respectively for the phantom, esophageal cancer, and NHL datasets), and varied from one tumor to another. For the phantom, the ARG_MC ranked the second in segmentation accuracy with an average Dice similarity index (DSI) of 0.86, only slightly worse than Daisne’s adaptive thresholding method (DSI  =  0.87), which required phantom calibration. For both the esophageal cancer dataset and the NHL dataset, the ARG_MC had the highest accuracy with an average DSI of 0.87 and 0.84, respectively. The ARG_MC was robust to parameter settings and region of interest selection, and it did not depend on scanners, imaging protocols, or tumor types. Furthermore, the ARG_MC made no assumption about the tumor size or tumor uptake distribution, making it suitable for segmenting tumors with heterogeneous FDG uptake. In conclusion, the ARG_MC was accurate, robust and easy to use, it provides a highly potential tool for PET tumor segmentation in clinic.

  13. Rapid urbanization and the growing threat of violence and conflict: a 21st century crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak B; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-04-01

    As the global population is concentrated into complex environments, rapid urbanization increases the threat of conflict and insecurity. Many fast-growing cities create conditions of significant disparities in standards of living, which set up a natural environment for conflict over resources. As urban slums become a haven for criminal elements, youth gangs, and the arms trade, they also create insecurity for much of the population. Specific populations, such as women, migrants, and refugees, bear the brunt of this lack of security, with significant impacts on their livelihoods, health, and access to basic services. This lack of security and violence also has great costs to the general population, both economic and social. Cities have increasingly become the battlefield of recent conflicts as they serve as the seats of power and gateways to resources. International agencies, non-governmental organizations, and policy-makers must act to stem this tide of growing urban insecurity. Protecting urban populations and preventing future conflict will require better urban planning, investment in livelihood programs for youth, cooperation with local communities, enhanced policing, and strengthening the capacity of judicial systems.

  14. Cancer survivors in Switzerland: a rapidly growing population to care for

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors are a heterogeneous group with complex health problems. Data concerning its total number and growing dynamics for Switzerland are scarce and outdated. Methods Population and mortality data were retrieved from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office (FSO). Incidence and relative survival for invasive cancers were computed using data from the cancer registries Geneva (1970–2009), St. Gallen - Appenzell (1980–2010), Grisons & Glarus (1989–2010), and Valais (1989–2010). We estimated prevalence for 1990–2010 using the Prevalence, Incidence Approach MODel (PIAMOD) method. We calculated trends in prevalence estimates by Joinpoint analysis. Projections were extrapolated using the above models and based on time trends of the period 2007–2010. Results The estimated number of cancer survivors increased from 139′717 in 1990 (2.08% of the population) to 289′797 persons in 2010 (3.70%). The growth rate shows an exponential shape and was 3.3% per year in the period 2008 to 2010. Almost half of the survivors have a history of breast, prostate or colorectal cancer. Among cancer survivors, 55% are women but the increases have been more marked in men (p Switzerland. Conclusions There is a rapidly growing population of cancer survivors in Switzerland whose needs and concerns are largely unknown. PMID:23764068

  15. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M

    2016-08-01

    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  16. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W

    2012-06-26

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO(2) balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (± 30) kg · ha(-1) · y(-1), double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (± 176) kg · ha(-1), whereas net losses of soil N (0-100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (± 915) kg · ha(-1) (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ(13)C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg · ha(-1) · y(-1). All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32-54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass.

  17. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kyselková

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

  18. The spatial biology of transcription and translation in rapidly growing Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath eBakshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP in live, rapidly growing E. coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0-3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20-30 min nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription

  19. An automated system for rapid non-destructive enumeration of growing microbes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roanna London

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The power and simplicity of visual colony counting have made it the mainstay of microbiological analysis for more than 130 years. A disadvantage of the method is the long time required to generate visible colonies from cells in a sample. New rapid testing technologies generally have failed to maintain one or more of the major advantages of culture-based methods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a new technology and platform that uses digital imaging of cellular autofluorescence to detect and enumerate growing microcolonies many generations before they become visible to the eye. The data presented demonstrate that the method preserves the viability of the microcolonies it detects, thus enabling generation of pure cultures for microbial identification. While visual colony counting detects Escherichia coli colonies containing about 5x10(6 cells, the new imaging method detects E. coli microcolonies when they contain about 120 cells and microcolonies of the yeast Candida albicans when they contain only about 12 cells. We demonstrate that digital imaging of microcolony autofluorescence detects a broad spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes and present a model for predicting the time to detection for individual strains. Results from the analysis of environmental samples from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants containing a mixture of unidentified microbes demonstrate the method's improved test turnaround times. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates a new technology and automated platform that substantially shortens test times while maintaining key advantages of the current methods.

  20. Mycobacterium celeriflavum sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic bacterium isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Çavuşoğlu, Cengiz; Borroni, Emanuele; Heidarieh, Parvin; Koksalan, Orhan Kaya; Cabibbe, Andrea Maurizio; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Mariottini, Alessandro; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Cittaro, Davide; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Lazarevic, Dejan; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Molinari, Gian Lorenzo; Camaggi, Anna; Tortoli, Enrico

    2015-02-01

    Six strains of a rapidly growing scotochromogenic mycobacterium were isolated from pulmonary specimens of independent patients. Biochemical and cultural tests were not suitable for their identification. The mycolic acid pattern analysed by HPLC was different from that of any other mycobacterium. Genotypic characterization, targeting seven housekeeping genes, revealed the presence of microheterogeneity in all of them. Different species were more closely related to the test strains in various regions: the type strain of Mycobacterium moriokaense showed 99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, and 91.5-96.5 % similarity for the remaining six regions. The whole genome sequences of the proposed type strain and that of M. moriokaense presented an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 82.9 %. Phylogenetic analysis produced poorly robust trees in most genes with the exception of rpoB and sodA where Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium novocastrense were the closest species. This phylogenetic relatedness was confirmed by the tree inferred from five concatenated genes, which was very robust. The polyphasic characterization of the test strains, supported by the ANI value, demonstrates that they belong to a previously unreported species, for which the name Mycobacterium celeriflavum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFPC-000207(T) ( = DSM 46765(T) = JCM 18439(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  1. Isolation of Rapidly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Wounds Following Combat-Related Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Lauren C; Homeyer, Diane C; Zapor, Michael; Hartzell, Joshua; Warkentien, Tyler; Weintrob, Amy C; Ganesan, Anuradha; Burgess, Timothy; Snesrud, Erik; Waterman, Paige; Nielsen, Lindsey; Ressner, Roseanne A

    2016-06-01

    Rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) have yet to be described in combat-related injuries. This study investigates the epidemiology, clinical findings, treatment, and outcomes of RGNTM infections among combat casualties wounded in Afghanistan from 2010 to 2012. Patients with RGNTM were identified from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry through the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study. Trauma history, surgical management, and clinical data were collected. Six isolates from patients requiring antimycobacterial therapy were sequenced. Seventeen cases were identified. Six cases, predominantly associated with Mycobacterium abscessus, required aggressive debridement and a median of 180 days of multidrug antimycobacterial therapy that included clofazimine. M. abscessus isolates expressed the erythromycin resistance methylase (erm(41)) gene for inducible macrolide resistance, yet there were no clinical treatment failures when macrolides were utilized in combination therapy. No clonal similarity between M. abscessus isolates was found. Eleven cases had positive wound cultures, but did not require antimycobacterial therapy. The median duration of time of injury to first detection of a RGNTM was 57 days. This represents the first report of RGNTM infections in war-wounded patients. RGNTM should be recognized as potential pathogens in grossly infected combat wounds. Surgical debridement and multidrug antimycobacterial therapy, when clinically indicated, was associated with satisfactory clinical outcomes. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpato, Richard [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Campi de Castro, Claudio [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Radiology, Cerqueira Cesar, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hadad, David Jamil [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Nucleo de Doencas Infecciosas, Department of Internal Medicine, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da [Laboratorio de Patologia PAT, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Filho, Ezequiel Leal [UNIMED Diagnostico, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Marcal, Leonardo P. [The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  3. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woller, Jessica L; Kim, Ki Beom; Behrents, Rolf G; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures) following rapid maxillary expansion in growing children. The CBCT scans of 25 consecutively treated RME patients (10 male, 15 female) with mean age of 12.3±2.6 years, were examined before expansion and immediately following the last activation of the expansion appliance. Statistically significant (Pmaxillary first molars due to RME was also statistically significant. There was no statistically significant displacement of the transpalatal suture. Rapid maxillary expansion results in significant displacement of the bones of circummaxillary sutures in growing children.

  4. Two novel species of rapidly growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium lehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacterium neumannii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Sangal, Vartul; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Jando, Marlen; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Sutcliffe, Iain; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Two rapidly growing mycobacteria with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences were the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strains formed a well-supported subclade in the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely associated with the type strain of Mycobacterium novocastrense. Single and multilocus sequence analyses based on hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SN 1900T and SN 1904T are phylogenetically distinct but share several chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features that are are consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium. The two strains were distinguished by their different fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles, and by a combination of phenotypic features. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values for strains SN 1900T and SN 1904T were 61.0 % and 94.7 %, respectively; in turn, the corresponding dDDH and ANI values with M. novocastrense DSM 44203T were 41.4 % and 42.8 % and 89.3 % and 89.5 %, respectively. These results show that strains SN1900T and SN 1904T form new centres of taxonomic variation within the genus Mycobacterium. Consequently, strains SN 1900T (40T=CECT 8763T=DSM 43219T) and SN 1904T (2409T=CECT 8766T=DSM 43532T) are considered to represent novel species, for which the names Mycobacteriumlehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacteriumneumannii sp. nov. are proposed. A strain designated as 'Mycobacteriumacapulsensis' was shown to be a bona fide member of the putative novel species, M. lehmannii.

  5. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children

    OpenAIRE

    Woller,Jessica L.; Ki Beom Kim; Behrents, Rolf G.; Buschang, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures) following rapid maxillary expansion in gro...

  6. Mycobacterium iranicum sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic species isolated from clinical specimens on three different continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shojaei, H.; Daley, C.; Gitti, Z.; Hashemi, A.; Heidarieh, P.; Moore, E.R.; Naser, A.D.; Russo, C.; Ingen, J. van; Tortoli, E.

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of a novel, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic mycobacterial species is reported. Eight independent strains were isolated from clinical specimens from six different countries of the world, two in Iran, two in Italy and one in each of following countries: Greece, The

  7. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lione

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. Methods This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1–CS2. The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1 and after 1 year (T2. A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. Results RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. Conclusions The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular

  8. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, Roberta; Brunelli, Valerio; Franchi, Lorenzo; Pavoni, Chiara; Quiroga Souki, Bernardo; Cozza, Paola

    2017-11-06

    The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1-CS2). The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm) until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1) and after 1 year (T2). A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular response to the maxillary expansion protocol in class-II-growing

  9. [The diagnosis and treatment of rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai-Jin; Cheng, Zheng-Ping; Yin, Li; Wu, Yu-Yu; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Jun-Fang; Shi, Hai-Hong

    2009-06-01

    To study the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis (NTMK). It was retrospective case series study. Twelve eyes in 12 patients with NTMK following corneal foreign body trauma in 2007 were studied retrospectively including the case histories, clinical findings, laboratory examinations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The main laboratory examination included corneal scrapings by culturing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), corneal lesions by histopathologic examinations and TEM. The patients received local and systemic antibiotics therapy, lesion cleaning followed by cauterization with tincture of iodine (5%) and (or) keratoplasty. All cases had a history of corneal trauma, there was corneal metallic foreign body removal at one hospital in 11 cases, corneal reed trauma in 1 case. The characteristic signs involved grayish-blue crystalloid keratopathy, multifocal infiltrates, satellites, radical form changes in the Descemet's membrane. The results of laboratory examinations of the scrapings of the cornea infection were as follows: all cultures (12/12) were positive for rapidly growing mycobacteria, and isolates from 5 patients were all diagnosed as mycobacterium chelonae subspecies abscess; acid-fast staining revealed positive bacilli in all the 4 patients; seven of 8 patients were positive for bacterium by PCR. Transmission electron microscopy in all the 3 specimens showed many slender rod-shaped or short coarse-shaped bacteria which were phagocytized by monocytes, and some necrotic tissue. Infections in 10 eyes were resolved by combined treatment regimen including a combination of antimicrobial agents (amikacin, rifampin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and/or ofloxacin, etc.) and local lesion cleaning followed by cauterization with 5% tincture of iodine within 2-5 months; two cases resolved by keratoplasty which poorly responded to antibiotic therapy for 6 months

  10. Multistate US Outbreak of Rapidly Growing Mycobacterial Infections Associated with Medical Tourism to the Dominican Republic, 2013-2014(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, David; Esposito, Douglas H; Gaines, Joanna; Ridpath, Alison; Barry, M Anita; Feldman, Katherine A; Mullins, Jocelyn; Burns, Rachel; Ahmad, Nina; Nyangoma, Edith N; Nguyen, Duc B; Perz, Joseph F; Moulton-Meissner, Heather A; Jensen, Bette J; Lin, Ying; Posivak-Khouly, Leah; Jani, Nisha; Morgan, Oliver W; Brunette, Gary W; Pritchard, P Scott; Greenbaum, Adena H; Rhee, Susan M; Blythe, David; Sotir, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During 2013, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in Baltimore, MD, USA, received report of 2 Maryland residents whose surgical sites were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria after cosmetic procedures at a clinic (clinic A) in the Dominican Republic. A multistate investigation was initiated; a probable case was defined as a surgical site infection unresponsive to therapy in a patient who had undergone cosmetic surgery in the Dominican Republic. We identified 21 case-patients in 6 states who had surgery in 1 of 5 Dominican Republic clinics; 13 (62%) had surgery at clinic A. Isolates from 12 (92%) of those patients were culture-positive for Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Of 9 clinic A case-patients with available data, all required therapeutic surgical intervention, 8 (92%) were hospitalized, and 7 (78%) required ≥3 months of antibacterial drug therapy. Healthcare providers should consider infection with rapidly growing mycobacteria in patients who have surgical site infections unresponsive to standard treatment.

  11. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas R. Cusumano; Vivy Tran; Aileen Tlamsa; Philip Chung; Robert Grossberg; Gregory Weston; Uzma N. Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors’ experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here. Methods: Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who pre...

  12. A novel culture medium for isolation of rapidly-growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Clair L; Perry, Audrey; Gray, Bethany; Kenna, Dervla T; Jones, Amanda L; Cummings, Stephen P; Robb, Ali; Thomas, Matthew F; Brodlie, Malcolm; O'Brien, Christopher J; Bourke, Stephen J; Perry, John D

    2016-03-01

    Isolation of mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to the overgrowth of cultures by other bacteria and fungi. In this setting, Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as a convenient and effective culture medium for the isolation of rapidly-growing, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). A novel selective culture medium (RGM medium) was evaluated for the isolation of rapidly-growing NTM from the sputum of children and adults with CF. A total of 118 isolates of rapidly-growing mycobacteria and 98 other bacteria and fungi were inoculated onto RGM medium. These were assessed for growth at 30°C over a seven day period. A total of 502 consecutive sputum samples were collected from 210 patients with CF. Each sample was homogenized and cultured onto RGM medium and also onto BCSA. Cultures were incubated for 10days at 30°C. Of 118 isolates of mycobacteria all but one grew well on RGM medium, whereas 94% of other bacteria and fungi were inhibited. A total of 55 sputum samples (from 33 distinct patients) yielded NTM using a combination of both RGM and BCSA (prevalence: 15.7%). NTM were recovered from 54 sputum samples using RGM medium compared with only 17 samples using BCSA (sensitivity 98% vs. 31%; P≤0.0001). A total of 419 isolates of non-mycobacteria were recovered from sputum samples on BCSA compared with 46 on RGM medium. RGM medium offers a simple and effective culture method for the isolation of rapidly-growing mycobacteria from sputum samples from patients with CF without decontamination of samples. RGM medium allows for the systematic screening of all sputum samples routinely referred for culture from patients with CF. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Unsupervised segmentation of heel-strike IMU data using rapid cluster estimation of wavelet features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwono, Mitchell; Su, Steven W; Moulton, Bruce D; Nguyen, Hung T

    2013-01-01

    When undertaking gait-analysis, one of the most important factors to consider is heel-strike (HS). Signals from a waist worn Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) provides sufficient accelerometric and gyroscopic information for estimating gait parameter and identifying HS events. In this paper we propose a novel adaptive, unsupervised, and parameter-free identification method for detection of HS events during gait episodes. Our proposed method allows the device to learn and adapt to the profile of the user without the need of supervision. The algorithm is completely parameter-free and requires no prior fine tuning. Autocorrelation features (ACF) of both antero-posterior acceleration (aAP) and medio-lateral acceleration (aML) are used to determine cadence episodes. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) features of signal peaks during cadence are extracted and clustered using Swarm Rapid Centroid Estimation (Swarm RCE). Left HS (LHS), Right HS (RHS), and movement artifacts are clustered based on intra-cluster correlation. Initial pilot testing of the system on 8 subjects show promising results up to 84.3%±9.2% and 86.7%±6.9% average accuracy with 86.8%±9.2% and 88.9%±7.1% average precision for the segmentation of LHS and RHS respectively.

  14. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Woller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures following rapid maxillary expansion in growing children. METHODS: The CBCT scans of 25 consecutively treated RME patients (10 male, 15 female with mean age of 12.3 ± 2.6 years, were examined before expansion and immediately following the last activation of the expansion appliance. RESULTS: Statistically significant (P < 0.05 amounts of separation were found for the displacement of the bones of the frontonasal suture, the intermaxillary suture, the zygomaticomaxillary sutures, and the midpalatal suture. The change in angulation of the maxillary first molars due to RME was also statistically significant. There was no statistically significant displacement of the transpalatal suture. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid maxillary expansion results in significant displacement of the bones of circummaxillary sutures in growing children.

  15. The impact of entrepreneurial capital and rapidly growing firms: the Canadian example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    World-class competitiveness is no longer an option for firms seeking growth and survival in the increasingly competitive, dynamic and interconnected world. This paper expands on the concept of entrepreneurial capital and formalizes it as a catalyst that augments other productive factors. It provi...... hostile environments that also suffer from poor resources, this research offers significant lessons with implications for emerging firms, industries and associated regions that aspire to grow faster...

  16. Rapidly growing cystic vestibular schwannoma with sudden onset facial palsy, ten years after subtotal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandinarasaiah, Manjunath; Grinblat, Golda; Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Taibah, Abdelkader; Sanna, Mario

    2017-07-19

    An elderly male patient diagnosed with a right-sided cystic vestibular schwannoma (CVS) at our center underwent a translabyrinthine approach with a subtotal excision to preserve the facial nerve (FN). The tumor grew slowly for the first 9 years but in the subsequent 2 years grew rapidly, with the patient developing a FN paralysis. Using the previous approach, a second surgery was done and the tumor was excised, leaving behind a sheath of tumor on the facial and lower cranial nerves. This case demonstrates that CVSs show unpredictable growth patterns and need to be followed up for a longer period of time. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. In-vitro evaluation of the adhesion to polypropylene sutures of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, N; Esteban, J; Kinnari, T J; Celdrán, A; Granizo, J J; Zafra, C

    2007-09-01

    The ability of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria (NPRGM) to attach to polypropylene sutures was evaluated using an in-vitro assay. Thirty clinical isolates and five culture collection strains of NPRGM, together with Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35983, were tested. Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae showed the highest attachment ability, which differed significantly from the results obtained with Mycobacterium peregrinum. According to these results, NPRGM are able to attach to polypropylene sutures, and the species implicated most frequently in human infection showed increased levels of attachment in comparison with the other mycobacteria studied.

  18. A rapidly growing moraine-dammed glacial lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah S.; Benn, Douglas I.; Dennis, Kathryn; Luckman, Adrian

    2012-04-01

    Moraine-dammed glacial lakes are becoming increasingly common in the Himalaya as a result of glacier mass loss, causing concern about glacier lake outburst flood risk. In addition to extant lakes, the potential exists for many more to form, as more glaciers ablate down to the level of potential moraine dams. In this paper, we document the recent rapid growth of, a moraine-dammed lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. Using a combination of ground-based mapping and sonar surveys, aerial photographs (< 1 m resolution), and ASTER imagery (15 m resolution), processes and rates of lake expansion have been determined. The lake first formed between 1984 and 1992 when collapse of an englacial conduit allowed water to accumulate at the level of a gap in the lateral moraine, ~km from the glacier terminus. Lake growth was initially slow, but since 2001 it has undergone exponential growth at an average rate of 10% y-1. In 2009, the lake area was 300,000 m2, and its volume was at least 2.2 million m3. Calving, subaqueous melting, and melting of subaerial ice faces all contribute to the expansion of the lake; but large-scale, full-height slab calving is now the dominant contributor to growth. Comparison with other lakes in the region indicate that lake growth will likely continue unchecked whilst the spillway remains at its current level and may attain a volume of hundreds of millions of cubic metres within the next few decades.

  19. Neonatal sepsis in a rapidly growing, tertiary neonatal intensive care unit: Trends over 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Ju Sun; Shin, Seung Han; Jung, Young Hwa; Kim, Ee-Kyung; Choi, Eun Hwa; Kim, Han-Suk; Lee, Hoan Jong; Choi, Jung-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    We investigated changes in the admission patterns of neonatal intensive care units and the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis following the rapid expansion and improvements in neonatal intensive care. Data on the admission of neonates with culture-proven sepsis between 1996 and 2013 (period I, 1996-2005; period II, 2006-2013) were collected retrospectively. The admission of extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants increased between periods I and II (11.1 vs 28.7 infants per 1000 live births, P sepsis among all infants and ELBW infants increased (all infants, 5.9 vs 12.7 cases per 1000 live births; ELBW infants, 189.5 vs 290.1 cases per 1000 live births). In ELBW infants, the incidence of sepsis caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS), significantly increased during period II (8.8 vs 25.4%, P = 0.039). On multivariate analysis, central vascular catheters and prolonged hospitalization were independently associated with increased sepsis rate, particularly CONS in ELBW infants. The inborn admission rate for ELBW infants has increased significantly and is accompanied by improved survival and longer hospital stay. The incidence of neonatal sepsis, particularly in ELBW infants, has also increased, and CONS has emerged as a major pathogen. Central vascular catheters and prolonged hospitalization could be independent risk factors for the increased sepsis rate, particularly sepsis due to CONS. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Transverse Expansion and Stability after Segmental Le Fort I Osteotomy versus Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Starch-Jensen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the present systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no difference in transverse skeletal and dental arch expansion and relapse after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy versus surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. Material and Methods: A MEDLINE (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library search in combination with a hand-search of relevant journals was conducted by including human studies published in English from January 1, 2000 to June 1, 2016. Results: The search provided 130 titles and four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the included studies were characterized by high risk of bias and meta-analysis was not possible due to considerable variation. Both treatment modalities significantly increase the transverse maxillary skeletal and dental arch width. The transverse dental arch expansion and relapse seems to be substantial higher with tooth-borne surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion compared to segmental Le Fort I osteotomy. The ratio of dental to skeletal relapse was significantly higher in the posterior maxilla with tooth-borne surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. Moreover, a parallel opening without segment tilting was observed after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy. Conclusions: Maxillary transverse deficiency in adults can be treated successfully with both treatment modalities, although surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion seems more effective when large transverse maxillary skeletal and dental arch expansion is required. However, considering the methodological limitations of the included studies, long-term randomized studies assessing transverse skeletal and dental expansion and relapse with the two treatment modalities are needed before definite conclusions can be provided.

  1. AUTOMATIC LUNG NODULE SEGMENTATION USING AUTOSEED REGION GROWING WITH MORPHOLOGICAL MASKING (ARGMM AND FEATURE EX-TRACTION THROUGH COMPLETE LOCAL BINARY PATTERN AND MICROSCOPIC INFORMATION PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An efficient Autoseed Region Growing with Morphological Masking(ARGMM is imple-mented in this paper on the Lung CT Slice to segment the 'Lung Nodules',which may be the potential indicator for the Lung Cancer. The segmentation of lung nodules car-ried out in this paper through Multi-Thresholding, ARGMM and Level Set Evolution. ARGMM takes twice the time compared to Level Set, but still the number of suspected segmented nodules are doubled, which make sure that no potential cancerous nodules go unnoticed at the earlier stages of diagnosis. It is very important not to panic the patient by finding the presence of nodules from Lung CT scan. Only 40 percent of nod-ules can be cancerous. Hence, in this paper an efficient Shape and Texture analysis is computed to quantitatively describe the segmented lung nodules. The Frequency spectrum of the lung nodules is developed and its frequency domain features are com-puted. The Complete Local binary pattern of lung nodules is computed in this paper by constructing the combine histogram of Sign and Magnitude Local Binary Patterns. Lo-cal Configuration Pattern is also determined in this work for lung nodules to numeri-cally model the microscopic information of nodules pattern.

  2. Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov., a rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species isolated from human clinical respiratory and blood culture specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto Enrique; Greninger, Alexander L; Ladutko, Lynn; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Jakubiec, Wesley; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Wallace, Richard J; Simmon, Keith E; Dunn, Bruce E; Jackoway, Gary; Vora, Surabhi B; Quinn, Kevin K; Qin, Xuan; Campbell, Sheldon

    2017-11-01

    A previously undescribed, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species of the genus Mycobacterium (represented by strains PB739 T and GK) was isolated from two clinical sources - the sputum of a 76-year-old patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of tuberculosis exposure and Mycobacterium avium complex isolated years prior; and the blood of a 15-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia status post bone marrow transplant. The isolates grew as dark orange colonies at 25-37 °C after 5 days, sharing features in common with other closely related species. Analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (1492 bp) of strain PB739 T demonstrated that the isolate shared 98.8 % relatedness with Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Partial 429 bp hsp65 and 744 bp rpoB region V sequence analyses revealed that the sequences of the novel isolate shared 94.8 and 92.1 % similarity with those of Mycobacterium neoaurum and Mycobacterium aurum, respectively. Biochemical profiling, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, HPLC/gas-liquid chromatography analyses and multilocus sequence typing support the taxonomic status of these isolates (PB739 T and GK) as representatives of a novel species. Both isolates were susceptible to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended antimicrobials for susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria including amikacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline/minocycline, imipenem, linezolid, clarithromycin and trimethropin/sulfamethoxazole. Both isolates PB739 T and GK showed intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin. We propose the name Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov. for this novel species and have deposited the type strain in the DSMZ and CIP culture collections. The type strain is PB739 T (=DSM 104744 T =CIP 111318 T ).

  3. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, Lucas R; Tran, Vivy; Tlamsa, Aileen; Chung, Philip; Grossberg, Robert; Weston, Gregory; Sarwar, Uzma N

    2017-10-01

    Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors' experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here. Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who presented at the Montefiore Medical Center (Bronx, New York, USA) between August 2015 and June 2016 were identified. A review of patient medical records was performed. Four patients who presented with culture-proven RGM infections at the sites of recent cosmetic procedures were identified. All patients were treated with a combination of antibiotics and aggressive surgical treatment. This case series of RGM infections following recent cosmetic surgeries abroad highlights the risks of medical tourism. Close monitoring of affected patients by surgical and infectious disease specialties is necessary, as aggressive surgical debridement combined with appropriate antibiotic regimens is needed to achieve cure. Given the increasing reports of post-surgical RGM infections, consultants should have a low threshold for suspecting RGM, as rapid diagnosis may accelerate the initiation of targeted treatment and minimize morbidity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Small gold nanoparticles formed by rapid photochemical flow-through synthesis using microfluid segment technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafermann, Lars, E-mail: lars.hafermann@tu-ilmenau.de; Michael Köhler, J. [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Department for Physical Chemistry/Microreaction Technology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Institute for Chemistry and Biotechnology (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    The photochemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles was transferred into a three-step micro-continuous flow process. A solution of tetrachloroaurate and a solution of a photoinitiator and polyvinylpyrrolidone were mixed within micro-fluid segments using a cross-injector. The segments (0.5 mm inner diameter) pass a focused UV ray after a short mixing by means of segment-internal convection. The nucleation of nanoparticles was initiated by this exposure, which lasted 30–300 ms depending on the applied flow rate. The growth of nanoparticles was completed by the passage of a residence loop of a length of 0.5 m. The obtained colloidal product solution was characterized by UV/VIS spectrophotometry, centrifugal sedimentation spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and SEM/TEM. In result, small gold nanoparticles with enhanced quality, compared to photochemical batch experiments, were obtained. The particle size can be tuned by variation of the composition of reactant solutions or flow rate between 2.5 and 4 nm. The small gold nanoparticles are suitable for use as seed particles for the formation of larger particles with an adjustable diameter.

  5. [The accuracy of rapid equilibrium assumption in steady-state enzyme kinetics is the function of equilibrium segment structure and properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzheshch, P V

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of the accuracy of the rapid equilibrium assumption in the steady-state enzyme kinetics was obtained for an arbitrary mechanism of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. This evaluation depends only on the structure and properties of the equilibrium segment, but doesn't depend on the structure and properties of the rest (stationary part) of the kinetic scheme. The smaller the values of the edges leaving equilibrium segment in relation to values of the edges within the equilibrium segment, the higher the accuracy of determination of intermediate concentrations and reaction velocity in a case of the rapid equilibrium assumption.

  6. Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov., a scotochromogenic, rapidly growing species is able to infect human macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Rizvi, A; Banerjee, S; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-11-01

    Gram-stain-positive, acid-fast-positive, rapidly growing, rod-shaped bacteria (designated as strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431) were isolated from paddy cultivated soils on the Western Ghats of India. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three strains among the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium tokaiense 47503T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Mycobacterium murale MA112/96T (98.8 %) and a few other Mycobacterium species. The level of DNA-DNA reassociation of the three strains with M. tokaiense DSM 44635T was 23.4±4 % (26.1±3 %, reciprocal analysis) and 21.4±2 % (22.1±4 %, reciprocal analysis). The three novel strains shared >99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA reassociation values >85 %. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences (3071 bp) of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) revealed that strain JC290T is clearly distinct from all other Mycobacteriumspecies. The three strains had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, unidentified phospholipids, unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified lipid as polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone for all three strains was MK-9(H2). Fatty acids were C17 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C19 : 1ω7c/C19 : 1ω6c for all the three strains. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431 are members of a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium and for which the name Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC290T (=KCTC 39560T=LMG 28809T).

  7. Miniaturized extinction culturing is the preferred strategy for rapid isolation of fast‐growing methane‐oxidizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefman, Sven; van der Ha, David; De Vos, Paul; Boon, Nico; Heylen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Summary Methane‐oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have a large potential as a microbial sink for the greenhouse gas methane as well as for biotechnological purposes. However, their application in biotechnology has so far been hampered, in part due to the relative slow growth rate of the available strains. To enable the availability of novel strains, this study compares the isolation of MOB by conventional dilution plating with miniaturized extinction culturing, both performed after an initial enrichment step. The extinction approach rendered 22 MOB isolates from four environmental samples, while no MOB could be isolated by plating. In most cases, extinction culturing immediately yielded MOB monocultures making laborious purification redundant. Both type I (Methylomonas spp.) and type II (Methylosinus sp.) MOB were isolated. The isolated methanotrophic diversity represented at least 11 different strains and several novel species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence dissimilarity. These strains possessed the particulate (100%) and soluble (64%) methane monooxygenase gene. Also, 73% of the strains could be linked to a highly active fast‐growing mixed MOB community. In conclusion, miniaturized extinction culturing was more efficient in rapidly isolating numerous MOB requiring little effort and fewer materials, compared with the more widely applied plating procedure. This miniaturized approach allowed straightforward isolation and could be very useful for subsequent screening of desired characteristics, in view of their future biotechnological potential. PMID:22070783

  8. Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis recurring rapidly as collapsing glomerulopathy in a renal allograft recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS develops in about 30%-40% of patients of FSGS undergoing renal transplantation. We report a patient who received a live- related renal transplant for end-stage renal disease due to a primary FSGS (not otherwise specified in the native kidney and presented with graft dysfunction in the immediate posttransplant period. The first and the second biopsy showed no evidence of rejection or glomerular lesion. A repeat biopsy done on the 30th day revealed recurrent FSGS morphologically presenting as collapsing variant. The patient was found to have massive proteinuria. Electron microscopy done retrospectively showed glomerular foot process effacement even in the first biopsy. This case highlights the presence of an early minimal change disease-like phase in recurrent FSGS and the necessity of evaluation for proteinuria even in immediate and early posttransplant period. It also shows that different variants of FSGS may represent a spectrum of the same disease and suggests a likely role of a pathogenic circulating factor even in collapsing FSGS requiring further evaluation.

  9. Rapid alkaline methylene blue supravital staining for assessment of anterior segment infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Katsuji

    2016-01-01

    To present the Löffler's alkaline methylene blue technique of staining eye discharges in eyes with anterior segment infections. The Löffler's alkaline methylene blue staining method is a simple staining technique that can be used to differentiate bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. It is a cationic dye that stains cells blue because the positively charged dye is attracted to negatively charged particles such as polyphosphates, DNAs, and RNAs. Specimens collected from patients by swabbing are smeared onto microscope slides and the methylene blue solution is dropped on the slide. The slide is covered with a glass cover slip and examined under a microscope. The entire time from the collection to the viewing is about 30 seconds. Histopathological images of the conjunctival epithelial cells and neutrophils in eye discharges were dyed blue and the nuclei were stained more intensely blue. Bacterial infections consisted mainly of neutrophils, and viral infections consisted mainly of lymphocytes. Löffler's alkaline methylene blue staining can be done in about 30 seconds for diagnosis. Even though this is a one color stain, it is possible to infer the cause of the infection by detection of the absence of bacteria and/or fungi in context of the differential distribution of neutrophils and lymphocytes.

  10. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).

  11. Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov., a rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium chelonae, isolated from marine teleost fish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Hanako; Wada, Shinpei; Kurata, Osamu; Katayama, Kinya; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-01

    A previously undescribed rapidly growing, non-pigmented mycobacterium was identified based on biochemical and nucleic acid analyses, as well as growth characteristics. Seven isolates were cultured from samples collected from five thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) and two farmed black scraper (Thamnaconus modestus). Bacterial growth occurred at 15-35 °C on Middlebrook 7H11 agar. The bacteria were positive for catalase activity at 68 °C and urease activity, intermediate for iron uptake, and negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, semi-quantitative catalase activity and arylsulfatase activity at day 3. No growth was observed on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with picric acid, and very little growth was observed in the presence of 5 % NaCl. α- and α'-mycolates were identified in the cell walls, and a unique profile of the fatty acid methyl esters and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles of the protein and cell-wall lipids were acquired. Sequence analysis revealed that the seven isolates shared identical sequences for the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65, recA and sodA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the five gene sequences confirmed that the isolates were unique, but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clarithromycin against this novel species was Mycobacterium salmoniphilum. The hsp65 PCR restriction enzyme analysis pattern differed from those of M. chelonae and M. salmoniphilum. Based on these findings, the name Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain being NJB0901T (=JCM 31611T=KCTC 39843T).

  12. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae–Mycobacterium abscessus group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M.; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and, in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae–Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M. abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1–2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values >70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results, demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, but constitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM 10906T ( = CCUG 66554T = LMG 28586T = INCQS 0733T). PMID:26358475

  13. Rapid and Accurate MRI Segmentation of Peritumoral Brain Edema in Meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, F; Larsson, E-M; Ryttlefors, M

    2017-06-01

    The extent of peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) in meningiomas commonly affects the clinical outcome. Despite its importance, edema volume is usually highly inaccurately approximated to a spheroid shape. We tested the accuracy and the reproducibility of semiautomatic lesion management software for the analysis of PTBE in a homogeneous case series of surgically confirmed intracranial meningiomas. PTBE volume was calculated on magnetic resonance images in 50 patients with intracranial meningiomas using commercial lesion management software (Vue PACS Livewire, Carestream, Rochester, NY, USA). Inter and intraobserver agreement evaluation and a comparison between manual volume calculation, the semiautomatic software and spheroid approximation were performed in 22 randomly selected patients. The calculation of edema volume was possible in all cases irrespective of the extent of the signal changes. The median time for each calculation was 3 min. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement confirmed the reproducibility of the method. Comparison with standard (fully manual) calculation confirmed the accuracy of this software. Our study showed a high level of reproducibility of this semiautomatic computational method for peritumoral brain edema. It is rapid and easy to use after relatively short training and is suitable for implementation in clinical practice.

  14. Text Comprehension in Chinese Children: Relative Contribution of Verbal Working Memory, Pseudoword Reading, Rapid Automated Naming, and Onset-Rime Phonological Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Che Kan; Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee; Hau, Kit Tai

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the role of verbal working memory (memory span, tongue twister), 2-character Chinese pseudoword reading, rapid automatized naming (letters, numbers), and phonological segmentation (deletion of rimes and onsets) in inferential text comprehension in Chinese in 518 Chinese children in Hong Kong in Grades 3 to 5. It was…

  15. Growing Region Segmentation Software (GRES) for quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of multiple sclerosis: intra- and inter-observer agreement variability: a comparison with manual contouring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parodi, Roberto C.; Sardanelli, Francesco; Renzetti, Paolo; Rosso, Elisabetta; Losacco, Caterina [Department of Radiology, University of Genova (Italy); Ferrari, Alessandra; Levrero, Fabrizio; Pilot, Alberto [Department of Medical Physics, San Martino Hospital, Genova (Italy); Inglese, Matilde; Mancardi, Giovanni L. [Department of Neurology, University of Genova (Italy)

    2002-04-01

    Lesion area measurement in multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the key points in evaluating the natural history and in monitoring the efficacy of treatments. This study was performed to check the intra- and inter-observer agreement variability of a locally developed Growing Region Segmentation Software (GRES), comparing them to those obtained using manual contouring (MC). From routine 1.5-T MRI study of clinically definite multiple sclerosis patients, 36 lesions seen on proton-density-weighted images (PDWI) and 36 enhancing lesion on Gd-DTPA-BMA-enhanced T1-weighted images (Gd-T1WI) were randomly chosen and were evaluated by three observers. The mean range of lesion size was 9.9-536.0 mm{sup 2} on PDWI and 3.6-57.2 mm{sup 2} on Gd-T1WI. The median intra- and inter-observer agreement were, respectively, 97.1 and 90.0% using GRES on PDWI, 81.0 and 70.0% using MC on PDWI, 88.8 and 80.0% using GRES on Gd-T1WI, and 85.8 and 70.0% using MC on Gd-T1WI. The intra- and inter-observer agreements were significantly greater for GRES compared with MC (P<0.0001 and P=0.0023, respectively) for PDWI, while no difference was found between GRES an MC for Gd-T1WI. The intra-observer variability for GRES was significantly lower on both PDWI (P=0.0001) and Gd-T1WI (P=0.0067), whereas for MC the same result was found only for PDWI (P=0.0147). These data indicate that GRES reduces both the intra- and the inter-observer variability in assessing the area of MS lesions on PDWI and may prove useful in multicentre studies. (orig.)

  16. Regulation of the efflux of putrescine and cadaverine from rapidly growing cultured RAW 264 cells by extracellular putrescine.

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandrawinata, R R; Byus, C V

    1995-01-01

    Cultures of the macrophage-like RAW 264 cells were adapted to divide normally in a synthetic serum-supplemented culture medium lacking any polyamines and diamine oxidase activity. These rapidly dividing cells actively effluxed large amounts of putrescine and cadaverine, compared with the intracellular levels, into the culture medium. The efflux of putrescine was stimulated by the amino acid ornithine, whereas efflux of cadaverine was inhibited. Relatively low levels of spermidine and N1-acety...

  17. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. Cusumano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: This case series of RGM infections following recent cosmetic surgeries abroad highlights the risks of medical tourism. Close monitoring of affected patients by surgical and infectious disease specialties is necessary, as aggressive surgical debridement combined with appropriate antibiotic regimens is needed to achieve cure. Given the increasing reports of post-surgical RGM infections, consultants should have a low threshold for suspecting RGM, as rapid diagnosis may accelerate the initiation of targeted treatment and minimize morbidity.

  18. Do farmers rapidly adapt to past growing conditions by sowing different proportions of early and late maturing cereals and cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short growing season of the northernmost European growing conditions, farmers are increasingly interested in expanding cultivation of later maturing crops at the expense of early maturing ones with lower yields. In this study we aimed to assess how the switching between spring cereals that differ in earliness was associated with different external factors. This was tested using unique datasets for regional cropping areas and cultivar use for the last 15 years. Early maturing barley was favored at the expense of later maturing wheat when a high number of days to crop maturity was required in the preceding year. In contrast, farmers reduced the barley area when a high number of cumulated degree days was required for a crop to mature in the previous year. A shift was recorded from early to late maturing cultivars. This study indicated that despite limited opportunities for farmers to alter land use, they readily responded to past conditions and used the knowledge gained for decision-making to reduce risk. This is a valuable operative model for studying adaptation to opportunities and constraints induced by climate change.

  19. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  20. Rapid mass movement of chloroplasts during segment formation of the calcifying siphonalean green alga, Halimeda macroloba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larkum, Anthony W D; Salih, Anya; Kühl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The calcifying siphonalean green alga, Halimeda macroloba is abundant on coral reefs and is important in the production of calcium carbonate sediments. The process by which new green segments are formed over-night is revealed here for the first time.......The calcifying siphonalean green alga, Halimeda macroloba is abundant on coral reefs and is important in the production of calcium carbonate sediments. The process by which new green segments are formed over-night is revealed here for the first time....

  1. Growing City and Rapid Land Use Transition: Assessing Multiple Hazards and Risks in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagawat Rimal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pokhara is one of the most naturally beautiful cities in the world with a unique geological setting. This important tourist city is under intense pressure from rapid urbanization and population growth. Multiple hazards and risks are rapidly increasing in Pokhara due to unsustainable land use practices, particularly the increase in built-up areas. This study examines the relationship among urbanization, land use/land cover dynamics and multiple hazard and risk analysis of the Pokhara valley from 1990 to 2013. We investigate some of the active hazards, such as floods, landslides, fire, sinkholes, land subsidence and earthquakes, and prepare an integrated multiple hazard risk map indicating the highly vulnerable zones. Land use and land cover maps from 1990 and 2013 from Landsat images (30 m resolution have been prepared and analyzed for the spatial dynamics of urbanization and the transition of land use and land cover. In the 23-year period, the built-up area more than doubled from 24.03 km² to 54.20 km². Although the landscape in the urban, peri-urban and rural areas appears to be fragmented, different drivers play pivotal roles in landscape change in these areas. The results provide substantial information for establishing innovative action plans for disaster risk management in the valley. Recommendations are made for the most suitable places for future urban expansion in the valley. This study is important for raising awareness among policy makers and other public officials to include multiple hazard risk mitigation in land use policies and plans. Establishing connections between urban expansions, escalating population growth and multiple hazards and risk assessment will also improve in modelling the latent impact of future catastrophes and emergency preparedness.

  2. An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (southern Arizona): Major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Wonaschütz, Anna; Jarjour, Elias G; Hashimoto, Bryce I; Schichtel, Bret A; Betterton, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    This study reports a comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosol particle properties in relation to meteorological and back trajectory data in the southern Arizona region, which includes two of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States (Phoenix and Tucson). Multiple data sets (MODIS, AERONET, OMI/TOMS, MISR, GOCART, ground-based aerosol measurements) are used to examine monthly trends in aerosol composition, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and aerosol size. Fine soil, sulfate, and organics dominate PM2.5 mass in the region. Dust strongly influences the region between March and July owing to the dry and hot meteorological conditions and back trajectory patterns. Because monsoon precipitation begins typically in July, dust levels decrease, while AOD, sulfate, and organic aerosol reach their maximum levels because of summertime photochemistry and monsoon moisture. Evidence points to biogenic volatile organic compounds being a significant source of secondary organic aerosol in this region. Biomass burning also is shown to be a major contributor to the carbonaceous aerosol budget in the region, leading to enhanced organic and elemental carbon levels aloft at a sky-island site north of Tucson (Mt. Lemmon). Phoenix exhibits different monthly trends for aerosol components in comparison with the other sites owing to the strong influence of fossil carbon and anthropogenic dust. Trend analyses between 1988 and 2009 indicate that the strongest statistically significant trends are reductions in sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, and increases in fine soil during the spring (March-May) at select sites. These results can be explained by population growth, land-use changes, and improved source controls.

  3. Segmental Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart

    2017-04-01

    Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    concept of our modeling approach and describe its strengths and weaknesses. We furthermore use empirical data for the states of North and South Carolina to demonstrate how the modeling framework can be applied to a large, heterogeneous study system with diverse decision-making agents. Grimm et al. (2005) Pattern-Oriented Modeling of Agent-Based Complex Systems: Lessons from Ecology. Science 310, 987-991. Liu et al. (2013) Framing Sustainability in a Telecoupled World. Ecology and Society 18(2), 26. Meentemeyer et al. (2013) FUTURES: Multilevel Simulations of Merging Urban-Rural Landscape Structure Using a Stochastic Patch-Growing Algorithm. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103(4), 785-807.

  5. [Rapid growing liposarcoma in retroperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, L.E.; Mynster, T.

    2008-01-01

    inhomogeneous tumour adhesive to the right kidney capsule was removed in toto from retroperitoneum. Histological diagnosis: Sclerosing, low differentiated liposarcoma. Besides radical surgery only radiation therapy may have effect in treatment of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/29...

  6. Use of Bioresorbable Hydrogels and Genetic Engineering to Accomplish Rapid Stabilization and Healing in Segmental Long Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    Pediatrics, Pediatrics- Nutrition , Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA 5Department of Pediatrics, Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of...undergoing differentiation (Fig. 7A–F). DISCUSSION Heterotopic ossification is a disorder involving rapid bone formation within muscle, tendon , and

  7. Do teachers and students get the Ed-Tech products they need: The challenges of Ed-Tech procurement in a rapidly growing market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Morrison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ed-tech courseware products to support teaching and learning are being developed and made available for acquisition by school districts at a rapid rate. In this growing market, developers and providers face challenges with making their products visible to customers, while school district stakeholders must grapple with “discovering” which products of the many available best address their instructional needs. The present study presents the experiences with and perceptions about the procurement process from 47 superintendents representing diverse school districts in the U. S. Results indicate that, while improvements are desired in many aspects of the procurement process, the superintendents, overall, believe that, once desired products are identified, they are generally able to acquire them. Difficulties lie in tighter budgets, discovering products that are potentially the best choices, and evaluating the effectiveness of the products selected as options. These findings are presented and interpreted in relation to five major “Action Points” in the procurement process, and also with regard to implications for evaluating how educational technology impacts K-12 instruction.

  8. In Vitro Comparison of Ertapenem, Meropenem, and Imipenem against Isolates of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria and Nocardia by Use of Broth Microdilution and Etest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Killingley, Jessica; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Bridge, Linda; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    We compared the activities of the carbapenems ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem against 180 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and 170 isolates of Nocardia using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A subset of isolates was tested using the Etest. The rate of susceptibility to ertapenem and meropenem was limited and less than that to imipenem for the RGM. Analysis of major and minor discrepancies revealed that >90% of the isolates of Nocardia had higher MICs by the broth microdilution method than by Etest, in contrast to the lower broth microdilution MICs seen for >80% of the RGM. Imipenem remains the most active carbapenem against RGM, including Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus For Nocardia, imipenem was significantly more active only against Nocardia farcinica Although there may be utility in testing the activities of the newer carbapenems against Nocardia, their activities against the RGM should not be routinely tested. Testing by Etest is not recommended by the CLSI. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Evaluation of capillary and myofiber density in the pectoralis major muscles of rapidly growing, high-yield broiler chickens during increased heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, K S; Hamlin, G A; Lien, A R J; Bilgili, S F

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle development proceeds from early embryogenesis through marketing age in broiler chickens. While myofiber formation is essentially complete at hatching, myofiber hypertrophy can increase after hatch by assimilation of satellite cell nuclei into myofibers. As the diameter of the myofibers increases, capillary density peripheral to the myofiber is marginalized, limiting oxygen supply and subsequent diffusion into the myofiber, inducing microischemia. The superficial and deep pectoralis muscles constitute 25% of the total body weight in a market-age bird; thus compromise of those muscle groups can have profound economic impact on broiler production. We hypothesized that marginal capillary support relative to the hypertrophic myofibers increases the incidence of microischemia, especially in contemporary high-yield broilers under stressing conditions such as high environmental temperatures. We evaluated the following parameters in four different broiler strains at 39 and 53 days of age when reared under thermoneutral (20 to 25 C) versus hot (30 to 35 C) environmental conditions: capillary density, myofiber density and diameter, and degree of myodegeneration. Our data demonstrate that myofiber diameter significantly increased with age (P > or = 0.0001), while the absolute numbers of capillaries, blood vessels, and myofibers visible in five 400 x microscopic fields decreased (P > or = 0.0001). This is concomitant with marginalization of vascular support in rapidly growing myofibers. The myofiber diameter was significantly lower with hot environmental temperatures (P > or = 0.001); therefore, the absolute number of myofibers visible in five 400X microscopic fields was significantly higher. The incidence and subjective degree of myodegeneration characterized by loss of cross-striations, myocyte hyperrefractility, sarcoplasmic vacuolation, and nuclear pyknosis or loss also increased in hot conditions. Differences among strains were not observed.

  10. Point-of-use membrane filtration and hyperchlorination to prevent patient exposure to rapidly growing mycobacteria in the potable water supply of a skilled nursing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Chen, Tai-Ho; Keane, Tim; Toney, Nadege; Toney, Sean; Armbruster, Catherine R; Butler, W Ray; Arduino, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    Healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are frequently associated with contaminated tap water. A pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus in patients undergoing bronchoscopy was identified by 2 acute care hospitals. RGM was identified in bronchoscopy specimens of 28 patients, 25 of whom resided in the same skilled nursing facility (SNF). An investigation ruled out bronchoscopy procedures, specimen collection, and scope reprocessing at the hospitals as sources of transmission. To identify the reservoir for RGM within the SNF and evaluate 2 water system treatments, hyperchlorination and point-of-use (POU) membrane filters, to reduce RGM. A comparative in situ study of 2 water system treatments to prevent RGM transmission. An SNF specializing in care of patients requiring ventilator support. RGM and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria were examined in facility water before and after hyperchlorination and in a subsequent 24-week assessment of filtered water by colony enumeration on Middlebrook and R2A media. Mycobacterium chelonae was consistently isolated from the SNF water supply. Hyperchlorination reduced RGM by 1.5 log(10) initially, but the population returned to original levels within 90 days. Concentration of HPC bacteria also decreased temporarily. RGM were reduced below detection level in filtered water, a 3-log(10) reduction. HPC bacteria were not recovered from newly installed filters, although low quantities were found in water from 2-week-old filters. POU membrane filters may be a feasible prevention measure for healthcare facilities to limit exposure of sensitive individuals to RGM in potable water systems.

  11. Modeling of market segmentation for new IT product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Sakas, Damianos P.; Vlachos, D. S.; Mavrogianni, Amanda

    2015-02-01

    Businesses from all Information Technology sectors use market segmentation[1] in their product development[2] and strategic planning[3]. Many studies have concluded that market segmentation is considered as the norm of modern marketing. With the rapid development of technology, customer needs are becoming increasingly diverse. These needs can no longer be satisfied by a mass marketing approach and follow one rule. IT Businesses can face with this diversity by pooling customers[4] with similar requirements and buying behavior and strength into segments. The result of the best choices about which segments are the most appropriate to serve can then be made, thus making the best of finite resources. Despite the attention which segmentation gathers and the resources that are invested in it, growing evidence suggests that businesses have problems operationalizing segmentation[5]. These problems take various forms. There may have been a rule that the segmentation process necessarily results in homogeneous groups of customers for whom appropriate marketing programs and procedures for dealing with them can be developed. Then the segmentation process, that a company follows, can fail. This increases concerns about what causes segmentation failure and how it might be overcome. To prevent the failure, we created a dynamic simulation model of market segmentation[6] based on the basic factors leading to this segmentation.

  12. An algorithm to automate yeast segmentation and tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Doncic

    Full Text Available Our understanding of dynamic cellular processes has been greatly enhanced by rapid advances in quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Imaging single cells has emphasized the prevalence of phenomena that can be difficult to infer from population measurements, such as all-or-none cellular decisions, cell-to-cell variability, and oscillations. Examination of these phenomena requires segmenting and tracking individual cells over long periods of time. However, accurate segmentation and tracking of cells is difficult and is often the rate-limiting step in an experimental pipeline. Here, we present an algorithm that accomplishes fully automated segmentation and tracking of budding yeast cells within growing colonies. The algorithm incorporates prior information of yeast-specific traits, such as immobility and growth rate, to segment an image using a set of threshold values rather than one specific optimized threshold. Results from the entire set of thresholds are then used to perform a robust final segmentation.

  13. An algorithm to automate yeast segmentation and tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncic, Andreas; Eser, Umut; Atay, Oguzhan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of dynamic cellular processes has been greatly enhanced by rapid advances in quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Imaging single cells has emphasized the prevalence of phenomena that can be difficult to infer from population measurements, such as all-or-none cellular decisions, cell-to-cell variability, and oscillations. Examination of these phenomena requires segmenting and tracking individual cells over long periods of time. However, accurate segmentation and tracking of cells is difficult and is often the rate-limiting step in an experimental pipeline. Here, we present an algorithm that accomplishes fully automated segmentation and tracking of budding yeast cells within growing colonies. The algorithm incorporates prior information of yeast-specific traits, such as immobility and growth rate, to segment an image using a set of threshold values rather than one specific optimized threshold. Results from the entire set of thresholds are then used to perform a robust final segmentation.

  14. Evolution of the East Pacific Rise at 16° 19° S since 5 Ma: Bisection of overlapping spreading centers by new, rapidly propagating ridge segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Marie-Helene; Scheirer, Daniel S.; MacDonald, Ken C.

    1996-02-01

    Nearly complete side-scan, bathymetry and magnetic coverage documents the evolution of the geometry of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) between 16° and 19° S since 5 Ma. Lineaments visible in SeaMARC II, H-MR1 and Sea Beam 2000 side-scan data correspond dominantly to normal fault scarps which have developed in the axial region perpendicular to the least compressive stress. Except near overlapping spreading centers (OSCs), the lineament orientations are taken to represent the perpendicular to the instantaneous Pacific-Nazca spreading direction. Their dominant orientation in the axial region is 012°, in good agreement with the prediction of the current model of relative plate motion (DeMets et al., 1994). However, the variations of the lineament azimuths with age show that there has been a small (3° 5°) clockwise change in the Nazca-Pacific relative motion since 5 Ma. There is also a distinct population of lineaments which strike counterclockwise to the ambient orientation. These discordant lineaments form somewhat coherent patterns on the seafloor and represent the past migration tracks of several left-stepping OSCs. Concurrent analysis of these discordant zones and the magnetic anomalies, reveals that up to 1 Ma, the EPR was offset by a few large, left-stepping OSCs. These OSCs were bisected into smaller OSCs by new spreading segments forming within their overlap basins. The smaller OSCs proceeded to migrate rapidly and were further bisected by newly spawned ridge segments until the present staircase of small, left-stepping OSCs was achieved. By transferring lithosphere from one plate to the other, these migration events account remarkably well for the variable spreading asymmetry in the area. Between 16° and 19° S, the present EPR is magmatically very “robust”, as evidenced by its inflated morphology, the profuse volcanic and hydrothermal activity observed from submerisbles and towed cameras, the geochemistry of axial basalts, and seismic and gravity data

  15. Rapid development in vitro and in vivo of resistance to ceftazidime in biofilm-growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, N; Ciofu, O; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the development of resistance of biofilm-growing P. aeruginosa during treatment with ceftazidime. Biofilms were established in vitro using a modified Robbins device (MRD) and in vivo in the rat model of chronic lung infection. Three P. aeruginosa strains...

  16. A Rapid and Efficient 2D/3D Nuclear Segmentation Method for Analysis of Early Mouse Embryo and Stem Cell Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghua Lou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation is a fundamental problem that dominates the success of microscopic image analysis. In almost 25 years of cell detection software development, there is still no single piece of commercial software that works well in practice when applied to early mouse embryo or stem cell image data. To address this need, we developed MINS (modular interactive nuclear segmentation as a MATLAB/C++-based segmentation tool tailored for counting cells and fluorescent intensity measurements of 2D and 3D image data. Our aim was to develop a tool that is accurate and efficient yet straightforward and user friendly. The MINS pipeline comprises three major cascaded modules: detection, segmentation, and cell position classification. An extensive evaluation of MINS on both 2D and 3D images, and comparison to related tools, reveals improvements in segmentation accuracy and usability. Thus, its accuracy and ease of use will allow MINS to be implemented for routine single-cell-level image analyses.

  17. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  18. Rapid automatic segmentation of abnormal tissue in late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance images for improved management of long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakidis, Archontis; Nyktari, Eva; Keegan, Jennifer; Pierce, Iain; Suman Horduna, Irina; Haldar, Shouvik; Pennell, Dudley J; Mohiaddin, Raad; Wong, Tom; Firmin, David N

    2015-10-07

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart rhythm disorder. In order for late Gd enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE CMR) to ameliorate the AF management, the ready availability of the accurate enhancement segmentation is required. However, the computer-aided segmentation of enhancement in LGE CMR of AF is still an open question. Additionally, the number of centres that have reported successful application of LGE CMR to guide clinical AF strategies remains low, while the debate on LGE CMR's diagnostic ability for AF still holds. The aim of this study is to propose a method that reliably distinguishes enhanced (abnormal) from non-enhanced (healthy) tissue within the left atrial wall of (pre-ablation and 3 months post-ablation) LGE CMR data-sets from long-standing persistent AF patients studied at our centre. Enhancement segmentation was achieved by employing thresholds benchmarked against the statistics of the whole left atrial blood-pool (LABP). The test-set cross-validation mechanism was applied to determine the input feature representation and algorithm that best predict enhancement threshold levels. Global normalized intensity threshold levels T PRE  = 1 1/4 and T POST  = 1 5/8 were found to segment enhancement in data-sets acquired pre-ablation and at 3 months post-ablation, respectively. The segmentation results were corroborated by using visual inspection of LGE CMR brightness levels and one endocardial bipolar voltage map. The measured extent of pre-ablation fibrosis fell within the normal range for the specific arrhythmia phenotype. 3D volume renderings of segmented post-ablation enhancement emulated the expected ablation lesion patterns. By comparing our technique with other related approaches that proposed different threshold levels (although they also relied on reference regions from within the LABP) for segmenting enhancement in LGE CMR data-sets of AF patients, we illustrated that the cut-off levels employed by other centres

  19. Development of an in vitro Assay, Based on the BioFilm Ring Test®, for Rapid Profiling of Biofilm-Growing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Enea G; Toma, Luigi; Provot, Christian; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Sperduti, Isabella; Prignano, Grazia; Gallo, Maria T; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Bordignon, Valentina; Bernardi, Thierry; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biofilm represents a major virulence factor associated with chronic and recurrent infections. Pathogenic bacteria embedded in biofilms are highly resistant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics and therefore difficult to eradicate. Thus, reliable tests to assess biofilm formation by bacterial strains as well as the impact of chemicals or antibiotics on biofilm formation represent desirable tools for a most effective therapeutic management and microbiological risk control. Current methods to evaluate biofilm formation are usually time-consuming, costly, and hardly applicable in the clinical setting. The aim of the present study was to develop and assess a simple and reliable in vitro procedure for the characterization of biofilm-producing bacterial strains for future clinical applications based on the BioFilm Ring Test® (BRT) technology. The procedure developed for clinical testing (cBRT) can provide an accurate and timely (5 h) measurement of biofilm formation for the most common pathogenic bacteria seen in clinical practice. The results gathered by the cBRT assay were in agreement with the traditional crystal violet (CV) staining test, according to the κ coefficient test (κ = 0.623). However, the cBRT assay showed higher levels of specificity (92.2%) and accuracy (88.1%) as compared to CV. The results indicate that this procedure offers an easy, rapid and robust assay to test microbial biofilm and a promising tool for clinical microbiology.

  20. Rapid Water Uptake and Limited Storage Capacity at Height of Growing Season in Four Temperate Tree Species in a Central Pennsylvania Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, K.; Meinzer, F. C.; Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    rapid water uptake and tree water storage limited to about a month in duration. These findings are necessary for modeling of hydrologic parameters that are influenced by tree water age. They also indicate that trees on shallow soil in this catchment may be at risk if droughts lasting over a month occur more frequently in future years.

  1. An automated image-based method of 3D subject-specific body segment parameter estimation for kinetic analyses of rapid movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Alison L; Corazza, Stefano; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Accurate subject-specific body segment parameters (BSPs) are necessary to perform kinetic analyses of human movements with large accelerations, or no external contact forces or moments. A new automated topographical image-based method of estimating segment mass, center of mass (CM) position, and moments of inertia is presented. Body geometry and volume were measured using a laser scanner, then an automated pose and shape registration algorithm segmented the scanned body surface, and identified joint center (JC) positions. Assuming the constant segment densities of Dempster, thigh and shank masses, CM locations, and moments of inertia were estimated for four male subjects with body mass indexes (BMIs) of 19.7-38.2. The subject-specific BSP were compared with those determined using Dempster and Clauser regression equations. The influence of BSP and BMI differences on knee and hip net forces and moments during a running swing phase were quantified for the subjects with the smallest and largest BMIs. Subject-specific BSP for 15 body segments were quickly calculated using the image-based method, and total subject masses were overestimated by 1.7-2.9%.When compared with the Dempster and Clauser methods, image-based and regression estimated thigh BSP varied more than the shank parameters. Thigh masses and hip JC to thigh CM distances were consistently larger, and each transverse moment of inertia was smaller using the image-based method. Because the shank had larger linear and angular accelerations than the thigh during the running swing phase, shank BSP differences had a larger effect on calculated intersegmental forces and moments at the knee joint than thigh BSP differences did at the hip. It was the net knee kinetic differences caused by the shank BSP differences that were the largest contributors to the hip variations. Finally, BSP differences produced larger kinetic differences for the subject with larger segment masses, suggesting that parameter accuracy is more

  2. Application of two segmentation protocols during the processing of virtual images in rapid prototyping: ex vivo study with human dry mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Eduardo Gomes; Andrade, Lucio Costa Safira; dos Santos, Aline Rode; Torregrossa, Vinicius Rabelo; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer; Sarmento, Viviane Almeida

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of virtual three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of human dry mandibles, produced from two segmentation protocols ("outline only" and "all-boundary lines"). Twenty virtual three-dimensional (3D) images were built from computed tomography exam (CT) of 10 dry mandibles, in which linear measurements between anatomical landmarks were obtained and compared to an error probability of 5 %. The results showed no statistically significant difference among the dry mandibles and the virtual 3D reconstructions produced from segmentation protocols tested (p = 0,24). During the designing of a virtual 3D reconstruction, both "outline only" and "all-boundary lines" segmentation protocols can be used. Virtual processing of CT images is the most complex stage during the manufacture of the biomodel. Establishing a better protocol during this phase allows the construction of a biomodel with characteristics that are closer to the original anatomical structures. This is essential to ensure a correct preoperative planning and a suitable treatment.

  3. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  4. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  5. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT.Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated.Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group.The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  6. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueling; Liu, Dongxu; Liu, Ju; Wu, Zizhong; Xie, Yongtao; Li, Liang; Liu, Hong; Guo, Tiantian; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE) treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30) was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated. Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A) of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI) of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn) of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR) ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group. The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  7. Segmental neurofibromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Galhotra, Virat; Sheikh, Soheyl; Jindal, Sanjeev; Singla, Anshu

    2014-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare disorder, characterized by neurofibromas or cafι-au-lait macules limited to one region of the body. Its occurrence on the face is extremely rare and only few cases of segmental neurofibromatosis over the face have been described so far. We present a case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the buccal mucosa, tongue, cheek, ear, and neck on the right side of the face.

  8. Segmental Neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesudian Devakar

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare variant of neurofibromatosis in which the lesions are confined to one segment or dermatome of the body. They resemble classical neurofibromas in their morphology, histopathology and electron microscopy. However, systemic associations are usually absent. We report one such case with these classical features.

  9. Validation tools for image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padfield, Dirk; Ross, James

    2009-02-01

    A large variety of image analysis tasks require the segmentation of various regions in an image. For example, segmentation is required to generate accurate models of brain pathology that are important components of modern diagnosis and therapy. While the manual delineation of such structures gives accurate information, the automatic segmentation of regions such as the brain and tumors from such images greatly enhances the speed and repeatability of quantifying such structures. The ubiquitous need for such algorithms has lead to a wide range of image segmentation algorithms with various assumptions, parameters, and robustness. The evaluation of such algorithms is an important step in determining their effectiveness. Therefore, rather than developing new segmentation algorithms, we here describe validation methods for segmentation algorithms. Using similarity metrics comparing the automatic to manual segmentations, we demonstrate methods for optimizing the parameter settings for individual cases and across a collection of datasets using the Design of Experiment framework. We then employ statistical analysis methods to compare the effectiveness of various algorithms. We investigate several region-growing algorithms from the Insight Toolkit and compare their accuracy to that of a separate statistical segmentation algorithm. The segmentation algorithms are used with their optimized parameters to automatically segment the brain and tumor regions in MRI images of 10 patients. The validation tools indicate that none of the ITK algorithms studied are able to outperform with statistical significance the statistical segmentation algorithm although they perform reasonably well considering their simplicity.

  10. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging for the rapid segmental analysis of methamphetamine in a single hair using umbelliferone as a matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Wang, Ying

    2017-07-04

    Segmental hair analysis offers a longer period for retrospective drug detection than blood or urine. Hair is a keratinous fiber and is strongly hydrophobic. The embedding of drugs in hydrophobic hair at low concentrations makes it difficult for extraction and detection with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) coupled with mass spectrometric imaging (MSI). In this study, a single scalp hair was longitudinally cut with a cryostat section to a length of 4 mm and fixed onto a stainless steel MALDI plate. Umbelliferone was used as a new hydrophobic matrix to enrich and assist the ionization efficiency of methamphetamine in the hair sample. MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR)-MS profiling and imaging were performed for direct detection and mapping of methamphetamine on the longitudinal sections of the single hair sample in positive ion mode. Using MALDI-MSI, the distribution of methamphetamine was observed throughout five longitudinally sectioned hair samples from a drug abuser. The changes of methamphetamine were also semi-quantified by comparing the ratios of methamphetamine/internal standard (I.S). This method improves the detection sensitivity of target drugs embedded in a hair matrix for imaging with mass spectrometry. The method could provide a detection level of methamphetamine down to a nanogram per milligram incorporated into hair. The results were also compared with the conventional high performance liquid chromatography -tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method. Changes in the imaging results over time by the MSI method showed good semi-quantitative correlation to the results from the HPLC-MS/MS method. This study provides a powerful tool for drug abuse control and forensic medicine analysis in a narrow time frame, and a reduction in the sample amount required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of different subtypes of rapid growing Atypical Mycobacterium from water and soil sources: Using PCR-RFLP using hsp65 and rRNA 16s-23s genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varahram, Mohammad; Farnia, Parissa; Saif, Shima; Marashian, Mehran; Farnia, Poopak; Ghanavi, Jaladein; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2016-12-01

    Nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) are a diverse group of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans including skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal tract infection. Generally, NTM are classified into two categories: rapid (7days). In this study, we aimed to investigate NTM frequency and prevalence in environmental samples. Additionally, we tried to identify various subtypes of isolated rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM). Through a prospective descriptive cross-sectional study, water and soil samples were gathered from four neighboring towns around Tehran, the capital of Iran, at different geographic directions. Every 100m(2) of the studied areas gave one sample containing 6g of soil in 3-5cm depth deposited in 50mL sterile water as sampling media. After digestion and decontamination, DNA from culture-positive specimens (RGM) were extracted using phenol-chloroform methods. Then the molecular identification of species and subspecies were performed using 16s-23s rRNA and hsp65 gene. In total, 341 RGM were found, out of which 322 (94.4%) were identified and 20 (5.8%) could not be identified. The most frequent RGM was, Mycobacterium fortuitum (72; 22%), Mycobacterium senegalense (58; 17.7%), Mycobacterium parafortuitum (44; 13.4%) and Mycobacterium conceptionense type 1 (24; 7.2%), and Mycobacterium cheloni type 1 (20; 6.0%). As shown in Table 1, M. fortuitum had more subtypes (8), and the frequency of subtypes 1 (27.7%), 4 (16.6%), and 5 (13.8%) were higher. Among subtypes of M. senegalense, subtype 1 had a higher frequency (70.4%) in comparison to subtype 2 (29.5%). M. cheloni had just one subtype. Our results showed M. fortuitum as the most prominent strain isolated from environmental samples. The frequency was similar in different places, irrespective of climatic variations. Availability of various subtypes of M. fortuitum might indicate a large circulation of this RGM in soil and water of Iranian territory. This high prevalence of M. fortuitum might

  12. Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov., Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium arcueilense sp. nov., members of a novel group of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria recovered from a water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjek, Julie; Souded, Sabiha; Guerardel, Yann; Trivelli, Xavier; Bernut, Audrey; Kremer, Laurent; Welte, Benedicte; Joyeux, Michel; Dubrou, Sylvie; Euzeby, Jean-Paul; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Sapriel, Guillaume; Heym, Beate

    2016-09-01

    From our recent survey of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria in the Parisian water system, three groups of isolates (taxons 1-3) corresponding to possible novel species were selected for taxonomic study. The three taxa each formed creamy white, rough colonies, had an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C, hydrolyzed Tween 80, were catalase-positive at 22 °C and expressed arylsulfatase activity. All three were susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and tigecycline. The three taxa produced specific sets of mycolic acids, including one family that has never previously been described, as determined by thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The partial rpoB sequences (723 bp) showed 4-6 % divergence from each other and more than 5 % differences from the most similar species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 99 % identity within each species. The most similar sequences for 16S rRNA genes (98-99 % identity over 1444-1461 bp) were found in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, Mycobacterium septicum and Mycobacterium farcinogenes. The three taxa formed a new clade (bootstrap value, 99 %) on trees reconstructed from concatenated partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB sequences. The above results led us to propose three novel species for the three groups of isolates, namely Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov. [type strain 071T=ParisRGMnew_1T (CIP 110656T=DSM 46713T)], Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. [type strain 196T=ParisRGMnew_2T (CIP 110655T=DSM 46714T)] and Mycobacteriu marcueilense sp. nov. [type strain of 269T=ParisRGMnew_3T (CIP 110654T=DSM 46715T)].

  13. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products....... The traditionalists are characterised by favouring pork, poultry and beef. Since it is difficult to change consumers' tastes, the short-term consequence may be to focus on the "fish lovers" and target the communication towards these consumers. In the long run, "traditionalists" may be persuaded to revise...

  14. Generalizing cell segmentation and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhou; Li, Haixing

    2017-03-23

    In recent years, the microscopy technology for imaging cells has developed greatly and rapidly. The accompanying requirements for automatic segmentation and quantification of the imaged cells are becoming more and more. After studied widely in both scientific research and industrial applications for many decades, cell segmentation has achieved great progress, especially in segmenting some specific types of cells, e.g. muscle cells. However, it lacks a framework to address the cell segmentation problems generally. On the contrary, different segmentation methods were proposed to address the different types of cells, which makes the research work divergent. In addition, most of the popular segmentation and quantification tools usually require a great part of manual work. To make the cell segmentation work more convergent, we propose a framework that is able to segment different kinds of cells automatically and robustly in this paper. This framework evolves the previously proposed method in segmenting the muscle cells and generalizes it to be suitable for segmenting and quantifying a variety of cell images by adding more union cases. Compared to the previous methods, the segmentation and quantification accuracy of the proposed framework is also improved by three novel procedures: (1) a simplified calibration method is proposed and added for the threshold selection process; (2) a noise blob filter is proposed to get rid of the noise blobs. (3) a boundary smoothing filter is proposed to reduce the false seeds produced by the iterative erosion. As it turned out, the quantification accuracy of the proposed framework increases from 93.4 to 96.8% compared to the previous method. In addition, the accuracy of the proposed framework is also better in quantifying the muscle cells than two available state-of-the-art methods. The proposed framework is able to automatically segment and quantify more types of cells than state-of-the-art methods.

  15. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  16. Parallelized seeded region growing using CUDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongjin; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Hyunna; Shin, Juneseuk; Seo, Jinwook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG) algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests.

  17. Leaf segmentation in plant phenotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharr, Hanno; Minervini, Massimo; French, Andrew P.; Klukas, Christian; Kramer, David M.; Liu, Xiaoming; Luengo, Imanol; Pape, Jean Michel; Polder, Gerrit; Vukadinovic, Danijela; Yin, Xi; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.

    2016-01-01

    Image-based plant phenotyping is a growing application area of computer vision in agriculture. A key task is the segmentation of all individual leaves in images. Here we focus on the most common rosette model plants, Arabidopsis and young tobacco. Although leaves do share appearance and shape

  18. Mixed segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten; Hansen, Allan Grutt

    content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits....... Innovatively, the research process is documented via an interactive data-visualization tool by which readers and fellow peers can access and, by using various filtering options, further analyze the results and, ultimately, reformulate the problem field....

  19. [Segmental neurofibromatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G; Meyer, V; Sachse, M M

    2017-11-08

    Thirteen years ago, a 48-year-old man developed numerous neurofibromas in a circumscribed area on the right chest. At the same time, a bilateral seminoma was diagnosed and treated curatively. There was no evidence for other complications of neurofibromatosis. The family history was inconspicuous. The segmental neurofibromatosis (SN) presented in this patient is the result of a mosaic formation resulting from a mutation of the NF1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene. Concomitant, typical diseases of neurofibromatosis generalisata (NFG), including malignant neoplasms, are the exception to SN.

  20. Segmental neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobjanek, Michał; Dobosz-Kawałko, Magdalena; Michajłowski, Igor; Pęksa, Rafał; Nowicki, Roman

    2014-12-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis or type V neurofibromatosis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by neurofibromas, café-au-lait spots and neurofibromas limited to a circumscribed body region. The disease may be associated with systemic involvement and malignancies. The disorder has not been reported yet in the Polish medical literature. A 63-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 20-year history of multiple, flesh colored, dome-shaped, soft to firm nodules situated in the right lumbar region. A histopathologic evaluation of three excised tumors revealed neurofibromas. No neurological and ophthalmologic symptoms of neurofibromatosis were diagnosed.

  1. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  2. An algorithm for segmenting range imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the technical accomplishments of the FY96 Cross Cutting and Advanced Technology (CC&AT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The project focused on developing algorithms for segmenting range images. The image segmentation algorithm developed during the project is described here. In addition to segmenting range images, the algorithm can fuse multiple range images thereby providing true 3D scene models. The algorithm has been incorporated into the Rapid World Modelling System at Sandia National Laboratory.

  3. Growing population segments and their impact on future transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    The European population is facing enormous demographic changes. Based on data from the Danish National Travel Survey (NTS), this paper focuses on three major societal trends – changing family structures, ageing, and urbanisation – and the impact of these trends on future car use in Denmark. We...... compared the mode choice of single parents and people in single person households (both in “family age” and after retirement) with the choice of people in more traditional household forms. Additionally, we looked into differences within these groups related to gender and urban from. The relevance...

  4. General Staining and Segmentation Procedures for High Content Imaging and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kevin M; Mandavilli, Bhaskar S; Dolman, Nick J; Janes, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Automated quantitative fluorescence microscopy, also known as high content imaging (HCI), is a rapidly growing analytical approach in cell biology. Because automated image analysis relies heavily on robust demarcation of cells and subcellular regions, reliable methods for labeling cells is a critical component of the HCI workflow. Labeling of cells for image segmentation is typically performed with fluorescent probes that bind DNA for nuclear-based cell demarcation or with those which react with proteins for image analysis based on whole cell staining. These reagents, along with instrument and software settings, play an important role in the successful segmentation of cells in a population for automated and quantitative image analysis. In this chapter, we describe standard procedures for labeling and image segmentation in both live and fixed cell samples. The chapter will also provide troubleshooting guidelines for some of the common problems associated with these aspects of HCI.

  5. Image Segmentation Algorithms Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Yuheng, Song; Hao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The technology of image segmentation is widely used in medical image processing, face recognition pedestrian detection, etc. The current image segmentation techniques include region-based segmentation, edge detection segmentation, segmentation based on clustering, segmentation based on weakly-supervised learning in CNN, etc. This paper analyzes and summarizes these algorithms of image segmentation, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different algorithms. Finally, we make a predi...

  6. An Ambition to Grow

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Kemp; Hakkert, R.

    2006-01-01

    This report tries to gain insight in the willingness or ambition to grow of a small business owner. The main question of this report is therefore: Which factors influence the ambition to grow a business? To examine the ambition to grow an economic and a psychological perspective is given in this study.

  7. Strategic market segmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maricic, Branko; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    ..., requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation...

  8. Automatic Cell Segmentation in Fluorescence Images of Confluent Cell Monolayers Using Multi-object Geometric Deformable Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Bogovic, John A; Carass, Aaron; Ye, Mao; Searson, Peter C; Prince, Jerry L

    2013-03-13

    With the rapid development of microscopy for cell imaging, there is a strong and growing demand for image analysis software to quantitatively study cell morphology. Automatic cell segmentation is an important step in image analysis. Despite substantial progress, there is still a need to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and adaptability to different cell morphologies. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic method for segmenting cells in fluorescence images of confluent cell monolayers. This method addresses several challenges through a combination of ideas. 1) It realizes a fully automatic segmentation process by first detecting the cell nuclei as initial seeds and then using a multi-object geometric deformable model (MGDM) for final segmentation. 2) To deal with different defects in the fluorescence images, the cell junctions are enhanced by applying an order-statistic filter and principal curvature based image operator. 3) The final segmentation using MGDM promotes robust and accurate segmentation results, and guarantees no overlaps and gaps between neighboring cells. The automatic segmentation results are compared with manually delineated cells, and the average Dice coefficient over all distinguishable cells is 0.88.

  9. Tracheotomy in growing rats: histological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Mônica Cecília Bochetti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare morphologically three different types of tracheotomy in growing rats, applying microsurgical technique. METHODS: EPM-1 Wistar growing rats (n=57 weighing 88gm and aged 35 days were randomized in four groups, according tracheotomy incision type (longitudinal, transverse and tracheal segment excision, and sham group. Following intramuscular anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine, the trachea was exposed and incised, according to the group, and a hand-made endotracheal cannula was inserted into the organ, under sterile conditions. This cannula was removed after 7 days, and animals have been sacrificed 30 days later. Tracheas samples were submitted to histological study, stained by hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome, evaluating fibrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and epidermoid metaplasia. RESULTS: There was more frequency of inflammatory infiltrate at the tracheal epithelium in the tracheal segment excision group (87% compared to the longitudinal (40% and transverse (36% incision groups (p=0.009. Evaluating epidermoid metaplasia, tracheal segment excision and the longitudinal groups presented 33% and 40%, respectively, compared to 0% of the transverse group (p=0.03. Concerning to fibrosis, in a global comparison (p=0.1 among the three groups there was no difference, however, compared to the longitudinal group the transverse group showed lower level of fibrosis (p=0.04. Sham group did not present any relevant morphologic alterations and it was used as reference pattern. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our data show that tracheal segment excision promotes more epithelium aggression and transverse tracheal incision shows less morphologic alterations.

  10. Melting ice, growing trade?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sami Bensassi; Julienne C. Stroeve; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Andrew P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR...

  11. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  12. Multi-segmental neurofibromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Sudhir; Kumar Ravi

    2004-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis (NF), one of the commonest phakomatoses, is characterized by varied clinical manifestations. Segmental NF is one of the uncommon subtypes of NF. We report a young adult presenting with asymptomatic skin lesions- neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules- over localized areas of the lower back, affecting more than one segment. None of the family members were found to have features of segmental NF. Segmental NF may be misdiagnosed as a birthmark or remain undiagnosed for l...

  13. Vessel-guided airway tree segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Ashraf, Haseem

    2010-01-01

    method is evaluated on 250 low dose computed tomography images from a lung cancer screening trial. Our experiments showed that applying the region growing algorithm on the airway appearance model produces more complete airway segmentations, leading to on average 20% longer trees, and 50% less leakage......This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. We propose a voxel classification approach for the appearance model, which uses a classifier that is trained...... to differentiate between airway and non-airway voxels. This is in contrast to previous works that use either intensity alone or hand crafted models of airway appearance. We show that the appearance model can be trained with a set of easily acquired, incomplete, airway tree segmentations. A vessel orientation...

  14. Automatic Melody Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation investigates music segmentation. In the field of Musicology, segmentation refers to a score analysis technique, whereby notated pieces or passages of these pieces are divided into “units” referred to as sections, periods, phrases, and so on. Segmentation

  15. [Studies on the alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Meng-Hua; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yong-Gang; Yang, Cui-Ping; Su, Wei-Wei

    2011-05-01

    To study alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong. The rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MS/MS) was used to analyse alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong, and senkirkine was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography. Four alkaloids were identified as senkirkine, dehydrosenkirkine, monocrotaline and adonifoline, and senkirkine was firstly isolated from Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong. Senkirkine is the main component of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong.

  16. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  17. Growing Up with "1984."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  18. Growing through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and…

  19. Growing Old in Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liversage, Anika; Mirdal, Gretty Mizrahi

    2017-01-01

    Some studies on immigrants and ageing focus on the question of return; others focus on how immigrants, who grow old in their countries of destination, ‘age in place’, including whether they turn to their children or to public host country provisions for care and support. However, the issues of re...

  20. Geothermal Grows Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  1. The vulnerable, rapidly growing thoracic spine of the adolescent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at fault, refusing to allow a 'trivial complaint' to stand in the way of the success of the team in which their sons play a key role. Department of Orthopaedics, University .... hence the diagnosis of 'postural, non-structural, thoracic kyphosis'. In a small percentage of these cases, structural changes have been seen later, but with ...

  2. The vulnerable, rapidly growing thoracic spine of the adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolapse of disc tissue occurs into the verfebral body, causing a disturbance of growth but little if any pain. The vertebrae in the mid-thoracic region become wedge-shaped, and a kyphotic deformity results, the so-called Scheuermann's disease, or adolescent kyphosis. A plea is made for the screening of children exposed to ...

  3. Effects of photodynamic therapy on rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Min-Hsiu; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2011-01-05

    The authors investigated the antimicrobial effect of methylene blue (MB)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Mycobacterium fortuitum keratitis. In the in vitro study, the mycobacterial suspension and colonies were treated with the following: no MB, no light (normal control); MB and no light (dye control); light and no MB (light control); MB and light (PDT). Morphologic characteristics were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The bactericidal effects of combined PDT and antibiotic therapy (ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and amikacin) were determined using the broth microdilution technique. Twenty-one rabbits with Mycobacterium keratitis were randomly divided into three groups (no treatment, topical amikacin treatment, and PDT combined with amikacin treatment). The clinical features of keratitis were scored and graded before treatment and before euthanatization. The diseased corneas were trephined for quantitative bacteriologic analysis to determine the antibacterial efficacy of the treatment. In the in vitro tests, the bacterial count had a 2-log reduction immediately after PDT treatment at 100 J/cm(2) with 10(-3)% MB. After PDT at 100 J/cm(2) with 10(-2)% MB, almost no viable bacteria were detected. PDT had a synergistic antimicrobial effect in combination with antibiotics. The phototoxicity occurred in the cytoplasm first and then disrupted the mycobacterial cell walls by lysis. In the rabbit keratitis model, combined PDT resulted in significantly less bacterial burden (P PDT against Mycobacterium fortuitum. PDT could be a potential alternative treatment for nontuberculous mycobacterial corneal infections.

  4. Neuropsychology of music – a rapidly growing branch of psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Habe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between brain and music is of interest to musicians, psychologists and neuroscientists. In recent years no other area of psychology of music has seen as much advancement as neuropsychology of music. The aim of the article is to present some main issues in the neuropsychology of music abroad and in Slovenia, to classify research studies into larger categories and to predict the future development of this field.There are different levels of inquiry into the neuropsychology of music: (1 the analysis of normal and abnormal psychological and physiological functions to determine the principles and modes by which the human brain processes, codifies, stores, and produces music, and (2 a description of the clinical deficits in music perception or performance resulting from localized or diffuse damage to the nervous system. Main topics that occupy neuropsychology of music are neuropsychological models of musical processing, functional imaging of musical perception and cognition, and the use of music as a therapeutic and clinical tool. Although some important studies have already been conducted since the year 2003, in Slovenia we faced a "formal" turning point in acknowledging the importance of the connection between music, mind and brain with the Sinapsa's Week of the brain 2009 under the title Brain and music.

  5. An Ensemble of 2D Convolutional Neural Networks for Tumor Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyksborg, Mark; Puonti, Oula; Agn, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    . The segmentation is done in three steps; first the full tumor region, is segmented from the background by a voxel-wise merging of the decisions of three networks learned from three orthogonal planes, next the segmentation is refined using a cellular automaton-based seed growing method known as growcut. Finally......, within-tumor sub-regions are segmented using an additional ensemble of networks trained for the task. We demonstrate the method on the MICCAI Brain Tumor Segmentation Challenge dataset of 2014, and show improved segmentation accuracy compared to an axially trained 2D network and an ensemble segmentation...

  6. Segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Julie D; Cohen, Philip R

    2010-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is an uncommon variant of neurofibromatosis type I characterized by neurofibromas and/or café-au-lait macules localized to one sector of the body. Although patients with neurofibromatosis type I have an associated increased risk of certain malignancies, malignancy has only occasionally been reported in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis. The published reports of patients with segmental neurofibromatosis who developed malignancy were reviewed and the characteristics of these patients and their cancers were summarized. Ten individuals (6 women and 4 men) with segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy have been reported. The malignancies include malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (3), malignant melanoma (2), breast cancer (1), colon cancer (1), gastric cancer (1), lung cancer (1), and Hodgkin lymphoma (1). The most common malignancies in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis are derived from neural crest cells: malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and malignant melanoma. The incidence of malignancy in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis may approach that of patients with neurofibromatosis type I.

  7. A Perspective On Segment Reporting Choices And Segment Reconciliations

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Hollie; Shaokun£¨Carol) Yu

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, segment reporting gained third place in SEC comment letters. This article reviews the history of segment reporting including segment reporting choices and segment reconciliations, the current concerns as the level of detail in segment disclosures varies widely across organizations, the value relevance of segment reconciliations and its market consequences, and the importance of segment reporting to management. The following are highlights of the manuscript: The third-most-common area...

  8. Growing unculturable bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric J

    2012-08-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field.

  9. Objectness Supervised Merging Algorithm for Color Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Sima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideal color image segmentation needs both low-level cues and high-level semantic features. This paper proposes a two-hierarchy segmentation model based on merging homogeneous superpixels. First, a region growing strategy is designed for producing homogenous and compact superpixels in different partitions. Total variation smoothing features are adopted in the growing procedure for locating real boundaries. Before merging, we define a combined color-texture histogram feature for superpixels description and, meanwhile, a novel objectness feature is proposed to supervise the region merging procedure for reliable segmentation. Both color-texture histograms and objectness are computed to measure regional similarities between region pairs, and the mixed standard deviation of the union features is exploited to make stop criteria for merging process. Experimental results on the popular benchmark dataset demonstrate the better segmentation performance of the proposed model compared to other well-known segmentation algorithms.

  10. STREET-SCENE TREE SEGMENTATION FROM MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our work addresses the problem of extracting trees from mobile laser scanning data. The work is a two step-wise strategy, including terrain point removal and tree segmentation. First, a voxel-based upward growing filtering is proposed to remove terrain points from the mobile laser scanning data. Then, a tree segmentation is presented to extract individual trees via a Euclidean distance clustering approach and Voxel-based Normalized Cut (VNCut segmentation approach. A road section data acquired by a RIEGL VMX-450 system are selected for evaluating the proposed tree segmentation method. Qualitative analysis shows that our algorithm achieves a good performance.

  11. Speech segmentation in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Benetello, Annalisa; Tuomiranta, Leena; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria Carmen; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Speech segmentation is one of the initial and mandatory phases of language learning. Although some people with aphasia have shown a preserved ability to learn novel words, their speech segmentation abilities have not been explored. We examined the ability of individuals with chronic aphasia to segment words from running speech via statistical learning. We also explored the relationships between speech segmentation and aphasia severity, and short-term memory capacity. We further examined the role of lesion location in speech segmentation and short-term memory performance. The experimental task was first validated with a group of young adults (n = 120). Participants with chronic aphasia (n = 14) were exposed to an artificial language and were evaluated in their ability to segment words using a speech segmentation test. Their performance was contrasted against chance level and compared to that of a group of elderly matched controls (n = 14) using group and case-by-case analyses. As a group, participants with aphasia were significantly above chance level in their ability to segment words from the novel language and did not significantly differ from the group of elderly controls. Speech segmentation ability in the aphasic participants was not associated with aphasia severity although it significantly correlated with word pointing span, a measure of verbal short-term memory. Case-by-case analyses identified four individuals with aphasia who performed above chance level on the speech segmentation task, all with predominantly posterior lesions and mild fluent aphasia. Their short-term memory capacity was also better preserved than in the rest of the group. Our findings indicate that speech segmentation via statistical learning can remain functional in people with chronic aphasia and suggest that this initial language learning mechanism is associated with the functionality of the verbal short-term memory system and the integrity of the left inferior frontal region.

  12. User Interaction in Semi-Automatic Segmentation of Organs at Risk: a Case Study in Radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ramkumar (Anjana); J. Dolz (Jose); H.A. Kirisli (Hortense); S. Adebahr (Sonja); T. Schimek-Jasch (Tanja); U. Nestle (Ursula); L. Massoptier (Laurent); E. Varga (Edit); P.J. Stappers (P.); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); Y. Song (Yu)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAccurate segmentation of organs at risk is an important step in radiotherapy planning. Manual segmentation being a tedious procedure and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability, there is a growing interest in automated segmentation methods. However, automatic methods frequently

  13. User Interaction in Semi-Automatic Segmentation of Organs at Risk : A Case Study in Radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramkumar, A.; Dolz, J.; Kirisli, H.A.; Adebahr, S.; Schimek-Jasch, T.; Nestle, U.; Massoptier, L.; Varga, E.; Stappers, P.J.; Niessen, W.J.; Song, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of organs at risk is an important step in radiotherapy planning. Manual segmentation being a tedious procedure and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability, there is a growing interest in automated segmentation methods. However, automatic methods frequently fail to

  14. Segmented conjugated polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Segmented conjugated polymers, wherein the conjugation is randomly truncated by varying lengths of non-conjugated segments, form an interesting class of polymers as they not only represent systems of varying stiffness, but also ones where the backbone can be construed as being made up of chromophores of ...

  15. Segmentation, advertising and prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galeotti, Andrea; Moraga-González, José Luis

    This paper explores the implications of market segmentation on firm competitiveness. In contrast to earlier work, here market segmentation is minimal in the sense that it is based on consumer attributes that are completely unrelated to tastes. We show that when the market is comprised by two

  16. Segmented conjugated polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Segmented conjugated polymers, wherein the conjugation is randomly truncated by varying lengths of non-conjugated segments, form an interesting class of polymers as they not only represent systems of varying stiffness, but also ones where the backbone can be construed as being made up of chromophores of varying ...

  17. Multi-segmental neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF, one of the commonest phakomatoses, is characterized by varied clinical manifestations. Segmental NF is one of the uncommon subtypes of NF. We report a young adult presenting with asymptomatic skin lesions- neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules- over localized areas of the lower back, affecting more than one segment. None of the family members were found to have features of segmental NF. Segmental NF may be misdiagnosed as a birthmark or remain undiagnosed for long periods of time, as the patients are often asymptomatic. Moreover, the clinical features are highly variable and range from a small area of skin involvement to involvement over the entire half of the body. This variation is explained by the fact that segmental NF is thought to arise from a postzygotic NF1 gene mutation, leading to somatic mosaicism. We have also reviewed the relevant literature on this subject.

  18. Multi-segmental neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhir

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF, one of the commonest phakomatoses, is characterized by varied clinical manifestations. Segmental NF is one of the uncommon subtypes of NF. We report a young adult presenting with asymptomatic skin lesions- neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules- over localized areas of the lower back, affecting more than one segment. None of the family members were found to have features of segmental NF. Segmental NF may be misdiagnosed as a birthmark or remain undiagnosed for long periods of time, as the patients are often asymptomatic. Moreover, the clinical features are highly variable and range from a small area of skin involvement to involvement over the entire half of the body. This variation is explained by the fact that segmental NF is thought to arise from a postzygotic NF1 gene mutation, leading to somatic mosaicism. We have also reviewed the relevant literature on this subject.

  19. Active mask segmentation of fluorescence microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Gowri; Fickus, Matthew C; Guo, Yusong; Linstedt, Adam D; Kovacević, Jelena

    2009-08-01

    We propose a new active mask algorithm for the segmentation of fluorescence microscope images of punctate patterns. It combines the (a) flexibility offered by active-contour methods, (b) speed offered by multiresolution methods, (c) smoothing offered by multiscale methods, and (d) statistical modeling offered by region-growing methods into a fast and accurate segmentation tool. The framework moves from the idea of the "contour" to that of "inside and outside," or masks, allowing for easy multidimensional segmentation. It adapts to the topology of the image through the use of multiple masks. The algorithm is almost invariant under initialization, allowing for random initialization, and uses a few easily tunable parameters. Experiments show that the active mask algorithm matches the ground truth well and outperforms the algorithm widely used in fluorescence microscopy, seeded watershed, both qualitatively, as well as quantitatively.

  20. Growing for different ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Multiscale Vessel-guided Airway Tree Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. The method uses a voxel classification based appearance model, which involves the use of a classifier...... is evaluated within EXACT’09 on a diverse set of CT scans. Results show a favorable combination of a relatively large portion of the tree detected correctly with very few false positives....

  2. Familial segmental neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguzkan, Sibel; Cinbis, Mine; Ayter, Sükriye; Anlar, Banu; Aysun, Sabiha

    2004-05-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is considered to be the result of postzygotic NF1 gene mutations. We present a family in which the proband has generalized neurofibromatosis 1, whereas members of previous generations manifest segmental skin lesions. All, including the clinically asymptomatic grandmother, carry the same haplotype. This is the only case in the literature in which a parent with segmental skin findings has a child with full-blown neurofibromatosis 1 disease. The genetic mechanisms underlying this association are discussed. This family can be further investigated by examination of tissue samples from affected and unaffected sites for mutations.

  3. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  4. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  5. User Interaction in Semi-Automatic Segmentation of Organs at Risk: a Case Study in Radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkumar, A.; Dolz, J.; Kirisli, H.A.; Adebahr, S; Schimek-Jasch, T.; NESTLE, U; Massoptier, L.; Varga, E.; Stappers, P.J.; W. J. Niessen; Song, Y.

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAccurate segmentation of organs at risk is an important step in radiotherapy planning. Manual segmentation being a tedious procedure and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability, there is a growing interest in automated segmentation methods. However, automatic methods frequently fail to provide satisfactory result, and post-processing corrections are often needed. Semi-automatic segmentation methods are designed to overcome these problems by combining physicians’ expertise a...

  6. Segmentation of antiperspirants and deodorants

    OpenAIRE

    Král, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Master's Thesis on topic Segmentation of antiperspirants and deodorants is to discover differences in consumer's behaviour, determinate and describe segments of consumers based on these differences and propose marketing strategy for the most attractive segments. Theoretical part describes market segmentation in general, process of segmentation and segmentation criteria. Analytic part characterizes Czech market of antiperspirants and deodorants, analyzes ACNielsen market data and d...

  7. Sclerosing segmental neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong Sun; Kim, You Chan

    2005-04-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare disorder characterized by cafe-au-lait macules and/or neurofibromas limited to a single body segment. The neurofibromas in segmental neurofibromatosis are usually soft, non-tender nodules as in other types of neurofibromatosis. Histopathologically, they are usually non-encapsulated, loosely textured dermal tumors. We report a case of sclerosing segmental neurofibromatosis, in which the patient presented with several grouped, erythematous to brownish, firm tender nodules on the left side of the posterior neck. Histopathologically, the stroma was mostly very fibrotic, especially around hair follicles, in addition to the usual features of neurofibroma. The atypical clinical feature, hardness, and tenderness of the lesions may be associated with the fibrosis.

  8. Universal Numeric Segmented Display

    OpenAIRE

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sharmeen, Rezwana; S. M. Kamruzzaman

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform...

  9. Strategic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  10. Gamifying Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.

  11. Rediscovering market segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Daniel; Meer, David

    2006-02-01

    In 1964, Daniel Yankelovich introduced in the pages of HBR the concept of nondemographic segmentation, by which he meant the classification of consumers according to criteria other than age, residence, income, and such. The predictive power of marketing studies based on demographics was no longer strong enough to serve as a basis for marketing strategy, he argued. Buying patterns had become far better guides to consumers' future purchases. In addition, properly constructed nondemographic segmentations could help companies determine which products to develop, which distribution channels to sell them in, how much to charge for them, and how to advertise them. But more than 40 years later, nondemographic segmentation has become just as unenlightening as demographic segmentation had been. Today, the technique is used almost exclusively to fulfill the needs of advertising, which it serves mainly by populating commercials with characters that viewers can identify with. It is true that psychographic types like "High-Tech Harry" and "Joe Six-Pack" may capture some truth about real people's lifestyles, attitudes, self-image, and aspirations. But they are no better than demographics at predicting purchase behavior. Thus they give corporate decision makers very little idea of how to keep customers or capture new ones. Now, Daniel Yankelovich returns to these pages, with consultant David Meer, to argue the case for a broad view of nondemographic segmentation. They describe the elements of a smart segmentation strategy, explaining how segmentations meant to strengthen brand identity differ from those capable of telling a company which markets it should enter and what goods to make. And they introduce their "gravity of decision spectrum", a tool that focuses on the form of consumer behavior that should be of the greatest interest to marketers--the importance that consumers place on a product or product category.

  12. Market segmentation in tourism: An application of the Schwartz's value theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing economic sectors. As nowdays tourism market is characterized by rapid changes and strong competition, the struggle for tourists represents everyday issue which tourist entities face with. In the past few decades, tourism demand has significantly been changed. From the unified and mass, it has become highly informed, personalized, with different individual requirements and preferences. Market segmentation occurs as an inevitable process in delivering appropriate value to tourists. To achieve better business outcomes, tourism businesses are looking for ways to make their offer suitable for tourists needs. The aim of this paper is to show if there is an impact of the value system on the consumer decision-making in choosing travel arrangements. The survey was conducted on a sample of 168 respondents, who were primarily selected from the population of students of the University of Belgrade. In order to answer the research questions, Schwartz's system of values model was used. Thus defined value system was used as the basis for segmentation of the tourist market. The survey showed that based on such segmentation, tourist can be divided into four clusters: 'individualists', 'modest traditionalists', 'hedonists' and 'social adventurers'.

  13. COMPASS-based ureter segmentation in CT urography (CTU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, David; Hadjiiyski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun

    2014-03-01

    We are developing a computerized system for automated segmentation of ureters in CT urography (CTU), referred to as COmbined Model-guided Path-finding Analysis and Segmentation System (COMPASS). Ureter segmentation is a critical component for computer-aided diagnosis of ureter cancer. A challenge for ureter segmentation is the presence of regions not well opacified with intravenous (IV) contrast. COMPASS consists of three stages: (1) adaptive thresholding and region growing, (2) path-finding and propagation, and (3) edge profile extraction and feature analysis. One hundred fourteen ureters in 74 CTU scans with IV contrast were collected from 74 patient files. On average, the ureters spanned 283 CT slices (range: 116 to 399, median: 301). More than half of the ureters contained malignant or benign lesions and some had ureter wall thickening due to malignancy. A starting point for each of the 114 ureters was selected manually to initialize the tracking by COMPASS. Path-finding and segmentation were guided by the anatomical knowledge of ureters in CTU. The segmentation performance was quantitatively assessed by estimating the percentage of the length that was successfully tracked and segmented for each ureter. Of the 114 ureters, 110 (96%) were segmented completely (100%), 111 (97%) were segmented through at least 70% of its length, and 113 (99%) were segmented at least 50%. In comparison, using our previous method, 79 (69%) ureters were segmented completely (100%), 92 (81%) were segmented through at least 70% of its length, and 98 (86%) were segmented at least 50%. COMPASS improved significantly the ureter tracking, including regions across ureter lesions, wall thickening and the narrowing of the lumen.

  14. Computerized segmentation of ureters in CT urography (CTU) using COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Niland, Luke; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun

    2013-03-01

    We are developing a computerized system for automated segmentation of ureters on CTU, as a critical component for computer-aided diagnosis of ureter cancer. A challenge for ureter segmentation is the presence of regions not well opacified with intravenous (IV) contrast. We propose a COmbined Model-guided Path-finding Analysis and Segmentation System (COMPASS) to track the ureters in CTU. COMPASS consists of three stages: (1) adaptive thresholding and region growing, (2) edge profile extraction and feature analysis, and (3) path-finding and propagation. 114 ureters, filled with IV contrast material, on 74 CTU scans from 74 patients were segmented. On average the ureter occupied 286 CT slices (range:164 to 399, median:301). More than half of the ureters contained malignant or benign lesions and some had ureter wall thickening due to malignancy. A starting point for each of the 114 ureters was selected manually, which served as an input to the COMPASS, to initialize the tracking. The path-finding and segmentation are guided by anatomical knowledge of the ureters in CTU. The segmentation performance was quantitatively assessed by estimating the percentage of the length that was successfully tracked and segmented for each ureter. Of the 114 ureters, 75 (66%) were segmented completely (100%), 99 (87%) were segmented through at least 70% of its length, and 104 (91%) were segmented at least 50%. Previously, without the model-guided approach, 61 (54%) ureters were segmented completely (100%), 80 (70%) were segmented through at least 70% of its length, and 96 (84%) were segmented at least 50%. COMPASS improved the ureter tracking, including regions across ureter lesions, wall thickening and the narrowing of the lumen.

  15. Segmental neurofibromatosis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listernick, Robert; Mancini, Anthony J; Charrow, Joel

    2003-08-30

    Segmental neurofibromatosis refers to individuals who have manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) limited to one area of the body. It results from a post-conceptional mutation in the NF-1 gene leading to somatic mosaicism. Although it is generally considered a rare condition, this report of 39 children with segmental NF-1 demonstrates that it is commonly seen in a pediatric NF-1 referral center. The mean age at diagnosis was 7.8 years (range: 2-25 years). Twenty-nine patients had only pigmentary manifestations of segmental NF-1, including seven who had only café-au-lait macules and 22 who had café-au-lait macules and freckling. Two patients had isolated plexiform neurofibromas; a third patient had a plexiform neurofibroma of the eyelid in addition to ipsilateral dysplasia of the sphenoid wing and Lisch nodules. A 12-year-old girl had an isolated tibial pseudarthrosis. An 8-year-old boy had an isolated optic pathway tumor, which behaved both biologically and radiographically as an NF1-associated tumor. While most children with segmental NF-1 have only localized pigmentary changes, some children will have isolated plexiform neurofibromas, pseudarthroses, or optic pathway tumors. Accurate diagnosis of segmental NF-1 is crucial for both management and genetic counseling. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  17. Chan-Vese Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Getreuer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While many segmentation methods rely heavily in some way on edge detection, the "Active Contours Without Edges" method by Chan and Vese ignores edges completely. Instead, the method optimally fits a two-phase piecewise constant model to the given image. The segmentation boundary is represented implicitly with a level set function, which allows the segmentation to handle topological changes more easily than explicit snake methods. This article describes the level set formulation of the Chan–Vese model and its numerical solution using a semi-implicit gradient descent. We also discuss the Chan–Sandberg–Vese method, a straightforward extension of Chan–Vese for vector-valued images.

  18. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  19. Segmental Neurofibromatosis: Atypical Localisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Topaloğlu Demir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF is a genetic disease leading pathological findings in skin, soft tissue, bone and nervous system by affecting neural crest cells. Due to its heterogeneity neurofibromatosis was divided into eight different subgroups (NF-I NF-VIII by Riccardi. Segmental neurofibromatosis (NF type V is characterized by cutaneous neurofibromas and Café-au-lait spots limited with a segment of dermatome. Here we report this case with numerous, painless cutaneous nodules showing extension from the shoulder to the dorsal aspect of the right hand, since it a rare case.

  20. Dictionary Based Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...

  1. Thoracoscopic Subsuperior Segment Segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kimihiro; Mogi, Akira; Yajima, Toshiki; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Ohtaki, Yoichi; Obayashi, Kai; Nakazawa, Seshiru; Kosaka, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    To date, anatomic subsuperior segment (S∗) segmentectomy has not yet been reported. Herein we report the technical details of thoracoscopic anatomic S∗ segmentectomy and the anatomic features of the S∗. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Segmentation and crustal structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N; J. Geophys. Res. 105 8205–8226. Kamesh Raju K A, Ramprasad T and Subrahmanyam C. 1997 Geophysical investigations over a segment of the. Central Indian Ridge, Indian Ocean; Geo-Marine Lett. 17. 195–201. Kamesh Raju K A, Chaubey A K, Amarnath Dileep and. Mudholkar Abhay 2008 Morphotectonics of the ...

  3. Connecting textual segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2017-01-01

    history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand......-alone computers and in local and global digital networks....

  4. Sipunculans and segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

    2009-01-01

    Comparative molecular, developmental and morphogenetic analyses show that the three major segmented animal groups- Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa and Vertebrata-use a wide range of ontogenetic pathways to establish metameric body organization. Even in the life history of a single specimen, different m...

  5. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... 24. Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology / Supplement 1 - 2014 - Volume 22. S24. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT. A Comparison of Visual Outcomes after Extracapsular Cataract. Surgery and Phacoemulsification in Eye Foundation Hospital. Lagos Nigeria. Oderinlo O. O., Hassan A. O., Oluyadi F. O., ...

  6. Labor market segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt Christian

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to the International Encyclopedia of Geography is a reinterpretation of labor market segmentation theories mapping the evolution of this perspective on labor markets and using the findings of the care market project to reflect on the rising importance of female migrant labor in the domestic sphere and the question of diversity and inequalities in the labor market.

  7. Unified wavelet and Gaussian filtering for segmentation of CT images; application in segmentation of bone in pelvic CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilache, Simina; Ward, Kevin; Cockrell, Charles; Ha, Jonathan; Najarian, Kayvan

    2009-11-03

    The analysis of pelvic CT scans is a crucial step for detecting and assessing the severity of Traumatic Pelvic Injuries. Automating the processing of pelvic CT scans could impact decision accuracy, decrease the time for decision making, and reduce health care cost. This paper discusses a method to automate the segmentation of bone from pelvic CT images. Accurate segmentation of bone is very important for developing an automated assisted-decision support system for Traumatic Pelvic Injury diagnosis and treatment. The automated method for pelvic CT bone segmentation is a hierarchical approach that combines filtering and histogram equalization, for image enhancement, wavelet analysis and automated seeded region growing. Initial results of segmentation are used to identify the region where bone is present and to target histogram equalization towards the specific area. Speckle Reducing Anisotropic Didffusion (SRAD) filter is applied to accentuate the desired features in the region. Automated seeded region growing is performed to refine the initial bone segmentation results. The proposed method automatically processes pelvic CT images and produces accurate segmentation. Bone connectivity is achieved and the contours and sizes of bones are true to the actual contour and size displayed in the original image. Results are promising and show great potential for fracture detection and assessing hemorrhage presence and severity. Preliminary experimental results of the automated method show accurate bone segmentation. The novelty of the method lies in the unique hierarchical combination of image enhancement and segmentation methods that aims at maximizing the advantages of the combined algorithms. The proposed method has the following advantages: it produces accurate bone segmentation with maintaining bone contour and size true to the original image and is suitable for automated bone segmentation from pelvic CT images.

  8. Segmentation in Tardigrada and diversification of segmental patterns in Panarthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank W; Goldstein, Bob

    2017-05-01

    The origin and diversification of segmented metazoan body plans has fascinated biologists for over a century. The superphylum Panarthropoda includes three phyla of segmented animals-Euarthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada. This superphylum includes representatives with relatively simple and representatives with relatively complex segmented body plans. At one extreme of this continuum, euarthropods exhibit an incredible diversity of serially homologous segments. Furthermore, distinct tagmosis patterns are exhibited by different classes of euarthropods. At the other extreme, all tardigrades share a simple segmented body plan that consists of a head and four leg-bearing segments. The modular body plans of panarthropods make them a tractable model for understanding diversification of animal body plans more generally. Here we review results of recent morphological and developmental studies of tardigrade segmentation. These results complement investigations of segmentation processes in other panarthropods and paleontological studies to illuminate the earliest steps in the evolution of panarthropod body plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An iterative method for airway segmentation using multiscale leakage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Syed Ahmed; Jin, Dakai; Hoffman, Eric A.; Saha, Punam K.

    2017-02-01

    There are growing applications of quantitative computed tomography for assessment of pulmonary diseases by characterizing lung parenchyma as well as the bronchial tree. Many large multi-center studies incorporating lung imaging as a study component are interested in phenotypes relating airway branching patterns, wall-thickness, and other morphological measures. To our knowledge, there are no fully automated airway tree segmentation methods, free of the need for user review. Even when there are failures in a small fraction of segmentation results, the airway tree masks must be manually reviewed for all results which is laborious considering that several thousands of image data sets are evaluated in large studies. In this paper, we present a CT-based novel airway tree segmentation algorithm using iterative multi-scale leakage detection, freezing, and active seed detection. The method is fully automated requiring no manual inputs or post-segmentation editing. It uses simple intensity based connectivity and a new leakage detection algorithm to iteratively grow an airway tree starting from an initial seed inside the trachea. It begins with a conservative threshold and then, iteratively shifts toward generous values. The method was applied on chest CT scans of ten non-smoking subjects at total lung capacity and ten at functional residual capacity. Airway segmentation results were compared to an expert's manually edited segmentations. Branch level accuracy of the new segmentation method was examined along five standardized segmental airway paths (RB1, RB4, RB10, LB1, LB10) and two generations beyond these branches. The method successfully detected all branches up to two generations beyond these segmental bronchi with no visual leakages.

  10. A segmentation algorithm of intracranial hemorrhage CT image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Chen, Zhiguo; Wang, Jianzhi

    2011-10-01

    To develop a computer aided detection (CAD) system that improves diagnostic accuracy of intracranial hemorrhage on cerebral CT. A method for CT image segmentation of brain is proposed, with which, several regions that are suspicious of hemorrhage can be segmented rapidly and effectively. Extracting intracranial area algorithm is introduced firstly to extract intracranial area. Secondly, FCM is employed twice, we named it with TFCM. FCM is first employed to identify areas of intracranial hemorrhage. Finally, FCM is employed to segment the lesions. Experimental results on real medical images demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness.

  11. Growing Concerns With Workplace Incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Natasha Renee; Rogers, Bonnie

    2017-11-01

    Workplace incivility (WPI) is a growing issue across all public and private sectors. Occupational and environmental health nurses can educate employees and management about WPI, its risk factors and characteristics, and ways to reduce incidents of WPI.

  12. Market segmentation: Venezuelan ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbi Garay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.

  13. Labor market segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Labor market segmentation theories arose as an alternative to neoclassical notions of labor and labor markets in the 1970s. After briefly revisiting the strengths and the weaknesses of this approach, the article discusses more recent developments around the question of difference and diversity in labor markets, directing attention to three key developments associated with the rise of neoliberal capitalism: (i) the formation of entrepreneurial subjectivities and the treatment of labor as a div...

  14. Spinal segmental dysgenesis CASE SERIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality seen in neonates and infants, in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally. The condition is segmental in nature, with vertebrae above and below the malformation. It is commonly associated with various abnormalities that ...

  15. Market Segmentation for Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…

  16. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  17. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  18. FRAMEWORK FOR COMPARING SEGMENTATION ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of a ‘Best’ segmentation does not exist. A segmentation algorithm is chosen based on the features it yields, the properties of the segments (point sets it generates, and the complexity of its algorithm. The segmentation is then assessed based on a variety of metrics such as homogeneity, heterogeneity, fragmentation, etc. Even after an algorithm is chosen its performance is still uncertain because the landscape/scenarios represented in a point cloud have a strong influence on the eventual segmentation. Thus selecting an appropriate segmentation algorithm is a process of trial and error. Automating the selection of segmentation algorithms and their parameters first requires methods to evaluate segmentations. Three common approaches for evaluating segmentation algorithms are ‘goodness methods’, ‘discrepancy methods’ and ‘benchmarks’. Benchmarks are considered the most comprehensive method of evaluation. This paper shortcomings in current benchmark methods are identified and a framework is proposed that permits both a visual and numerical evaluation of segmentations for different algorithms, algorithm parameters and evaluation metrics. The concept of the framework is demonstrated on a real point cloud. Current results are promising and suggest that it can be used to predict the performance of segmentation algorithms.

  19. Weighted entropy for segmentation evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jesmin F.; Bhuiyan, Sharif M.

    2014-04-01

    In many image, video and computer vision systems the image segmentation is an essential part. Significant research has been done in image segmentation and a number of quantitative evaluation methods have already been proposed in the literature. However, often the segmentation evaluation is subjective that means it has been done visually or qualitatively. A segmentation evaluation method based on entropy is proposed in this work which is objective and simple to implement. A weighted self and mutual entropy are proposed to measure the dissimilarity of the pixels among the segmented regions and the similarity within a region. This evaluation technique gives a score that can be used to compare different segmentation algorithms for the same image, or to compare the segmentation results of a given algorithm with different images, or to find the best suited values of the parameters of a segmentation algorithm for a given image. The simulation results show that the proposed method can identify over-segmentation, under-segmentation, and the good segmentation.

  20. Cruise control for segmented flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Milad; Singh, Mayank; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Günther, Axel

    2012-11-21

    Capitalizing on the benefits of microscale segmented flows, e.g., enhanced mixing and reduced sample dispersion, so far requires specialist training and accommodating a few experimental inconveniences. For instance, microscale gas-liquid flows in many current setups take at least 10 min to stabilize and iterative manual adjustments are needed to achieve or maintain desired mixing or residence times. Here, we report a cruise control strategy that overcomes these limitations and allows microscale gas-liquid (bubble) and liquid-liquid (droplet) flow conditions to be rapidly "adjusted" and maintained. Using this strategy we consistently establish bubble and droplet flows with dispersed phase (plug) velocities of 5-300 mm s(-1), plug lengths of 0.6-5 mm and continuous phase (slug) lengths of 0.5-3 mm. The mixing times (1-5 s), mass transfer times (33-250 ms) and residence times (3-300 s) can therefore be directly imposed by dynamically controlling the supply of the dispersed and the continuous liquids either from external pumps or from local pressurized reservoirs. In the latter case, no chip-external pumps, liquid-perfused tubes or valves are necessary while unwanted dead volumes are significantly reduced.

  1. Automatic 3D segmentation of individual facial muscles using unlabeled prior information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeitabar, Yousef; Ulusoy, Ilkay

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation of facial soft tissues is required for surgical planning and evaluation, but this is laborious using manual methods and has been difficult to achieve with digital segmentation methods. A new automatic 3D segmentation method for facial soft tissues in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images was designed, implemented, and tested. A region growing algorithm based on local energy functions, using intensity similarities among neighboring regions as criteria, was developed. This local energy function includes the neighborhood relationships not only in the same dataset but from other training datasets. This approach differs from previous studies where the prior information was represented as manual segmented atlases. In this study, a consensus of many datasets, none of which was labeled a priori, is used to guide the segmentation. The method was tested in MRI scans for adult facial structures. MRI scans were obtained from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative database. Comparison was made to results from expert manual segmentation and region growing techniques. The volumetric overlap between automated 3D segmentation results and the ground truth was 82.6% for masseter and 78.8% for temporalis tissues. A new automated method to segment various facial soft tissues was implemented and the results compared with standard region growing results. The proposed method shows 3.9% improvement in accuracy over the standard method. Reduction in segmentation errors was consistently achieved in MRI scans.

  2. Segmental neurofibromatosis of face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anuja; Thappa, Devinder M; Jayanthi, S; Shivaswamy, K N

    2005-12-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with asymptomatic skin lesions over the left side of the face of 5-years duration. He had multiple discrete soft-to-firm papules and nodules on the left side of the face along the distribution of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Histopathology examination of one of the nodules (face) showed a non-encapsulated tumor of the dermis with normal overlying epidermis. The tumor consisted of loosely spaced spindle cells and wavy collagenous strands in a clear matrix. These features were consistent with our clinical diagnosis of segmental neurofibromatosis. This case is reported for its rarity and typical manifestations.

  3. An algorithm for calculi segmentation on ureteroscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Benoît; Mozer, Pierre; Szewczyk, Jérôme

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop an algorithm for the segmentation of renal calculi on ureteroscopic images. In fact, renal calculi are common source of urological obstruction, and laser lithotripsy during ureteroscopy is a possible therapy. A laser-based system to sweep the calculus surface and vaporize it was developed to automate a very tedious manual task. The distal tip of the ureteroscope is directed using image guidance, and this operation is not possible without an efficient segmentation of renal calculi on the ureteroscopic images. We proposed and developed a region growing algorithm to segment renal calculi on ureteroscopic images. Using real video images to compute ground truth and compare our segmentation with a reference segmentation, we computed statistics on different image metrics, such as Precision, Recall, and Yasnoff Measure, for comparison with ground truth. The algorithm and its parameters were established for the most likely clinical scenarii. The segmentation results are encouraging: the developed algorithm was able to correctly detect more than 90% of the surface of the calculi, according to an expert observer. Implementation of an algorithm for the segmentation of calculi on ureteroscopic images is feasible. The next step is the integration of our algorithm in the command scheme of a motorized system to build a complete operating prototype.

  4. Segmented Target Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhi, Abdul Rahman; Frank, Nathan; Gueye, Paul; Thoennessen, Michael; MoNA Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    A proposed segmented target would improve decay energy measurements of neutron-unbound nuclei. Experiments like this have been performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) located at Michigan State University. Many different nuclei are produced in such experiments, some of which immediately decay into a charged particle and neutron. The charged particles are bent by a large magnet and measured by a suite of charged particle detectors. The neutrons are measured by the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and Large Multi-Institutional Scintillation Array (LISA). With the current target setup, a nucleus in a neutron-unbound state is produced with a radioactive beam impinged upon a beryllium target. The resolution of these measurements is very dependent on the target thickness since the nuclear interaction point is unknown. In a segmented target using alternating layers of silicon detectors and Be-targets, the Be-target in which the nuclear reaction takes place would be determined. Thus the experimental resolution would improve. This poster will describe the improvement over the current target along with the status of the design. Work supported by Augustana College and the National Science Foundation grant #0969173.

  5. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  6. Growing Patterns: Seeing beyond Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, mathematical patterns have been acknowledged as important early components of children's development of algebraic reasoning (NCTM 2000). In particular, growing patterns have attracted significant attention as a context that helps students develop an understanding of functional relationships (Lee and Freiman 2006; Moss et…

  7. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  8. Segmentation of the Infant Food Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hrůzová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...

  9. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  10. Tooth segmentation system with intelligent editing for cephalometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shoupu

    2015-03-01

    Cephalometric analysis is the study of the dental and skeletal relationship in the head, and it is used as an assessment and planning tool for improved orthodontic treatment of a patient. Conventional cephalometric analysis identifies bony and soft-tissue landmarks in 2D cephalometric radiographs, in order to diagnose facial features and abnormalities prior to treatment, or to evaluate the progress of treatment. Recent studies in orthodontics indicate that there are persistent inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the results provided using conventional 2D cephalometric analysis. Obviously, plane geometry is inappropriate for analyzing anatomical volumes and their growth; only a 3D analysis is able to analyze the three-dimensional, anatomical maxillofacial complex, which requires computing inertia systems for individual or groups of digitally segmented teeth from an image volume of a patient's head. For the study of 3D cephalometric analysis, the current paper proposes a system for semi-automatically segmenting teeth from a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) volume with two distinct features, including an intelligent user-input interface for automatic background seed generation, and a graphics processing unit (GPU) acceleration mechanism for three-dimensional GrowCut volume segmentation. Results show a satisfying average DICE score of 0.92, with the use of the proposed tooth segmentation system, by 15 novice users who segmented a randomly sampled tooth set. The average GrowCut processing time is around one second per tooth, excluding user interaction time.

  11. Segmentation-DrivenTomographic Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas

    ), the classical reconstruction methods suffer from their inability to handle limited and/ or corrupted data. Form any analysis tasks computationally demanding segmentation methods are used to automatically segment an object, after using a simple reconstruction method as a first step. In the literature, methods...... such that the segmentation subsequently can be carried out by use of a simple segmentation method, for instance just a thresholding method. We tested the advantages of going from a two-stage reconstruction method to a one stage segmentation-driven reconstruction method for the phase contrast tomography reconstruction...... problem. The tests showed a clear improvement for realistic materials simulations and that the one-stage method was clearly more robust toward noise. The noise-robustness result could be a step toward making this method more applicable for lab-scale experiments. We have introduced a segmentation...

  12. Neural cell image segmentation method based on support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shiwei; Ren, Kan

    2015-10-01

    In the analysis of neural cell images gained by optical microscope, accurate and rapid segmentation is the foundation of nerve cell detection system. In this paper, a modified image segmentation method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed to reduce the adverse impact caused by low contrast ratio between objects and background, adherent and clustered cells' interference etc. Firstly, Morphological Filtering and OTSU Method are applied to preprocess images for extracting the neural cells roughly. Secondly, the Stellate Vector, Circularity and Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features are computed to train SVM model. Finally, the incremental learning SVM classifier is used to classify the preprocessed images, and the initial recognition areas identified by the SVM classifier are added to the library as the positive samples for training SVM model. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve much better segmented results than the classic segmentation algorithms.

  13. Host-Specific and Segment-Specific Evolutionary Dynamics of Avian and Human Influenza A Viruses: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiyeon; Omori, Ryosuke; Ueno, Keisuke; Iida, Sayaka; Ito, Kimihito

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of influenza viruses is essential to control both avian and human influenza. Here, we analyze host-specific and segment-specific Tajima's D trends of influenza A virus through a systematic review using viral sequences registered in the National Center for Biotechnology Information. To avoid bias from viral population subdivision, viral sequences were stratified according to their sampling locations and sampling years. As a result, we obtained a total of 580 datasets each of which consists of nucleotide sequences of influenza A viruses isolated from a single population of hosts at a single sampling site within a single year. By analyzing nucleotide sequences in the datasets, we found that Tajima's D values of viral sequences were different depending on hosts and gene segments. Tajima's D values of viruses isolated from chicken and human samples showed negative, suggesting purifying selection or a rapid population growth of the viruses. The negative Tajima's D values in rapidly growing viral population were also observed in computer simulations. Tajima's D values of PB2, PB1, PA, NP, and M genes of the viruses circulating in wild mallards were close to zero, suggesting that these genes have undergone neutral selection in constant-sized population. On the other hand, Tajima's D values of HA and NA genes of these viruses were positive, indicating HA and NA have undergone balancing selection in wild mallards. Taken together, these results indicated the existence of unknown factors that maintain viral subtypes in wild mallards.

  14. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  15. Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The manual delineation of gross tumour volume(GTV) for radiation therapy for head and neck cancer patients relies in some degree of pathological deviation from normal anatomical symmetry. The purpose of this study is to introduce a novel method for 3-dimensional determination of GTV...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated...... segmentations on manual contours was evaluated using concordance index and sensitivity for the hypopharyngeal patients. The resulting concordance index and sensitivity was compared with the result of using a threshold of 3 SUV using a paired t-test. Results: The anatomical and symmetrical atlas was constructed...

  16. Optimally segmented magnetic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... is not available.We will illustrate the results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as electric motors/generators (as the example in the picture), beam focusing for particle accelerators and magnetic refrigeration devices....... magnets[1][2]. However, the powerful rare-earth magnets are generally expensive, so both the scientific and industrial communities have devoted a lot of effort into developing suitable design methods. Even so, many magnet optimization algorithms either are based on heuristic approaches[3...

  17. A comparison of texture models for automatic liver segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mailan; Susomboon, Ruchaneewan; Disney, Tim; Raicu, Daniela; Furst, Jacob

    2007-03-01

    Automatic liver segmentation from abdominal computed tomography (CT) images based on gray levels or shape alone is difficult because of the overlap in gray-level ranges and the variation in position and shape of the soft tissues. To address these issues, we propose an automatic liver segmentation method that utilizes low-level features based on texture information; this texture information is expected to be homogenous and consistent across multiple slices for the same organ. Our proposed approach consists of the following steps: first, we perform pixel-level texture extraction; second, we generate liver probability images using a binary classification approach; third, we apply a split-and-merge algorithm to detect the seed set with the highest probability area; and fourth, we apply to the seed set a region growing algorithm iteratively to refine the liver's boundary and get the final segmentation results. Furthermore, we compare the segmentation results from three different texture extraction methods (Co-occurrence Matrices, Gabor filters, and Markov Random Fields (MRF)) to find the texture method that generates the best liver segmentation. From our experimental results, we found that the co-occurrence model led to the best segmentation, while the Gabor model led to the worst liver segmentation. Moreover, co-occurrence texture features alone produced approximately the same segmentation results as those produced when all the texture features from the combined co-occurrence, Gabor, and MRF models were used. Therefore, in addition to providing an automatic model for liver segmentation, we also conclude that Haralick cooccurrence texture features are the most significant texture characteristics in distinguishing the liver tissue in CT scans.

  18. Image segmentation by graph partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ana Sofia; Monteiro, Fernando C.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we propose an hybrid method for the image segmentation which combines the edge-based, region-based and the morphological techniques in conjunction through the spectral based clustering approach. An initial partitioning of the image into atomic regions is set by applying a watershed method to the image gradient magnitude. This initial partition is the input to a computationally efficient region segmentation process which produces the final segmentation. We have applied our approach on several images of the Berkeley Segmentation Dataset. The results reveal the accuracy of the propose method.

  19. Automated medical image segmentation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT and Magnetic resonance (MR imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.

  20. ADVANCED CLUSTER BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kesavaraja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents efficient and portable implementations of a useful image segmentation technique which makes use of the faster and a variant of the conventional connected components algorithm which we call parallel Components. In the Modern world majority of the doctors are need image segmentation as the service for various purposes and also they expect this system is run faster and secure. Usually Image segmentation Algorithms are not working faster. In spite of several ongoing researches in Conventional Segmentation and its Algorithms might not be able to run faster. So we propose a cluster computing environment for parallel image Segmentation to provide faster result. This paper is the real time implementation of Distributed Image Segmentation in Clustering of Nodes. We demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of our method on a set of Medical CT Scan Images. Our general framework is a single address space, distributed memory programming model. We use efficient techniques for distributing and coalescing data as well as efficient combinations of task and data parallelism. The image segmentation algorithm makes use of an efficient cluster process which uses a novel approach for parallel merging. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and practical results. It provides the faster execution time for segmentation, when compared with Conventional method. Our test data is different CT scan images from the Medical database. More efficient implementations of Image Segmentation will likely result in even faster execution times.

  1. Growing random networks with fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Ergun, G.; Rodgers, GJ

    2001-01-01

    Three models of growing random networks with fitness dependent growth rates are analysed using the rate equations for the distribution of their connectivities. In the first model (A), a network is built by connecting incoming nodes to nodes of connectivity $k$ and random additive fitness $\\eta$, with rate $(k-1)+ \\eta $. For $\\eta >0$ we find the connectivity distribution is power law with exponent $\\gamma=+2$. In the second model (B), the network is built by connecting nodes to nodes of conn...

  2. Neural-like growing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, Vitaliy A.

    2000-03-01

    On the basis of the analysis of scientific ideas reflecting the law in the structure and functioning the biological structures of a brain, and analysis and synthesis of knowledge, developed by various directions in Computer Science, also there were developed the bases of the theory of a new class neural-like growing networks, not having the analogue in world practice. In a base of neural-like growing networks the synthesis of knowledge developed by classical theories - semantic and neural of networks is. The first of them enable to form sense, as objects and connections between them in accordance with construction of the network. With thus each sense gets a separate a component of a network as top, connected to other tops. In common it quite corresponds to structure reflected in a brain, where each obvious concept is presented by certain structure and has designating symbol. Secondly, this network gets increased semantic clearness at the expense owing to formation not only connections between neural by elements, but also themselves of elements as such, i.e. here has a place not simply construction of a network by accommodation sense structures in environment neural of elements, and purely creation of most this environment, as of an equivalent of environment of memory. Thus neural-like growing networks are represented by the convenient apparatus for modeling of mechanisms of teleological thinking, as a fulfillment of certain psychophysiological of functions.

  3. [Myopia, a growing health problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, J.W.; Polling, J.R.; Schans, A. van der; Verhoeven, V.J.; Klaver, C.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    - Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood, with a peak incidence between the ages of 13 to 15 years. - Especially high myopia, i.e. a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during

  4. Segmented metallic nanostructures, homogeneous metallic nanostructures and methods for producing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Stanislaus; Koenigsmann, Christopher

    2017-04-18

    The present invention includes a method of producing a segmented 1D nanostructure. The method includes providing a vessel containing a template wherein on one side of the template is a first metal reagent solution and on the other side of the template is a reducing agent solution, wherein the template comprises at least one pore; allowing a first segment of a 1D nanostructure to grow within a pore of the template until a desired length is reached; replacing the first metal reagent solution with a second metal reagent solution; allowing a second segment of a 1D nanostructure to grow from the first segment until a desired length is reached, wherein a segmented 1D nanostructure is produced.

  5. Segmentation propagation using a 3D embryo atlas for high-throughput MRI phenotyping: comparison and validation with manual segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Francesca C; Modat, Marc; Cleary, Jon O; Price, Anthony N; McCue, Karen; Scambler, Peter J; Ourselin, Sebastien; Lythgoe, Mark F

    2013-03-01

    Effective methods for high-throughput screening and morphometric analysis are crucial for phenotyping the increasing number of mouse mutants that are being generated. Automated segmentation propagation for embryo phenotyping is an emerging application that enables noninvasive and rapid quantification of substructure volumetric data for morphometric analysis. We present a study to assess and validate the accuracy of brain and kidney volumes generated via segmentation propagation in an ex vivo mouse embryo MRI atlas comprising three different groups against the current "gold standard"--manual segmentation. Morphometric assessment showed good agreement between automatically and manually segmented volumes, demonstrating that it is possible to assess volumes for phenotyping a population of embryos using segmentation propagation with the same variation as manual segmentation. As part of this study, we have made our average atlas and segmented volumes freely available to the community for use in mouse embryo phenotyping studies. These MRI datasets and automated methods of analyses will be essential for meeting the challenge of high-throughput, automated embryo phenotyping. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hierarchical Image Segmentation of Remotely Sensed Data using Massively Parallel GNU-LINUX Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.

    2003-01-01

    A hierarchical set of image segmentations is a set of several image segmentations of the same image at different levels of detail in which the segmentations at coarser levels of detail can be produced from simple merges of regions at finer levels of detail. In [1], Tilton, et a1 describes an approach for producing hierarchical segmentations (called HSEG) and gave a progress report on exploiting these hierarchical segmentations for image information mining. The HSEG algorithm is a hybrid of region growing and constrained spectral clustering that produces a hierarchical set of image segmentations based on detected convergence points. In the main, HSEG employs the hierarchical stepwise optimization (HSWO) approach to region growing, which was described as early as 1989 by Beaulieu and Goldberg. The HSWO approach seeks to produce segmentations that are more optimized than those produced by more classic approaches to region growing (e.g. Horowitz and T. Pavlidis, [3]). In addition, HSEG optionally interjects between HSWO region growing iterations, merges between spatially non-adjacent regions (i.e., spectrally based merging or clustering) constrained by a threshold derived from the previous HSWO region growing iteration. While the addition of constrained spectral clustering improves the utility of the segmentation results, especially for larger images, it also significantly increases HSEG s computational requirements. To counteract this, a computationally efficient recursive, divide-and-conquer, implementation of HSEG (RHSEG) was devised, which includes special code to avoid processing artifacts caused by RHSEG s recursive subdivision of the image data. The recursive nature of RHSEG makes for a straightforward parallel implementation. This paper describes the HSEG algorithm, its recursive formulation (referred to as RHSEG), and the implementation of RHSEG using massively parallel GNU-LINUX software. Results with Landsat TM data are included comparing RHSEG with classic

  7. Generation of a genetically encoded marker of rod photoreceptor outer segment growth and renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Willoughby

    2011-10-01

    Vertebrate photoreceptors are specialized light sensing neurons. The photoreceptor outer segment is a highly modified cilium where photons of light are transduced into a chemical and electrical signal. The outer segment has the typical cilary axoneme but, in addition, it has a large number of densely packed, stacked, intramembranous discs. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that contribute to vertebrate photoreceptor outer segment morphogenesis are still largely unknown. Unlike typical cilia, the outer segment is continuously regenerated or renewed throughout the life of the animal through the combined process of distal outer segment shedding and proximal outer segment growth. The process of outer segment renewal was discovered over forty years ago, but we still lack an understanding of how photoreceptors renew their outer segments and few, if any, molecular mechanisms that regulate outer segment growth or shedding have been described. Our lack of progress in understanding how photoreceptors renew their outer segments has been hampered by the difficulty in measuring rates of renewal. We have created a new method that uses heat-shock induction of a fluorescent protein that can be used to rapidly measure outer segment growth rates. We describe this method, the stable transgenic line we created, and the growth rates observed in larval and adult rod photoreceptors using this new method. This new method will allow us to begin to define the genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate rod outer segment renewal, a crucial aspect of photoreceptor function and, possibly, viability.

  8. Multiresolution Multiscale Active Mask Segmentation of Fluorescence Microscope Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Gowri; Fickus, Matthew; Kovačević, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    We propose an active mask segmentation framework that combines the advantages of statistical modeling, smoothing, speed and flexibility offered by the traditional methods of region-growing, multiscale, multiresolution and active contours respectively. At the crux of this framework is a paradigm shift from evolving contours in the continuous domain to evolving multiple masks in the discrete domain. Thus, the active mask framework is particularly suited to segment digital images. We demonstrate the use of the framework in practice through the segmentation of punctate patterns in fluorescence microscope images. Experiments reveal that statistical modeling helps the multiple masks converge from a random initial configuration to a meaningful one. This obviates the need for an involved initialization procedure germane to most of the traditional methods used to segment fluorescence microscope images. While we provide the mathematical details of the functions used to segment fluorescence microscope images, this is only an instantiation of the active mask framework. We suggest some other instantiations of the framework to segment different types of images.

  9. Medical image segmentation on GPUs--a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smistad, Erik; Falch, Thomas L; Bozorgi, Mohammadmehdi; Elster, Anne C; Lindseth, Frank

    2015-02-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures, from modalities like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound, is a key enabling technology for medical applications such as diagnostics, planning and guidance. More efficient implementations are necessary, as most segmentation methods are computationally expensive, and the amount of medical imaging data is growing. The increased programmability of graphic processing units (GPUs) in recent years have enabled their use in several areas. GPUs can solve large data parallel problems at a higher speed than the traditional CPU, while being more affordable and energy efficient than distributed systems. Furthermore, using a GPU enables concurrent visualization and interactive segmentation, where the user can help the algorithm to achieve a satisfactory result. This review investigates the use of GPUs to accelerate medical image segmentation methods. A set of criteria for efficient use of GPUs are defined and each segmentation method is rated accordingly. In addition, references to relevant GPU implementations and insight into GPU optimization are provided and discussed. The review concludes that most segmentation methods may benefit from GPU processing due to the methods' data parallel structure and high thread count. However, factors such as synchronization, branch divergence and memory usage can limit the speedup. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions in MR images: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, Daryoush; Kouzani, Abbas Z. [Deakin University, School of Engineering, Geelong, Victoria (Australia); Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid [Henry Ford Health System, Image Analysis Laboratory, Radiology Department, Detroit, MI (United States); University of Tehran, Control and Intelligent Processing Center of Excellence (CIPCE), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Cognitive Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that the parts of the nervous system through the lesions generated in the white matter of the brain. It brings about disabilities in different organs of the body such as eyes and muscles. Early detection of MS and estimation of its progression are critical for optimal treatment of the disease. For diagnosis and treatment evaluation of MS lesions, they may be detected and segmented in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of the brain. However, due to the large amount of MRI data to be analyzed, manual segmentation of the lesions by clinical experts translates into a very cumbersome and time consuming task. In addition, manual segmentation is subjective and prone to human errors. Several groups have developed computerized methods to detect and segment MS lesions. These methods are not categorized and compared in the past. This paper reviews and compares various MS lesion segmentation methods proposed in recent years. It covers conventional methods like multilevel thresholding and region growing, as well as more recent Bayesian methods that require parameter estimation algorithms. It also covers parameter estimation methods like expectation maximization and adaptive mixture model which are among unsupervised techniques as well as kNN and Parzen window methods that are among supervised techniques. Integration of knowledge-based methods such as atlas-based approaches with Bayesian methods increases segmentation accuracy. In addition, employing intelligent classifiers like Fuzzy C-Means, Fuzzy Inference Systems, and Artificial Neural Networks reduces misclassified voxels. (orig.)

  11. IFRS 8 – OPERATING SEGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOCHIS LEONICA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Segment reporting in accordance with IFRS 8 will be mandatory for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. The standards replaces IAS 14, Segment Reporting, from that date. The objective of IFRS 8 is to require

  12. Segmental neurofibromatosis [NF type - v].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfan-ul-Bari; Simeen-ber-Rahman

    2003-12-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare variant of neurofibromatosis in which skin lesions are confined to a circumscribed body segment. A case of a 39-year-old man with this condition is presented, who was having multiple soft skin tumours over a localized area of back with no associated cafe au lait spots, axillary freckles or lish nodules. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of neurofibroma.

  13. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  14. Adaptive segmentation for scientific databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, M.; Kersten, M.L.; Nes, N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore database segmentation in the context of a column-store DBMS targeted at a scientific database. We present a novel hardware- and scheme-oblivious segmentation algorithm, which learns and adapts to the workload immediately. The approach taken is to capitalize on (intermediate)

  15. Region segmentation along image sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monchal, L.; Aubry, P.

    1995-12-31

    A method to extract regions in sequence of images is proposed. Regions are not matched from one image to the following one. The result of a region segmentation is used as an initialization to segment the following and image to track the region along the sequence. The image sequence is exploited as a spatio-temporal event. (authors). 12 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  17. Using Predictability for Lexical Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çöltekin, Çagri

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates a strategy based on predictability of consecutive sub-lexical units in learning to segment a continuous speech stream into lexical units using computational modeling and simulations. Lexical segmentation is one of the early challenges during language acquisition, and it has been studied extensively through psycholinguistic…

  18. IFRS 8 – OPERATING SEGMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    BOCHIS LEONICA; Sucala Lucia; DUMBRAVA PARTENIE; BREBAN LUDOVICA

    2009-01-01

    Segment reporting in accordance with IFRS 8 will be mandatory for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. The standards replaces IAS 14, Segment Reporting, from that date. The objective of IFRS 8 is to require

  19. The Importance of Marketing Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…

  20. Essays in international market segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter F.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of

  1. OASIS is Automated Statistical Inference for Segmentation, with applications to multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation in MRI☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Elizabeth M.; Shinohara, Russell T.; Shiee, Navid; Mateen, Farrah J.; Chudgar, Avni A.; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Pham, Dzung L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to detect lesions in the brains of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and is essential for diagnosing the disease and monitoring its progression. In practice, lesion load is often quantified by either manual or semi-automated segmentation of MRI, which is time-consuming, costly, and associated with large inter- and intra-observer variability. We propose OASIS is Automated Statistical Inference for Segmentation (OASIS), an automated statistical method for segmenting MS lesions in MRI studies. We use logistic regression models incorporating multiple MRI modalities to estimate voxel-level probabilities of lesion presence. Intensity-normalized T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and proton density volumes from 131 MRI studies (98 MS subjects, 33 healthy subjects) with manual lesion segmentations were used to train and validate our model. Within this set, OASIS detected lesions with a partial area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for clinically relevant false positive rates of 1% and below of 0.59% (95% CI; [0.50%, 0.67%]) at the voxel level. An experienced MS neuroradiologist compared these segmentations to those produced by LesionTOADS, an image segmentation software that provides segmentation of both lesions and normal brain structures. For lesions, OASIS out-performed LesionTOADS in 74% (95% CI: [65%, 82%]) of cases for the 98 MS subjects. To further validate the method, we applied OASIS to 169 MRI studies acquired at a separate center. The neuroradiologist again compared the OASIS segmentations to those from LesionTOADS. For lesions, OASIS ranked higher than LesionTOADS in 77% (95% CI: [71%, 83%]) of cases. For a randomly selected subset of 50 of these studies, one additional radiologist and one neurologist also scored the images. Within this set, the neuroradiologist ranked OASIS higher than LesionTOADS in 76% (95% CI: [64%, 88%]) of cases, the neurologist 66% (95% CI: [52%, 78

  2. OASIS is Automated Statistical Inference for Segmentation, with applications to multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Elizabeth M; Shinohara, Russell T; Shiee, Navid; Mateen, Farrah J; Chudgar, Avni A; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L; Calabresi, Peter A; Pham, Dzung L; Reich, Daniel S; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to detect lesions in the brains of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and is essential for diagnosing the disease and monitoring its progression. In practice, lesion load is often quantified by either manual or semi-automated segmentation of MRI, which is time-consuming, costly, and associated with large inter- and intra-observer variability. We propose OASIS is Automated Statistical Inference for Segmentation (OASIS), an automated statistical method for segmenting MS lesions in MRI studies. We use logistic regression models incorporating multiple MRI modalities to estimate voxel-level probabilities of lesion presence. Intensity-normalized T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and proton density volumes from 131 MRI studies (98 MS subjects, 33 healthy subjects) with manual lesion segmentations were used to train and validate our model. Within this set, OASIS detected lesions with a partial area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for clinically relevant false positive rates of 1% and below of 0.59% (95% CI; [0.50%, 0.67%]) at the voxel level. An experienced MS neuroradiologist compared these segmentations to those produced by LesionTOADS, an image segmentation software that provides segmentation of both lesions and normal brain structures. For lesions, OASIS out-performed LesionTOADS in 74% (95% CI: [65%, 82%]) of cases for the 98 MS subjects. To further validate the method, we applied OASIS to 169 MRI studies acquired at a separate center. The neuroradiologist again compared the OASIS segmentations to those from LesionTOADS. For lesions, OASIS ranked higher than LesionTOADS in 77% (95% CI: [71%, 83%]) of cases. For a randomly selected subset of 50 of these studies, one additional radiologist and one neurologist also scored the images. Within this set, the neuroradiologist ranked OASIS higher than LesionTOADS in 76% (95% CI: [64%, 88%]) of cases, the neurologist 66% (95% CI: [52%, 78

  3. A software framework for preprocessing and level set segmentation of medical image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritscher, Karl David; Schubert, Rainer

    2005-04-01

    In this work a software platform for semiautomatic segmentation of medical images based on geometric deformable models will be presented. Including filters for image preprocessing, image segmentation and 3D visualization this toolkit offers the possibility of creating highly effective segmentation pipelines by combining classic segmentation techniques like seeded region growing and manual segmentation with modern level set segmentation algorithms. By individually combining input and output of different segmentation methods, specific and at the same time easy to use segmentation pipelines can be created. Using open source libraries for the implementation of a number of frequently used preprocessing and segmentation algorithms allowed effective programming by at the same time providing stable and highly effective algorithms. The usage of modern programming standards and developing cross-platform algorithm classes guarantees extensibility and flexible implementation in different hard- and software settings. Segmentation results, created in different research projects will be presented and the efficient usage of this framework will be demonstrated. The implementation of parts of the framework in a clinical setting is in progress and currently we are working on the embedding of statistical models and prior knowledge in the segmentation framework.

  4. Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle P.; Harding, Robert

    2011-01-01

    1.Technology Description-Researchers discovered that when the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) reactivates from latency in the body, the virus is consistently present in saliva before the appearance of skin lesions. A small saliva sample is mixed with a specialized reagent in a test kit. If the virus is present in the saliva sample, the mixture turns a red color. The sensitivity and specificity emanates from an antibody-antigen reaction. This technology is a rapid, non-invasive, point of-of-care testing kit for detecting the virus from a saliva sample. The device is easy to use and can be used in clinics and in remote locations to quickly detect VZV and begin treatment with antiviral drugs. 2.Market Opportunity- RST Bioscience will be the first and only company to market a rapid, same day test kit for the detection of VZV in saliva. The RST detection test kit will have several advantages over existing, competitive technology. The test kit is self contained and laboratory equipment is not required for analysis of the sample. Only a single saliva sample is required to be taken instead of blood or cerebral spinal fluid. The test kit is portable, sterile and disposable after use. RST detection test kits require no electrical power or expensive storage equipment and can be used in remote locations. 3.Market Analysis- According to the CDC, it is estimated that 1 million cases of shingles occur each year in the U.S. with more than half over the age of sixty. There is a high demand for rapid diagnostics by the public. The point-of-care testing (POCT) market is growing faster than other segments of in vitro diagnostics. According to a July 2007 InteLab Corporation industry report the overall market for POCT was forecast to increase from $10.3 billion in 2005 to $18.7 billion by 2011. The market value of this test kit has not been determined. 4.Competition- The VZV vaccine prevents 50% of cases and reduces neuralgia by 66%. The most popular test detects VZV-specific IgM antibody

  5. Intestinal, segmented, filamentous bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaasen, H L; Koopman, J P; Poelma, F G; Beynen, A C

    1992-06-01

    Segmented, filamentous bacteria (SFBs) are autochthonous, apathogenic bacteria, occurring in the ileum of mice and rats. Although the application of formal taxonomic criteria is impossible due to the lack of an in vitro technique to culture SFBs, microbes with a similar morphology, found in the intestine of a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate host species, are considered to be related. SFBs are firmly attached to the epithelial cells of the distal ileal mucosa, their preferential ecological niche being the epithelium covering the Peyer's patches. Electron microscopic studies have demonstrated a considerable morphological diversity of SFBs, which may relate to different stages of a life cycle. Determinants of SFB colonization in vivo are host species, genotypical and phenotypical characteristics of the host, diet composition, environmental stress and antimicrobial drugs. SFBs can survive in vitro incubation, but do not multiply. On the basis of their apathogenic character and intimate relationship with the host, it is suggested that SFBs contribute to development and/or maintenance of host resistance to enteropathogens.

  6. [Orbitotemporal segmental neurofibromatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montard, R; Putz, C; Barrali, M; Kantelip, B; Montard, M

    2007-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis is a rare pathology with heterogeneous clinical presentation. We report a case of a right orbitotemporal plexiform neurofibroma in a 64-year-old woman with von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. A craniofacial CT scan, with injection, showed a heterogeneous tumor in front of the skull base and the temporoparietal bone with no intracranial extension but an extension into the maxillary sinus and nasal cavity. In summery, she presented orbitotemporal segmental neurofibromatosis type 1 because of the unilateral lesion. She had a first surgery to remove her jugal and preauricular tumor with an exenteration, which provided an eye histology. The histology found no Lisch nodules but a cellular proliferation causing choroidal hyperplasia. We noted neurofibromin on choroidal cells and normal cells in addition to pathologic cells (Schwann cells and melanocytes), meaning that two cell populations were obtained in the same tissue: a somatic mosaicism. We advance the hypothesis that there was a regulation of cellular growth in a particular microenvironment because of the absence of tumor. To identify and confirm the somatic mosaicism, we would need a FISH analysis (probes containing sequences of the NF1 gene with a probe specific for the chromosome 17 centromere).

  7. Satellite Image Classification and Segmentation by Using JSEG Segmentation Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Khamael Abbas; Mustafa Rydh

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a adopted approach to fully automatic satellite image segmentation, called JSEG, "JPEG image segmentation" is presented. First colors in the image are quantized to represent differentiate regions in the image. Then image pixel colors are replaced by their corresponding color class labels, thus forming a class-map of the image. A criterion for “good” segmentation using this class-map is proposed. Applying the criterion to local windows in the class-map results in the “J-image”...

  8. Sometimes spelling is easier than phonemic segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bon, W.H.J. van; Duighuisen, H.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Poor spellers from the Netherlands segmented and spelled the same words on different occasions. If they base their spellings on the segmentations that they produce in the segmentation task, the correlation between segmentation and spelling scores should be high, and segmentation should not be more

  9. Establishment of in vitro fast-growing normal root culture of Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fast-growing normal root culture of Vernonia amygdalina, a potent African medicinal plant was established from leaf explants of in vitro raised shoot induced from the stem nodal segments on murashige and skoog (MS) medium containing 0.5 mg l-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) in combination with 0.5 mg l-1 naphthalene ...

  10. Direct volume estimation without segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, X.; Wang, Z.; Islam, A.; Bhaduri, M.; Chan, I.; Li, S.

    2015-03-01

    Volume estimation plays an important role in clinical diagnosis. For example, cardiac ventricular volumes including left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) are important clinical indicators of cardiac functions. Accurate and automatic estimation of the ventricular volumes is essential to the assessment of cardiac functions and diagnosis of heart diseases. Conventional methods are dependent on an intermediate segmentation step which is obtained either manually or automatically. However, manual segmentation is extremely time-consuming, subjective and highly non-reproducible; automatic segmentation is still challenging, computationally expensive, and completely unsolved for the RV. Towards accurate and efficient direct volume estimation, our group has been researching on learning based methods without segmentation by leveraging state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. Our direct estimation methods remove the accessional step of segmentation and can naturally deal with various volume estimation tasks. Moreover, they are extremely flexible to be used for volume estimation of either joint bi-ventricles (LV and RV) or individual LV/RV. We comparatively study the performance of direct methods on cardiac ventricular volume estimation by comparing with segmentation based methods. Experimental results show that direct estimation methods provide more accurate estimation of cardiac ventricular volumes than segmentation based methods. This indicates that direct estimation methods not only provide a convenient and mature clinical tool for cardiac volume estimation but also enables diagnosis of cardiac diseases to be conducted in a more efficient and reliable way.

  11. Position sensors for segmented mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozière, Didier; Buous, Sébastien; Courteville, Alain

    2004-09-01

    There are currently several projects for giant telescopes with segmented mirrors under way. These future telescopes will have their primary mirror made of several thousand segments. The main advantage of segmentation is that it enables the active control of the whole mirror, so as to suppress the deformations of the support structure due to the wind, gravity, thermal inhomogeneities etc. ..., thus getting the best possible stigmatism. However, providing active control of segmented mirrors requires numerous accurate edges sensors. It is acknowledged that capacitance-based technology nowadays offers the best metrological performances-to-cost ratio. As the leader in capacitive technology, FOGALE nanotech offers an original concept which reduces the cost of instrumentation, sensors and electronics, while keeping a very high level of performances with a manufacturing process completely industrialised. We present here the sensors developed for the Segment Alignment Measurement System (SAMS) of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This patented solution represents an important improvement in terms of cost, to market the Position Sensors for Segmented Mirrors of ELTs, whilst maintaining a very high performance level. We present here the concept, the laboratory qualification, and the first trials on the 7 central segments of SALT. The laboratory results are good, and we are now working on the on-site implementation to improve the immunity of the sensors to environment.

  12. Transport of Nutrients Determines Growth in Tissue Culture; Why apple shoots grow rapidly and tulip shoots grow slowly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tulip growth in vitro is seriously impaired by inferior transport in the shoots. As a result, tulip cannot be micropropagated commercially using conventional means. In contrast, apple shoots show high transport and are easily micropropagated.

  13. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  14. Growing Vertical in the Flatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua A

    2016-01-26

    The world of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures continues to expand at a rate much greater than anyone could have predicted 10 years ago, but if we are to make the leap from science to technology, many materials challenges must still be overcome. Recent advances, such as those by Liu et al. in this issue of ACS Nano, demonstrate that it is possible to grow rotationally commensurate 2D heterostructures, which could pave the way toward single crystal van der Waals solids. In this Perspective, I provide some insight into a few of the challenges associated with growth of heterostructures, and discuss some of the recent works that help us better understand synthetic realization of 2D heterostructures.

  15. Viking Disruptions or Growing Integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper...... demonstrates how formal network analysis can be combined with a contextual reading of evidence relating to a long-distance communication network in the past. A study of the combined distributions of ten vessel types in 152 settlement sites from the 10th century suggests the outline of the core structure...... of the network. The model implies that 10th century long-distance exchange in the North Sea region featured long-distance links equal to those of the Carolingian emporia trade, and represented a growth in terms of new axes of integration, above all the growing links between the Scandinavian Peninsula...

  16. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  17. Morphogenesis of Growing Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, Julien; Ben Amar, Martine

    2008-08-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to a noteworthy property of some soft tissues: their ability to grow. Many attempts have been made to model this behavior in biology, chemistry, and physics. Using the theory of finite elasticity, Rodriguez has postulated a multiplicative decomposition of the geometric deformation gradient into a growth-induced part and an elastic one needed to ensure compatibility of the body. In order to fully explore the consequences of this hypothesis, the equations describing thin elastic objects under finite growth are derived. Under appropriate scaling assumptions for the growth rates, the proposed model is of the Föppl von Kármán type. As an illustration, the circumferential growth of a free hyperelastic disk is studied.

  18. Multiple Segmentation of Image Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Jonathan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for the simultaneous construction of multiple image segmentations by combining a recently proposed “convolution of mixtures of Gaussians” model with a multi-layer hidden Markov random field structure. The resulting method constructs for a single image several, alternative...... segmentations that capture different structural elements of the image. We also apply the method to collections of images with identical pixel dimensions, which we call image stacks. Here it turns out that the method is able to both identify groups of similar images in the stack, and to provide segmentations...

  19. Formation and Elimination of Segmentation on the Reykjanes Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F.; Hey, R. N.

    2016-12-01

    A Paleogene change in plate motion led to the abrupt segmentation of the linear Reykjanes Ridge into a stair-step configuration of ridge segments offset by transform and non-transform discontinuities. In its subsequent evolution the ridge diachronously eliminated the just-formed segmentation and re-established its original linear geometry over the mantle, although now spreading obliquely. During segmented stages accreted crust was thinner and during unsegmented stages southward pointing V-shaped crustal ridges formed. Although mantle plume effects have been invoked to explain the changes in segmentation and crustal features, here we propose that plate boundary processes are more likely. Reassembly of a fragmented axis to its original linear configuration suggests a strong organizing mechanism. We propose that a deep and weak damp melting regime supporting buoyant mantle upwelling persisted in a linear configuration following the abrupt change in opening direction. In contrast, the shallower and stronger mantle of the dry melting regime followed the plate boundary closely, leading to crustal segmentation. The persistent deep linear damp melting regime guided the reassembly of the ridge axis back to its original configuration by asymmetric spreading of the individual ridge segments. Plate boundary segmentation controls mantle upwelling in the high viscosity dry melting interval. A long linear divergent plate boundary induces greater total mantle upwelling than the same length axis offset into multiple segments due to suppression of mantle upwelling approaching segment ends. Thus a segmented ridge will produce regionally thinner crust than an unsegmented one without a need for mantle temperature variations. Buoyant upwelling instabilities propagate along the long linear deep melting regime driven by regional gradients in mantle properties away from Iceland. Once segmentation is eliminated, these propagating upwelling instabilities lead to crustal thickness variations

  20. A segmentation algorithm based on image projection for complex text layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wangsheng; Chen, Qin; Wei, Chuanyi; Li, Ziyang

    2017-10-01

    Segmentation algorithm is an important part of layout analysis, considering the efficiency advantage of the top-down approach and the particularity of the object, a breakdown of projection layout segmentation algorithm. Firstly, the algorithm will algorithm first partitions the text image, and divided into several columns, then for each column scanning projection, the text image is divided into several sub regions through multiple projection. The experimental results show that, this method inherits the projection itself and rapid calculation speed, but also can avoid the effect of arc image information page segmentation, and also can accurate segmentation of the text image layout is complex.

  1. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  2. Impact of growing income inequality on sustainable development in China: a provincial-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.B.M.; Ma, J.

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of literature has documented the rapidly increasing income disparities that accompanied China's economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s, and the driving factors behind this. Growing income inequality in its turn may have important implications for the accumulation of physical capital,

  3. Metrology of IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing

    2011-01-01

    For future x-ray astrophysics mission that demands optics with large throughput and excellent angular resolution, many telescope concepts build around assembling thin mirror segments in a Wolter I geometry, such as that originally proposed for the International X-ray Observatory. The arc-second resolution requirement posts unique challenges not just for fabrication, mounting but also for metrology of these mirror segments. In this paper, we shall discuss the metrology of these segments using normal incidence metrological method with interferometers and null lenses. We present results of the calibration of the metrology systems we are currently using, discuss their accuracy and address the precision in measuring near-cylindrical mirror segments and the stability of the measurements.

  4. Coronary Arteries Segmentation Based on the 3D Discrete Wavelet Transform and 3D Neutrosophic Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo-Tsung Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Most applications in the field of medical image processing require precise estimation. To improve the accuracy of segmentation, this study aimed to propose a novel segmentation method for coronary arteries to allow for the automatic and accurate detection of coronary pathologies. Methods. The proposed segmentation method included 2 parts. First, 3D region growing was applied to give the initial segmentation of coronary arteries. Next, the location of vessel information, HHH subband coefficients of the 3D DWT, was detected by the proposed vessel-texture discrimination algorithm. Based on the initial segmentation, 3D DWT integrated with the 3D neutrosophic transformation could accurately detect the coronary arteries. Results. Each subbranch of the segmented coronary arteries was segmented correctly by the proposed method. The obtained results are compared with those ground truth values obtained from the commercial software from GE Healthcare and the level-set method proposed by Yang et al., 2007. Results indicate that the proposed method is better in terms of efficiency analyzed. Conclusion. Based on the initial segmentation of coronary arteries obtained from 3D region growing, one-level 3D DWT and 3D neutrosophic transformation can be applied to detect coronary pathologies accurately.

  5. [Myopia, a growing health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tideman, J W L; Polling, J R; van der Schans, A; Verhoeven, V J M; Klaver, C C W

    2016-01-01

    - Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood, with a peak incidence between the ages of 13 to 15 years. - Especially high myopia, i.e. a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during adulthood due to structural abnormalities of the retina and optic nerve.- The cause of myopia is complex. Lifestyle factors in childhood, such as limited time spent outdoors and close work - such as reading and smartphone usage - are risk factors. Furthermore, genetic studies have revealed more than 100 factors associated with the development of myopia. - Pharmacological and optical interventions to inhibit myopia progression are increasingly applied. The use of atropine eye drops in children and has shown to be an effective treatment.

  6. The segmentation clock: inherited trait or universal design principle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, David L; Oates, Andrew C

    2012-12-01

    Metamerism is a widespread feature of multicellular body plans; however, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that generate these patterns is currently based on only a few model organisms. In particular, vertebrate embryos use a segmentation clock to rhythmically and sequentially add segments in concert with posterior elongation of their body. Recent evidence of a segmentation clock acting in arthropods indicates that this mechanism may be a widely used strategy for generating serial anatomy in animals. Whether this is due to homology or convergence is not yet known, but the recent discovery of an oscillatory process associated with the production of sequential root primordia in plants suggests that a segmentation clock is a fundamental patterning principle in growing tissues, independent of ancestry. In this review, we consider the principles of the segmentation clock that may be conserved across the animal and plant kingdoms, and discuss opportunities for cross-fertilization between these active fields of research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. AUTOMATIC SEGMENTATION OF PELVIS FOR BRACHYTHERAPY OF PROSTATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardell, M; Magnusson, M; Sandborg, M; Alm Carlsson, G; Jeuthe, J; Malusek, A

    2016-06-01

    Advanced model-based iterative reconstruction algorithms in quantitative computed tomography (CT) perform automatic segmentation of tissues to estimate material properties of the imaged object. Compared with conventional methods, these algorithms may improve quality of reconstructed images and accuracy of radiation treatment planning. Automatic segmentation of tissues is, however, a difficult task. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate an algorithm that automatically segments tissues in CT images of the male pelvis. The newly developed algorithm (MK2014) combines histogram matching, thresholding, region growing, deformable model and atlas-based registration techniques for the segmentation of bones, adipose tissue, prostate and muscles in CT images. Visual inspection of segmented images showed that the algorithm performed well for the five analysed images. The tissues were identified and outlined with accuracy sufficient for the dual-energy iterative reconstruction algorithm whose aim is to improve the accuracy of radiation treatment planning in brachytherapy of the prostate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Infection Dynamics on Growing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Cheng; Liu, Zonghua; Ye, Nong

    We consider the entire spectrum of architectures for large, growing, and complex networks, ranging from being heterogeneous (scale-free) to homogeneous (random or small-world), and investigate the infection dynamics by using a realistic three-state epidemiological model. In this framework, a node can be in one of the three states: susceptible (S), infected (I), or refractory (R), and the populations in the three groups are approximately described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. Our heuristic analysis predicts that, (1) regardless of the network architecture, there exists a substantial fraction of nodes that can never be infected, and (2) heterogeneous networks are relatively more robust against spread of infection as compared with homogeneous networks. These are confirmed numerically. We have also considered the problem of deliberate immunization for preventing wide spread of infection, with the result that targeted immunization can be quite effective for heterogeneous networks. We believe these results are important for a host of problems in many areas of natural science and engineering, and in social sciences as well.

  9. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  10. Case grows for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hileman, B.

    1999-08-09

    In the four years since the IPCC stated that 'the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate', evidence for anomalous warming has become more compelling, and as a result scientists have become more concerned that human-induced climate change has already arrived. The article summarises recent extra evidence on global temperatures, carbon dioxide measurements, ice shelf breakup, coral bleaching, unstable climates and improved climate models. At the time of the Kyoto conference, the US became keen on the idea that enhancing forest and soil carbon sequestration was a good way to offset emissions reduction targets. Congress is however under the opinion on that the Kyoto protocol presents a threat to the US economy, and senate is very unlikely to ratify the protocol during the Clinton Administration. The debate as to whether the US government should mandate major emission reduction or wait for more scientific certainty may continue for a number of years, but, growing concern of scientists and the public for the harmful effects of climate change may cause a change. 4 figs., 8 photos.

  11. Growing and evolving soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed.

  12. Pediatric Ovarian Growing Teratoma Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Rentea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian immature teratoma is a germ cell tumor that comprises less than 1% of ovarian cancers and is treated with surgical debulking and chemotherapy depending on stage. Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS is the phenomenon of the growth of mature teratoma elements with normal tumor markers during or following chemotherapy for treatment of a malignant germ cell tumor. These tumors are associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to invasive and compressive growth as well as potential for malignant transformation. Current treatment modality is surgical resection. We discuss a 12-year-old female who presented following resection of a pure ovarian immature teratoma (grade 3, FIGO stage IIIC. Following chemotherapy and resection of a pelvic/liver recurrence demonstrating mature teratoma, she underwent molecular genetics based chemotherapeutic treatment. No standardized management protocol has been established for the treatment of GTS. The effect of chemotherapeutic agents for decreasing the volume of and prevention of expansion is unknown. We review in detail the history, diagnostic algorithm, and previous reported pediatric cases as well as treatment options for pediatric patients with GTS.

  13. [Growing old differently: Transdisciplinary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, H-P

    2015-04-01

    Growing old differently: the phrase is intended to call something other to mind than merely the fact that images and forms of old age and aging have multiplied and diversified to an enormous extent. The suggestion put forward here is that otherness (as opposed to mere differences) should be positively reinforced. In other words, it is not just a matter of noting different forms of old age and aging but more than this, of seeking out opportunities for aging differently. In order to explore this, the article follows an older strand of theory, which has recently come to be frequently quoted in gerontology: the phenomenology of difference as reasoned analytically by Lévinas and Sartre and applied to gerontology by Améry and de Beauvoir. Here, opportunities for aging crucially depend on the way we look at it, how we observe and describe it and not least, how gerontology frames it. A distinction is made between two perspectives and their associated consequences for old age: alienation and alterity. Alienation means looking at old age above all as a disconcerting "other", as a perplexing, problematic deviation from the norm of vitality. Alterity, by contrast, refers to different options for living life in old age: options to be explored and opened up in contradistinction to cultural or academic alienation. Not least, the article appeals for diversity in scholarly approaches and for cross-disciplinary perspectives.

  14. Determination of the impact of RGB points cloud attribute quality on color-based segmentation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Kraszewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on the effect that radiometric quality of point cloud RGB attributes have on color-based segmentation. In the research, a point cloud with a resolution of 5 mm, received from FAROARO Photon 120 scanner, described the fragment of an office’s room and color images were taken by various digital cameras. The images were acquired by SLR Nikon D3X, and SLR Canon D200 integrated with the laser scanner, compact camera Panasonic TZ-30 and a mobile phone digital camera. Color information from images was spatially related to point cloud in FAROARO Scene software. The color-based segmentation of testing data was performed with the use of a developed application named “RGB Segmentation”. The application was based on public Point Cloud Libraries (PCL and allowed to extract subsets of points fulfilling the criteria of segmentation from the source point cloud using region growing method.Using the developed application, the segmentation of four tested point clouds containing different RGB attributes from various images was performed. Evaluation of segmentation process was performed based on comparison of segments acquired using the developed application and extracted manually by an operator. The following items were compared: the number of obtained segments, the number of correctly identified objects and the correctness of segmentation process. The best correctness of segmentation and most identified objects were obtained using the data with RGB attribute from Nikon D3X images. Based on the results it was found that quality of RGB attributes of point cloud had impact only on the number of identified objects. In case of correctness of the segmentation, as well as its error no apparent relationship between the quality of color information and the result of the process was found.[b]Keywords[/b]: terrestrial laser scanning, color-based segmentation, RGB attribute, region growing method, digital images, points cloud

  15. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  16. Ureter tracking and segmentation in CT urography (CTU) using COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir, E-mail: lhadjisk@umich.edu; Zick, David; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cha, Kenny; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5842 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The authors are developing a computerized system for automated segmentation of ureters in CTU, referred to as combined model-guided path-finding analysis and segmentation system (COMPASS). Ureter segmentation is a critical component for computer-aided diagnosis of ureter cancer. Methods: COMPASS consists of three stages: (1) rule-based adaptive thresholding and region growing, (2) path-finding and propagation, and (3) edge profile extraction and feature analysis. With institutional review board approval, 79 CTU scans performed with intravenous (IV) contrast material enhancement were collected retrospectively from 79 patient files. One hundred twenty-four ureters were selected from the 79 CTU volumes. On average, the ureters spanned 283 computed tomography slices (range: 116–399, median: 301). More than half of the ureters contained malignant or benign lesions and some had ureter wall thickening due to malignancy. A starting point for each of the 124 ureters was identified manually to initialize the tracking by COMPASS. In addition, the centerline of each ureter was manually marked and used as reference standard for evaluation of tracking performance. The performance of COMPASS was quantitatively assessed by estimating the percentage of the length that was successfully tracked and segmented for each ureter and by estimating the average distance and the average maximum distance between the computer and the manually tracked centerlines. Results: Of the 124 ureters, 120 (97%) were segmented completely (100%), 121 (98%) were segmented through at least 70%, and 123 (99%) were segmented through at least 50% of its length. In comparison, using our previous method, 85 (69%) ureters were segmented completely (100%), 100 (81%) were segmented through at least 70%, and 107 (86%) were segmented at least 50% of its length. With COMPASS, the average distance between the computer and the manually generated centerlines is 0.54 mm, and the average maximum distance is 2

  17. Ureter tracking and segmentation in CT urography (CTU) using COMPASS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zick, David; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cohan, Richard H; Caoili, Elaine M; Cha, Kenny; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun

    2014-12-01

    The authors are developing a computerized system for automated segmentation of ureters in CTU, referred to as combined model-guided path-finding analysis and segmentation system (COMPASS). Ureter segmentation is a critical component for computer-aided diagnosis of ureter cancer. COMPASS consists of three stages: (1) rule-based adaptive thresholding and region growing, (2) path-finding and propagation, and (3) edge profile extraction and feature analysis. With institutional review board approval, 79 CTU scans performed with intravenous (IV) contrast material enhancement were collected retrospectively from 79 patient files. One hundred twenty-four ureters were selected from the 79 CTU volumes. On average, the ureters spanned 283 computed tomography slices (range: 116-399, median: 301). More than half of the ureters contained malignant or benign lesions and some had ureter wall thickening due to malignancy. A starting point for each of the 124 ureters was identified manually to initialize the tracking by COMPASS. In addition, the centerline of each ureter was manually marked and used as reference standard for evaluation of tracking performance. The performance of COMPASS was quantitatively assessed by estimating the percentage of the length that was successfully tracked and segmented for each ureter and by estimating the average distance and the average maximum distance between the computer and the manually tracked centerlines. Of the 124 ureters, 120 (97%) were segmented completely (100%), 121 (98%) were segmented through at least 70%, and 123 (99%) were segmented through at least 50% of its length. In comparison, using our previous method, 85 (69%) ureters were segmented completely (100%), 100 (81%) were segmented through at least 70%, and 107 (86%) were segmented at least 50% of its length. With COMPASS, the average distance between the computer and the manually generated centerlines is 0.54 mm, and the average maximum distance is 2.02 mm. With our previous method

  18. Bariatric amputee: A growing problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Jai; Hannett, Dominic P; Purcell, Steven

    2015-06-01

    This study reviewed prevalence of patients with lower limb amputations with above normal weight profile, with body mass index over 25, in seven disablement services centres managing their amputee rehabilitation in the United Kingdom. To review two clinical standards of practice in amputee rehabilitation. Ambulant lower limb amputees should have their body weight recorded on an electronic information system, with identification of cohort with body weight >100 kg. Lower limb amputees to be provided with suitable weight-rated prosthesis. Observational study of clinical practice. Data were collected from the Clinical Information Management Systems. Inclusion criteria--subjects were ambulant prosthetic users with some prosthetic intervention in the last 5 years and had at least one lower limb amputation. In 96% of patients, the weight record profile was maintained. In addition, 86% were under 100 kg, which is the most common weight limit of prosthetic componentry. Of 15,204 amputation levels, there were 1830 transfemoral and transtibial sites in users with body weight over 100 kg. In 60 cases, the prosthetic limb build was rated to be below the user body weight. In 96% of our patients, body weight was documented, and in 97%, the prosthetic limb builds were within stated body weight limits, but this may not be the case in all the other disablement services centres in the United Kingdom. Also, the incidence of obesity in the United Kingdom is a growing problem, and the health issues associated with obesity are further compounded in the amputee population. Prosthetic componentry has distinct weight limits which must be considered during prescription. As people with amputation approach the limits of specific components, clinicians are faced with the challenge of continued provision in a safe and suitable manner. This article reviews the amputee population and the current national profile to consider trends in provision and the incidence of these challenges. © The

  19. Segmented Capacitance Sensor with Partially Released Inactive Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Material throughput measurement is important for many applications, for example yield maps creation or control of mass flow in stationary lines. Quite perspective can be the capacitive throughput method. Segmented capacitance sensor (SCS is discussed in this paper. SCS is a compromise between simple capacitive throughput sensors and electrical capacitance tomography sensors. The SCS variant with partially released inactive segments is presented. The mathematical model of SCS was created and verified by measurements. A good correspondence between measured and computed values was found and it can be stated that the proposed mathematical model was verified. During measurement the voltage values on the inactive segments were monitored as well. On the basis of the measurement there was found that these values are significantly influenced by material distribution.

  20. Methods of evaluating segmentation characteristics and segmentation of major faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kie Hwa; Chang, Tae Woo; Kyung, Jai Bok [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    Seismological, geological, and geophysical studies were made for reasonable segmentation of the Ulsan fault and the results are as follows. One- and two- dimensional electrical surveys revealed clearly the fault fracture zone enlarges systematically northward and southward from the vicinity of Mohwa-ri, indicating Mohwa-ri is at the seismic segment boundary. Field Geological survey and microscope observation of fault gouge indicates that the Quaternary faults in the area are reactivated products of the preexisting faults. Trench survey of the Chonbuk fault Galgok-ri revealed thrust faults and cumulative vertical displacement due to faulting during the late Quaternary with about 1.1-1.9 m displacement per event; the latest event occurred from 14000 to 25000 yrs. BP. The seismic survey showed the basement surface os cut by numerous reverse faults and indicated the possibility that the boundary between Kyeongsangbukdo and Kyeongsannamdo may be segment boundary.

  1. Individual bone structure segmentation and labeling from low-dose chest CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Xie, Yiting; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2017-03-01

    The segmentation and labeling of the individual bones serve as the first step to the fully automated measurement of skeletal characteristics and the detection of abnormalities such as skeletal deformities, osteoporosis, and vertebral fractures. Moreover, the identified landmarks on the segmented bone structures can potentially provide relatively reliable location reference to other non-rigid human organs, such as breast, heart and lung, thereby facilitating the corresponding image analysis and registration. A fully automated anatomy-directed framework for the segmentation and labeling of the individual bone structures from low-dose chest CT is presented in this paper. The proposed system consists of four main stages: First, both clavicles are segmented and labeled by fitting a piecewise cylindrical envelope. Second, the sternum is segmented under the spatial constraints provided by the segmented clavicles. Third, all ribs are segmented and labeled based on 3D region growing within the volume of interest defined with reference to the spinal canal centerline and lungs. Fourth, the individual thoracic vertebrae are segmented and labeled by image intensity based analysis in the spatial region constrained by the previously segmented bone structures. The system performance was validated with 1270 lowdose chest CT scans through visual evaluation. Satisfactory performance was obtained respectively in 97.1% cases for the clavicle segmentation and labeling, in 97.3% cases for the sternum segmentation, in 97.2% cases for the rib segmentation, in 94.2% cases for the rib labeling, in 92.4% cases for vertebra segmentation and in 89.9% cases for the vertebra labeling.

  2. CALM: cascading system with leaking detection mechanism for medical image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Lim, Joo Hwee; Li, Huiqi

    2008-03-01

    Medical image segmentation is a challenging process due to possible image over-segmentation and under-segmentation (leaking). The CALM medical image segmentation system is constructed with an innovative scheme that cascades threshold level-set and region-growing segmentation algorithms using Union and Intersection set operators. These set operators help to balance the over-segmentation rate and under-segmentation rate of the system respectively. While adjusting the curvature scalar parameter in the threshold level-set algorithm, we observe that the abrupt change in the size of the segmented areas coincides with the occurrences of possible leaking. Instead of randomly choose a value or use the system default curvature scalar values, this observation prompts us to use the following formula in CALM to automatically decide the optimal curvature values γ to prevent the occurrence of leaking : δ2S/δγ2 >= M, where S is the size of the segmented area and M is a large positive number. Motivated for potential applications in organ transplant and analysis, the CALM system is tested on the segmentation of the kidney regions from the Magnetic Resonance images taken from the National University Hospital of Singapore. Due to the nature of MR imaging, low-contrast, weak edges and overlapping regions of adjacent organs at kidney boundaries are frequently seen in the datasets and hence kidney segmentation is prone to leaking. The kidney segmentation accuracy rate achieved by CALM is 22% better compared with those achieved by the component algorithms or the system without leaking detection mechanism. CALM is easy-to-implement and can be applied to many applications besides kidney segmentation.

  3. Live transgenic reporters of the vertebrate embryo's Segmentation Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroldoni, Daniele; Oates, Andrew C

    2011-10-01

    Imaging rapidly changing gene expression during embryogenesis is a challenge for the development of probes and imaging techniques. The vertebrate Segmentation Clock is a genetic network that controls the subdivision of the elongating embryonic body axis into somites, the precursors of adult segmented structures, such as vertebrae. Because of its rapid oscillations, direct observation of gene expression in this system has proven difficult, and so is a benchmark for transgene design and imaging in vivo. Transgenic approaches using destabilized reporter cassettes in the mouse embryo have provided the first glimpses of this dynamic expression system. Nevertheless, improvements in temporal and spatial resolution, paired with the ability to make precise quantifications, will be necessary to connect observations and theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetics in Ophthalmology II–Anterior Segment Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Aslı Utine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diseases are congenital or acquired hereditary diseases that result from structural/functional disorders of the human genome. Today, the genetic factors that play a role in many diseases are being highlighted with the rapid progress in the field of genetics science. It becomes increasingly important that physicians from all disciplines have knowledge about the basic principles of genetics, patterns of inheritance, etc., so that they can follow the new developments. In genetic eye diseases, ophthalmologists should know the basic clinical and recently rapidly developing genetic characteristics of these diseases in order to properly approach the diagnosis and treatment and to provide genetic counseling. In this paper, anterior segment eye diseases of genetic origin are reviewed, and aniridia, anterior segment dysgenesis, glaucoma, corneal dystrophies, cataract, ectopia lentis, myopia, and other refractive errors are covered. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 378-85

  5. Segmentation by Large Scale Hypothesis Testing - Segmentation as Outlier Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    locally. We propose a method based on large scale hypothesis testing with a consistent method for selecting an appropriate threshold for the given data. By estimating the background distribution we characterize the segment of interest as a set of outliers with a certain probability based on the estimated...... a microscope and we show how the method can handle transparent particles with significant glare point. The method generalizes to other problems. THis is illustrated by applying the method to camera calibration images and MRI of the midsagittal plane for gray and white matter separation and segmentation...

  6. Volume Segmentation and Ghost Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskin, Isaac; Adrian, Ronald

    2011-11-01

    Volume Segmentation Tomographic PIV (VS-TPIV) is a type of tomographic PIV in which images of particles in a relatively thick volume are segmented into images on a set of much thinner volumes that may be approximated as planes, as in 2D planar PIV. The planes of images can be analysed by standard mono-PIV, and the volume of flow vectors can be recreated by assembling the planes of vectors. The interrogation process is similar to a Holographic PIV analysis, except that the planes of image data are extracted from two-dimensional camera images of the volume of particles instead of three-dimensional holographic images. Like the tomographic PIV method using the MART algorithm, Volume Segmentation requires at least two cameras and works best with three or four. Unlike the MART method, Volume Segmentation does not require reconstruction of individual particle images one pixel at a time and it does not require an iterative process, so it operates much faster. As in all tomographic reconstruction strategies, ambiguities known as ghost particles are produced in the segmentation process. The effect of these ghost particles on the PIV measurement is discussed. This research was supported by Contract 79419-001-09, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  7. Segmental NF: A Guide for Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body can show signs of segmental NF. Segmental NF1 - Individuals with segmental NF1 most commonly have the skin findings associated with ... cases, can include severe complications. Many individuals with segmental NF1 never develop any complications other than café-au- ...

  8. Liver segmentation: indications, techniques and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotra, Akshat; Sivakumaran, Lojan; Chartrand, Gabriel; Vu, Kim-Nhien; Vandenbroucke-Menu, Franck; Kauffmann, Claude; Kadoury, Samuel; Gallix, Benoît; de Guise, Jacques A; Tang, An

    2017-08-01

    Liver volumetry has emerged as an important tool in clinical practice. Liver volume is assessed primarily via organ segmentation of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. The goal of this paper is to provide an accessible overview of liver segmentation targeted at radiologists and other healthcare professionals. Using images from CT and MRI, this paper reviews the indications for liver segmentation, technical approaches used in segmentation software and the developing roles of liver segmentation in clinical practice. Liver segmentation for volumetric assessment is indicated prior to major hepatectomy, portal vein embolisation, associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) and transplant. Segmentation software can be categorised according to amount of user input involved: manual, semi-automated and fully automated. Manual segmentation is considered the "gold standard" in clinical practice and research, but is tedious and time-consuming. Increasingly automated segmentation approaches are more robust, but may suffer from certain segmentation pitfalls. Emerging applications of segmentation include surgical planning and integration with MRI-based biomarkers. Liver segmentation has multiple clinical applications and is expanding in scope. Clinicians can employ semi-automated or fully automated segmentation options to more efficiently integrate volumetry into clinical practice. • Liver volume is assessed via organ segmentation on CT and MRI examinations. • Liver segmentation is used for volume assessment prior to major hepatic procedures. • Segmentation approaches may be categorised according to the amount of user input involved. • Emerging applications include surgical planning and integration with MRI-based biomarkers.

  9. An interactive segmentation method based on superpixel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Shu; Zhu, Yaping; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an interactive image-segmentation method which is based on superpixel. To achieve fast segmentation, the method is used to establish a Graphcut model using superpixels as nodes, and a new energy function is proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the authors' method has...... excellent performance in terms of segmentation accuracy and computation efficiency compared with other segmentation algorithm based on pixels....

  10. Discourse segmentation and ambiguity in discourse structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375290605; Evers-Vermeul, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/191644684; Sanders, T.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075243911

    2016-01-01

    Discourse relations hold between two or more text segments. The process of discourse annotation not only involves determining what type of relation holds between segments, but also indicating the segments themselves. Often, segmentation and annotation are treated as individual steps, and separate

  11. Skip segment Hirschsprung disease and Waardenburg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica R. Gross

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Skip segment Hirschsprung disease describes a segment of ganglionated bowel between two segments of aganglionated bowel. It is a rare phenomenon that is difficult to diagnose. We describe a recent case of skip segment Hirschsprung disease in a neonate with a family history of Waardenburg syndrome and the genetic profile that was identified.

  12. 47 CFR 95.853 - Frequency segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency segments. 95.853 Section 95.853... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.853 Frequency segments. There are two frequency segments available for assignment to the 218-219 MHz Service in each service area. Frequency segment A is...

  13. Image Segmentation Method Using Thresholds Automatically Determined from Picture Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Been Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation has become an indispensable task in many image and video applications. This work develops an image segmentation method based on the modified edge-following scheme where different thresholds are automatically determined according to areas with varied contents in a picture, thus yielding suitable segmentation results in different areas. First, the iterative threshold selection technique is modified to calculate the initial-point threshold of the whole image or a particular block. Second, the quad-tree decomposition that starts from the whole image employs gray-level gradient characteristics of the currently-processed block to decide further decomposition or not. After the quad-tree decomposition, the initial-point threshold in each decomposed block is adopted to determine initial points. Additionally, the contour threshold is determined based on the histogram of gradients in each decomposed block. Particularly, contour thresholds could eliminate inappropriate contours to increase the accuracy of the search and minimize the required searching time. Finally, the edge-following method is modified and then conducted based on initial points and contour thresholds to find contours precisely and rapidly. By using the Berkeley segmentation data set with realistic images, the proposed method is demonstrated to take the least computational time for achieving fairly good segmentation performance in various image types.

  14. Image segmentation by hierarchial agglomeration of polygons using ecological statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Lakshman; Swaminarayan, Sriram

    2013-04-23

    A method for rapid hierarchical image segmentation based on perceptually driven contour completion and scene statistics is disclosed. The method begins with an initial fine-scale segmentation of an image, such as obtained by perceptual completion of partial contours into polygonal regions using region-contour correspondences established by Delaunay triangulation of edge pixels as implemented in VISTA. The resulting polygons are analyzed with respect to their size and color/intensity distributions and the structural properties of their boundaries. Statistical estimates of granularity of size, similarity of color, texture, and saliency of intervening boundaries are computed and formulated into logical (Boolean) predicates. The combined satisfiability of these Boolean predicates by a pair of adjacent polygons at a given segmentation level qualifies them for merging into a larger polygon representing a coarser, larger-scale feature of the pixel image and collectively obtains the next level of polygonal segments in a hierarchy of fine-to-coarse segmentations. The iterative application of this process precipitates textured regions as polygons with highly convolved boundaries and helps distinguish them from objects which typically have more regular boundaries. The method yields a multiscale decomposition of an image into constituent features that enjoy a hierarchical relationship with features at finer and coarser scales. This provides a traversable graph structure from which feature content and context in terms of other features can be derived, aiding in automated image understanding tasks. The method disclosed is highly efficient and can be used to decompose and analyze large images.

  15. From acoustic segmentation to language processing: evidence from optical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth Obrig

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During language acquisition in infancy and when learning a foreign language, the segmentation of the auditory stream into words and phrases is a complex process. Intuitively, learners use ‘anchors’ to segment the acoustic speech stream into meaningful units like words and phrases. Regularities on a segmental (e.g., phonological or suprasegmental (e.g., prosodic level can provide such anchors. Regarding the neuronal processing of these two kinds of linguistic cues a left hemispheric dominance for segmental and a right hemispheric bias for suprasegmental information has been reported in adults. Though lateralization is common in a number of higher cognitive functions, its prominence in language may also be a key to understanding the rapid emergence of the language network in infants and the ease at which we master our language in adulthood. One question here is whether the hemispheric lateralization is driven by linguistic input per se or whether non-linguistic, especially acoustic factors, ‘guide’ the lateralization process. Methodologically, fMRI provides unsurpassed anatomical detail for such an enquiry. However, instrumental noise, experimental constraints and interference with EEG assessment limit its applicability, pointedly in infants and also when investigating the link between auditory and linguistic processing. Optical methods have the potential to fill this gap. Here we review a number of recent studies using optical imaging to investigate hemispheric differences during segmentation and basic auditory feature analysis in language development.

  16. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  17. Effect of operating segments to the firm value of diversified listed companies in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. Sucuahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies produced different result on whether diversification can create or destroy value. The objective of this study is to determine if the operating segments can predict the firm value of the publiclylisted diversified companies. Tobin’s Q was used as a proxy of firm value. This study used regression analysis to evaluate if number of operating segments and type of business engaged can affect the Tobin’s Q of diversified firms. Using 86 diversified listed companies the study shows that majority of the diversified firms have Tobin’s Q lesser than one. Diversified firms without real estate and banking in their segments have better firm value than those who have. The value that was created by diversification will depend on what type of operating segment the company engaged and not on the number of segments they operate.

  18. Learning to Segment Moving Objects in Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Fragkiadaki, Katerina; Arbelaez, Pablo; Felsen, Panna; Malik, Jitendra

    2014-01-01

    We segment moving objects in videos by ranking spatio-temporal segment proposals according to "moving objectness": how likely they are to contain a moving object. In each video frame, we compute segment proposals using multiple figure-ground segmentations on per frame motion boundaries. We rank them with a Moving Objectness Detector trained on image and motion fields to detect moving objects and discard over/under segmentations or background parts of the scene. We extend the top ranked segmen...

  19. PD0332991 (palbociclib) for treatment of pediatric intracranial growing teratoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kris Ann P; Petronio, Joseph; Bendel, Anne; Patterson, Richard; Vaughn, David J

    2015-06-01

    Growing teratoma syndrome is characterized by growth of mature teratoma elements of a mixed germ cell tumor despite resolution of immature/malignant elements with administration of chemotherapy. Surgical resection is the only known cure for growing teratoma syndrome but in the brain, complete resection may be impossible. In these instances, mature teratoma, although histologically benign, may be fatal. In this report, we present the case of a child with a large, rapidly growing, unresectable pineal region growing teratoma. PD0332991 was administered with stabilization of the solid, enhancing components of the mass. Minimal adverse effects were noted. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Optimally segmented permanent magnet structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We present an optimization approach which can be employed to calculate the globally optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional magnetic system into uniformly magnetized pieces. For each segment the algorithm calculates the optimal shape and the optimal direction of the remanent flux density vector......, with respect to a linear objective functional. We illustrate the approach with results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as a permanent magnet electric motor, a beam focusing quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators and a rotary device for magnetic refrigeration....

  1. Segmenting Brain Tumors with Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hejia; Zhu, Xia; Willke, Theodore L.

    2017-01-01

    We explore encoding brain symmetry into a neural network for a brain tumor segmentation task. A healthy human brain is symmetric at a high level of abstraction, and the high-level asymmetric parts are more likely to be tumor regions. Paying more attention to asymmetries has the potential to boost the performance in brain tumor segmentation. We propose a method to encode brain symmetry into existing neural networks and apply the method to a state-of-the-art neural network for medical imaging s...

  2. Nanofiber-segment ring resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, D E; Franson, J D; Pittman, T B

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fiber ring resonator comprised of a relatively long loop of standard single-mode fiber with a short nanofiber segment. The evanescent mode of the nanofiber segment allows the cavity-enhanced field to interact with atoms in close proximity to the nanofiber surface. We report on an experiment using a warm atomic vapor and low-finesse cavity, and briefly discuss the potential for reaching the strong coupling regime of cavity QED by using trapped atoms and a high-finesse cavity of this kind.

  3. Four segment piezo based micropump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldkar, Rakesh Kumar; Sheorey, Tanuja; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Ansari, M. Zahid

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, micropumps have been investigated by various researchers as drug delivery and disease diagnostic devices. Many of these micropumps have been designed, considering available micro fabrication technologies rather than appropriate pump performance analysis. Piezoelectric based micro pumps are more popular as compared to other smart materials being explored. In this paper, four segment piezoelectric bimorph actuator (FSPB) are compared with circular disc piezoelectric bimorph actuator (CDPB) based pump. The static and transient behaviors under various electric fields have been analyzed by using ANSYS 12.1(R) finite element software. Simulation results show that dividing the actuator in segment can amplify the deflection and improve the performance of the pump.

  4. Northern Virginia wineries: understanding visitor motivations for market segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammeral Geide; Laurie Harmon; Robert Baker

    2009-01-01

    The wine industry is a rapidly growing sector of Virginia's economy, yet little research has been done on this topic. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of northern Virginia winery visitors' motivations to help winery operators better focus their marketing efforts. This exploratory research project collected basic information about...

  5. PREPAID TELECOM CUSTOMERS SEGMENTATION USING THE K-MEAN ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marar Liviu Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The scope of relationship marketing is to retain customers and win their loyalty. This can be achieved if the companies’ products and services are developed and sold considering customers’ demands. Fulfilling customers’ demands, taken as the starting point of relationship marketing, can be obtained by acknowledging that the customers’ needs and wishes are heterogeneous. The segmentation of the customers’ base allows operators to overcome this because it illustrates the whole heterogeneous market as the sum of smaller homogeneous markets. The concept of segmentation relies on the high probability of persons grouped into segments based on common demands and behaviours to have a similar response to marketing strategies. This article focuses on the segmentation of a telecom customer base according to specific and noticeable criteria of a certain service. Although the segmentation concept is widely approached in professional literature, articles on the segmentation of a telecom customer base are very scarce, due to the strategic nature of this information. Market segmentation is carried out based on how customers spent their money on credit recharging, on making calls, on sending SMS and on Internet navigation. The method used for customer segmentation is the K-mean cluster analysis. To assess the internal cohesion of the clusters we employed the average sum of squares error indicator, and to determine the differences among the clusters we used the ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey tests. The analyses revealed seven customer segments with different features and behaviours. The results enable the telecom company to conceive marketing strategies and planning which lead to better understanding of its customers’ needs and ultimately to a more efficient relationship with the subscribers and enhanced customer satisfaction. At the same time, the results enable the description and characterization of expenditure patterns

  6. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  7. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  8. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging during radiotherapy of locally advanced cervical cancer - treatment response assessment using different segmentation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Søren; Tanderup, Kari; Kallehauge, Jesper Folsted

    2015-01-01

    .01), and the volumes changed significantly during treatment (p clustering (mean± sd: 0...... into external beam RT (WK2RT) and one week prior to brachytherapy (PREBT). Volumes on DW-MRI were segmented using three semi-automatic segmentation methods: "cluster analysis", "relative signal intensity (SD4)" and "region growing". Segmented volumes were compared to the gross tumor volume (GTV) identified on T.......52 ± 0.3). There was no significant difference in mean ADC value compared at same treatment time. Mean tumor ADC value increased significantly (p treatment time. CONCLUSION: Among the three semi-automatic segmentations of hyper-intense intensities on DW-MR images...

  9. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    Method for supervised segmentation of volumetric data. The method is trained from manual annotations, and these annotations make the method very flexible, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Our method infers label information locally by matching the pattern in a neighborhood around a voxel ...... to a dictionary, and hereby accounts for the volume texture....

  10. Segmental Colitis Complicating Diverticular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ma Van Rosendaal

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of idiopathic colitis affecting the sigmoid colon in elderly patients with underlying diverticulosis are presented. Segmental resection has permitted close review of the histopathology in this syndrome which demonstrates considerable similarity to changes seen in idiopathic ulcerative colitis. The reported experience with this syndrome and its clinical features are reviewed.

  11. Body segments and growth hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundak, R; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    The effects of human growth hormone treatment for five years on sitting height and subischial leg length of 35 prepubertal children with isolated growth hormone deficiency were investigated. Body segments reacted equally to treatment with human growth hormone; this is important when comparing the effect of growth hormone on the growth of children with skeletal dysplasias or after spinal irradiation.

  12. Keratoplasty following anterior segment trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L P

    1981-02-01

    This paper reports and analyses 20 keratoplasties with or without anterior segment reconstruction carried out for penetrating injuries of the anterior segment. The results show that 80% clear grafts were achieved and 65% of eyes had vision restored to 6/18 or better. No eyes were lost. The complications were retinal detachments 2 cases, corneal graft rejection 2 cases, glaucoma 4 cases (2 mild and easily controlled) and one each of amblyopia and retinal folds through macular area. Eyes that have "quietened" following severe penetrating injuries of the anterior segment should be considered for penetrating keratoplasty and anterior segment reconstruction if they retain normal intraocular pressures and have vision of at least accurate projection of light in all quadrants. As well as achieving clear grafts and improvement of vision as above, all eyes had better cosmetic appearance. Two eyes had an ipsilateral rotational autokeratoplasty. This technique has a role to play when central scarring can be rotated to the periphery if sufficient undamaged cornea remains and interference with angle structures can be minimised.

  13. Joint shape segmentation with linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Qixing

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to segmenting shapes in a heterogenous shape database. Our approach segments the shapes jointly, utilizing features from multiple shapes to improve the segmentation of each. The approach is entirely unsupervised and is based on an integer quadratic programming formulation of the joint segmentation problem. The program optimizes over possible segmentations of individual shapes as well as over possible correspondences between segments from multiple shapes. The integer quadratic program is solved via a linear programming relaxation, using a block coordinate descent procedure that makes the optimization feasible for large databases. We evaluate the presented approach on the Princeton segmentation benchmark and show that joint shape segmentation significantly outperforms single-shape segmentation techniques. © 2011 ACM.

  14. Fully automated breast boundary and pectoral muscle segmentation in mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampun, Andrik; Morrow, Philip J; Scotney, Bryan W; Winder, John

    2017-06-01

    Breast and pectoral muscle segmentation is an essential pre-processing step for the subsequent processes in computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. Estimating the breast and pectoral boundaries is a difficult task especially in mammograms due to artifacts, homogeneity between the pectoral and breast regions, and low contrast along the skin-air boundary. In this paper, a breast boundary and pectoral muscle segmentation method in mammograms is proposed. For breast boundary estimation, we determine the initial breast boundary via thresholding and employ Active Contour Models without edges to search for the actual boundary. A post-processing technique is proposed to correct the overestimated boundary caused by artifacts. The pectoral muscle boundary is estimated using Canny edge detection and a pre-processing technique is proposed to remove noisy edges. Subsequently, we identify five edge features to find the edge that has the highest probability of being the initial pectoral contour and search for the actual boundary via contour growing. The segmentation results for the proposed method are compared with manual segmentations using 322, 208 and 100mammograms from the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS), INBreast and Breast Cancer Digital Repository (BCDR) databases, respectively. Experimental results show that the breast boundary and pectoral muscle estimation methods achieved dice similarity coefficients of 98.8% and 97.8% (MIAS), 98.9% and 89.6% (INBreast) and 99.2% and 91.9% (BCDR), respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Competition between influenza A virus genome segments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Widjaja

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV contains a segmented negative-strand RNA genome. How IAV balances the replication and transcription of its multiple genome segments is not understood. We developed a dual competition assay based on the co-transfection of firefly or Gaussia luciferase-encoding genome segments together with plasmids encoding IAV polymerase subunits and nucleoprotein. At limiting amounts of polymerase subunits, expression of the firefly luciferase segment was negatively affected by the presence of its Gaussia luciferase counterpart, indicative of competition between reporter genome segments. This competition could be relieved by increasing or decreasing the relative amounts of firefly or Gaussia reporter segment, respectively. The balance between the luciferase expression levels was also affected by the identity of the untranslated regions (UTRs as well as segment length. In general it appeared that genome segments displaying inherent higher expression levels were more efficient competitors of another segment. When natural genome segments were tested for their ability to suppress reporter gene expression, shorter genome segments generally reduced firefly luciferase expression to a larger extent, with the M and NS segments having the largest effect. The balance between different reporter segments was most dramatically affected by the introduction of UTR panhandle-stabilizing mutations. Furthermore, only reporter genome segments carrying these mutations were able to efficiently compete with the natural genome segments in infected cells. Our data indicate that IAV genome segments compete for available polymerases. Competition is affected by segment length, coding region, and UTRs. This competition is probably most apparent early during infection, when limiting amounts of polymerases are present, and may contribute to the regulation of segment-specific replication and transcription.

  16. Correction of a skeletal Class II malocclusion with severe crowding by a specially designed rapid maxillary expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghong; Feng, Jing; Lu, Peijun; Shen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    To correct an Angle Class II malocclusion or to create spaces in the maxillary arch by nonextraction treatment, distal movement of the maxillary molars is required. Various modalities for distalizing the buccal segment have been reported. Conventional extraoral appliances can be used to obtain maximum anchorage. However, many patients reject headgear wear because of social and esthetic concerns, and the success of this treatment depends on patient compliance. Intraoral appliances, such as repelling magnets, nickel-titanium coils, pendulum appliance, Jones jig appliance, distal jet appliance, and modified Nance appliance, have been introduced to distalize the molars with little or no patient cooperation. However, intraoral appliances can result in anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the maxillary molars. In this case report, we introduce a diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance that was custom designed and fabricated for the treatment of a growing girl with a skeletal Class II malocclusion and severe crowding from a totally lingually positioned lateral incisor. The appliance concomitantly expanded the maxilla transversely and retracted the buccal segment sagittally, distalizing the maxillary molars to reach a Class I relationship and creating the spaces to displace the malpositioned lateral incisor. The uniqueness of this special diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance was highlighted by a series of reconstructions and modifications at different stages of the treatment to reinforce the anchorage. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Host-Specific and Segment-Specific Evolutionary Dynamics of Avian and Human Influenza A Viruses: A Systematic Review

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Kiyeon

    2016-01-13

    Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of influenza viruses is essential to control both avian and human influenza. Here, we analyze host-specific and segment-specific Tajima’s D trends of influenza A virus through a systematic review using viral sequences registered in the National Center for Biotechnology Information. To avoid bias from viral population subdivision, viral sequences were stratified according to their sampling locations and sampling years. As a result, we obtained a total of 580 datasets each of which consists of nucleotide sequences of influenza A viruses isolated from a single population of hosts at a single sampling site within a single year. By analyzing nucleotide sequences in the datasets, we found that Tajima’s D values of viral sequences were different depending on hosts and gene segments. Tajima’s D values of viruses isolated from chicken and human samples showed negative, suggesting purifying selection or a rapid population growth of the viruses. The negative Tajima’s D values in rapidly growing viral population were also observed in computer simulations. Tajima’s D values of PB2, PB1, PA, NP, and M genes of the viruses circulating in wild mallards were close to zero, suggesting that these genes have undergone neutral selection in constant-sized population. On the other hand, Tajima’s D values of HA and NA genes of these viruses were positive, indicating HA and NA have undergone balancing selection in wild mallards. Taken together, these results indicated the existence of unknown factors that maintain viral subtypes in wild mallards.

  18. Segment scheduling method for reducing 360° video streaming latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudumasu, Srinivas; Asbun, Eduardo; He, Yong; Ye, Yan

    2017-09-01

    360° video is an emerging new format in the media industry enabled by the growing availability of virtual reality devices. It provides the viewer a new sense of presence and immersion. Compared to conventional rectilinear video (2D or 3D), 360° video poses a new and difficult set of engineering challenges on video processing and delivery. Enabling comfortable and immersive user experience requires very high video quality and very low latency, while the large video file size poses a challenge to delivering 360° video in a quality manner at scale. Conventionally, 360° video represented in equirectangular or other projection formats can be encoded as a single standards-compliant bitstream using existing video codecs such as H.264/AVC or H.265/HEVC. Such method usually needs very high bandwidth to provide an immersive user experience. While at the client side, much of such high bandwidth and the computational power used to decode the video are wasted because the user only watches a small portion (i.e., viewport) of the entire picture. Viewport dependent 360°video processing and delivery approaches spend more bandwidth on the viewport than on non-viewports and are therefore able to reduce the overall transmission bandwidth. This paper proposes a dual buffer segment scheduling algorithm for viewport adaptive streaming methods to reduce latency when switching between high quality viewports in 360° video streaming. The approach decouples the scheduling of viewport segments and non-viewport segments to ensure the viewport segment requested matches the latest user head orientation. A base layer buffer stores all lower quality segments, and a viewport buffer stores high quality viewport segments corresponding to the most recent viewer's head orientation. The scheduling scheme determines viewport requesting time based on the buffer status and the head orientation. This paper also discusses how to deploy the proposed scheduling design for various viewport adaptive video

  19. Monosodium L-Glutamate and Dietary Fat Differently Modify the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Meng Feng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Chinese have been undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet-consuming lifestyle, while monosodium L-glutamate (MSG is widely used as a daily food additive. It has been reported that fat alters the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, little information is available on the effects of oral MSG on intestinal microbiota, and no study was done focusing on the interaction effect of fat and MSG with respect to intestinal microbiota. The present study thus aimed to determine the effects of MSG and/or fat on intestinal microbiota, and also to identify possible interactions between these two nutrients. Methods: Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets were provided to growing pigs. The microbiota from jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon were analyzed. Results: Our results show that both MSG and fat clearly increased the intestinal microbiota diversity. MSG and fat modified the composition of intestinal microbiota, particularly in the colon. Both MSG and fat promoted the colonization of microbes related to energy extraction in gastrointestinal tract via different ways. MSG promoted the colonization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia, while fat increased the percentage of Prevotella in colon and other intestinal segments. Conclusion: Our results will help to understand how individual or combined dietary changes modify the microbiota composition to prevent obesity.

  20. Monosodium L-Glutamate and Dietary Fat Differently Modify the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ze-Meng; Li, Tie-Jun; Wu, Li; Xiao, Ding-Fu; Blachier, Francois; Yin, Yu-Long

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese have been undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet-consuming lifestyle, while monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a daily food additive. It has been reported that fat alters the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, little information is available on the effects of oral MSG on intestinal microbiota, and no study was done focusing on the interaction effect of fat and MSG with respect to intestinal microbiota. The present study thus aimed to determine the effects of MSG and/or fat on intestinal microbiota, and also to identify possible interactions between these two nutrients. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets were provided to growing pigs. The microbiota from jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon were analyzed. Our results show that both MSG and fat clearly increased the intestinal microbiota diversity. MSG and fat modified the composition of intestinal microbiota, particularly in the colon. Both MSG and fat promoted the colonization of microbes related to energy extraction in gastrointestinal tract via different ways. MSG promoted the colonization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia, while fat increased the percentage of Prevotella in colon and other intestinal segments. Our results will help to understand how individual or combined dietary changes modify the microbiota composition to prevent obesity.

  1. Magnetically controlled growing rods for scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metkar, Umesh; Kurra, Swamy; Quinzi, David; Albanese, Stephen; Lavelle, William F

    2017-02-01

    Early onset scoliosis can be both a disfiguring as well as a life threatening condition. When more conservative treatments fail, pediatric spinal surgeons are forced to consider operative interventions. Traditionally, these interventions have involved the insertion of a variety of implants into the patient with a limited number of anchor points controlling the spine. In the past, these pediatric patients have had multiple surgeries for elective lengthening of these devices to facilitate their growth while attempting to control the scoliosis. These patients often experience a physical and emotional toll from their multiple repeated surgeries. Growing spine techniques have also had a noted high complication rate due to implant dislodgement and infections. Recently, the development of non-invasively, self-lengthening growing rods has occurred. These devices have the potential to allow for the devices to be lengthened magnetically in a conscious patient in the surgeon's office. Areas covered: This review summarized previously published articles in the English literature using a key word search in PubMed for: 'magnetically controlled growing rods', 'Magec rods', 'magnetic growing rods' and 'growing rods'. Expert commentary: Magnetically controlled growing rods have an advantage over growing rods in lengthening the growing spine in the absence of repetitive surgeries.

  2. (GrOW) Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alejandra

    How many applications will be shortlisted at the end of the first stage? GrOW envisages that up to 4 selected teams will be asked to submit a full research proposal for review and funding consideration. How is the review process conducted? Upon receiving complete applications, a review process begins by the GrOW team, ...

  3. Effects of orthopedic maxillary expansion on nasal cavity size in growing subjects: a low dose computer tomography clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Giancarlo; Nucera, Riccardo; Fastuca, Rosamaria; Matarese, Giovanni; Lindauer, Steven J; Leone, Pietro; Manzo, Paolo; Martina, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion on skeletal nasal cavity size in growing subjects by use of low dose computer tomography. Eight Caucasian children (three male; five female) with a mean age of 9.7 years (SD±1.41) were the final sample of this research that underwent palatal expansion as a first phase of orthodontic treatment. The maxillary expander was banded to the upper first molars and was activated according a rapid maxillary expansion protocol. Low-dose computer tomography examinations of maxilla and of the low portion of nasal cavity were performed before inserting the maxillary expander (T0) and at the end of retention (T1), 7 months later. A low-dose computer tomography protocol was applied during the exams. Image processing was achieved in 3 steps: reslicing; dental and skeletal measurements; skeletal nasal volume computing. A set of reproducible skeletal and dental landmarks were located in the coronal passing through the first upper right molar furcation. Using the landmarks, a set of transverse linear measurements were identified to estimate maximum nasal width and nasal floor width. To compute the nasal volume the lower portion of the nasal cavity was set as region of interest. Nasal volume was calculated using a set of coronal slices. In each coronal slice, the cortical bone of the nasal cavity was identified and selected with a segmentation technique. Dependent t-tests were used to evaluate changes due to expansion. For all tests, a significance level of Pmaxillary expansion produced significant increases of linear transverse skeletal measurements, these increments were bigger in the lower portion of the nasal cavities: nasal floor width (+3.15 mm; SD ± 0.99), maximum nasal width (+2.47 mm; SD ± 0.99). Rapid maxillary expansion produced significant increment of the total nasal volume (+1.27 cm(3) ± SD 0.65). The anterior volume increase was 0.58 cm(3) while the posterior one was

  4. 3D segmentation of breast tumor in ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jong In; Jung, Mal Nam; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Nam Chul

    2003-05-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3D) region-based segmentation algorithm for extracting a diagnostic tumor from ultrasound images by using a split-and-merge and seeded region growing with a distortion-based homogeneity cost. In the proposed algorithm, 2D cutting planes are first obtained by the equiangular revolution of a cross sectional plane on a reference axis for a 3D volume data. In each cutting plane, an elliptic seed mask that is included tightly in a tumor of interest is set. At the same time, each plane is finely segmented using the split-and-merge with a distortion-based cost. In the result segmented finely, all of the regions that are across or contained in the elliptic seed mask are then merged. The merged region is taken as a seed region for the seeded region growing. In the seeded region growing, the seed region is recursively merged with adjacent regions until a predefined condition is reached. Then, the contour of the final seed region is extracted as a contour of the tumor. Finally, a 3D volume of the tumor is rendered from the set of tumor contours obtained for the entire cutting planes. Experimental results for a 3D artificial volume data show that the proposed method yields maximum three times reduction in error rate over the Krivanek"s method. For a real 3D ultrasonic volume data, the error rates of the proposed method are shown to be lower than 17% when the results obtained manually are used as a reference data. It also is found that the contours of the tumor extracted by the proposed algorithm coincide closely with those estimated by human vision.

  5. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...... and hereby we obtain a robust label probability encoding. The dictionary is computed from labeled volumetric image data based on weighted clustering. We experimentally demonstrate our method using two data sets from material science – a phantom data set of a solid oxide fuel cell simulation for detecting...

  6. Text Segmentation Using Exponential Models

    CERN Document Server

    Beeferman, D; Lafferty, G D; Beeferman, Doug; Berger, Adam; Lafferty, John

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces a new statistical approach to partitioning text automatically into coherent segments. Our approach enlists both short-range and long-range language models to help it sniff out likely sites of topic changes in text. To aid its search, the system consults a set of simple lexical hints it has learned to associate with the presence of boundaries through inspection of a large corpus of annotated data. We also propose a new probabilistically motivated error metric for use by the natural language processing and information retrieval communities, intended to supersede precision and recall for appraising segmentation algorithms. Qualitative assessment of our algorithm as well as evaluation using this new metric demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in two very different domains, Wall Street Journal articles and the TDT Corpus, a collection of newswire articles and broadcast news transcripts.

  7. Growing wealth and growing pains: child and adolescent psychiatry in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Susan; Fung, Daniel; Hung, Se-Fong; Rey, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Several Asian regions have undergone a dramatic transformation, some becoming very affluent. This paper aims to ascertain how countries that are becoming wealthy have dealt with child and adolescent mental health issues. Population health status, child and adolescent mental health services, child psychiatry training, the number of child psychiatrists and related matters were examined in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore are ethnically, religiously, socially and politically very different. In spite of considerable wealth and a growing recognition that mental health problems in the young are increasing, they face similar problems--lack of access to treatment due to a dearth of services and a lack of child psychiatrists (2.5, 0.5 and 2.8 per million people, respectively). Because the number of child psychiatrists is so small, their ability to provide services, advocate, train, maintain a professional identity, and deal with future crises is very limited. Other rapidly developing countries can learn from this experience and should take action early to prevent a similar outcome.

  8. POST-HOC SEGMENTATION USING MARKETING RESEARCH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CRISTINEL CONSTANTIN

    2012-01-01

    .... These methods are K-means cluster and TwoStep cluster, which are available in SPSS system. Such methods could be used in post-hoc market segmentations, which allow companies to find segments with specific behaviours or attitudes...

  9. Ophthalmological manifestations in segmental neurofibromatosis type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggieri, M; PAVONE, P.; Polizzi, A.; Pietro, M. Di; Scuderi, A.; Gabriele, A; Spalice, A.; Iannetti, P

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To study the ophthalmological manifestations in individuals with the typical features of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) circumscribed to one or more body segments, usually referred to as segmental NF1.

  10. Spectral clustering algorithms for ultrasound image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archip, Neculai; Rohling, Robert; Cooperberg, Peter; Tahmasebpour, Hamid; Warfield, Simon K

    2005-01-01

    Image segmentation algorithms derived from spectral clustering analysis rely on the eigenvectors of the Laplacian of a weighted graph obtained from the image. The NCut criterion was previously used for image segmentation in supervised manner. We derive a new strategy for unsupervised image segmentation. This article describes an initial investigation to determine the suitability of such segmentation techniques for ultrasound images. The extension of the NCut technique to the unsupervised clustering is first described. The novel segmentation algorithm is then performed on simulated ultrasound images. Tests are also performed on abdominal and fetal images with the segmentation results compared to manual segmentation. Comparisons with the classical NCut algorithm are also presented. Finally, segmentation results on other types of medical images are shown.

  11. Pectoral muscle segmentation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Karthikeyan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Chua, Kuang Chua; Min, Lim Choo; Abraham, K Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Mammograms are X-ray images of breasts which are used to detect breast cancer. The pectoral muscle is a mass of tissue on which the breast rests. During routine mammographic screenings, in medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views, the pectoral muscle turns up in the mammograms along with the breast tissues. The pectoral muscle has to be segmented from the mammogram for an effective automated computer aided diagnosis (CAD). This is due to the fact that pectoral muscles have pixel intensities and texture similar to that of breast tissues which can result in awry CAD results. As a result, a lot of effort has been put into the segmentation of pectoral muscles and finding its contour with the breast tissues. To the best of our knowledge, currently there is no definitive literature available which provides a comprehensive review about the current state of research in this area of pectoral muscle segmentation. We try to address this shortcoming by providing a comprehensive review of research papers in this area. A conscious effort has been made to avoid deviating into the area of automated breast cancer detection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Generalization of Hindi OCR Using Adaptive Segmentation and Font Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mudit; Ma, Huanfeng; Doermann, David

    In this chapter, we describe an adaptive Indic OCR system implemented as part of a rapidly retargetable language tool effort and extend work found in [20, 2]. The system includes script identification, character segmentation, training sample creation, and character recognition. For script identification, Hindi words are identified in bilingual or multilingual document images using features of the Devanagari script and support vector machine (SVM). Identified words are then segmented into individual characters, using a font-model-based intelligent character segmentation and recognition system. Using characteristics of structurally similar TrueType fonts, our system automatically builds a model to be used for the segmentation and recognition of the new script, independent of glyph composition. The key is a reliance on known font attributes. In our recognition system three feature extraction methods are used to demonstrate the importance of appropriate features for classification. The methods are tested on both Latin and non-Latin scripts. Results show that the character-level recognition accuracy exceeds 92% for non-Latin and 96% for Latin text on degraded documents. This work is a step toward the recognition of scripts of low-density languages which typically do not warrant the development of commercial OCR, yet often have complete TrueType font descriptions.

  13. Semiautomatic Segmentation of Glioma on Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Ping Wu; Yu-Song Lin; Wei-Guo Wu; Cong Yang; Jian-Qin Gu; Yan Bai; Mei-Yun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Brain tumor segmentation is the first and the most critical step in clinical applications of radiomics. However, segmenting brain images by radiologists is labor intense and prone to inter- and intraobserver variability. Stable and reproducible brain image segmentation algorithms are thus important for successful tumor detection in radiomics. In this paper, we propose a supervised brain image segmentation method, especially for magnetic resonance (MR) brain images with glioma. This paper uses...

  14. Review of segmentation process in consumer markets

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2013-01-01

    Although there has been a considerable debate on market segmentation over five decades, attention was merely devoted to single stages of the segmentation process. In doing so, stages as segmentation base selection or segments profiling have been heavily covered in the extant literature, whereas stages as implementation of the marketing strategy or market definition were of a comparably lower interest. Capitalizing on this shortcoming, this paper strives to close the gap and provide each step...

  15. Automatic segmentation of MR brain images in multiple sclerosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Ramesh T. V.; Erickson, Bradley J.

    1996-04-01

    A totally automatic scheme for segmenting brain from extracranial tissues and to classify all intracranial voxels as CSF, gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), or abnormality such as multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions is presented in this paper. It is observed that in MR head images, if a tissue's intensity values are normalized, its relationship to the other tissues is essentially constant for a given type of image. Based on this approach, the subcutaneous fat surrounding the head is normalized to classify other tissues. Spatially registered 3 mm MR head image slices of T1 weighted, fast spin echo [dual echo T2 weighted and proton density (PD) weighted images] and fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences are used for segmentation. Subcutaneous fat surrounding the skull was identified based on intensity thresholding from T1 weighted images. A multiparametric space map was developed for CSF, GM and WM by normalizing each tissue with respect to the mean value of corresponding subcutaneous fat on each pulse sequence. To reduce the low frequency noise without blurring the fine morphological high frequency details an anisotropic diffusion filter was applied to all images before segmentation. An initial slice by slice classification was followed by morphological operations to delete any brides connecting extracranial segments. Finally 3-dimensional region growing of the segmented brain extracts GM, WM and pathology. The algorithm was tested on sequential scans of 10 patients with MS lesions. For well registered sequences, tissues and pathology have been accurately classified. This procedure does not require user input or image training data sets, and shows promise for automatic classification of brain and pathology.

  16. Automatic segmentation of diatom images for classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalba, Andrei C.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    A general framework for automatic segmentation of diatom images is presented. This segmentation is a critical first step in contour-based methods for automatic identification of diatoms by computerized image analysis. We review existing results, adapt popular segmentation methods to this difficult

  17. Melt spinnable elastane fibres from segmented copolyetheresteramids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, M.C.E.J.; Krijgsman, J.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Spandex fibers were obtained by melt spinning segmented copolyetheresteramides with crystallizable aromatic diamide units of uniform length and poly(tetramethyleneoxide) segments. The aramid content was varied from 3 to 22 wt %, and the molecular weight of the polyether segment ranged from 1000 to

  18. Automatic Segmentation of Spanish Speech Into Syllables

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño Acebal, José Bernardo

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that provides a syllabic segmentation of speech following the syllabification rules of Spanish language. The implemented algorithm is divided into two parts. First, an initial segmentation is made based on energy contour, sonority and duration. Second, a fine adjustement of syllable boundaries and final segmentation is made by applying syllabic rules. Peer Reviewed

  19. Mora or syllable? Speech segmentation in Japanese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otake, T.; Hatano, G.; Cutler, A.; Mehler, J.

    1993-01-01

    Four experiments examined segmentation of spoken Japanese words by native and non-native listeners. Previous studies suggested that language rhythm determines the segmentation unit most natural to native listeners: French has syllabic rhythm, and French listeners use the syllable in segmentation,

  20. Peptide segments in protein-protein interfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-09-06

    Sep 6, 2006 ... In 1000 Å2 of the interface area, contributed by a polypeptide chain, there would be 3.4 segments in homodimers, 5.6 in complexes and 6.3 in crystal contacts. Concomitantly, the segments are the longest (with 8.7 interface residues) in homodimers. Core segments (likely to contribute more towards binding) ...

  1. Market Segmentation from a Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge; Pallister, John

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847…

  2. Quick Dissection of the Segmental Bronchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional anatomy of the bronchopulmonary segments is essential for respiratory medicine. This report describes a quick guide for dissecting the segmental bronchi in formaldehyde-fixed human material. All segmental bronchi are easy to dissect, and thus, this exercise will help medical students to better understand the…

  3. Handwriting segmentation of unconstrained Oriya text

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian language; Oriya script; character segmentation; handwriting recognition. 1. Introduction. Segmentation of handwritten text into lines, words and characters is one of the important steps in the handwritten script recognition process. The task of individual text-line segmentation from unconstrained handwritten documents ...

  4. LIFE-STYLE SEGMENTATION WITH TAILORED INTERVIEWING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMAKURA, WA; WEDEL, M

    The authors present a tailored interviewing procedure for life-style segmentation. The procedure assumes that a life-style measurement instrument has been designed. A classification of a sample of consumers into life-style segments is obtained using a latent-class model. With these segments, the

  5. The Process of Marketing Segmentation Strategy Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    The process of marketing segmentation strategy selection represents the essence of strategical marketing. We present hereinafter the main forms of the marketing statategy segmentation: undifferentiated marketing, differentiated marketing, concentrated marketing and personalized marketing. In practice, the companies use a mix of these marketing segmentation methods in order to maximize the proffit and to satisfy the consumers’ needs.

  6. ROV role grows as depths increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redden, J.

    1984-09-01

    The use of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in offshore oil and gas exploration is discussed. One of the most promising segments of the industry for ROVs is in the area of drilling support. The ROV is the only viable tool for subsea operations as drilling operations move into deepwater areas. The operation and capabilities of ROVs are discussed.

  7. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  8. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  9. Surface properties of poly(ethylene oxide)-based segmented block copolymers with monodisperse hard segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husken, D.; Feijen, Jan; Gaymans, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The surface properties of segmented block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments and monodisperse crystallizable tetra-amide segments were studied. The monodisperse crystallizable segments (T6T6T) were based on terephthalate (T) and hexamethylenediamine (6). Due to the crystallinity

  10. Application of multi-scale segmentation algorithms for high resolution remote sensing image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tingting; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, with the rapid development of remote sensing technology, high resolution remote sensing images have been widely used in various fields due to their characteristics, such as rich spectral information and complex texture information. As a key step in the feature extraction, multi-scale image segmentation algorithm has been a hotspot currently. The traditional image segmentation is based on pixels, which only takes the spectral information of pixel into account, and ignores the texture, spatial information and contextual relation of the objects in the image. The experimental high resolution remote sensing images are from GF-2 and the features of the experimental data are obvious, the edges are clear. By using the statistical region merging (SRM) algorithm, the fractal net evolution approach (FNEA) algorithm and the unsupervised multi-scale segmentation of color images (UMSC) algorithm, this paper analyzes the segmentation effects of three multi-scale segmentation algorithms on the optimal scale and on the same segmentation scale respectively. The experimental results under the optimal scale and the same segmentation scale show that the SRM algorithm outperforms the UMSC algorithm, and UMSC algorithm outperforms the FENA algorithm in multi-scale segmentation.

  11. Measurement of atropisomer racemization kinetics using segmented flow technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Jennifer E; Bundesmann, Mark W; Yan, Qi T; Collantes, Elizabeth M; Mente, Scot; Nason, Deane M; Gray, David L

    2012-05-10

    When stable atropisomers are encountered by drug discovery teams, they can have important implications due to potential differences in their biological activity, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity. Knowledge of an atropisomer's activation parameters for interconversion is required to facilitate informed decisions on how to proceed. Herein, we communicate the development of a new method for the rapid measurement of atropisomer racemization kinetics utilizing segmented flow technology. This method leverages the speed, accuracy, low sample requirement, safety, and semiautomated nature of flow instrumentation to facilitate the acquisition of kinetics data required for experimentally probing atropisomer activation parameters. Measured kinetics data obtained for the atropo isomerization of AMPA antagonist CP-465021 using segmented flow and traditional thermal methods were compared to validate the method.

  12. Realization of Chinese word segmentation based on deep learning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefei; Wang, Mingjiang; Zhang, Qiquan

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of deep learning, it has been widely used in the field of natural language processing. In this paper, I use the method of deep learning to achieve Chinese word segmentation, with large-scale corpus, eliminating the need to construct additional manual characteristics. In the process of Chinese word segmentation, the first step is to deal with the corpus, use word2vec to get word embedding of the corpus, each character is 50. After the word is embedded, the word embedding feature is fed to the bidirectional LSTM, add a linear layer to the hidden layer of the output, and then add a CRF to get the model implemented in this paper. Experimental results show that the method used in the 2014 People's Daily corpus to achieve a satisfactory accuracy.

  13. Older People's Mobility: Segments, Factors, Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu

    2015-01-01

    demographic, health-related, or transport-related factors. This paper reviews these studies and compares the segments of older people that different studies have identified. First, as a result of a systematic comparison, we identified four generic segments: (1) an active car-oriented segment; (2) a car...... people’s travel behaviour. Based on this, we proposed a theoretical model on how the different determinants work together to form the four mobility patterns related to the identified segments. Finally, based on current trends and expectations, we assessed which segments are likely to increase or decrease...

  14. MOVING WINDOW SEGMENTATION FRAMEWORK FOR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first component segments points within a window shifting over the point cloud. The second component stitches the segments within the windows together. In this fashion a point cloud can be streamed through these two components in sequence, thus producing a segmentation. The algorithm has been tested on airborne lidar point cloud and some results of the performance of the framework are presented.

  15. Automatic segmentation of vertebrae from radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Peter; Petersen, Peter Kersten; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Segmentation of vertebral contours is an essential task in the design of automatic tools for vertebral fracture assessment. In this paper, we propose a novel segmentation technique which does not require operator interaction. The proposed technique solves the segmentation problem in a hierarchical...... is constrained by a conditional shape model, based on the variability of the coarse spine location estimates. The technique is evaluated on a data set of manually annotated lumbar radiographs. The results compare favorably to the previous work in automatic vertebra segmentation, in terms of both segmentation...

  16. Growing America's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  17. Efficient graph-cut tattoo segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonsoo; Parra, Albert; Li, He; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Law enforcement is interested in exploiting tattoos as an information source to identify, track and prevent gang-related crimes. Many tattoo image retrieval systems have been described. In a retrieval system tattoo segmentation is an important step for retrieval accuracy since segmentation removes background information in a tattoo image. Existing segmentation methods do not extract the tattoo very well when the background includes textures and color similar to skin tones. In this paper we describe a tattoo segmentation approach by determining skin pixels in regions near the tattoo. In these regions graph-cut segmentation using a skin color model and a visual saliency map is used to find skin pixels. After segmentation we determine which set of skin pixels are connected with each other that form a closed contour including a tattoo. The regions surrounded by the closed contours are considered tattoo regions. Our method segments tattoos well when the background includes textures and color similar to skin.

  18. Segmentation of Heritage Building by Means of Geometric and Radiometric Components from Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitelkadi, K.; Tahiri, D.; Simonetto, E.; Sebari, I.; Polidori, L.

    2013-07-01

    Nowadays, the terrestrial laser scanning represents an integral source of data for cultural heritage 3D storage and access through digital communication tools. The achievement of 3D models requires the implementation of several tasks such as segmentation. Segmentation is the key step during the point cloud processing where all homogeneous areas are identified, which describe a building facade. Usually, a large part of the segmentation approach focuses on the geometric information contained in the point cloud data by exploiting mathematical representation of a parametric surface. However, due to the complexity of the architecture, such segmentation does not suffice. Henceforth, other approaches turn to the use of color and laser intensity components. Although a variety of algorithms have been developed in this sense, problems of over-segmentation or under-segmentation are observed. In this context, we propose a new approach for point cloud segmentation aiming at a more accurate result. This approach relies on all the components of a colored point - both geometric and radiometric - combining the RGB values, laser intensity and geometric data. Our process begins with the extraction of homogeneous planar segments using the RANSAC algorithm. Next, the result is subjected to a radiometric-based segmentation, first through color similarity as one of the homogeneity criteria of a region growing algorithm, then through the use of intensity similarity for segment fusion. Experiments are performed on a facade presenting an example of Moroccan classical architecture located in Casablanca's Medina. Results show the importance of integrating all point cloud components, both geometric and radiometric.

  19. Calibrated Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning for 3D Object Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanar M. Abed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation of urban features is considered a major research challenge in the fields of photogrammetry and remote sensing. However, the dense datasets now readily available through airborne laser scanning (ALS offer increased potential for 3D object segmentation. Such potential is further augmented by the availability of full-waveform (FWF ALS data. FWF ALS has demonstrated enhanced performance in segmentation and classification through the additional physical observables which can be provided alongside standard geometric information. However, use of FWF information is not recommended without prior radiometric calibration, taking into account all parameters affecting the backscatter energy. This paper reports the implementation of a radiometric calibration workflow for FWF ALS data, and demonstrates how the resultant FWF information can be used to improve segmentation of an urban area. The developed segmentation algorithm presents a novel approach which uses the calibrated backscatter cross-section as a weighting function to estimate the segmentation similarity measure. The normal vector and the local Euclidian distance are used as criteria to segment the point clouds through a region growing approach. The paper demonstrates the potential to enhance 3D object segmentation in urban areas by integrating the FWF physical backscattered energy alongside geometric information. The method is demonstrated through application to an interest area sampled from a relatively dense FWF ALS dataset. The results are assessed through comparison to those delivered from utilising only geometric information. Validation against a manual segmentation demonstrates a successful automatic implementation, achieving a segmentation accuracy of 82%, and out-performs a purely geometric approach.

  20. Heterologous Packaging Signals on Segment 4, but Not Segment 6 or Segment 8, Limit Influenza A Virus Reassortment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maria C; Steel, John; Lowen, Anice C

    2017-06-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) RNA packaging signals serve to direct the incorporation of IAV gene segments into virus particles, and this process is thought to be mediated by segment-segment interactions. These packaging signals are segment and strain specific, and as such, they have the potential to impact reassortment outcomes between different IAV strains. Our study aimed to quantify the impact of packaging signal mismatch on IAV reassortment using the human seasonal influenza A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) and pandemic influenza A/Netherlands/602/2009 (H1N1) viruses. Focusing on the three most divergent segments, we constructed pairs of viruses that encoded identical proteins but differed in the packaging signal regions on a single segment. We then evaluated the frequency with which segments carrying homologous versus heterologous packaging signals were incorporated into reassortant progeny viruses. We found that, when segment 4 (HA) of coinfecting parental viruses was modified, there was a significant preference for the segment containing matched packaging signals relative to the background of the virus. This preference was apparent even when the homologous HA constituted a minority of the HA segment population available in the cell for packaging. Conversely, when segment 6 (NA) or segment 8 (NS) carried modified packaging signals, there was no significant preference for homologous packaging signals. These data suggest that movement of NA and NS segments between the human H3N2 and H1N1 lineages is unlikely to be restricted by packaging signal mismatch, while movement of the HA segment would be more constrained. Our results indicate that the importance of packaging signals in IAV reassortment is segment dependent.IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses (IAVs) can exchange genes through reassortment. This process contributes to both the highly diverse population of IAVs found in nature and the formation of novel epidemic and pandemic IAV strains. Our study sought to determine the

  1. A contrario line segment detection

    CERN Document Server

    von Gioi, Rafael Grompone

    2014-01-01

    The reliable detection of low-level image structures is an old and still challenging problem in computer vision. This?book leads a detailed tour through the LSD algorithm, a line segment detector designed to be fully automatic. Based on the a contrario framework, the algorithm works efficiently without the need of any parameter tuning. The design criteria are thoroughly explained and the algorithm's good and bad results are illustrated on real and synthetic images. The issues involved, as well as the strategies used, are common to many geometrical structure detection problems and some possible

  2. Interferon Induced Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kayar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet’s disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet’s disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon.

  3. Rapidly- growing firms and their main characteristics: a longitudinal study from United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the topic of high-growth phenomenon and its agents. High-growth enterprises are primarily small and medium sized firms that attain very high-growth rates for at least five years. The paper presents a review of the pertinent literature to guide its formulation of hypotheses...... are relatively smaller enterprises and their high growth rates are not restricted to a particular location, industrial region, size or time period. The findings of this analysis point to a population of high-growth enterprises with diverse locations, sizes and times with important implications for scholarly...

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF LEGAL ORGANISATION OF RAPIDLY GROWING COMPANIES FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Novak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of a company’s legal form for the process of internationalisation using a sample of 1577 Slovenian companies. We refer to previous studies and on the basis of additional statistical data evaluate whether the choice of corporate legal structure influences a company’s ability to compete internationally. In the domestic market, most companies operate as limited liability companies; this is also the most frequent legal form in which companies enter foreign markets. We conclude that the form by itself does not influence the decision to go international.

  5. [Case report: Rapidly growing abdominal wall giant desmoid tumour during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Zertuche, Jorge Tadeo; Cardona-Huerta, Servando; Juárez-García, María Luisa; Valdés-Flores, Everardo; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique

    Desmoid tumours are one of the rarest tumours worldwide, with an estimated yearly incidence of 2-4 new cases per million people. They are soft tissue monoclonal neoplasms that originate from mesenchymal stem cells. It seems that the hormonal and immunological changes occurring during pregnancy may play a role in the severity and course of the disease. The case is presented on 28-year-old female in her fifth week of gestation, in whom an abdominal wall tumour was found attached to left adnexa and uterus while performing a prenatal ultrasound. The patient was followed up under clinical and ultrasonographic surveillance. When she presented with abnormal uterine activity at 38.2 weeks of gestation, she was admitted and obstetrics decided to perform a caesarean section. Tumour biopsy was taken during the procedure. Histopathology reported a desmoid fibromatosis. A contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan was performed, showing a tumour of 26×20.5×18cm, with well-defined borders in contact with the uterus, left adnexa, bladder and abdominal wall, with no evidence of infiltration to adjacent structures. A laparotomy, with tumour resection, hysterectomy and left salpingo-oophorectomy, components separation techniques, polypropylene mesh insertion, and drainage was performed. The final histopathology report was desmoid fibromatosis. There is no evidence of recurrence after 6 months follow-up. Desmoid tumours are locally aggressive and surgical resection with clear margins is the basis for the treatment of this disease, using radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy as an adjunct in the treatment. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Water resources in a rapidly growing region-Oakland County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    Oakland County is a suburban county in southeast Michigan. Population and demand for water grew steadily in the county over the 20th century, and these trends are expected to continue in coming decades. Roughly 75 percent of current water demand is met by imported water from the Detroit Water and Sewerage Division (DWSD), but water use from ground-water sources within the county still exceeds 43 million gallons per day. Because much of the population growth is in areas beyond the DWSD system, an additional 20-25 million gallons per day of supply may be necessary to meet future demands. Managing the wastewater produced while also protecting human and ecosystem health also may present challenges.

  7. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... However, laboratory protocols that are commonly used to investigate the presence of mycobacteria in clinical specimens are insufficient for isolation of these organisms form soil and natural water samples (Chilima et al., 2006). In spite of large –scale BCG trial conducted in our country during past decades, ...

  8. Case series: Rapidly growing squamous cell carcinoma after cutaneous surgical intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ibrahim

    2017-12-01

    This case series explores the various mechanisms of de-novo squamous cell carcinoma development in areas of cutaneous surgical intervention, including graft harvest. It also provides recommendations regarding the necessary precautions to avoid implantation of squamous cell carcinoma into distant sites. Lastly it highlights the importance of surveillance for any suspicious lesions arising from areas of previous cutaneous surgical intervention.

  9. Emerging Development Pathways of Urban Livestock Production in Rapidly Growing West Africa Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Roessler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we try to capture the degree of specialization or integration, and of intensification or extensification, of (peri- urban livestock production, along with the factors that influence such decisions and their impact on natural resource uses. A total of 181 and 187 structured questionnaires were completed in livestock-keeping households in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso and Tamale (Ghana. Categorical principal component and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify homogenous groups of livestock-keeping households. Cross tabulation and logistic regression analysis revealed factors that influence livestock husbandry, showing their impacts on resource use by livestock keepers in the two cities. A diversity of livestock species was kept, mostly integrated with crop farming. Yet, some households specialized in either sheep, pig or commercial milk production, and partly intensified their production. The decision to specialize and/or intensify livestock production is site-specific and influenced by the education level of the household head and security of land ownership. Higher inputs in livestock systems do not necessarily lead to higher outputs, and specialization inevitably leads to higher manure wastages. Therefore, links of livestock producers to crop farmers and markets for livestock manure must be strengthened to enable recycling of resources and limit negative externalities of specialized livestock production. Strategies need to be identified to improve livestock productivity by enhancing outputs as input use increases.

  10. Scar sarcoidosis on a finger mimicking a rapidly growing soft tissue tumour: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrichs Marcel-Philipp

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scar sarcoidosis is a rare and uncommon but specific cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. In general it arises in pre-existing scars deriving from mechanical traumas. As most surgeons dealing with scars might not be aware of cutaneous sarcoidosis and its different types of appearance the appropriate staging and treatment might be missed or at least delayed. To our knowledge this is the first case in literature of scar sarcoidosis on a finger. Case presentation We present a case of a 33-year-old carpenter who developed scar sarcoidosis on his right index finger 4 years after the tendon of the long digital flexor got accidentally cut by an angle grinder. He was referred due to a swelling of the finger suspected to be a malignant soft tissue tumour. The circumference of the affected finger had almost doubled, adding up to 94 mm. Incision biopsy revealed typical noncaseating granulomas. Further investigation showed a systemic extent of the disease with involvement of the lung. A systemic treatment with oral steroids led to an almost full regression of the swelling with restoration of function and resolution of lung infiltrates. Conclusion In case of a suspicious and/or progressive swelling a definite diagnosis should be achieved by biopsy within a short time to enable a proper treatment. If scar sarcoidosis is proven further investigation is necessary to exclude a systemical involvement. A surgical treatment of the swelling is not indicated.

  11. Scar sarcoidosis on a finger mimicking a rapidly growing soft tissue tumour: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Marcel-Philipp; Streitbürger, Arne; Gosheger, Georg; Surke, Carsten; Dierkes, Christian; Hardes, Jendrik

    2012-10-02

    Scar sarcoidosis is a rare and uncommon but specific cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. In general it arises in pre-existing scars deriving from mechanical traumas. As most surgeons dealing with scars might not be aware of cutaneous sarcoidosis and its different types of appearance the appropriate staging and treatment might be missed or at least delayed. To our knowledge this is the first case in literature of scar sarcoidosis on a finger. We present a case of a 33-year-old carpenter who developed scar sarcoidosis on his right index finger 4 years after the tendon of the long digital flexor got accidentally cut by an angle grinder. He was referred due to a swelling of the finger suspected to be a malignant soft tissue tumour. The circumference of the affected finger had almost doubled, adding up to 94 mm. Incision biopsy revealed typical noncaseating granulomas. Further investigation showed a systemic extent of the disease with involvement of the lung. A systemic treatment with oral steroids led to an almost full regression of the swelling with restoration of function and resolution of lung infiltrates. In case of a suspicious and/or progressive swelling a definite diagnosis should be achieved by biopsy within a short time to enable a proper treatment. If scar sarcoidosis is proven further investigation is necessary to exclude a systemical involvement. A surgical treatment of the swelling is not indicated.

  12. PET/MR - a rapidly growing technique of imaging in oncology and neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałyga, Alicja; Guzikowska-Ruszkowska, Izabela; Czepczyński, Rafał; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) has become a subject of interest for researchers in the recent several years. Positron emission tomography in combination with magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is the most recent imaging technique classified in the so called hybrid systems category. This review briefly discusses the development history of PET/MR scanners, the principle of their operation, of tandem systems, as well as fully integrated devices. Further, it summarizes recent reports on the application of PET/MR scans and their possible future role in oncological and non-oncological diagnostics. Recent reports regarding the application of PET/MR scanners show huge potential of simultaneously received images, which exceed the advantages of either of those scans used separately. However, the results so far remain uncertain and require further investigations, especially in terms of clinical studies, not only for scientific purposes.

  13. A rapidly growing electronic publishing trend: audiobooks for leisure and education

    OpenAIRE

    Engelen, J J

    2008-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the relatively new phenomenon of the purely commercial availability of audiobooks, sometimes also called “spoken books”, “talking books” or “narrated books”. Having the text of a book read aloud and recorded has been for a very long time the favourite solution to make books and other texts accessible for persons with a serious reading impairment such as blindness or low vision. Specialised production centres do exist in most countries of the world for producing th...

  14. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 350 soil samples were collected from different part of Uremia city and suburbs. We used 3% sodium lauryl sulfate and 1% NaOH for decontamination of soil samples. Of 350 samples, mycobacteria were isolated from 65 (18.3%) specimens. Mycobacterium fortuitum with 18(5.14) strains yielded the highest ...

  15. Peptostreptococcus productus strain that grows rapidly with CO as the energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorowitz, W H; Bryant, M P

    1984-05-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were enriched with a sewage digestor sludge inoculum and a mineral medium supplemented with B-vitamins and 0.05% yeast extract and with a 50% CO-30% N2-20% CO2 (2 atm [202 kPa]) gas phase. Microscopic observation revealed an abundance of gram-positive cocci, 1.0 by 1.4 micron, which occurred in pairs or chains. The coccus, strain U-1, was isolated by using roll tubes with CO as the energy source. Based on morphology, sugars fermented, fermentation products from glucose (H2, acetate, lactate, and succinate), and other features, strain U-1 was identified as Peptostreptococcus productus IIb (similar to the type strain). The doubling time with up to 50% CO was 1.5 h; acetate and CO2 were the major products. In addition, no significant change in the doubling time was observed with 90% CO. Some stock strains were also able to use CO, although not as well. Strain U-1 produced acetate during growth with H2-CO2. Other C1 compounds did not support growth. Most probable numbers of CO utilizers morphologically identical with strain U-1 were 7.5 X 10(6) and 1.1 X 10(5) cells per g for anaerobic digestor sludge and human feces, respectively.

  16. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... A total of 350 soil samples were collected from different part of Uremia city and suburbs. We used 3% sodium lauryl sulfate and 1% NaOH for decontamination of soil samples. Of 350 samples, mycobacteria were isolated from 65 (18.3%) specimens. Mycobacterium fortuitum with 18(5.14) strains yielded the.

  17. Mycobacterium aquaticum sp. nov., a rapidly growing species isolated from haemodialysis water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Trovato, Alberto; Droz, Sara; Haidarieh, Parvin; Borroni, Emanuele; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Mannino, Roberta; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Mariottini, Alessandro; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Tortoli, Enrico

    2017-09-01

    The characterization of five Iranian isolates, four from hospital haemodialysis water and one from the sputum of a patient, led to the detection of a novel mycobacterium species. The strains were characterized by mucoid colonies developing in 3-5 days at temperatures ranging from 25 to 37 °C. The biochemical test pattern was unremarkable while the HPLC profile of mycolic acids resembled that of Mycobacterium fortuitum. The sequences of three major housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB) were unique and differed from those of any other mycobacterium. Mycobacterium brisbanense, which is the species that shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.03 %), was distinct, as shown by the average nucleotide identity and by the genome to genome distance values (91.05 and 43.10 %, respectively). The strains are thus considered to represent a novel species of the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquaticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RW6T (=DSM 104277T=CIP111198T).

  18. Predictors of Postpartum Depression in Dubai, a Rapidly Growing Multicultural Society in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhammadi, Salwa M; Hashem, Lien Abou; Abusbeih, Zainah R; Alzaabi, Fatima S; Alnuaimi, Salama N; Jalabi, Ala F; Nair, Satish C; Carrick, Frederick R; Abdulrahman, Mahera

    2017-09-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem adversely affecting mothers, their newborns, and other members of the family. Although PPD is common and potentially dangerous, only a minority of the cases are identified in primary health care settings during routine care, and the majority of depressed mothers in the community lies unrecognized and therefore untreated. In this study, a total of 1500 mothers were approached randomly, 808 accepted to participate, and 504 were within the inclusion criteria (women who had a birth of a singleton full-term healthy infant, had an uncomplicated pregnancy, and were within their one week to six months postpartum). The participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. A total of 168 women had an EPDS score ≥10, yielding a crude prevalence rate of 33%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 14 out of 504 (3%), among which 11 (79%) had EPDS score of ≥10. We fitted multiple linear regression models to evaluate the predictors of variables measured on the EPDS scale. This model was statistically significant ppredictors. The findings of this study are anticipated to entail the government and policy makers in the region to pay more attention to the apparently high prevalence of unrevealed PPD in the community. It is crucial to enhance screening mechanisms for early detection, providing interventions to manage symptoms, and at the same time mandating local guidelines to address the PPD pathology as a high priority for the UAE population.

  19. Metal-organic frameworks: a rapidly growing class of versatile nanoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Scott T; Greathouse, Jeffery A; Allendorf, Mark D

    2011-01-11

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a new class of hybrid organic-inorganic supramolecular materials comprised of ordered networks formed from organic electron donor linkers and metal cations. They can exhibit extremely high surface areas, as well as tunable pore size and functionality, and can act as hosts for a variety of guest molecules. Since their discovery, MOFs have enjoyed extensive exploration, with applications ranging from gas storage to drug delivery to sensing. This review covers advances in the MOF field from the past three years, focusing on applications, including gas separation, catalysis, drug delivery, optical and electronic applications, and sensing. We also summarize recent work on methods for MOF synthesis and computational modeling.

  20. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate is attributed to the influx rate, campaign design and implementation, and factors related to child and career mobi- lity. Alternative immunisation strategies, with social awareness playing a key role, are being urgently investigated. S Air Med J 1989; 76: 157-159. Measles became a notifiable disease in the RSA in 1979.1.

  1. Contralateral trigeminal neuralgia in a rapidly growing vestibular schwannoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngbeom; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2018-01-01

    We present a rare case of vestibular schwannoma (VS) with contralateral trigeminal neuralgia. A 59 year-old woman presented with right-sided trigeminal neuralgia and a small VS in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) that was found via magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was administered medication; however, her symptoms gradually aggravated, and the size of the tumor increased. Two years after the initial diagnosis, the patient underwent surgical resection. After surgical resection, the patient's facial pain was improved. The trigeminal neuralgia appeared to be related to brainstem displacement caused by the contralateral VS. For VS with contralateral trigeminal neuralgia, surgical resection of the tumor should be considered as a possible treatment strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiphase Image Segmentation Using the Deformable Simplicial Complex Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Vedrana Andersen; Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2014-01-01

    in image segmentation based on deformable models. We show the benefits of using the deformable simplicial complex method for image segmentation by segmenting an image into a known number of segments characterized by distinct mean pixel intensities....

  3. Segmentation and labeling of documents using conditional random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shravya; Srinivasan, Harish; Beal, Matthew; Srihari, Sargur

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the use of Conditional Random Fields(CRF) utilizing contextual information in automatically labeling extracted segments of scanned documents as Machine-print, Handwriting and Noise. The result of such a labeling can serve as an indexing step for a context-based image retrieval system or a bio-metric signature verification system. A simple region growing algorithm is first used to segment the document into a number of patches. A label for each such segmented patch is inferred using a CRF model. The model is flexible enough to include signatures as a type of handwriting and isolate it from machine-print and noise. The robustness of the model is due to the inherent nature of modeling neighboring spatial dependencies in the labels as well as the observed data using CRF. Maximum pseudo-likelihood estimates for the parameters of the CRF model are learnt using conjugate gradient descent. Inference of labels is done by computing the probability of the labels under the model with Gibbs sampling. Experimental results show that this approach provides for 95.75% of the data being assigned correct labels. The CRF based model is shown to be superior to Neural Networks and Naive Bayes.

  4. Geometry-Based Pectoral Muscle Segmentation From MLO Mammogram Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghanaki, Saeid Asgari; Liu, Yonghuai; Miles, Brandon; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    Computer-aided diagnosis systems (CADx) play a major role in the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Extracting the breast region precisely from a mammogram is an essential component of CADx for mammography. The appearance of the pectoral muscle on medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views increases the false positive rate in CADx. Therefore, the pectoral muscle should be identified and removed from the breast region in an MLO image before further analysis. None of the previous pectoral muscle segmentation methods address all breast types based on the breast imaging-reporting and data system tissue density classes. In this paper, we deal with this deficiency by introducing a new simple yet effective method that combines geometric rules with a region growing algorithm to support the segmentation of all types of pectoral muscles (normal, convex, concave, and combinatorial). Experimental segmentation accuracy results were reported for four tissue density classes on 872 MLO images from three publicly available datasets. An average Jaccard index and Dice similarity coefficient of 0.972 ± 0.003 and 0.985 ± 0.001 were obtained, respectively. The mean Hausdorff distance between the contours detected by our method and the ground truth is below 5 mm for all datasets. An average acceptable segmentation rate of ∼95% was achieved outperforming several state-of-the-art competing methods. Excellent results were obtained even for the most challenging class of extremely dense breasts.Computer-aided diagnosis systems (CADx) play a major role in the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Extracting the breast region precisely from a mammogram is an essential component of CADx for mammography. The appearance of the pectoral muscle on medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views increases the false positive rate in CADx. Therefore, the pectoral muscle should be identified and removed from the breast region in an MLO image before further analysis. None of the previous pectoral muscle segmentation

  5. Object-based change detection in rapid urbanization regions with remotely sensed observations: a case study of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lihuang; Dong, Guihua; Wang, Wei-Min; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    China, the most populous country on Earth, has experienced rapid urbanization which is one of the main causes of many environmental and ecological problems. Therefore, the monitoring of rapid urbanization regions and the environment is of critical importance for their sustainable development. In this study, the object-based classification is employed to detect the change of land cover in Shenzhen, which is located in South China and has been urbanized rapidly in recent three decades. First, four Landsat TM images, which were acquired on 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively, are selected from the image database. Atmospheric corrections are conducted on these images with improved dark-object subtraction technique and surface meteorological observations. Geometric correction is processed with ground control points derived from topographic maps. Second, a region growing multi-resolution segmentation and a soft nearest neighbour classifier are used to finish object-based classification. After analyzing the fraction of difference classes over time series, we conclude that the comparison of derived land cover classes with socio-economic statistics demonstrates the strong positive correlation between built-up classes and urban population as well as gross GDP and GDPs in second and tertiary industries. Two different mechanisms of urbanization, namely new land development and redevelopment, are revealed. Consequently, we found that, the districts of Shenzhen were urbanized through different mechanisms.

  6. Discriminative parameter estimation for random walks segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Pierre-Yves; Goodman, Danny; Kumrnar, Puneet; Azzabou, Noura; Carlier, Pierre G; Paragios, Nikos; Kumar, M Pawan

    2013-01-01

    The Random Walks (RW) algorithm is one of the most efficient and easy-to-use probabilistic segmentation methods. By combining contrast terms with prior terms, it provides accurate segmentations of medical images in a fully automated manner. However, one of the main drawbacks of using the RW algorithm is that its parameters have to be hand-tuned. we propose a novel discriminative learning framework that estimates the parameters using a training dataset. The main challenge we face is that the training samples are not fully supervised. Specifically, they provide a hard segmentation of the images, instead of a probabilistic segmentation. We overcome this challenge by treating the optimal probabilistic segmentation that is compatible with the given hard segmentation as a latent variable. This allows us to employ the latent support vector machine formulation for parameter estimation. We show that our approach significantly outperforms the baseline methods on a challenging dataset consisting of real clinical 3D MRI volumes of skeletal muscles.

  7. CDIS: Circle Density Based Iris Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anand; Kumari, Anita; Kundu, Boris; Agarwal, Isha

    Biometrics is an automated approach of measuring and analysing physical and behavioural characteristics for identity verification. The stability of the Iris texture makes it a robust biometric tool for security and authentication purposes. Reliable Segmentation of Iris is a necessary precondition as an error at this stage will propagate into later stages and requires proper segmentation of non-ideal images having noises like eyelashes, etc. Iris Segmentation work has been done earlier but we feel it lacks in detecting iris in low contrast images, removal of specular reflections, eyelids and eyelashes. Hence, it motivates us to enhance the said parameters. Thus, we advocate a new approach CDIS for Iris segmentation along with new algorithms for removal of eyelashes, eyelids and specular reflections and pupil segmentation. The results obtained have been presented using GAR vs. FAR graphs at the end and have been compared with prior works related to segmentation of iris.

  8. Intelligent multi-spectral IR image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Thomas; Luong, Andrew; Heim, Stephen; Patel, Maharshi; Chen, Kang; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Chow, Edward; Torres, Gilbert

    2017-05-01

    This article presents a neural network based multi-spectral image segmentation method. A neural network is trained on the selected features of both the objects and background in the longwave (LW) Infrared (IR) images. Multiple iterations of training are performed until the accuracy of the segmentation reaches satisfactory level. The segmentation boundary of the LW image is used to segment the midwave (MW) and shortwave (SW) IR images. A second neural network detects the local discontinuities and refines the accuracy of the local boundaries. This article compares the neural network based segmentation method to the Wavelet-threshold and Grab-Cut methods. Test results have shown increased accuracy and robustness of this segmentation scheme for multi-spectral IR images.

  9. Hierarchical image segmentation for learning object priors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.; Li, Nan [TEMPLE UNIV.

    2010-11-10

    The proposed segmentation approach naturally combines experience based and image based information. The experience based information is obtained by training a classifier for each object class. For a given test image, the result of each classifier is represented as a probability map. The final segmentation is obtained with a hierarchial image segmentation algorithm that considers both the probability maps and the image features such as color and edge strength. We also utilize image region hierarchy to obtain not only local but also semi-global features as input to the classifiers. Moreover, to get robust probability maps, we take into account the region context information by averaging the probability maps over different levels of the hierarchical segmentation algorithm. The obtained segmentation results are superior to the state-of-the-art supervised image segmentation algorithms.

  10. Segmental neurofibromatosis: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Engin; Senayli, Atilla; Sezer, Taner; Bicakci, Unal

    2006-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis (NF), or von Recklinghausen's disease is comprised of a heterogeneous group of disorders, primarily affecting the skin, soft tissue, bone and central nervous system. Segmental neurofibromatosis (SN) is a rare form of NF, characterized by "café-au-lait" macules, freckles, and/or neurofibromas limited to a body segment. There are approximately 150 cases reported in the English published work. Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare subtype of SN, manifesting with bilateral involvement of the body segments. Herein, we report two patients with SN; one associated with pectus excavatum, and the other case diagnosed as bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis. Asymmetry of the skull and thorax, kyphoscoliosis and segmental bone hypertrophy of the leg are skeletal abnormalities previously reported with SN. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of SN in association with pectus excavatum.

  11. Hierarchical photo stream segmentation using context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bo; Jain, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    Photo stream segmentation is to segment photo streams into groups, each of which corresponds to an event. Photo stream segmentation can be done with or without prior knowledge of event structure. In this paper, we study the problem by assuming that there is no a priori event model available. Although both context and content information are important for photo stream segmentation, we focus on investigating the usage of context information in this work. We consider different information components of context such as time, location, and optical setting for inexpensive segmentation of photo streams from common users of modern digital camera. As events are hierarchical, we propose to segment photo stream using hierarchical mixture model. We compare the generated hierarchy with that created by users to see how well results can be obtained without knowing the prior event model. We experimented with about 3000 photos from amateur photographers to study the efficacy of the approach for these context information components.

  12. The SGIA and the Common Growing Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu CIOVICA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human or virtual agents are presented in our lives daily. They serve our purposes and represent us in different many situations. Nowadays the number of virtual agents is increasing daily because they are cheaper, faster and more accurate than human agents. Our aim in this article is to define a new type of intelligent agent called SGIA – Self Growing Intelligent Agent and a new defining language for it. The SGIA agent is an intelligent agent with all the common agents’ characteristics and with other special one: that to learn and grow by itself in knowledge and size.

  13. Growing pioneer plants for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N. O.; Lutvynenko, T. L.; Korniichuk, O. S.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Voznyuk, T. M.; Kononuchenko, O.; Zaetz, I.; Rogutskyy, I. S.; Mytrokhyn, O. V.; Mashkovska, S. P.; Foing, B. H.; Kordyum, V. A.

    A precursory scenario of cultivating the first plants in a lunar greenhouse was elaborated in frames of a conceptual study to grow plants for a permanently manned lunar base. A prototype plant growth system represents an ornamental plant Tagetes patula L. for growing in a lunar rock anorthosite as a substrate. Microbial community anticipated to be in use to support a growth and development of the plant in a substrate of low bioavailability and provide an acceptable growth and blossoming of T. patula under growth limiting conditions.

  14. Forestry friendship : integrated land management gains growing support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.W.

    2007-06-15

    This article addressed the small but growing number of responsible stewards of the planet who advocate a coordinated approach to industrial growth in Alberta, with particular focus on integrated land management between oil sand mining and the forestry sector. Although Canada's oil sand resource provides the United States and Canada with a secure, long-term source of oil, Alberta's northern boreal forest has been permanently changed in the process of mining and producing this resource. Integrated land management refers to a new awareness that acting in isolation often results in negative implications for other users of the land and their resource values. It was suggested that companies can effectively reduce their cumulative impact on the environment through cooperation. A computer model was developed at the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Alberta to calculate the cumulative effects of future industrial development. A landscape cumulative effects simulator (ALCES) makes use of a massive relational database to demonstrate how the overlay of individual types of industrial development will affect a defined area. With ALCES, the computer displays a series of maps showing the effects of industrial footprint and population growth in successive 10-year segments. It was shown that oilsands mining has changed nearly 70,000 hectares of northeast Alberta, with a series of roads, pipelines, industrial buildings and seismic lines. A customized scenario was used by ALCES in which bitumen production was assumed to increase to 2.5 million barrels per day. The model result showed that by 2100, the size of the area affected by oil sand mining pits, disposal sites, tailing ponds, and end-pit lakes will grow to between 180,000 and 250,000 hectares. The benefits of coordinated planning between competitive oil companies working in the area that stretches from Fort McMurray to the Cold Lake area were showcased by the Alberta-Pacific Forestry Industries. 2

  15. The Registration and Segmentation of Heterogeneous Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Durgham, Mohannad M.

    Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) mapping has been emerging over the past few years as a mainstream tool for the dense acquisition of three dimensional point data. Besides the conventional mapping missions, LiDAR systems have proven to be very useful for a wide spectrum of applications such as forestry, structural deformation analysis, urban mapping, and reverse engineering. The wide application scope of LiDAR lead to the development of many laser scanning technologies that are mountable on multiple platforms (i.e., airborne, mobile terrestrial, and tripod mounted), this caused variations in the characteristics and quality of the generated point clouds. As a result of the increased popularity and diversity of laser scanners, one should address the heterogeneous LiDAR data post processing (i.e., registration and segmentation) problems adequately. Current LiDAR integration techniques do not take into account the varying nature of laser scans originating from various platforms. In this dissertation, the author proposes a methodology designed particularly for the registration and segmentation of heterogeneous LiDAR data. A data characterization and filtering step is proposed to populate the points' attributes and remove non-planar LiDAR points. Then, a modified version of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP), denoted by the Iterative Closest Projected Point (ICPP) is designed for the registration of heterogeneous scans to remove any misalignments between overlapping strips. Next, a region-growing-based heterogeneous segmentation algorithm is developed to ensure the proper extraction of planar segments from the point clouds. Validation experiments show that the proposed heterogeneous registration can successfully align airborne and terrestrial datasets despite the great differences in their point density and their noise level. In addition, similar testes have been conducted to examine the heterogeneous segmentation and it is shown that one is able to identify common

  16. Classifier combination for wafer segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeat, Pierrick T.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2005-02-01

    In the last decade, the accessibility of inexpensive and powerful computers has allowed true digital holography to be used for industrial inspection. This technique allows capturing a complex image of a scene (i.e. containing magnitude and phase), and reconstructing the phase and magnitude information. Digital holograms give a new dimension to texture analysis since the topology information can be used as an additional way to extract features. This new technique can be used to extend previous work on image segmentation of patterned wafers for defect detection. This paper presents a combination of features obtained from Gabor filters on different complex images. The combination enables to cope with the intensity variations occurring during the holography and provides final results which are independent from the selected training samples.

  17. Benchmarking of Remote Sensing Segmentation Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikeš, Stanislav; Haindl, Michal; Scarpa, G.; Gaetano, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2015), s. 2240-2248 ISSN 1939-1404 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : benchmark * remote sensing segmentation * unsupervised segmentation * supervised segmentation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/RO/haindl-0445995.pdf

  18. Automatic segmentation of speech into syllables

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, Piet

    1987-01-01

    A multiple pass procedure for the automatic segmentation of syllabic units is described which involves (1) a broad segmentation triggered by the dips in the intensity curve of band-pass filtered speech, (2) a further segmentation on the basis of the shape of the curve, and (3) the readjustment of the syllabic nucleus within syllable boundaries, based on the intensity of the unfiltered speech.

  19. Segmentation in the brazilian labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Fernando; Ponczek, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2007-01-01

    This paper measures the degree of segmentation in the brazilian labor market. Controlling for observable and unobservable characteristics, workers earn more in the formal sector, which supports the segmentation hypothesis. We break down the degree of segmentation by socio-economic attributes to identify the groups where this phenomenon is more prevalent. We investigate the robustness of our findings to the inclusion of self-employed individuals, and apply a two-stage panel probit model using ...

  20. Segmenting Consumers Based on Luxury Value Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Teimourpour; Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee; Babak Teimourpour

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to discover consumer segments by using a multidimensional concept of luxury by encompassing functional, individual and social components in the luxury market. Survey data was collected from 1097 consumers in Iran. Eight luxury factors were indentified through an exploratory factor analysis. These factors are used for segmenting these consumers with the K-means method. Cluster analysis of the data resulted in four different behavioral style segments namely: non-luxury consumer...

  1. Invariant texture segmentation via circular gabor filter

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Jianguo; Tan, Tieniu

    2002-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we focus on invariant texture segmentation, and propose a new method using circular Gabor filters (CGF) for rotation invariant texture segmentation. The traditional Gabor function is modified into a circular symmetric version. The rotation invariant texture features are achieved via the channel output of the CGF. A new scheme of the selection of Gabor parameters is also proposed for texture segmentation. Experiments show the efficacy of this method

  2. Analysing the Methods of Dzongkha Word Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhungyel Parshu Ram; Grundspeņķis Jānis

    2017-01-01

    In both Chinese and Dzongkha languages, the greatest challenge is to identify the word boundaries because there are no word delimiters as it is in English and other Western languages. Therefore, preprocessing and word segmentation is the first step in Dzongkha language processing, such as translation, spell-checking, and information retrieval. Research on Chinese word segmentation was conducted long time ago. Therefore, it is relatively mature, but the Dzongkha word segmentation has been less...

  3. IFRS 8 Operating Segments - A Closer Look

    OpenAIRE

    Muthupandian, K S

    2008-01-01

    The International Accounting Standards Board issued the International Financial Reporting Standard 8 Operating Segments. Segment information is one of the most vital aspects of financial reporting for investors and other users. The IFRS 8 requires an entity to adopt the ‘management approach’ to reporting on the financial performance of its operating segments. This article presents a closer look of the standard (objective, scope, and disclosures).

  4. Validation of volumetric and single-slice MRI adipose analysis using a novel fully automated segmentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addeman, Bryan T; Kutty, Shelby; Perkins, Thomas G; Soliman, Abraam S; Wiens, Curtis N; McCurdy, Colin M; Beaton, Melanie D; Hegele, Robert A; McKenzie, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    To validate a fully automated adipose segmentation method with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fat fraction abdominal imaging. We hypothesized that this method is suitable for segmentation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) in a wide population range, easy to use, works with a variety of hardware setups, and is highly repeatable. Analysis was performed comparing precision and analysis time of manual and automated segmentation of single-slice imaging, and volumetric imaging (78-88 slices). Volumetric and single-slice data were acquired in a variety of cohorts (body mass index [BMI] 15.6-41.76) including healthy adult volunteers, adolescent volunteers, and subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and lipodystrophies. A subset of healthy volunteers was analyzed for repeatability in the measurements. The fully automated segmentation was found to have excellent agreement with manual segmentation with no substantial bias across all study cohorts. Repeatability tests showed a mean coefficient of variation of 1.2 ± 0.6% for SAT, and 2.7 ± 2.2% for IAAT. Analysis with automated segmentation was rapid, requiring 2 seconds per slice compared with 8 minutes per slice with manual segmentation. We demonstrate the ability to accurately and rapidly segment regional adipose tissue using fat fraction maps across a wide population range, with varying hardware setups and acquisition methods. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Difficulties in Lexical Stress versus Difficulties in Segmental Phonology among Adolescents with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Protopapas, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    Dyslexic difficulties in lexical stress were compared to difficulties in segmental phonology. Twenty-nine adolescents with dyslexia and 29 typically developing adolescents, matched on age and nonverbal ability, were assessed on reading, spelling, phonological and stress awareness, rapid naming, and short-term memory. Group differences in stress…

  6. LOGISTICS PRINCIPLES SEGMENTING CONSUMER COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Карпунь, О.В.

    2013-01-01

    In article traditional methods customer segmentation were investigated and were ordered logistical principals of customer segmentation for receiving maximum profits and minimizing expenses. В статье были исследованы традиционные методы сегментации потребительского рынка и предложены логистические принципы сегментации потребителей компании с целью получения максимальной прибыли при минимизации затрат. В статті були досліджені традиційні маркетингові методи сегментації споживчого ринку та...

  7. Weighted Exponential Region Energy Model for River Segmentation of SAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Bin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional active contour models can hardly achieve the accurate river segmentation of SAR images. To solve this problem, a novel active contour model with weighted exponential region energy is proposed, which can extract rivers in SAR images accurately. The exponential region energy is incorporated into the energy functional of the Chan-Vese model, which can measure the difference between the segmented image and the original image, resulting in the improvement of segmentation accuracy of the model. In addition, the maximum absolute differences of the pixel grayscale values inside the object and background regions are utilized to replace the original constant region energy weights, which can adaptively adjust the ratios of the object and background region energies and accelerate the motion of the curve towards the boundaries of the object region, resulting in the higher segmentation efficiency. The experiments are performed on real SAR images of rivers and results demonstrate that compared with the traditional active contour models, the proposed model can segment rivers in SAR images more rapidly and accurately and has some advantages in terms of both segmentation performance and segmentation efficiency.

  8. Bayesian segmentation of brainstem structures in MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen; Bhatt, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to segment four brainstem structures (midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata and superior cerebellar peduncle) from 3D brain MRI scans. The segmentation method relies on a probabilistic atlas of the brainstem and its neighboring brain structures. To build the atlas, we...... the brainstem structures in novel scans. Thanks to the generative nature of the scheme, the segmentation method is robust to changes in MRI contrast or acquisition hardware. Using cross validation, we show that the algorithm can segment the structures in previously unseen T1 and FLAIR scans with great accuracy...

  9. Osmotic and Heat Stress Effects on Segmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiss, Julian; Devoto, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    .... Environmental stresses such as hypoxia or heat shock produce segmentation defects, and significantly increase the penetrance and severity of vertebral defects in genetically susceptible individuals...

  10. Probabilistic Segmentation of Folk Music Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciril Bohak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel method for automatic segmentation of folk music field recordings. The method is based on a distance measure that uses dynamic time warping to cope with tempo variations and a dynamic programming approach to handle pitch drifting for finding similarities and estimating the length of repeating segment. A probabilistic framework based on HMM is used to find segment boundaries, searching for optimal match between the expected segment length, between-segment similarities, and likely locations of segment beginnings. Evaluation of several current state-of-the-art approaches for segmentation of commercial music is presented and their weaknesses when dealing with folk music are exposed, such as intolerance to pitch drift and variable tempo. The proposed method is evaluated and its performance analyzed on a collection of 206 folk songs of different ensemble types: solo, two- and three-voiced, choir, instrumental, and instrumental with singing. It outperforms current commercial music segmentation methods for noninstrumental music and is on a par with the best for instrumental recordings. The method is also comparable to a more specialized method for segmentation of solo singing folk music recordings.

  11. Study on segmented distribution for reliability evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyuan Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In practice, the failure rate of most equipment exhibits different tendencies at different stages and even its failure rate curve behaves a multimodal trace during its life cycle. As a result, traditionally evaluating the reliability of equipment with a single model may lead to severer errors. However, if lifetime is divided into several different intervals according to the characteristics of its failure rate, piecewise fitting can more accurately approximate the failure rate of equipment. Therefore, in this paper, failure rate is regarded as a piecewise function, and two kinds of segmented distribution are put forward to evaluate reliability. In order to estimate parameters in the segmented reliability function, Bayesian estimation and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE of the segmented distribution are discussed in this paper. Since traditional information criterion is not suitable for the segmented distribution, an improved information criterion is proposed to test and evaluate the segmented reliability model in this paper. After a great deal of testing and verification, the segmented reliability model and its estimation methods presented in this paper are proven more efficient and accurate than the traditional non-segmented single model, especially when the change of the failure rate is time-phased or multimodal. The significant performance of the segmented reliability model in evaluating reliability of proximity sensors of leading-edge flap in civil aircraft indicates that the segmented distribution and its estimation method in this paper could be useful and accurate.

  12. The First Active Segmented Mirror at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonté, Frédéric; Dupuy, Christophe; Frank, Christoph; Araujo, Constanza; Brast, Roland; Frahm, Robert; Karban, Robert; Andolfato, Luigi; Esteves, Regina; Nylund, Matty; Sedghi, Babak; Fischer, Gerhard; Noethe, Lothar; Derie, Frédéric

    2007-06-01

    The Active Phasing Experiment (APE) is part of the Extremely Large Telescope Design Study which is supported by the European Framework Programme 6. This experiment, which is conducted in collaboration with several partners is a demonstrator to test and qualify newly-developed phasing sensors for the alignment of segmented mirrors and test the phasing software within a telescope control system to be developed for a future European Extremely Large Telescope. The segmentation of a primary mirror is simulated by a scaled-down Active Segmented Mirror of 61 segments which has been developed in-house.

  13. Interactive segmentation techniques algorithms and performance evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jia; Kuo, C-C Jay

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on interactive segmentation techniques, which have been extensively studied in recent decades. Interactive segmentation emphasizes clear extraction of objects of interest, whose locations are roughly indicated by human interactions based on high level perception. This book will first introduce classic graph-cut segmentation algorithms and then discuss state-of-the-art techniques, including graph matching methods, region merging and label propagation, clustering methods, and segmentation methods based on edge detection. A comparative analysis of these methods will be provided

  14. Analysing the Methods of Dzongkha Word Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhungyel Parshu Ram

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In both Chinese and Dzongkha languages, the greatest challenge is to identify the word boundaries because there are no word delimiters as it is in English and other Western languages. Therefore, preprocessing and word segmentation is the first step in Dzongkha language processing, such as translation, spell-checking, and information retrieval. Research on Chinese word segmentation was conducted long time ago. Therefore, it is relatively mature, but the Dzongkha word segmentation has been less studied by researchers. In the paper, we have investigated this major problem in Dzongkha language processing using a probabilistic approach for selecting valid segments with probability being computed on the basis of the corpus.

  15. Review of segmentation process in consumer markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been a considerable debate on market segmentation over five decades, attention was merely devoted to single stages of the segmentation process. In doing so, stages as segmentation base selection or segments profiling have been heavily covered in the extant literature, whereas stages as implementation of the marketing strategy or market definition were of a comparably lower interest. Capitalizing on this shortcoming, this paper strives to close the gap and provide each step of the segmentation process with equal treatment. Hence, the objective of this paper is two-fold. First, a snapshot of the segmentation process in a step-by-step fashion will be provided. Second, each step (where possible will be evaluated on chosen criteria by means of description, comparison, analysis and synthesis of 32 academic papers and 13 commercial typology systems. Ultimately, the segmentation stages will be discussed with empirical findings prevalent in the segmentation studies and last but not least suggestions calling for further investigation will be presented. This seven-step-framework may assist when segmenting in practice allowing for more confidential targeting which in turn might prepare grounds for creating of a differential advantage.

  16. Polarimetric Segmentation Using Wishart Test Statistic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Schou, Jesper; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2002-01-01

    ) approach, which is a merging algorithm for single channel SAR images. The polarimetric version described in this paper uses the above-mentioned test statistic for merging. The segmentation algorithm has been applied to polarimetric SAR data from the Danish dual-frequency, airborne polarimetric SAR, EMISAR......A newly developed test statistic for equality of two complex covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution and an associated asymptotic probability for the test statistic has been used in a segmentation algorithm. The segmentation algorithm is based on the MUM (merge using moments....... The results show clearly an improved segmentation performance for the full polarimetric algorithm compared to single channel approaches....

  17. Fully automated lumen segmentation of intracoronary optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, L. S.; Rikhtegar, Farhad; Galon, Micheli Zanotti; Lopes, Augusto Celso; Lemos, Pedro Alves; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high-resolution cross-sectional images of arterial luminal morphology. Traditionally lumen segmentation of OCT images is performed manually by expert observers; a laborious, time consuming effort, sensitive to inter-observer variability process. Although several automated methods have been developed, the majority cannot be applied in real time because of processing demands. To address these limitations we propose a new method for rapid image segmentation of arterial lumen borders using OCT images that involves the following steps: 1) OCT image acquisition using the raw OCT data, 2) reconstruction of longitudinal cross-section (LOCS) images from four different acquisition angles, 3) segmentation of the LOCS images and 4) lumen contour construction in each 2D cross-sectional image. The efficiency of the developed method was evaluated using 613 annotated images from 10 OCT pullbacks acquired from 10 patients at the time of coronary arterial interventions. High Pearson's correlation coefficient was obtained when lumen areas detected by the method were compared to areas annotated by experts (r=0.98, R2=0.96); Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant bias with good limits of agreement. The proposed methodology permits reliable border detection especially in lumen areas having artifacts and is faster than traditional techniques making it capable of being used in real time applications. The method is likely to assist in a number of research and clinical applications - further testing in an expanded clinical arena will more fully define the limits and potential of this approach.

  18. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  19. Rapid Statistical Learning Supporting Word Extraction From Continuous Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J

    2017-07-01

    The identification of words in continuous speech, known as speech segmentation, is a critical early step in language acquisition. This process is partially supported by statistical learning, the ability to extract patterns from the environment. Given that speech segmentation represents a potential bottleneck for language acquisition, patterns in speech may be extracted very rapidly, without extensive exposure. This hypothesis was examined by exposing participants to continuous speech streams composed of novel repeating nonsense words. Learning was measured on-line using a reaction time task. After merely one exposure to an embedded novel word, learners demonstrated significant learning effects, as revealed by faster responses to predictable than to unpredictable syllables. These results demonstrate that learners gained sensitivity to the statistical structure of unfamiliar speech on a very rapid timescale. This ability may play an essential role in early stages of language acquisition, allowing learners to rapidly identify word candidates and "break in" to an unfamiliar language.

  20. Growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E Marie; Shores, Andrew; Meintel, Sarah; Hathcock, John T

    2014-09-01

    Growing skull fractures have been reported in humans for many years, usually resulting from injury to the soft skull during the rapid growth period of an infant's life. Nestling raptors have thin, fragile skulls, a rapid growth rate, and compete aggressively for food items. Skull trauma may occur, which may lead to the development of a growing skull fracture. Growing skull fractures may be under-diagnosed in raptor rehabilitation facilities that do not have access to advanced technologic equipment. Three-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography was used to diagnose a growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). The lesion was surgically repaired and the animal was eventually returned to the wild. This is the first report of a growing skull fracture in an animal. In this case, 3-D computed topographic imaging was utilized to diagnose a growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk, surgical repair was performed, and the bird recovered completely and was ultimately released.

  1. Growing up Female: As Six become One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Karen; Balto, Sylvia

    1971-01-01

    Growing up Female: As Six Become One" is an excellent film for people of any age and appropriate for any group. The film explores the lives of six American women showing how they are socialized and what their roles in society are. (Author)

  2. Growing Languages with Metamorphic Syntax Macros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    simultaneously on multiple parse trees at once. The result is a highly flexible mechanism for growing new language constructs without resorting to compile-time programming. In fact, whole new languages can be defined at surprisingly low cost.This work is fully implemented as part of the bigwig system...

  3. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  4. What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: June 2015 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Why Do I Have Pain? How Do Pain Relievers Work? Growth Disorders I'm Growing Up - But Am I Normal? What Medicines Are and What They Do Feeling Too Tall or Too Short Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  5. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  6. Growing Up in Germany: A National Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krappmann, Lothar

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes a Federal Ministry of Youth report on the conditions under which children grow up in Germany. Notes manifold problems that children face under today's living conditions. Presents recommendations and suggestions for providing a network of measures, relationships, and institutions to support children's development and education in family,…

  7. Determination of responses of growing pigs to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-03-09

    Mar 9, 1998 ... The responses in growing pigs to balanced diets at different dietary energy levels are estimated from published data after recalculation of digestible energy (DE) iev- els using standard tables. Although responses in live weight gain (ADG), food intake (Fl), digestible energy intake (DEI) and food conversion ...

  8. How fast to northern hardwoods grow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapheal Zon; H.F. Scholz

    1929-01-01

    The knowledge of the rate at which trees grow in virgin forests, after clear cutting and under selective logging, is indispensable in any forest calculations or forest practice. The enactment of the Forest Crop Law, which brought under its operation about 175,000 acres of cut-over land during the first year, the example set by several progressive lumbermen in selective...

  9. Growing Up in an Alcoholic Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Stephanie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses problems faced by children growing up in an alcoholic family. Reviews four survivor roles of children of alcoholics (COAs): super-coper, scapegoat, lost child, and family mascot. Describes alcoholism as a disease of denial. Reviews the Children of Alcoholics movement begun by adult COAs to become advocates for COAs. (NB)

  10. Growing up as a Young Artist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2012-01-01

    "Growing Up as a Young Artist" is an illustrated book assignment that involves researching family scrapbooks, photo albums and films, and inquiring about family anecdotes for clues to one's artistic roots. Students creatively reflect on their early memories of imaginative events, as each page is filled with memories of creative activities they…

  11. Play Games to Grow up Bilingual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2007-01-01

    A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items, that...

  12. Play Games to Grow up Bilingual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2008-01-01

    A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items, that...

  13. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  14. growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermoregulation and evaporative water loss in growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus. M.H. Knight. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. With an increase in mass, weaned giant rat pups. Cricetomys gambianus, showed a corresponding decline in mass specific metabolism, conductance ...

  15. SU-C-207B-03: A Geometrical Constrained Chan-Vese Based Tumor Segmentation Scheme for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L; Zhou, Z; Wang, J [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation of tumor in PET is challenging when part of tumor is connected with normal organs/tissues with no difference in intensity. Conventional segmentation methods, such as thresholding or region growing, cannot generate satisfactory results in this case. We proposed a geometrical constrained Chan-Vese based scheme to segment tumor in PET for this special case by considering the similarity between two adjacent slices. Methods: The proposed scheme performs segmentation in a slice-by-slice fashion where an accurate segmentation of one slice is used as the guidance for segmentation of rest slices. For a slice that the tumor is not directly connected to organs/tissues with similar intensity values, a conventional clustering-based segmentation method under user’s guidance is used to obtain an exact tumor contour. This is set as the initial contour and the Chan-Vese algorithm is applied for segmenting the tumor in the next adjacent slice by adding constraints of tumor size, position and shape information. This procedure is repeated until the last slice of PET containing tumor. The proposed geometrical constrained Chan-Vese based algorithm was implemented in Matlab and its performance was tested on several cervical cancer patients where cervix and bladder are connected with similar activity values. The positive predictive values (PPV) are calculated to characterize the segmentation accuracy of the proposed scheme. Results: Tumors were accurately segmented by the proposed method even when they are connected with bladder in the image with no difference in intensity. The average PPVs were 0.9571±0.0355 and 0.9894±0.0271 for 17 slices and 11 slices of PET from two patients, respectively. Conclusion: We have developed a new scheme to segment tumor in PET images for the special case that the tumor is quite similar to or connected to normal organs/tissues in the image. The proposed scheme can provide a reliable way for segmenting tumors.

  16. CARROT SEED GROWING THROUGH WINTERING SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Zvedenuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research work on carrot seed growing through wintering seedlings carried out at laboratory of seed studies and seed production of Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture, on the soil of the first terrace at the rive Dniester were presented in the article. Seed bearing plants of garden carrot ‘Krasavka’ were the object of the study. The seeds were sown to produce the seedlings on 15-16 August. In the first decade of December the plants were covered with white agrotextile with density 23g/m2 that was removed at the beginning of April. The proportion of plant that passed the winter depending on a year of cultivation was 95-100% under argotextile, and 50-80% in open plot. The plants under agrotextile reached 28 cm a high and had 5-7 well-developed leaves, while those on the open plot were at phase of active foliage growing about 10-13 cm. long. Thus, for early mechanized planting in optimal terms the wintering seedlings grown under agrotextile had the best biometrical characteristics. Moreover the outcome of carrot seedlings was 1.2-1.25 million per hectare. Such quantity of seedlings was sufficient to plant 9-10 ha of carrot plants, where the coefficient of multiplication reached 9-10, and only 3 when growing seeds through mother plant as biennial culture. Viability of seed plants grown through seedlings was 100%. Losses of plant with weight 120-150 grams from damage caused by diseases was 23%. The seed yield, when growing seedlings was 639 kg/ha, but growing through plants was 332 kg/ha. The seed outcome suitable for precise mechanized sowing through seedling growing was 77%, where seed germination was 90%, with seed fraction 1.51 and >2.0 mm. It was essentially improved their yielding characteristics. Seed outcome from this fraction obtained through planting method was 32%. The proportion of seeds in fraction 1-1.5 mm was 68%. For mechanized single-seed sowing, the seeds can be used only after mini-coating. The seed

  17. Biotechnology and genetic optimization of fast-growing hardwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garton, S.; Syrkin-Wurtele, E.; Griffiths, H.; Schell, J.; Van Camp, L.; Bulka, K. (NPI, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1991-02-01

    A biotechnology research program was initiated to develop new clones of fast-growing Populus clones resistant to the herbicide glyphosate and resistant to the leaf-spot and canker disease caused by the fungus Septoria musiva. Glyphosate-resistant callus was selected from stem segments cultured in vitro on media supplemented with the herbicide. Plants were regenerated from the glyphosate-resistant callus tissue. A portion of plants reverted to a glyphosate susceptible phenotype during organogenesis. A biologically active filtrate was prepared from S. musiva and influenced fresh weight of Populus callus tissue. Disease-resistant plants were produced through somaclonal variation when shoots developed on stem internodes cultured in vitro. Plantlets were screened for disease symptoms after spraying with a suspension of fungal spores. A frequency of 0.83 percent variant production was observed. Genetically engineered plants were produced after treatment of plant tissue with Agrobacterium tumefasciens strains carrying plasmid genes for antibiotic resistance. Transformers were selected on media enriched with the antibiotic, kanamycin. Presence of foreign DNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Protoplasts of popular were produced but did not regenerate into plant organs. 145 refs., 12 figs., 36 tabs.

  18. Near-Tubular Fiber Bundle Segmentation for Diffusion Weighted Imaging: Segmentation Through Frame Reorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Near-Tubular Fiber Bundle Segmentation for Diffusion Weighted Imaging: Segmentation Through Frame Reorientation Marc Niethammera,b, Christopher Zacha...John Melonakosc, and Allen Tannenbaumc Marc Niethammer: mn@cs.unc.edu; Christopher Zach: cmzach@cs.unc.edu; John Melonakos: jmelonak@ece.gatech.edu...modification of a recent segmentation approach by Bresson et al. allows for a convex optimization formulation of the segmentation problem, combining

  19. Supervised method to build an atlas database for multi-atlas segmentation-propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kaikai; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen; Mériaudeau, Fabrice; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Masters, Colin L.; Villemagne, Victor L.; Rowe, Christopher C.; Salvado, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    Multiatlas based segmentation-propagation approaches have been shown to obtain accurate parcelation of brain structures. However, this approach requires a large number of manually delineated atlases, which are often not available. We propose a supervised method to build a population specific atlas database, using the publicly available Internet Brain Segmentation Repository (IBSR). The set of atlases grows iteratively as new atlases are added, so that its segmentation capability may be enhanced in the multiatlas based approach. Using a dataset of 210 MR images of elderly subjects (170 elderly control, 40 Alzheimer's disease) from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study, 40 MR images were segmented to build a population specific atlas database for the purpose of multiatlas segmentation-propagation. The population specific atlases were used to segment the elderly population of 210 MR images, and were evaluated in terms of the agreement among the propagated labels. The agreement was measured by using the entropy H of the probability image produced when fused by voting rule and the partial moment μ2 of the histogram. Compared with using IBSR atlases, the population specific atlases obtained a higher agreement when dealing with images of elderly subjects.

  20. Review of recent advances in segmentation of the breast boundary and the pectoral muscle in mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustra, Mario; Grgic, Mislav; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a review of recent advances in the development of methods for segmentation of the breast boundary and the pectoral muscle in mammograms. Regardless of improvement of imaging technology, accurate segmentation of the breast boundary and detection of the pectoral muscle are still challenging tasks for image processing algorithms. In this paper, we discuss problems related to mammographic image preprocessing and accurate segmentation. We review specific methods that were commonly used in most of the techniques proposed for segmentation of mammograms and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Comparative analysis of the methods reported on is made difficult by variations in the datasets and procedures of evaluation used by the authors. We attempt to overcome some of these limitations by trying to compare methods which used the same dataset and have some similarities in approaches to the breast boundary segmentation and detection of the pectoral muscle. In this paper, we will address the most often used methods for segmentation such as thresholding, morphology, region growing, active contours, and wavelet filtering. These methods, or their combinations, are the ones most used in the last decade by the majority of work published in this image processing domain.

  1. Level set based vertebra segmentation for the evaluation of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Ward, Michael M.; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.

    2006-03-01

    Ankylosing Spondylitis is a disease of the vertebra where abnormal bone structures (syndesmophytes) grow at intervertebral disk spaces. Because this growth is so slow as to be undetectable on plain radiographs taken over years, it is necessary to resort to computerized techniques to complement qualitative human judgment with precise quantitative measures on 3-D CT images. Very fine segmentation of the vertebral body is required to capture the small structures caused by the pathology. We propose a segmentation algorithm based on a cascade of three level set stages and requiring no training or prior knowledge. First, the noise inside the vertebral body that often blocks the proper evolution of level set surfaces is attenuated by a sigmoid function whose parameters are determined automatically. The 1st level set (geodesic active contour) is designed to roughly segment the interior of the vertebra despite often highly inhomogeneous and even discontinuous boundaries. The result is used as an initial contour for the 2nd level set (Laplacian level set) that closely captures the inner boundary of the cortical bone. The last level set (reversed Laplacian level set) segments the outer boundary of the cortical bone and also corrects small flaws of the previous stage. We carried out extensive tests on 30 vertebrae (5 from each of 6 patients). Two medical experts scored the results at intervertebral disk spaces focusing on end plates and syndesmophytes. Only two minor segmentation errors at vertebral end plates were reported and two syndesmophytes were considered slightly under-segmented.

  2. Automatic identification of gray matter structures from MRI to improve the segmentation of white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, S; Dengler, J; Zaers, J; Guttmann, C R; Wells, W M; Ettinger, G J; Hiller, J; Kikinis, R

    1995-01-01

    The segmentation of MRI scans of patients with white matter lesions (WML) is difficult because the MRI characteristics of WML are similar to those of gray matter. Intensity-based statistical classification techniques misclassify some WML as gray matter and some gray matter as WML. We developed a fast elastic matching algorithm that warps a reference data set containing information about the location of the gray matter into the approximate shape of the patient's brain. The region of white matter was segmented after segmenting the cortex and deep gray matter structures. The cortex was identified by using a three-dimensional, region-growing algorithm that was constrained by anatomical, intensity gradient, and tissue class parameters. White matter and WML were then segmented without interference from gray matter by using a two-class minimum-distance classifier. Analysis of double-echo spin-echo MRI scans of 16 patients with clinically determined multiple sclerosis (MS) was carried out. The segmentation of the cortex and deep gray matter structures provided anatomical context. This was found to improve the segmentation of MS lesions by allowing correct classification of the white matter region despite the overlapping tissue class distributions of gray matter and MS lesion.

  3. Perspective on how laser-ablated particles grow in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, DongShi; Liu, Jun; Liang, ChangHao

    2017-07-01

    Laser ablation in liquids has emerged as a new branch of nanoscience for developing various nanomaterials with different shapes. However, how to design and control nanomaterial growth is still a challenge due to the unique chemical-physical process chain correlated with nanomaterial nucleation and growth, including plasma phase (generation and rapid quenching), gas (bubble) phase, and liquid phase. In this review, through summarizing the literature about this topic and comparing with the well-established particle growth mechanisms of the conventional wet chemistry technique, our perspective on the possible nanoparticle growth mechanisms or routes is presented, aiming at shedding light on how laser-ablated particles grow in liquids. From the microscopic viewpoint, the nanoparticle growth contains six mechanisms, including LaMer-like growth, coalescence, Ostwald ripening, particle (oriented) attachment, adsorbate-induced growth and reaction-induced growth. For each microscopic growth mechanism, the vivid growth scenes of some representative nanomaterials recorded by TEM and SEM measurements are displayed. Afterwards, the scenes from the macroscopic viewpoint for the large submicro- and micro-scale nanospheres and anisotropic nanostructures formation and evolution from one nanostructure into another one are presented. The panorama of how diverse nanomaterials grow during and after laser ablation in liquids shown in this review is intended to offer a overview for researchers to search for the possible mechanisms correlated to their synthesized nanomaterials, and more expectation is desired to better design and tailor the morphology of the nanocrystals synthesized by LAL technique.

  4. Segmented block copolymers based on poly(propylene oxide) and monodisperse polyamide-6,T segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schuur, J.M.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Polyether(ester amide)s with poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) and monodisperse poly(hexamethylene terephthalamide) segments were synthesized, and their structure-property relations were investigated. The length of the amide segments was varied from diamide to tetraamide to hexaamide segments, and

  5. A Multiatlas Segmentation Using Graph Cuts with Applications to Liver Segmentation in CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    An atlas-based segmentation approach is presented that combines low-level operations, an affine probabilistic atlas, and a multiatlas-based segmentation. The proposed combination provides highly accurate segmentation due to registrations and atlas selections based on the regions of interest (ROIs) and coarse segmentations. Our approach shares the following common elements between the probabilistic atlas and multiatlas segmentation: (a) the spatial normalisation and (b) the segmentation method, which is based on minimising a discrete energy function using graph cuts. The method is evaluated for the segmentation of the liver in computed tomography (CT) images. Low-level operations define a ROI around the liver from an abdominal CT. We generate a probabilistic atlas using an affine registration based on geometry moments from manually labelled data. Next, a coarse segmentation of the liver is obtained from the probabilistic atlas with low computational effort. Then, a multiatlas segmentation approach improves the accuracy of the segmentation. Both the atlas selections and the nonrigid registrations of the multiatlas approach use a binary mask defined by coarse segmentation. We experimentally demonstrate that this approach performs better than atlas selections and nonrigid registrations in the entire ROI. The segmentation results are comparable to those obtained by human experts and to other recently published results. PMID:25276219

  6. Mild toxic anterior segment syndrome mimicking delayed onset toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Na Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.

  7. GeoSegmenter: A statistically learned Chinese word segmenter for the geoscience domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lan; Du, Youfu; Chen, Gongyang

    2015-03-01

    Unlike English, the Chinese language has no space between words. Segmenting texts into words, known as the Chinese word segmentation (CWS) problem, thus becomes a fundamental issue for processing Chinese documents and the first step in many text mining applications, including information retrieval, machine translation and knowledge acquisition. However, for the geoscience subject domain, the CWS problem remains unsolved. Although a generic segmenter can be applied to process geoscience documents, they lack the domain specific knowledge and consequently their segmentation accuracy drops dramatically. This motivated us to develop a segmenter specifically for the geoscience subject domain: the GeoSegmenter. We first proposed a generic two-step framework for domain specific CWS. Following this framework, we built GeoSegmenter using conditional random fields, a principled statistical framework for sequence learning. Specifically, GeoSegmenter first identifies general terms by using a generic baseline segmenter. Then it recognises geoscience terms by learning and applying a model that can transform the initial segmentation into the goal segmentation. Empirical experimental results on geoscience documents and benchmark datasets showed that GeoSegmenter could effectively recognise both geoscience terms and general terms.

  8. Automatic speech signal segmentation based on the innovation adaptive filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowski Ryszard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech segmentation is an essential stage in designing automatic speech recognition systems and one can find several algorithms proposed in the literature. It is a difficult problem, as speech is immensely variable. The aim of the authors’ studies was to design an algorithm that could be employed at the stage of automatic speech recognition. This would make it possible to avoid some problems related to speech signal parametrization. Posing the problem in such a way requires the algorithm to be capable of working in real time. The only such algorithm was proposed by Tyagi et al., (2006, and it is a modified version of Brandt’s algorithm. The article presents a new algorithm for unsupervised automatic speech signal segmentation. It performs segmentation without access to information about the phonetic content of the utterances, relying exclusively on second-order statistics of a speech signal. The starting point for the proposed method is time-varying Schur coefficients of an innovation adaptive filter. The Schur algorithm is known to be fast, precise, stable and capable of rapidly tracking changes in second order signal statistics. A transfer from one phoneme to another in the speech signal always indicates a change in signal statistics caused by vocal track changes. In order to allow for the properties of human hearing, detection of inter-phoneme boundaries is performed based on statistics defined on the mel spectrum determined from the reflection coefficients. The paper presents the structure of the algorithm, defines its properties, lists parameter values, describes detection efficiency results, and compares them with those for another algorithm. The obtained segmentation results, are satisfactory.

  9. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepcha, Nor Tshering; Chettri, Chandra Kumar; Getshen, Kunzang; Rai, Bhim Bahadur; Ramaswamy, Shamanna Bindiganavale; Saibaba, Saravanan; Nirmalan, Praveen Kumar; Demarchis, Emilia Hansson; Tabin, Geoffrey; Morley, Michael; Morley, Katharine

    2013-08-01

    To conduct a rapid assessment of avoidable blindness survey in Bhutan to obtain estimates of blindness, visual impairment, and cataract surgical coverage, outcomes and barriers among persons ≥50 years old. A total of 82 clusters of 50 people ≥50 years were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling. Eligible participants were selected from households using compact segment sampling, and underwent ophthalmic examination for visual acuity, followed by penlight and direct ophthalmoscopy. Participants with cataract were interviewed regarding surgical outcomes and barriers to surgery. Overall, 4046 of 4100 persons enumerated (98.7%) underwent ophthalmic examination. Adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence of bilaterally blind persons with available correction was 1.5% (95% confidence interval 1.09-1.89). Most blindness (67.1%) and severe visual impairment (74.1%) resulted from cataract, but 22.1% resulted from posterior segment pathology. Cataract surgical coverage for bilaterally blind persons was 72.7%. Almost 90% of patients reported moderate or good satisfaction, despite poor surgical outcomes in 23.6%. The prevalence of blindness in people aged ≥50 years in Bhutan was relatively low when compared with neighboring countries and World Health Organization sub-region estimates. Areas for improvement include community outreach, surgical outcomes, and posterior segment diseases.

  10. Handwriting segmentation of unconstrained Oriya text

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Segmentation of handwritten text into lines, words and characters is one of the important steps in the handwritten text recognition process. In this paper we propose a water reservoir concept-based scheme for segmentation of unconstrained Oriya handwritten text into individual characters. Here, at first, the text image is ...

  11. Market Segmentation Using Bayesian Model Based Clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hattum, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848646

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation deals with two basic problems in marketing, that are market segmentation, which is the grouping of persons who share common aspects, and market targeting, which is focusing your marketing efforts on one or more attractive market segments. For the grouping of persons who share

  12. FISICO: Fast Image SegmentatIon COrrection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Valenzuela

    Full Text Available In clinical diagnosis, medical image segmentation plays a key role in the analysis of pathological regions. Despite advances in automatic and semi-automatic segmentation techniques, time-effective correction tools are commonly needed to improve segmentation results. Therefore, these tools must provide faster corrections with a lower number of interactions, and a user-independent solution to reduce the time frame between image acquisition and diagnosis.We present a new interactive method for correcting image segmentations. Our method provides 3D shape corrections through 2D interactions. This approach enables an intuitive and natural corrections of 3D segmentation results. The developed method has been implemented into a software tool and has been evaluated for the task of lumbar muscle and knee joint segmentations from MR images.Experimental results show that full segmentation corrections could be performed within an average correction time of 5.5±3.3 minutes and an average of 56.5±33.1 user interactions, while maintaining the quality of the final segmentation result within an average Dice coefficient of 0.92±0.02 for both anatomies. In addition, for users with different levels of expertise, our method yields a correction time and number of interaction decrease from 38±19.2 minutes to 6.4±4.3 minutes, and 339±157.1 to 67.7±39.6 interactions, respectively.

  13. Convolutional Neural Networks for SAR Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmgren-Hansen, David; Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images has several uses, but it is a difficult task due to a number of properties related to SAR images. In this article we show how Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) can easily be trained for SAR image segmentation with good results. Besides...

  14. Storing tooth segments for optimal esthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzuner, T.; Turgut, S.; Özen, B.; Kılınç, H.; Bagis, B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A fractured whole crown segment can be reattached to its remnant; crowns from extracted teeth may be used as pontics in splinting techniques. We aimed to evaluate the effect of different storage solutions on tooth segment optical properties after different durations. Study design: Sixty

  15. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significan...

  16. ESL batteries and multi-segment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, J. L.; Pearce, J. G.; Turnbull, L.; Owen, J. R.

    1987-06-01

    A simulation model for nickel cadmium battery cells operating in the environment of a low Earth orbit satellite; simulation applications to investigate the performance of the ESA Simulation Language (ESL) segment or multiprocessor emulation features; a double-precision version of ESL; and development of ESL in equation sorting, segmentation, character handling, and file input/output are described.

  17. Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis diagnosed during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Cid, P; Sendagorta Cudós, E; Noguera Morel, L; Beato Merino, M J

    2011-05-15

    Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare subtype of neurofibromatosis type 1 defined by lesions affecting a single segment of the body and crossing the midline, with no systemic involvement. We present a case diagnosed during pregnancy because of the characteristic increase in size of the lesions during this period.

  18. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  19. 47 CFR 101.1505 - Segmentation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segmentation plan. 101.1505 Section 101.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1505 Segmentation plan. (a) An entity...

  20. Spinal cord grey matter segmentation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Ferran; Ashburner, John; Blaiotta, Claudia; Brosch, Tom; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Conrad, Benjamin N; Datta, Esha; Dávid, Gergely; Leener, Benjamin De; Dupont, Sara M; Freund, Patrick; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M Gandini; Grussu, Francesco; Henry, Roland; Landman, Bennett A; Ljungberg, Emil; Lyttle, Bailey; Ourselin, Sebastien; Papinutto, Nico; Saporito, Salvatore; Schlaeger, Regina; Smith, Seth A; Summers, Paul; Tam, Roger; Yiannakas, Marios C; Zhu, Alyssa; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-05-15

    An important image processing step in spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging is the ability to reliably and accurately segment grey and white matter for tissue specific analysis. There are several semi- or fully-automated segmentation methods for cervical cord cross-sectional area measurement with an excellent performance close or equal to the manual segmentation. However, grey matter segmentation is still challenging due to small cross-sectional size and shape, and active research is being conducted by several groups around the world in this field. Therefore a grey matter spinal cord segmentation challenge was organised to test different capabilities of various methods using the same multi-centre and multi-vendor dataset acquired with distinct 3D gradient-echo sequences. This challenge aimed to characterize the state-of-the-art in the field as well as identifying new opportunities for future improvements. Six different spinal cord grey matter segmentation methods developed independently by various research groups across the world and their performance were compared to manual segmentation outcomes, the present gold-standard. All algorithms provided good overall results for detecting the grey matter butterfly, albeit with variable performance in certain quality-of-segmentation metrics. The data have been made publicly available and the challenge web site remains open to new submissions. No modifications were introduced to any of the presented methods as a result of this challenge for the purposes of this publication. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fingerprint segmentation based on hidden Markov models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, S.; Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    An important step in fingerprint recognition is segmentation. During segmentation the fingerprint image is decomposed into foreground, background and low-quality regions. The foreground is used in the recognition process, the background is ignored. The low-quality regions may or may not be used,

  2. Infants Segment Continuous Events Using Transitional Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Aimee E.; Romberg, Alexa R.; Roseberry, Sarah; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their 1st year, infants adeptly detect statistical structure in their environment. However, little is known about whether statistical learning is a primary mechanism for event segmentation. This study directly tests whether statistical learning alone is sufficient to segment continuous events. Twenty-eight 7- to 9-month-old infants…

  3. Segmenting Michigan tourists based on distance traveled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiamei Xu; Tsao-Fang Yuan; Edwin Gomez; Joseph D. Fridgen

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to segment Michigan travelers into short, medium and long distance traveler groups by distance that they traveled from home to a primary destination in Michigan, and to compare travel behavior, trip characteristics and sociodemographics among these segments. Significant differences were identified in past trip experiences in Michigan,...

  4. Speech Segmentation Using Bayesian Autoregressive Changepoint Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This submission is devoted to the study of the Bayesian autoregressive changepoint detector (BCD and its use for speech segmentation. Results of the detector application to autoregressive signals as well as to real speech are given. BCD basic properties are described and discussed. The novel two-step algorithm consisting of cepstral analysis and BCD for automatic speech segmentation is suggested.

  5. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 1. (a–i) Putative novel genes created by the breakpoints. Translocation chromosomes are shown with the translocated segment indicated in red and the untranslocated segments in black or blue. Purple arrows indicate whether the chromosome is a donor (arrow pointing up) or a recipient (arrow ...

  6. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    progeny bearing a duplication (Dp) of the translocated chromosome segment. Here, 30 ... [Singh P K, Iyer V S, Sowjanya T N, Raj B K and Kasbekar D P 2010 Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications in. Neurospora can ... of this work, namely, the definition of breakpoint junction sequences of 12 ...

  7. Creating Web Area Segments with Google Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segments allow you to quickly access data for a predefined set of Sessions or Users, such as government or education users, or sessions in a particular state. You can then apply this segment to any report within the Google Analytics (GA) interface.

  8. Text Segmentation for Chinese Spell Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kin Hong; Lu, Qin; Ng, Mau Kit Michael

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of spell checking for Chinese words proposes a Block-of-Combinations (BOC) text-segmentation method based on frequency of word usage to reduce the word combinations from exponential growth to linear growth. Suggests user interaction to make the segmentation more suitable for spell checking. (Author/LRW)

  9. Moving window segmentation framework for point clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sithole, G.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first

  10. Webpage Segments Classification with Incremental Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Kim, Yang Sok; Kang, Byeong Ho

    This paper suggests an incremental information extraction method for social network analysis of web publications. For this purpose, we employed an incremental knowledge acquisition method, called MCRDR (Multiple Classification Ripple-Down Rules), to classify web page segments. Our experimental results show that our MCRDR-based web page segments classification system successfully supports easy acquisition and maintenance of information extraction rules.

  11. Limb-segment selection in drawing behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroek, R G; Rosenbaum, D A; Thomassen, A.J.W.M.; Schomaker, L R

    How do we select combinations of limb segments to carry out physical tasks? Three possible determinants of limb-segment selection are hypothesized here: (1) optimal amplitudes and frequencies of motion for the effectors; (2) preferred movement axes for the effectors; and (3) a tendency to continue

  12. LIMB-SEGMENT SELECTION IN DRAWING BEHAVIOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEULENBROEK, RGJ; ROSENBAUM, DA; THOMASSEN, AJWM; SCHOMAKER, LRB; Schomaker, Lambertus

    How do we select combinations of limb segments to carry out physical tasks? Three possible determinants of limb-segment selection are hypothesized here: (1) optimal amplitudes and frequencies of motion for the effectors; (2) preferred movement axes for the effectors; and (3) a tendency to continue

  13. Protein-segment universe exhibiting transitions at intermediate segment length in conformational subspaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazuyoshi; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Higo, Junichi; Tomii, Kentaro

    2008-08-13

    Many studies have examined rules governing two aspects of protein structures: short segments and proteins' structural domains. Nevertheless, the organization and nature of the conformational space of segments with intermediate length between short segments and domains remain unclear. Conformational spaces of intermediate length segments probably differ from those of short segments. We investigated the identification and characterization of the boundary(s) between peptide-like (short segment) and protein-like (long segment) distributions. We generated ensembles embedded in globular proteins comprising segments 10-50 residues long. We explored the relationships between the conformational distribution of segments and their lengths, and also protein structural classes using principal component analysis based on the intra-segment Calpha-Calpha atomic distances. Our statistical analyses of segment conformations and length revealed critical dual transitions in their conformational distribution with segments derived from all four structural classes. Dual transitions were identified with the intermediate phase between the short segments and domains. Consequently, protein segment universes were categorized. i) Short segments (10-22 residues) showed a distribution with a high frequency of secondary structure clusters. ii) Medium segments (23-26 residues) showed a distribution corresponding to an intermediate state of transitions. iii) Long segments (27-50 residues) showed a distribution converging on one huge cluster containing compact conformations with a smaller radius of gyration. This distribution reflects the protein structures' organization and protein domains' origin. Three major conformational components (radius of gyration, structural symmetry with respect to the N-terminal and C-terminal halves, and single-turn/two-turn structure) well define most of the segment universes. Furthermore, we identified several conformational components that were unique to each

  14. Protein-segment universe exhibiting transitions at intermediate segment length in conformational subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokawa Takatsugu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have examined rules governing two aspects of protein structures: short segments and proteins' structural domains. Nevertheless, the organization and nature of the conformational space of segments with intermediate length between short segments and domains remain unclear. Conformational spaces of intermediate length segments probably differ from those of short segments. We investigated the identification and characterization of the boundary(s between peptide-like (short segment and protein-like (long segment distributions. We generated ensembles embedded in globular proteins comprising segments 10–50 residues long. We explored the relationships between the conformational distribution of segments and their lengths, and also protein structural classes using principal component analysis based on the intra-segment Cα-Cα atomic distances. Results Our statistical analyses of segment conformations and length revealed critical dual transitions in their conformational distribution with segments derived from all four structural classes. Dual transitions were identified with the intermediate phase between the short segments and domains. Consequently, protein segment universes were categorized. i Short segments (10–22 residues showed a distribution with a high frequency of secondary structure clusters. ii Medium segments (23���26 residues showed a distribution corresponding to an intermediate state of transitions. iii Long segments (27–50 residues showed a distribution converging on one huge cluster containing compact conformations with a smaller radius of gyration. This distribution reflects the protein structures' organization and protein domains' origin. Three major conformational components (radius of gyration, structural symmetry with respect to the N-terminal and C-terminal halves, and single-turn/two-turn structure well define most of the segment universes. Furthermore, we identified several

  15. An automatic segmentation algorithm for 3D cell cluster splitting using volumetric confocal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indhumathi, C; Cai, Y Y; Guan, Y Q; Opas, M

    2011-07-01

    With the rapid advance of three-dimensional (3D) confocal imaging technology, more and more 3D cellular images will be available. Segmentation of intact cells is a critical task in automated image analysis and quantification of cellular microscopic images. One of the major complications in the automatic segmentation of cellular images arises due to the fact that cells are often closely clustered. Several algorithms are proposed for segmenting cell clusters but most of them are 2D based. In other words, these algorithms are designed to segment 2D cell clusters from a single image. Given 2D segmentation methods developed, they can certainly be applied to each image slice with the 3D cellular volume to obtain the segmented cell clusters. Apparently, in such case, the 3D depth information with the volumetric images is not really used. Often, 3D reconstruction is conducted after the individualized segmentation to build the 3D cellular models from segmented 2D cellular contours. Such 2D native process is not appropriate as stacking of individually segmented 2D cells or nuclei do not necessarily form the correct and complete 3D cells or nuclei in 3D. This paper proposes a novel and efficient 3D cluster splitting algorithm based on concavity analysis and interslice spatial coherence. We have taken the advantage of using the 3D boundary points detected using higher order statistics as an input contour for performing the 3D cluster splitting algorithm. The idea is to separate the touching or overlapping cells or nuclei in a 3D native way. Experimental results show the efficiency of our algorithm for 3D microscopic cellular images. © 2011 Nanyang Technological University Journal of Microscopy © 2011 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Borehole geophysical, fluid, and hydraulic properties within and surrounding the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer is used by residents of San Antonio and numerous other rapidly growing communities in south-central Texas as their primary water supply source. This freshwater zone is bounded to the south and southeast by a saline-water zone with an intermediate zone transitioning from freshwater to saline water, the transition zone. As demands on this water supply increase, there is concern that the transition zone could potentially move, resulting in more saline water in current supply wells. Since 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), San Antonio Water System (SAWS), and other Federal and State agencies have conducted studies to better understand the transition zone.

  17. Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.

    2010-11-03

    We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.

  18. Anterior Segment Imaging in Combat Ocular Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise S. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the use of ocular imaging to enhance management and diagnosis of war-related anterior segment ocular injuries. Methods. This study was a prospective observational case series from an ongoing IRB-approved combat ocular trauma tracking study. Subjects with anterior segment ocular injury were imaged, when possible, using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, confocal microscopy (CM, and slit lamp biomicroscopy. Results. Images captured from participants with combat ocular trauma on different systems provided comprehensive and alternate views of anterior segment injury to investigators. Conclusion. In combat-related trauma of the anterior segment, adjunct image acquisition enhances slit lamp examination and enables real time In vivo observation of the cornea facilitating injury characterization, progression, and management.

  19. A Hybrid Technique for Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamgir Nyma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical image segmentation is an essential and challenging aspect in computer-aided diagnosis and also in pattern recognition research. This paper proposes a hybrid method for magnetic resonance (MR image segmentation. We first remove impulsive noise inherent in MR images by utilizing a vector median filter. Subsequently, Otsu thresholding is used as an initial coarse segmentation method that finds the homogeneous regions of the input image. Finally, an enhanced suppressed fuzzy c-means is used to partition brain MR images into multiple segments, which employs an optimal suppression factor for the perfect clustering in the given data set. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed approach in noisy environment, we add different types of noise and different amount of noise to T1-weighted brain MR images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other FCM based algorithms in terms of segmentation accuracy for both noise-free and noise-inserted MR images.

  20. Efficient segmentation by sparse pixel classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Erik B; Loog, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Segmentation methods based on pixel classification are powerful but often slow. We introduce two general algorithms, based on sparse classification, for optimizing the computation while still obtaining accurate segmentations. The computational costs of the algorithms are derived, and they are dem......Segmentation methods based on pixel classification are powerful but often slow. We introduce two general algorithms, based on sparse classification, for optimizing the computation while still obtaining accurate segmentations. The computational costs of the algorithms are derived......, and they are demonstrated on real 3-D magnetic resonance imaging and 2-D radiograph data. We show that each algorithm is optimal for specific tasks, and that both algorithms allow a speedup of one or more orders of magnitude on typical segmentation tasks....

  1. Unfolding Implementation in Industrial Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjgaard, John; Ellegaard, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Market segmentation is an important method of strategic marketing and constitutes a cornerstone of the marketing literature. It has undergone extensive scientific inquiry during the past 50 years. Reporting on an extensive review of the market segmentation literature, the challenging task...... of implementing industrial market segmentation is discussed and unfolded in this article. Extant literature has identified segmentation implementation as a core challenge for marketers, but also one, which has received limited empirical attention. Future research opportunities are formulated in this article...... to pave the way towards closing this gap. The extent of implementation coverage is assessed and various notions of implementation are identified. Implementation as the task of converting segmentation plans into action (referred to as execution) is identified as a particularly beneficial focus area...

  2. Integrated active contours for texture segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, Chen; Sochen, Nir A; Zeevi, Yehoshua Y

    2006-06-01

    We address the issue of textured image segmentation in the context of the Gabor feature space of images. Gabor filters tuned to a set of orientations, scales and frequencies are applied to the images to create the Gabor feature space. A two-dimensional Riemannian manifold of local features is extracted via the Beltrami framework. The metric of this surface provides a good indicator of texture changes and is used, therefore, in a Beltrami-based diffusion mechanism and in a geodesic active contours algorithm for texture segmentation. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of the edgeless active contours algorithm applied for texture segmentation. Moreover, an integrated approach, extending the geodesic and edgeless active contours approaches to texture segmentation, is presented. We show that combining boundary and region information yields more robust and accurate texture segmentation results.

  3. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  4. Vessel segmentation in screening mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordang, J. J.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2015-03-01

    Blood vessels are a major cause of false positives in computer aided detection systems for the detection of breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a framework for the segmentation of blood vessels in screening mammograms. The proposed framework is based on supervised learning using a cascade classifier. This cascade classifier consists of several stages where in each stage a GentleBoost classifier is trained on Haar-like features. A total of 30 cases were included in this study. In each image, vessel pixels were annotated by selecting pixels on the centerline of the vessel, control samples were taken by annotating a region without any visible vascular structures. This resulted in a total of 31,000 pixels marked as vascular and over 4 million control pixels. After training, the classifier assigns a vesselness likelihood to the pixels. The proposed framework was compared to three other vessel enhancing methods, i) a vesselness filter, ii) a gaussian derivative filter, and iii) a tubeness filter. The methods were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics curves, the Az values. The Az value of the cascade approach is 0:85. This is superior to the vesselness, Gaussian, and tubeness methods, with Az values of 0:77, 0:81, and 0:78, respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that our proposed framework is a promising method for the detection of vessels in screening mammograms.

  5. Risk Assessment Update: Russian Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana; Hyde, James; Bjorkman, Michael; Hoffman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BUMPER-II version 1.95j source code was provided to RSC-E- and Khrunichev at January 2012 MMOD TIM in Moscow. MEMCxP and ORDEM 3.0 environments implemented as external data files. NASA provided a sample ORDEM 3.0 g."key" & "daf" environment file set for demonstration and benchmarking BUMPER -II v1.95j installation at the Jan-12 TIM. ORDEM 3.0 has been completed and is currently in beta testing. NASA will provide a preliminary set of ORDEM 3.0 ".key" & ".daf" environment files for the years 2012 through 2028. Bumper output files produced using the new ORDEM 3.0 data files are intended for internal use only, not for requirements verification. Output files will contain these words ORDEM FILE DESCRIPTION = PRELIMINARY VERSION: not for production. The projectile density term in many BUMPER-II ballistic limit equations will need to be updated. Cube demo scripts and output files delivered at the Jan-12 TIM have been updated for the new ORDEM 3.0 data files. Risk assessment results based on ORDEM 3.0 and MEM will be presented for the Russian Segment (RS) of ISS.

  6. Membrane Shell Reflector Segment Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Moore, James

    2012-01-01

    The mesh reflector is the only type of large, in-space deployable antenna that has successfully flown in space. However, state-of-the-art large deployable mesh antenna systems are RF-frequency-limited by both global shape accuracy and local surface quality. The limitations of mesh reflectors stem from two factors. First, at higher frequencies, the porosity and surface roughness of the mesh results in loss and scattering of the signal. Second, the mesh material does not have any bending stiffness and thus cannot be formed into true parabolic (or other desired) shapes. To advance the deployable reflector technology at high RF frequencies from the current state-of-the-art, significant improvements need to be made in three major aspects: a high-stability and highprecision deployable truss; a continuously curved RF reflecting surface (the function of the surface as well as its first derivative are both continuous); and the RF reflecting surface should be made of a continuous material. To meet these three requirements, the Membrane Shell Reflector Segment (MSRS) antenna was developed.

  7. Learning Topologies with the Growing Neural Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Esteban José; López-Rubio, Ezequiel

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a novel self-organizing model called growing neural forest (GNF) is presented. It is based on the growing neural gas (GNG), which learns a general graph with no special provisions for datasets with separated clusters. On the contrary, the proposed GNF learns a set of trees so that each tree represents a connected cluster of data. High dimensional datasets often contain large empty regions among clusters, so this proposal is better suited to them than other self-organizing models because it represents these separated clusters as connected components made of neurons. Experimental results are reported which show the self-organization capabilities of the model. Moreover, its suitability for unsupervised clustering and foreground detection applications is demonstrated. In particular, the GNF is shown to correctly discover the connected component structure of some datasets. Moreover, it outperforms some well-known foreground detectors both in quantitative and qualitative terms.

  8. SEGMENTATION OF SME PORTFOLIO IN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namolosu Simona Mihaela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs represent an important target market for commercial Banks. In this respect, finding the best methods for designing and implementing the optimal marketing strategies (for this target are a continuous concern for the marketing specialists and researchers from the banking system; the purpose is to find the most suitable service model for these companies. SME portfolio of a bank is not homogeneous, different characteristics and behaviours being identified. The current paper reveals empirical evidence about SME portfolio characteristics and segmentation methods used in banking system. Its purpose is to identify if segmentation has an impact in finding the optimal marketing strategies and service model and if this hypothesis might be applicable for any commercial bank, irrespective of country/ region. Some banks are segmenting the SME portfolio by a single criterion: the annual company (official turnover; others are considering also profitability and other financial indicators of the company. In some cases, even the banking behaviour becomes a criterion. For all cases, creating scenarios with different thresholds and estimating the impact in profitability and volumes are two mandatory steps in establishing the final segmentation (criteria matrix. Details about each of these segmentation methods may be found in the paper. Testing the final matrix of criteria is also detailed, with the purpose of making realistic estimations. Example for lending products is provided; the product offer is presented as responding to needs of targeted sub segment and therefore being correlated with the sub segment characteristics. Identifying key issues and trends leads to further action plan proposal. Depending on overall strategy and commercial target of the bank, the focus may shift, one or more sub segments becoming high priority (for acquisition/ activation/ retention/ cross sell/ up sell/ increase profitability etc., while

  9. Colour application on mammography image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embong, R.; Aziz, N. M. Nik Ab.; Karim, A. H. Abd; Ibrahim, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The segmentation process is one of the most important steps in image processing and computer vision since it is vital in the initial stage of image analysis. Segmentation of medical images involves complex structures and it requires precise segmentation result which is necessary for clinical diagnosis such as the detection of tumour, oedema, and necrotic tissues. Since mammography images are grayscale, researchers are looking at the effect of colour in the segmentation process of medical images. Colour is known to play a significant role in the perception of object boundaries in non-medical colour images. Processing colour images require handling more data, hence providing a richer description of objects in the scene. Colour images contain ten percent (10%) additional edge information as compared to their grayscale counterparts. Nevertheless, edge detection in colour image is more challenging than grayscale image as colour space is considered as a vector space. In this study, we implemented red, green, yellow, and blue colour maps to grayscale mammography images with the purpose of testing the effect of colours on the segmentation of abnormality regions in the mammography images. We applied the segmentation process using the Fuzzy C-means algorithm and evaluated the percentage of average relative error of area for each colour type. The results showed that all segmentation with the colour map can be done successfully even for blurred and noisy images. Also the size of the area of the abnormality region is reduced when compare to the segmentation area without the colour map. The green colour map segmentation produced the smallest percentage of average relative error (10.009%) while yellow colour map segmentation gave the largest percentage of relative error (11.367%).

  10. Fruit-Growing in Latvia – Industry and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmane Edīte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In all times, fruit trees for family use have been grown at Latvian farms. Yet these fruits obtained market value only after the land ownership reform in 19th century. This facilitated rapid area increase of different fruit crops, allowing supply with fruits not only the local market, but also for export to the largest cities of Russia. Especially fast development of fruit-growing was observed during the first independent republic (1919–1940. The demand for planting material increased, and plants were imported from Western Europe. Choice of unsuitable cultivars and rootstocks was the main reason of the massive orchard area loss during the following severe winters. After the Second World War, the Soviet powers supported only the establishment of large orchards for processing needs, 200-300 ha, which were unsuitable for the Latvian climate and terrain. At the same time, numbers of allotment gardens rapidly increased and part of their produce was sold also on the market. After regaining of independence and private property, interest in fresh fruit and berry production for market, as well as processing, renewed. It was hindered by lack of continuity in experience and knowledge. Diversity of terrain, soils and climate all demand considerate choice of suitable orchard location and cultivars. Direct use of foreign experience often led to failure. At present, development of the fruit industry is most of all hindered by lack of qualified specialists of different levels, which does not allow to establish an appropriate consulting system. Cooperation of growers for easier marketing also is developing too slowly. Insufficient economic and market research does not allow to balance the demand with increase of plantation area, especially for large-scale processing and export, so strategic guidance of the fruit industry is not possible. Development of fruit-growing is hindered also by a lack of continuous long-term support to horticultural science. As a

  11. Efficient Communication Management in a Growing Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Alakotila, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the importance of organisational communication and to explain how communication should be managed for it to be effective. Two fast-growing companies were interviewed for the thesis, who give entail on how they have managed communication regarding the organisational changes. Organisational communication is divided into external, stakeholder and internal communication in this study. With the help of interviews from two case companies, researcher offers r...

  12. Transformational Leadership Which Can Grow Organizational Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Betty Yuliani

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis consist of 45 studies from 20 articles and 20860 subjects evaluated the correlation between Transformational leadership and Organizational commitment. Summary analysis provided support for the hypothesis that transformational leadership has a correlation on organizational commitment. The purpose of the study is to analyzed the data from the primer study and to support the hypothesis or refuse from the studies. Result indicated that transformational leadership can grow organiza...

  13. Shape of the growing front of biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Stone, Howard A.; Golestanian, Ramin

    2017-12-01

    The spatial organization of bacteria in dense biofilms is key to their collective behaviour, and understanding it will be important for medical and technological applications. Here we study the morphology of a compact biofilm that undergoes unidirectional growth, and determine the condition for the stability of the growing interface as a function of the nutrient concentration and mechanical tension. Our study suggests that transient behaviour may play an important role in shaping the structure of a biofilm.

  14. Economic Gardening and the Grow Kentucky Program

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Lynn W.; Allen, James E. IV

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Community and Economic Development Initiative of Kentucky (CEDIK) and the Kentucky Small Business Development Center (KSBDC), launched Grow Kentucky, Kentucky’s only certified Economic Gardening program. The program helps second-stage entrepreneurial growth companies penetrate existing markets, identify new markets, monitor competitors, track industry trends, locate customer clusters, use search engine optimization/social media for marketing and various other customized research....

  15. Growing Role of Retail in Distribution Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the growing role of retail trade (retail) in the channels of distribution of goods both in domestic and international markets. Technical-technological development has provided great opportunities for all production of material goods, so that the focus of problem in the economic possibilities of playing shifted from production to sales opportunities, or consumption. The ultimate consumers and their needs and requirements have become a central area of study, bas...

  16. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Martha [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-04-17

    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  17. Deep convolutional neural network and 3D deformable approach for tissue segmentation in musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Zhou, Zhaoye; Jang, Hyungseok; Samsonov, Alexey; Zhao, Gengyan; Kijowski, Richard

    2017-07-21

    To describe and evaluate a new fully automated musculoskeletal tissue segmentation method using deep convolutional neural network (CNN) and three-dimensional (3D) simplex deformable modeling to improve the accuracy and efficiency of cartilage and bone segmentation within the knee joint. A fully automated segmentation pipeline was built by combining a semantic segmentation CNN and 3D simplex deformable modeling. A CNN technique called SegNet was applied as the core of the segmentation method to perform high resolution pixel-wise multi-class tissue classification. The 3D simplex deformable modeling refined the output from SegNet to preserve the overall shape and maintain a desirable smooth surface for musculoskeletal structure. The fully automated segmentation method was tested using a publicly available knee image data set to compare with currently used state-of-the-art segmentation methods. The fully automated method was also evaluated on two different data sets, which include morphological and quantitative MR images with different tissue contrasts. The proposed fully automated segmentation method provided good segmentation performance with segmentation accuracy superior to most of state-of-the-art methods in the publicly available knee image data set. The method also demonstrated versatile segmentation performance on both morphological and quantitative musculoskeletal MR images with different tissue contrasts and spatial resolutions. The study demonstrates that the combined CNN and 3D deformable modeling approach is useful for performing rapid and accurate cartilage and bone segmentation within the knee joint. The CNN has promising potential applications in musculoskeletal imaging. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. SEGMENTATION OF UAV-BASED IMAGES INCORPORATING 3D POINT CLOUD INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vetrivel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous applications related to urban scene analysis demand automatic recognition of buildings and distinct sub-elements. For example, if LiDAR data is available, only 3D information could be leveraged for the segmentation. However, this poses several risks, for instance, the in-plane objects cannot be distinguished from their surroundings. On the other hand, if only image based segmentation is performed, the geometric features (e.g., normal orientation, planarity are not readily available. This renders the task of detecting the distinct sub-elements of the building with similar radiometric characteristic infeasible. In this paper the individual sub-elements of buildings are recognized through sub-segmentation of the building using geometric and radiometric characteristics jointly. 3D points generated from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV images are used for inferring the geometric characteristics of roofs and facades of the building. However, the image-based 3D points are noisy, error prone and often contain gaps. Hence the segmentation in 3D space is not appropriate. Therefore, we propose to perform segmentation in image space using geometric features from the 3D point cloud along with the radiometric features. The initial detection of buildings in 3D point cloud is followed by the segmentation in image space using the region growing approach by utilizing various radiometric and 3D point cloud features. The developed method was tested using two data sets obtained with UAV images with a ground resolution of around 1-2 cm. The developed method accurately segmented most of the building elements when compared to the plane-based segmentation using 3D point cloud alone.

  19. Automatic segmentation of the lateral geniculate nucleus: Application to control and glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieqiong; Miao, Wen; Li, Jing; Li, Meng; Zhen, Zonglei; Sabel, Bernhard; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2015-11-30

    The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is a key relay center of the visual system. Because the LGN morphology is affected by different diseases, it is of interest to analyze its morphology by segmentation. However, existing LGN segmentation methods are non-automatic, inefficient and prone to experimenters' bias. To address these problems, we proposed an automatic LGN segmentation algorithm based on T1-weighted imaging. First, the prior information of LGN was used to create a prior mask. Then region growing was applied to delineate LGN. We evaluated this automatic LGN segmentation method by (1) comparison with manually segmented LGN, (2) anatomically locating LGN in the visual system via LGN-based tractography, (3) application to control and glaucoma patients. The similarity coefficients of automatic segmented LGN and manually segmented one are 0.72 (0.06) for the left LGN and 0.77 (0.07) for the right LGN. LGN-based tractography shows the subcortical pathway seeding from LGN passes the optic tract and also reaches V1 through the optic radiation, which is consistent with the LGN location in the visual system. In addition, LGN asymmetry as well as LGN atrophy along with age is observed in normal controls. The investigation of glaucoma effects on LGN volumes demonstrates that the bilateral LGN volumes shrink in patients. The automatic LGN segmentation is objective, efficient, valid and applicable. Experiment results proved the validity and applicability of the algorithm. Our method will speed up the research on visual system and greatly enhance studies of different vision-related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl

    2013-11-05

    One embodiment of the invention relates to a segmented photovoltaic (PV) module which is manufactured from laminate segments. The segmented PV module includes rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped PV laminates and further includes non-rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped and approximately-triangular-shaped PV laminates. The laminate segments are mechanically joined and electrically interconnected to form the segmented module. Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module from laminate segments of various shapes. Other embodiments relate to processes for providing a photovoltaic array for installation at a site. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.