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Sample records for rapidly growing portion

  1. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  2. Management of Infections with Rapidly Growing

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    Jong Hwan Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM is not uncommon, andthe prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. Clinical diagnosis is difficult becausethere are no characteristic clinical features. There is also no standard antibiotic regimenfor treating RGM infection. A small series of patients with RGM infections was studied toexamine their treatments and outcomes.Methods A total of 5 patients who had developed postoperative infections from January2009 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially screened using amycobacteria rapid screening test (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-reverse blot hybridizationassay. To confirm mycobacterial infection, specimens were cultured for nontuberculousmycobacteria and analyzed by 16 S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene PCR.Results The patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization,and oral antibiotics were administered after discharge. The mean duration of follow-upwas 9 months, and all patients were completely cured of infection with a regimen of acombination of antibiotics plus surgical treatment. Although none of the patients developedrecurrence, there were complications at the site of infection, including hypertrophic scarring,pigmentation, and disfigurement.Conclusions Combination antibiotic therapy plus drainage of surgical abscesses appeared tobe effective for the RGM infections seen in our patients. Although neither the exact dosagenor a standardized regimen has been firmly established, we propose that our treatment canprovide an option for the management of rapidly growing mycobacterial infection.

  3. Neonatal airway obstruction caused by rapidly growing nasopharyngeal teratoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maartens, I.A.; Wassenberg, T.; Halbertsma, F.J.; Marres, H.A.M.; Andriessen, P.

    2009-01-01

    A case report is presented of a rapidly growing congenital nasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus) in a preterm infant, leading to severe upper airway obstruction. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography did not reveal the condition because the tumour masses were initially small and there was no

  4. Environmental and Social Programmes and Rapidly Growing Retailers

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    Peter JONES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks to provide an exploratory review of the extent to which the world’s fastest growing retailers are publicly reporting on their environmental and social commitments and programmes. The paper begins with an outline discussion of corporate environmental and social programmes and on public reporting processes. The paper draws its empirical material from the most recent information on environmental and social commitments and programmes posted on the world’s top twenty fastest growing retailers’ corporate web sites. While the majority of the world’s top twenty fastest growing retailers provide some public information on their commitment to environmental and social programmes there is marked variation in the extent, the nature and the detail of that information. The findings suggest that the integration of environmental and social programmes is not one of the hallmarks of rapidly growing retailers and in part this reflects the fact that many of the selected retailers are trading within emergent markets where price and availability are the principal factors driving consumer buying behaviour.

  5. Biomass accumulation in rapidly growing loblolly pine and sweetgum

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    Williams, Thomas M.; Gresham, Charles A. [Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, P.O. Box 596, Georgetown, SC 29442 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees, growing in International Paper Company's study of intensive management on marginal agricultural land near Bainbridge GA, were destructively sampled at the end of the sixth growing season. All trees were single family blocks of genetically superior trees planted 2.5m apart on sub-soiled rows 3.6m apart and grown with complete competition control. Management treatments were: control, irrigation, irrigation plus fertilization, and irrigation plus fertilization plus pest control. Tree measures were basal diameter, DBH, height of live crown, diameter at base of live crown, and total height. Twenty trees of each species were destructively sampled. Stems were sectioned at 1m intervals, stem diameter determined at each end and sections were weighed green. Branches were removed and height, basal diameter, and length were measured on each branch. Branches were separated into foliated and unfoliated segments and weighed green. A stem disk and branch from each meter were returned to the lab to determine dry weight: green weight ratio. Foliated limb: foliage ratios were also determined from sub-sampled branches. Intensive culture resulted in larger growth differences for sweetgum (most intensive treatment 9.5m tall, 13.1cm DBH; control trees 5.0m tall, 6.3cm DBH) than in pine (most intensive treatment 10.3m tall, 17.7cm DBH; control, 7.6m tall, 13.4cm DBH). The pipe model of tree development explained dimensions of the upper 5m of crown with leaf biomass highly correlated to branch basal area (r{sup 2} from 0.697 to 0.947). There was a constant ratio of leaf biomass to branch basal area (50gm/cm{sup 2} for pine, 30gm/cm{sup 2} for sweetgum). We also found a constant ratio of bole basal area to cumulative branch basal area throughout the crowns. Rapidly growing pines produced about 49Mgha{sup -1} of stem biomass, 11Mgha{sup -1} of dead branch biomass, and 17Mgha{sup -1} of unfoliated branch biomass at

  6. Rapidly Growing Esophageal Carcinosarcoma Reduced by Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Alone

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    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. It is generally treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to the protocols used for other esophageal cancers. However, the treatment of esophageal carcinosarcoma by radiotherapy alone before surgery has not been previously described. We report a patient with a rapidly growing esophageal carcinosarcoma that was efficiently reduced by neoadjuvant radiotherapy alone. A previously healthy 69-year-old man was admitted with dysphagia. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a small nodular polypoid lesion of about 10 mm in the middle esophagus. A second EGD 1 month later showed that the tumor had expanded into a huge mass. A biopsy specimen revealed that the tumor comprised squamous cell carcinoma with spindle cell components, and the tumor was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma which was diagnosed as stage I (T1bN0M0. Due to renal dysfunction, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy (40 Gy without chemotherapy. A third EGD 1 month later revealed remarkable tumor reduction. He then underwent total esophagectomy with regional lymph node dissection (pStage 0, pT1aN0M0. After surgical operation, the patient was followed up without adjuvant therapy. Whole body computed tomography revealed lung metastasis 14 months after surgery, and the patient died 2 months later. The neoadjuvant radiotherapy for esophageal carcinosarcoma was considered to have contributed to the subsequent surgery and his prolonged survival time. Thus, radiotherapy alone might be a suitable neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal carcinosarcomas.

  7. Intraoral tumor with rapid growing. Report of a case.

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    González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Cebrián-Carretero, Jose Luis; Gómez-García, Elena; del Castillo-Pardo de Vera, Jose Luis; del Val, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The appearance of an intraoral mass is common in our specialty. Most are benign lesions, but some are primary malignancies. Metastases account for less than 1% of all oral malignancies. An 86 year old woman was referred to our department with a large, asymptomatic, intraoral, fast-growing mass. She had no previous cancer history or other relevant physical findings. The radiology studies showed underlying bone erosion. The histological study showed a metastatic adenocarcinoma with a suspected origin in the abdomen. We were unable to identify it by non invasive diagnostic procedures. Given the patient's general status and despite the ominous prognosis of such lesions, we decided not to perform any aggressive therapy beyond removing the oral mass, in order to maintain her quality of life. There have been no local recurrences until this time.

  8. Frequency of rapid growing mycobacteria among tuberculosis suspected patients in Basra-Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sulami, Amin A. Al; Taee, Asaad Al; Hasan, Zainab A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of rapid growing mycobacteria among tuberculosis suspected patients in Basra governorate and study their resistance to drugs. Methods...

  9. Evaluation of Various Culture Media for Detection of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

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    Preece, Clair L; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Perry, Audrey; Jones, Amanda L; Cummings, Stephen P; Perry, John D; Hogardt, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to overgrowth by rapidly growing species that colonize the lungs of patients with CF. Extended incubation on Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as an expedient culture method for the isolation of rapidly growing NTM in this setting. The aim of this study was to assess five selective media designed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex, along with two media designed for the isolation of mycobacteria (rapidly growing mycobacteria [RGM] medium and Middlebrook 7H11 agar), for their abilities to isolate NTM. All seven media were challenged with 147 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria and 185 isolates belonging to other species. RGM medium was then compared with the most selective brand of BCSA for the isolation of NTM from 224 sputum samples from patients with CF. Different agars designed for the isolation of B. cepacia complex varied considerably in their inhibition of other bacteria and fungi. RGM medium supported the growth of all isolates of mycobacteria and was more selective than any other medium. NTM were recovered from 17 of 224 sputum samples using RGM medium, compared with only 7 samples using the most selective brand of BCSA (P = 0.023). RGM medium offers a superior option, compared to other selective agars, for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with CF. Furthermore, the convenience of using RGM medium enables routine screening for rapidly growing NTM in all submitted sputum samples from patients with CF. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mass measles immunisation campaign, with a target coverage rate of 85 - 90%, was launched in Khayelitsha, a rapidly growing urban township in the Cape Town area. Cross-sectional surveys of the measles immunisation status of resident 6 - 23-month-old infants were conducted immediately before, immediately after, ...

  11. Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov., a rapidly growing bacterium isolated from groundwater.

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    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2017-10-01

    A strain representing a rapidly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating and non-pigmented species of the genus Mycobacterium, designated strain S-I-6T, was isolated from groundwater at Daejeon in Korea. The strain grew at temperatures between 10 and 37 °C (optimal growth at 25 °C), between pH 4.0 and 9.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNAgene, hsp65, rpoB and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer indicated that strain S-I-6T belonged to the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium sphagni. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the bacterial strain was distinguished from its phylogenetic neighbours by chemotaxonomic properties and other biochemical characteristics. DNA-DNA relatedness among strain S-I-6T and the closest phylogenetic neighbour strongly support the proposal that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-I-6T (=KACC 17600T=NBRC 109805T=NCAIM B 02535T).

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria by microdilution - Experience of a tertiary care centre

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    Set R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.

  13. Clinical management of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections in patients after mesotherapy.

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    Regnier, Stéphanie; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Guihot, Amelie; Deforges, Lionel; Carbonne, Anne; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric

    2009-11-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are expressing an interest in mesotherapy as a method of reducing body fat. Cutaneous infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria are a common complication of such procedures. We followed up patients who had developed cutaneous infections after undergoing mesotherapy during the period October 2006-January 2007. Sixteen patients were infected after mesotherapy injections performed by the same physician. All patients presented with painful, erythematous, draining subcutaneous nodules at the injection sites. All patients were treated with surgical drainage. Microbiological examination was performed on specimens that were obtained before and during the surgical procedure. Direct examination of skin smears demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in 25% of the specimens that were obtained before the procedure and 37% of the specimens obtained during the procedure; culture results were positive in 75% of the patients. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 11 patients, and Mycobacterium frederiksbergense was identified in 2 patients. Fourteen patients were treated with antibiotics, 6 received triple therapy as first-line treatment (tigecycline, tobramycin, and clarithromycin), and 8 received dual therapy (clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin). The mean duration of treatment was 14 weeks (range, 1-24 weeks). All of the patients except 1 were fully recovered 2 years after the onset of infection, with the mean time to healing estimated at 6.2 months (range, 1-15 months). This series of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections highlights the difficulties in treating such infections and suggests that in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics does not accurately predict their clinical efficacy.

  14. Rapid urbanization and the growing threat of violence and conflict: a 21st century crisis.

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    Patel, Ronak B; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-04-01

    As the global population is concentrated into complex environments, rapid urbanization increases the threat of conflict and insecurity. Many fast-growing cities create conditions of significant disparities in standards of living, which set up a natural environment for conflict over resources. As urban slums become a haven for criminal elements, youth gangs, and the arms trade, they also create insecurity for much of the population. Specific populations, such as women, migrants, and refugees, bear the brunt of this lack of security, with significant impacts on their livelihoods, health, and access to basic services. This lack of security and violence also has great costs to the general population, both economic and social. Cities have increasingly become the battlefield of recent conflicts as they serve as the seats of power and gateways to resources. International agencies, non-governmental organizations, and policy-makers must act to stem this tide of growing urban insecurity. Protecting urban populations and preventing future conflict will require better urban planning, investment in livelihood programs for youth, cooperation with local communities, enhanced policing, and strengthening the capacity of judicial systems.

  15. Cancer survivors in Switzerland: a rapidly growing population to care for

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors are a heterogeneous group with complex health problems. Data concerning its total number and growing dynamics for Switzerland are scarce and outdated. Methods Population and mortality data were retrieved from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office (FSO). Incidence and relative survival for invasive cancers were computed using data from the cancer registries Geneva (1970–2009), St. Gallen - Appenzell (1980–2010), Grisons & Glarus (1989–2010), and Valais (1989–2010). We estimated prevalence for 1990–2010 using the Prevalence, Incidence Approach MODel (PIAMOD) method. We calculated trends in prevalence estimates by Joinpoint analysis. Projections were extrapolated using the above models and based on time trends of the period 2007–2010. Results The estimated number of cancer survivors increased from 139′717 in 1990 (2.08% of the population) to 289′797 persons in 2010 (3.70%). The growth rate shows an exponential shape and was 3.3% per year in the period 2008 to 2010. Almost half of the survivors have a history of breast, prostate or colorectal cancer. Among cancer survivors, 55% are women but the increases have been more marked in men (p Switzerland. Conclusions There is a rapidly growing population of cancer survivors in Switzerland whose needs and concerns are largely unknown. PMID:23764068

  16. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential.

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    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M

    2016-08-01

    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  17. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species.

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    Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W

    2012-06-26

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO(2) balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (± 30) kg · ha(-1) · y(-1), double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (± 176) kg · ha(-1), whereas net losses of soil N (0-100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (± 915) kg · ha(-1) (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ(13)C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg · ha(-1) · y(-1). All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32-54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass.

  18. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS

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    Martina Kyselková

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

  19. The spatial biology of transcription and translation in rapidly growing Escherichia coli

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    Somenath eBakshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP in live, rapidly growing E. coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0-3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20-30 min nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription

  20. An automated system for rapid non-destructive enumeration of growing microbes.

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    Roanna London

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The power and simplicity of visual colony counting have made it the mainstay of microbiological analysis for more than 130 years. A disadvantage of the method is the long time required to generate visible colonies from cells in a sample. New rapid testing technologies generally have failed to maintain one or more of the major advantages of culture-based methods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a new technology and platform that uses digital imaging of cellular autofluorescence to detect and enumerate growing microcolonies many generations before they become visible to the eye. The data presented demonstrate that the method preserves the viability of the microcolonies it detects, thus enabling generation of pure cultures for microbial identification. While visual colony counting detects Escherichia coli colonies containing about 5x10(6 cells, the new imaging method detects E. coli microcolonies when they contain about 120 cells and microcolonies of the yeast Candida albicans when they contain only about 12 cells. We demonstrate that digital imaging of microcolony autofluorescence detects a broad spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes and present a model for predicting the time to detection for individual strains. Results from the analysis of environmental samples from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants containing a mixture of unidentified microbes demonstrate the method's improved test turnaround times. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates a new technology and automated platform that substantially shortens test times while maintaining key advantages of the current methods.

  1. Mycobacterium celeriflavum sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic bacterium isolated from clinical specimens.

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    Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Çavuşoğlu, Cengiz; Borroni, Emanuele; Heidarieh, Parvin; Koksalan, Orhan Kaya; Cabibbe, Andrea Maurizio; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Mariottini, Alessandro; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Cittaro, Davide; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Lazarevic, Dejan; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Molinari, Gian Lorenzo; Camaggi, Anna; Tortoli, Enrico

    2015-02-01

    Six strains of a rapidly growing scotochromogenic mycobacterium were isolated from pulmonary specimens of independent patients. Biochemical and cultural tests were not suitable for their identification. The mycolic acid pattern analysed by HPLC was different from that of any other mycobacterium. Genotypic characterization, targeting seven housekeeping genes, revealed the presence of microheterogeneity in all of them. Different species were more closely related to the test strains in various regions: the type strain of Mycobacterium moriokaense showed 99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, and 91.5-96.5 % similarity for the remaining six regions. The whole genome sequences of the proposed type strain and that of M. moriokaense presented an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 82.9 %. Phylogenetic analysis produced poorly robust trees in most genes with the exception of rpoB and sodA where Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium novocastrense were the closest species. This phylogenetic relatedness was confirmed by the tree inferred from five concatenated genes, which was very robust. The polyphasic characterization of the test strains, supported by the ANI value, demonstrates that they belong to a previously unreported species, for which the name Mycobacterium celeriflavum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFPC-000207(T) ( = DSM 46765(T) = JCM 18439(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  2. Isolation of Rapidly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Wounds Following Combat-Related Injury.

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    Fiske, Lauren C; Homeyer, Diane C; Zapor, Michael; Hartzell, Joshua; Warkentien, Tyler; Weintrob, Amy C; Ganesan, Anuradha; Burgess, Timothy; Snesrud, Erik; Waterman, Paige; Nielsen, Lindsey; Ressner, Roseanne A

    2016-06-01

    Rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) have yet to be described in combat-related injuries. This study investigates the epidemiology, clinical findings, treatment, and outcomes of RGNTM infections among combat casualties wounded in Afghanistan from 2010 to 2012. Patients with RGNTM were identified from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry through the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study. Trauma history, surgical management, and clinical data were collected. Six isolates from patients requiring antimycobacterial therapy were sequenced. Seventeen cases were identified. Six cases, predominantly associated with Mycobacterium abscessus, required aggressive debridement and a median of 180 days of multidrug antimycobacterial therapy that included clofazimine. M. abscessus isolates expressed the erythromycin resistance methylase (erm(41)) gene for inducible macrolide resistance, yet there were no clinical treatment failures when macrolides were utilized in combination therapy. No clonal similarity between M. abscessus isolates was found. Eleven cases had positive wound cultures, but did not require antimycobacterial therapy. The median duration of time of injury to first detection of a RGNTM was 57 days. This represents the first report of RGNTM infections in war-wounded patients. RGNTM should be recognized as potential pathogens in grossly infected combat wounds. Surgical debridement and multidrug antimycobacterial therapy, when clinically indicated, was associated with satisfactory clinical outcomes. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

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    Volpato, Richard [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Campi de Castro, Claudio [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Radiology, Cerqueira Cesar, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hadad, David Jamil [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Nucleo de Doencas Infecciosas, Department of Internal Medicine, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da [Laboratorio de Patologia PAT, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Filho, Ezequiel Leal [UNIMED Diagnostico, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Marcal, Leonardo P. [The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  4. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woller, Jessica L; Kim, Ki Beom; Behrents, Rolf G; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures) following rapid maxillary expansion in growing children. The CBCT scans of 25 consecutively treated RME patients (10 male, 15 female) with mean age of 12.3±2.6 years, were examined before expansion and immediately following the last activation of the expansion appliance. Statistically significant (Pmaxillary first molars due to RME was also statistically significant. There was no statistically significant displacement of the transpalatal suture. Rapid maxillary expansion results in significant displacement of the bones of circummaxillary sutures in growing children.

  5. Two novel species of rapidly growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium lehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacterium neumannii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Sangal, Vartul; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Jando, Marlen; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Sutcliffe, Iain; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Two rapidly growing mycobacteria with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences were the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strains formed a well-supported subclade in the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely associated with the type strain of Mycobacterium novocastrense. Single and multilocus sequence analyses based on hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SN 1900T and SN 1904T are phylogenetically distinct but share several chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features that are are consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium. The two strains were distinguished by their different fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles, and by a combination of phenotypic features. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values for strains SN 1900T and SN 1904T were 61.0 % and 94.7 %, respectively; in turn, the corresponding dDDH and ANI values with M. novocastrense DSM 44203T were 41.4 % and 42.8 % and 89.3 % and 89.5 %, respectively. These results show that strains SN1900T and SN 1904T form new centres of taxonomic variation within the genus Mycobacterium. Consequently, strains SN 1900T (40T=CECT 8763T=DSM 43219T) and SN 1904T (2409T=CECT 8766T=DSM 43532T) are considered to represent novel species, for which the names Mycobacteriumlehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacteriumneumannii sp. nov. are proposed. A strain designated as 'Mycobacteriumacapulsensis' was shown to be a bona fide member of the putative novel species, M. lehmannii.

  6. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children

    OpenAIRE

    Woller,Jessica L.; Ki Beom Kim; Behrents, Rolf G.; Buschang, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures) following rapid maxillary expansion in gro...

  7. Mycobacterium iranicum sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic species isolated from clinical specimens on three different continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shojaei, H.; Daley, C.; Gitti, Z.; Hashemi, A.; Heidarieh, P.; Moore, E.R.; Naser, A.D.; Russo, C.; Ingen, J. van; Tortoli, E.

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of a novel, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic mycobacterial species is reported. Eight independent strains were isolated from clinical specimens from six different countries of the world, two in Iran, two in Italy and one in each of following countries: Greece, The

  8. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lione

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. Methods This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1–CS2. The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1 and after 1 year (T2. A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. Results RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. Conclusions The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular

  9. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, Roberta; Brunelli, Valerio; Franchi, Lorenzo; Pavoni, Chiara; Quiroga Souki, Bernardo; Cozza, Paola

    2017-11-06

    The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1-CS2). The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm) until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1) and after 1 year (T2). A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular response to the maxillary expansion protocol in class-II-growing

  10. [The diagnosis and treatment of rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai-Jin; Cheng, Zheng-Ping; Yin, Li; Wu, Yu-Yu; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Jun-Fang; Shi, Hai-Hong

    2009-06-01

    To study the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis (NTMK). It was retrospective case series study. Twelve eyes in 12 patients with NTMK following corneal foreign body trauma in 2007 were studied retrospectively including the case histories, clinical findings, laboratory examinations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The main laboratory examination included corneal scrapings by culturing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), corneal lesions by histopathologic examinations and TEM. The patients received local and systemic antibiotics therapy, lesion cleaning followed by cauterization with tincture of iodine (5%) and (or) keratoplasty. All cases had a history of corneal trauma, there was corneal metallic foreign body removal at one hospital in 11 cases, corneal reed trauma in 1 case. The characteristic signs involved grayish-blue crystalloid keratopathy, multifocal infiltrates, satellites, radical form changes in the Descemet's membrane. The results of laboratory examinations of the scrapings of the cornea infection were as follows: all cultures (12/12) were positive for rapidly growing mycobacteria, and isolates from 5 patients were all diagnosed as mycobacterium chelonae subspecies abscess; acid-fast staining revealed positive bacilli in all the 4 patients; seven of 8 patients were positive for bacterium by PCR. Transmission electron microscopy in all the 3 specimens showed many slender rod-shaped or short coarse-shaped bacteria which were phagocytized by monocytes, and some necrotic tissue. Infections in 10 eyes were resolved by combined treatment regimen including a combination of antimicrobial agents (amikacin, rifampin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and/or ofloxacin, etc.) and local lesion cleaning followed by cauterization with 5% tincture of iodine within 2-5 months; two cases resolved by keratoplasty which poorly responded to antibiotic therapy for 6 months

  11. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Tony; Roache, Cindy; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-06-02

    To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities.

  12. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Results Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. Conclusions The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities. PMID:23724920

  13. Multistate US Outbreak of Rapidly Growing Mycobacterial Infections Associated with Medical Tourism to the Dominican Republic, 2013-2014(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, David; Esposito, Douglas H; Gaines, Joanna; Ridpath, Alison; Barry, M Anita; Feldman, Katherine A; Mullins, Jocelyn; Burns, Rachel; Ahmad, Nina; Nyangoma, Edith N; Nguyen, Duc B; Perz, Joseph F; Moulton-Meissner, Heather A; Jensen, Bette J; Lin, Ying; Posivak-Khouly, Leah; Jani, Nisha; Morgan, Oliver W; Brunette, Gary W; Pritchard, P Scott; Greenbaum, Adena H; Rhee, Susan M; Blythe, David; Sotir, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During 2013, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in Baltimore, MD, USA, received report of 2 Maryland residents whose surgical sites were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria after cosmetic procedures at a clinic (clinic A) in the Dominican Republic. A multistate investigation was initiated; a probable case was defined as a surgical site infection unresponsive to therapy in a patient who had undergone cosmetic surgery in the Dominican Republic. We identified 21 case-patients in 6 states who had surgery in 1 of 5 Dominican Republic clinics; 13 (62%) had surgery at clinic A. Isolates from 12 (92%) of those patients were culture-positive for Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Of 9 clinic A case-patients with available data, all required therapeutic surgical intervention, 8 (92%) were hospitalized, and 7 (78%) required ≥3 months of antibacterial drug therapy. Healthcare providers should consider infection with rapidly growing mycobacteria in patients who have surgical site infections unresponsive to standard treatment.

  14. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas R. Cusumano; Vivy Tran; Aileen Tlamsa; Philip Chung; Robert Grossberg; Gregory Weston; Uzma N. Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors’ experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here. Methods: Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who pre...

  15. A novel culture medium for isolation of rapidly-growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Clair L; Perry, Audrey; Gray, Bethany; Kenna, Dervla T; Jones, Amanda L; Cummings, Stephen P; Robb, Ali; Thomas, Matthew F; Brodlie, Malcolm; O'Brien, Christopher J; Bourke, Stephen J; Perry, John D

    2016-03-01

    Isolation of mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to the overgrowth of cultures by other bacteria and fungi. In this setting, Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as a convenient and effective culture medium for the isolation of rapidly-growing, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). A novel selective culture medium (RGM medium) was evaluated for the isolation of rapidly-growing NTM from the sputum of children and adults with CF. A total of 118 isolates of rapidly-growing mycobacteria and 98 other bacteria and fungi were inoculated onto RGM medium. These were assessed for growth at 30°C over a seven day period. A total of 502 consecutive sputum samples were collected from 210 patients with CF. Each sample was homogenized and cultured onto RGM medium and also onto BCSA. Cultures were incubated for 10days at 30°C. Of 118 isolates of mycobacteria all but one grew well on RGM medium, whereas 94% of other bacteria and fungi were inhibited. A total of 55 sputum samples (from 33 distinct patients) yielded NTM using a combination of both RGM and BCSA (prevalence: 15.7%). NTM were recovered from 54 sputum samples using RGM medium compared with only 17 samples using BCSA (sensitivity 98% vs. 31%; P≤0.0001). A total of 419 isolates of non-mycobacteria were recovered from sputum samples on BCSA compared with 46 on RGM medium. RGM medium offers a simple and effective culture method for the isolation of rapidly-growing mycobacteria from sputum samples from patients with CF without decontamination of samples. RGM medium allows for the systematic screening of all sputum samples routinely referred for culture from patients with CF. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Woller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures following rapid maxillary expansion in growing children. METHODS: The CBCT scans of 25 consecutively treated RME patients (10 male, 15 female with mean age of 12.3 ± 2.6 years, were examined before expansion and immediately following the last activation of the expansion appliance. RESULTS: Statistically significant (P < 0.05 amounts of separation were found for the displacement of the bones of the frontonasal suture, the intermaxillary suture, the zygomaticomaxillary sutures, and the midpalatal suture. The change in angulation of the maxillary first molars due to RME was also statistically significant. There was no statistically significant displacement of the transpalatal suture. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid maxillary expansion results in significant displacement of the bones of circummaxillary sutures in growing children.

  17. The impact of entrepreneurial capital and rapidly growing firms: the Canadian example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    World-class competitiveness is no longer an option for firms seeking growth and survival in the increasingly competitive, dynamic and interconnected world. This paper expands on the concept of entrepreneurial capital and formalizes it as a catalyst that augments other productive factors. It provi...... hostile environments that also suffer from poor resources, this research offers significant lessons with implications for emerging firms, industries and associated regions that aspire to grow faster...

  18. Rapidly growing cystic vestibular schwannoma with sudden onset facial palsy, ten years after subtotal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandinarasaiah, Manjunath; Grinblat, Golda; Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Taibah, Abdelkader; Sanna, Mario

    2017-07-19

    An elderly male patient diagnosed with a right-sided cystic vestibular schwannoma (CVS) at our center underwent a translabyrinthine approach with a subtotal excision to preserve the facial nerve (FN). The tumor grew slowly for the first 9 years but in the subsequent 2 years grew rapidly, with the patient developing a FN paralysis. Using the previous approach, a second surgery was done and the tumor was excised, leaving behind a sheath of tumor on the facial and lower cranial nerves. This case demonstrates that CVSs show unpredictable growth patterns and need to be followed up for a longer period of time. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. In-vitro evaluation of the adhesion to polypropylene sutures of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, N; Esteban, J; Kinnari, T J; Celdrán, A; Granizo, J J; Zafra, C

    2007-09-01

    The ability of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria (NPRGM) to attach to polypropylene sutures was evaluated using an in-vitro assay. Thirty clinical isolates and five culture collection strains of NPRGM, together with Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35983, were tested. Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae showed the highest attachment ability, which differed significantly from the results obtained with Mycobacterium peregrinum. According to these results, NPRGM are able to attach to polypropylene sutures, and the species implicated most frequently in human infection showed increased levels of attachment in comparison with the other mycobacteria studied.

  20. A rapidly growing moraine-dammed glacial lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah S.; Benn, Douglas I.; Dennis, Kathryn; Luckman, Adrian

    2012-04-01

    Moraine-dammed glacial lakes are becoming increasingly common in the Himalaya as a result of glacier mass loss, causing concern about glacier lake outburst flood risk. In addition to extant lakes, the potential exists for many more to form, as more glaciers ablate down to the level of potential moraine dams. In this paper, we document the recent rapid growth of, a moraine-dammed lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. Using a combination of ground-based mapping and sonar surveys, aerial photographs (< 1 m resolution), and ASTER imagery (15 m resolution), processes and rates of lake expansion have been determined. The lake first formed between 1984 and 1992 when collapse of an englacial conduit allowed water to accumulate at the level of a gap in the lateral moraine, ~km from the glacier terminus. Lake growth was initially slow, but since 2001 it has undergone exponential growth at an average rate of 10% y-1. In 2009, the lake area was 300,000 m2, and its volume was at least 2.2 million m3. Calving, subaqueous melting, and melting of subaerial ice faces all contribute to the expansion of the lake; but large-scale, full-height slab calving is now the dominant contributor to growth. Comparison with other lakes in the region indicate that lake growth will likely continue unchecked whilst the spillway remains at its current level and may attain a volume of hundreds of millions of cubic metres within the next few decades.

  1. Neonatal sepsis in a rapidly growing, tertiary neonatal intensive care unit: Trends over 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Ju Sun; Shin, Seung Han; Jung, Young Hwa; Kim, Ee-Kyung; Choi, Eun Hwa; Kim, Han-Suk; Lee, Hoan Jong; Choi, Jung-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    We investigated changes in the admission patterns of neonatal intensive care units and the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis following the rapid expansion and improvements in neonatal intensive care. Data on the admission of neonates with culture-proven sepsis between 1996 and 2013 (period I, 1996-2005; period II, 2006-2013) were collected retrospectively. The admission of extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants increased between periods I and II (11.1 vs 28.7 infants per 1000 live births, P sepsis among all infants and ELBW infants increased (all infants, 5.9 vs 12.7 cases per 1000 live births; ELBW infants, 189.5 vs 290.1 cases per 1000 live births). In ELBW infants, the incidence of sepsis caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS), significantly increased during period II (8.8 vs 25.4%, P = 0.039). On multivariate analysis, central vascular catheters and prolonged hospitalization were independently associated with increased sepsis rate, particularly CONS in ELBW infants. The inborn admission rate for ELBW infants has increased significantly and is accompanied by improved survival and longer hospital stay. The incidence of neonatal sepsis, particularly in ELBW infants, has also increased, and CONS has emerged as a major pathogen. Central vascular catheters and prolonged hospitalization could be independent risk factors for the increased sepsis rate, particularly sepsis due to CONS. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov., a rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species isolated from human clinical respiratory and blood culture specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto Enrique; Greninger, Alexander L; Ladutko, Lynn; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Jakubiec, Wesley; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Wallace, Richard J; Simmon, Keith E; Dunn, Bruce E; Jackoway, Gary; Vora, Surabhi B; Quinn, Kevin K; Qin, Xuan; Campbell, Sheldon

    2017-11-01

    A previously undescribed, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species of the genus Mycobacterium (represented by strains PB739 T and GK) was isolated from two clinical sources - the sputum of a 76-year-old patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of tuberculosis exposure and Mycobacterium avium complex isolated years prior; and the blood of a 15-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia status post bone marrow transplant. The isolates grew as dark orange colonies at 25-37 °C after 5 days, sharing features in common with other closely related species. Analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (1492 bp) of strain PB739 T demonstrated that the isolate shared 98.8 % relatedness with Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Partial 429 bp hsp65 and 744 bp rpoB region V sequence analyses revealed that the sequences of the novel isolate shared 94.8 and 92.1 % similarity with those of Mycobacterium neoaurum and Mycobacterium aurum, respectively. Biochemical profiling, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, HPLC/gas-liquid chromatography analyses and multilocus sequence typing support the taxonomic status of these isolates (PB739 T and GK) as representatives of a novel species. Both isolates were susceptible to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended antimicrobials for susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria including amikacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline/minocycline, imipenem, linezolid, clarithromycin and trimethropin/sulfamethoxazole. Both isolates PB739 T and GK showed intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin. We propose the name Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov. for this novel species and have deposited the type strain in the DSMZ and CIP culture collections. The type strain is PB739 T (=DSM 104744 T =CIP 111318 T ).

  3. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, Lucas R; Tran, Vivy; Tlamsa, Aileen; Chung, Philip; Grossberg, Robert; Weston, Gregory; Sarwar, Uzma N

    2017-10-01

    Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors' experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here. Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who presented at the Montefiore Medical Center (Bronx, New York, USA) between August 2015 and June 2016 were identified. A review of patient medical records was performed. Four patients who presented with culture-proven RGM infections at the sites of recent cosmetic procedures were identified. All patients were treated with a combination of antibiotics and aggressive surgical treatment. This case series of RGM infections following recent cosmetic surgeries abroad highlights the risks of medical tourism. Close monitoring of affected patients by surgical and infectious disease specialties is necessary, as aggressive surgical debridement combined with appropriate antibiotic regimens is needed to achieve cure. Given the increasing reports of post-surgical RGM infections, consultants should have a low threshold for suspecting RGM, as rapid diagnosis may accelerate the initiation of targeted treatment and minimize morbidity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov., a scotochromogenic, rapidly growing species is able to infect human macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Rizvi, A; Banerjee, S; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-11-01

    Gram-stain-positive, acid-fast-positive, rapidly growing, rod-shaped bacteria (designated as strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431) were isolated from paddy cultivated soils on the Western Ghats of India. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three strains among the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium tokaiense 47503T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Mycobacterium murale MA112/96T (98.8 %) and a few other Mycobacterium species. The level of DNA-DNA reassociation of the three strains with M. tokaiense DSM 44635T was 23.4±4 % (26.1±3 %, reciprocal analysis) and 21.4±2 % (22.1±4 %, reciprocal analysis). The three novel strains shared >99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA reassociation values >85 %. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences (3071 bp) of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) revealed that strain JC290T is clearly distinct from all other Mycobacteriumspecies. The three strains had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, unidentified phospholipids, unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified lipid as polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone for all three strains was MK-9(H2). Fatty acids were C17 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C19 : 1ω7c/C19 : 1ω6c for all the three strains. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431 are members of a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium and for which the name Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC290T (=KCTC 39560T=LMG 28809T).

  5. Miniaturized extinction culturing is the preferred strategy for rapid isolation of fast‐growing methane‐oxidizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefman, Sven; van der Ha, David; De Vos, Paul; Boon, Nico; Heylen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Summary Methane‐oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have a large potential as a microbial sink for the greenhouse gas methane as well as for biotechnological purposes. However, their application in biotechnology has so far been hampered, in part due to the relative slow growth rate of the available strains. To enable the availability of novel strains, this study compares the isolation of MOB by conventional dilution plating with miniaturized extinction culturing, both performed after an initial enrichment step. The extinction approach rendered 22 MOB isolates from four environmental samples, while no MOB could be isolated by plating. In most cases, extinction culturing immediately yielded MOB monocultures making laborious purification redundant. Both type I (Methylomonas spp.) and type II (Methylosinus sp.) MOB were isolated. The isolated methanotrophic diversity represented at least 11 different strains and several novel species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence dissimilarity. These strains possessed the particulate (100%) and soluble (64%) methane monooxygenase gene. Also, 73% of the strains could be linked to a highly active fast‐growing mixed MOB community. In conclusion, miniaturized extinction culturing was more efficient in rapidly isolating numerous MOB requiring little effort and fewer materials, compared with the more widely applied plating procedure. This miniaturized approach allowed straightforward isolation and could be very useful for subsequent screening of desired characteristics, in view of their future biotechnological potential. PMID:22070783

  6. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).

  7. Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov., a rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium chelonae, isolated from marine teleost fish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Hanako; Wada, Shinpei; Kurata, Osamu; Katayama, Kinya; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-01

    A previously undescribed rapidly growing, non-pigmented mycobacterium was identified based on biochemical and nucleic acid analyses, as well as growth characteristics. Seven isolates were cultured from samples collected from five thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) and two farmed black scraper (Thamnaconus modestus). Bacterial growth occurred at 15-35 °C on Middlebrook 7H11 agar. The bacteria were positive for catalase activity at 68 °C and urease activity, intermediate for iron uptake, and negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, semi-quantitative catalase activity and arylsulfatase activity at day 3. No growth was observed on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with picric acid, and very little growth was observed in the presence of 5 % NaCl. α- and α'-mycolates were identified in the cell walls, and a unique profile of the fatty acid methyl esters and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles of the protein and cell-wall lipids were acquired. Sequence analysis revealed that the seven isolates shared identical sequences for the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65, recA and sodA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the five gene sequences confirmed that the isolates were unique, but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clarithromycin against this novel species was Mycobacterium salmoniphilum. The hsp65 PCR restriction enzyme analysis pattern differed from those of M. chelonae and M. salmoniphilum. Based on these findings, the name Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain being NJB0901T (=JCM 31611T=KCTC 39843T).

  8. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae–Mycobacterium abscessus group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M.; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and, in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae–Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M. abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1–2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values >70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results, demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, but constitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM 10906T ( = CCUG 66554T = LMG 28586T = INCQS 0733T). PMID:26358475

  9. Regulation of the efflux of putrescine and cadaverine from rapidly growing cultured RAW 264 cells by extracellular putrescine.

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandrawinata, R R; Byus, C V

    1995-01-01

    Cultures of the macrophage-like RAW 264 cells were adapted to divide normally in a synthetic serum-supplemented culture medium lacking any polyamines and diamine oxidase activity. These rapidly dividing cells actively effluxed large amounts of putrescine and cadaverine, compared with the intracellular levels, into the culture medium. The efflux of putrescine was stimulated by the amino acid ornithine, whereas efflux of cadaverine was inhibited. Relatively low levels of spermidine and N1-acety...

  10. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. Cusumano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: This case series of RGM infections following recent cosmetic surgeries abroad highlights the risks of medical tourism. Close monitoring of affected patients by surgical and infectious disease specialties is necessary, as aggressive surgical debridement combined with appropriate antibiotic regimens is needed to achieve cure. Given the increasing reports of post-surgical RGM infections, consultants should have a low threshold for suspecting RGM, as rapid diagnosis may accelerate the initiation of targeted treatment and minimize morbidity.

  11. Do farmers rapidly adapt to past growing conditions by sowing different proportions of early and late maturing cereals and cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short growing season of the northernmost European growing conditions, farmers are increasingly interested in expanding cultivation of later maturing crops at the expense of early maturing ones with lower yields. In this study we aimed to assess how the switching between spring cereals that differ in earliness was associated with different external factors. This was tested using unique datasets for regional cropping areas and cultivar use for the last 15 years. Early maturing barley was favored at the expense of later maturing wheat when a high number of days to crop maturity was required in the preceding year. In contrast, farmers reduced the barley area when a high number of cumulated degree days was required for a crop to mature in the previous year. A shift was recorded from early to late maturing cultivars. This study indicated that despite limited opportunities for farmers to alter land use, they readily responded to past conditions and used the knowledge gained for decision-making to reduce risk. This is a valuable operative model for studying adaptation to opportunities and constraints induced by climate change.

  12. Growing City and Rapid Land Use Transition: Assessing Multiple Hazards and Risks in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagawat Rimal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pokhara is one of the most naturally beautiful cities in the world with a unique geological setting. This important tourist city is under intense pressure from rapid urbanization and population growth. Multiple hazards and risks are rapidly increasing in Pokhara due to unsustainable land use practices, particularly the increase in built-up areas. This study examines the relationship among urbanization, land use/land cover dynamics and multiple hazard and risk analysis of the Pokhara valley from 1990 to 2013. We investigate some of the active hazards, such as floods, landslides, fire, sinkholes, land subsidence and earthquakes, and prepare an integrated multiple hazard risk map indicating the highly vulnerable zones. Land use and land cover maps from 1990 and 2013 from Landsat images (30 m resolution have been prepared and analyzed for the spatial dynamics of urbanization and the transition of land use and land cover. In the 23-year period, the built-up area more than doubled from 24.03 km² to 54.20 km². Although the landscape in the urban, peri-urban and rural areas appears to be fragmented, different drivers play pivotal roles in landscape change in these areas. The results provide substantial information for establishing innovative action plans for disaster risk management in the valley. Recommendations are made for the most suitable places for future urban expansion in the valley. This study is important for raising awareness among policy makers and other public officials to include multiple hazard risk mitigation in land use policies and plans. Establishing connections between urban expansions, escalating population growth and multiple hazards and risk assessment will also improve in modelling the latent impact of future catastrophes and emergency preparedness.

  13. An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (southern Arizona): Major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Wonaschütz, Anna; Jarjour, Elias G; Hashimoto, Bryce I; Schichtel, Bret A; Betterton, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    This study reports a comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosol particle properties in relation to meteorological and back trajectory data in the southern Arizona region, which includes two of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States (Phoenix and Tucson). Multiple data sets (MODIS, AERONET, OMI/TOMS, MISR, GOCART, ground-based aerosol measurements) are used to examine monthly trends in aerosol composition, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and aerosol size. Fine soil, sulfate, and organics dominate PM2.5 mass in the region. Dust strongly influences the region between March and July owing to the dry and hot meteorological conditions and back trajectory patterns. Because monsoon precipitation begins typically in July, dust levels decrease, while AOD, sulfate, and organic aerosol reach their maximum levels because of summertime photochemistry and monsoon moisture. Evidence points to biogenic volatile organic compounds being a significant source of secondary organic aerosol in this region. Biomass burning also is shown to be a major contributor to the carbonaceous aerosol budget in the region, leading to enhanced organic and elemental carbon levels aloft at a sky-island site north of Tucson (Mt. Lemmon). Phoenix exhibits different monthly trends for aerosol components in comparison with the other sites owing to the strong influence of fossil carbon and anthropogenic dust. Trend analyses between 1988 and 2009 indicate that the strongest statistically significant trends are reductions in sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, and increases in fine soil during the spring (March-May) at select sites. These results can be explained by population growth, land-use changes, and improved source controls.

  14. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    concept of our modeling approach and describe its strengths and weaknesses. We furthermore use empirical data for the states of North and South Carolina to demonstrate how the modeling framework can be applied to a large, heterogeneous study system with diverse decision-making agents. Grimm et al. (2005) Pattern-Oriented Modeling of Agent-Based Complex Systems: Lessons from Ecology. Science 310, 987-991. Liu et al. (2013) Framing Sustainability in a Telecoupled World. Ecology and Society 18(2), 26. Meentemeyer et al. (2013) FUTURES: Multilevel Simulations of Merging Urban-Rural Landscape Structure Using a Stochastic Patch-Growing Algorithm. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103(4), 785-807.

  15. Missing portion sizes in FFQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Halldorson, Thorhallur I.

    2015-01-01

    of portion sizes based on information about anthropometry, sex, physical activity and age. Energy intakes computed with standard portion sizes, defined as sex-specific medians (median), or with portion sizes estimated with multinomial logistic regression (MLR), ‘comparable categories’ (Coca) or k...... with the reference, the root-mean-square errors of the mean daily total energy intake (in kJ) computed with portion sizes estimated by the four methods were (men; women): median (1118; 1061), MLR (1060; 1051), Coca (1230; 1146), KNN (1281; 1181). The equivalent biases (mean error) were (in kJ): median (579; 469......), MLR (248; 178), Coca (234; 188), KNN (−340; 218). Conclusions: The methods MLR and Coca provided the best agreement with the reference. The stochastic methods allowed for estimation of meaningful portion sizes by conditioning on information about physiology and they were suitable for multiple...

  16. [Rapid growing liposarcoma in retroperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, L.E.; Mynster, T.

    2008-01-01

    inhomogeneous tumour adhesive to the right kidney capsule was removed in toto from retroperitoneum. Histological diagnosis: Sclerosing, low differentiated liposarcoma. Besides radical surgery only radiation therapy may have effect in treatment of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/29...

  17. Do teachers and students get the Ed-Tech products they need: The challenges of Ed-Tech procurement in a rapidly growing market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Morrison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ed-tech courseware products to support teaching and learning are being developed and made available for acquisition by school districts at a rapid rate. In this growing market, developers and providers face challenges with making their products visible to customers, while school district stakeholders must grapple with “discovering” which products of the many available best address their instructional needs. The present study presents the experiences with and perceptions about the procurement process from 47 superintendents representing diverse school districts in the U. S. Results indicate that, while improvements are desired in many aspects of the procurement process, the superintendents, overall, believe that, once desired products are identified, they are generally able to acquire them. Difficulties lie in tighter budgets, discovering products that are potentially the best choices, and evaluating the effectiveness of the products selected as options. These findings are presented and interpreted in relation to five major “Action Points” in the procurement process, and also with regard to implications for evaluating how educational technology impacts K-12 instruction.

  18. In Vitro Comparison of Ertapenem, Meropenem, and Imipenem against Isolates of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria and Nocardia by Use of Broth Microdilution and Etest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Killingley, Jessica; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Bridge, Linda; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    We compared the activities of the carbapenems ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem against 180 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and 170 isolates of Nocardia using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A subset of isolates was tested using the Etest. The rate of susceptibility to ertapenem and meropenem was limited and less than that to imipenem for the RGM. Analysis of major and minor discrepancies revealed that >90% of the isolates of Nocardia had higher MICs by the broth microdilution method than by Etest, in contrast to the lower broth microdilution MICs seen for >80% of the RGM. Imipenem remains the most active carbapenem against RGM, including Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus For Nocardia, imipenem was significantly more active only against Nocardia farcinica Although there may be utility in testing the activities of the newer carbapenems against Nocardia, their activities against the RGM should not be routinely tested. Testing by Etest is not recommended by the CLSI. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Evaluation of capillary and myofiber density in the pectoralis major muscles of rapidly growing, high-yield broiler chickens during increased heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, K S; Hamlin, G A; Lien, A R J; Bilgili, S F

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle development proceeds from early embryogenesis through marketing age in broiler chickens. While myofiber formation is essentially complete at hatching, myofiber hypertrophy can increase after hatch by assimilation of satellite cell nuclei into myofibers. As the diameter of the myofibers increases, capillary density peripheral to the myofiber is marginalized, limiting oxygen supply and subsequent diffusion into the myofiber, inducing microischemia. The superficial and deep pectoralis muscles constitute 25% of the total body weight in a market-age bird; thus compromise of those muscle groups can have profound economic impact on broiler production. We hypothesized that marginal capillary support relative to the hypertrophic myofibers increases the incidence of microischemia, especially in contemporary high-yield broilers under stressing conditions such as high environmental temperatures. We evaluated the following parameters in four different broiler strains at 39 and 53 days of age when reared under thermoneutral (20 to 25 C) versus hot (30 to 35 C) environmental conditions: capillary density, myofiber density and diameter, and degree of myodegeneration. Our data demonstrate that myofiber diameter significantly increased with age (P > or = 0.0001), while the absolute numbers of capillaries, blood vessels, and myofibers visible in five 400 x microscopic fields decreased (P > or = 0.0001). This is concomitant with marginalization of vascular support in rapidly growing myofibers. The myofiber diameter was significantly lower with hot environmental temperatures (P > or = 0.001); therefore, the absolute number of myofibers visible in five 400X microscopic fields was significantly higher. The incidence and subjective degree of myodegeneration characterized by loss of cross-striations, myocyte hyperrefractility, sarcoplasmic vacuolation, and nuclear pyknosis or loss also increased in hot conditions. Differences among strains were not observed.

  20. Point-of-use membrane filtration and hyperchlorination to prevent patient exposure to rapidly growing mycobacteria in the potable water supply of a skilled nursing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Chen, Tai-Ho; Keane, Tim; Toney, Nadege; Toney, Sean; Armbruster, Catherine R; Butler, W Ray; Arduino, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    Healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are frequently associated with contaminated tap water. A pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus in patients undergoing bronchoscopy was identified by 2 acute care hospitals. RGM was identified in bronchoscopy specimens of 28 patients, 25 of whom resided in the same skilled nursing facility (SNF). An investigation ruled out bronchoscopy procedures, specimen collection, and scope reprocessing at the hospitals as sources of transmission. To identify the reservoir for RGM within the SNF and evaluate 2 water system treatments, hyperchlorination and point-of-use (POU) membrane filters, to reduce RGM. A comparative in situ study of 2 water system treatments to prevent RGM transmission. An SNF specializing in care of patients requiring ventilator support. RGM and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria were examined in facility water before and after hyperchlorination and in a subsequent 24-week assessment of filtered water by colony enumeration on Middlebrook and R2A media. Mycobacterium chelonae was consistently isolated from the SNF water supply. Hyperchlorination reduced RGM by 1.5 log(10) initially, but the population returned to original levels within 90 days. Concentration of HPC bacteria also decreased temporarily. RGM were reduced below detection level in filtered water, a 3-log(10) reduction. HPC bacteria were not recovered from newly installed filters, although low quantities were found in water from 2-week-old filters. POU membrane filters may be a feasible prevention measure for healthcare facilities to limit exposure of sensitive individuals to RGM in potable water systems.

  1. Rapid development in vitro and in vivo of resistance to ceftazidime in biofilm-growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, N; Ciofu, O; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the development of resistance of biofilm-growing P. aeruginosa during treatment with ceftazidime. Biofilms were established in vitro using a modified Robbins device (MRD) and in vivo in the rat model of chronic lung infection. Three P. aeruginosa strains...

  2. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  3. Development of an in vitro Assay, Based on the BioFilm Ring Test®, for Rapid Profiling of Biofilm-Growing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Enea G; Toma, Luigi; Provot, Christian; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Sperduti, Isabella; Prignano, Grazia; Gallo, Maria T; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Bordignon, Valentina; Bernardi, Thierry; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biofilm represents a major virulence factor associated with chronic and recurrent infections. Pathogenic bacteria embedded in biofilms are highly resistant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics and therefore difficult to eradicate. Thus, reliable tests to assess biofilm formation by bacterial strains as well as the impact of chemicals or antibiotics on biofilm formation represent desirable tools for a most effective therapeutic management and microbiological risk control. Current methods to evaluate biofilm formation are usually time-consuming, costly, and hardly applicable in the clinical setting. The aim of the present study was to develop and assess a simple and reliable in vitro procedure for the characterization of biofilm-producing bacterial strains for future clinical applications based on the BioFilm Ring Test® (BRT) technology. The procedure developed for clinical testing (cBRT) can provide an accurate and timely (5 h) measurement of biofilm formation for the most common pathogenic bacteria seen in clinical practice. The results gathered by the cBRT assay were in agreement with the traditional crystal violet (CV) staining test, according to the κ coefficient test (κ = 0.623). However, the cBRT assay showed higher levels of specificity (92.2%) and accuracy (88.1%) as compared to CV. The results indicate that this procedure offers an easy, rapid and robust assay to test microbial biofilm and a promising tool for clinical microbiology.

  4. Rapid Water Uptake and Limited Storage Capacity at Height of Growing Season in Four Temperate Tree Species in a Central Pennsylvania Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, K.; Meinzer, F. C.; Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    rapid water uptake and tree water storage limited to about a month in duration. These findings are necessary for modeling of hydrologic parameters that are influenced by tree water age. They also indicate that trees on shallow soil in this catchment may be at risk if droughts lasting over a month occur more frequently in future years.

  5. Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167159.html Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss Put an end to guesstimating calories with simple ... control is a must when you want to lose weight. "Guesstimating" the size of a chicken breast at ...

  6. A systematic review of the evidence: the effects of portion size manipulation with children and portion education/training interventions on dietary intake with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Leigh; Lane, Heather; Vaughan, Linda; Melnyk, Bernadette; McBurnett, Danielle

    2013-05-01

    Evidence shows that 3-5-year-old children undergo important physical and behavioral changes that include being affected by the amount of food they are served, with larger portions of food served resulting in greater dietary intake. This may be a key finding as researchers continue to identify effective treatments for the growing number of preschool children who are overweight or obese. Knowledge of the effects of varying portion sizes on young children's dietary intake is important; however, because parents of young children control the manner in which children are fed, educating parents regarding the estimation of portion sizes is an approach worth exploring as a way to affect the trajectory of their young child's weight gain. The purposes of this systematic review were to determine (1) findings regarding the effect of varying portion sizes with young children and (2) the evidence regarding the effects of educating adults to estimate portion sizes. Evidence from this review may guide clinical practice and future research efforts. A comprehensive literature search was conducted with multiple databases using MeSH Headings and keywords. This search strategy was supplemented by ancestry searches of all relevant articles. Two independent, trained pediatric practitioners determined quality of the studies using established criteria. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria as portion-manipulation interventions or portion-education/training interventions and were appraised. Evidence showed the positive effect of portion sizes on the energy intake of children. In addition, the ability of adults to accurately estimate portion size improved following education/training. Although many studies have focused on a variety of portion-related interventions, the influence of portion education with parents of young children has not been well researched. More research is needed to understand the effect of parent-focused, portion-education interventions that encourage appropriate energy

  7. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  8. Mechanisms underlying the portion-size effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Herman, C; Polivy, Janet; Pliner, Patricia; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-05-15

    The portion-size effect (PSE) refers to the fact that people eat more when served larger portions. This effect is neither obvious nor artifactual. We examine the prevailing explanations (or underlying mechanisms) that have been offered for the PSE. The dominant candidate mechanism is "appropriateness"; that is, people accept the portion that they are served as being of an appropriate size and eat accordingly. Because people do not necessarily finish the portion that they are served, variations on the basic appropriateness mechanism have been suggested. We also consider some evidence that is inconsistent with an appropriateness explanation, including the appearance of the PSE in children as young as two years of age. We also examine other mechanisms that do not rely on appropriateness norms. Visual food cues may assist in assessing appropriateness but may also drive food intake in a more mindless fashion. Larger portions induce larger bites, which may increase intake by reducing oral exposure time and sensory-specific satiety. We consider further research questions that could help to clarify the mechanisms underlying the PSE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT.Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated.Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group.The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  10. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueling; Liu, Dongxu; Liu, Ju; Wu, Zizhong; Xie, Yongtao; Li, Liang; Liu, Hong; Guo, Tiantian; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE) treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30) was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated. Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A) of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI) of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn) of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR) ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group. The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  11. Portion size and intended consumption. Evidence for a pre-consumption portion size effect in males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; te Raa, Wesselien; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Larger portions increase energy intake (the 'portion size effect'); however, the mechanisms behind this effect are unclear. Although pre-meal intentions are thought to be an important determinant of energy intake, little research has examined how much of a meal individuals intend to eat when served standard versus larger portion sizes. Three studies examined the effect of manipulating portion size on intended food consumption. In Studies 1 (spaghetti bolognese) and 2 (curry and rice) male participants were shown an image of either a standard or a larger meal and indicated how much of the meal they intended to consume. In Study 3 male and female participants were served either a standard or a larger portion of ice cream for dessert, they indicated how much they intended to consume and then ate as much of the ice cream as they desired. Regardless of being shown standard or large portion sizes, in Studies 1 and 2 participants reported that they intended to eat the majority of the meal, equating to a large difference in intended energy consumption between portion size conditions (a 'pre-consumption portion size effect'). This finding was replicated in male participants in Study 3, although females intended to eat a smaller proportion of the larger portion of ice cream, compared to the standard portion. Both male and female participants tended to eat in accordance with their pre-meal intentions and a portion size effect on actual consumption was subsequently observed in males, but not in females. The portion size effect may be observed when measuring pre-meal intended consumption in males. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Legal Portion in Russian Inheritance Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inshina, Roza; Murzalimova, Lyudmila

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the right to inherit as one of the basic human rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The state has set rules according to which after a person's death, his or her property is inherited by other persons. The Russian civil legislation establishes the institution of legal portions that is…

  13. Hardware compression using common portions of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jichuan; Viswanathan, Krishnamurthy

    2015-03-24

    Methods and devices are provided for data compression. Data compression can include receiving a plurality of data chunks, sampling at least some of the plurality of data chunks extracting a common portion from a number of the plurality of data chunks based on the sampling, and storing a remainder of the plurality of data chunks in memory.

  14. Identification of different subtypes of rapid growing Atypical Mycobacterium from water and soil sources: Using PCR-RFLP using hsp65 and rRNA 16s-23s genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varahram, Mohammad; Farnia, Parissa; Saif, Shima; Marashian, Mehran; Farnia, Poopak; Ghanavi, Jaladein; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2016-12-01

    Nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) are a diverse group of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans including skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal tract infection. Generally, NTM are classified into two categories: rapid (7days). In this study, we aimed to investigate NTM frequency and prevalence in environmental samples. Additionally, we tried to identify various subtypes of isolated rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM). Through a prospective descriptive cross-sectional study, water and soil samples were gathered from four neighboring towns around Tehran, the capital of Iran, at different geographic directions. Every 100m(2) of the studied areas gave one sample containing 6g of soil in 3-5cm depth deposited in 50mL sterile water as sampling media. After digestion and decontamination, DNA from culture-positive specimens (RGM) were extracted using phenol-chloroform methods. Then the molecular identification of species and subspecies were performed using 16s-23s rRNA and hsp65 gene. In total, 341 RGM were found, out of which 322 (94.4%) were identified and 20 (5.8%) could not be identified. The most frequent RGM was, Mycobacterium fortuitum (72; 22%), Mycobacterium senegalense (58; 17.7%), Mycobacterium parafortuitum (44; 13.4%) and Mycobacterium conceptionense type 1 (24; 7.2%), and Mycobacterium cheloni type 1 (20; 6.0%). As shown in Table 1, M. fortuitum had more subtypes (8), and the frequency of subtypes 1 (27.7%), 4 (16.6%), and 5 (13.8%) were higher. Among subtypes of M. senegalense, subtype 1 had a higher frequency (70.4%) in comparison to subtype 2 (29.5%). M. cheloni had just one subtype. Our results showed M. fortuitum as the most prominent strain isolated from environmental samples. The frequency was similar in different places, irrespective of climatic variations. Availability of various subtypes of M. fortuitum might indicate a large circulation of this RGM in soil and water of Iranian territory. This high prevalence of M. fortuitum might

  15. Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov., Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium arcueilense sp. nov., members of a novel group of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria recovered from a water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjek, Julie; Souded, Sabiha; Guerardel, Yann; Trivelli, Xavier; Bernut, Audrey; Kremer, Laurent; Welte, Benedicte; Joyeux, Michel; Dubrou, Sylvie; Euzeby, Jean-Paul; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Sapriel, Guillaume; Heym, Beate

    2016-09-01

    From our recent survey of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria in the Parisian water system, three groups of isolates (taxons 1-3) corresponding to possible novel species were selected for taxonomic study. The three taxa each formed creamy white, rough colonies, had an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C, hydrolyzed Tween 80, were catalase-positive at 22 °C and expressed arylsulfatase activity. All three were susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and tigecycline. The three taxa produced specific sets of mycolic acids, including one family that has never previously been described, as determined by thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The partial rpoB sequences (723 bp) showed 4-6 % divergence from each other and more than 5 % differences from the most similar species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 99 % identity within each species. The most similar sequences for 16S rRNA genes (98-99 % identity over 1444-1461 bp) were found in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, Mycobacterium septicum and Mycobacterium farcinogenes. The three taxa formed a new clade (bootstrap value, 99 %) on trees reconstructed from concatenated partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB sequences. The above results led us to propose three novel species for the three groups of isolates, namely Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov. [type strain 071T=ParisRGMnew_1T (CIP 110656T=DSM 46713T)], Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. [type strain 196T=ParisRGMnew_2T (CIP 110655T=DSM 46714T)] and Mycobacteriu marcueilense sp. nov. [type strain of 269T=ParisRGMnew_3T (CIP 110654T=DSM 46715T)].

  16. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study 3 participants were exposed to images of large or small portions of a snack food before selecting a portion size of snack food to consume. Across the three studies, visual exposure to larger as opposed to smaller portion sizes resulted in participants considering a normal portion of food to be larger than a reference intermediate sized portion. In studies 1 and 2 visual exposure to larger portion sizes also increased the size of self-reported ideal meal size. In study 3 visual exposure to larger portion sizes of a snack food did not affect how much of that food participants subsequently served themselves and ate. Visual exposure to larger portion sizes may adjust visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' sized portion. However, we did not find evidence that visual exposure to larger portions altered snack food intake. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  18. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  19. An Ambition to Grow

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Kemp; Hakkert, R.

    2006-01-01

    This report tries to gain insight in the willingness or ambition to grow of a small business owner. The main question of this report is therefore: Which factors influence the ambition to grow a business? To examine the ambition to grow an economic and a psychological perspective is given in this study.

  20. Children's preference for large portions: prevalence, determinants, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colapinto, Cynthia K; Fitzgerald, Angela; Taper, L Janette; Veugelers, Paul J

    2007-07-01

    Proliferation of large portions of snack and fast foods parallels dramatic increases in childhood obesity. This study investigates the prevalence, determinants, and consequences of large portions in children's diets. As part of the 2003 Children's Lifestyle and School-performance Study, we surveyed 4,966 children in Nova Scotia regarding their usual portion sizes of french fries, meats, vegetables, and potato chips using three-dimensional graduated food models. We measured heights and weights and assessed dietary intake with the Harvard Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire. Diet quality was summarized using the Diet Quality Index International (DQI-I). Parents were surveyed on food habits and socioeconomic background. We used multilevel regression methods to examine determinants of children's large portion size choice and to evaluate the effect of this selection on energy intake, diet quality, and overweight. Children reported preference for portions of french fries, meats, and potato chips that are larger and vegetable portions that are smaller than what is recommended. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families or who frequently eat while watching television and in fast-food restaurants preferred larger portions of french fries and potato chips. Consequences of consuming large portions of these foods included poor diet quality and increased energy intake. Consuming large portions of vegetables was associated with lower energy intake and better diet quality. Successful marketing of large portions of french fries and potato chips may be at the expense of diet quality and appropriate energy intake. Policy regulations and nutrition education emphasizing appropriate portion sizes provide opportunities to prevent overweight and improve future health.

  1. Portion and Serving Sizes of Commonly Consumed Foods, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portion sizes were determined from weight equivalents of each food type consumed, average portion sizes for each food type were determined using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 16, and nutrient intakes were determined using an adapted Total Dietary Assessment (TDA) software. Amounts of ...

  2. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-29

    The `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit- Specific Portion. The scope of the General Information Portion includes information that could be used to discuss operating units, units undergoing closure, or units being dispositioned through other options. Documentation included in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the General Information Portion, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance documentation, is located in the Contents Section. The intent of the General Information Portion is: (1) to provide an overview of the Hanford Facility; and (2) to assist in streamlining efforts associated with treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific Part B permit application, preclosure work plan, closure work plan, closure plan, closure/postclosure plan, or postclosure permit application documentation development, and the `Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit` modification process. Revision 2 of the General Information Portion of the `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` contains information current as of May 1, 1996. This document is a complete submittal and supersedes Revision 1.

  3. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-05-19

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in this report).

  4. Melting ice, growing trade?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sami Bensassi; Julienne C. Stroeve; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Andrew P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR...

  5. Obstructing Gangliocytic Paraganglioma in the Third Portion of the Duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Nuño-Guzmán

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gangliocytic paragangliomas are infrequent tumors almost exclusively found in the second portion of the duodenum. An unusual case of a gangliocytic paraganglioma in the third portion of the duodenum with obstructive symptoms is herein reported. A 16-year-old male patient presented with epigastric pain, postprandial plenitude and reflux. A barium swallow failed to demonstrate abnormalities. Endoscopy showed a pedunculated submucosal tumor, originating at the third duodenal portion and causing partial obstruction. Biopsy was not performed due to the risk of bleeding. CT scan demonstrated a polypoid lesion. Through a transmesocolic approach and an anterior duodenotomy, resection of the tumor was performed. No lymph node or other organ affection was found. Histologic examination revealed a gangliocytic paraganglioma. Immunohistochemical examination was performed. Gangliocytic paragangliomas originating in the third or fourth portion of the duodenum, as in the present case, are extremely rare. Characteristic histologic features including epithelioid cells, spindle-shaped cells and ganglion-like cells were met. The majority of cases manifest with a similar benign behavior. Local resection of the tumor is recommended for these cases. An infrequent case of a gangliocytic paraganglioma located in the third portion of the duodenum, with a less common clinical presentation, is herein reported.

  6. Clinical commentary of the evolution of the treatment for chronic painful mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Alfredson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe chronic painful Achilles tendon mid-portion was for many years, and still is in many countries, treated with intratendinous revision surgery. However, by coincidence, painful eccentric calf muscle training was tried, and it showed very good clinical results. This finding was unexpected and led to research into the pain mechanisms involved in this condition. Today we know that there are very few nerves inside, but multiple nerves outside, the ventral side of the chronic painful Achilles tendon mid-portion. These research findings have resulted in new treatment methods targeting the regions with nerves outside the tendon, methods that allow for a rapid rehabilitation and fast return to sports.

  7. Growing Through Innovation Replicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Lévesque, Moren

    2012-01-01

    of growth policies. We use a utility function that considers proxies for both growth and failure potential to uncover the role played in selecting these policies by the economic environment of the targeted market for expansion. Our analysis further reveals the importance of the innovation......We propose a formal model of firm growth through replication that considers the extent of the investment to adapt routines as replication unfolds and the portion of this investment that goes toward innovation in the routines. The use of these two investment constructs brings about four types...

  8. [Studies on the alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Meng-Hua; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yong-Gang; Yang, Cui-Ping; Su, Wei-Wei

    2011-05-01

    To study alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong. The rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MS/MS) was used to analyse alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong, and senkirkine was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography. Four alkaloids were identified as senkirkine, dehydrosenkirkine, monocrotaline and adonifoline, and senkirkine was firstly isolated from Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong. Senkirkine is the main component of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong.

  9. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  10. Growing Up with "1984."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  11. Growing through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and…

  12. Growing Old in Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liversage, Anika; Mirdal, Gretty Mizrahi

    2017-01-01

    Some studies on immigrants and ageing focus on the question of return; others focus on how immigrants, who grow old in their countries of destination, ‘age in place’, including whether they turn to their children or to public host country provisions for care and support. However, the issues of re...

  13. Eating Habits, Nutritional Status and Portion Sizes in the Elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that nutrition plays a role in the ageing process, however the elderly do not give enough importance to their diet and they very often have inadequate dietary intake and misconceptions about portion sizes. As the number of older people is increasing, their nutritional and health status become a major concern for ...

  14. Portion and Serving Sizes of Commonly Consumed Foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    to generating data that will be useful to individuals in the determination of appropriate portion sizes that will not only ensure nutrient adequacy, promote health and reduce the risk of developing obesity and other diet related diseases; but will also ensure the adoption of a healthy diet plan as part of weight loss and weight.

  15. Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Jaiswal, Namit; Mo, Weijian

    2010-05-18

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes heating a first portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the first portion. The heat is controlled to increase a fluid injectivity of the first portion. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid is injected and/or created in the first portion to cause at least some hydrocarbons to move from a second portion of the hydrocarbon layer to a third portion of the hydrocarbon layer. The second portion is between the first portion and the third portion. The first, second, and third portions are horizontally displaced from each other. The third portion is heated from one or more heaters located in the third portion. Hydrocarbons are produced from the third portion of the formation. The hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons from the second portion of the formation.

  16. Geothermal Grows Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  17. The vulnerable, rapidly growing thoracic spine of the adolescent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at fault, refusing to allow a 'trivial complaint' to stand in the way of the success of the team in which their sons play a key role. Department of Orthopaedics, University .... hence the diagnosis of 'postural, non-structural, thoracic kyphosis'. In a small percentage of these cases, structural changes have been seen later, but with ...

  18. The vulnerable, rapidly growing thoracic spine of the adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolapse of disc tissue occurs into the verfebral body, causing a disturbance of growth but little if any pain. The vertebrae in the mid-thoracic region become wedge-shaped, and a kyphotic deformity results, the so-called Scheuermann's disease, or adolescent kyphosis. A plea is made for the screening of children exposed to ...

  19. Effects of photodynamic therapy on rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Min-Hsiu; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2011-01-05

    The authors investigated the antimicrobial effect of methylene blue (MB)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Mycobacterium fortuitum keratitis. In the in vitro study, the mycobacterial suspension and colonies were treated with the following: no MB, no light (normal control); MB and no light (dye control); light and no MB (light control); MB and light (PDT). Morphologic characteristics were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The bactericidal effects of combined PDT and antibiotic therapy (ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and amikacin) were determined using the broth microdilution technique. Twenty-one rabbits with Mycobacterium keratitis were randomly divided into three groups (no treatment, topical amikacin treatment, and PDT combined with amikacin treatment). The clinical features of keratitis were scored and graded before treatment and before euthanatization. The diseased corneas were trephined for quantitative bacteriologic analysis to determine the antibacterial efficacy of the treatment. In the in vitro tests, the bacterial count had a 2-log reduction immediately after PDT treatment at 100 J/cm(2) with 10(-3)% MB. After PDT at 100 J/cm(2) with 10(-2)% MB, almost no viable bacteria were detected. PDT had a synergistic antimicrobial effect in combination with antibiotics. The phototoxicity occurred in the cytoplasm first and then disrupted the mycobacterial cell walls by lysis. In the rabbit keratitis model, combined PDT resulted in significantly less bacterial burden (P PDT against Mycobacterium fortuitum. PDT could be a potential alternative treatment for nontuberculous mycobacterial corneal infections.

  20. Neuropsychology of music – a rapidly growing branch of psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Habe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between brain and music is of interest to musicians, psychologists and neuroscientists. In recent years no other area of psychology of music has seen as much advancement as neuropsychology of music. The aim of the article is to present some main issues in the neuropsychology of music abroad and in Slovenia, to classify research studies into larger categories and to predict the future development of this field.There are different levels of inquiry into the neuropsychology of music: (1 the analysis of normal and abnormal psychological and physiological functions to determine the principles and modes by which the human brain processes, codifies, stores, and produces music, and (2 a description of the clinical deficits in music perception or performance resulting from localized or diffuse damage to the nervous system. Main topics that occupy neuropsychology of music are neuropsychological models of musical processing, functional imaging of musical perception and cognition, and the use of music as a therapeutic and clinical tool. Although some important studies have already been conducted since the year 2003, in Slovenia we faced a "formal" turning point in acknowledging the importance of the connection between music, mind and brain with the Sinapsa's Week of the brain 2009 under the title Brain and music.

  1. Food models for portion size estimation of Asian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanerolle, P; Thoradeniya, T; de Silva, A

    2013-08-01

    Novel portion size estimation aids relevant to the cognitive potential of children are necessary for an improved accuracy in dietary recall. We developed graduated realistic food models for Asian foods and tested their accuracy and precision in children. Food models were constructed for nine commonly consumed food items using a range of low cost materials. These were tested among a random sample of 80 school children (aged 10-16 years). A total of 719 estimations were made. A high percentage (68%) of correct estimations and high correlation (r > 0.95, P foods. Portion size estimation using realistic food models is found to be accurate and precise and is suitable for use in children. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Development of a photographic atlas of Venezuelan food portions

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Hernández; Jennifer Bernal; Mirla Morón; Yuly Velazco; Elsy Oráa; Claret Mata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The instruments to estimate consumed portion are a key factor, which ensures data quality in surveys of food intake assessment. Venezuela does not have a tool like this, properly validated and published. The aim of the study was develop a photographic atlas as a complementary tool for assess usual food consumption in Venezuelan adults.Material and Methods: Foods were classified into 13 groups according to their similarity in nutrient content according to the table of composition...

  3. Growing unculturable bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric J

    2012-08-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field.

  4. Dividing a fixed portion into more pieces leads to larger portion size estimates of JELL-O® squares

    OpenAIRE

    Jenna L Scisco; Blades, Charlene; Zielinski, Melissa J.; Muth, Eric R.

    2012-01-01

    How visual qualities of a food impact perceptions of the amount of food present and consumed have been studied. Previous research has investigated many factors affecting these perceptions, including the height of a glass, the size of a serving bowl, and other food intake cues. We investigated how the number of pieces a serving is divided into impacts perceptions of the amount of food present and consumed. Results indicate that dividing a fixed portion into a greater number of pieces leads peo...

  5. PortionControl@HOME: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effect of a Multi-Component Portion Size Intervention on Portion Control Behavior and Body Mass Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.P.; Vet, de E.; Velema, E.; Boer, de M.R.; Seidell, J.C.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Food portion sizes influence energy intake. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine effectiveness of the “PortionControl@HOME” intervention on body mass index and portion control behavior. Methods A randomized controlled trial among 278 overweight and obese participants was

  6. Development of a photographic atlas of Venezuelan food portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Hernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The instruments to estimate consumed portion are a key factor, which ensures data quality in surveys of food intake assessment. Venezuela does not have a tool like this, properly validated and published. The aim of the study was develop a photographic atlas as a complementary tool for assess usual food consumption in Venezuelan adults.Material and Methods: Foods were classified into 13 groups according to their similarity in nutrient content according to the table of composition and the food balance sheet of Venezuela. We selected the most consumed by Venezuelans according to data from national studies and another researches by the authors. For each food were set 3 portion sizes: small, medium and large; which were weighed in an electronic balance before taking a picture. Later, the atlas underwent a valuation process by experts.Results: The instrument includes 110 foods with a total of 300 photographs, distributed in 100 sheets, presenting the advantages of quality control used during the planning and design, the review of national and international reference materials. The experts successfully assessed the pertinence of the items and the relevance of the atlas information.Conclusions: The photographic atlas of foods developed, in the opinion of the expert reviewers, could be a useful tool to be used in the evaluation of food consumption in Venezuelan adults. However, to fulfill this purpose, the proposed instrument should be validated to prove their technical conditions of validity and reliability.

  7. Growing for different ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Archaeological Sites Inventory of the Training Area 10 and 12 Portions of the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    hackberry, gooseberry, willow, and wildrye. The steppes or grasslands in the central portions of the military facility support galleta , pale wolfberry... galleta grass cover at the surface. Prickly pear, cholla, mountain mahogany, sagebrush, skunkbrush sumac, and wax currant were also seen growing at...sagebrush dominate the overstory but blue grama, sand dropseed, threeawn, muhley, galleta grass, and currant were also seen growing. Sediments are

  9. Dividing a fixed portion into more pieces leads to larger portion size estimates of JELL-O® squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scisco, Jenna L.; Blades, Charlene; Zielinski, Melissa J.

    2015-01-01

    How visual qualities of a food impact perceptions of the amount of food present and consumed have been studied. Previous research has investigated many factors affecting these perceptions, including the height of a glass, the size of a serving bowl, and other food intake cues. We investigated how the number of pieces a serving is divided into impacts perceptions of the amount of food present and consumed. Results indicate that dividing a fixed portion into a greater number of pieces leads people to perceive a greater amount of food in the serving. PMID:23362675

  10. Dividing a fixed portion into more pieces leads to larger portion size estimates of JELL-O squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scisco, Jenna L; Blades, Charlene; Zielinski, Melissa J; Muth, Eric R

    2012-01-01

    How visual qualities of a food impact perceptions of the amount of food present and consumed have been studied. Previous research has investigated many factors affecting these perceptions, including the height of a glass, the size of a serving bowl, and other food intake cues. We investigated how the number of pieces a serving is divided into impacts perceptions of the amount of food present and consumed. Results indicate that dividing a fixed portion into a greater number of pieces leads people to perceive a greater amount of food in the serving.

  11. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  12. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  13. The Role of Social Norms in the Portion Size Effect: Reducing Normative Relevance Reduces the Effect of Portion Size on Consumption Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, Iris; Papies, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    People typically eat more from large portions of food than from small portions. An explanation that has often been given for this so-called portion size effect is that the portion size acts as a social norm and as such communicates how much is appropriate to eat. In this paper, we tested this explanation by examining whether manipulating the relevance of the portion size as a social norm changes the portion size effect, as assessed by prospective consumption decisions. We conducted one pilot experiment and one full experiment in which participants respectively indicated how much they would eat or serve themselves from a given amount of different foods. In the pilot (N = 63), we manipulated normative relevance by allegedly basing the portion size on the behavior of either students of the own university (in-group) or of another university (out-group). In the main experiment (N = 321), we told participants that either a minority or majority of people similar to them approved of the portion size. Results show that in both experiments, participants expected to serve themselves and to eat more from larger than from smaller portions. As expected, however, the portion size effect was less pronounced when the reference portions were allegedly based on the behavior of an out-group (pilot) or approved only by a minority (main experiment). These findings suggest that the portion size indeed provides normative information, because participants were less influenced by it if it communicated the behaviors or values of a less relevant social group. In addition, in the main experiment, the relation between portion size and the expected amount served was partially mediated by the amount that was considered appropriate, suggesting that concerns about eating an appropriate amount indeed play a role in the portion size effect. However, since the portion size effect was weakened but not eliminated by the normative relevance manipulations and since mediation was only partial, other

  14. Community structure of shoreline nekton in the estuarine portion of the Alafia River, Florida: Differences along a salinity gradient and inflow-related changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M. F. D.; Matheson, R. E., Jr.; McMichael, R. H., Jr.; MacDonald, T. C.

    2007-08-01

    Determination of baseline biological conditions in Florida's rivers is required prior to increased water withdrawals for the rapidly growing human population. We studied the small-bodied shoreline nekton community of the estuarine portion of the Alafia River (a tributary of Tampa Bay, SW Florida) from 1998 to 2003 using 21.3-m seines of 3.2-mm stretched mesh. Community structure along the estuarine salinity gradient changed from dominance by marine and estuarine transients from river km 0 to 9.3 to greater abundances of resident low-salinity and freshwater forms near the tidal-freshwater interface (river km 9.3-14). There was evidence that the magnitude of the freshwater inflow influenced nekton community patterns along the estuary, with the center of abundance of many species shifting in response to inflow. The community structure of the nekton of river km 0-9.3 showed regular seasonal changes that were of greater importance than was temporal correlation with abiotic variables (temperature, salinity, inflow); these changes can be explained by predictable spawning patterns of transient species. In contrast, changes in the structure of the nekton community in river km 9.3-14 were well correlated with changes in salinity and, to a lesser extent, inflow. The sensitivity of the nekton to relatively small changes in salinity near the tidal-freshwater interface is of importance given that comparatively minor changes in freshwater inflow could markedly affect salinities in this upstream region.

  15. Just a bite: Considerably smaller snack portions satisfy delayed hunger and craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Shimizu, M.; Wansink, B.

    2013-01-01

    Could smaller snack portions be similarly effective in decreasing cravings or feelings of hunger as larger portions? To answer this, three common snack foods – chocolate, apple pie, potato chips – were given to 104 participants as either a small portion (x) or a substantially larger portion (5–10x).

  16. Discrepancy between implicit and explicit preferences for food portions in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserjesi, R; De Vos, I; Deroost, N

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the implicit preference in terms of food portion in obesity using the affective priming paradigm. Primes representing different portions of fast food (small, medium and large) were used to assess participants' readiness to respond to a positive or negative target word. A self-reported affective rating scale of food portion and a portion judgment task were administered to determine the explicit preference for food portion and portion misperception, respectively. The results of the affective priming paradigm showed an implicit preference for large food portions in the obese group. No implicit preference in terms of food portion was found in the non-obese group. The explicit preference measure of food portion demonstrated a rather negative attitude for large portions in the obese group, whereas the non-obese group reported no explicit preference in terms of food portion. Thus, unlike the non-obese group, the obese group showed clear discrepancies between implicit and explicit preferences in terms of food portion: obese participants demonstrated an implicit, but not an explicit preference for large food portions. These results could not be attributed to a misperception of food portion, as revealed by the portion judgment task. The current findings suggest that social desirability might conceal self-reported preference in terms of food portion and/or that obese individuals are less aware of their internal preferences.

  17. Food portion patterns and trends among U.S. children and the relationship to total eating occasion size, 1977-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Popkin, Barry M

    2011-06-01

    Food and beverage portion sizes are related to childhood obesity. We examined trends in food portion sizes and the association with total meal sizes among U.S. children. We selected children 2- to 18-y-old (n = 31,337) from 4 nationally representative surveys of food intake between 1977-1978 and 2003-2006. We assessed portion sizes (kcal and g) of selected key foods (soft/fruit drinks, salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, Mexican fast foods, and hot dogs), the total energy from eating occasions that included key foods, and portion sizes of the selected key foods by source (stores, restaurants, and fast-food locations). These foods represented over one-third of children's energy intake in 2003-2006. Portion sizes increased significantly over the 30-y period and increases in pizza were particularly pronounced in the last decade [+176 kcal (736 kJ). Energy from eating occasions including pizzas and soft drinks increased, as did the proportion of energy from these foods in an eating occasion. Hamburgers and cheeseburgers increased in portion size and eating occasion size, but the proportion of these foods in the total eating occasions did not increase. Portion sizes of other key foods increased, although the total energy from eating events that included them remained constant (e.g. Mexican fast-foods, French fries, fruit drinks) or decreased (e.g. salty snacks, desserts). Portion sizes increased across all food sources (stores, restaurants, and fast foods) for soft drinks and pizzas but only at fast-food locations for French fries. Portion sizes continue to grow for selected foods. Fast-food chains appear to be linked with less healthful portion size increases for selected foods.

  18. Estimating everyday portion size using a 'method of constant stimuli': in a student sample, portion size is predicted by gender, dietary behaviour, and hunger, but not BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Calitri, Raff; Tapper, Katy

    2008-09-01

    This paper (i) explores the proposition that body weight is associated with large portion sizes and (ii) introduces a new technique for measuring everyday portion size. In our paradigm, the participant is shown a picture of a food portion and is asked to indicate whether it is larger or smaller than their usual portion. After responding to a range of different portions an estimate of everyday portion size is calculated using probit analysis. Importantly, this estimate is likely to be robust because it is based on many responses. First-year undergraduate students (N=151) completed our procedure for 12 commonly consumed foods. As expected, portion sizes were predicted by gender and by a measure of dieting and dietary restraint. Furthermore, consistent with reports of hungry supermarket shoppers, portion-size estimates tended to be higher in hungry individuals. However, we found no evidence for a relationship between BMI and portion size in any of the test foods. We consider reasons why this finding should be anticipated. In particular, we suggest that the difference in total energy expenditure of individuals with a higher and lower BMI is too small to be detected as a concomitant difference in portion size (at least in our sample).

  19. Intercavernous portion of internal carotid artery occlusion resulting from snowboarding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudiptamohan Mukhopadhyay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sudiptamohan Mukhopadhyay1, Awen Iorwerth21Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK; 2Department of Orthopaedics, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Wales, UKAbstract: A 33-year-old gentleman who was otherwise fit and healthy suffered repetitive low impact head injuries while snowboarding in Austria over a period of one week. During the fall he had several hyperextension injuries and presented with headache, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness (felt ‘drunk’ on Friday night despite not being drunk, diplopia, abnormal pupillary signs. A Horner’s syndrome was diagnosed and on investigation, the left intercavernous portion of internal carotid artery (ICA was found to be thrombosed. The symptoms gradually settled after conservative treatment for a month. Blunt head trauma is a recognized cause of carotid dissection and thrombosis and many neuromechanics studies have attempted to calculate the wall shear stress involved. Physicians treating snowboarders should be aware of the condition and should look for Horner’s syndrome and consider the possibility of carotid occlusion. With a thorough PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE search using ‘snowboarding’, ‘carotid dissection’, ‘Horner’s syndrome’ no such case was found to be reported. Proper training for such sport activities is essential to avoid serious consequences.Keywords: snowboarding, carotid dissection, Horner’s syndrome

  20. Effects of orthopedic maxillary expansion on nasal cavity size in growing subjects: a low dose computer tomography clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Giancarlo; Nucera, Riccardo; Fastuca, Rosamaria; Matarese, Giovanni; Lindauer, Steven J; Leone, Pietro; Manzo, Paolo; Martina, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion on skeletal nasal cavity size in growing subjects by use of low dose computer tomography. Eight Caucasian children (three male; five female) with a mean age of 9.7 years (SD±1.41) were the final sample of this research that underwent palatal expansion as a first phase of orthodontic treatment. The maxillary expander was banded to the upper first molars and was activated according a rapid maxillary expansion protocol. Low-dose computer tomography examinations of maxilla and of the low portion of nasal cavity were performed before inserting the maxillary expander (T0) and at the end of retention (T1), 7 months later. A low-dose computer tomography protocol was applied during the exams. Image processing was achieved in 3 steps: reslicing; dental and skeletal measurements; skeletal nasal volume computing. A set of reproducible skeletal and dental landmarks were located in the coronal passing through the first upper right molar furcation. Using the landmarks, a set of transverse linear measurements were identified to estimate maximum nasal width and nasal floor width. To compute the nasal volume the lower portion of the nasal cavity was set as region of interest. Nasal volume was calculated using a set of coronal slices. In each coronal slice, the cortical bone of the nasal cavity was identified and selected with a segmentation technique. Dependent t-tests were used to evaluate changes due to expansion. For all tests, a significance level of Pmaxillary expansion produced significant increases of linear transverse skeletal measurements, these increments were bigger in the lower portion of the nasal cavities: nasal floor width (+3.15 mm; SD ± 0.99), maximum nasal width (+2.47 mm; SD ± 0.99). Rapid maxillary expansion produced significant increment of the total nasal volume (+1.27 cm(3) ± SD 0.65). The anterior volume increase was 0.58 cm(3) while the posterior one was

  1. 13 CFR 120.521 - What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rate applies after... 504 Loans Sba's Purchase of A Guaranteed Portion § 120.521 What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion? When SBA purchases the guaranteed portion of a fixed interest rate loan...

  2. The pack size effect: Influence on consumer perceptions of portion sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, Sophie; Palascha, Aikaterini; Jola, Corinne; Wills, Josephine; Raats, Monique M

    2016-01-01

    Larger portions as well as larger packs can lead to larger prospective consumption estimates, larger servings and increased consumption, described as 'portion-size effects' and 'pack size effects'. Although related, the effects of pack sizes on portion estimates have received less attention. While it is not possible to generalize consumer behaviour across cultures, external cues taken from pack size may affect us all. We thus examined whether pack sizes influence portion size estimates across cultures, leading to a general 'pack size effect'. We compared portion size estimates based on digital presentations of different product pack sizes of solid and liquid products. The study with 13,177 participants across six European countries consisted of three parts. Parts 1 and 2 asked participants to indicate the number of portions present in a combined photographic and text-based description of different pack sizes. The estimated portion size was calculated as the quotient of the content weight or volume of the food presented and the number of stated portions. In Part 3, participants stated the number of food items that make up a portion when presented with packs of food containing either a small or a large number of items. The estimated portion size was calculated as the item weight times the item number. For all three parts and across all countries, we found that participants' portion estimates were based on larger portions for larger packs compared to smaller packs (Part 1 and 2) as well as more items to make up a portion (Part 3); hence, portions were stated to be larger in all cases. Considering that the larger estimated portions are likely to be consumed, there are implications for energy intake and weight status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Growing Concerns With Workplace Incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Natasha Renee; Rogers, Bonnie

    2017-11-01

    Workplace incivility (WPI) is a growing issue across all public and private sectors. Occupational and environmental health nurses can educate employees and management about WPI, its risk factors and characteristics, and ways to reduce incidents of WPI.

  4. Comparison of known food weights with image-based portion-size automated estimation and adolescents' self-reported portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christina D; Chae, Junghoon; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Kerr, Deborah A; Delp, Edward J; Ebert, David S; Boushey, Carol J

    2012-03-01

    Diet is a critical element of diabetes self-management. An emerging area of research is the use of images for dietary records using mobile telephones with embedded cameras. These tools are being designed to reduce user burden and to improve accuracy of portion-size estimation through automation. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the error of automatically determined portion weights compared to known portion weights of foods and (2) to compare the error between automation and human. Adolescents (n = 15) captured images of their eating occasions over a 24 h period. All foods and beverages served were weighed. Adolescents self-reported portion sizes for one meal. Image analysis was used to estimate portion weights. Data analysis compared known weights, automated weights, and self-reported portions. For the 19 foods, the mean ratio of automated weight estimate to known weight ranged from 0.89 to 4.61, and 9 foods were within 0.80 to 1.20. The largest error was for lettuce and the most accurate was strawberry jam. The children were fairly accurate with portion estimates for two foods (sausage links, toast) using one type of estimation aid and two foods (sausage links, scrambled eggs) using another aid. The automated method was fairly accurate for two foods (sausage links, jam); however, the 95% confidence intervals for the automated estimates were consistently narrower than human estimates. The ability of humans to estimate portion sizes of foods remains a problem and a perceived burden. Errors in automated portion-size estimation can be systematically addressed while minimizing the burden on people. Future applications that take over the burden of these processes may translate to better diabetes self-management. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  6. Large Portions Encourage the Selection of Palatable Rather Than Filling Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Jarvstad, Andreas; Griggs, Rebecca L; Potter, Christina; Evans, Natalie R; Martin, Ashley A; Brooks, Jon Cw; Rogers, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    Portion size is an important driver of larger meals. However, effects on food choice remain unclear. Our aim was to identify how portion size influences the effect of palatability and expected satiety on choice. In Study 1, adult participants (n = 24, 87.5% women) evaluated the palatability and expected satiety of 5 lunchtime meals and ranked them in order of preference. Separate ranks were elicited for equicaloric portions from 100 to 800 kcal (100-kcal steps). In Study 2, adult participants (n = 24, 75% women) evaluated 9 meals and ranked 100-600 kcal portions in 3 contexts (scenarios), believing that 1) the next meal would be at 1900, 2) they would receive only a bite of one food, and 3) a favorite dish would be offered immediately afterwards. Regression analysis was used to quantify predictors of choice. In Study 1, the extent to which expected satiety and palatability predicted choice was highly dependent on portion size (P < 0.001). With smaller portions, expected satiety was a positive predictor, playing a role equal to palatability (100-kcal portions: expected satiety, β: 0.42; palatability, β: 0.46). With larger portions, palatability was a strong predictor (600-kcal portions: β: 0.53), and expected satiety was a poor or negative predictor (600-kcal portions: β: -0.42). In Study 2, this pattern was moderated by context (P = 0.024). Results from scenario 1 replicated Study 1. However, expected satiety was a poor predictor in both scenario 2 (expected satiety was irrelevant) and scenario 3 (satiety was guaranteed), and palatability was the primary driver of choice across all portions. In adults, expected satiety influences food choice, but only when small equicaloric portions are compared. Larger portions not only promote the consumption of larger meals, but they encourage the adoption of food choice strategies motivated solely by palatability. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Succinate dehydrogenase activity and soma size of motoneurons innervating different portions of the rat tibialis anterior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, A.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution, soma size and oxidative enzyme activity of gamma and alpha motoneurons innervating muscle fibres in the deep (away from the surface of the muscle) and superficial (close to the surface of the muscle) portions of the tibialis anterior in normal rats were determined. The deep portion had a higher percentage of high oxidative fibres than the superficial portion of the muscle. Motoneurons were labelled by retrograde neuronal transport of fluorescent tracers: Fast Blue and Nuclear Yellow were injected into the deep portion and Nuclear Yellow into the superficial portion of the muscle. Therefore, motoneurons innervating the deep portion were identified by both a blue fluorescent cytoplasm and a golden-yellow fluorescent nucleus, while motoneurons innervating the superficial portion were identified by only a golden-yellow fluorescent nucleus. After staining for succinate dehydrogenase activity on the same section used for the identification of the motoneurons, soma size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of the motoneurons were measured. The gamma and alpha motoneurons innervating both the deep and superficial portions were located primarily at L4 and were intermingled within the same region of the dorsolateral portion of the ventral horn in the spinal cord. Mean soma size was similar for either gamma or alpha motoneurons in the two portions of the muscle. The alpha motoneurons innervating the superficial portion had a lower mean succinate dehydrogenase activity than those innervating the deep portion of the muscle. An inverse relationship between soma size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of alpha, but not gamma, motoneurons innervating both the deep and superficial portions was observed. Based on three-dimensional reconstructions within the spinal cord, there were no apparent differences in the spatial distribution of the motoneurons, either gamma or alpha, associated with the deep and superficial compartments of the muscle. The data

  8. How food marketers can sell smaller portions: Consumer insights and product innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, J; Fisher, J O; Rowe, S

    2016-08-01

    Food portion size has been shown to be an important driver of energy intake. Despite the well acknowledged role of portion control in weight management, large portion sizes remain ubiquitous in the marketplace. Moving consumers towards consumption of smaller portion sizes will require changes in consumer behavior as well as changes in products available to consumers in a variety of settings. This special supplement presents cutting edge research aimed at understanding consumer behavior around portion size and innovations in product design that may promote the selection and consumption of smaller portion sizes. We identify further research that will be needed to translate basic behavioral findings into real world settings and to viable product development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2013-01-08

    Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an image portion identification method includes accessing data regarding an image depicting a plurality of biological substrates corresponding to at least one biological sample and indicating presence of at least one biological indicator within the biological sample and, using processing circuitry, automatically identifying a portion of the image depicting one of the biological substrates but not others of the biological substrates.

  10. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  11. Growing Patterns: Seeing beyond Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, mathematical patterns have been acknowledged as important early components of children's development of algebraic reasoning (NCTM 2000). In particular, growing patterns have attracted significant attention as a context that helps students develop an understanding of functional relationships (Lee and Freiman 2006; Moss et…

  12. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  13. A qualitative study of parents' perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children's snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K

    2015-05-01

    Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children's snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents' conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children's snacking. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n = 60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents' child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Parents' commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children's snacks with phrases like "something small." Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ethnic groups and by household food security status. Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Small, medium, large or supersize: trends in food portion sizes in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Leeuwis, Franca H; Vermeer, Willemijn M

    2010-06-01

    Larger food portion sizes lead to increased energy intake levels and might contribute to the current obesity epidemic. Only a very limited number of studies are available on the actual development of food portion sizes during past decades. The present study aims to reveal trends in portion sizes of some high-energy-dense food products during recent decades in The Netherlands. The data were collected from manufacturers and from information found in professional journals, marketing and advertising materials, and on manufacturers' websites. A number of trends in food portion sizes were observed. Larger sizes have been added to the portion size portfolio. The portion sizes of a number of products have also increased since their introduction, although this did not apply to all the products included. Finally, multi-packs have been introduced and the number of products within a multi-pack has also increased. A trend towards larger portion sizes was observed, which is relevant to the public health debate regarding the prevention of overweight and obesity. It is recommended that developments in food portion sizes continue to be monitored over the coming years, and the effects of the newly introduced portion sizes on food intake be studied.

  15. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  16. Portion control for the treatment of obesity in the primary care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Katherine I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity is a significant health threat and a major public health challenge. A critical need exists to develop and evaluate practical methods for the treatment of obesity in the clinical setting. One of the factors contributing to the obesity epidemic is food portion sizes. Limited data are available on the efficacy of visual or tactile devices designed to enhance patient understanding and control of portion sizes. A portion control plate is a commercially-available product that can provide visual cues of portion size and potentially contribute to weight loss by enhancing portion size control among obese patients. This tool holds promise as a useful adjunct to dietary counseling. Our objective was to evaluate a portion control intervention including dietary counseling and a portion control plate to facilitate weight loss among obese patients in a primary care practice. Findings We randomized 65 obese patients [body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 and vs. -0.5% ± 2.2%; p = 0.041 and a non significant trend in weight change from baseline at 6 months (-2.1% ± 3.8% vs. -0.7% ± 3.7%; p = 0.232 compared with usual care. Nearly one-half of patients assigned to the portion control intervention who completed the study reported the overall intervention was helpful and the majority would recommend it to others. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a portion control intervention incorporating dietary counseling and a portion control plate may be effective for enhancing weight loss among obese subjects. A portion control intervention deserves further evaluation as a weight control strategy in the primary care setting. Trial registration Current controlled trials NCT01451554

  17. Growing random networks with fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Ergun, G.; Rodgers, GJ

    2001-01-01

    Three models of growing random networks with fitness dependent growth rates are analysed using the rate equations for the distribution of their connectivities. In the first model (A), a network is built by connecting incoming nodes to nodes of connectivity $k$ and random additive fitness $\\eta$, with rate $(k-1)+ \\eta $. For $\\eta >0$ we find the connectivity distribution is power law with exponent $\\gamma=+2$. In the second model (B), the network is built by connecting nodes to nodes of conn...

  18. Neural-like growing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, Vitaliy A.

    2000-03-01

    On the basis of the analysis of scientific ideas reflecting the law in the structure and functioning the biological structures of a brain, and analysis and synthesis of knowledge, developed by various directions in Computer Science, also there were developed the bases of the theory of a new class neural-like growing networks, not having the analogue in world practice. In a base of neural-like growing networks the synthesis of knowledge developed by classical theories - semantic and neural of networks is. The first of them enable to form sense, as objects and connections between them in accordance with construction of the network. With thus each sense gets a separate a component of a network as top, connected to other tops. In common it quite corresponds to structure reflected in a brain, where each obvious concept is presented by certain structure and has designating symbol. Secondly, this network gets increased semantic clearness at the expense owing to formation not only connections between neural by elements, but also themselves of elements as such, i.e. here has a place not simply construction of a network by accommodation sense structures in environment neural of elements, and purely creation of most this environment, as of an equivalent of environment of memory. Thus neural-like growing networks are represented by the convenient apparatus for modeling of mechanisms of teleological thinking, as a fulfillment of certain psychophysiological of functions.

  19. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  20. Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Machiel J.; Huitink, Marlijn; Dijkstra, S.C.; Maaskant, Anna J.; Heijnen, Joris

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were

  1. 26 CFR 1.669(e)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.669(e)-1A Section 1.669(e)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(e)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed...

  2. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed...

  3. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed...

  4. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.M.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Poelman, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was

  5. 24 CFR 902.47 - Management operations portion of total PHAS points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations portion of... Operations § 902.47 Management operations portion of total PHAS points. Of the total 100 points available for a PHAS score, a PHA may receive up to 30 points based on the Management Operations Indicator. ...

  6. [Myopia, a growing health problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, J.W.; Polling, J.R.; Schans, A. van der; Verhoeven, V.J.; Klaver, C.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    - Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood, with a peak incidence between the ages of 13 to 15 years. - Especially high myopia, i.e. a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during

  7. Portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help reduce your risk of cancer and other diseases. Fruits and vegetables are low in fat and high ... a woman's fist or a baseball One medium apple or orange is a tennis ball One-quarter cup (35 grams) of dried fruit or nuts is a golf ball or small ...

  8. Development of an online database of typical food portion sizes in Irish population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The Irish Food Portion Sizes Database (available at www.iuna.net) describes typical portion weights for an extensive range of foods and beverages for Irish children, adolescents and adults. The present paper describes the methodologies used to develop the database and some key characteristics of the portion weight data contained therein. The data are derived from three large, cross-sectional food consumption surveys carried out in Ireland over the last decade: the National Children's Food Survey (2003-2004), National Teens' Food Survey (2005-2006) and National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010). Median, 25th and 75th percentile portion weights are described for a total of 545 items across the three survey groups, split by age group or sex as appropriate. The typical (median) portion weights reported for adolescents and adults are similar for many foods, while those reported for children are notably smaller. Adolescent and adult males generally consume larger portions than their female counterparts, though similar portion weights may be consumed where foods are packaged in unit amounts (for example, pots of yoghurt). The inclusion of energy under-reporters makes little difference to the estimation of typical portion weights in adults. The data have wide-ranging applications in dietary assessment and food labelling, and will serve as a useful reference against which to compare future portion size data from the Irish population. The present paper provides a useful context for researchers and others wishing to use the Irish Food Portion Sizes Database, and may guide researchers in other countries in establishing similar databases of their own.

  9. Recovery of injured Broca's portion of arcuate fasciculus in the dominant hemisphere in a patient with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Ha, Ji Wan; Kim, Hyun Young; Seo, You Sung

    2017-12-01

    Recovery of injured AF in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been reported. In this study, we report on a patient with TBI who recovered from an injury to Broca's portion of AF in the dominant hemisphere, diagnosed by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 28-year-old right-handed male patient suffered head trauma resulting from sliding while riding a motorcycle. He was diagnosed with a traumatic contusional hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hemorrhage in the left fronto-temporal lobe. He underwent craniectomy on the left fronto-temporal area, and hematoma removal for the subdural hemorrhage in the neurosurgery department of a university hospital. Two weeks after the injury, he was transferred to the rehabilitation department of another university hospital. He showed severe aphasia and brain MRI showed leukomalactic lesion in the left frontal lobe. The result WAB for the patient showed severe aphasia, with an aphasia quotient of 45.3 percentile. However, his aphasia improved rapidly by 9 months with an aphasia quotient at the 100.0 percentile. 2-week DTT detected discontinuity in the subcortical white matter at the branch to Broca's area of left AF. By contrast, on 9-month DTT, the discontinued portion of left AF was elongated to the left Broca's area. Recovery of injured Broca's portion of AF in the dominant hemisphere along with excellent improvement of aphasia was demonstrated in a patient with TBI. This study has important implications in brain rehabilitation because the mechanism of recovery from aphasia following TBI has not been elucidated. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Timing of serving dessert but not portion size affects young children's intake at lunchtime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Lyndsey R; Laurentz, Sara; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; McCabe, George P; Kranz, Sibylle

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this repeated exposure, randomized, cross-over quasi-experimental study was to determine the individual and combined impact of (a) the timing of serving dessert and (b) portion size of main course in 2-5 year old children (n=23) on energy intake at lunch in a childcare setting. Children were served two study lunches (fish or pasta, each with dessert) twice a week for 12 weeks that differed in the timing of dessert (served with or after the main course) and portion size of the main course (reference portion or 50% larger portion). Analyses of variance revealed that serving dessert after the meal resulted in higher energy intakes from both the main course and from dessert, and therefore greater total intake at the meal. Portion size of the main course did not influence total energy intake at the meal. Results indicate that the timing of serving dessert affects children's energy intake regardless of the portion size of the main course. Specifically, serving dessert with the meal reduces total energy intake regardless of the main course portion size. This suggests that offering dessert with the main course may be an effective strategy for decreasing total energy intake at meals in preschool-aged children. Copyright © 2013 The authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Within- and between-person variations in portion sizes of foods consumed by the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubono, Y; Kobayashi, M; Takahashi, T; Iwase, Y; Iitoi, Y; Akabane, M; Tsugane, S

    1997-01-01

    There has been considerable controversy about the utility of asking separate questions on portion sizes in addition to items on consumption frequencies in food frequency questionnaires. One argument against this type of inquiry is that, for most foods, within-person variation of portion size is greater than between-person variation, making it difficult to characterize "usual" or long-term average serving sizes. The authors studied the relative effects of within- and between-person variances in portion sizes of 69 food items using three-day food record data collected from 335 Japanese men and women. Total variance in the portion size for each food was partitioned into within- and between-person components by analysis of variance. Although the ratios of within- to between-person variances in log(e)-transformed portion sizes were > 1.0 for the majority of foods (50 of 69 items, median = 1.7), they were smaller than or close to unity for subgroups of foods that were the major sources of nutrient variables of relevance to diet-cancer associations, such as total energy (rice, calcium (milk), sodium (pickled vegetables), and alcohol (beer, shochu, whiskey). These results indicate that the relative contributions of within- and between-person variations in portion size may vary among foods, and therefore investigators should consider the balance between the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining portion size data separately from intake frequencies when designing food frequency questionnaires.

  12. Right sizing prevention. Food portion size effects on children's eating and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann L; Savage, Jennifer S; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2015-05-01

    Experimental findings provide consistent evidence that increasing the portion size of palatable, energy dense entrees relative to an age appropriate reference portion increases children's energy intake of the entree and the meal. Most of these studies have been conducted on preschool aged children between 2 and 6 years of age, in childcare or laboratory settings, using repeated measures designs. In these studies, children's intake is compared across a series of meals, where the size of the entrée portion is varied and other aspects of the meal, including the portion size of other items on the menu, are held constant. This paper provides an overview of what we know from this research, what is not known about the effects of portion size on children's intake and weight status, and points to some of the important unanswered questions and gaps in the literature. Lastly, we discuss how individual characteristics may make someone more or less susceptible to large portions of foods and how the palatability of foods may moderate observed associations among portion size, children's intake, and weight status. Future studies that address the gaps identified in this paper are needed to inform policy and to develop effective and efficient interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the environmental impact of portion bag for food packaging: a case study of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangrit, Chaniporn; Usapein, Parnuwat; Limphitakphong, Nantamol; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2017-05-01

    This study applied life cycle assessment methodology in evaluating environmental impact of portion bag. The objective of this study was to identify the hotspot of environmental impact through life cycle of portion bag. The options were proposed for improving environmental performance of the product. The system boundary was defined as cradle-to-grave which included the ethylene production, LDPE and LLDPE resins production, portion bag production, disposal, and transportation. All materials and emissions were calculated based on 1 piece of portion bag which weighed 2.49 g. IMPACT 2002+ was used for assessing environmental impact on SimaPro V8.2 software. The result found that the most of environmental impact was generated from LDPE and LLDPE resins which was used as raw material for producing portion bag. After normalization, non-renewable energy showed the highest potential to concern. This impact related directly to the natural gas drilling, ethane production, ethylene production, resin productions, and energy in all process. In conclusion, it should be suggested that the selection of bio-material for producing portion bag can play an important role to reduce the environmental impact. The research demonstrates the possible way and benefits in improving cleaner raw material and suitable way of product's end-of-life for producing green portion bag in the future.

  14. The influence of front-of-pack nutrition information on consumers' portion size perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah May; de Vlieger, Nienke; Collins, Clare; Bucher, Tamara

    2017-08-01

    Issue addressed Portion size guidance strategies have been suggested as an important component of weight management; therefore, the Health Star Rating (HSR) front-of-pack labels could influence consumers' portion-size decisions. However, this has not been investigated to date. This study aims to evaluate whether presenting energy content information and HSRs influences portion size self-selection of specific foods and meals. Methods Adults were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups in this randomised controlled experiment. Each participant was given either a kJ/100g food label or a HSR label, or was given no information on nutrient composition. They were then asked to serve themselves an adequate portion of breakfast cereal (Kellogg's Nutri-Grain), fruit salad and chocolate, plus a three-component meal (chicken, fries and mixed vegetables). Portion serves and meal weights were compared between each experimental group using ANOVA and the discretionary foods were also compared with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE). Results Neither the kilojoule nor HSR information influenced the self-served portion size of foods or meal components. Mean self-served portion size of the discretionary foods were significantly greater than the standard serving sizes as specified in the AGHE. Conclusion Although food labels have the potential to assist consumers in making product choices, this study indicates that presenting nutrition information does not affect portion size decisions in young adults. So what? Strategies that assist consumers to choose appropriate portion sizes should be developed as a weight management tool.

  15. Impact of portion size and energy density on snack intake in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Shannon M; Raynor, Hollie A

    2011-03-01

    The influence of dietary environmental factors on child weight status may be important in the battle against childhood obesity. Portion size and energy density are factors shown to impact entrée energy intake in children. However, the influence of these factors on child snack energy intake has not been studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of portion size on intake of a lower energy-dense and higher energy-dense snack in preschool-aged children. A 2×2 crossover design (within-subject factors of portion size and energy density) was conducted on Wednesdays in a preschool setting on the University of Tennessee campus from October 2008 to November 2008. Seventeen children had complete data (age 3.8±0.6 years; 10 of 17 were female; 14 of 17 were white). Foods were applesauce (lower energy dense=0.43 kcal/g) and chocolate pudding (higher energy dense=1.19 kcal/g), and portion sizes were 150 g (small) and 300 g (large). Measures included anthropometrics, hunger, liking of foods, and caretakers' child-feeding practices using validated instruments. Mixed factorial analyses of covariance, with order controlled, analyzed gram and energy snack intake across conditions. There was no significant main effect of energy density on snack intake, but the main effect of portion size on snack intake (small portion size 84.2±30.8 kcal, large portion size 99.0±52.5 kcal; P<0.05) was significant. Results indicate increased energy intake when snacks are offered in larger portion size, regardless of energy density. Snack portion size may be an environmental strategy that can reduce excessive energy intake in children. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical analyses and basic wood density in the root, stem and branch portions of barbatimão [(Stryphnodendron adstringens Coville] from the cerrado biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Lopes Goulart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado region has been a major provider to meet the growing demand of vegetal, animal or agribusiness consumer goods. However, studies on the vegetation of this biome are still incipient and that has been preventing use of Cerrado species, whether for economic purposes or as a way of restoring and recovering devastated areas. Due to lack of information concerning species of the Cerrado biome, this study was conducted in an attempt to gather information about the chemical constitution and basic wood density of the root, stem and branch portions of Stryphnodendron adstringens, also known as ‘barbatimão’. To that end, material was collected from the root and along stem and branch portions of three specimens of barbatimão. An increasing tendency was observed in holocellulose contents in the root-to-stem and root-to-branch direction. The opposite occurred with lignin and extractive contents. The lowest ash content was found in the stem portion. Values of basic density did not differ statistically between the root, stem and branch portions.

  17. Transport of Nutrients Determines Growth in Tissue Culture; Why apple shoots grow rapidly and tulip shoots grow slowly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tulip growth in vitro is seriously impaired by inferior transport in the shoots. As a result, tulip cannot be micropropagated commercially using conventional means. In contrast, apple shoots show high transport and are easily micropropagated.

  18. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  19. Growing Vertical in the Flatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua A

    2016-01-26

    The world of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures continues to expand at a rate much greater than anyone could have predicted 10 years ago, but if we are to make the leap from science to technology, many materials challenges must still be overcome. Recent advances, such as those by Liu et al. in this issue of ACS Nano, demonstrate that it is possible to grow rotationally commensurate 2D heterostructures, which could pave the way toward single crystal van der Waals solids. In this Perspective, I provide some insight into a few of the challenges associated with growth of heterostructures, and discuss some of the recent works that help us better understand synthetic realization of 2D heterostructures.

  20. Viking Disruptions or Growing Integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper...... demonstrates how formal network analysis can be combined with a contextual reading of evidence relating to a long-distance communication network in the past. A study of the combined distributions of ten vessel types in 152 settlement sites from the 10th century suggests the outline of the core structure...... of the network. The model implies that 10th century long-distance exchange in the North Sea region featured long-distance links equal to those of the Carolingian emporia trade, and represented a growth in terms of new axes of integration, above all the growing links between the Scandinavian Peninsula...

  1. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  2. Morphogenesis of Growing Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, Julien; Ben Amar, Martine

    2008-08-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to a noteworthy property of some soft tissues: their ability to grow. Many attempts have been made to model this behavior in biology, chemistry, and physics. Using the theory of finite elasticity, Rodriguez has postulated a multiplicative decomposition of the geometric deformation gradient into a growth-induced part and an elastic one needed to ensure compatibility of the body. In order to fully explore the consequences of this hypothesis, the equations describing thin elastic objects under finite growth are derived. Under appropriate scaling assumptions for the growth rates, the proposed model is of the Föppl von Kármán type. As an illustration, the circumferential growth of a free hyperelastic disk is studied.

  3. Opportunities and barriers for smaller portions in food service: lessons from marketing and behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, J

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses the frameworks and evidence from marketing and behavioral economics to highlight the opportunities and barriers for portion control in food service environments. Applying Kahneman's 'thinking fast and slow' concepts, it describes 10 strategies that can be effective in 'tricking' the consumer's fast cognitive system to make better decisions and in triggering the slow cognitive system to help prevent the fast system from making bad decisions. These strategies include shrinking defaults, elongating packages, increasing the visibility of small portions, offering more mixed virtue options, adding more small sizes, offering 'right-sized' standard portions, using meaningful size labels, adopting linear pricing, using temporal landmarks to push smaller portions and facilitating pre-commitment. For each of these strategies, I discuss the specific cost and revenue barriers that a food service operator would face if the strategy were adopted.

  4. Digital data for the Hazens Notch and a portion of the Lowell quadrangles, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG03-3B Digital data for the Hazens Notch and a portion of the Lowell quadrangles, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey Open File Report VG03-3B, The...

  5. Process for forming a chromium diffusion portion and articles made therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmick, David Andrew; Cavanaugh, Dennis William; Feng, Ganjiang; Bucci, David Vincent

    2012-09-11

    In one embodiment, a method for forming an article with a diffusion portion comprises: forming a slurry comprising chromium and silicon, applying the slurry to the article, and heating the article to a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient period of time to diffuse chromium and silicon into the article and form a diffusion portion comprising silicon and a microstructure comprising .alpha.-chromium. In one embodiment, a gas turbine component comprises: a superalloy and a diffusion portion having a depth of less than or equal to 60 .mu.m measured from the superalloy surface into the gas turbine component. The diffusion portion has a diffusion surface having a microstructure comprising greater than or equal to 40% by volume .alpha.-chromium.

  6. 2009 St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) Lidar: Portions of Orange and Seminole Counties, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area covers 318 square miles in the eastern half of Seminole County plus portions of north central and northeast Orange County in the state of Florida....

  7. Variable camshaft timing system utilizing changes in length of portions of a chain or belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterfield, R.P.; Smith, F.R.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a first rotatable member, the first rotatable member being rotatable about a first axis; a second rotatable member; endless drive means interconnecting the first rotatable member and the second rotatable member for simultaneous rotation of the rotatable members; first hydraulic tensioning means; and means for transferring hydraulic fluid from one of the first tensioning means and the second tensioning means to the other of the first tensioning means and the second tensioning means to increase the length of one of the first portion and the second portion and decrease the length of the other of the first portion and the portion and thereby change the position of the second rotatable member about its axis of rotation relative to the first rotatable member.

  8. Process for forming a chromium diffusion portion and articles made therefrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmick, David Andrew; Cavanaugh, Dennis William; Feng, Ganjiang; Bucci, David Vincent

    2015-12-29

    In one embodiment, a method for forming an article with a diffusion portion comprises: forming a slurry comprising chromium and silicon, applying the slurry to the article, and heating the article to a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient period of time to diffuse chromium and silicon into the article and form a diffusion portion comprising silicon and a microstructure comprising .alpha.-chromium. In one embodiment, a gas turbine component comprises: a superalloy and a diffusion portion having a depth of less than or equal to 60 .mu.m measured from the superalloy surface into the gas turbine component. The diffusion portion has a diffusion surface having a microstructure comprising greater than or equal to 40% by volume .alpha.-chromium.

  9. Double trouble: Portion size and energy density combine to increase preschool children's lunch intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Samantha M R; Roe, Liane S; Keller, Kathleen L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2016-08-01

    Both portion size and energy density (ED) have substantial effects on intake; however, their combined effects on preschool children's intake have not been examined when multiple foods are varied at a meal. We tested the effects on intake of varying the portion size and ED of lunches served to children in their usual eating environment. In a crossover design, lunch was served in 3 childcare centers once a week for 6weeks to 120 children aged 3-5y. Across the 6 meals, all items were served at 3 levels of portion size (100%, 150%, or 200%) and 2 levels of ED (100% or 142%). The lunch menu had either lower-ED or higher-ED versions of chicken, macaroni and cheese, vegetables, applesauce, ketchup, and milk. Children's ratings of the foods indicated that the lower-ED and higher-ED meals were similarly well liked. The total weight of food and milk consumed at meals was increased by serving larger portions (Peffects combined to increase intake by 175±12kcal or 79% at the higher-ED meal with the largest portions compared to the lower-ED meal with the smallest portions. The foods contributing the most to this increase were chicken, macaroni and cheese, and applesauce. The effects of meal portion size and ED on intake were not influenced by child age or body size, but were significantly affected by parental ratings of child eating behavior. Strategically moderating the portion size and ED of foods typically consumed by children could substantially reduce their energy intake without affecting acceptability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Parental beliefs about portion size, not children's own beliefs, predict child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C; Ferriday, D; Griggs, R L; Hamilton-Shield, J P; Rogers, P J; Brunstrom, J M

    2017-04-04

    Increases in portion size are thought by many to promote obesity in children. However, this relationship remains unclear. Here, we explore the extent to which a child's BMI is predicted both by parental beliefs about their child's ideal and maximum portion size and/or by the child's own beliefs. Parent-child (5-11 years) dyads (N = 217) were recruited from a randomized controlled trial (n = 69) and an interactive science centre (n = 148). For a range of main meals, parents estimated their child's 'ideal' and 'maximum tolerated' portions. Children completed the same tasks. An association was found between parents' beliefs about their child's ideal (β = .34, p < .001) and maximum tolerated (β = .30, p < .001) portions, and their child's BMI. By contrast, children's self-reported ideal (β = .02, p = .718) and maximum tolerated (β = -.09, p = .214) portions did not predict their BMI. With increasing child BMI, parents' estimations aligned more closely with their child's own selected portions. Our findings suggest that when a parent selects a smaller portion for their child than their child self-selects, then the child is less likely to be obese. Therefore, public health measures to prevent obesity might include instructions to parents on appropriate portions for young children. © 2017 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  11. 29 CFR 790.12 - “Portion of the day.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPortion of the day.â 790.12 Section 790.12 Labor... Activities Engaged in by Employees on Or After May 14, 1947 § 790.12 “Portion of the day.” A “preliminary” or... the day with respect to which it is so made compensable.” 84 This provision in no way affects the...

  12. The international food unit: a new measurement aid that can improve portion size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, T; Weltert, M; Rollo, M E; Smith, S P; Jia, W; Collins, C E; Sun, M

    2017-09-12

    Portion size education tools, aids and interventions can be effective in helping prevent weight gain. However consumers have difficulties in estimating food portion sizes and are confused by inconsistencies in measurement units and terminologies currently used. Visual cues are an important mediator of portion size estimation, but standardized measurement units are required. In the current study, we present a new food volume estimation tool and test the ability of young adults to accurately quantify food volumes. The International Food Unit™ (IFU™) is a 4x4x4 cm cube (64cm(3)), subdivided into eight 2 cm sub-cubes for estimating smaller food volumes. Compared with currently used measures such as cups and spoons, the IFU™ standardizes estimation of food volumes with metric measures. The IFU™ design is based on binary dimensional increments and the cubic shape facilitates portion size education and training, memory and recall, and computer processing which is binary in nature. The performance of the IFU™ was tested in a randomized between-subject experiment (n = 128 adults, 66 men) that estimated volumes of 17 foods using four methods; the IFU™ cube, a deformable modelling clay cube, a household measuring cup or no aid (weight estimation). Estimation errors were compared between groups using Kruskall-Wallis tests and post-hoc comparisons. Estimation errors differed significantly between groups (H(3) = 28.48, p food portions and similar for 5 food portions. Weight estimation was associated with a median error of 23.5% (IQR = 79.8). The IFU™ improves volume estimation accuracy compared to other methods. The cubic shape was perceived as favourable, with subdivision and multiplication facilitating volume estimation. Further studies should investigate whether the IFU™ can facilitate portion size training and whether portion size education using the IFU™ is effective and sustainable without the aid. A 3-dimensional IFU™ could serve as a reference

  13. Association of Overweight with Food Portion Size among Adults of São Paulo - Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Lopes Pereira

    Full Text Available Although studies show that portion size affects energy intake, few have demonstrated a link between portion size and weight status, especially in free-living populations. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between food portion sizes and overweight in a representative population of adults of São Paulo, Brazil.Cross-sectional population-based study with 1005 adults from São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary data were obtained from two 24-hour recalls. Reported foods were classified into groups and energy contribution, prevalence of consumers and portion sizes were calculated. Individuals were classified according to BMI in with and without overweight. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between food portion sizes and being overweight.The most consumed food groups were: beans, breads/rolls, coffee/tea, milk, rice, and sugar. Rice, red meat, breads/rolls, and white meat were the groups with the highest percentage of contribution to total energy intake. Butter/margarine, toasts/biscuits, sugar, and cakes were the groups with the highest energy density. After adjustment for confounding variables, overweight was associated with larger portions of pizza (OR = 1.052; p = 0.048, red meat (OR = 1.025; p = 0.043, rice (OR = 1.033; p<0.001, salted snacks (OR = 1.078; p = 0.022, and soft drinks (OR = 1.016; p = 0.007.Larger portions of few food groups with different energy densities were associated with being overweight, suggesting that overweight may be related to the consumption of larger portion sizes of a series of food groups, not a food group alone. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering underreporting as a confounding factor in these associations.

  14. Estimation of typical food portion sizes for children of different ages in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrieden, Wendy L; Longbottom, Patricia J; Adamson, Ashley J; Ogston, Simon A; Payne, Anne; Haleem, Mohammad A; Barton, Karen L

    2008-06-01

    It is often the case in dietary assessment that it is not practicable to weigh individual intakes of foods eaten. The aim of the work described was to estimate typical food portion weights for children of different ages. Using the data available from the British National Diet and Nutrition Surveys of children aged 1 1/2-4 1/2 years (1992-1993) and young people aged 4-18 years (1997), descriptive statistics were obtained, and predicted weights were calculated by linear, quadratic and exponential regression for each age group. Following comparison of energy and nutrient intakes calculated from actual (from an earlier weighed intake study) and estimated portion weights, the final list of typical portion sizes was based on median portion weights for the 1-3- and 4-6-year age groups, and age-adjusted means using linear regression for the 7-10-, 11-14- and 15-18-year age groups. The number of foods recorded by fifty or more children was 133 for each of the younger age groups (1-3 and 4-6 years) and seventy-five for each of the older age groups. The food portion weights covered all food groups. All portion sizes increased with age with the exception of milk in tea or coffee. The present study draws on a unique source of weighed data on food portions of a large sample of children that is unlikely to be repeated and therefore provides the best possible estimates of children's food portion sizes in the UK.

  15. Validation of test portion pooling for Salmonella spp. detection in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás Fornés, David; McMahon, Wendy; Moulin, Julie; Klijn, Adrianne

    2017-03-20

    Pathogen monitoring programs play a crucial role in the verification of the effectiveness of implemented hygiene control measures. Sampling and testing procedures included in pathogen monitoring involve the analysis of multiple test portions where all samples must be negative for the presence of pathogens for a certain test portion size. Many food safety programs require increased testing due to the risks that a pathogen may be present. Analyzing more than one test portion could prove to be expensive and labor intensive. When more than one test portion for a specified food item is to be tested, the test portions could be combined to form a pooled test portion to reduce laboratory workload, costs of reagents and further confirmatory steps, but only when evidence is available that pooling does not affect on the number of false negative results for different matrices. This study has been performed to demonstrate the equivalence of test portion pooling for Salmonella detection with five different methods using cultural, ELISA and Real Time PCR technologies. Twenty-three (23) different food items including confectionary products, meal components, infant formula, pet food and powdered beverages were validated. Other complementary parameters like impact of minimum and maximum incubation time for pre-enrichment, temperature profile, pH and Salmonella concentration after the pre-enrichment and background flora have also been considered in the study. The results showed that pooling test portions up to 375g for Salmonella detection is valid for the methods that were tested. Relative level of detection (RLOD50) values for 22 of the food items tested were acceptable (i.e. lower than 2.5) when comparing the reference sample size (25g) against the alternative pooled sample size (375g), provided the enrichment broth was pre-warmed and maximum incubation time is respected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Geology and water resources of the northern portion of the Black Hills and adjoining regions in South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, N.H.

    1909-01-01

    This paper, which supplements the report on the geology and water resources of the southern half of the Black Hills, published in 1901, is the result of studies made at intervals during the years 1899 to 1907. It relates to an area of about 7,500 square miles, situated about half in South Dakota and half in the northeast corner of Wyoming (Pl. II), and covering the northern half of the Black Hills uplift and a wide area of adjacent plains. The report describes the geology of the sedimentary rocks - their stratigraphy, structure, and history - and discusses their mineral resources, including underground water, coal, gypsum, etc. It also contains information respecting surface waters available for irrigation and stock raising, timber, climate, and the history of the topographic development of the region. The crystalline rocks of the central portion of the Black Hills area and the various igneous rocks of later age are shown on some of the accompanying maps but without differentiation, as the study of their geology was not within the scope of the investigation; neither are their mineral resources considered here, for these are treated in other publications.In the field work I have been assisted mainly by Prof. C. C. O'Harra, of the School of Mines at Rapid, who has mapped the geology of large areas about Aladdin, the Devils Tower, Belle Fourche, and Rapid. Dr. W. S. Tangier Smith has mapped portions of the Bear Lodge and Nigger Hill uplifts, and Mr. C. A. Fisher has assisted in portions of the work. The geology of the region from Sturgis to a point beyond Spearfish Canyon was mapped by Prof. T. A. Jaggar, jr., with the assistance of Mr. J. M. Boutwell, in 1898 and 1899.It is desirable to repeat here the statement made in my previous report that all who study the geology of the Black Hills must feel impressed by the remarkably clear general conceptions of the geologic relations of this region afforded by the survey made by Mr. Henry Newton over a quarter of a century

  17. Validity of photographs for food portion estimation in a rural West African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybregts, L; Roberfroid, D; Lachat, C; Van Camp, J; Kolsteren, P

    2008-06-01

    To validate food photographs for food portion size estimation of frequently consumed dishes, to be used in a 24-hour recall food consumption study of pregnant women in a rural environment in Burkina Faso. This food intake study is part of an intervention evaluating the efficacy of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Women of childbearing age (15-45 years). A food photograph album containing four photographs of food portions per food item was compiled for eight selected food items. Subjects were presented two food items each in the morning and two in the afternoon. These foods were weighed to the exact weight of a food depicted in one of the photographs and were in the same receptacles. The next day another fieldworker presented the food photographs to the subjects to test their ability to choose the correct photograph. The correct photograph out of the four proposed was chosen in 55% of 1028 estimations. For each food, proportions of underestimating and overestimating participants were balanced, except for rice and couscous. On a group level, mean differences between served and estimated portion sizes were between -8.4% and 6.3%. Subjects who attended school were almost twice as likely to choose the correct photograph. The portion size served (small vs. largest sizes) had a significant influence on the portion estimation ability. The results from this study indicate that in a West African rural setting, food photographs can be a valuable tool for the quantification of food portion size on group level.

  18. Impact of growing income inequality on sustainable development in China: a provincial-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.B.M.; Ma, J.

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of literature has documented the rapidly increasing income disparities that accompanied China's economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s, and the driving factors behind this. Growing income inequality in its turn may have important implications for the accumulation of physical capital,

  19. [Myopia, a growing health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tideman, J W L; Polling, J R; van der Schans, A; Verhoeven, V J M; Klaver, C C W

    2016-01-01

    - Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood, with a peak incidence between the ages of 13 to 15 years. - Especially high myopia, i.e. a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during adulthood due to structural abnormalities of the retina and optic nerve.- The cause of myopia is complex. Lifestyle factors in childhood, such as limited time spent outdoors and close work - such as reading and smartphone usage - are risk factors. Furthermore, genetic studies have revealed more than 100 factors associated with the development of myopia. - Pharmacological and optical interventions to inhibit myopia progression are increasingly applied. The use of atropine eye drops in children and has shown to be an effective treatment.

  20. Infection Dynamics on Growing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Cheng; Liu, Zonghua; Ye, Nong

    We consider the entire spectrum of architectures for large, growing, and complex networks, ranging from being heterogeneous (scale-free) to homogeneous (random or small-world), and investigate the infection dynamics by using a realistic three-state epidemiological model. In this framework, a node can be in one of the three states: susceptible (S), infected (I), or refractory (R), and the populations in the three groups are approximately described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. Our heuristic analysis predicts that, (1) regardless of the network architecture, there exists a substantial fraction of nodes that can never be infected, and (2) heterogeneous networks are relatively more robust against spread of infection as compared with homogeneous networks. These are confirmed numerically. We have also considered the problem of deliberate immunization for preventing wide spread of infection, with the result that targeted immunization can be quite effective for heterogeneous networks. We believe these results are important for a host of problems in many areas of natural science and engineering, and in social sciences as well.

  1. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  2. Case grows for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hileman, B.

    1999-08-09

    In the four years since the IPCC stated that 'the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate', evidence for anomalous warming has become more compelling, and as a result scientists have become more concerned that human-induced climate change has already arrived. The article summarises recent extra evidence on global temperatures, carbon dioxide measurements, ice shelf breakup, coral bleaching, unstable climates and improved climate models. At the time of the Kyoto conference, the US became keen on the idea that enhancing forest and soil carbon sequestration was a good way to offset emissions reduction targets. Congress is however under the opinion on that the Kyoto protocol presents a threat to the US economy, and senate is very unlikely to ratify the protocol during the Clinton Administration. The debate as to whether the US government should mandate major emission reduction or wait for more scientific certainty may continue for a number of years, but, growing concern of scientists and the public for the harmful effects of climate change may cause a change. 4 figs., 8 photos.

  3. Growing and evolving soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed.

  4. Pediatric Ovarian Growing Teratoma Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Rentea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian immature teratoma is a germ cell tumor that comprises less than 1% of ovarian cancers and is treated with surgical debulking and chemotherapy depending on stage. Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS is the phenomenon of the growth of mature teratoma elements with normal tumor markers during or following chemotherapy for treatment of a malignant germ cell tumor. These tumors are associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to invasive and compressive growth as well as potential for malignant transformation. Current treatment modality is surgical resection. We discuss a 12-year-old female who presented following resection of a pure ovarian immature teratoma (grade 3, FIGO stage IIIC. Following chemotherapy and resection of a pelvic/liver recurrence demonstrating mature teratoma, she underwent molecular genetics based chemotherapeutic treatment. No standardized management protocol has been established for the treatment of GTS. The effect of chemotherapeutic agents for decreasing the volume of and prevention of expansion is unknown. We review in detail the history, diagnostic algorithm, and previous reported pediatric cases as well as treatment options for pediatric patients with GTS.

  5. [Growing old differently: Transdisciplinary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, H-P

    2015-04-01

    Growing old differently: the phrase is intended to call something other to mind than merely the fact that images and forms of old age and aging have multiplied and diversified to an enormous extent. The suggestion put forward here is that otherness (as opposed to mere differences) should be positively reinforced. In other words, it is not just a matter of noting different forms of old age and aging but more than this, of seeking out opportunities for aging differently. In order to explore this, the article follows an older strand of theory, which has recently come to be frequently quoted in gerontology: the phenomenology of difference as reasoned analytically by Lévinas and Sartre and applied to gerontology by Améry and de Beauvoir. Here, opportunities for aging crucially depend on the way we look at it, how we observe and describe it and not least, how gerontology frames it. A distinction is made between two perspectives and their associated consequences for old age: alienation and alterity. Alienation means looking at old age above all as a disconcerting "other", as a perplexing, problematic deviation from the norm of vitality. Alterity, by contrast, refers to different options for living life in old age: options to be explored and opened up in contradistinction to cultural or academic alienation. Not least, the article appeals for diversity in scholarly approaches and for cross-disciplinary perspectives.

  6. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  7. Bariatric amputee: A growing problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Jai; Hannett, Dominic P; Purcell, Steven

    2015-06-01

    This study reviewed prevalence of patients with lower limb amputations with above normal weight profile, with body mass index over 25, in seven disablement services centres managing their amputee rehabilitation in the United Kingdom. To review two clinical standards of practice in amputee rehabilitation. Ambulant lower limb amputees should have their body weight recorded on an electronic information system, with identification of cohort with body weight >100 kg. Lower limb amputees to be provided with suitable weight-rated prosthesis. Observational study of clinical practice. Data were collected from the Clinical Information Management Systems. Inclusion criteria--subjects were ambulant prosthetic users with some prosthetic intervention in the last 5 years and had at least one lower limb amputation. In 96% of patients, the weight record profile was maintained. In addition, 86% were under 100 kg, which is the most common weight limit of prosthetic componentry. Of 15,204 amputation levels, there were 1830 transfemoral and transtibial sites in users with body weight over 100 kg. In 60 cases, the prosthetic limb build was rated to be below the user body weight. In 96% of our patients, body weight was documented, and in 97%, the prosthetic limb builds were within stated body weight limits, but this may not be the case in all the other disablement services centres in the United Kingdom. Also, the incidence of obesity in the United Kingdom is a growing problem, and the health issues associated with obesity are further compounded in the amputee population. Prosthetic componentry has distinct weight limits which must be considered during prescription. As people with amputation approach the limits of specific components, clinicians are faced with the challenge of continued provision in a safe and suitable manner. This article reviews the amputee population and the current national profile to consider trends in provision and the incidence of these challenges. © The

  8. Reliability and validity of food portion size estimation from images using manual flexible digital virtual meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alicia; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Ryan, Courtney; Dholakia, Ruchita; Baranowski, Janice; Li, Yuecheng; Yan, Guifang; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Mingui; Baranowski, Tom

    2018-02-12

    The eButton takes frontal images at 4s intervals throughout the day. A three-dimensional manually administered wire mesh procedure has been developed to quantify portion sizes from the two-dimensional images. The present paper reports a test of the inter-rater reliability and validity of use of the wire mesh procedure. Seventeen foods of diverse shapes and sizes served on plates, bowls and cups were selected to rigorously test the portion assessment procedure. A dietitian not involved in inter-rater reliability assessment used standard cups to independently measure the quantities of foods to generate the 'true' value for a total of seventy-five 'served' and seventy-five smaller 'left' images with diverse portion sizes. The images appeared on the computer to which the digital wire meshes were applied. Two dietitians and three engineers independently estimated portion size of the larger ('served') and smaller ('left') images for the same foods. The engineers had higher reliability and validity than the dietitians. The dietitians had lower reliabilities and validities for the smaller more irregular images, but the engineers did not, suggesting training could overcome this limitation. The lower reliabilities and validities for foods served in bowls, compared with plates, suggest difficulties with the curved nature of the bowls. The wire mesh procedure is an important step forward in quantifying portion size, which has been subject to substantial self-report error. Improved training procedures are needed to overcome the identified problems.

  9. Adenocarcinoma of the third and fourth portions of the duodenum: The capsule endoscopy value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquissi, Feliciano Chanana; Lima, Ana Henriqueta Filipe Bunga Pimentel; Lopes, Maria de Fátima do Nascimento Vieira; Diaz, Francisco Viamontes

    2015-08-21

    Primary adenocarcinoma of the small intestine occurs in over 50% of cases in the duodenum. However, its location in the third and fourth duodenal portions occurs rarely and is a diagnostic challenge. The aim of this work is to report an adenocarcinoma of the third and fourth duodenal portions, emphasizing its diagnostic difficulty and the value of video capsule endoscopy. A man, 40 years old, with no medical history, with abdominal discomfort and progressive fatigue, presented four months ago with one episode of moderate melena. The physical examination was normal, except for mucosal pallor. Blood tests were consistent with microcytic, hypochromic iron deficiency anemia with 7.8 g/dL hemoglobin. The upper and lower endoscopy were normal. Additional work-up with video capsule endoscopy showed a polypoid lesion involving the third and fourth portions of the duodenum. Biopsy showed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Abdominal computed tomography showed a wall thickening from the third duodenal portion to the proximal jejunum, without distant metastasis. The patient underwent segmental resection (distal duodenum and proximal jejunum) with duodenojejunostomy. The surgical specimen histology confirmed the biopsy diagnosis, with transmural infiltration, without nodal involvement. Adenocarcinoma of the third and fourth portions of the duodenum is difficult to diagnose and capsule endoscopy is of great value.

  10. Leveraging the happy meal effect: Substituting food with modest nonfood incentives decreases portion size choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Martin; Bechara, Antoine; MacInnis, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    Despite much effort to decrease food intake by altering portion sizes, "super-sized" meals are the preferred choice of many. This research investigated the extent to which individuals can be subtly incentivized to choose smaller portion sizes. Three randomized experiments (2 in the lab and 1 in the field) established that individuals' choice of full-sized food portions is reduced when they are given the opportunity to choose a half-sized version with a modest nonfood incentive. This substitution effect was robust across different nonfood incentives, foods, populations, and time. Experiment 1 established the effect with children, using inexpensive headphones as nonfood incentives. Experiment 2--a longitudinal study across multiple days--generalized this effect with adults, using the mere chance to win either gift cards or frequent flyer miles as nonfood incentives. Experiment 3 demonstrated the effect among actual restaurant customers who had originally planned to eat a full-sized portion, using the mere chance to win small amounts of money. Our investigation broadens the psychology of food portion choice from perceptual and social factors to motivational determinants. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Non-contact current and voltage sensor having detachable housing incorporating multiple ferrite cylinder portions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Gary D.; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C.; Schappert, Michael A.

    2016-04-26

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing formed from two portions that mechanically close around the wire and that contain the current and voltage sensors. The current sensor is a ferrite cylinder formed from at least three portions that form the cylinder when the sensor is closed around the wire with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap between two of the ferrite portions along the circumference to measure current. A capacitive plate or wire is disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  12. The effect of food portion sizes on the obesity prevention using system dynamics modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-09-01

    The rise in income and population growth have increased the demand for food and induced changes in food habits, food purchasing and consumption patterns in Malaysia. With this transition, one of the plausible causes of weight gain and obesity is the frequent consumption of outside food which is synonymous with bigger portion size. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a system dynamics model to analyse the effect of reducing food portion size on weight and obesity prevention. This study combines the different strands of knowledge comprise of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism. These elements are synthesized into a system dynamics model called SIMULObese. Findings from this study suggested that changes in eating behavior should not emphasize only on limiting the food portion size consumption. The efforts should also consider other eating events such as controlling the meal frequency and limiting intake of high-calorie food in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  13. Food portion size area mediates energy effects on expected anxiety in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Musya; Douglas, Christopher R; Kissileff, Harry R; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Halmi, Katherine Ann

    2017-05-01

    A study in which adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa (n = 24) rated their expected food-anxiety in response to images of portions of food (potatoes, rice pizza, and M&Ms) showed that lower energy-dense foods elicited higher expected anxiety per kilocalorie than higher energy-dense foods. However, the area of the portion sizes could be an unmeasured variable driving the anxiety response. To test the hypothesis that area mediates the effects of energy content on expected anxiety, the same images of portions were measured in area (cm2), and standardized values of expected anxiety were regressed from standardized values of energy and area of portions. With regression of expected anxiety from portion size in area, M&Ms, which had the highest energy density of the four foods, elicited the highest expected anxiety slope (β = 1.75), which was significantly different from the expected anxiety slopes of the other three foods (β range = 0.67 - 0.96). Area was confirmed as a mediator of energy effects from loss of significance of the slopes when area was added to the regression of expected anxiety from energy x food. When expected anxiety was regressed from food, area, energy and area by energy interaction, area accounted for 5.7 times more variance than energy, and β for area (0.7) was significantly larger (by 0.52, SE = 0.15, t = 3.4, p = 0.0007) than β for energy (0.19). Area could be a learned cue for the energy content of food portions, and thus, for weight gain potential, which triggers anxiety in patients with anorexia nervosa. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute sleep deprivation increases portion size and affects food choice in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Nilsson, Emil; Nilsson, Victor C; Chapman, Colin D; Vogel, Heike; Lundberg, Lina S; Zarei, Sanaz; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2013-09-01

    Acute sleep loss increases food intake in adults. However, little is known about the influence of acute sleep loss on portion size choice, and whether this depends on both hunger state and the type of food (snack or meal item) offered to an individual. The aim of the current study was to compare portion size choice after a night of sleep and a period of nocturnal wakefulness (a condition experienced by night-shift workers, e.g. physicians and nurses). Sixteen men (age: 23 ± 0.9 years, BMI: 23.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized within-subject design with two conditions, 8-h of sleep and total sleep deprivation (TSD). In the morning following sleep interventions, portion size, comprising meal and snack items, was measured using a computer-based task, in both fasted and sated state. In addition, hunger as well as plasma levels of ghrelin were measured. In the morning after TSD, subjects had increased plasma ghrelin levels (13%, p=0.04), and chose larger portions (14%, p=0.02), irrespective of the type of food, as compared to the sleep condition. Self-reported hunger was also enhanced (psleep-deprived subjects chose larger portions of snacks (16%, p=0.02), whereas the selection of meal items did not differ between the sleep interventions (6%, p=0.13). Our results suggest that overeating in the morning after sleep loss is driven by both homeostatic and hedonic factors. Further, they show that portion size choice after sleep loss depend on both an individual's hunger status, and the type of food offered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort Richardson, AK AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers... status of a portion of Eagle River within the boundaries of Fort Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the restricted area is to include all...

  16. Visual illusions and plate design: the effects of plate rim widths and rim coloring on perceived food portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, A D; van den Bos, W; Matheson, D; Desai, M; McClure, S M; Robinson, T N

    2014-05-01

    The Delboeuf Illusion affects perceptions of the relative sizes of concentric shapes. This study was designed to extend research on the application of the Delboeuf illusion to food on a plate by testing whether a plate's rim width and coloring influence perceptual bias to affect perceived food portion size. Within-subjects experimental design. Experiment 1 tested the effect of rim width on perceived food portion size. Experiment 2 tested the effect of rim coloring on perceived food portion size. In both experiments, participants observed a series of photographic images of paired, side-by-side plates varying in designs and amounts of food. From each pair, participants were asked to select the plate that contained more food. Multilevel logistic regression examined the effects of rim width and coloring on perceived food portion size. Experiment 1: participants overestimated the diameter of food portions by 5% and the visual area of food portions by 10% on plates with wider rims compared with plates with very thin rims (Pfood portion sizes. Experiment 2: participants overestimated the diameter of food portions by 1.5% and the visual area of food portions by 3% on plates with rim coloring compared with plates with no coloring (P=0.01). The effect of rim coloring was greater with smaller food portion sizes. The Delboeuf illusion applies to food on a plate. Participants overestimated food portion size on plates with wider and colored rims. These findings may help design plates to influence perceptions of food portion sizes.

  17. PD0332991 (palbociclib) for treatment of pediatric intracranial growing teratoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kris Ann P; Petronio, Joseph; Bendel, Anne; Patterson, Richard; Vaughn, David J

    2015-06-01

    Growing teratoma syndrome is characterized by growth of mature teratoma elements of a mixed germ cell tumor despite resolution of immature/malignant elements with administration of chemotherapy. Surgical resection is the only known cure for growing teratoma syndrome but in the brain, complete resection may be impossible. In these instances, mature teratoma, although histologically benign, may be fatal. In this report, we present the case of a child with a large, rapidly growing, unresectable pineal region growing teratoma. PD0332991 was administered with stabilization of the solid, enhancing components of the mass. Minimal adverse effects were noted. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1997-08-21

    For purposes of the Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, the US Department of Energy`s contractors are identified as ``co-operators`` and sign in that capacity (refer to Condition I.A.2. of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit). Any identification of these contractors as an ``operator`` elsewhere in the application is not meant to conflict with the contractors` designation as co-operators but rather is based on the contractors` contractual status with the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. The Dangerous Waste Portion of the initial Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit, which incorporated five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, was based on information submitted in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application and in closure plan and closure/postclosure plan documentation. During 1995, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified twice to incorporate another eight treatment, storage, and/or disposal units; during 1996, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified once to incorporate another five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. The permit modification process will be used at least annually to incorporate additional treatment, storage, and/or disposal units as permitting documentation for these units is finalized. The units to be included in annual modifications are specified in a schedule contained in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit. Treatment, storage, and/or disposal units will remain in interim status until incorporated into the Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to individual operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which

  19. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  20. Voltage and frequency control in the Islanded portion of the CIGRE Low Voltage distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak, Claus Leth; Buriro, Ehsan Ali

    2017-01-01

    Islanding is a condition where a portion of the power network comprising of the loads and Distributed Generation units is isolated from the rest of the power grid and forms a Micro Grid. In this condition, it becomes essential for the islanded MG to operate in a stable and controlled manner by pr...

  1. 9 CFR 205.105 - Master list and portion thereof distributed to registrants-format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master list and portion thereof distributed to registrants-format. 205.105 Section 205.105 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... product to a security interest (see § 205.102), in numerical order by social security number or approved...

  2. DOE Award # DE-SC0008085 Close-Out Report for UIUC Portion of Grant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Kristina Anderson; DeLucia, Evan H

    2014-11-20

    This is the final technical report for the University of Illinois (UIUC) portion of grant # SC0008085 (CARBON DYNAMICS OF FOREST RECOVERY UNDER A CHANGING CLIMATE: FORCINGS, FEEDBACKS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EARTH SYSTEM MODELING), which closed June 14, 2014. The grant remains active at the Smithsonian.

  3. Géomorphologie structurale et risque naturel dans une portion de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots-clés: géomorphologie structurale, risques naturels, Lolodorf-Mvengué, complexe du Nyong, SW Cameroun. Structural geomorphology and natural hazard of a portion of mobile belt in the nyong complex, sw cameroon: case of the lolodorf region. Natural hazard and disaster identified and studied these last thirty years ...

  4. Reconnection of the islanded portion of the CIGRE low voltage distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutto, G.M.; Bak, Claus Leth; Somro, Duur M.

    2016-01-01

    is less as compared to that of the grid connected system. The islanded portion of the distribution network can be reconnected to the transmission grid if the voltage magnitudes, voltage phase angles and the frequencies of the two systems are synchronized. The main objective of this paper is to facilitate...

  5. Measuring affective (liking) and non-affective (expected satiety) determinants of portion size and food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G

    2009-02-01

    Previously, we have used a 'method of constant stimuli' to quantify the satiety that different foods are expected to deliver. Our data indicate that foods differ considerably (some are expected to deliver 5-6 times more satiety than others [per kcal]). In the present study we explored the relative importance of 'expected satiety' in decisions about portion size. For eight different snack foods, we measured 'ideal' portion size and compared these values with corresponding measures of liking, expected satiety, and intention to restrict intake. Across participants (N=60), ideal portion size was predicted by both liking and expected satiety. Individuals differed in the relative importance of expected satiety and liking. In particular, expected satiety was a more important predictor in restrained eaters and in individuals with a higher BMI. In this study we also included a measure of food reward. For each food, reward was inferred from a measure based on cash spend per kcal. Again, food liking and expected satiety were both significant predictors. Together, our findings confirm the importance of expected satiety and they demonstrate the quantification of separate affective and non-affective determinants of food reward and portion size.

  6. Substitution of Earthworm Meal with a Portion of Fishmeal in the Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) of mean weight 2.15±0.01g were fed on earthworm meal as a substitute for a portion of fishmeal for 10 weeks to determine the effect on growth and nutrient utilization. The fish were fed isonitrogenous Diets (40% crude protein) containing 10%, 15%, 25%, 30%, 40%, and 0% ...

  7. 32 CFR 250.8 - Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Arms Regulations (ITAR). 250.8 Section 250.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE... PUBLIC DISCLOSURE § 250.8 Pertinent portions of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). The... releasibility of technical data under the authority of this part. International Traffic in Arms Regulations 22...

  8. 36 CFR 223.4 - Exchange of trees or portions of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of trees or portions of trees. 223.4 Section 223.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.4 Exchange of trees or...

  9. The Development and Evaluation of a Portion Plate for Youth: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Randall, Edin T.; Tharp, Stephanie; Germann, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop and evaluate a portion plate for adolescents (Nutri-plate). Methods: Sixteen African American adolescents (mean age = 12.94 years; 66% male) were randomized to participate in either plate design or nutrition education sessions. Adolescents' input was used to create the Nutri-plate, and participants' food selection and intake…

  10. 77 FR 60904 - Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alabama; Attainment Plan for the Alabama Portion of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Avenue Hamilton, TN 47-065-0031 14.0 12.6 11.6 11.2 Soddy-Daisy High School Hamilton, TN 47-065-1011 13.0... October 7, 2009, SIP revision regarding reasonably available control technology (RACT) and reasonably... the mobile source contribution to ambient PM 2.5 levels for the Alabama portion of the Chattanooga...

  11. Effect of fraction iv portion of Ximenia americana stem bark on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study investigates the effect of fraction IV portion of Ximenia americana stem bark on Trypanosoma congolense induced serum enzymes changes in rats. Following infection with trypanosomes, the rats were monitored for levels of some serum enzymes. The results revealed that there was significant (P<0.05) ...

  12. levels of infestation on three different portions of the maize cob by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Kossou, 2003) Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) and Prostephanus truncatus. (Horn). (Bergvinson, 2001) can all infest maize before harvest. S. zeamais appears to .... days are needed for eggs laid to develop into adults (Povey and Silby, 1992). Subsequently, relatively larger numbers were recorded for all the portions, with the ...

  13. The Impact of Portion Plates on Patients in the Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flesher M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of a portion plate could improve the waist circumference, weight loss and blood pressure of cardiac rehabilitation patients. Methods: The data collected at their time of admission to the program (week 0 and at their completion of the program (week 8. Both groups were analyzed and compared using means and ranges. Results: The study included 86 patients, with 49 patients who received the portion plate at week 0 (study group and 37 patients who received the portion plate at week 8 (control group. The mean weight reduction for the study group was 6.1 kg (6.5% versus the control group which had a mean reduction of 0.6 kg (0.1%. The study group reduced their mean BMI by 0.85 kg/m2 (2.6% while the control group reduced their mean BMI by 0.25 kg/m2 (0.1%. The study group reduced their mean waist circumference by 2.3 cm (2.1% and the control group reduced it by 1.0 cm (0.9%. Conclusions: For waist circumference, BMI and weight, the portion plate group showed a greater improvement compared with the control group. Given the results, the cardiac rehabilitation program is considering the plates in their routine care.

  14. Individual differences in susceptibility to large portion sizes among obese and normal‐weight children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mooreville, Mira; Davey, Adam; Orloski, Alexandria; Hannah, Elizabeth L; Mathias, Kevin C; Birch, Leann L; Kral, Tanja V.E; Zakeri, Issa F; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2015-01-01

    ... and satiety among children by promoting energy intake at and across meals . Such conditions do not have uniform effects on children, however, as evidenced by the observation that a majority of youth are not obese in the current environment . Whether heavier children are more susceptible to large food portion sizes is unclear. The notion of ...

  15. Small portion sizes in worksite cafeterias: do they help consumers to reduce their food intake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.M.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Leeuwis, F.H.; Heijmans, M.W.; Seidell, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background:Environmental interventions directed at portion size might help consumers to reduce their food intake.Objective:To assess whether offering a smaller hot meal, in addition to the existing size, stimulates people to replace their large meal with a smaller meal.Design:Longitudinal randomized

  16. Rapid assessment of assignments using plagiarism detection software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Whitney R; Abrego, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members most often use plagiarism detection software to detect portions of students' written work that have been copied and/or not attributed to their authors. The rise in plagiarism has led to a parallel rise in software products designed to detect plagiarism. Some of these products are configurable for rapid assessment and teaching, as well as for plagiarism detection.

  17. Magnetically controlled growing rods for scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metkar, Umesh; Kurra, Swamy; Quinzi, David; Albanese, Stephen; Lavelle, William F

    2017-02-01

    Early onset scoliosis can be both a disfiguring as well as a life threatening condition. When more conservative treatments fail, pediatric spinal surgeons are forced to consider operative interventions. Traditionally, these interventions have involved the insertion of a variety of implants into the patient with a limited number of anchor points controlling the spine. In the past, these pediatric patients have had multiple surgeries for elective lengthening of these devices to facilitate their growth while attempting to control the scoliosis. These patients often experience a physical and emotional toll from their multiple repeated surgeries. Growing spine techniques have also had a noted high complication rate due to implant dislodgement and infections. Recently, the development of non-invasively, self-lengthening growing rods has occurred. These devices have the potential to allow for the devices to be lengthened magnetically in a conscious patient in the surgeon's office. Areas covered: This review summarized previously published articles in the English literature using a key word search in PubMed for: 'magnetically controlled growing rods', 'Magec rods', 'magnetic growing rods' and 'growing rods'. Expert commentary: Magnetically controlled growing rods have an advantage over growing rods in lengthening the growing spine in the absence of repetitive surgeries.

  18. (GrOW) Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alejandra

    How many applications will be shortlisted at the end of the first stage? GrOW envisages that up to 4 selected teams will be asked to submit a full research proposal for review and funding consideration. How is the review process conducted? Upon receiving complete applications, a review process begins by the GrOW team, ...

  19. Paleogeography of the northern portion of the Mixteca terrain, southern Mexico, during the Middle Jurassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Miranda, C.; Morán-Zenteno, D. J.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Silva-Romo, G.; Böhnel, H.; Jurado-Chichay, Z.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    A preliminary paleogeographic reconstruction of the northern Mixteca terrain in southern Mexico is presented for the Middle Jurassic. The reconstruction is derived from combined analyses of spatial distribution of marine-continental Jurassic sedimentary units, identification of sediment source, and observations based on sedimentary indicators of environment and transport directions, as well as paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) results. There is an overall agreement between the AMS magnetic fabric results and the sedimentary indicators of current directions and paleogeographic elements. The results suggest a coastline at the south-southwest portion of this terrain, a general transport of fluvial sediments to the south and southwest, and marine influxes from the south. A Pacific margin provenance is supported by the paleomagnetic results for the northern portion of the Mixteca terrain.

  20. Psychological mindsets affect consumption: How different mindsets help (hurt) portion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Derek D; He, Sharlene

    2016-08-01

    The present work discusses how psychological mindsets-orientations that affect how consumers encode, interpret, and respond to information- can help, as well as hurt, portion control. To this end, the current article first provides an overview of the general idea of psychological mindsets. Subsequently, evidence from three distinct areas of mindset research is reviewed: power and powerlessness; fixed and growth; promotion and prevention. For each literature, the relevant mindsets are discussed, and their implications for consumer behavior generally and portion control specifically are illuminated. The paper also provides a discussion of gaps in mindset research with consideration given to how to bridge the theoretical development on mindsets to practical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Iceberg Semantics For Count Nouns And Mass Nouns: Classifiers, measures and portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Landman

    2016-12-01

    It is the analysis of complex NPs and their mass-count properties that is the focus of the second part of this paper. There I develop an analysis of English and Dutch pseudo- partitives, in particular, measure phrases like three liters of wine and classifier phrases like three glasses of wine. We will study measure interpretations and classifier interpretations of measures and classifiers, and different types of classifier interpretations: container interpretations, contents interpretations, and - indeed - portion interpretations. Rothstein 2011 argues that classifier interpretations (including portion interpretations of pseudo partitives pattern with count nouns, but that measure interpretations pattern with mass nouns. I will show that this distinction follows from the very basic architecture of Iceberg semantics.

  2. Growing wealth and growing pains: child and adolescent psychiatry in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Susan; Fung, Daniel; Hung, Se-Fong; Rey, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Several Asian regions have undergone a dramatic transformation, some becoming very affluent. This paper aims to ascertain how countries that are becoming wealthy have dealt with child and adolescent mental health issues. Population health status, child and adolescent mental health services, child psychiatry training, the number of child psychiatrists and related matters were examined in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore are ethnically, religiously, socially and politically very different. In spite of considerable wealth and a growing recognition that mental health problems in the young are increasing, they face similar problems--lack of access to treatment due to a dearth of services and a lack of child psychiatrists (2.5, 0.5 and 2.8 per million people, respectively). Because the number of child psychiatrists is so small, their ability to provide services, advocate, train, maintain a professional identity, and deal with future crises is very limited. Other rapidly developing countries can learn from this experience and should take action early to prevent a similar outcome.

  3. Ultrasound-guided injection of the intrapelvic portion of the obturator internus in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Chul; Rha, Dong-wook; Kim, Hee-Jin; Yang, Hun-mu; Lee, Sang-Hee; Koh, DongJin

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal dysfunction of the pelvic floor is common. One of the intrapelvic muscles, the obturator internus (OI), can be substantially stressed during its sharply angulated exit from the pelvis. However, there may be considerable overlap between symptoms and signs arising from the OI and other potential pain generators including the levator ani in the pelvic region. Accurate diagnosis for the OI might permit more efficient treatment combined with OI-specific exercise and behavior modification. Therefore, we hypothesized that ultrasound (US)-guided needle insertion in the intrapelvic portion of the OI would be accurate when a pararectal approach is used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Bilateral US-guided intramuscular injections in the pelvic area were performed using 6 fresh, nonembalmed male cadavers. When the needle was positioned in the targeted muscle, 0.5 mL of green filler was injected. After the injection procedure, each specimen was dissected to evaluate the accuracy of US-guided injection into the intrapelvic portion of the OI. Twelve injections were made into the targeted muscles in the 6 cadaveric specimens. All injections placed filler into the OI muscles just medial to the inferior pubic ramus. There was no case in which a needle passed through unintended structures, such as neurovascular structures. The newly developed US-guided pararectal approach allowed accurate insertion of a needle into the intrapelvic portion of the OI. This US-guided method facilitated a more precise approach to the intrapelvic portion of the OI and may help differentiate conditions or symptoms caused by other structures.

  4. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Portions of Grissom Air Force Base, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    and the surrounding portions of central Indiana consists of level plains or gently rolling hills, with streams and small closed depressions ...in enclosed areas, such as basements. The cancer risk caused by exposure, through the inhalation of radon, is currently a topic of concern. 3-70...enter quality should he Implemented. Additional mitigative eggecimnetely 20 Fredetral endeavored, thraetened and candidate mamas should alao he

  5. The process evaluation of two interventions aimed at portion size in worksite cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Leeuwis, F H; Koprulu, S; Zouitni, O; Seidell, J C; Steenhuis, I H M

    2012-04-01

      In a previous study, the effectiveness of introducing a small meal in addition to the existing size and a proportional pricing strategy have been assessed in Dutch worksite cafeterias. To assess the degree of implementation and to inform the design of future interventions, the present study aimed to describe the process evaluation of both interventions.   Process evaluation components from Baranowski and Stables, and Rogers (i.e. Recruitment, Maintenance, Context, Resources, Implementation, Exposure, Contamination, and Continued use) were chosen as a theoretical basis. The process evaluation involved qualitative (e.g. structured observations, semi-structured interviews) and quantitative data (e.g. consumer questionnaires) collected from 17 intervention and eight control worksite cafeterias.   In all intervention cafeterias, two portion sizes were offered. The pricing instructions were followed in 13 intervention cafeterias. The cafeterias managers indicated that they did not consider offering large and small meals as being complex, risky or time-consuming to implement. Some managers perceived the consumer demand as high, others as (too) low. One year after the study had ended, nine of the intervention cafeterias had continued (at least partly) to follow the protocol.   Offering a smaller portion size in addition to the existing size, as well as proportional pricing, was generally implemented as prescribed by the protocol and can be considered promising in terms of continued use. However, additional efforts are needed to make the intervention more effective in motivating consumers to replace their large portion with a small portion. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Acceptability and potential effectiveness of commercial portion control tools amongst people with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almiron-Roig, Eva; Domínguez, Angélica; Vaughan, David; Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Jebb, Susan A

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to large portion sizes is a risk factor for obesity. Specifically designed tableware may modulate how much is eaten and help with portion control. We examined the experience of using a guided crockery set (CS) and a calibrated serving spoon set (SS) by individuals trying to manage their weight. Twenty-nine obese adults who had completed 7-12 weeks of a community weight-loss programme were invited to use both tools for 2 weeks each, in a crossover design, with minimal health professional contact. A paper-based questionnaire was used to collect data on acceptance, perceived changes in portion size, frequency, and type of meal when the tool was used. Scores describing acceptance, ease of use and perceived effectiveness were derived from five-point Likert scales from which binary indicators (high/low) were analysed using logistic regression. Mean acceptance, ease of use and perceived effectiveness were moderate to high (3·7-4·4 points). Tool type did not have an impact on indicators of acceptance, ease of use and perceived effectiveness (P>0·32 for all comparisons); 55 % of participants used the CS on most days v. 21 % for the SS. The CS was used for all meals, whereas the SS was mostly used for evening meals. Self-selected portion sizes increased for vegetables and decreased for chips and potatoes with both tools. Participants rated both tools as equally acceptable, easy to use and with similar perceived effectiveness. Formal trials to evaluate the impact of such tools on weight control are warranted.

  7. Researches on Consumption Speed of Forages in Dairy Cows when Fed in Three Portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we assessed the consumption speed (g/min, as well as the required time for consumption of 1 kg of raw forage for  alfalfa-hay, herbs silage, beet and concentrates, administered in three portions (P1, P2, and P3 per day, in 2 equal feedings (F1, F2 per portion., to Romanian Black and White cows. The administration order of forages (fibrous-succulents and succulents-fibrous, the number of feedings and the average consumption speed among the three portions were the experimental variants. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. The highest consumption speed was registered for herbs silage (237.41 g/min, followed by the beets (233.43 g/min, concentrates (180.89 and alfalfa hay (48.89 g/min. The required time for 1 kg of raw forage consumption (minutes and seconds was 5.32 for concentrates, 20.27 for alfalfa hay, 4.13 for herbs silage and 4.17 for beets.

  8. Microbial contamination of open-but-unused portions of wound dressings stored in home settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Sue; Wong, Ching; Rando, Tabatha; Adamson, Penny; Lynn, Penny

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate incidence rates and levels of microbial contamination in open-but-unused portions of wound dressings stored in home settings. Portions of wound dressings were collected at up to four home visits for 104 clients undertaking wound management within their home. A control sample and stored sample was collected on each home visit and sent for pathology testing to identify levels of microbial contamination. The stored open-but-unused wound dressings were managed according to a written protocol. Of the tested samples (n = 776), 6% of control samples and 7% of test samples had microbial contamination. From regression analysis, the stored samples were more likely to have microbial contamination than control samples, but results were not statistically significant. In comparing occasions of storage and handling across four home visits, after adjusting for sample group and dressing type, none of the home visit occasion regressions were statistically significant. In conclusion, storage of open-but-unused portions of wound dressings kept in home settings does not appear to increase the rate of microbial contamination compared to newly opened wound dressings. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Surveillance of influenza A virus in wild birds in the Asian portion of Russia in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivay, Mariya V; Sayfutdinova, Sofya G; Sharshov, Kirill A; Alekseev, Aleksander Y; Yurlov, Aleksander K; Runstadler, Jonathan; Shestopalov, Aleksander M

    2012-09-01

    Wild waterfowl undertake a variety of long-distance flights during their migration. These flights provide birds with the opportunities to both acquire and disseminate avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The Asian portion of Russia is crossed by four major migration routes and represents the major breeding area for many wild bird species in the Palearctic. The Asian territory of Russia plays an important role in distribution, persistence, and evolution of AIVs due to the ecologic relationships of bird populations from Russia and different Asian, European, African, and North American countries. Our study highlights the results of surveillance conducted in 2008 for AIVs in wild birds in the Asian portion of Russia. During this study, our team collected and tested 5678 samples from wild birds. Among them, 41 samples tested positive for AIV with an isolation rate of 0.72%. The highest AIV prevalence, 1.49%, was found in Anseriformes. In Ardeidae and Laridae, the AIV prevalence was 1.23% and 0.64%, respectively. Rallidae showed the lowest AIV prevalence of 0.61%. Phylogenetic analysis of H3 and H4 subtypes represented close relationships of AIVs isolated from the Asian portion of Russia to the AI strains from Asia, Africa, and Europe. These findings were confirmed by the wild bird migration routes that affect bird populations from Eurasian, African, Australian, and North American continents.

  10. Traumatic hematomas in deep middle portion of the cerebrum case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukahara, T.; Nishikawa, M.; Kim, S.; Shibata, T.; Iwama, M. (Shizuoka Rohsai Hospital, Hamamatsu (Japan))

    1981-06-01

    Recently we have encountered three cases of small traumatic hematoma in deep middle portion of the cerebrum. Patient 1: A 55-year-old male was admitted to our hospital 2-days after the traffic accident. CT scan showed small hematoma around septum pellucidi and fornix and in the posterior horn of left lateral ventricle. Patient 2: A 54-year-old male was admitted to our hospital a day after the head injury. CT scan showed hematoma in the supraventral portion of the third ventricle. Patient 3: A 27-year-old male was admitted to our hospital a day after the head injury. CT scan showed hematoma around quadrigeminal cistern and midbrain. Three cases reported here are traumatic hematomas without mass effect, which were pointed out only by autopsy. On traumatic hematoma in the deep middle portion of the brain we have only a few reports. On the mechanism of this bleeding Lindenberg and Kohno reported that the bleeding is caused by outward bending of the skull in injury. Lindenberg et al insisted that when traumatic force goes through corpus callosum over stretching of corpus callosum caused bleeding and that shearing force can damage septum pellucidi and fornix. Although these small hematomas are absorbed gradually functional prognosis is poor. Especially Korsakov syndrome and left hemiparesis in patient 1 shows no sign of recovery. In patient 2 and patient 3 decreased mental activity and hemiparesis have continued. Treatment of these cases cannot be surgical, as far as severe brain edema does not appeared.

  11. Factors Influencing Consumption Speed of Forages Given in Two Portions in Primiparous Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 6 Romanian Black and White cows in their first one hundred days of lactation. The aim was to assess the consumption speed (g/min, as well as the required time for consumption of 1 kg of raw forage for  alfalfa-hay, herbs silage, beet and concentrates, administered in two  portions (P1, P2, per day, in 2 equal feedings (F1, F2 per portion. The administration order of forages (fibrous-succulents and succulents-fibrous, the number of feedings and the average consumption speed among the two portions were the experimental variants. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. The average consumption speed determined was 198.5 g/min for concentrates, 48.28 g/min for alfalfa hay, 203.19 g/min for silage and 235.32 g/min for beets. The required time for 1 kg of raw forage consumption (minutes and seconds was 5.02 for concentrates, 20.43 for alfalfa hay, 4.35 for herbs silage and 4.15 for beets.

  12. Reduced-portion entr?es in a worksite and restaurant setting: impact on food consumption and waste

    OpenAIRE

    Berkowitz, Sarah; Marquart, Len; Mykerezi, Elton; Degeneffe, Dennis; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Large portion sizes in restaurants have been identified as a public health risk. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether customers in two different food-service operator segments (non-commercial worksite cafeteria and commercial upscale restaurant) would select reduced-portion menu items and the impact of selecting reduced-portion menu items on energy and nutrient intakes and plate waste. Design Consumption and plate waste data were collected for 5 weeks before and...

  13. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  14. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  15. Changes in Typical Portion Sizes of Commonly Consumed Discretionary Foods among Australian Adults from 1995 to 2011–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaobing Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the changes in typical portion sizes of commonly consumed discretionary foods among Australian adults from 1995 to 2011–2012. Data of adults (age ≥19 years from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey and 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used. Typical portion sizes (median portion of fourteen discretionary foods that contributed the most to energy intake were determined. Ten out of fourteen food categories demonstrated a significant change in kJ per typical portion from 1995 to 2011–2012 (p ≤ 0.001. kJ per typical portion increased for pizza, cake, sausage, cereal bar, processed meat, ice cream and wine, with pizza and cake demonstrating the largest increases (+570 kJ and +950 kJ in 2011–2012, respectively; both +66% above 1995. In contrast, kJ per typical portion of pastry, snack food and potato fries decreased by 10–40% over time, and did not change for biscuit, chocolate, sugar-sweetened beverage and beer. Similar changes were observed for grams per typical portion consumed. Temporal trends in typical portion sizes were similar according to age group, gender and socioeconomic status. The findings suggest that population-wide strategies that enable consumers to choose smaller portions of discretionary foods are needed to reduce the excess consumption of these products.

  16. A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children’s snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E.; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children’s snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents’ conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children’s snacking. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n=60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents’ child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Results Parents’ commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children’s snacks with phrases like “something small.” Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ ethnic groups and by household food security status. Conclusions Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. PMID:25447008

  17. Publication of a Map Series on the Aquatic Resources for San Jacinto and Portions of the Santa Margarita Watersheds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lichvar, Robert; Ericsson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... Environmental Protection Agency, recently funded an effort to inventory and map the aquatic resources within the San Jacinto and portions of Santa Margarita River watersheds, Riverside County, California...

  18. Changes in Typical Portion Sizes of Commonly Consumed Discretionary Foods among Australian Adults from 1995 to 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Meertens, Beth; Wu, Jason H Y

    2017-06-06

    This study aimed to examine the changes in typical portion sizes of commonly consumed discretionary foods among Australian adults from 1995 to 2011-2012. Data of adults (age ≥19 years) from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey and 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used. Typical portion sizes (median portion) of fourteen discretionary foods that contributed the most to energy intake were determined. Ten out of fourteen food categories demonstrated a significant change in kJ per typical portion from 1995 to 2011-2012 (p ≤ 0.001). kJ per typical portion increased for pizza, cake, sausage, cereal bar, processed meat, ice cream and wine, with pizza and cake demonstrating the largest increases (+570 kJ and +950 kJ in 2011-2012, respectively; both +66% above 1995). In contrast, kJ per typical portion of pastry, snack food and potato fries decreased by 10-40% over time, and did not change for biscuit, chocolate, sugar-sweetened beverage and beer. Similar changes were observed for grams per typical portion consumed. Temporal trends in typical portion sizes were similar according to age group, gender and socioeconomic status. The findings suggest that population-wide strategies that enable consumers to choose smaller portions of discretionary foods are needed to reduce the excess consumption of these products.

  19. Growing America's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  20. Food portion size and energy density evoke different patterns of brain activation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Laural K; Fearnbach, S Nicole; Wilson, Stephen J; Fisher, Jennifer O; Savage, Jennifer S; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L

    2017-02-01

    Large portions of food promote intake, but the mechanisms that drive this effect are unclear. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified the brain-reward and decision-making systems that are involved in the response to the energy density (ED) (kilocalories per gram) of foods, but few studies have examined the brain response to the food portion size (PS). We used functional MRI (fMRI) to determine the brain response to food images that differed in PSs (large and small) and ED (high and low). Block-design fMRI was used to assess the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to images in 36 children (7-10 y old; girls: 50%), which was tested after a 2-h fast. Pre-fMRI fullness and liking were rated on visual analog scales. A whole-brain cluster-corrected analysis was used to compare BOLD activation for main effects of the PS, ED, and their interaction. Secondary analyses were used to associate BOLD contrast values with appetitive traits and laboratory intake from meals for which the portions of all foods were increased. Compared with small-PS cues, large-PS cues were associated with decreased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (P food PS may be processed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, which is a region that is implicated in cognitive control, whereas ED activates multiple areas involved in sensory and reward processing. Possible implications include the development of interventions that target decision-making and reward systems differently to moderate overeating. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Involvement of the anterior portion of the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa in the painful shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallenberg, Bernard; Destate, Nathalie; Feipel, Véronique; Gevenois, Pierre Alain

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to verify that increased widening of the anterior portion of the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa is associated with anteromedial shoulder pain. Bursography, sonography, and CT were performed in six cadaver shoulders and compared with anatomic sections in neutral position and while the humerus was extended and internally rotated. For the clinical study, the width of the anterior portion of the bursa was measured in both positions in both shoulders of 27 patients referred because of shoulder pain and in eight asymptomatic volunteers. Pain was coded as absent, experienced in the anteromedial portion of the shoulder, or experienced elsewhere but not anteromedially, and we compared the pain scores between shoulder positions. In all cadaver shoulders, when compared with CT scans and anatomic sections, sonography showed the morphology of the bursa, its relationships with surrounding structures, and morphologic changes associated with position. In volunteers, the mean width of the bursa was 0.74 +/- 0.05 and 0.93 +/- 0.09 mm (p = 0.013), respectively, in neutral and stress position. In patients, the same values were 0.70 +/- 0.07 and 0.81 +/- 0.14 mm (p = 0.286) in the asymptomatic side and 1.20 +/- 0.11 and 1.75 +/- 0.23 mm (p bursa was wider in patients experiencing pain anteromedially than in those who experienced pain elsewhere and volunteers (p = 0.002 and bursa was wider in symptomatic shoulders than in asymptomatic shoulders (p bursa is associated with anteromedial shoulder pain and the clinical syndrome of coracoid impingement.

  2. Occurrence of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in retail prepackaged portions of marine fish in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, F C; Santos, J A; Otero, A; García-López, M-L

    2006-03-01

    To survey the presence of indigenous and nonindigenous foodborne bacterial pathogens in displayed prepacked portions of fresh marine fish. A survey of 50 different samples of fresh marine fish (conger, swordfish, sole, grouper and whiting) was conducted over a period of 5 months. Trays of fillets and steaks were obtained at retail level and tested for foodborne bacterial pathogens. Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella were not detected. Two samples (4%) yielded Vibrio strains carrying a DNA fragment specific for Vibrio parahaemolyticus, but resulted negative to PCR amplification of the virulence-related tdh gene. Levels of motile Aeromonas ranging from 2.29 to 7.20 log CFU g(-1) were found in 31 (62%) samples. All fish portions were positive for the Aeromonas hlyA gene and 38 for both aerA and hlyA genes, which may contribute to diarrhoea-related virulence. The incidence of Listeria monocytogenes was 10%. Levels of Staphylococcus aureus lower than 2 log CFU g(-1) were found in 15 (30%) samples. Numbers of presumptive Clostridium perfringens ranging from 1.82 +/- 0.22 to 4.26 +/- 1.25 log CFU g(-1) were detected in 42 (84%) samples. Edwardsiella tarda was detected in two samples of grouper fillets. Displayed portions of raw fish carried bacteria that can cause foodborne disease. The risk posed by fresh fish when properly cooked is low, but high when destined to be consumed raw, undercooked or very lightly processed. This study revealed that raw fish sold in Spain could be a source of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Improvements in handling and processing are needed to minimize the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria.

  3. Small portion sizes in worksite cafeterias: do they help consumers to reduce their food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Leeuwis, F H; Heymans, M W; Seidell, J C

    2011-09-01

    Environmental interventions directed at portion size might help consumers to reduce their food intake. To assess whether offering a smaller hot meal, in addition to the existing size, stimulates people to replace their large meal with a smaller meal. Longitudinal randomized controlled trial assessing the impact of introducing small portion sizes and pricing strategies on consumer choices. In all, 25 worksite cafeterias and a panel consisting of 308 consumers (mean age=39.18 years, 50% women). A small portion size of hot meals was offered in addition to the existing size. The meals were either proportionally priced (that is, the price per gram was comparable regardless of the size) or value size pricing was employed. Daily sales of small and the total number of meals, consumers' self-reported compensation behavior and frequency of purchasing small meals. The ratio of small meals sales in relation to large meals sales was 10.2%. No effect of proportional pricing was found B=-0.11 (0.33), P=0.74, confidence interval (CI): -0.76 to 0.54). The consumer data indicated that 19.5% of the participants who had selected a small meal often-to-always purchased more products than usual in the worksite cafeteria. Small meal purchases were negatively related to being male (B=-0.85 (0.20), P=0.00, CI: -1.24 to -0.46, n=178). When offering a small meal in addition to the existing size, a percentage of consumers that is considered reasonable were inclined to replace the large meal with the small meal. Proportional prices did not have an additional effect. The possible occurrence of compensation behavior is an issue that merits further attention.

  4. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  5. Digitally timed boxcar averager for analog integration of portions of a video signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. K.; Delaney, P. A.; Passler, M. A.

    1988-09-01

    A new system for measuring video signal intensity over selected portions of a complete video scan has been developed and applied to acquisition of LEED IV data. Unlike other systems available, this system is not microprocessor driven, but relies on appropriately timed boxcar averaging such that interfacing to the computer is relatively simple, yet data acquisition is fast. Signal to noise is theoretically better for this system since the input to the analog to digital (A/D) converter can have a lower time constant.

  6. A Laguerre expansion method for the field particle portion in the linearized Coulomb collision operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Shin, E-mail: nishimura.shin@lhd.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    The spherical coordinates expressions of the Rosenbluth potentials are applied to the field particle portion in the linearized Coulomb collision operator. The Sonine (generalized Laguerre) polynomial expansion formulas for this operator allowing general field particles' velocity distributions are derived. An important application area of these formulas is the study of flows of thermalized particles in NBI-heated or burning plasmas since the energy space structure of the fast ions' slowing down velocity distribution cannot be expressed by usual orthogonal polynomial expansions, and since the Galilean invariant property and the momentum conservation of the collision must be distinguished there.

  7. Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortezzo, C. M.; Williams, K. K.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a continuing study to understand the relationship between valleys and highland resurfacing through geologic mapping, we are continuing to map seven MTM quads in portions of the Margaritifer, Arabia, and Noachis Terrae. Results from this mapping will also help constrain the role and extent of past water in the region. The MTMs are grouped in two different areas: a 4-quadrangle area (-20002, -20007, -25002, -25007) and an L-shaped area (-15017, -20017, -20022) within the region [1-5]. This abstract focuses on the geologic units and history from mapping in the 4-quadrangle area, but includes a brief update on the L-shaped map area.

  8. Can selection to escape nectar thieving force plants to portion nectar in many flowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Mats W.

    1999-02-01

    There are several hypotheses which try to explain why particular plants produce just the number of flowers that they do. These hypotheses include: compromises between the attraction of pollinators and avoiding self-pollination by geitonogamy; optimal nectar production as a result of diminishing gains of nectar production; opportunity for selective abortion; or different bet-hedging strategies. In this paper, I present a hypothesis which interferes with the others concerning flower numbers in plants: nectar thieving can apply a selection force in plants which result in a portioning of nectar in many flowers. Energy saved by reducing the quantity of nectar in each flower can be directed into greater flower numbers.

  9. Consumer Health Informatics: Past, Present, and Future of a Rapidly Evolving Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, G

    2016-05-20

    Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) is a rapidly growing domain within the field of biomedical and health informatics. The objective of this paper is to reflect on the past twenty five years and showcase informatics concepts and applications that led to new models of care and patient empowerment, and to predict future trends and challenges for the next 25 years. We discuss concepts and systems based on a review and analysis of published literature in the consumer health informatics domain in the last 25 years. The field was introduced with the vision that one day patients will be in charge of their own health care using informatics tools and systems. Scientific literature in the field originally focused on ways to assess the quality and validity of available printed health information, only to grow significantly to cover diverse areas such as online communities, social media, and shared decision-making. Concepts such as home telehealth, mHealth, and the quantified-self movement, tools to address transparency of health care organizations, and personal health records and portals provided significant milestones in the field. Consumers are able to actively participate in the decision-making process and to engage in health care processes and decisions. However, challenges such as health literacy and the digital divide have hindered us from maximizing the potential of CHI tools with a significant portion of underserved populations unable to access and utilize them. At the same time, at a global scale consumer tools can increase access to care for underserved populations in developing countries. The field continues to grow and emerging movements such as precision medicine and the sharing economy will introduce new opportunities and challenges.

  10. Rapidly- growing firms and their main characteristics: a longitudinal study from United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the topic of high-growth phenomenon and its agents. High-growth enterprises are primarily small and medium sized firms that attain very high-growth rates for at least five years. The paper presents a review of the pertinent literature to guide its formulation of hypotheses...... are relatively smaller enterprises and their high growth rates are not restricted to a particular location, industrial region, size or time period. The findings of this analysis point to a population of high-growth enterprises with diverse locations, sizes and times with important implications for scholarly...

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF LEGAL ORGANISATION OF RAPIDLY GROWING COMPANIES FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Novak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of a company’s legal form for the process of internationalisation using a sample of 1577 Slovenian companies. We refer to previous studies and on the basis of additional statistical data evaluate whether the choice of corporate legal structure influences a company’s ability to compete internationally. In the domestic market, most companies operate as limited liability companies; this is also the most frequent legal form in which companies enter foreign markets. We conclude that the form by itself does not influence the decision to go international.

  12. [Case report: Rapidly growing abdominal wall giant desmoid tumour during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Zertuche, Jorge Tadeo; Cardona-Huerta, Servando; Juárez-García, María Luisa; Valdés-Flores, Everardo; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique

    Desmoid tumours are one of the rarest tumours worldwide, with an estimated yearly incidence of 2-4 new cases per million people. They are soft tissue monoclonal neoplasms that originate from mesenchymal stem cells. It seems that the hormonal and immunological changes occurring during pregnancy may play a role in the severity and course of the disease. The case is presented on 28-year-old female in her fifth week of gestation, in whom an abdominal wall tumour was found attached to left adnexa and uterus while performing a prenatal ultrasound. The patient was followed up under clinical and ultrasonographic surveillance. When she presented with abnormal uterine activity at 38.2 weeks of gestation, she was admitted and obstetrics decided to perform a caesarean section. Tumour biopsy was taken during the procedure. Histopathology reported a desmoid fibromatosis. A contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan was performed, showing a tumour of 26×20.5×18cm, with well-defined borders in contact with the uterus, left adnexa, bladder and abdominal wall, with no evidence of infiltration to adjacent structures. A laparotomy, with tumour resection, hysterectomy and left salpingo-oophorectomy, components separation techniques, polypropylene mesh insertion, and drainage was performed. The final histopathology report was desmoid fibromatosis. There is no evidence of recurrence after 6 months follow-up. Desmoid tumours are locally aggressive and surgical resection with clear margins is the basis for the treatment of this disease, using radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy as an adjunct in the treatment. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Water resources in a rapidly growing region-Oakland County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    Oakland County is a suburban county in southeast Michigan. Population and demand for water grew steadily in the county over the 20th century, and these trends are expected to continue in coming decades. Roughly 75 percent of current water demand is met by imported water from the Detroit Water and Sewerage Division (DWSD), but water use from ground-water sources within the county still exceeds 43 million gallons per day. Because much of the population growth is in areas beyond the DWSD system, an additional 20-25 million gallons per day of supply may be necessary to meet future demands. Managing the wastewater produced while also protecting human and ecosystem health also may present challenges.

  14. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... However, laboratory protocols that are commonly used to investigate the presence of mycobacteria in clinical specimens are insufficient for isolation of these organisms form soil and natural water samples (Chilima et al., 2006). In spite of large –scale BCG trial conducted in our country during past decades, ...

  15. Case series: Rapidly growing squamous cell carcinoma after cutaneous surgical intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ibrahim

    2017-12-01

    This case series explores the various mechanisms of de-novo squamous cell carcinoma development in areas of cutaneous surgical intervention, including graft harvest. It also provides recommendations regarding the necessary precautions to avoid implantation of squamous cell carcinoma into distant sites. Lastly it highlights the importance of surveillance for any suspicious lesions arising from areas of previous cutaneous surgical intervention.

  16. Emerging Development Pathways of Urban Livestock Production in Rapidly Growing West Africa Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Roessler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we try to capture the degree of specialization or integration, and of intensification or extensification, of (peri- urban livestock production, along with the factors that influence such decisions and their impact on natural resource uses. A total of 181 and 187 structured questionnaires were completed in livestock-keeping households in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso and Tamale (Ghana. Categorical principal component and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify homogenous groups of livestock-keeping households. Cross tabulation and logistic regression analysis revealed factors that influence livestock husbandry, showing their impacts on resource use by livestock keepers in the two cities. A diversity of livestock species was kept, mostly integrated with crop farming. Yet, some households specialized in either sheep, pig or commercial milk production, and partly intensified their production. The decision to specialize and/or intensify livestock production is site-specific and influenced by the education level of the household head and security of land ownership. Higher inputs in livestock systems do not necessarily lead to higher outputs, and specialization inevitably leads to higher manure wastages. Therefore, links of livestock producers to crop farmers and markets for livestock manure must be strengthened to enable recycling of resources and limit negative externalities of specialized livestock production. Strategies need to be identified to improve livestock productivity by enhancing outputs as input use increases.

  17. Scar sarcoidosis on a finger mimicking a rapidly growing soft tissue tumour: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrichs Marcel-Philipp

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scar sarcoidosis is a rare and uncommon but specific cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. In general it arises in pre-existing scars deriving from mechanical traumas. As most surgeons dealing with scars might not be aware of cutaneous sarcoidosis and its different types of appearance the appropriate staging and treatment might be missed or at least delayed. To our knowledge this is the first case in literature of scar sarcoidosis on a finger. Case presentation We present a case of a 33-year-old carpenter who developed scar sarcoidosis on his right index finger 4 years after the tendon of the long digital flexor got accidentally cut by an angle grinder. He was referred due to a swelling of the finger suspected to be a malignant soft tissue tumour. The circumference of the affected finger had almost doubled, adding up to 94 mm. Incision biopsy revealed typical noncaseating granulomas. Further investigation showed a systemic extent of the disease with involvement of the lung. A systemic treatment with oral steroids led to an almost full regression of the swelling with restoration of function and resolution of lung infiltrates. Conclusion In case of a suspicious and/or progressive swelling a definite diagnosis should be achieved by biopsy within a short time to enable a proper treatment. If scar sarcoidosis is proven further investigation is necessary to exclude a systemical involvement. A surgical treatment of the swelling is not indicated.

  18. Scar sarcoidosis on a finger mimicking a rapidly growing soft tissue tumour: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Marcel-Philipp; Streitbürger, Arne; Gosheger, Georg; Surke, Carsten; Dierkes, Christian; Hardes, Jendrik

    2012-10-02

    Scar sarcoidosis is a rare and uncommon but specific cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. In general it arises in pre-existing scars deriving from mechanical traumas. As most surgeons dealing with scars might not be aware of cutaneous sarcoidosis and its different types of appearance the appropriate staging and treatment might be missed or at least delayed. To our knowledge this is the first case in literature of scar sarcoidosis on a finger. We present a case of a 33-year-old carpenter who developed scar sarcoidosis on his right index finger 4 years after the tendon of the long digital flexor got accidentally cut by an angle grinder. He was referred due to a swelling of the finger suspected to be a malignant soft tissue tumour. The circumference of the affected finger had almost doubled, adding up to 94 mm. Incision biopsy revealed typical noncaseating granulomas. Further investigation showed a systemic extent of the disease with involvement of the lung. A systemic treatment with oral steroids led to an almost full regression of the swelling with restoration of function and resolution of lung infiltrates. In case of a suspicious and/or progressive swelling a definite diagnosis should be achieved by biopsy within a short time to enable a proper treatment. If scar sarcoidosis is proven further investigation is necessary to exclude a systemical involvement. A surgical treatment of the swelling is not indicated.

  19. PET/MR - a rapidly growing technique of imaging in oncology and neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałyga, Alicja; Guzikowska-Ruszkowska, Izabela; Czepczyński, Rafał; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) has become a subject of interest for researchers in the recent several years. Positron emission tomography in combination with magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is the most recent imaging technique classified in the so called hybrid systems category. This review briefly discusses the development history of PET/MR scanners, the principle of their operation, of tandem systems, as well as fully integrated devices. Further, it summarizes recent reports on the application of PET/MR scans and their possible future role in oncological and non-oncological diagnostics. Recent reports regarding the application of PET/MR scanners show huge potential of simultaneously received images, which exceed the advantages of either of those scans used separately. However, the results so far remain uncertain and require further investigations, especially in terms of clinical studies, not only for scientific purposes.

  20. A rapidly growing electronic publishing trend: audiobooks for leisure and education

    OpenAIRE

    Engelen, J J

    2008-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the relatively new phenomenon of the purely commercial availability of audiobooks, sometimes also called “spoken books”, “talking books” or “narrated books”. Having the text of a book read aloud and recorded has been for a very long time the favourite solution to make books and other texts accessible for persons with a serious reading impairment such as blindness or low vision. Specialised production centres do exist in most countries of the world for producing th...

  1. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 350 soil samples were collected from different part of Uremia city and suburbs. We used 3% sodium lauryl sulfate and 1% NaOH for decontamination of soil samples. Of 350 samples, mycobacteria were isolated from 65 (18.3%) specimens. Mycobacterium fortuitum with 18(5.14) strains yielded the highest ...

  2. Peptostreptococcus productus strain that grows rapidly with CO as the energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorowitz, W H; Bryant, M P

    1984-05-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were enriched with a sewage digestor sludge inoculum and a mineral medium supplemented with B-vitamins and 0.05% yeast extract and with a 50% CO-30% N2-20% CO2 (2 atm [202 kPa]) gas phase. Microscopic observation revealed an abundance of gram-positive cocci, 1.0 by 1.4 micron, which occurred in pairs or chains. The coccus, strain U-1, was isolated by using roll tubes with CO as the energy source. Based on morphology, sugars fermented, fermentation products from glucose (H2, acetate, lactate, and succinate), and other features, strain U-1 was identified as Peptostreptococcus productus IIb (similar to the type strain). The doubling time with up to 50% CO was 1.5 h; acetate and CO2 were the major products. In addition, no significant change in the doubling time was observed with 90% CO. Some stock strains were also able to use CO, although not as well. Strain U-1 produced acetate during growth with H2-CO2. Other C1 compounds did not support growth. Most probable numbers of CO utilizers morphologically identical with strain U-1 were 7.5 X 10(6) and 1.1 X 10(5) cells per g for anaerobic digestor sludge and human feces, respectively.

  3. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... A total of 350 soil samples were collected from different part of Uremia city and suburbs. We used 3% sodium lauryl sulfate and 1% NaOH for decontamination of soil samples. Of 350 samples, mycobacteria were isolated from 65 (18.3%) specimens. Mycobacterium fortuitum with 18(5.14) strains yielded the.

  4. Mycobacterium aquaticum sp. nov., a rapidly growing species isolated from haemodialysis water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Trovato, Alberto; Droz, Sara; Haidarieh, Parvin; Borroni, Emanuele; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Mannino, Roberta; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Mariottini, Alessandro; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Tortoli, Enrico

    2017-09-01

    The characterization of five Iranian isolates, four from hospital haemodialysis water and one from the sputum of a patient, led to the detection of a novel mycobacterium species. The strains were characterized by mucoid colonies developing in 3-5 days at temperatures ranging from 25 to 37 °C. The biochemical test pattern was unremarkable while the HPLC profile of mycolic acids resembled that of Mycobacterium fortuitum. The sequences of three major housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB) were unique and differed from those of any other mycobacterium. Mycobacterium brisbanense, which is the species that shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.03 %), was distinct, as shown by the average nucleotide identity and by the genome to genome distance values (91.05 and 43.10 %, respectively). The strains are thus considered to represent a novel species of the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquaticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RW6T (=DSM 104277T=CIP111198T).

  5. Predictors of Postpartum Depression in Dubai, a Rapidly Growing Multicultural Society in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhammadi, Salwa M; Hashem, Lien Abou; Abusbeih, Zainah R; Alzaabi, Fatima S; Alnuaimi, Salama N; Jalabi, Ala F; Nair, Satish C; Carrick, Frederick R; Abdulrahman, Mahera

    2017-09-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem adversely affecting mothers, their newborns, and other members of the family. Although PPD is common and potentially dangerous, only a minority of the cases are identified in primary health care settings during routine care, and the majority of depressed mothers in the community lies unrecognized and therefore untreated. In this study, a total of 1500 mothers were approached randomly, 808 accepted to participate, and 504 were within the inclusion criteria (women who had a birth of a singleton full-term healthy infant, had an uncomplicated pregnancy, and were within their one week to six months postpartum). The participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. A total of 168 women had an EPDS score ≥10, yielding a crude prevalence rate of 33%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 14 out of 504 (3%), among which 11 (79%) had EPDS score of ≥10. We fitted multiple linear regression models to evaluate the predictors of variables measured on the EPDS scale. This model was statistically significant ppredictors. The findings of this study are anticipated to entail the government and policy makers in the region to pay more attention to the apparently high prevalence of unrevealed PPD in the community. It is crucial to enhance screening mechanisms for early detection, providing interventions to manage symptoms, and at the same time mandating local guidelines to address the PPD pathology as a high priority for the UAE population.

  6. Metal-organic frameworks: a rapidly growing class of versatile nanoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Scott T; Greathouse, Jeffery A; Allendorf, Mark D

    2011-01-11

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a new class of hybrid organic-inorganic supramolecular materials comprised of ordered networks formed from organic electron donor linkers and metal cations. They can exhibit extremely high surface areas, as well as tunable pore size and functionality, and can act as hosts for a variety of guest molecules. Since their discovery, MOFs have enjoyed extensive exploration, with applications ranging from gas storage to drug delivery to sensing. This review covers advances in the MOF field from the past three years, focusing on applications, including gas separation, catalysis, drug delivery, optical and electronic applications, and sensing. We also summarize recent work on methods for MOF synthesis and computational modeling.

  7. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate is attributed to the influx rate, campaign design and implementation, and factors related to child and career mobi- lity. Alternative immunisation strategies, with social awareness playing a key role, are being urgently investigated. S Air Med J 1989; 76: 157-159. Measles became a notifiable disease in the RSA in 1979.1.

  8. Contralateral trigeminal neuralgia in a rapidly growing vestibular schwannoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngbeom; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2018-01-01

    We present a rare case of vestibular schwannoma (VS) with contralateral trigeminal neuralgia. A 59 year-old woman presented with right-sided trigeminal neuralgia and a small VS in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) that was found via magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was administered medication; however, her symptoms gradually aggravated, and the size of the tumor increased. Two years after the initial diagnosis, the patient underwent surgical resection. After surgical resection, the patient's facial pain was improved. The trigeminal neuralgia appeared to be related to brainstem displacement caused by the contralateral VS. For VS with contralateral trigeminal neuralgia, surgical resection of the tumor should be considered as a possible treatment strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 33 CFR 207.360 - Rainy River, Minn.; logging regulations for portions of river within jurisdiction of the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rainy River, Minn.; logging regulations for portions of river within jurisdiction of the United States. 207.360 Section 207.360 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.360 Rainy River, Minn.; logging regulations for portions of river within jurisdiction of the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.168A-6 - Depreciation of portion of emergency facility not subject to amortization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation of portion of emergency facility... for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168A-6 Depreciation of portion of emergency facility not subject... in lieu of any deduction for depreciation which would otherwise be allowable under section 167 is...

  11. Value for money or making the healthy choice: the impact of proportional pricing on consumers' portion size choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.M.; Alting, E.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Large food portion sizes are determinants of a high caloric intake, especially if they have been made attractive through value size pricing (i.e. lower unit prices for large than for small portion sizes). The purpose of the two questionnaire studies that are reported in this article was

  12. Investigation of phase coupling phenomena in sustained portion of musical instruments sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov, Shlomo; Rodet, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    This work investigates aperiodicities that occur in the sustained portion of a sound of musical instrument played by a human player, due to synchronous versus asynchronous deviations of the partial phases. By using an additive sinusoidal analysis, phases of individual partials are precisely extracted and their correlation statistics and coupling effects are analyzed. It is shown that various musical instruments exhibit different phase coupling characteristics. The effect of phase coupling is compared to analysis by means of higher order statistics and it is shown that both methods are closely mathematically related. Following a detailed analysis of phase coupling for various musical instruments it is suggested that phase coupling is an important characteristic of a sustained portion of sound of individual musical instruments, and possibly even of instrumental families. Interesting differences in phase deviations where found for the flute, trumpet and cello. For the cello, the effect of vibrato is examined by comparing the analysis of a closed string sound played with a natural vibrato to analysis of an open string sound that contains no vibrato. Following, a possible model for phase deviations in the cello is presented and a simulation of phase fluctuations for this model is performed.

  13. Adenocarcinoma of the third portion of the duodenum in a man with CREST syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Georgios; Marinis, Athanasios; Konstantinidis, Christos; Theodosopoulos, Theodosios; Fragulidis, Georgios; Vassiliou, Ioannis

    2008-10-01

    CREST (Calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyly and Telangiectasias) syndrome has been rarely associated with other malignancies (lung, esophagus). This is the first report of a primary adenocarcinoma of the third portion of the duodenum in a patient with CREST syndrome. A 54-year-old male patient with CREST syndrome presented with colicky postprandial pain of the upper abdomen, diminished food uptake and a 6-Kg-body weight loss during the previous 2 months. An ulcerative lesion in the third portion of the duodenum was revealed during duodenoscopy, with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma on biopsy specimen histology. The patient underwent a partial pancreatoduodenectomy. No adjuvant therapy was instituted and follow-up is negative for local recurrence or metastases 21 months postoperatively. CREST syndrome has been associated with colon cancer, gastric polyps, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and Crohn's disease; however, this is the first report of a primary adenocarcinoma of the duodenum in a patient with CREST syndrome. However, any etiologic relationship remains to be further investigated.

  14. Evaluating teaching methods: validation of an evaluation tool for hydrodissection and phacoemulsification portions of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronald J; McCannel, Colin A; Gordon, Lynn K; Hollander, David A; Giaconi, JoAnn A; Stelzner, Sadiqa K; Devgan, Uday; Bartlett, John; Mondino, Bartly J

    2014-09-01

    To develop and assess the validity of an evaluation tool to assess quantitatively the hydrodissection and phacoemulsification portions of cataract surgery performed by residents. Case series. Jules Stein Eye Institute, Olive View-UCLA Medical Center, and Veterans Administration Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA. The UCLA ophthalmology faculty members were surveyed and the literature was reviewed to develop a grading tool consisting of 15 questions to evaluate surgical technique, including questions from the Global Rating Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery and from the International Council of Ophthalmology's Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric. Video clips of the hydrodissection and phacoemulsification portions of cataract surgery performed by 1 postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) resident, 1 PGY3 resident, 2 PGY4 residents, and an advanced surgeon were independently graded in a masked fashion by an 8-member faculty panel. Eleven of the 15 questions had a significant association with surgical experience level (Pevaluation tool. Improved videography and studies to identify the best questions for evaluating each step of cataract surgery may help ophthalmic educators more precisely measure training outcomes for improving teaching interventions. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Impact of fruit juice and beverage portion size on snack intake in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Erin M; Poole, Seletha A; Raynor, Hollie A

    2015-12-01

    It has been recommended that beverages other than 100% fruit juice, such as water, be served at meals and snacks for preschool-aged children to reduce excessive energy intake. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type and size), 26 children (3.9 ± 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed four, 20-min snack sessions consisting of 200 g of applesauce, 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. (approximately 180 g) or 12 oz. (approximately 360 g) of 100% berry fruit juice or water, to examine the influence of 100% fruit juice and the portion size of the provided fruit juice, on beverage, food, and overall snack intake. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance revealed a significant (p snack energy intake, with more overall energy consumed when juice was provided (175.4 ± 50.0 kcal vs. 104.8 ± 62.8 kcal, p snack increased beverage and/or food intake, and serving 100% juice led to greater overall snack energy intake. Future research should examine the role of 100% fruit juice, and beverage portion size, in contributing to excessive daily energy intake in preschool-aged children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adenocarcinoma of the third portion of the duodenum in a man with CREST syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fragulidis Georgios

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CREST (Calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyly and Telangiectasias syndrome has been rarely associated with other malignancies (lung, esophagus.This is the first report of a primary adenocarcinoma of the third portion of the duodenum in a patient with CREST syndrome. Case presentation A 54-year-old male patient with CREST syndrome presented with colicky postprandial pain of the upper abdomen, diminished food uptake and a 6-Kg-body weight loss during the previous 2 months. An ulcerative lesion in the third portion of the duodenum was revealed during duodenoscopy, with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma on biopsy specimen histology. The patient underwent a partial pancreatoduodenectomy. No adjuvant therapy was instituted and follow-up is negative for local recurrence or metastases 21 months postoperatively. Conclusion CREST syndrome has been associated with colon cancer, gastric polyps, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP syndrome and Crohn's disease; however, this is the first report of a primary adenocarcinoma of the duodenum in a patient with CREST syndrome. However, any etiologic relationship remains to be further investigated.

  17. Biotechnology and genetic optimization of fast-growing hardwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garton, S.; Syrkin-Wurtele, E.; Griffiths, H.; Schell, J.; Van Camp, L.; Bulka, K. (NPI, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1991-02-01

    A biotechnology research program was initiated to develop new clones of fast-growing Populus clones resistant to the herbicide glyphosate and resistant to the leaf-spot and canker disease caused by the fungus Septoria musiva. Glyphosate-resistant callus was selected from stem segments cultured in vitro on media supplemented with the herbicide. Plants were regenerated from the glyphosate-resistant callus tissue. A portion of plants reverted to a glyphosate susceptible phenotype during organogenesis. A biologically active filtrate was prepared from S. musiva and influenced fresh weight of Populus callus tissue. Disease-resistant plants were produced through somaclonal variation when shoots developed on stem internodes cultured in vitro. Plantlets were screened for disease symptoms after spraying with a suspension of fungal spores. A frequency of 0.83 percent variant production was observed. Genetically engineered plants were produced after treatment of plant tissue with Agrobacterium tumefasciens strains carrying plasmid genes for antibiotic resistance. Transformers were selected on media enriched with the antibiotic, kanamycin. Presence of foreign DNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Protoplasts of popular were produced but did not regenerate into plant organs. 145 refs., 12 figs., 36 tabs.

  18. Development and validation of two food portion photograph books to assess dietary intake among adults and children in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amougou, Norbert; Cohen, Emmanuel; Mbala, Marie L; Grosdidier, Basile; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2016-03-14

    Owing to nutritional transition in Cameroon, one in two adults is overweight and one in five is obese, and 8·1% of children are overweight and 2·1% are obese. Given this phenomenon, dietary intake assessment is needed to establish appropriate preventive nutrition-sensitive strategies. Our aim was to develop and test the validity of two food portion photograph books (FPPB) to be used as visual aids for adults and children taking part in a 24-h dietary recall. To design FPPB, interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with women to obtain consensus on the local categorisation of foods. For each cooked and weighed food, three photographs of the average small, medium and large serving portion sizes were taken, and four intermediary portion sizes were calculated. To validate the FPPB, a sample of adults (361) and children (224) were asked, at meal times, to self-serve a food portion prepared in the household and the portion sizes were weighed; 24 h after the measurement, the same subjects were shown the appropriate FPPB and were asked to indicate the food and the portion they consumed. In adults, of the 821 portions tested, 77% were accurately estimated, whereas in children 74% of the 556 portions tested were accurately estimated. For both groups, the small- and medium-sized portions were frequently selected and accurately estimated (>70%). Our findings suggest that the adult and children's FPPB can be used in Cameroon to estimate food portion sizes, and thus nutritional intake in the frame of the 24-h dietary recall.

  19. Influence of BMI and dietary restraint on self-selected portions of prepared meals in US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, David; Rytz, Andréas; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Forde, Ciarán G; Martin, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The rise of obesity prevalence has been attributed in part to an increase in food and beverage portion sizes selected and consumed among overweight and obese consumers. Nevertheless, evidence from observations of adults is mixed and contradictory findings might reflect the use of small or unrepresentative samples. The objective of this study was i) to determine the extent to which BMI and dietary restraint predict self-selected portion sizes for a range of commercially available prepared savoury meals and ii) to consider the importance of these variables relative to two previously established predictors of portion selection, expected satiation and expected liking. A representative sample of female consumers (N = 300, range 18-55 years) evaluated 15 frozen savoury prepared meals. For each meal, participants rated their expected satiation and expected liking, and selected their ideal portion using a previously validated computer-based task. Dietary restraint was quantified using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ-R). Hierarchical multiple regression was performed on self-selected portions with age, hunger level, and meal familiarity entered as control variables in the first step of the model, expected satiation and expected liking as predictor variables in the second step, and DEBQ-R and BMI as exploratory predictor variables in the third step. The second and third steps significantly explained variance in portion size selection (18% and 4%, respectively). Larger portion selections were significantly associated with lower dietary restraint and with lower expected satiation. There was a positive relationship between BMI and portion size selection (p = 0.06) and between expected liking and portion size selection (p = 0.06). Our discussion considers future research directions, the limited variance explained by our model, and the potential for portion size underreporting by overweight participants. Copyright © 2016 Nestec S.A. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  20. "What time is my next meal?" delay-discounting individuals choose smaller portions under conditions of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Annie R; Ferriday, Danielle; Davies, Sarah R; Martin, Ashley A; Rogers, Peter J; Mason, Alice; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2017-09-01

    'Dietary' delay discounting is typically framed as a trade-off between immediate rewards and long-term health concerns. Our contention is that prospective thinking also occurs over shorter periods, and is engaged to select portion sizes based on the interval between meals (inter-meal interval; IMI). We sought to assess the extent to which the length of an IMI influences portion-size selection. We predicted that delay discounters would show 'IMI insensitivity' (relative lack of concern about hunger or fullness between meals). In particular, we were interested in participants' sensitivity to an uncertain IMI. We hypothesized that when meal times were uncertain, delay discounters would be less responsive and select smaller portion sizes. Participants (N = 90) selected portion sizes for lunch. In different trials, they were told to expect dinner at 5pm, 9pm, and either 5pm or 9pm (uncertain IMI). Individual differences in future-orientation were measured using a monetary delay-discounting task. Participants chose larger portions when the IMI was longer (p < 0.001). When the IMI was uncertain, delay-discounting participants chose smaller portions than the average portion chosen in the certain IMIs (p < 0.05). Furthermore, monetary discounting mediated a relationship between BMI and smaller portion selection in uncertainty (p < 0.05). This is the first study to report an association between delay discounting and IMI insensitivity. We reason that delay discounters selected smaller portions because they were less sensitive to the uncertain IMI, and overlooked concerns about potential future hunger. These findings are important because they illustrate that differences in discounting are expressed in short-term portion-size decisions and suggest that IMI insensitivity increases when meal timings are uncertain. Further research is needed to confirm whether these findings generalise to other populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Cryptic diversity in Hipposideros commersoni sensu stricto (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) in the western portion of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarivelo, Andrinajoro R; Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie; Lamb, Jennifer M; Goodman, Steven M

    2015-10-30

    The Commerson's leaf-nosed bat, Hipposideros commersoni sensu stricto, is endemic to Madagascar and is relatively common in the western portion of the island, where it is found in areas, including forested zones, from sea level to 1325 m. A previous study on morphological patterns of geographic variation within the species highlighted the presence of two distinct morphotypes; larger individuals in the north portion of the island and smaller individuals in the south. The main aim of this study was to use a combination of craniodental morphology and molecular data (mitochondrial and nuclear) to test previous hypotheses based on morphology and clarify the evolutionary history of the species group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from Hipposideros commersoni obtained from the western portion of Madagascar, and compared them with other African species as outgroups. We analyzed the sequence data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Divergence dates were estimated using Bayesian molecular clock approach. Variation in craniodental variables was also assessed from sequenced individuals. The molecular analyses suggest that H. commersoni is not monophyletic, with strong support for the presence of several independently evolving lineages. Two individuals amongst those sequenced from Isalo (south central) and Itampolo (southwest) form a separate clade (Clade A), distinct from other H. commersoni, and sister to continental African H. vittatus and H. gigas. Within the H. commersoni clade, the molecular data support two geographically distributed clades; one from the south (Clade B) and the other from the north (Clade C), which diverged approximately 3.38 million years ago. Morphometric data were consistent with the molecular analyses, suggesting a north-south break within H. commersoni. However, at some localities, animals from both clades occurred in sympatry and these individuals could not be differentiated based on external and

  2. The SGIA and the Common Growing Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu CIOVICA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human or virtual agents are presented in our lives daily. They serve our purposes and represent us in different many situations. Nowadays the number of virtual agents is increasing daily because they are cheaper, faster and more accurate than human agents. Our aim in this article is to define a new type of intelligent agent called SGIA – Self Growing Intelligent Agent and a new defining language for it. The SGIA agent is an intelligent agent with all the common agents’ characteristics and with other special one: that to learn and grow by itself in knowledge and size.

  3. Growing pioneer plants for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N. O.; Lutvynenko, T. L.; Korniichuk, O. S.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Voznyuk, T. M.; Kononuchenko, O.; Zaetz, I.; Rogutskyy, I. S.; Mytrokhyn, O. V.; Mashkovska, S. P.; Foing, B. H.; Kordyum, V. A.

    A precursory scenario of cultivating the first plants in a lunar greenhouse was elaborated in frames of a conceptual study to grow plants for a permanently manned lunar base. A prototype plant growth system represents an ornamental plant Tagetes patula L. for growing in a lunar rock anorthosite as a substrate. Microbial community anticipated to be in use to support a growth and development of the plant in a substrate of low bioavailability and provide an acceptable growth and blossoming of T. patula under growth limiting conditions.

  4. Restaurant owners' perspectives on a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions, Los Angeles County, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren; Dunning, Lauren; Kuo, Tony; Simon, Paul; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2014-03-20

    Reducing the portion size of food and beverages served at restaurants has emerged as a strategy for addressing the obesity epidemic; however, barriers and facilitators to achieving this goal are not well characterized. In fall 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted semistructured interviews with restaurant owners to better understand contextual factors that may impede or facilitate participation in a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions. Interviews were completed with 18 restaurant owners (representing nearly 350 restaurants). Analyses of qualitative data revealed 6 themes related to portion size: 1) perceived customer demand is central to menu planning; 2) multiple portion sizes are already being offered for at least some food items; 3) numerous logistical barriers exist for offering reduced-size portions; 4) restaurant owners have concerns about potential revenue losses from offering reduced-size portions; 5) healthful eating is the responsibility of the customer; and 6) a few owners want to be socially responsible industry leaders. A program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions may be a feasible approach in Los Angeles County. These findings may have applications for jurisdictions interested in engaging restaurants as partners in reducing the obesity epidemic.

  5. Restaurant Owners’ Perspectives on a Voluntary Program to Recognize Restaurants for Offering Reduced-Size Portions, Los Angeles County, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Lauren; Kuo, Tony; Simon, Paul; Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reducing the portion size of food and beverages served at restaurants has emerged as a strategy for addressing the obesity epidemic; however, barriers and facilitators to achieving this goal are not well characterized. Methods In fall 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted semistructured interviews with restaurant owners to better understand contextual factors that may impede or facilitate participation in a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions. Results Interviews were completed with 18 restaurant owners (representing nearly 350 restaurants). Analyses of qualitative data revealed 6 themes related to portion size: 1) perceived customer demand is central to menu planning; 2) multiple portion sizes are already being offered for at least some food items; 3) numerous logistical barriers exist for offering reduced-size portions; 4) restaurant owners have concerns about potential revenue losses from offering reduced-size portions; 5) healthful eating is the responsibility of the customer; and 6) a few owners want to be socially responsible industry leaders. Conclusion A program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions may be a feasible approach in Los Angeles County. These findings may have applications for jurisdictions interested in engaging restaurants as partners in reducing the obesity epidemic. PMID:24650622

  6. Image segmentation by iterative parallel region growing with application to data compression and image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.

    1988-01-01

    Image segmentation can be a key step in data compression and image analysis. However, the segmentation results produced by most previous approaches to region growing are suspect because they depend on the order in which portions of the image are processed. An iterative parallel segmentation algorithm avoids this problem by performing globally best merges first. Such a segmentation approach, and two implementations of the approach on NASA's Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) are described. Application of the segmentation approach to data compression and image analysis is then described, and results of such application are given for a LANDSAT Thematic Mapper image.

  7. Regional well-log correlation in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, D.J.; Shaffer, S.E.

    1985-09-01

    Although well logs provide the most complete record of stratigraphy and structure in the northern Delaware Basin, regional interpretations of these logs generate problems of ambiguous lithologic signatures and on-hole anomalies. Interpretation must therefore be based on log-to-log correlation rather than on inferences from single logs. In this report, logs from 276 wells were used to make stratigraphic picks of Ochoan horizons (the Rustler, Salado, and Castile Formations) in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin. Current log correlation suggests that: (1) the Castile is characterized by lateral thickening and thinning; (2) some Castile thinnings are of Permian age; (3) irregular topography in the Guadalupian Bell Canyon Formation may produce apparent structures in the overlying Ochoan units; and (4) extensive dissolution of the Salado is not apparent in the area of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) site. 13 refs., 37 figs.

  8. Surface deformation on the west portion of the Chapala lake basin: uncertainties and facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hernandez-Marin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate different aspects of land subsidence and ground failures occurring in the west portion of Chapala lake basin. Currently, surface discontinuities seem to be associated with subsiding bowls. In an effort to understand some of the conditioning factors to surface deformation, two sounding cores from the upper sequence (11 m depth were extracted for analyzing physical and mechanical properties. The upper subsoil showed a predominant silty composition and several lenses of pumice pyroclastic sand. Despite the relative predominance of fine soil, the subsoil shows mechanical properties with low clay content, variable water content, low plasticity and variable compressibility index, amongst some others. Some of these properties seem to be influenced by the sandy pyroclastic lenses, therefore, a potential source of the ground failure could be heterogeneities in the upper soil.

  9. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian Pt; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. Objectives 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children. 2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco. Data collection and

  10. Sex, Class, and Physical Science Educational Attainment: Portions due to Achievement Versus Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Richard M.; Farkas, George

    Nationally representative data from the National Education Longitudinal Study are used to investigate why males (rather than females) and children of parents with advanced degrees (rather than those from less-educated parents) are more highly represented among physical science bachelor's degrees and graduate students. Parental education is measured by three categories: neither parent has a bachelor's degree, at least one parent has a bachelor's degree, or at least one parent has a degree beyond the bachelor's. Physical science is defined as students majoring in physics, engineering, mathematics, or computer science. The effects of mathematics achievement and effects not accounted for by mathematics achievement (what the authors call "recruitment" effects) are isolated for parental education categories and for sex, allowing inequality in physical science degree attainment to be decomposed into portions due to achievement and portions due to recruitment. Additionally, the results from logistic regressions predicting the attainment of a bachelor's degree in physical science as well as the pursuit of a graduate degree in physical science are presented. It is found that for parental education categories, the gaps in physical science educational attainment are nearly entirely accounted for by differences in mathematics achievement, suggesting that if achievement could be equalized, physical science educational attainment differences among parental education categories would disappear. However, the sex gap in physical science educational attainment operates almost entirely independent of achievement effects, suggesting that if the mathematics achievement distributions of males and females were identical, the sex gap in physical science educational attainment would be unchanged from what it is today.

  11. Regions of allelic imbalance in the distal portion of chromosome 12q in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, B G; Rha, S Y; Chung, H C; Bravo, J C; Mera, R; Torres, J C; Plaisance, K T; Schlegel, R; McBride, C M; Reveles, X T; Leach, R J

    2003-06-01

    To define regions of loss on the distal portion of chromosome 12q in gastric adenocarcinoma. Microsatellite analysis on chromosome 12 was performed on 19 human gastric cancer cell lines using 77 markers, 71 of which were within or distal to 12q21; some portions of this region showed extended regions of homozygosity (ERHs) in 10 of 19 gastric cancer cell lines. In addition, microdissected tumour cells from 76 primary gastric adenocarcinomas were examined using 13 markers of interest implicated by the cell line data; 70% of these showed allelic imbalance (AI) at one or more markers in or distal to 12q21. Mapping ERHs in the cell lines and sites of AI in the tumours identified three regions that contain putative tumour suppressor genes: region A is located within 2.8 Mb between markers D12S1667 and D12S88; region B, within 1.9 Mb between markers D12S1607 and D12S78; and region C, in 0.74 Mb between markers D12S342 and D12S324. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis in two cell lines confirmed that two of the ERHs reflected deletions, not amplifications, of D12S81 in region A and D12S340 in region C. FISH analysis of marker D12S1075 within an ERH containing region B in one cell line showed neither amplification nor deletion. AI on 12q was not associated with prognosis, but was associated with ethnicity of the patient. These results identify regions on chromosome 12 that appear to contain tumour suppressor genes important in the development of gastric cancer.

  12. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  13. Growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E Marie; Shores, Andrew; Meintel, Sarah; Hathcock, John T

    2014-09-01

    Growing skull fractures have been reported in humans for many years, usually resulting from injury to the soft skull during the rapid growth period of an infant's life. Nestling raptors have thin, fragile skulls, a rapid growth rate, and compete aggressively for food items. Skull trauma may occur, which may lead to the development of a growing skull fracture. Growing skull fractures may be under-diagnosed in raptor rehabilitation facilities that do not have access to advanced technologic equipment. Three-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography was used to diagnose a growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). The lesion was surgically repaired and the animal was eventually returned to the wild. This is the first report of a growing skull fracture in an animal. In this case, 3-D computed topographic imaging was utilized to diagnose a growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk, surgical repair was performed, and the bird recovered completely and was ultimately released.

  14. Growing up Female: As Six become One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Karen; Balto, Sylvia

    1971-01-01

    Growing up Female: As Six Become One" is an excellent film for people of any age and appropriate for any group. The film explores the lives of six American women showing how they are socialized and what their roles in society are. (Author)

  15. Growing Languages with Metamorphic Syntax Macros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    simultaneously on multiple parse trees at once. The result is a highly flexible mechanism for growing new language constructs without resorting to compile-time programming. In fact, whole new languages can be defined at surprisingly low cost.This work is fully implemented as part of the bigwig system...

  16. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  17. What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: June 2015 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Why Do I Have Pain? How Do Pain Relievers Work? Growth Disorders I'm Growing Up - But Am I Normal? What Medicines Are and What They Do Feeling Too Tall or Too Short Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  18. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  19. Growing Up in Germany: A National Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krappmann, Lothar

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes a Federal Ministry of Youth report on the conditions under which children grow up in Germany. Notes manifold problems that children face under today's living conditions. Presents recommendations and suggestions for providing a network of measures, relationships, and institutions to support children's development and education in family,…

  20. Determination of responses of growing pigs to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-03-09

    Mar 9, 1998 ... The responses in growing pigs to balanced diets at different dietary energy levels are estimated from published data after recalculation of digestible energy (DE) iev- els using standard tables. Although responses in live weight gain (ADG), food intake (Fl), digestible energy intake (DEI) and food conversion ...

  1. How fast to northern hardwoods grow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapheal Zon; H.F. Scholz

    1929-01-01

    The knowledge of the rate at which trees grow in virgin forests, after clear cutting and under selective logging, is indispensable in any forest calculations or forest practice. The enactment of the Forest Crop Law, which brought under its operation about 175,000 acres of cut-over land during the first year, the example set by several progressive lumbermen in selective...

  2. Growing Up in an Alcoholic Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Stephanie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses problems faced by children growing up in an alcoholic family. Reviews four survivor roles of children of alcoholics (COAs): super-coper, scapegoat, lost child, and family mascot. Describes alcoholism as a disease of denial. Reviews the Children of Alcoholics movement begun by adult COAs to become advocates for COAs. (NB)

  3. Growing up as a Young Artist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2012-01-01

    "Growing Up as a Young Artist" is an illustrated book assignment that involves researching family scrapbooks, photo albums and films, and inquiring about family anecdotes for clues to one's artistic roots. Students creatively reflect on their early memories of imaginative events, as each page is filled with memories of creative activities they…

  4. Play Games to Grow up Bilingual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2007-01-01

    A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items, that...

  5. Play Games to Grow up Bilingual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2008-01-01

    A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items, that...

  6. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  7. growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermoregulation and evaporative water loss in growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus. M.H. Knight. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. With an increase in mass, weaned giant rat pups. Cricetomys gambianus, showed a corresponding decline in mass specific metabolism, conductance ...

  8. CARROT SEED GROWING THROUGH WINTERING SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Zvedenuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research work on carrot seed growing through wintering seedlings carried out at laboratory of seed studies and seed production of Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture, on the soil of the first terrace at the rive Dniester were presented in the article. Seed bearing plants of garden carrot ‘Krasavka’ were the object of the study. The seeds were sown to produce the seedlings on 15-16 August. In the first decade of December the plants were covered with white agrotextile with density 23g/m2 that was removed at the beginning of April. The proportion of plant that passed the winter depending on a year of cultivation was 95-100% under argotextile, and 50-80% in open plot. The plants under agrotextile reached 28 cm a high and had 5-7 well-developed leaves, while those on the open plot were at phase of active foliage growing about 10-13 cm. long. Thus, for early mechanized planting in optimal terms the wintering seedlings grown under agrotextile had the best biometrical characteristics. Moreover the outcome of carrot seedlings was 1.2-1.25 million per hectare. Such quantity of seedlings was sufficient to plant 9-10 ha of carrot plants, where the coefficient of multiplication reached 9-10, and only 3 when growing seeds through mother plant as biennial culture. Viability of seed plants grown through seedlings was 100%. Losses of plant with weight 120-150 grams from damage caused by diseases was 23%. The seed yield, when growing seedlings was 639 kg/ha, but growing through plants was 332 kg/ha. The seed outcome suitable for precise mechanized sowing through seedling growing was 77%, where seed germination was 90%, with seed fraction 1.51 and >2.0 mm. It was essentially improved their yielding characteristics. Seed outcome from this fraction obtained through planting method was 32%. The proportion of seeds in fraction 1-1.5 mm was 68%. For mechanized single-seed sowing, the seeds can be used only after mini-coating. The seed

  9. Perspective on how laser-ablated particles grow in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, DongShi; Liu, Jun; Liang, ChangHao

    2017-07-01

    Laser ablation in liquids has emerged as a new branch of nanoscience for developing various nanomaterials with different shapes. However, how to design and control nanomaterial growth is still a challenge due to the unique chemical-physical process chain correlated with nanomaterial nucleation and growth, including plasma phase (generation and rapid quenching), gas (bubble) phase, and liquid phase. In this review, through summarizing the literature about this topic and comparing with the well-established particle growth mechanisms of the conventional wet chemistry technique, our perspective on the possible nanoparticle growth mechanisms or routes is presented, aiming at shedding light on how laser-ablated particles grow in liquids. From the microscopic viewpoint, the nanoparticle growth contains six mechanisms, including LaMer-like growth, coalescence, Ostwald ripening, particle (oriented) attachment, adsorbate-induced growth and reaction-induced growth. For each microscopic growth mechanism, the vivid growth scenes of some representative nanomaterials recorded by TEM and SEM measurements are displayed. Afterwards, the scenes from the macroscopic viewpoint for the large submicro- and micro-scale nanospheres and anisotropic nanostructures formation and evolution from one nanostructure into another one are presented. The panorama of how diverse nanomaterials grow during and after laser ablation in liquids shown in this review is intended to offer a overview for researchers to search for the possible mechanisms correlated to their synthesized nanomaterials, and more expectation is desired to better design and tailor the morphology of the nanocrystals synthesized by LAL technique.

  10. Using multi-theory model to predict initiation and sustenance of small portion size consumption among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sharma

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Based on this study’s findings, MTM appears to be a robust theoretical framework for predicting small portion size consumption behavior change. Interventions in this regard need to be designed.

  11. Portion size adds limited information on variance in food intake of participants in the EPIC-Potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noethlings, Ute; Hoffmann, Kurt; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner

    2003-02-01

    Food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data should reflect interindividual variation and therefore measure variance in intake among populations. We conducted this analysis to evaluate the relevance of separate portion size questions to the interindividual variation in food intake. The contribution of portion size questions to the variance in food intake was quantified and compared with the variance when group-specific portion sizes would be assigned, using 26,764 FFQ of the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study. Groups were defined according to gender, age (/=50 y) or body mass index (BMI) (/=26 kg/m(2)). The FFQ inquired about both consumption frequency and portion size. Linear regression models for each food item were fit with intake (g/d) as dependent variables and frequency of intake as independent variables. The mean coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the different food items explained by frequency only was 84.0% (71.2-95.7%). The R(2) for gender-, age- and BMI-specific frequencies of intake did not markedly alter the overall results. We conclude that the omission of individual portion size information would probably result in a notable reduction of interindividual variance. However, to reduce the respondents' burden and to increase data completeness in self-administration in large epidemiologic studies, the assignment of a constant portion size seems to be adequate. The variance was not increased markedly when constant gender-, age- and BMI-specific portion sizes were applied, thus supporting the assignment of an overall portion size.

  12. Adaptation of locally available portion sizes for food frequency questionnaires in nutritional epidemiological studies: How much difference does it make?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is need for employing strategies to minimize measurement errors while administering semi-quantitative FFQ. The current study was planned to adapt and standardize locally available portion sizes for semi-quantitative FFQ to improve its validity and document the process of standardization of portion sizes. Methodology: The study was conducted in 9 villages of the INCLEN-SOMAARTH DDESS (Demographic, Development and Environmental Surveillance Site, Palwal district, Haryana, India. The subjects in these nine villages are part of a cohort study to assess the interaction between societal and household factors with food intake and physical activity of children. Systematic utensil survey was undertaken in 3 randomly chosen households per village i.e. 27 households and the portion sizes were derived from a total of 74 serving utensils. The derived sizes were classified as small (240 ml, medium (320 ml and large (600 ml. The semi-quantitative FFQ with locally derived portion sizes was then administered to 63 children in 6-12 year age group. Results: The volume of food measured by the reference portion sizes generally being employed in the national surveys, would have been underestimated the food consumed by the child by 55-60% as compared to what was being consumed by the children in the study area. The correlation between food intake assessed by 24-hr recall method and FFQ using derived (local portion sizes was better as compared to that obtained with the semi-quantitative FFQ done with reference portions. Conclusion: In conclusion, local portion size adaptation of FFQ for semi-quantification is useful to mitigate measurement errors associated with this technique.

  13. Visual illusions and plate design: The effects of plate rim widths and rim coloring on perceived food portion size

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, Arianna; van den Bos, Wouter; Matheson, Donna; Desai, Manisha; McClure, Samuel M.; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Delboeuf Illusion affects perceptions of the relative sizes of concentric shapes. This study was designed to extend research on the application of the Delboeuf illusion to food on a plate by testing whether a plate’s rim width and coloring influence perceptual bias to affect perceived food portion size. DESIGN AND METHODS Within-subjects experimental design. Experiment 1 tested the effect of rim width on perceived food portion size. Experiment 2 tested the effect of rim coloring...

  14. Vatican challenges growing consensus on population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Religious and ethical considerations have been at the center of the deliberations for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), with many religious communities around the world having come together to develop strategies on the critical issues of the conference such as the empowerment of women, the delivery of quality health services, environmental protection, and a more equitable distribution of resources. The most prominent religious institution at the conference, the Roman Catholic Church, vehemently opposes major portions of the conference's agenda. Indeed, the ICPD has become a focal point for the Vatican's concern about sexuality and reproduction. The hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church opposes abortion even to save the life of the woman. At the same time, the hierarchy also argues that any form of artificial contraception is immoral. A majority of Catholics worldwide disagree with and disregard these teachings.

  15. Computer-based assessments of expected satiety predict behavioural measures of portion-size selection and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura L; Hinton, Elanor C; Fay, Stephanie H; Ferriday, Danielle; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2012-12-01

    Previously, expected satiety (ES) has been measured using software and two-dimensional pictures presented on a computer screen. In this context, ES is an excellent predictor of self-selected portions, when quantified using similar images and similar software. In the present study we sought to establish the veracity of ES as a predictor of behaviours associated with real foods. Participants (N=30) used computer software to assess their ES and ideal portion of three familiar foods. A real bowl of one food (pasta and sauce) was then presented and participants self-selected an ideal portion size. They then consumed the portion ad libitum. Additional measures of appetite, expected and actual liking, novelty, and reward, were also taken. Importantly, our screen-based measures of expected satiety and ideal portion size were both significantly related to intake (p.05). In addition, consistent with previous studies, the majority (90%) of participants engaged in plate cleaning. Of these, 29.6% consumed more when prompted by the experimenter. Together, these findings further validate the use of screen-based measures to explore determinants of portion-size selection and energy intake in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Calories and portion sizes in recipes throughout 100 years: an overlooked factor in the development of overweight and obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidner, Maj Bloch; Lund, Anne-Sofie Qvistgaard; Harboe, Bodil Schroll; Clemmensen, Inge Haunstrup

    2013-12-01

    Large portion sizes have been associated with large energy intake, which can contribute to the development of overweight and obesity. Portion sizes of non-home cooked food have increased in the past 20 years, however, less is known about portion sizes of home-cooked food. The aim of the study was to assess if the portion sizes measured in calories in Danish cookbook recipes have changed throughout the past 100 years. Portion size measured in calories was determined by content-analysis of 21 classic Danish recipes in 13 editions of the famous Danish cookbook "Food" from 1909 to 2009. Calorie content of the recipes was determined in standard nutritional software, and the changes in calories were examined by simple linear regression analyses. Mean portion size in calories increased significantly by 21% (β = 0.63; p calories from a composed homemade meal increased by 77% (β = 2.88; p calories from meat increased by 27% (β = 0.85; p = 0.03), starchy products increased by 148% (β = 1.28; p calories in classical Danish recipes have increased significantly in the past 100 years and can be an important factor in increased energy intake and the risk of developing overweight and obesity.

  17. Learning Topologies with the Growing Neural Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Esteban José; López-Rubio, Ezequiel

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a novel self-organizing model called growing neural forest (GNF) is presented. It is based on the growing neural gas (GNG), which learns a general graph with no special provisions for datasets with separated clusters. On the contrary, the proposed GNF learns a set of trees so that each tree represents a connected cluster of data. High dimensional datasets often contain large empty regions among clusters, so this proposal is better suited to them than other self-organizing models because it represents these separated clusters as connected components made of neurons. Experimental results are reported which show the self-organization capabilities of the model. Moreover, its suitability for unsupervised clustering and foreground detection applications is demonstrated. In particular, the GNF is shown to correctly discover the connected component structure of some datasets. Moreover, it outperforms some well-known foreground detectors both in quantitative and qualitative terms.

  18. Fruit-Growing in Latvia – Industry and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmane Edīte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In all times, fruit trees for family use have been grown at Latvian farms. Yet these fruits obtained market value only after the land ownership reform in 19th century. This facilitated rapid area increase of different fruit crops, allowing supply with fruits not only the local market, but also for export to the largest cities of Russia. Especially fast development of fruit-growing was observed during the first independent republic (1919–1940. The demand for planting material increased, and plants were imported from Western Europe. Choice of unsuitable cultivars and rootstocks was the main reason of the massive orchard area loss during the following severe winters. After the Second World War, the Soviet powers supported only the establishment of large orchards for processing needs, 200-300 ha, which were unsuitable for the Latvian climate and terrain. At the same time, numbers of allotment gardens rapidly increased and part of their produce was sold also on the market. After regaining of independence and private property, interest in fresh fruit and berry production for market, as well as processing, renewed. It was hindered by lack of continuity in experience and knowledge. Diversity of terrain, soils and climate all demand considerate choice of suitable orchard location and cultivars. Direct use of foreign experience often led to failure. At present, development of the fruit industry is most of all hindered by lack of qualified specialists of different levels, which does not allow to establish an appropriate consulting system. Cooperation of growers for easier marketing also is developing too slowly. Insufficient economic and market research does not allow to balance the demand with increase of plantation area, especially for large-scale processing and export, so strategic guidance of the fruit industry is not possible. Development of fruit-growing is hindered also by a lack of continuous long-term support to horticultural science. As a

  19. Efficient Communication Management in a Growing Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Alakotila, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the importance of organisational communication and to explain how communication should be managed for it to be effective. Two fast-growing companies were interviewed for the thesis, who give entail on how they have managed communication regarding the organisational changes. Organisational communication is divided into external, stakeholder and internal communication in this study. With the help of interviews from two case companies, researcher offers r...

  20. Transformational Leadership Which Can Grow Organizational Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Betty Yuliani

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis consist of 45 studies from 20 articles and 20860 subjects evaluated the correlation between Transformational leadership and Organizational commitment. Summary analysis provided support for the hypothesis that transformational leadership has a correlation on organizational commitment. The purpose of the study is to analyzed the data from the primer study and to support the hypothesis or refuse from the studies. Result indicated that transformational leadership can grow organiza...

  1. Shape of the growing front of biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Stone, Howard A.; Golestanian, Ramin

    2017-12-01

    The spatial organization of bacteria in dense biofilms is key to their collective behaviour, and understanding it will be important for medical and technological applications. Here we study the morphology of a compact biofilm that undergoes unidirectional growth, and determine the condition for the stability of the growing interface as a function of the nutrient concentration and mechanical tension. Our study suggests that transient behaviour may play an important role in shaping the structure of a biofilm.

  2. Economic Gardening and the Grow Kentucky Program

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Lynn W.; Allen, James E. IV

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Community and Economic Development Initiative of Kentucky (CEDIK) and the Kentucky Small Business Development Center (KSBDC), launched Grow Kentucky, Kentucky’s only certified Economic Gardening program. The program helps second-stage entrepreneurial growth companies penetrate existing markets, identify new markets, monitor competitors, track industry trends, locate customer clusters, use search engine optimization/social media for marketing and various other customized research....

  3. Growing Role of Retail in Distribution Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the growing role of retail trade (retail) in the channels of distribution of goods both in domestic and international markets. Technical-technological development has provided great opportunities for all production of material goods, so that the focus of problem in the economic possibilities of playing shifted from production to sales opportunities, or consumption. The ultimate consumers and their needs and requirements have become a central area of study, bas...

  4. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Martha [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-04-17

    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  5. A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusov, P V; Zaitseva, N V; Kamaltdinov, M R

    2016-01-01

    A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the "macrolevel" that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the "mesolevel" of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown.

  6. Pathology of different portions of the gastrointestinal tract in children with Gilbert’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. K. Botvinyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilbert’s syndrome is a common genetic disease caused by deficiency of the liver enzyme UDP-glucuronyl transferase. The objective of the investigation is to study pathology of different portions of the gastrointestinal tract in children with Gilbert’s syndrome. A total of 182 children aged 3 to 17 years with Gilbert’s syndrome, who had been admitted to the clinic with the signs of jaundice and different gastroenterological complaints and symptoms, were examined. According to comprehensive examination results, among the gastrointestinal diseases in the patients, there was a preponderance duodenal injuries (41,5% of all diagnoses, there were less common injuries of the stomach (23,7%, esophagus (20%, and large bowel (14,8%. There was an age-specific relationship of the rate of erosive-ulcerative lesion of the upper gastrointestinal tract: erosions and ulcers were much more frequently encountered in children older than 10 years, predominantly in 14-17-year olds. Thus, the duodenum has been established to be most commonly affected in children with Gilbert’s syndrome. The children with this syndrome belong to a group at increased risk for gastrointestinal tract diseases. It is important to initiate measures as early as possible to prevent gastrointestinal tract diseases in children with Gilbert’s syndrome. 

  7. A Multiphase Flow in the Antroduodenal Portion of the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Trusov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A group of authors has developed a multilevel mathematical model that focuses on functional disorders in a human body associated with various chemical, physical, social, and other factors. At this point, the researchers have come up with structure, basic definitions and concepts of a mathematical model at the “macrolevel” that allow describing processes in a human body as a whole. Currently we are working at the “mesolevel” of organs and systems. Due to complexity of the tasks, this paper deals with only one meso-fragment of a digestive system model. It describes some aspects related to modeling multiphase flow in the antroduodenal portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemical reactions, dissolution of food particles, and motor, secretory, and absorbing functions of the tract are taken into consideration. The paper outlines some results concerning influence of secretory function disorders on food dissolution rate and tract contents acidity. The effect which food density has on inflow of food masses from a stomach to a bowel is analyzed. We assume that the future development of the model will include digestive enzymes and related reactions of lipolysis, proteolysis, and carbohydrates breakdown.

  8. Sympatric kelp species share a large portion of their surface bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Matthew A; Martone, Patrick T; Keeling, Patrick; Burt, Jenn M; Krumhansl, Kira A; Sanders, Rhea D; Wegener Parfrey, Laura

    2017-11-10

    Kelp forest ecosystems are biodiversity hotspots, providing habitat for dense assemblages of marine organisms and nutrients for marine and terrestrial food webs. The surfaces of kelps support diverse microbial communities that facilitate the transfer of carbon from algal primary production to higher trophic levels. We quantified the diversity of bacteria on the surfaces of eight sympatric kelp species from four sites in British Columbia. Kelp-associated bacterial communities are significantly different from their environment, even though 86% of their bacterial taxa are shared with seawater and 97% are shared with rocky substrate. This differentiation is driven by differences in relative abundance of the bacterial taxa present. Similarly, a large portion of bacterial taxa (37%) are shared among all eight kelp species, yet differential abundance of bacterial taxa underlies differences in community structure among species. Kelp-associated bacterial diversity does not track host phylogeny; instead bacterial community composition is correlated with the life-history strategy of the host, with annual and perennial kelps supporting divergent bacterial communities. These data provide the first community-scale investigation of kelp forest-associated bacterial diversity. More broadly, this study provides insight into mechanisms that may structure bacterial communities among closely related sympatric host species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Comparable application of the OCT and Abbe refractometers for measurements of glycated hemoglobin portion in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhernovaya, Olga S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2006-02-01

    It is known that glucose interacts with plasma proteins and hemoglobin in erythrocytes. Glycated (glycosylated) hemoglobin is the result of an irreversible non-enzymatic fixation of glucose on the beta chain of hemoglobin A. The amount of glycated hemoglobin depends on blood glucose concentration and reflects the mean glycemia of about the previous 2-3 months. Glycated hemoglobin is a useful marker for long-term glucose control in diabetic patients. Therefore, the search of quick and high sensitive methods for measurement of glycated hemoglobin portion in blood is important. This study is focused on the determination of refractive index of hemoglobin solution at different glucose concentrations. Measurements were performed using Abbe refractometer at 589 nm and optical coherence tomography (OCT) at 820 nm. The different amount of glucose (from 0 to 1000 mg/dl with a step 100 mg/dl) was added to hemoglobin solution. Theoretical values of refractive index of hemoglobin solutions with glucose were calculated supposing non-interacting hemoglobin and glucose molecules. There is a difference between measured and calculated values of refractive index. This difference is due to glucose binding to hemoglobin. It is shown that the refractive index measurements can be applied for the evaluation of glycated hemoglobin amount.

  10. Thickness mapping of submerged portions of a BWR torus using an ROV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, T. (Marquest Group, Inc., Bourne, MA (United States)); Bagley, J.G. (Ebasco Quality Services, South Kearny, NJ (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for establishing an ultrasonic baseline of the submerged portions of a boiling water reactor torus shell. A remotely operated vehicle (ROV) is equipped to deliver an array of ultrasonic thickness transducers to within a fixed stand-off from the shell. The position of the transducers at each ultrasound reading is measured and recorded using a precision acoustic navigation system. The resulting thickness contour map makes it possible to visualize the condition of the torus shell and provides quantitative documentation of shell thickness at a large number of known locations. The navigation system can be reinstalled in the future so that by comparing future thickness readings acquired at the same location, it is possible to create a map of the rate of change in shell thickness. An ultrasonic thickness survey was conducted recently using a preliminary version of such a system. The experience gained in performing this survey has been incorporated in the design of a full-scale prototype system, which is currently under development. This system will include such features as automatic control of the ROV based on the acoustic navigation data, generation of three-dimensional thickness maps, and remote control of the data acquisition process from outside the radiation area.

  11. Bad popcorn in big buckets: portion size can influence intake as much as taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Kim, Junyong

    2005-01-01

    It is often believed that people overeat the foods they like. We investigated whether environmental cues such as packaging and container size are so powerful that they can increase our intake of foods that are less palatable. In a 2 x 2 between-subjects design, 158 moviegoers in Philadelphia (57.6% male; 28.7 years) were randomly given a medium (120 g) or a large (240 g) container of free popcorn that was either fresh or stale (14 days old). Following the movie, consumption measures were taken, along with measures of perceived taste. Moviegoers who were given fresh popcorn ate 45.3% more popcorn when it was given to them in large containers. This container-size influence is so powerful that even when the popcorn was disliked, people still ate 33.6% more popcorn when eating from a large container than from a medium-size container. Even when foods are not palatable, large packages and containers can lead to overeating. The silver lining of these findings may be that portion size can also be used to increase the consumption of less preferred healthful foods, such as raw vegetables.

  12. Assessment of iodine intake in vegans: weighed dietary record vs duplicate portion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowler, H J; Davies, G J

    2002-08-01

    To compare iodine intakes estimated from weighed dietary records with iodine intakes obtained by direct analysis of duplicate diets in a group of vegans. Cross-sectional study. London and the south-east of England. Thirty-three vegans consuming their habitual diet were recruited through the UK Vegan Society; 26 subjects (11 males, 15 females), age 21-84 y, completed the study. Iodine intakes were estimated from 4 day weighed dietary records and compared with iodine intakes obtained by direct analysis of concurrent 4 day duplicate diets. There was wide variation in iodine intakes. Mean daily iodine intake in males was significantly lower (Pvegan consumption, in food composition tables and the variability in iodine content of seaweed. The use of current food tables to estimate iodine intake in vegans is limited. It is not always practical to determine iodine intake using the duplicate portion technique, therefore more reliable information on iodine content of foods, incorporating the variation within foods, is needed.

  13. Experimental settlement and dynamic behavior of a portion of ballasted railway track under high speed trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shaer, A.; Duhamel, D.; Sab, K.; Foret, G.; Schmitt, L.

    2008-09-01

    The study of railway tracks under high speed trains is one of the most important researches in the domain of transport. A reduced scale experiment with three sleepers is presented to study the dynamic behavior and the settlement of ballasted tracks. A large number of trains passing at high speeds are simulated by signals, applied with the help of hydraulic jacks, having the shape of the letter M and representing the passages of bogies on sleepers. This experiment offers results such as displacements, accelerations, pressures and settlements that allow to better understand the dynamic behavior of a portion of a ballasted railway track at reduced scale and to estimate the settlement versus the number of load cycles. It was found that mechanical properties such as the global stiffness of the track can have important variations during the experiment. The settlement was also found to be a function of the acceleration of sleepers and above all it was observed, for accelerations above a critical value, that the increase of settlement per cycle was very high.

  14. Perceptions of portion size and energy content: implications for strategies to affect behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2012-02-01

    To assess Australian consumers' perception of portion size of fast-food items and their ability to estimate energy content. Cross-sectional computer-based survey. Australia. Fast-food consumers (168 male, 324 female) were asked to recall the items eaten at the most recent visit to a fast-food restaurant, rate the prospective satiety and estimate the energy content of seven fast-food or 'standard' meals relative to a 9000 kJ Guideline Daily Amount. Nine dietitians also completed the energy estimation task. Ratings of prospective satiety generally aligned with the actual size of the meals and indicated that consumers perceived all meals to provide an adequate amount of food, although this differed by gender. The magnitude of the error in energy estimation by consumers was three to ten times that of the dietitians. In both males and females, the average error in energy estimation for the fast-food meals (females: mean 3911 (sd 1998) kJ; males: mean 3382 (sd 1957) kJ) was significantly (P fast-food items predicted actual energy intake from fast-food items (β = 0·16, P fast-food meals in fast-food consumers in Australia is poor. Awareness of dietary energy should be a focus of health promotion if nutrition information, in its current format, is going to alter behaviour.

  15. Secular trends in reported portion size of food and beverages consumed by Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sinead A; Livingstone, M Barbara E; McNulty, Breige A; Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Segurado, Ricardo; Dean, Moira; Spence, Michelle; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-04-14

    The present analysis aimed to investigate the changes in the reported portion sizes (PS) of foods and beverages commonly consumed by Irish adults (18-64 years) from the North South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (NSIFCS) (1997-2001) and the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008-10). Food PS, which are defined as the weight of food (g) consumed per eating occasion, were calculated for comparable foods and beverages in two nationally representative cross-sectional Irish food consumption surveys and were published in NSIFCS and NANS. Repeated measure mixed model analysis compared reported food PS at the total population level as well as subdivided by sex, age, BMI and social class. A total of thirteen commonly consumed foods were examined. The analysis demonstrated that PS significantly increased for five foods ('white sliced bread', 'brown/wholemeal breads', 'all meat, cooked', 'poultry, roasted' and 'milk'), significantly decreased for three ('potatoes', 'chips/wedges' and 'ham, sliced') and did not significantly change for five foods ('processed potato products', 'bacon/ham', 'cheese', 'yogurt' and 'butter/spreads') between the NSIFCS and the NANS. The present study demonstrates that there was considerable variation in the trends in reported food PS over this period.

  16. Number of Single-Sex Schools Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Tal

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's office for civil rights has proposed amending the regulations governing Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972--which prohibits sex discrimination in programs that receive federal money--to allow more flexibility in offering single-sex schools or classes. This article discusses the rapid growth of…

  17. Stratigraphic and structural analysis of the Neogene sediments of the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo Basin, southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cabrera, Pedro Tomas

    2003-10-01

    Southeastern Mexico has been affected by regional and local tectonic events. Regional tectonic events are the Gulf of Mexico opening and the lateral movement of micro-plates on the Pacific margin. The local tectonic events are related to salt tectonics. Autochthonous Jurassic salt serves as the detachment level for the main compressional event in the late Miocene. Jurassic salt was allochthonously emplaced in the late Miocene, then partially displaced by a huge quantity of terrigenous sediments during the Plio-Pleistocene. This research is a study of the main geological processes that have influenced the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Neogene sediments in the offshore portion of the Salina del Istmo basin known as the Marbella area. Owing to data availability, the project was divided into regional and local studies. The regional study is based on 2D multi-channel seismic reflection data, and the local study is based on a 3D seismic streamer survey. Structural analysis in the regional study permits the recognition of four buried fold belts (Agua Dulce, Catemaco, Marbella, and Marbella Norte) trending roughly NE. These fold belts are the result of tectonic convergence in the pacific margin during late Miocene. The Agua Dulce and Marbella Norte fold belts are separated by an enormous salt withdrawal basin called the Pescadores basin. The Pescadores basin is bounded on the north by a spectacular stepped, counter-regional structure. Beyond the Pescadores basin, a salt mini-basin area is recognized in the upper continental slope. Another important structural element is the Sal Somera canopy in the southern part of the study area. Sedimentation-rate analysis, based on isochore mapping in the local study area, indicates that from SB-2.4 to SB-2.6 Ma, deposition rate peaked with a maximum of 7.5 mm/yr. Regional and local structural restorations show that, in general, the maximum allochthonous salt mobilization was during the Plio-Pleistocene because of the

  18. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  19. Exposure to vibrations in wine growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Pessina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart the winter period, the activity in specialized agricultural cultivations (i.e. wine- and fruit-growing is distributed for a long period of the year. Some tasks, such as pesticide distribution, are repeated several times during the growing season. On the other hand, mechanization is one of the pillars on which is based the modern agriculture management. As a consequence, in wine growing the tractor driver has to be considered a worker potentially subjected to high level of vibrations, due to the poor machinery conditions often encountered, and sometimes to the rough soil surface of the vineyard combined with the high travelling speed adopted in carrying out many operations. About vibrations, the Italian Decree 81/08 basically refers to the European Directive 2002/44/CE, that provides some very strict limits of exposure, both for whole body and hand-arm districts. In Oltrepo pavese, a large hilly area located the south part of the Pavia province (Lombardy - Italy wine growing is the main agricultural activity; for this reason, a detailed survey on the vibration levels recorded at the tractor driver’s seat was carried out, in order to ascertain the real risk to which the operators are exposed. The activity in wine growing has been classified into 6 groups of similar tasks, as follows: 1. canopy management: pruning, trimming, binding, stripping, etc.; 2. soil management: harrowing, hoeing, subsoiling etc.; 3. inter-row management: chopping of pruning , pinching, grass mowing, etc.; 4. crop protection: pesticides and fungicides distribution, sulfidation, foliar fertilization, etc.; 5. grape harvesting: manual or mechanical; 6. transport: from the vineyard to the cellar. For each group of tasks, the vibration levels on 3 the traditional axes (x, y and z were recorded, and then an exposure time was calculated for each of them, in order to ascertain the risk level in comparison to what provided by the dedicated standard. Finally, a detailed

  20. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  1. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  2. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Choose Less, Weigh Less Portion Size Health Marketing Campaign in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Robles, Brenda; Leighs, Michael; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of the Choose Less, Weigh Less portion size health marketing campaign. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional evaluation. A quantitative Internet panel survey was administered through an online sampling vendor and qualitative interviews were conducted by street intercept. The panel survey included 796 participants, weighted to represent Los Angeles County. Street intercept interviews were conducted with 50 other participants. The Choose Less, Weigh Less campaign included print media on transit shelters, bus and rail cars, and billboards; radio and online advertising; and Web site content and social media outreach. The panel survey measured self-reported campaign exposure and outcomes, including knowledge of recommended daily calorie limits, attitudes toward portion sizes, and intent to reduce calories and portion size. Intercept interviews assessed campaign appeal, clarity, and utility. Weighted survey data were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the association between campaign exposure and outcomes. Interview data were analyzed for themes. The campaign reached 19.7% of the Los Angeles County population. Significant differences were seen for 2 of the 10 outcomes assessed. Participants who saw the campaign were more likely than those who did not to report fast-food portion sizes as being too large (adjusted odds ratio [Adj. OR]: 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16, 3.07) and intention to choose a smaller portion (Adj. OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.31). Qualitative data revealed three themes about appeal, clarity, and utility. Health marketing efforts targeting portion size can have relatively broad reach and limited but positive impacts on consumer attitudes and intent to select smaller portions.

  3. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  4. Growing media constituents determine the microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media for horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Oliver; Reheul, Dirk; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Perneel, Maaike; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy food diet, however, the eco-sustainability of the production of these can still be significantly improved. European farmers and consumers spend an estimated €15.5 billion per year on inorganic fertilizers and the production of N-fertilizers results in a high carbon footprint. We investigated if fertilizer type and medium constituents determine microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media and can be used as a next step towards a more sustainable horticulture. We demonstrated that growing media constituents showed differences in urea hydrolysis, ammonia and nitrite oxidation and in carbon dioxide respiration rate. Interestingly, mixing of the growing media constituents resulted in a stimulation of the function of the microorganisms. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in an increase in amoA gene copy number by factor 100 compared to inorganic fertilizers. Our results support our hypothesis that the activity of the functional microbial community with respect to nitrogen turnover in an organic growing medium can be improved by selecting and mixing the appropriate growing media components with each other. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional microbial community in growing media and its potential role towards a more responsible horticulture. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Inhibition of the ATPase activity of the catalytic portion of ATP synthases by cationic amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datiles, Manuel J; Johnson, Eric A; McCarty, Richard E

    2008-04-01

    Melittin, a cationic, amphiphilic polypeptide, has been reported to inhibit the ATPase activity of the catalytic portions of the mitochondrial (MF1) and chloroplast (CF1) ATP synthases. Gledhill and Walker [J.R. Gledhill, J.E. Walker. Inhibition sites in F1-ATPase from bovine heart mitochondria, Biochem. J. 386 (2005) 591-598.] suggested that melittin bound to the same site on MF1 as IF1, the endogenous inhibitor polypeptide. We have studied the inhibition of the ATPase activity of CF1 and of F1 from Escherichia coli (ECF1) by melittin and the cationic detergent, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase activities of CF1 deficient in its inhibitory epsilon subunit (CF1-epsilon) are sensitive to inhibition by melittin and by CTAB. The inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity by CTAB is irreversible. The Ca2+-ATPase activity of F1 from E. coli (ECF1) is inhibited by melittin and the detergent, but Mg2+-ATPase activity is much less sensitive to both reagents. The addition of CTAB or melittin to a solution of CF1-epsilon or ECF1 caused a large increase in the fluorescence of the hydrophobic probe, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, indicating that the detergent and melittin cause at least partial dissociation of the enzymes. ATP partially protects CF1-epsilon from inhibition by CTAB. We also show that ATP can cause the aggregation of melittin. This result complicates the interpretation of experiments in which ATP is shown to protect enzyme activity from inhibition by melittin. It is concluded that melittin and CTAB cause at least partial dissociation of the alpha/beta heterohexamer.

  6. Petroleum potential of lower and middle Paleozoic rocks in Nebraska portion of Mid-Continent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, M.P. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Central North America during the Paleozoic was characterized by northern (Williston) and southern (Anadarko) depositional regimes separated by a stable Transcontinental arch. Nebraska lies on the southern flank of this arch and contains the northern zero edges of the lower and middle Paleozoic rocks of the southern regime. Most of these rocks are secondary dolomites with zones of excellent intercrystalline porosity. The Reagan-LaMotte Sandstones and the overlying Arbuckle dolomites are overlapped by Middle Ordovician rocks toward the Transcontinental arch. Rocks equivalent to the Simpson consist of a basal sand (St. Peter) and overlying interbedded gray-green shales and dolomitic limestones. An uppermost shale facies is present in the Upper Ordovician (Viola-Maquoketa) eastward and southward across Nebraska. The dolomite facies extends northward into the Williston basin. The Silurian dolomites, originally more widely deposited, are overlapped by Devonian dolomites in southeastern Nebraska. Upper Devonian rocks exhibit a regional facies change from carbonate to green-gray shale to black shale southeastward across the Mid-Continent. Mississippian carbonates overlap the Devonian westward and northward across the Transcontinental arch. Pennsylvanian uplift and erosion were widespread, producing numerous stratigraphic traps. Sands related to the basal Pennsylvanian unconformity produce along the Cambridge arch. Arbuckle, Simpson, Viola, and Hunton production is present in the Forest City basin and along the Central Kansas uplift. Although source rocks are scarce and the maturation is marginal, current theories of long-distance oil migration encourage exploration in the extensive lower and middle Paleozoic reservoirs in this portion of the Mid-Continent.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of seismic hazard for the northwestern portion of the state of Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.D.; Rastogi, B.K.; Schweig, E.S.; Harmsen, S.C.; Gomberg, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    We test the sensitivity of seismic hazard to three fault source models for the northwestern portion of Gujarat, India. The models incorporate different characteristic earthquake magnitudes on three faults with individual recurrence intervals of either 800 or 1600 years. These recurrence intervals imply that large earthquakes occur on one of these faults every 266-533 years, similar to the rate of historic large earthquakes in this region during the past two centuries and for earthquakes in intraplate environments like the New Madrid region in the central United States. If one assumes a recurrence interval of 800 years for large earthquakes on each of three local faults, the peak ground accelerations (PGA; horizontal) and 1-Hz spectral acceleration ground motions (5% damping) are greater than 1 g over a broad region for a 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years' hazard level. These probabilistic PGAs at this hazard level are similar to median deterministic ground motions. The PGAs for 10% in 50 years' hazard level are considerably lower, generally ranging between 0.2 g and 0.7 g across northwestern Gujarat. Ground motions calculated from our models that consider fault interevent times of 800 years are considerably higher than other published models even though they imply similar recurrence intervals. These higher ground motions are mainly caused by the application of intraplate attenuation relations, which account for less severe attenuation of seismic waves when compared to the crustal interplate relations used in these previous studies. For sites in Bhuj and Ahmedabad, magnitude (M) 7 3/4 earthquakes contribute most to the PGA and the 0.2- and 1-s spectral acceleration ground motion maps at the two considered hazard levels. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The thickness of the retrobulbar portion of the optic nerve in Graves ophthalmopathy measured by ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The clinical diagnostic of Graves ophthalmopathy is based on the association of ocular signs and the disease of the thyroid gland. The evolution of the disease involves the development of eye globe protrusion, extraocular muscle thickening pressuring the optic nerve, which can result in its thickness. Objective. The aim of the paper is to find whether the retrobulbar optic nerve thickened and if there was a correlation between its possible thickening and the thickness of the muscles in Graves ophthalmopathy. We also wished to test the theory of compressive aetiology of such thickening using a 30-degree test. Methods. We examined 28 patients with Graves ophthalmopathy. The thickness of the retrobulbar optic nerve was measured by ultrasound on a B-scan using the Schraeder's method and by the largest thickness of the internal muscle. Results. The thickness of the retrobulbar portion of the optic nerve in the 52 analyzed eyes with signs of the disease ranged between 3.24 mm to 6.30 mm, with median of 5.13 mm, indicating that the majority of the patients had optic nerve thickening rating at this value. Forty-eight eyes had a marked retrobulbar optic nerve thickening, with the thickening over 4 mm, while in 4 eyes with signs of Graves ophthalmopathy the thickness of the optic nerve was within normal limits. We detected that 92.3% of the patients with muscular thickening also had a directly proportional thickening of the retrobulbar optic nerve. By using the 30-degree test we confirmed the diagnosis of compressive neuropathy. Conclusion. Patients with Graves ophthalmopathy and thickened muscles, also have a thickening of the retrobulbar optic nerve; the rate of the thickness directly depends on the degree of the muscular thickness. The word is of compressive neuropathy, i.e. the thickness of the optic nerve is the result of subarachnoid fluid stasis caused by the compression on the optic nerve.

  9. Estimation of Leaf Area Index and its Sunlit Portion from DSCOVR EPIC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazikhin, Y.; Yang, B.; Mottus, M.; Rautiainen, M.; Stenberg, P.; Yan, L.; Chen, C.; Yan, K.; Park, T.; Myneni, R. B.; Song, W.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission was launched on February 11, 2015 to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L1 point where it began to collect radiance data of the entire sunlit Earth at 16 km resolution (in equatorial zone) every 65 to 110 min in June 2015. It provides imageries in near backscattering directions with the scattering angle between 168o and 176o at ten UV to Near-IR narrow spectral bands centered at 317.5 (band width 1.0) nm, 325.0 (1.0) nm, 340.0 (3.0) nm, 388.0 (3.0) nm, 433.0 (3.0) nm, 551.0 (3.0) nm, 680.0 (1.7) nm, 687.8 (0.6) nm, 764.0 (1.7) nm and 779.5 (2.0) nm. This poster presents the theoretical basis of the algorithm designed for the generation of leaf area index (LAI) and diurnal course of sunlit leaf area index (SLAI) from EPIC Bidirectional Reflectance Factor of vegetated land. LAI and SLAI are defined as the total hemi-surface and sunlit leaf semi-surface per unit ground area. Whereas LAI is a standard product of many satellite the SLAI is a new satellite-derived parameter. Sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different radiative response to incident Photosynthetically Active Radiation (400-700 nm), which in turn triggers various physiological and physical processes required for the functioning of plants. Leaf area and its sunlit portion are key state parameters in most ecosystem productivity and carbon/nitrogen cycle. Status of the EPIC LAI/SLAI product and its validation strategy are also discussed in this poster.

  10. Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption: a real-life experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Machiel J; Huitink, Marlijn; Dijkstra, S Coosje; Maaskant, Anna J; Heijnen, Joris

    2017-12-25

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were unaware of the experiment. A cross-over design was used in which three restaurants were randomly assigned to a sequence of an intervention and control condition. In the intervention period, the vegetable portion sizes on the plates of main dishes were doubled (150 g of vegetables instead of 75 g) and the portion sizes of meat on the plates were reduced by an average of 12.5%. In the control period, the portion sizes of the main dishes were maintained as usual. In total, 1006 observations and questionnaires were included. Vegetable consumption from plates was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 115.5 g) than during the control period (M = 61.7 g). Similarly, total vegetable consumption (including side dishes) was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 178.0 g) than during the control period (M = 137.0 g). Conversely, meat consumption was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 183.1 g) than during the control period (M = 211.1 g). Satisfaction with the restaurant visit did not differ between the intervention period (M = 1.27) and control period (M = 1.35). Satisfaction with the main dish was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 1.25) than during the control period (M = 1.38), although in both cases, the scores indicated that participants remained (very) satisfied with their main dish. This study showed that increasing vegetable portions in combination with decreasing meat portions (unknowingly to the consumer) increased the amount of vegetables consumed and decreased the amount of meat consumed. Furthermore, despite the changes in portion sizes, participants remained satisfied

  11. Nurturing a growing field: Computers & Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Pebesma, Edzer

    2017-10-01

    Computational issues are becoming increasingly critical for virtually all fields of geoscience. This includes the development of improved algorithms and models, strategies for implementing high-performance computing, or the management and visualization of the large datasets provided by an ever-growing number of environmental sensors. Such issues are central to scientific fields as diverse as geological modeling, Earth observation, geophysics or climatology, to name just a few. Related computational advances, across a range of geoscience disciplines, are the core focus of Computers & Geosciences, which is thus a truly multidisciplinary journal.

  12. Parallelized seeded region growing using CUDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongjin; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Hyunna; Shin, Juneseuk; Seo, Jinwook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG) algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests.

  13. Growing Quality in Qualitative Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Macdonald PhD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methodologies are growing in popularity in health research; however, the integration of these methodologies into the clinical context is not always straightforward. In this article the author discusses some of the paradigmatic and methodological tensions that characterize the use of qualitative methodologies in clinical health research and showcase one solution to these tensions. The McGill Qualitative Health Research Group is a scholarly group of qualitative health researchers working together to advance a qualitative research agenda in clinical disciplines.

  14. Mapping Nutrients Crucial to a Growing Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnowski, J. R.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Over two billion people worldwide suffer from inadequate levels of micronutrients, mainly in the form of iodine, iron, and vitamin A deficiencies. With a growing population, producing crops that contain high amounts of these micronutrients is of increased importance. Addressing these deficiencies sustainably requires a detailed examination of the agricultural production of the micronutrients. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not enough of these important nutrients are produced to meet the nutritional needs of the global population, and to determine where nutrients are most deficient. We used area specific crop production data to map where and how much iron and vitamin A are produced from major crops.

  15. Growing in darkness: The etiolated lupin hypocotyls

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Bravo, José; Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Acosta, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Epigeal germination of a dicot, like lupin (Lupinus albus L.), produces a seedling with a characteristic hypocotyl, which grows in darkness showing a steep growth gradient with an elongation zone just below the apex. The role of phytohormones, such as auxin and ethylene, in etiolated hypocotyl growth has been the object of our research for some time. The recent cloning and expression of three genes of influx and efflux carriers for polar auxin transport (LaAUX1, LaPIN1 and LaPIN3) reinforces ...

  16. Campylobacter infection has different outcomes in fast- and slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L K; Sait, L C; Trantham, E K; Cogan, T A; Humphrey, T J

    2013-06-01

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently carried by poultry, but they are not believed to cause significant disease in these animals. Modern poultry breeds have been selected to grow rapidly under intensive conditions, but recently, consumers have moved toward purchasing birds produced in higher welfare, free-range or organic systems. Birds reared in these systems tend to be a slower growing breed and are fed a different diet. Birds reared in such systems are stocked at a lower density compared with the standard conventional broilers, and they have access to environmental enrichment, such as perches. In previous research, these slower growing birds have been shown to have different levels of Campylobacter carriage in commercial rearing conditions, but the reasons for, and effect of, these different levels are unknown; is it the bird breed, diet, or environmental conditions? In this study, experimental flocks of fast- and slow-growing breeds of broiler chickens were reared to a standard commercial slaughter weight, with their weight gain being measured during the growing period. At 21 days, birds were either infected with Campylobacter jejuni or given a placebo as control. Cohorts of birds were euthanatized at various intervals, and samples were taken for examination for Campylobacter. The fast-growing birds gained weight more rapidly than the slow-growing birds. By 2 days postinfection (dpi), C. jejuni was detected in the caeca and by enrichment from the liver and spleen samples from both breeds of birds. Low-level colonization persisted in the spleen and liver samples but was undetectable by 28 dpi. Fast- and slow-growing birds did not show detectably different levels of Campylobacter carriage. Infection with C. jejuni affected the incidence of hock marks and pododermatitis in both breeds of birds, but the differences were greater with the fast-growing breed compared with the uninfected control birds. In addition, the incidence of pododermatitis was significantly higher

  17. Serving large portions of vegetable soup at the start of a meal affected children’s energy and vegetable intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spill, Maureen K.; Birch, Leann L.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested whether varying the portion of low-energy-dense vegetable soup served at the start of a meal affects meal energy and vegetable intakes in children. Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds (31 boys and 41 girls) in daycare facilities. Using a crossover design, children were served lunch once a week for four weeks. On three occasions, different portions of tomato soup (150, 225, and 300 g) were served at the start of the meal, and on one occasion no soup was served. Children had 10 minutes to consume the soup before being served the main course. All foods were consumed ad libitum. The primary outcomes were soup intake as well as energy and vegetable intake at the main course. A mixed linear model tested the effect of soup portion size on intake. Serving any portion of soup reduced entrée energy intake compared with serving no soup, but total meal energy intake was only reduced when 150 g of soup was served. Increasing the portion size increased soup and vegetable intake. Serving low-energy-dense, vegetable soup as a first course is an effective strategy to reduce children’s intake of a more energy-dense main entrée and increase vegetable consumption at the meal. PMID:21596073

  18. Evaluation of a digital food photography atlas used as portion size measurement aid in dietary surveys in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naska, Androniki; Valanou, Elisavet; Peppa, Eleni; Katsoulis, Michail; Barbouni, Anastasia; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate how well respondents perceive digital images of food portions commonly consumed in Greece. The picture series was defined on the basis of usual dietary intakes assessed in earlier large-scale studies in Greece. The evaluation included 2218 pre-weighed actual portions shown to participants, who were subsequently asked to link each portion to a food picture. Mean differences between picture numbers selected and portions actually shown were compared using the Wilcoxon paired signed-rank test. The effect of personal characteristics on participants' selections was evaluated through unpaired t tests (sex and school years) or through Tukey-Kramer pairwise comparisons (age and food groups). Testing of participants' perception of digital food images used in the Greek national nutrition survey. Individuals (n 103, 61 % females) aged 12 years and over, selected on the basis of the target population of the Greek nutrition survey using convenience sampling. Individuals selected the correct or adjacent image in about 90 % of the assessments and tended to overestimate small and underestimate large quantities. Photographs of Greek traditional pies and meat-based pastry dishes led participants to perceive the amounts in the photos larger than they actually were. Adolescents were more prone to underestimating food quantities through the pictures. The digital food atlas appears generally suitable to be used for the estimation of average food intakes in large-scale dietary surveys in Greece. However, individuals who consistently consume only small or only large food portions may have biased perceptions in relation to others.

  19. Dietary assessment in minority ethnic groups: a systematic review of instruments for portion-size estimation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almiron-Roig, Eva; Aitken, Amanda; Galloway, Catherine; Ellahi, Basma

    2017-03-01

    Dietary assessment in minority ethnic groups is critical for surveillance programs and for implementing effective interventions. A major challenge is the accurate estimation of portion sizes for traditional foods and dishes. The aim of this systematic review was to assess records published up to 2014 describing a portion-size estimation element (PSEE) applicable to the dietary assessment of UK-residing ethnic minorities. Electronic databases, internet sites, and theses repositories were searched, generating 5683 titles, from which 57 eligible full-text records were reviewed. Forty-two publications about minority ethnic groups (n = 20) or autochthonous populations (n = 22) were included. The most common PSEEs (47%) were combination tools (eg, food models and portion-size lists), followed by portion-size lists in questionnaires/guides (19%) and image-based and volumetric tools (17% each). Only 17% of PSEEs had been validated against weighed data. When developing ethnic-specific dietary assessment tools, it is important to consider customary portion sizes by sex and age, traditional household utensil usage, and population literacy levels. Combining multiple PSEEs may increase accuracy, but such methods require validation.

  20. The preferential accumulation of cadmium in the head portion of the freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jui-Pin; Chen, Hon-Cheng; Li, Mei-Hui

    2011-12-01

    Free-living freshwater planarians are considered to have the potential for development as an experimental model for toxicological studies on xenobiotics, including metals. However, little was known about the distribution patterns of metals in the body of treated planarians. This study was conducted to determine the tissue distribution patterns of cadmium (Cd) in different body portions of the treated planarian, Dugesia japonica. Results showed that Cd accumulated in the head of planarians at a significantly higher concentration than in the tail. After examining the level of metallothionein (MT), we suggested that the tissue distribution pattern of Cd might be related to MT induction patterns. In contrast, in planarians treated with copper (Cu), neither the tissue accumulation of Cu nor the multiples of induction of MTs significantly differed between different portions. Furthermore, a higher Cd accumulation rate in the head of planarians caused more-severe oxidative stress to appear in this portion and also a higher susceptibility to a lethal concentration of Cd. Finally, both in vitro and in vivo acetylcholinesterase activities in both body portions of planarians were inhibited by Cd. The present study provides the first report that different metals are distributed in various body portions with different patterns in the planarian.

  1. Biofilm-growing intestinal anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelli, Gianfranco; Vuotto, Claudia; Cardines, Rita; Mastrantonio, Paola

    2012-07-01

    Sessile growth of anaerobic bacteria from the human intestinal tract has been poorly investigated, so far. We recently reported data on the close association existing between biliary stent clogging and polymicrobial biofilm development in its lumen. By exploiting the explanted stents as a rich source of anaerobic bacterial strains belonging to the genera Bacteroides, Clostridium, Fusobacterium, Finegoldia, Prevotella, and Veillonella, the present study focused on their ability to adhere, to grow in sessile mode and to form in vitro mono- or dual-species biofilms. Experiments on dual-species biofilm formation were planned on the basis of the anaerobic strains isolated from each clogged biliary stent, by selecting those in which a couple of anaerobic strains belonging to different species contributed to the polymicrobial biofilm development. Then, strains were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal if they are able to grow as mono- and/or dual-species biofilms. As far as we know, this is the first report on the ability to adhere and form mono/dual-species biofilms exhibited by strains belonging to the species Bacteroides oralis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium baratii, Clostridium fallax, Clostridium bifermentans, Finegoldia magna, and Fusobacterium necrophorum. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tracheotomy in growing rats: histological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Mônica Cecília Bochetti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare morphologically three different types of tracheotomy in growing rats, applying microsurgical technique. METHODS: EPM-1 Wistar growing rats (n=57 weighing 88gm and aged 35 days were randomized in four groups, according tracheotomy incision type (longitudinal, transverse and tracheal segment excision, and sham group. Following intramuscular anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine, the trachea was exposed and incised, according to the group, and a hand-made endotracheal cannula was inserted into the organ, under sterile conditions. This cannula was removed after 7 days, and animals have been sacrificed 30 days later. Tracheas samples were submitted to histological study, stained by hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome, evaluating fibrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and epidermoid metaplasia. RESULTS: There was more frequency of inflammatory infiltrate at the tracheal epithelium in the tracheal segment excision group (87% compared to the longitudinal (40% and transverse (36% incision groups (p=0.009. Evaluating epidermoid metaplasia, tracheal segment excision and the longitudinal groups presented 33% and 40%, respectively, compared to 0% of the transverse group (p=0.03. Concerning to fibrosis, in a global comparison (p=0.1 among the three groups there was no difference, however, compared to the longitudinal group the transverse group showed lower level of fibrosis (p=0.04. Sham group did not present any relevant morphologic alterations and it was used as reference pattern. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our data show that tracheal segment excision promotes more epithelium aggression and transverse tracheal incision shows less morphologic alterations.

  3. Immunotoxicity of ochratoxin A to growing gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R B; Elissalde, M H; Kubena, L F; Weaver, E A; Corrier, D E; Clement, B A

    1992-10-01

    Ochratoxin A (OA) was incorporated in the diets of growing gilts (mean body weight, 20.1 kg) at a concentration of 2.5 mg of OA/kg of feed and was fed continuously for 35 days. Humoral and cell-mediated immunologic measurements were evaluated to determine the effects of OA on immune function in swine. Cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin, PHA-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis, interleukin-2 production, total and isotype immunoglobulin concentrations, antibody response to chicken RBC, and macrophage activation were used to evaluate immune function. Gilts treated with OA had reduced cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to PHA, reduced delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin, decreased stimulation index for lymphoblastogenesis, decreased interleukin-2 production when lymphocytes were stimulated with concanavalin A, and decreased number and phagocytic activity of macrophages. Differences were not observed for total and isotype immunoglobulin concentrations, or humoral hemagglutination (chicken RBC) titer. These data indicate that OA may suppress cell-mediated immune response in growing swine.

  4. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  5. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  6. Modes of Antiviral Action of Chemical Portions and Constituents from Woad Root Extract against Influenza Virus A FM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Hang Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Woad root has been used for the prevention of influenza for hundreds of years in many Asian countries. In this study, the antiviral modes of clemastanin B (CB, epigoitrin, phenylpropanoid portion (PEP, and the mixture of phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, and organic acid portions (PEP + ALK + OA from wood root extract against influenza virus A FM1 were investigated. The results revealed that CB, epigoitrin, PEP, and PEP + ALK + OA exert their anti-influenza activity via inhibiting the virus multiplication, prophylaxis, and blocking the virus attachment. The primary mode of action of PEP and PEP + ALK + OA is the inhibition of virus replication. The inhibitory effect on virus attachment and multiplication is the main modes for epigoitrin. All the compounds or chemical portions from woad root extract tested in this study do not have direct virucidal activity. Our results provided the comprehensive analysis of the antiviral mechanism of wood root extract.

  7. Increasing portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school lunch program can increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nicole; Reicks, Marla; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Vickers, Zata

    2015-08-01

    Increasing portion size can increase children's consumption of food. The goal of this study was to determine whether increasing the portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school cafeteria environment would increase children's consumption of them. We measured each child's consumption of the fruit and vegetables served in a cafeteria line on a control day (normal cafeteria procedures) and on two intervention days. When we increased the portion size of 3 of the 4 fruits and vegetables by about 50%, children who took those foods increased their consumption of them. Although this was an effective strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among students who took those foods, many children chose not to take any fruits or vegetables. Further efforts are needed to increase children's selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables in an environment of competing foods of higher palatability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma arising in adenoma: similar immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features in adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma portions of the tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Valerie; Pote, Nicolas; Jakate, Shriram; Ferrell, Linda D

    2016-01-01

    Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic liver can show morphological features similar to hepatocellular adenoma. In rare instances, hepatocellular carcinoma can arise in the setting of hepatocellular adenoma. This study compares the immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features of the hepatocellular adenoma-like and hepatocellular carcinoma portions of these tumors. Immunohistochemistry for β-catenin, glutamine synthetase, serum amyloid A protein, glypican-3, and heat-shock protein 70 was done in 11 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in hepatocellular adenoma in non-cirrhotic liver. Tumors with nuclear β-catenin and/or diffuse glutamine synthetase were considered β-catenin activated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was done in nine cases for gains of chromosomes 1, 8 and MYC. There were seven men (33–75 years) and four women (29–65 years). Focal atypical morphological features were seen in hepatocellular adenoma-like areas in 7 (64%) cases. Hepatocellular adenoma-like areas showed features of inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma in 7 (64%) cases; 4 of these were also serum amyloid A-positive in the hepatocellular carcinoma portion. β-catenin activation, heat-shock protein 70 positivity, and chromosomal gains on FISH were seen in the hepatocellular adenoma portion in 55%, 40%, and 56% of cases, and 73%, 60%, and 78% of cases in the hepatocellular carcinoma portion, respectively. In conclusion, the hepatocellular adenoma-like portion of most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in hepatocellular adenoma shows features typically seen in hepatocellular carcinoma such as focal morphological abnormalities, β-catenin activation, heat-shock protein 70 expression, and chromosomal gains. Hepatocellular adenoma-like areas in these tumors, especially in men and older women, may represent an extremely well-differentiated variant of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas the morphologically recognizable hepatocellular carcinoma

  9. COLLECTIVE LEARNING IN A LEARNING ORGANIZATION: GROWING TEAM LEARNING CULTURE TO SURVIVE AND DEVELOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Suryani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A learning organization has a deep culture of learning. It is constantly encourage its member to learn. This learning activity is not only for adapting to the rapid changing of its internal and external environment, but also for growing. The effort of a learning organization to create a conducive learning climate can be indicated by training its members. Working towards a learning organization has both its strengths and drawbacks. The strengths are it can improve the organization performance and organization survival. However, learning too rapid can lead to learning stress. Moreover it can lead to harsh internal competition.

  10. Elastic plastic analysis of growing cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R; Drugan, W J; Sham, T L

    1979-05-01

    The elastic--plastic stress and deformation fields at the tip of a crack which grows in an ideally plastic solid under plane strain, shows small scale yielding conditions. Results of an asymptotic analysis suggests the existence of a crack tip stress state similar to that of the classical Prandtl field, but containing a zone of elastic unloading between the centered fan region and the trailing constant stress plastic region. The near tip expression for the rate of opening displacement delta at distance r from the growing tip is found to have the form delta-. = ..cap alpha.. J-./sigma/sub o/ + ..beta..(sigma/sub o//E) a-. ln(R/r) but the presence of the elastic wedge causes ..beta.. to have the revised value of 5.08 (for Poisson ratio ..nu.. = 0.3); also, (a = crack length, sigma/sub o/ = yield strength, E = elastic modulus, and J denotes the far-field value), and (1-..nu../sup 2/)K/sup 2//E for the small scale yielding conditions considered. The parameters ..cap alpha.. and R cannot be determined from the asymptotic analysis, but comparisons with finite element solutions suggest that, for small amounts of growth, ..cap alpha.. is approximately the same for stationary and growing cracks, and R scales approximately with the size of the plastic zone, being about 15% to 30% larger. For large scale yielding, a similar form applies with possible variations in ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.., in cases which maintain triaxial constraint at the crack tip. In the fully yielded case R is expected to be proportional to the dimension of the uncracked ligament. Model crack growth criterion requiring a critical delta at some fixed r from the tip, is re-examined in light of the more accurate solution. Results suggest that the J versus ..delta..a relation describing growth is dependent on the extent of yielding. It is suggested that this dependency might be small for highly ductile materials, provided that a similar triaxial constraint is maintained in all cases.

  11. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  12. MRI enhancement of the facial nerve with Gd-DTPA, 2; Investigation of enhanced nerve portions in patients with facial palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Masahiro (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    We performed enhanced MRI using Gd-DTPA in 84 patients with facial palsy. After assessing enhancement of the normal facial nerve, we examined enhancement in patients with Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. In 95% of patients with Bell's palsy, enhancement was obtained in the distal IAC and labyrinthine portions. In 72%, enhancement was significant from the distal IAC portion through the vertical portion. In some of the patients who underwent enhanced MRI twice, increased signal intensity was observed in distal portions such as the vertical portion. In many cases of Ramsay Hunt syndrome, enhancement was seen extensively in the IAC portion through the vertical portion. In the subjects with internal auditory symptoms such as vertigo and tinnitus, enhancement of the IAC portion was seen not only in the facial nerve but also in the vestibular and the cochlear nerves. These results suggest that the vascular permeability of lesions in Bell's palsy may be increased from the distal IAC portion to the vertical portion. Judging from the present findings with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, symptoms related to the enhanced portions suggest that accompanying internal auditory symptoms occur due to inflammation of the IAC portions of cochlear and vestibular nerves. (author).

  13. Dietary supplementation of butyrate in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Radaelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The UE restrictions imposed on the antibiotic utilization in animal husbandry have increased the interest on alternative additives capable of improving animal digestive health. Among the numerous tested products, short chain fatty acids stimulated intestinal mucus production at different level and intestinal cells proliferation in rats (Meslin et al., 2001; Moreau et al., 2003. Short and medium chain fatty acids could also modulate intestinal microflora: in rabbits, the antimicrobial activity of caprilic and capric acids was proved on various strains of Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli (Marounek et al., 2002. The present trial aimed to evaluate the effect of butyrate inclusion and level on growth performance, health status, digestive physiology and slaughter traits in growing rabbits.

  14. Morphogenesis of filaments growing in flexible confinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, R.; Wittel, F. K.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-07-01

    Space-saving design is a requirement that is encountered in biological systems and the development of modern technological devices alike. Many living organisms dynamically pack their polymer chains, filaments or membranes inside deformable vesicles or soft tissue-like cell walls, chorions and buds. Surprisingly little is known about morphogenesis due to growth in flexible confinements—perhaps owing to the daunting complexity lying in the nonlinear feedback between packed material and expandable cavity. Here we show by experiments and simulations how geometric and material properties lead to a plethora of morphologies when elastic filaments are growing far beyond the equilibrium size of a flexible thin sheet they are confined in. Depending on friction, sheet flexibility and thickness, we identify four distinct morphological phases emerging from bifurcation and present the corresponding phase diagram. Four order parameters quantifying the transitions between these phases are proposed.

  15. THE FASTEST GROWING LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta NOWAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents trends in economic growth and development in twelve least developed countries from 2006 to 2015. The study is based on the data retrieved from the World Bank Database. During the analysed 10 years, seven Asian (Myanmar, Lao PDR, Bhutan, Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan and five African (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Angola, Sudan, and Mozambique LDCs had average annual GDP per capita growth rates higher than 4.0%. GDP has been largely generated through the services and industry sectors. A few LDCs sustained strong growth mainly because of foreign assistance and in other countries remittances were a significant source of development finance. Resource rich countries recorded high inflows of foreign direct investment. In a few fast growing LDCs the state has been heavily engaged in economy. The analysed LDCs substantially improved their development indicators.

  16. Feed efficiency metrics in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Díaz, J A; Berry, D P; Rebeiz, N; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Magowan, E; Gardiner, G E; Lawlor, P G

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to quantify the interrelationships between different feed efficiency measures in growing pigs and characterize pigs divergent for a selection of these measures. The data set included data from 311 growing pigs between 42 and 91 d of age from 3 separate batches. Growth-related metrics available included midtest metabolic BW (BW), energy intake (EI), and ADG. Ratio efficiency traits included energy conversion ratio (ECR), Kleiber ratio (ADG/BW), relative growth rate (RGR), residual EI (REI), and residual daily gain (RDG). Residual intake and gain (RIG; i.e., a dual index of both REI and RDG) and residual midtest metabolic weight (RMW) were also calculated. Simple Pearson correlations were estimated between the growth and feed efficiency metrics. In litters with at least 3 pigs of each sex, pigs were separately stratified on each residual trait as high, medium, and low rank. Considerable interanimal variability existed in all metrics evaluated. Male pigs were superior to females for all metrics ( efficiency metrics improved as birth BW increased ( efficiency metrics were strong to moderate ( efficient) had lower EI and ECR and were superior for RIG ( efficient) had greater BW gain and better ECR ( Energy conversion ratio, REI, and RIG were superior ( efficient) compared with medium-RMW pigs. High-RIG pigs (i.e., more efficient) had lower EI ( efficiency traits investigated in this study were different from unity, indicating that each trait is depicting a different aspect of efficiency in pigs, although the moderate to strong correlations suggest that improvement in one trait would, on average, lead to improvements in the others. Pigs ranked as more efficient on residual traits such as REI consumed less energy for a similar BW gain, which would translate into an economic benefit for pig producers.

  17. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  18. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing. The emphasis of this work is on the methodology of composite fabrication and the variety of materials used in these technologies.

  19. COLLECTIVE LEARNING IN A LEARNING ORGANIZATION: GROWING TEAM LEARNING CULTURE TO SURVIVE AND DEVELOP

    OpenAIRE

    Adi Suryani

    2012-01-01

    A learning organization has a deep culture of learning. It is constantly encourage its member to learn. This learning activity is not only for adapting to the rapid changing of its internal and external environment, but also for growing. The effort of a learning organization to create a conducive learning climate can be indicated by training its members. Working towards a learning organization has both its strengths and drawbacks. The strengths are it can improve the organization performan...

  20. The effect of loss of occlusal support on mandibular morphology in growing rats

    OpenAIRE

    Farias-Neto, A; Martins, APVB; Rizzatti-Barbosa, CM

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of unilateral and bilateral premature loss of posterior occlusal support on mandibular bone dimensions in growing rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were randomized into three groups: control, unilateral mandibular molar teeth extraction, and bilateral mandibular molar teeth extraction. After 8 weeks, animals were sacrificed and acrylic rapid-prototyped templates of the mandibles were constructed. Mandibular length, ramus he...

  1. Effect of imipenem and sulbactam on sessile cells of Acinetobacter baumannii growing in biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, R; Dominguez, M; Urrutia, H; Bello, H; Garcia, A; Gonzalez, G; Zemelman, R

    1997-01-01

    The effect of the age of biofilms formed by Acinetobacter baumannii on the activity of sulbactam and imipenem on sessile cells was investigated. Against cells of young biofilms both antibiotics were rapidly bactericidal. As the biofilm aged, sulbactam lost most of its activity, but imipenem continued to be bactericidal to some extent. This fact probably reflects the ability of imipenem to exert bactericidal activity on slow-growing bacteria.

  2. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  3. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  4. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  5. VHR Reconstruction of a Portion of Late Holocene Transgressive Adriatic System Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscon, Giorgia; Correggiari, Annamaria; Remia, Alessandro; Stefani, Cristina; Fontana, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    surface modelling which highlights an east-northeast trend of major depression in the study area following the glacial gradient of the shelf during the LGM. The fluvial pattern during the LGM shows a different trend compared with the east-southeast fluvial trend on the present sea-floor. The dense grid of data, very high resolution seismic and cores, allowed us to plot as well the base of the sandy portion and estimate the thickness of the sand. Moreover it was possible highlight the evolution of the transitional environment during the last transgressive cycle identifying different fluvial phases between the transgressive surface and the ravinement surface. Bibliography Cattaneo A. & Steel R.J. (2003) - Transgressive deposits: a review of their variability. Earth-Science Reviews, 62, 187-228.

  6. Characterization of Growing Soil Bacterial Communities across a pH gradient Using H218O DNA-Stable Isotope Probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Schwartz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have established consistent relationships between pH and bacterial diversity and community structure in soils from site-specific to landscape scales. However, these studies rely on DNA or PLFA extraction techniques from bulk soils that encompass metabolically active and inactive, or dormant, communities, and loose DNA. Dormant cells may comprise up to 80% of total live cells. If dormant cells dominate a particular environment, it is possible that previous interpretations of the soil variables assumed to drive communities could be profoundly affected. We used H218O stable isotope probing and bar-coded illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to monitor the response of actively growing communities to changes in soil pH in a soil microcosm over 14 days. This substrate-independent approach has several advantages over 13C or 15N-labelled molecules in that all growing bacteria should be able to make use of water, allowing characterization of whole communities. We hypothesized that Acidobacteria would increasingly dominate the growing community and that Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes would decline, given previously established responses by these taxa to soil pH. Instead, we observed the reverse. Actinobacteria abundance increased three-fold from 26 to 76% of the overall community as soil pH fell from pH 5.6 to pH 4.6. Shifts in community structure and decreases in diversity with declining soil pH were essentially driven by two families, Streptomyceaca and Microbacteracea, which collectively increased from 2 to 40% of the entire community. In contrast, Acidobacteria as a whole declined although numbers of subdivision 1 remained stable across all soil pH levels. We suggest that the brief incubation period in this SIP study selected for growth of acid-tolerant Actinobacteria over Acidobacteria. Taxa within Actinomycetales have been readily cultured over short time frames, suggesting rapid growth patterns. Conversely, taxa within Acidobacteria have been

  7. Range maps of terrestrial species in the interior Columbia River basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Barbara C. Wales; Rick. Demmer

    2003-01-01

    Current range distribution maps are presented for 14 invertebrate, 26 amphibian, 26 reptile, 339 bird, and 125 mammal species and selected subspecies (530 total taxa) of the interior Columbia River basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins in the United States. Also presented are maps of historical ranges of 3 bird and 10 mammal species, and 6 maps of...

  8. 77 FR 49856 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Salinas to San Luis Obispo Portion of the Coast Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... improvements to the Salinas to San Luis Obispo portion of the Coast Corridor. The objective of the EIS/EIR is... of service upgrades and rail improvements to be provided in the corridor, including variations in..., August 29, 2012, 3:30 p.m.-6:00 p.m., San Luis Obispo County Library Community Room, 995 Palm Street, San...

  9. The distal portion of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 5D short arm controls endosperm vitreosity and grain hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernel vitreosity is an important trait of wheat grain, but its complete developmental control is not known. We developed back-cross seven (BC7) near isogenic lines in the soft white spring wheat cultivar Alpowa that possess or lack the distal portion of chromosome 5D short arm. This deletion was de...

  10. 20 CFR 243.5 - Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the social security overall minimum provision. 243.5 Section 243.5 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... § 243.5 Assignment of a portion of an annuity paid under the social security overall minimum provision. Section 3(f)(3) of the Railroad Retirement Act, the social security overall minimum provision, guarantees...

  11. Comparing two psychological interventions in reducing impulsive processes of eating behaviour: Effects on self-selected portion size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsbruggen, G.M. van; Veling, H.P.; Stroebe, W.; Aarts, H.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Palatable food, such as sweets, contains properties that automatically trigger the impulse to consume it even when people have goals or intentions to refrain from consuming such food. We compared the effectiveness of two interventions in reducing the portion size of palatable food that

  12. Comparing two psychological interventions in reducing impulsive processes of eating behaviour : Effects on self-selected portion size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koningsbruggen, G.M.; Veling, H.P.; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Aarts, Henk

    2014-01-01

    ObjectivePalatable food, such as sweets, contains properties that automatically trigger the impulse to consume it even when people have goals or intentions to refrain from consuming such food. We compared the effectiveness of two interventions in reducing the portion size of palatable food that

  13. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging... Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. (a) Parties wishing to run logs on Red Lake River must provide storage booms near the head of the river to take care...

  14. 76 FR 2294 - Revision to the South Coast Portion of the California State Implementation Plan, CPV Sentinel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Requirements A. Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review The Office of Management and Budget (OMB... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the South Coast Portion of the California State Implementation Plan... source-specific State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision for the South Coast Air Quality Management...

  15. Regional Advection Perturbations in an Irrigated Desert (RAPID) Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debruin, H.A.R.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Allen, R.G.; Kramer, J.W.J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The RAPID field experiment took place in August - September 1999 at a site 25km south of Twin Falls, Idaho, USA. The experiment concerned micrometeorological observations over extensive, well-irrigated fields covered with the fast-growing crop alfalfa. During daytime, on a number of days the

  16. Metabolomic response of Calotropis procera growing in the desert to changes in water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Ahmed; Sabir, Jamal S M; Alakilli, Saleha Y M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Gadalla, Nour O; Edris, Sherif; Al-Kordy, Magdy A; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Bahieldin, Ahmed; Baker, Neil R; Willmitzer, Lothar; Irgang, Susann

    2014-01-01

    Water availability is a major limitation for agricultural productivity. Plants growing in severe arid climates such as deserts provide tools for studying plant growth and performance under extreme drought conditions. The perennial species Calotropis procera used in this study is a shrub growing in many arid areas which has an exceptional ability to adapt and be productive in severe arid conditions. We describe the results of studying the metabolomic response of wild C procera plants growing in the desert to a one time water supply. Leaves of C. procera plants were taken at three time points before and 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after watering and subjected to a metabolomics and lipidomics analysis. Analysis of the data reveals that within one hour after watering C. procera has already responded on the metabolic level to the sudden water availability as evidenced by major changes such as increased levels of most amino acids, a decrease in sucrose, raffinose and maltitol, a decrease in storage lipids (triacylglycerols) and an increase in membrane lipids including photosynthetic membranes. These changes still prevail at the 6 hour time point after watering however 12 hours after watering the metabolomics data are essentially indistinguishable from the prewatering state thus demonstrating not only a rapid response to water availability but also a rapid response to loss of water. Taken together these data suggest that the ability of C. procera to survive under the very harsh drought conditions prevailing in the desert might be associated with its rapid adjustments to water availability and losses.

  17. Segregation of chromosome arms in growing and non-growing Escherichia coli cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldringh, Conrad L.; Hansen, Flemming G.; Vischer, Norbert O. E.

    2015-01-01

    In slow-growing Escherichia coli cells the chromosome is organized with its left (L) and right (R) arms lying separated in opposite halves of the nucleoid and with the origin (0) in-between, giving the pattern L-O-R. During replication one of the arms has to pass the other to obtain the same...

  18. Growing Youth Growing Food: How Vegetable Gardening Influences Young People's Food Consciousness and Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Much attention is currently being paid to rising rates of obesity, especially among youth. In this context, garden-based education can have a role in improving public health. A qualitative study conducted at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) Children's Garden provides supporting evidence for the claim that growing vegetables can improve the…

  19. Wartime diet for growing bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Llewellyn, L.; Benner, M.

    1944-01-01

    Two experiments, using 784 bobwhite quail chicks, were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to find a growing diet that would meet wartime restrictions. In 1941 a diet containing 14 per cent sardine fish meal was formulated and gave satisfactory results from the standpoints of survival and growth. Since fish meal now is scarce, search was made for a diet without war-restricted commodities yet equal to the above-mentioned diet in feeding value. Ten diets were compared.....In the present experiments, quail fed this same diet modified by the substitution of 0.12 per cent of D-activated sterol for vitamin A and D feeding oil fortified showed the highest survival and the best live weights at the end of both the sixth and tenth weeks. They also were among the top three groups in requiring the least quantity of feed per unit of gain in weight; however, they consumed the greatest quantity of feed.....Of the other nine diets, that which seemed most promising, considering survival, live weight, and efficiency of feed utilization, was as follows (parts by weight) : Yellow corn, ground 26.08...Millet, ground 10.00...Alfalfa leaf meal, dehydrated 7.50...Soybean oil meal, solvent-processed 50.00...Dried whey 3.00...Special steamed bonemeal 1.50...Limestone, ground 0.80...Salt mixture 1.OO...D-activated animal sterol 0.12....100.00.....At the end of ten weeks the results on this diet (Diet l l ) , as compared with that containing sardine meal (Diet 23), were as follows: Diet No. 11 Percentage survival 71, Average live weight per bird, grams 144,....Growing mash consumed, per bird-day, grams 6.8 Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams) 3.8......Diet 23....Percentage survival, 80,...Avg live weight per bird, grams....145,....Growing mash consumed , per bird-day, grams...7.4...Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams)....3.9. Results were unsatisfactory when expeller-processed soybean oil meal was used in this diet to replace solvent

  20. Quantification of Transfer of Salmonella from Citrus Fruits to Peel, Edible Portion, and Gloved Hands during Hand Peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jiin; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2017-06-01

    Although studies have quantified bacterial transfer between hands and various materials, cross-contamination between the surface of fresh citrus fruit and the edible portions during hand peeling has not been reported. This study quantifies transfer of Salmonella to the edible portion of citrus fruit from a contaminated peel during hand peeling. Citrus fruits used for this study were Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) cultivars 'Valencia' and 'Navel', Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarins), Citrus reticulata × Citrus paradisi ('Minneola' tangelo or 'Honeybell'), and C. paradisi (grapefruit) cultivar 'Marsh'. An avirulent Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (ATCC 700720) resistant to rifampin was used for all experiments. The inoculum containing approximately 9 log CFU/mL (50 μL) was spot inoculated onto the equator, stem, or styler of each fruit and allowed to dry for 24 h. Six volunteers put on single-use latex gloves and peeled inoculated fruit. Peel, edible fruit portion, and gloves were collected and enumerated separately. Three replicates of the study were performed in which each volunteer peeled two inoculated fruit of each variety (n = 36 fruit per variety). Cross-contamination from contaminated surface of citrus fruits to edible portion or gloved hands during peeling was affected by inoculation sites. Average Salmonella transfer to the edible portion ranged from 0.16% (Valencia inoculated at the equator) to 5.41% (navel inoculated at the stem). Average Salmonella transfer to gloved hands ranged from 0.41% (grapefruit inoculated at the stem) to 8.97% (navel inoculated at the stem). Most Salmonella remained on the peel of citrus fruits. The average level of Salmonella remaining on the peel ranged from 5.37% (Minneola inoculated at the equator) to 66.3% (Satsuma inoculated at the styler). When grapefruit was inoculated, the Salmonella that remained on the peel showed a bimodal pattern in which some individuals left almost all Salmonella on the peel, while others left

  1. The repetitive portion of the Xenopus IgH Mu switch region mediates orientation-dependent class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng Z; Pannunzio, Nicholas R; Lu, Zhengfei; Hsu, Ellen; Yu, Kefei; Lieber, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrates developed immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) to express different IgH constant regions. Most double-strand breaks for Ig CSR occur within the repetitive portion of the switch regions located upstream of each set of constant domain exons for the Igγ, Igα or Igϵ heavy chain. Unlike mammalian switch regions, Xenopus switch regions do not have a high G-density on the non-template DNA strand. In previous studies, when Xenopus Sμ DNA was moved to the genome of mice, it is able to support substantial CSR when it is used to replace the murine Sγ1 region. Here, we tested both the 2kb repetitive portion and the 4.6 kb full-length portions of the Xenopus Sμ in both their natural (forward) orientation relative to the constant domain exons, as well as the opposite (reverse) orientation. Consistent with previous work, we find that the 4.6 kb full-length Sμ mediates similar levels of CSR in both the forward and reverse orientations. Whereas, the forward orientation of the 2kb portion can restore the majority of the CSR level of the 4.6 kb full-length Sμ, the reverse orientation poorly supports R-looping and no CSR. The forward orientation of the 2kb repetitive portion has more GG dinucleotides on the non-template strand than the reverse orientation. The correlation of R-loop formation with CSR efficiency, as demonstrated in the 2kb repetitive fragment of the Xenopus switch region, confirms a role played by R-looping in CSR that appears to be conserved through evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmaceutical Industry in Vietnam: Sluggish Sector in a Growing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Angelino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is a fast growing economy in the Asian region with a significantly high population (over 92 million in 2015. Although still expanding (about 1.1% on average during 2000–2015, the Vietnamese population is considered to be entering the ageing stage at a very high rate. The rapid expansion of the middle-income urban class and the ageing people ratio have dramatically pushed up the demand for healthcare goods, particularly in terms of pharmaceutical products. Since the early 1990s the government has addressed the necessities of rising demand for healthcare products by formulating a series of policies aimed at promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the implementation of such policies does not seem to have been completely efficient given that the country still needs to import up to 90% of its pharmaceutical consumption. This paper aims to explore the development of the pharmaceutical industry during the years 1990–2015 and to identify a series of weaknesses in the government promotion of the industry. Future developments will also be discussed on how the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry could increase its participation in the regional supply chain, which is currently being dominated by big players like India and China.

  3. Pharmaceutical Industry in Vietnam: Sluggish Sector in a Growing Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelino, Antonio; Khanh, Do Ta; An Ha, Nguyen; Pham, Tuan

    2017-08-29

    Vietnam is a fast growing economy in the Asian region with a significantly high population (over 92 million in 2015). Although still expanding (about 1.1% on average during 2000-2015), the Vietnamese population is considered to be entering the ageing stage at a very high rate. The rapid expansion of the middle-income urban class and the ageing people ratio have dramatically pushed up the demand for healthcare goods, particularly in terms of pharmaceutical products. Since the early 1990s the government has addressed the necessities of rising demand for healthcare products by formulating a series of policies aimed at promoting the development of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the implementation of such policies does not seem to have been completely efficient given that the country still needs to import up to 90% of its pharmaceutical consumption. This paper aims to explore the development of the pharmaceutical industry during the years 1990-2015 and to identify a series of weaknesses in the government promotion of the industry. Future developments will also be discussed on how the Vietnamese pharmaceutical industry could increase its participation in the regional supply chain, which is currently being dominated by big players like India and China.

  4. Growing pains: twelve lessons from corporate restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S L; Johnson, R L

    1988-05-01

    Corporate reorganization is a realignment of resources to enhance competitive strength and can follow one of two lines, vertical or horizontal. Whichever strategy is used, the reason for it remains unchanged: to provide a structural hierarchy through which strategic market niches are acquired and resources are economically deployed throughout the system. Healthcare corporate restructuring, however, is encountering growing pains, some of which were inevitable and others avoidable. When the healthcare organizational landscape is surveyed, 12 lessons can be learned about corporate reorganization: 1. Reorganization should be based on anticipated market and environmental conditions. 2. Form follows function. 3. Interdependence among multiple corporate units must be clearly acknowledged. 4. Reorganization is much more costly and politically charged than it appears at first. Reserved rights must be clearly defined. 6. The purpose and composition of the parent governing board must be distinguished from those of subsidiary boards. 7. Clarification of roles and relationships between the parent and subsidiaries is critical. 8. Unrealistic expectations of success should be confronted through up-front planning, negotiation, and creative problem solving. 9. False assumptions about corporate staffing needs create internal system warfare. 10. Physician support is crucial for success. 11. Hospital-based management skills and understanding may be inadequate for making personnel decisions in subsidiaries other than the hospital. 12. Competitive strategies must be strategically determined and must not be taken gamesmanship.

  5. Autoethnography in Health Research: Growing Pains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heewon

    2016-03-01

    Autoethnography is gaining acceptance as a legitimate research method in health science research. The growing volume of published autoethnographies is indicative of this trend. After discussing the methodological tenents of this qualitative research method and its compatibility with health-related research, the author illustrates this trend with examples of published autoethnogrpahic books, theses, and journal articles. While celebrating the potential of autoethnography as a suitable health research method, the author critiques dominatly descriptive and evocative illness self-narratives that may evoke emontionally compelling responses from readers but offer insufficient sociocultural insights about the illness phenomenon. To identify a "desirable" autoethnography that provides not only a "thick description" of personal experiences but also a sociocultural interpration of such experiences, the author recommends both creators and consumers of autoethnography to ask five evaluative questions: (1) Does the autoethnography use authentic and trustworthy data?; (2) Does the autoethnography follow a reliable research process and show the process clearly?; (3) Does the autoethnography follow ethical steps to protect the rights of self and others presented and implicated in the autoethnography?; (4) Does the autoethnography analyze and interpret the sociocultural meaning of the author's personal experiences?; and (5) Does the autoethnography attempt to make a scholarly contribution with its conclusion and engagement of the existing literature? © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Growing duckweed for biofuel production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, W; Cheng, J J

    2015-01-01

    Duckweed can be utilised to produce ethanol, butanol and biogas, which are promising alternative energy sources to minimise dependence on limited crude oil and natural gas. The advantages of this aquatic plant include high rate of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) uptake, high biomass yield and great potential as an alternative feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol, butanol and biogas. The objective of this article is to review the published research on growing duckweed for the production of the biofuels, especially starch enrichment in duckweed plants. There are mainly two processes affecting the accumulation of starch in duckweed biomass: photosynthesis for starch generation and metabolism-related starch consumption. The cost of stimulating photosynthesis is relatively high based on current technologies. Considerable research efforts have been made to inhibit starch degradation. Future research need in this area includes duckweed selection, optimisation of duckweed biomass production, enhancement of starch accumulation in duckweeds and use of duckweeds for production of various biofuels. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Adult congenital heart disease: a growing epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Pablo; Mercier, Lise-Andrée; Dore, Annie; Marcotte, François; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Ibrahim, Reda; Asgar, Anita; Miro, Joaquim; Andelfinger, Gregor; Mondésert, Blandine; de Guise, Pierre; Poirier, Nancy; Khairy, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Medical and surgical breakthroughs in the care of children born with heart defects have generated a growing population of adult survivors and spawned a new subspecialty of cardiology: adult congenital heart disease. The prevalence of adult congenital heart disease is escalating at a rampant rate, outpacing the relatively static prevalence of pediatric congenital heart disease, because adults now surpass children in numbers by a ratio of 2:1. As such, congenital heart disease can no longer be considered primarily a pediatric specialty. Most congenital heart defects are not curable and require lifelong specialized care. Health care systems worldwide are challenged to meet the unique needs of this increasingly complex patient population, including the development of supraregional centres of excellence to provide comprehensive and multidisciplinary specialized care. In this review, we explore the incidence and prevalence of congenital heart disease and their changing patterns, address organization and delivery of care, highlight the importance of appropriate training and dedicated research, summarize the high burden of health care resource utilization, and provide an overview of common issues encountered in adults with congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioaugmentation in growing plants for lunar bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaets, I.; Burlak, O.; Rogutskyy, I.; Vasilenko, A.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Lukashov, D.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

    2011-03-01

    Microorganisms may be a key element in a precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for extraterrestrial exploration. They can be used for plant inoculation to leach nutritional elements from regolith, to alleviate lunar stressors, as well as to decompose both lunar rocks and the plant straw in order to form a protosoil. Bioleaching capacities of both French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) and the associated bacteria in contact with a lunar rock simulant (terrestrial anorthosite) were examined using the model plant-bacteria microcosms under controlled conditions. Marigold accumulated K, Na, Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr at higher concentrations in anorthosite compared to the podzol soil. Plants inoculated with the consortium of well-defined species of bacteria accumulated higher levels of K, Mg, and Mn, but lower levels of Ni, Cr, Zn, Na, Ca, Fe, which exist at higher levels in anorthosite. Bacteria also affected the Са/Mg and Fe/Mn ratios in the biomass of marigold grown on anorthosite. Despite their growth retardation, the inoculated plants had 15% higher weight on anorthosite than noninoculated plants. The data suggest that the bacteria supplied basic macro-and microelements to the model plant.

  9. Growing Bacteriophage M13 in Liquid Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael R; Sambrook, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    Stocks of bacteriophage M13 are usually grown in liquid culture. The infected bacteria do not lyse but, instead, grow at a slower than normal rate to form a dilute suspension. The inoculum of bacteriophage is almost always a freshly picked plaque or a suspension of bacteriophage particles obtained from a single plaque, as described here. Infected cells contain up to 200 copies of double-stranded, replicative-form DNA and extrude several hundred bacteriophage particles per generation. Thus, a 1-mL culture of infected cells can produce enough double-stranded viral DNA (1-2 mg) for restriction mapping and recovery of cloned DNA inserts and sufficient single-stranded DNA (∼5-10 mg) for site-directed mutagenesis, DNA sequencing, or synthesis of radiolabeled probes. The titer of bacteriophages in the supernatant from infected cells is so high (∼10(12) pfu/mL) that a small aliquot serves as a permanent stock of the starting plaque. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. The Growing Regulation of Conversion Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Jack; Schwartz, Alan; Casoy, Flávio; McIntosh, Christopher A; Hurley, Brian; Ashley, Kenneth; Barber, Mary; Goldenberg, David; Herbert, Sarah E; Lothwell, Lorraine E; Mattson, Marlin R; McAfee, Scot G; Pula, Jack; Rosario, Vernon; Tompkins, D Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Conversion therapies are any treatments, including individual talk therapy, behavioral (e.g. aversive stimuli), group therapy or milieu (e.g. "retreats or inpatient treatments" relying on all of the above methods) treatments, which attempt to change an individual's sexual orientation from homosexual to heterosexual. However these practices have been repudiated by major mental health organizations because of increasing evidence that they are ineffective and may cause harm to patients and their families who fail to change. At present, California, New Jersey, Oregon, Illinois, Washington, DC, and the Canadian Province of Ontario have passed legislation banning conversion therapy for minors and an increasing number of US States are considering similar bans. In April 2015, the Obama administration also called for a ban on conversion therapies for minors. The growing trend toward banning conversion therapies creates challenges for licensing boards and ethics committees, most of which are unfamiliar with the issues raised by complaints against conversion therapists. This paper reviews the history of conversion therapy practices as well as clinical, ethical and research issues they raise. With this information, state licensing boards, ethics committees and other regulatory bodies will be better able to adjudicate complaints from members of the public who have been exposed to conversion therapies.

  11. Gasification research on wood grow project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanigan, V J

    1981-01-09

    The GROW (Gasification Research on Wood) project consists of a research project on thermochemical degradation of wood particles (sawdust or hammermilled wood) on a pilot plant scale and utilizes a 100 cm (40 in.) diameter fluidized sand bed reactor at capacities of up to 1000 Kg/Hr (2200 lb/hr). Supplementary facilities include wood preparation and air conveying, a wood feed bin, feed and transfer screws, an air compressor with storage and filter tanks, an electrical preheater, a propane-fired preheater, a cyclone separator removing solids from product gas, a water scrubber to cool and clean product gas, a scrubber wate settling tank, a scrubber water cooler, a knockout drum, a demister to be installed in the future, a recycle compressor for recirculation, a recycle gas storage tank, a flare and stack with air blower to dispose of the gas, 2 CO/sub 2/ stripper columns to be installed in the future to remove CO/sub 2/ by caustic adsorption, caustic tanks, and the necessary piping, pumps, sampling, and measurement facilities. A brief report of progress on the project is given, followed by the safety implementation plan and operating, maintenance, and safety procedures. (MHR)

  12. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  14. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  15. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in biofilm‐growing bacteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macià, M. D; Rojo‐Molinero, E; Oliver, A

    2014-01-01

    .... The lack of correlation between conventional susceptibility test results and therapeutic success in chronic infections is probably a consequence of the use of planktonically growing instead of biofilm‐growing bacteria...

  17. Formaldehyde removal by common indoor plant species and various growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Ahu; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2011-05-01

    Three porous materials (growstone, expanded clay and activated carbon) were evaluated as hydroponic growing media and for their individual ability to remove the indoor volatile organic compound formaldehyde under three conditions: growing medium alone, dry medium in a pot, and wet medium in a pot. The total percent-reduction of formaldehyde by each growing media was evaluated over a 10-h period. In all cases, activated carbon achieved the highest removal under the three conditions studied with average percent reductions measured at about 98%. Four common interior plants: Hedera helix (English ivy), Chrysanthemum morifolium (pot mum), Dieffenbachia compacta (dump cane) and Epipremnum aureum (golden pathos) growing in growstone were then tested for their ability to remove formaldehyde. The removal capacity of the aerial plant parts (AP), the root zone (RZ) and the entire plant (EP) growing in growstone were determined by exposing the relevant parts to gaseous formaldehyde (˜2000 μg m -3) in a closed chamber over a 24-h period. The removal efficiency between species and plant parts were compared by determining the time interval required to decrease about 2/3 of the total formaldehyde concentration reduction, T 2/3. The T 2/3 measured were 23, 30, 34 and 56 min for EP of C. morifolium, E. aureum, D. compacta and H. helix, respectively. The formaldehyde removal by the root zone was found to be more rapid than the removal by the aerial plant parts.

  18. Growing skull fracture stages and treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Song; You, Chao; Lu, Ma; Liu, Jia-Gang

    2012-06-01

    A growing skull fracture (GSF) is a rare but significant late complication of skull fractures, usually occurring during infancy and early childhood. Delayed diagnosis and improper treatment could exacerbate this disease. The aim of this study was to introduce a new hypothesis about, describe the stages of, and discuss the treatment strategy for GSF. The authors performed a retrospective review of 27 patients with GSF, who were grouped according to 3 different GSF stages. Over a period of 20 years, 27 patients with GSF (16 males and 11 females) were treated in the authors' department. The mean follow-up period was 26.5 months. Six patients were in the prephase of GSF (Stage 1), 10 patients in the early phase (Stage 2), and 11 in the late phase (Stage 3). All patients underwent duraplasty. All 6 patients at Stage 1 and 5 patients at Stage 2 underwent craniotomy without cranioplasty. Five patients at Stage 2 and all of the patients at Stage 3 underwent cranioplasty with autologous bone and alloplastic materials, respectively. Among all patients, 5 underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. Symptoms in all patients at Stages 1 and 2 were alleviated or disappeared, and the cranial bones developed without deformity during follow-up. Among patients with Stage 3 GSF, no obvious improvement in neurological deficits was observed. Three patients underwent additional operations because of cranial deformation or infection. The authors identify the stages of GSF according to a new hypothesis. They conclude that accurately diagnosing and treating GSF during Stages 1 and 2 leads to a better prognosis.

  19. [Lung cancer and COPD - growing clinical problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyl, Michal; Domagała-Kulawik, Joanna

    2017-07-21

    A spread of the addiction of tobacco smoking is valued on near 1 billion of people in the world, that involves growing number of morbidity and mortality by the reason of smoke related diseases. Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the most serious and incurable diseases which are leading to a permanent disability as well as to premature death. There are factors that naturally increase the vulnerability of an individual on the coincidence of above disorders, such as pathophysiological conditions, systemic inflammation, bronchitis, emphysema, respiratory obstructive disease and precise genetic predispositions for COPD and lung cancer. The harmful substances of the tobacco smoke are the causes of the development of diseases outside the group of respiratory disorders which affects the greater scope of comorbidity among this patient group in comparison to the normal population. The similarity of the clinical picture of lung cancer and COPD may cause numerous problems for a proper and prompt diagnosis and the implementation of the appropriate treatment. On the other hand, it is evident that the patients with COPD are carefully examined and often diagnosed with cancer while those who already suffer from cancer and undertake additional function testing are in 40-50% diagnosed with COPD. The coexistance of these two diseases influences the therapeutic procedure: COPD limits the possibilities of a radical lung cancer treatment which is determined by the general health condition and the respiratory system insufficiency as far as COPD patients are concerned. The knowledge of common pathogenesis both of cancer and COPD and the mutual relations between them shall positively affect the diagnostic and therapeutic process in the high-risk patient groups.

  20. Satellite communications - The ground segment grows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulloch, C.; Rubin, P. W.

    1984-11-01

    The types of satellite telecommunication services and the markets for associated earth stations, i.e., antennas, are outlined. No fine line exists between fixed-service, mobile service and broadcast categories for satellite-ground transmissions. All transmissions are basically broadcast, can be received by anyone with appropriate equipment, and can originate at one point and be received at multiple points. Private data transmission services, delivering at a rate of 1.48 Mbps, are opening foreign markets once dominated by government telephone services, which were only capable of 64 kbps rates. Ku-band 14/11 GHz links are used increasingly to avoid saturation problems. DBS is still in its infancy while its main competition, satellite-cable distribution points, is an established system. Mobile services will increase rapidly with operational status for small, nondirectional antennas. A Japanese manufacturer currently supplies 35 percent of the world nonmilitary antenna demand, about 3000 to date. The figure will increase too, loosely, 10,000-20,000 by the year 2000.

  1. A growing danger: the risks posed by marihuana grow-ops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    The proliferation of sophisticated illegal indoor multi-plant marihuana cultivation operations is discussed, focusing primarily on public health and safety issues. Public health issues arise from the high level of molds and pollens caused by high humidity, which can cause asthma, respiratory conditions and allergies, particularly among children, and the likelihood of deadly levels of carbon monoxide build-up resulting from faulty rerouting of the residence's ventilation system. Safety issues discussed are: fires and electrocutions associated with the use of electrical diversions or bipasses to circumvent utility meters, the chemical and electrical hazards involved in investigating and dismantling growing operations, the significant dangers to utility crews who must repair illegal electrical bypasses, injuries by the booby-traps planted to protect the operation from other criminals or law enforcement agents, and the physical danger from the violence, including homicide and assaults, carried out by operators to exert control over production and distribution. Although in general, there is a relaxed attitude towards marihuana use in Canada. there is growing evidence of increasing public concern over large-scale growing operations. Nevertheless, to date operators of grow-ops have been dealt with lightly by the justice system. For example, in British Columbia 11,733 cases have come to the attention of police during the 1997 to 2000 period. Of these about half were dealt with informally (i.e. 'no case' seizures) and 2,255 cases led to at least one offender being convicted. The majority of convictions did not result in custodial dispositions. Only 18 per cent of the cases resulted in prison sentences, the average term being only 4.5 months.

  2. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighting is used during broiler grow-out to modify bird behavior to reach the goals of production. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field project, we evaluated if the lighting protocol impacts the burden of Salmonella in grow-out broiler flocks. Conventional grow-out flocks reared ...

  3. WSGB: A Web Service-Based Growing Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, C. R.; Huang, L. H.; Chen, K. H.; Chiu, J. C.; Lin, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Growing Book refers to an electronic textbook that is co-developed, and has the ability to be constantly maintained, by groups of independent authors, thus creating a rich and ever-growing learning environment that can be conveniently accessible from anywhere. This work designs and implements a Web Service-based Growing Book that has the merits of…

  4. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  5. [Histochemical properties of secretory granules and fine structure of terminal portion in the Japanese Macaque labial gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutusumi, T; Kurabuchi, S; Aiyama, S

    1989-06-01

    The terminal portion of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) labial gland was examined ultrastructurally and histochemically. The results obtained are as follows. 1) The Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata has the upper and the lower labial glands, which can be described as a compound tubulo-acinar gland. 2) The terminal portion of the labial gland appears to be consisted of the mucous acini and the demilunes when examined with the light microscope. 3) The secretory granules containing in the glandular cells of the mucous acini and the demilunes are negative with napthol yellow S, ninhydrin-Schiff and DMAB nitrite. 4) The secretory granules containing in the glandular cells of mucous acini stain intensely with PAS, alcian blue (pH1.0, 2.5, 3.5), colloidal iron and PA-methenamine silver, while those of demilunes are negative with alcian blue (pH1.0). The glandular cells of demilune with the PA-methenamine silver method shows weak positive granules and positive granules which are limited to the hallo of them. 5) In the mucous acini the mucous granules are ejected from glandular cells by the process of exocytosis. 6) The myoepithelial cell can be seen in the terminal portion. This cell surrounds the acini with long processes. These findings suggest that the glandular cells of the demilune have the granules containing mucopoly saccharides and a small quantity of protein in addition to the mucous granules, although the terminal portion of the Japanese macaque labial gland is nearly composed of mucous cells.

  6. Reduced-portion entrées in a worksite and restaurant setting: impact on food consumption and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Sarah; Marquart, Len; Mykerezi, Elton; Degeneffe, Dennis; Reicks, Marla

    2016-11-01

    Large portion sizes in restaurants have been identified as a public health risk. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether customers in two different food-service operator segments (non-commercial worksite cafeteria and commercial upscale restaurant) would select reduced-portion menu items and the impact of selecting reduced-portion menu items on energy and nutrient intakes and plate waste. Consumption and plate waste data were collected for 5 weeks before and 7 weeks after introduction of five reduced-size entrées in a worksite lunch cafeteria and for 3 weeks before and 4 weeks after introduction of five reduced-size dinner entrées in a restaurant setting. Full-size entrées were available throughout the entire study periods. A worksite cafeteria and a commercial upscale restaurant in a large US Midwestern metropolitan area. Adult worksite employees and restaurant patrons. Reduced-size entrées accounted for 5·3-12·8 % and 18·8-31·3 % of total entrées selected in the worksite and restaurant settings, respectively. Food waste, energy intake and intakes of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, Na, fibre, Ca, K and Fe were significantly lower when both full- and reduced-size entrées were served in the worksite setting and in the restaurant setting compared with when only full-size entrées were served. A relatively small proportion of reduced-size entrées were selected but still resulted in reductions in overall energy and nutrient intakes. These outcomes could serve as the foundation for future studies to determine strategies to enhance acceptance of reduced-portion menu items in restaurant settings.

  7. Geothermal Potential of Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona, and the Western Portion of Luke-Williams Gunnery Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Domes in the Northern Part of the Gulf of California," in Symposia on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico, Comision Federal de...Laboratory, August 1979. LA-7953-MS. 22 pp. 10. J. de Boer. "Paleomagnetism of the Quaternary Cerro Prieto , Crater Elegante, and Salton Buttes Volcanic...NWC TP 6827 S Geothermal Potential of Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona, and the Western Portion of Luke-Williams Gunnery Range by Steven C

  8. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  9. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  10. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  11. Using photography in 'The Restaurant of the Future'. A useful way to assess portion selection and plate cleaning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Elanor C; Brunstrom, Jeffery M; Fay, Stephanie H; Wilkinson, Laura L; Ferriday, Danielle; Rogers, Peter J; de Wijk, Rene

    2013-04-01

    Laboratory-based studies of human dietary behaviour benefit from highly controlled conditions; however, this approach can lack ecological validity. Identifying a reliable method to capture and quantify natural dietary behaviours represents an important challenge for researchers. In this study, we scrutinised cafeteria-style meals in the 'Restaurant of the Future.' Self-selected meals were weighed and photographed, both before and after consumption. Using standard portions of the same foods, these images were independently coded to produce accurate and reliable estimates of (i) initial self-served portions, and (ii) food remaining at the end of the meal. Plate cleaning was extremely common; in 86% of meals at least 90% of self-selected calories were consumed. Males ate a greater proportion of their self-selected meals than did females. Finally, when participants visited the restaurant more than once, the correspondence between selected portions was better predicted by the weight of the meal than by its energy content. These findings illustrate the potential benefits of meal photography in this context. However, they also highlight significant limitations, in particular, the need to exclude large amounts of data when one food obscures another. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if

  13. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  15. Comparing two psychological interventions in reducing impulsive processes of eating behaviour: effects on self-selected portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Veling, Harm; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Aarts, Henk

    2014-11-01

    Palatable food, such as sweets, contains properties that automatically trigger the impulse to consume it even when people have goals or intentions to refrain from consuming such food. We compared the effectiveness of two interventions in reducing the portion size of palatable food that people select for themselves. Specifically, the use of dieting implementation intentions that reduce behaviour towards palatable food via top-down implementation of a dieting goal was pitted against a stop-signal training that changes the impulse-evoking quality of palatable food from bottom-up. We compared the two interventions using a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants completed a stop-signal training in which they learned to withhold a behavioural response upon presentation of tempting sweets (vs. control condition) and formed implementation intentions to diet (vs. control condition). Selected portion size was measured in a sweet-shop-like environment (Experiment 1) and through a computerized snack dispenser (Experiment 2). Both interventions reduced the amount of sweets selected in the sweet shop environment (Experiment 1) and the snack dispenser (Experiment 2). On average, participants receiving an intervention selected 36% (Experiment 1) and 51% (Experiment 2) fewer sweets than control participants. In both studies, combining the interventions did not lead to additive effects: Employing one of the interventions appears to successfully eliminate instrumental behaviour towards tempting food, making the other intervention redundant. Both interventions reduce self-selected portion size, which is considered a major contributor to the current obesity epidemic. What is already known on this subject? Exposure to temptations, such as unhealthy palatable food, often frustrates people's attainment of long-term health goals. Current approaches to self-control suggest that this is partly because temptations automatically trigger impulsive or hedonic processes that override the

  16. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stuart J [Richland, WA; Cowley,; E, Wendy [Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Cramer, Nicholas O [Richland, WA

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  17. Is portion size selection associated with expected satiation, perceived healthfulness or expected tastiness? A case study on pizza using a photograph-based computer task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, D; Rytz, A; Godinot, N; Ferrage, A; Martin, N

    2017-01-01

    Increasing portion sizes over the last 30 years are considered to be one of the factors underlying overconsumption. Past research on the drivers of portion selection for foods showed that larger portions are selected for foods delivering low expected satiation. However, the respective contribution of expected satiation vs. two other potential drivers of portion size selection, i.e. perceived healthfulness and expected tastiness, has never been explored. In this study, we conjointly explored the role of expected satiation, perceived healthfulness and expected tastiness when selecting portions within a range of six commercial pizzas varying in their toppings and brands. For each product, 63 pizza consumers selected a portion size that would satisfy them for lunch and scored their expected satiation, perceived healthfulness and expected tastiness. As six participants selected an entire pizza as ideal portion independently of topping or brand, their data sets were not considered in the data analyses completed on responses from 57 participants. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that portion size variance was predicted by perceived healthiness and expected tastiness variables. Two sub-groups of participants with different portion size patterns across pizzas were identified through post-hoc exploratory analysis. The explanatory power of the regression model was significantly improved by adding interaction terms between sub-group and expected satiation variables and between sub-group and perceived healthfulness variables to the model. Analysis at a sub-group level showed either positive or negative association between portion size and expected satiation depending on sub-groups. For one group, portion size selection was more health-driven and for the other, more hedonic-driven. These results showed that even when considering a well-liked product category, perceived healthfulness can be an important factor influencing portion size decision. Copyright © 2016

  18. Reasons for the Fast Growing Seawater Desalination Capacity in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2011-05-24

    Seawater/brackish water desalination has been widely adopted by the Algerian Government in the last few years to supply potable water to municipality for various purposes mainly for domestic and industrial uses especially in areas where demand is high due to shortage of fresh water resources, rapid population growth and development of industry and tourism. Ten years ago, desalination was confined to the industrial use only especially in oil and gas industry as the country was relying on rain water and other available sources to supply fresh water to municipalities. Due to chronic drought conditions, the Ministry of Water Resources reviewed the national water strategy and a strong option for desalination was adopted where an ambitious program was thus put into action. Sixteen mega-plants, with capacities ranging from 100,000 to 500,000 m3 per day, primarily based on Reverse Osmosis technology, were launched in the last few years making the Algerian desalination program one of the world\\'s fastest growing markets. Five desalination plants, including the Africa\\'s largest seawater reverse osmosis project with a total capacity of 200,000 m3 per day, are already in operation and the remaining projects are either under construction or in commissioning. An integrated water resources management was also adopted as additional option to cuter the increasing water demand as there is also a great potential for water reuse and conventional water treatment. An additional benefit of this would be reducing the volume of treated wastewater disposed into the environment. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. View the label before you view the movie: a field experiment into the impact of portion size and Guideline Daily Amounts labelling on soft drinks in cinemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Leeuwis, Franca H; Bos, Arjan E R; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C

    2011-06-06

    Large soft drink sizes increase consumption, and thereby contribute to obesity. Portion size labelling may help consumers to select more appropriate food portions. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of portion size and caloric Guidelines for Daily Amounts (GDA) labelling on consumers' portion size choices and consumption of regular soft drinks. A field experiment that took place on two subsequent evenings in a Dutch cinema. Participants (n = 101) were asked to select one of five different portion sizes of a soft drink. Consumers were provided with either portion size and caloric GDA labelling (experimental condition) or with millilitre information (control condition). Labelling neither stimulated participants to choose small portion sizes (OR = .75, p = .61, CI: .25 - 2.25), nor did labelling dissuade participants to choose large portion sizes (OR = .51, p = .36, CI: .12 - 2.15). Portion size and caloric GDA labelling were found to have no effect on soft drink intake. Further research among a larger group of participants combined with pricing strategies is required. The results of this study are relevant for the current public health debate on food labelling.

  20. Typical food portion sizes consumed by Australian adults: results from the 2011-12 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Wu, Jason H Y; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Flood, Victoria M; Gill, Tim; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Neal, Bruce; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-20

    Considerable evidence has associated increasing portion sizes with elevated obesity prevalence. This study examines typical portion sizes of commonly consumed core and discretionary foods in Australian adults, and compares these data with the Australian Dietary Guidelines standard serves. Typical portion sizes are defined as the median amount of foods consumed per eating occasion. Sex- and age-specific median portion sizes of adults aged 19 years and over (n = 9341) were analysed using one day 24 hour recall data from the 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. A total of 152 food categories were examined. There were significant sex and age differences in typical portion sizes among a large proportion of food categories studied. Typical portion sizes of breads and cereals, meat and chicken cuts, and starchy vegetables were 30-160% larger than the standard serves, whereas, the portion sizes of dairy products, some fruits, and non-starchy vegetables were 30-90% smaller. Typical portion sizes for discretionary foods such as cakes, ice-cream, sausages, hamburgers, pizza, and alcoholic drinks exceeded the standard serves by 40-400%. The findings of the present study are particularly relevant for establishing Australian-specific reference portions for dietary assessment tools, refinement of nutrition labelling and public health policies.

  1. Typical food portion sizes consumed by Australian adults: results from the 2011–12 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Wu, Jason H Y; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Flood, Victoria M; Gill, Tim; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Neal, Bruce; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has associated increasing portion sizes with elevated obesity prevalence. This study examines typical portion sizes of commonly consumed core and discretionary foods in Australian adults, and compares these data with the Australian Dietary Guidelines standard serves. Typical portion sizes are defined as the median amount of foods consumed per eating occasion. Sex- and age-specific median portion sizes of adults aged 19 years and over (n = 9341) were analysed using one day 24 hour recall data from the 2011–12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. A total of 152 food categories were examined. There were significant sex and age differences in typical portion sizes among a large proportion of food categories studied. Typical portion sizes of breads and cereals, meat and chicken cuts, and starchy vegetables were 30–160% larger than the standard serves, whereas, the portion sizes of dairy products, some fruits, and non-starchy vegetables were 30–90% smaller. Typical portion sizes for discretionary foods such as cakes, ice-cream, sausages, hamburgers, pizza, and alcoholic drinks exceeded the standard serves by 40–400%. The findings of the present study are particularly relevant for establishing Australian-specific reference portions for dietary assessment tools, refinement of nutrition labelling and public health policies. PMID:26786684

  2. Typical food portion sizes consumed by Australian adults: results from the 2011-12 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zheng, Miaobing; Wu, Jason H Y; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Flood, Victoria M; Gill, Tim; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Neal, Bruce; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    .... This study examines typical portion sizes of commonly consumed core and discretionary foods in Australian adults, and compares these data with the Australian Dietary Guidelines standard serves...

  3. View the label before you view the movie: A field experiment into the impact of Portion size and Guideline Daily Amounts labelling on soft drinks in cinemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Large soft drink sizes increase consumption, and thereby contribute to obesity. Portion size labelling may help consumers to select more appropriate food portions. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of portion size and caloric Guidelines for Daily Amounts (GDA) labelling on consumers' portion size choices and consumption of regular soft drinks. Methods A field experiment that took place on two subsequent evenings in a Dutch cinema. Participants (n = 101) were asked to select one of five different portion sizes of a soft drink. Consumers were provided with either portion size and caloric GDA labelling (experimental condition) or with millilitre information (control condition). Results Labelling neither stimulated participants to choose small portion sizes (OR = .75, p = .61, CI: .25 - 2.25), nor did labelling dissuade participants to choose large portion sizes (OR = .51, p = .36, CI: .12 - 2.15). Conclusions Portion size and caloric GDA labelling were found to have no effect on soft drink intake. Further research among a larger group of participants combined with pricing strategies is required. The results of this study are relevant for the current public health debate on food labelling. PMID:21645373

  4. View the label before you view the movie: A field experiment into the impact of Portion size and Guideline Daily Amounts labelling on soft drinks in cinemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Boer Michiel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large soft drink sizes increase consumption, and thereby contribute to obesity. Portion size labelling may help consumers to select more appropriate food portions. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of portion size and caloric Guidelines for Daily Amounts (GDA labelling on consumers' portion size choices and consumption of regular soft drinks. Methods A field experiment that took place on two subsequent evenings in a Dutch cinema. Participants (n = 101 were asked to select one of five different portion sizes of a soft drink. Consumers were provided with either portion size and caloric GDA labelling (experimental condition or with millilitre information (control condition. Results Labelling neither stimulated participants to choose small portion sizes (OR = .75, p = .61, CI: .25 - 2.25, nor did labelling dissuade participants to choose large portion sizes (OR = .51, p = .36, CI: .12 - 2.15. Conclusions Portion size and caloric GDA labelling were found to have no effect on soft drink intake. Further research among a larger group of participants combined with pricing strategies is required. The results of this study are relevant for the current public health debate on food labelling.

  5. Growing, Growing, Gone: Cascades, Diffusion, and Turning Points in the Product Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Peter N. Golder; Gerard J. Tellis

    2004-01-01

    Research on the product life cycle (PLC) has focused primarily on the role of diffusion. This study takes a broader theoretical perspective on the PLC by incorporating informational cascades and developing and testing many new hypotheses based on this theory. On average, across 30 product categories, the authors find that: (i) New consumer durables have a typical pattern of rapid growth of 45% per year over 8 years. (ii) This period of growth is followed by a slowdown when sales decline by 15...

  6. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  8. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  9. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  10. Challenges of the growing African cement market – environmental issues, regulative framework, and quality infrastructure requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The African cement, concrete and construction business is growing at rapid pace. The cement sales are expected to grow rapidly until 2050. The number of newly built cement plants increases dramatically and in addition more cements are being imported from outside the continent, e.g. from Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia, and China, driven by overcapacities in the countries of origin. This causes a high number of potentials and challenges at the same time. Newly built cement plants can operate directly at best technological state of the art and thus incorporate more sustainable technologies as well as produce new and more sustainable products such as cements blended with sustainable supplementary cementitious materials such as calcined clays, and industrial or agricultural by products. At the same time the new variety of binding agent as well as the international imports, which are driven by price considerations, make the cement market prone to quality scatter. This puts pressure on the quality control regulations and institutions to ensure safety of construction, healthy application, and environmental safety for the population. The paper presents possible solutions to build up the rapidly increasing African cement production more sustainably than in the rest of the world as well as the related challenges and obstacles that need to be overcome. Based on experiences with a series of pan-African cement testing laboratory proficiency schemes conclusions are made on technical, regulative and political level.

  11. CRACK TIP OPENING DISPLACEMENT AND ANGLE FOR A GROWING CRACK IN CARBON STEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAM, POH-SANG

    2005-01-18

    The crack tip opening displacements and angles (CTOD/CTOA) are calculated with finite element method based on the test data of a set of constraint-dependent J-R curves for A285 carbon steel. The values of the CTOD/CTOA are initially high at initiation, but rapidly decrease to a nearly constant value. When the common practice is adopted by using only the constant part of CTOD/CTOA as the fracture criterion, the crack growth behavior is shown to be severely underestimated. However, with a bilinear form of CTOD/CTOA fracture criterion which approximates the initial non-constant portion, the experimental load vs. crack extension curves can be closely predicted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the CTOD/CTOA is crack tip constraint dependent. The values of CTOD/CTOA for specimens with various ratios of crack length to specimen width (a/W) are reflected by the J-R curves and their slopes.

  12. Particles Growing in Solutions: Depletion Forces and Instability of Homogeneous Particle Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    Crystallites, droplets and amorphous precipitates growing from supersaturated solution are surrounded by zones, which are depleted with respect to the molecules they are built of. If two such particles of colloidal size are separated by a distance comparable to their diameters, then the depletion within the gap between particles is deeper than that at the outer portion of the particles. This will cause depletion attraction between the particles should appear. It may cause particle coagulation and decay of the originally homogeneous particle distribution into a system of clouds within which the particle number density is higher, separated by the region of the lower number density. Stability criterion, Q = 4 pi R(exp 3)c/3 >> 1, was analytically found along with typical particle density distribution wavevector q = (Q/I)(exp 1/2)(a/R)(exp 1/4). Here, R and a are the particle and molecular radii, respectively, c is the average molecular number density in solution and I is the squared diffusion length covered by a molecule during a typical time characterizing decay of molecular concentration in solution due to consumption of the molecules by the growing particles.

  13. Ethanol distribution, dispensing, and use: analysis of a portion of the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain using system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  14. Ethanol Distribution, Dispensing, and Use: Analysis of a Portion of the Biomass-to-Biofuels Supply Chain Using System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain–represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner’s decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer’s choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  15. Ethanol distribution, dispensing, and use: analysis of a portion of the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain using system dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Vimmerstedt

    Full Text Available The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets include the need for infrastructure for distribution and

  16. Expression of the Carboxy-Terminal Portion of MUC16/CA125 Induces Transformation and Tumor Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapi D Rao

    Full Text Available The CA125 antigen is found in the serum of many patients with serous ovarian cancer and has been widely used as a disease marker. CA125 has been shown to be an independent factor for clinical outcome in this disease. In The Cancer Genome Atlas ovarian cancer project, MUC16 expression levels are frequently increased, and the highest levels of MUC16 expression are linked to a significantly worse survival. To examine the biologic effect of the proximal portion of MUC16/CA125, NIH/3T3 (3T3 fibroblast cell lines were stably transfected with the carboxy elements of MUC16. As few as 114 amino acids from the carboxy-terminal portion of MUC16 were sufficient to increase soft agar growth, promote matrigel invasion, and increase the rate of tumor growth in athymic nude mice. Transformation with carboxy elements of MUC16 was associated with activation of the AKT and ERK pathways. MUC16 transformation was associated with up-regulation of a number of metastases and invasion gene transcripts, including IL-1β, MMP2, and MMP9. All observed oncogenic changes were exclusively dependent on the extracellular "ectodomain" of MUC16. The biologic impact of MUC16 was also explored through the creation of a transgenic mouse model expressing 354 amino acids of the carboxy-terminal portion of MUC16 (MUC16c354. Under a CMV, early enhancer plus chicken β actin promoter (CAG MUC16c354 was well expressed in many organs, including the brain, colon, heart, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, and spleen. MUC16c354 transgenic animals appear to be viable, fertile, and have a normal lifespan. However, when crossed with p53-deficient mice, the MUC16c354:p53+/- progeny displayed a higher frequency of spontaneous tumor development compared to p53+/- mice alone. We conclude that the carboxy-terminal portion of the MUC16/CA125 protein is oncogenic in NIH/3T3 cells, increases invasive tumor properties, activates the AKT and ERK pathways, and contributes to the biologic properties of ovarian

  17. Environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle: a task force report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, W.P.; Miraglia, F.J. Jr. (eds.)

    1976-10-01

    This Supplement deals with the reprocessing and waste management portions of the nuclear fuel cycle for uranium-fueled reactors. The scope of the report is limited to the illumination of fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, and examination of the environmental impacts caused by these activities on a per-reactor basis. The approach is to select one realistic reprocessing and waste management system and to treat it in enough depth to illuminate the issues involved, the technology available, and the relationships of these to the nuclear fuel cycle in general and its environmental impacts.

  18. A Major Portion of DNA Gyrase Inhibitor Microcin B17 Undergoes an N,O-Peptidyl Shift during Synthesis*

    OpenAIRE

    Ghilarov, Dmitry; Serebryakova, Marina; Shkundina, Irina; Severinov, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Microcin B17 (McB) is a 43-amino acid antibacterial peptide targeting the DNA gyrase. The McB precursor is ribosomally produced and then post-translationally modified by the McbBCD synthase. Active mature McB contains eight oxazole and thiazole heterocycles. Here, we show that a major portion of mature McB contains an additional unusual modification, a backbone ester bond connecting McB residues 51 and 52. The modification results from an N → O shift of the Ser52 residue located immediately d...

  19. Heterogeneous recruitment of quadriceps muscle portions and fibre types during moderate intensity knee-extensor exercise: effect of thigh occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Söderlund, Karin; Relu, Mihai U.

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without...... (MOD; 29+/-4 W) and with thigh OCC, and moderate exercise followed by 90-s of intense exercise (HI; 65+/-8 W). Temperatures were continuously measured in m. vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) and successive muscle biopsies were obtained from VL. During MOD, muscle...

  20. Tumoral Obstruction of the Third Portion of the Duodenum and Eosinophilic Ascites in a Patient with Cryptogenic Cirrhosis (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yazdanbod

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by focal or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal system. The clinical presentation is depending on the involved area and its extension into the layers of the gastrointestinal tract. We repor ted a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in the setting of cryptogenic cirrhosis which initially appeared as a tumoral obstruction of the 3rd portion of duodenum which is relieved by surgical bypass and two years later presented as eosinophilic ascitis. The patient was treated with corticosteroid with full absorption of ascitis.

  1. Leadership Makes a Difference Growing Federal Civilian Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-22

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t LEADERSHIP MAKES A DIFFERENCE : GROWING FEDERAL CIVILIAN LEADERS BY MS. ALICE MUELLERWEISS...to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leadership Makes a Difference Growing Federal Civilian Leaders 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Education Accreditation. USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT LEADERSHIP MAKES A DIFFERENCE : GROWING FEDERAL CIVILIAN LEADERS by

  2. Olive-Growing in Italy: Economic and Multifunctional Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Lanfranchi; Carlo Giannetto

    2012-01-01

    Olive-growing in Italy represents a particularly qualified and appreciated field in food-processing productions. The relevant interrelations with the history, landscape, environment and culture of our country make olive-growing particularly important not only for the economy of rural areas but also for the positive effects on landscape and surrounding environment. In fact olive-growing is defining itself more and more as a multifunctional enterprise. The presence of olive growers is also emph...

  3. Wood biomass potentials in Brandenburg - growing competition between industry timber and energy wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasse, D. (CEBra - Centre for Energy Technology Brandenburg GmbH, Cottbus (Germany)); Laufer, S. (University of Applied Sciences Eberswalde (Germany))

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents a survey of dramatic timber market developments in recent years. It shows the significant increase of wood processing capacities in Brandenburg and neighbouring regions and the expansion of the wood energy branch at the same time which fostered a growing competition between the industrial and energetic use of wood. The comparison between the annual timber consumption and the annual timber yield potential in Brandenburg forests reflects a widening gap which cannot be covered by conventional means of forestry management. This gap amounted to 1 million m3 in 2006 and will probably double in 2007. Rapidly growing is the importance of wood from short rotation coppices on agricultural set-aside fields and former open cast mining areas. The development of alternative land use systems for the sustainable production of energy wood is a main focus of several R and D projects in Brandenburg. (orig.)

  4. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  5. Multifork chromosome replication in slow-growing bacteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damian Trojanowski; Joanna Holówka; Katarzyna Ginda; Dagmara Jakimowicz; Jolanta Zakrzewska-czerwinska

    2017-01-01

    .... Thus, newborn cells inherit partially duplicated chromosomes. This phenomenon, which is termed multifork replication, occurs among fast-growing bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis...

  6. Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for rapid brain tumor histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid histology of brain tissues with sufficient diagnostic information has the great potential to aid neurosurgeons during operations. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS microscopy is an emerging label-free imaging technique, with the intrinsic chemical resolutions to delineate brain tumors from normal tissues without the need of time-consuming tissue processing. Growing number of studies have shown SRS as a “virtual histology” tool for rapid diagnosis of various types of brain tumors. In this review, we focus on the basic principles and current developments of SRS microscopy, as well as its applications for brain tumor imaging.

  7. Brain regions implicated in inhibitory control and appetite regulation are activated in response to food portion size and energy density in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    English, L.K.; Fearnbach, S.N.; Lasschuijt, M.; Schlegel, A.; Anderson, K.; Harris, S.; Fisher, J.O.; Savage, J.S.; Rolls, B.J.; Keller, K.L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Large portions of energy-dense foods drive energy intake but the brain mechanisms underlying this effect are not clear. Our main objective was to investigate brain function in response to food images varied by portion size (PS) and energy density (ED) in children using functional

  8. Trends in Food and Beverage Portion Sizes in Australian Children; a Time-Series Analysis Comparing 2007 and 2011–2012 National Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne van der Bend

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2012 approximately 26% of Australian children aged between 5–17 years were reported to be overweight or obese. Furthermore, the increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children parallels reported increases in energy intake and portion sizes of common foods, leading to the recognition that availability of larger portion sizes contributes to the rise in overweight and obesity prevalence. Thus, the aim of this time-series analysis was to investigate whether selected food portion sizes in Australian children aged 2–16 years changed between 2007 and 2011–2012. Portion size data from 24-h recalls collected in Australian nutrition surveys were compared between 2007 and 2011–2012. Portion sizes changed significantly in 23% of items with increases in 15% and decreases in 8%. Changes in portion sizes varied by age, sex, and food group. Changes occurred for many meat-based items, energy-dense, nutrient-poor food items, breads, cereals, and some fruits and vegetables. Vegetable and fruit portion sizes were below the respective serving sizes of 75 g and 150 g in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, while portion sizes of some energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods have increased. These findings suggest approaches to increasing consumption of nutrient-dense core foods and reducing energy-dense, nutrient-poor food items in children are warranted.

  9. Trends from the Merit-Based Portion of the Tennessee Education Lottery Scholarship for Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Religiously Focused Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Aaron A.; Colson, Tori L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the trends in enrollment numbers and academic quality of first-year Tennessee students on the merit-based portion of the Tennessee Education Lottery Scholarship (TELS) upon HBCU's and religiously focused institutions in Tennessee from 2005-2014. The researchers hypothesized that the merit-based portion of the TELS was a…

  10. Trends in Food and Beverage Portion Sizes in Australian Children; a Time-Series Analysis Comparing 2007 and 2011-2012 National Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bend, Daphne; Bucher, Tamara; Schumacher, Tracy L; Collins, Kate; De Vlieger, Nienke; Rollo, Megan; Burrows, Tracy L; Watson, Jane F; Collins, Clare E

    2017-08-04

    In 2011-2012 approximately 26% of Australian children aged between 5-17 years were reported to be overweight or obese. Furthermore, the increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children parallels reported increases in energy intake and portion sizes of common foods, leading to the recognition that availability of larger portion sizes contributes to the rise in overweight and obesity prevalence. Thus, the aim of this time-series analysis was to investigate whether selected food portion sizes in Australian children aged 2-16 years changed between 2007 and 2011-2012. Portion size data from 24-h recalls collected in Australian nutrition surveys were compared between 2007 and 2011-2012. Portion sizes changed significantly in 23% of items with increases in 15% and decreases in 8%. Changes in portion sizes varied by age, sex, and food group. Changes occurred for many meat-based items, energy-dense, nutrient-poor food items, breads, cereals, and some fruits and vegetables. Vegetable and fruit portion sizes were below the respective serving sizes of 75 g and 150 g in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating, while portion sizes of some energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods have increased. These findings suggest approaches to increasing consumption of nutrient-dense core foods and reducing energy-dense, nutrient-poor food items in children are warranted.

  11. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  12. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  13. Metabolomic response of Calotropis procera growing in the desert to changes in water availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ramadan

    Full Text Available Water availability is a major limitation for agricultural productivity. Plants growing in severe arid climates such as deserts provide tools for studying plant growth and performance under extreme drought conditions. The perennial species Calotropis procera used in this study is a shrub growing in many arid areas which has an exceptional ability to adapt and be productive in severe arid conditions. We describe the results of studying the metabolomic response of wild C procera plants growing in the desert to a one time water supply. Leaves of C. procera plants were taken at three time points before and 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after watering and subjected to a metabolomics and lipidomics analysis. Analysis of the data reveals that within one hour after watering C. procera has already responded on the metabolic level to the sudden water availability as evidenced by major changes such as increased levels of most amino acids, a decrease in sucrose, raffinose and maltitol, a decrease in storage lipids (triacylglycerols and an increase in membrane lipids including photosynthetic membranes. These changes still prevail at the 6 hour time point after watering however 12 hours after watering the metabolomics data are essentially indistinguishable from the prewatering state thus demonstrating not only a rapid response to water availability but also a rapid response to loss of water. Taken together these data suggest that the ability of C. procera to survive under the very harsh drought conditions prevailing in the desert might be associated with its rapid adjustments to water availability and losses.

  14. Lessons Learned from Applying Design Thinking in a NASA Rapid Design Study in Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria; Bakula, Casey; Castner, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    In late 2015, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an experiment in rapid design and rapid teaming to explore new approaches to solving challenging design problems in aeronautics in an effort to cultivate and foster innovation. This report summarizes several lessons learned from the rapid design portion of the study. This effort entailed learning and applying design thinking, a human-centered design approach, to complete the conceptual design for an open-ended design challenge within six months. The design challenge focused on creating a capability to advance experimental testing of autonomous aeronautics systems, an area of great interest to NASA, the US government as a whole, and an entire ecosystem of users and developers around the globe. A team of nine civil servant researchers from three of NASA's aeronautics field centers with backgrounds in several disciplines was assembled and rapidly trained in design thinking under the guidance of the innovation and design firm IDEO. The design thinking process, while used extensively outside the aerospace industry, is less common and even counter to many practices within the aerospace industry. In this report, several contrasts between common aerospace research and development practices and design thinking are discussed, drawing upon the lessons learned from the NASA rapid design study. The lessons discussed included working towards a design solution without a set of detailed design requirements, which may not be practical or even feasible for management to ascertain for complex, challenging problems. This approach allowed for the possibility of redesigning the original problem statement to better meet the needs of the users. Another lesson learned was to approach problems holistically from the perspective of the needs of individuals that may be affected by advances in topic area instead of purely from a technological feasibility viewpoint. The interdisciplinary nature of the design team also

  15. Duplicate portion sampling combined with spectrophotometric analysis affords the most accurate results when assessing daily dietary phosphorus intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Zambrano, Esmeralda; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Agil, Ahmad; Olalla, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    The assessment of daily dietary phosphorus (P) intake is a major concern in human nutrition because of its relationship with Ca and Mg metabolism and osteoporosis. Within this context, we hypothesized that several of the methods available for the assessment of daily dietary intake of P are equally accurate and reliable, although few studies have been conducted to confirm this. The aim of this study then was to evaluate daily dietary P intake, which we did by 3 methods: duplicate portion sampling of 108 hospital meals, combined either with spectrophotometric analysis or the use of food composition tables, and 24-hour dietary recall for 3 consecutive days plus the use of food composition tables. The mean P daily dietary intakes found were 1106 ± 221, 1480 ± 221, and 1515 ± 223 mg/d, respectively. Daily dietary intake of P determined by spectrophotometric analysis was significantly lower (P < .001) and closer to dietary reference intakes for adolescents aged from 14 to 18 years (88.5%) and adult subjects (158.1%) compared with the other 2 methods. Duplicate portion sampling with P analysis takes into account the influence of technological and cooking processes on the P content of foods and meals and therefore afforded the most accurate and reliable P daily dietary intakes. The use of referred food composition tables overestimated daily dietary P intake. No adverse effects in relation to P nutrition (deficiencies or toxic effects) were encountered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gas turbine engine adapted for use in combination with an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from compressed air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Robert J [Oviedo, FL; Horazak, Dennis A [Orlando, FL

    2012-03-06

    A gas turbine engine is provided comprising an outer shell, a compressor assembly, at least one combustor assembly, a turbine assembly and duct structure. The outer shell includes a compressor section, a combustor section, an intermediate section and a turbine section. The intermediate section includes at least one first opening and at least one second opening. The compressor assembly is located in the compressor section to define with the compressor section a compressor apparatus to compress air. The at least one combustor assembly is coupled to the combustor section to define with the combustor section a combustor apparatus. The turbine assembly is located in the turbine section to define with the turbine section a turbine apparatus. The duct structure is coupled to the intermediate section to receive at least a portion of the compressed air from the compressor apparatus through the at least one first opening in the intermediate section, pass the compressed air to an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from the compressed air to produced vitiated compressed air and return the vitiated compressed air to the intermediate section via the at least one second opening in the intermediate section.

  17. News Media Framing of New York City’s Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Portion-Size Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna E.; Truant, Patricia L.; Rutkow, Lainie; Kanarek, Norma F.; Barry, Colleen L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed news media framing of New York City’s proposed regulation to prohibit the sale of sugar-sweetened beverages greater than 16 ounces. Methods. We conducted a quantitative content analysis of print and television news from within and outside New York City media markets. We examined support for and opposition to the portion-size cap in the news coverage from its May 31, 2012, proposal through the appellate court ruling on July 31, 2013. Results. News coverage corresponded to key events in the policy’s evolution. Although most stories mentioned obesity as a problem, a larger proportion used opposing frames (84%) than pro-policy frames (36%). Mention of pro-policy frames shifted toward the policy’s effect on special populations. The debate’s most prominent frame was the opposing frame that the policy was beyond the government’s role (69%). Conclusions. News coverage within and outside the New York City media market was more likely to mention arguments in opposition to than in support of the portion-size cap. Understanding how the news media framed this issue provides important insights for advocates interested in advancing similar measures in other jurisdictions. PMID:26378853

  18. Rapid genetic detection of ingested Amanita phalloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausterer, Christian; Penker, Martina; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Stein, Christina; Stimpfl, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Mushrooms are often poorly digested by humans. Thus, their remains (tissues, spores) may persist in the gastrointestinal tract and can be detected in feces several days after mushroom consumption. In this report, we present protocols for the rapid PCR-based detection of fungal traces in a variety of complex samples. Novel primers were designed to amplify portions of ribosomal DNA from deadly poisonous European members of the genus Amanita, namely the death cap (A. phalloides), the destroying angel (A. virosa) and the fool's mushroom (A. verna), respectively. Assay sensitivity was sufficient to discover diluted DNA traces in amounts below the genomic content of a single target mushroom cell. Specificity testing was performed with DNA extracts from a variety of mushroom species. Template amplification was exclusively observed with intended targets and it was not compromised by a vast excess of non-target DNA (i.e. DNA from human and human fecal origin, respectively). A series of experiments was conducted with prepared specimens in order to follow the course of mushroom food processing and digestion. Amplification by direct PCR was successful with raw, fried and digested mixed mushrooms. To improve assay performance with fecal samples, a rapid protocol for sample pre-processing (including water-ether sedimentation and bead beating) and a modified PCR reaction mix were applied. Thereby, it was possible to detect the presence of A. phalloides DNA in spiked feces as well as in clinical samples (vomit, stool) from two independent cases of suspected mushroom poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

  20. The environmental pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans grows in amphibian cells at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drancourt, Michel; Jarlier, Vincent; Raoult, Didier

    2002-12-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans, the etiological agent of Buruli ulcers, is an environmental pathogen. We cultivated it in an amphibian (XTC-2) cell line that grows at 28 degrees C. By counting of Ziehl-Neelsen-stained mycobacteria and by quantitative PCR analysis, we found that M. ulcerans multiplies rapidly in association with XTC-2 cells. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of intracellular M. ulcerans microorganisms. These data suggest an intracellular environmental niche, and we propose use of XTC-2 cells for isolation of M. ulcerans from environmental sources.

  1. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2006-01-01

    All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would...... transmission mode among Macrotermes species implies that vertical symbiont transmission can evolve rapidly. The unexpected finding of horizontal transmission makes the apparent absence of Termitomyces mushrooms on M. natalensis mounds puzzling. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of the genetic...

  2. Sugarcane boiler ash as an amendment for soilless growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, research was conducted to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) as an amendment to soilless planting media for the production of vegetable seedlings. Typically, the eleven Louisiana sugarcane mills use a portion of the sugarcane bagasse for fuel, producing over 60,000 tons of S...

  3. Using aerial photography for mapping giant reed infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and...

  4. Mapping giant reed (Arundo donax) infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested...

  5. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  6. Effects of Temperature and Growing Seasons on Crop Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: Water savings can be improved through reducing agricultural water consumption. The crop water requirement (CWR) depends on several factors including temperature and growing seasons. This study investigated the effects of temperature and growing seasons on CWR in Saudi Arabia. Increase in ...

  7. The effect of lumbosacral manipulation on growing pains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid de Beer

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The results from this study, specifically the feedback from parent(s/guardians(s and the pain diaries, indicated that spinal manipulation is beneficial in the treatment of growing pains. The results also showed that other methods of treating growing pains, such as simple leg rubs, may also bring relief.

  8. The suitability evaluation of lignocellulosic substrate as growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... The use of peat moss (PM) as a growing media is decreasing due to high costs and environmental considerations. ... hinoki wood sawdust and rice hull) in order to evaluate their use as components of growing media. Lignocellulosic ... polyortanphome, zeolite, coco peat and sawdust are used as growth ...

  9. Using water wisely to feed growing cities | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tunisia is helping to feed its growing cities by developing more efficient and sustainable agriculture that uses rainwater and recycled urban wastewater. The article Optimising Use of Water for Urban Agriculture: Responding to the challenge of growing water scarcity in Tunisia by Boubaker Houman and Bouraoui Moez, ...

  10. Evolution of Communicative Competence in Adolescents Growing up in Orphanages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribakova, Laysan A.; Parfilova, Gulfia G.; Karimova, Lilya Sh.; Karimova, Raushan B.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes features of the communicative competence evolution in adolescents growing up in orphanages. The specificity is revealed and definition is given to key concept of the research, namely "communicative competence". Authors emphasize and demonstrate the evaluation peculiarities of the adolescents, growing up in…

  11. Responses of Calathea species in different growing media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIHORT), Ibadan to investigate the most suitable medium for the growing of Calathea species. Four Calathea species namely: C. ornata; C.nigerica; C. princeps and C.zebrina, were planted each in three growing media made up of top soil; top ...

  12. The growth performance of growing pigs during feed restriction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... The growth performance of growing pigs during feed ... alimentation study to evaluate the effect of restricting growing pigs at 90, 80 and 70% of the ad libitum ... Data on the body length (BL) and height at shoulders (HS) followed the same trend as observed for ADG. Feed intakes of pigs were significantly ...

  13. Growing media alternatives for forest and native plant nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Nancy Morgan

    2009-01-01

    The choice of growing medium, along with container type, is one of the critical decisions that must be made when starting a nursery. The first growing medium was called "compost" and was developed in the 1930s at the John Innes Horticultural Institute in Great Britain. It consisted of a loam soil that was amended with peat moss, sand, and fertilizers (Bunt...

  14. Effects of Charcoal Inclusion on the Performance of Growing Rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of charcoal inclusion in the diet of growing rabbits fed Acacia pod meal (APM) diet. Eighteen (18) growing rabbits of mixed breeds (give the crosses) and sexes with an average initial weight of 5202±0.25g were used for this study in a completely randomized design, ...

  15. Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) Frequently ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alejandra

    Access to journals, academic library, internet and reference management software. • Access to statistical software packages for meta-analysis or software packages for qualitative data analysis are an advantage. Does GrOW promote certain review methods and approaches? GrOW will take a broad perspective on the types ...

  16. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an 84 days feeding trial, the effect of feeding bacterial protein meal (BPM) either as a replacement for fish meal or for groundnut cake meal in growing rabbits was examined. A total of 20 growing rabbits having an initial body weight of 617.2 (standard error 25) g were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments. A control ...

  17. Engineering a wild fast-growing Mycoplasma bacterium to generate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... To develop a fast growing CCPP vaccine for cheaper production and long term protection, cutting edge synthetic biotechnology tools will be used to delete harmful and nonessential genes from a fast growing bacterium isolated from wild goats. These genes will be replaced by CCPP protective vaccine ...

  18. Assessment of the Growing Season over the Unimodal Rainfall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most part of Tanzania experiences unimodal rainfall. The characteristics of rainfall such as its onset and cessation dates, dry and wet spell lengths, frequency and number of rainy days can be, used to determine the nature of growing season length of growing season end of season and its geographical variation both ...

  19. Assessment of the Growing Season Regime Region of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cessation dates, dry and wet spell lengths, frequency and number of rainy days can be, used to determine the nature of growing season; length of ... Key words: Agrometeorology, dry spells: growing season, Tanzania, unimodal rainfall. Introduction ..... most statistical' text books and in Okoola and. Salano (2002). Positive ...

  20. Profitability of Eucalyptus growing in Busiro, Mpigi District, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The worthiness of investments in eucalyptus growing has been determined using the net present value (NPV) criterion. It has been proved that investments in eucalyptus growing in perpetuity (forever) and being harvested on a four (4) year rotation period can earn a present value of a perpetual periodic annuity of Ug. shs ...