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Sample records for rapidly growing plant

  1. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  2. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  3. Management of Infections with Rapidly Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hwan Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM is not uncommon, andthe prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. Clinical diagnosis is difficult becausethere are no characteristic clinical features. There is also no standard antibiotic regimenfor treating RGM infection. A small series of patients with RGM infections was studied toexamine their treatments and outcomes.Methods A total of 5 patients who had developed postoperative infections from January2009 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially screened using amycobacteria rapid screening test (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-reverse blot hybridizationassay. To confirm mycobacterial infection, specimens were cultured for nontuberculousmycobacteria and analyzed by 16 S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene PCR.Results The patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization,and oral antibiotics were administered after discharge. The mean duration of follow-upwas 9 months, and all patients were completely cured of infection with a regimen of acombination of antibiotics plus surgical treatment. Although none of the patients developedrecurrence, there were complications at the site of infection, including hypertrophic scarring,pigmentation, and disfigurement.Conclusions Combination antibiotic therapy plus drainage of surgical abscesses appeared tobe effective for the RGM infections seen in our patients. Although neither the exact dosagenor a standardized regimen has been firmly established, we propose that our treatment canprovide an option for the management of rapidly growing mycobacterial infection.

  4. Growing pioneer plants for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N. O.; Lutvynenko, T. L.; Korniichuk, O. S.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Voznyuk, T. M.; Kononuchenko, O.; Zaetz, I.; Rogutskyy, I. S.; Mytrokhyn, O. V.; Mashkovska, S. P.; Foing, B. H.; Kordyum, V. A.

    A precursory scenario of cultivating the first plants in a lunar greenhouse was elaborated in frames of a conceptual study to grow plants for a permanently manned lunar base. A prototype plant growth system represents an ornamental plant Tagetes patula L. for growing in a lunar rock anorthosite as a substrate. Microbial community anticipated to be in use to support a growth and development of the plant in a substrate of low bioavailability and provide an acceptable growth and blossoming of T. patula under growth limiting conditions.

  5. Bioaugmentation in growing plants for lunar bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaets, I.; Burlak, O.; Rogutskyy, I.; Vasilenko, A.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Lukashov, D.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

    2011-03-01

    Microorganisms may be a key element in a precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for extraterrestrial exploration. They can be used for plant inoculation to leach nutritional elements from regolith, to alleviate lunar stressors, as well as to decompose both lunar rocks and the plant straw in order to form a protosoil. Bioleaching capacities of both French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) and the associated bacteria in contact with a lunar rock simulant (terrestrial anorthosite) were examined using the model plant-bacteria microcosms under controlled conditions. Marigold accumulated K, Na, Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr at higher concentrations in anorthosite compared to the podzol soil. Plants inoculated with the consortium of well-defined species of bacteria accumulated higher levels of K, Mg, and Mn, but lower levels of Ni, Cr, Zn, Na, Ca, Fe, which exist at higher levels in anorthosite. Bacteria also affected the Са/Mg and Fe/Mn ratios in the biomass of marigold grown on anorthosite. Despite their growth retardation, the inoculated plants had 15% higher weight on anorthosite than noninoculated plants. The data suggest that the bacteria supplied basic macro-and microelements to the model plant.

  6. Biomass accumulation in rapidly growing loblolly pine and sweetgum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Thomas M.; Gresham, Charles A. [Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, P.O. Box 596, Georgetown, SC 29442 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees, growing in International Paper Company's study of intensive management on marginal agricultural land near Bainbridge GA, were destructively sampled at the end of the sixth growing season. All trees were single family blocks of genetically superior trees planted 2.5m apart on sub-soiled rows 3.6m apart and grown with complete competition control. Management treatments were: control, irrigation, irrigation plus fertilization, and irrigation plus fertilization plus pest control. Tree measures were basal diameter, DBH, height of live crown, diameter at base of live crown, and total height. Twenty trees of each species were destructively sampled. Stems were sectioned at 1m intervals, stem diameter determined at each end and sections were weighed green. Branches were removed and height, basal diameter, and length were measured on each branch. Branches were separated into foliated and unfoliated segments and weighed green. A stem disk and branch from each meter were returned to the lab to determine dry weight: green weight ratio. Foliated limb: foliage ratios were also determined from sub-sampled branches. Intensive culture resulted in larger growth differences for sweetgum (most intensive treatment 9.5m tall, 13.1cm DBH; control trees 5.0m tall, 6.3cm DBH) than in pine (most intensive treatment 10.3m tall, 17.7cm DBH; control, 7.6m tall, 13.4cm DBH). The pipe model of tree development explained dimensions of the upper 5m of crown with leaf biomass highly correlated to branch basal area (r{sup 2} from 0.697 to 0.947). There was a constant ratio of leaf biomass to branch basal area (50gm/cm{sup 2} for pine, 30gm/cm{sup 2} for sweetgum). We also found a constant ratio of bole basal area to cumulative branch basal area throughout the crowns. Rapidly growing pines produced about 49Mgha{sup -1} of stem biomass, 11Mgha{sup -1} of dead branch biomass, and 17Mgha{sup -1} of unfoliated branch biomass at

  7. Neonatal airway obstruction caused by rapidly growing nasopharyngeal teratoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maartens, I.A.; Wassenberg, T.; Halbertsma, F.J.; Marres, H.A.M.; Andriessen, P.

    2009-01-01

    A case report is presented of a rapidly growing congenital nasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus) in a preterm infant, leading to severe upper airway obstruction. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography did not reveal the condition because the tumour masses were initially small and there was no

  8. Environmental and Social Programmes and Rapidly Growing Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter JONES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks to provide an exploratory review of the extent to which the world’s fastest growing retailers are publicly reporting on their environmental and social commitments and programmes. The paper begins with an outline discussion of corporate environmental and social programmes and on public reporting processes. The paper draws its empirical material from the most recent information on environmental and social commitments and programmes posted on the world’s top twenty fastest growing retailers’ corporate web sites. While the majority of the world’s top twenty fastest growing retailers provide some public information on their commitment to environmental and social programmes there is marked variation in the extent, the nature and the detail of that information. The findings suggest that the integration of environmental and social programmes is not one of the hallmarks of rapidly growing retailers and in part this reflects the fact that many of the selected retailers are trading within emergent markets where price and availability are the principal factors driving consumer buying behaviour.

  9. Diffuse-Illumination Systems for Growing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Ryan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture in both terrestrial and space-controlled environments relies heavily on artificial illumination for efficient photosynthesis. Plant-growth illumination systems require high photon flux in the spectral range corresponding with plant photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (400 700 nm), high spatial uniformity to promote uniform growth, and high energy efficiency to minimize electricity usage. The proposed plant-growth system takes advantage of the highly diffuse reflective surfaces on the interior of a sphere, hemisphere, or other nearly enclosed structure that is coated with highly reflective materials. This type of surface and structure uniformly mixes discrete light sources to produce highly uniform illumination. Multiple reflections from within the domelike structures are exploited to obtain diffuse illumination, which promotes the efficient reuse of photons that have not yet been absorbed by plants. The highly reflective surfaces encourage only the plant tissue (placed inside the sphere or enclosure) to absorb the light. Discrete light sources, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), are typically used because of their high efficiency, wavelength selection, and electronically dimmable properties. The light sources are arranged to minimize shadowing and to improve uniformity. Different wavelengths of LEDs (typically blue, green, and red) are used for photosynthesis. Wavelengths outside the PAR range can be added for plant diagnostics or for growth regulation

  10. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were ...

  11. Rapidly Growing Esophageal Carcinosarcoma Reduced by Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. It is generally treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to the protocols used for other esophageal cancers. However, the treatment of esophageal carcinosarcoma by radiotherapy alone before surgery has not been previously described. We report a patient with a rapidly growing esophageal carcinosarcoma that was efficiently reduced by neoadjuvant radiotherapy alone. A previously healthy 69-year-old man was admitted with dysphagia. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a small nodular polypoid lesion of about 10 mm in the middle esophagus. A second EGD 1 month later showed that the tumor had expanded into a huge mass. A biopsy specimen revealed that the tumor comprised squamous cell carcinoma with spindle cell components, and the tumor was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma which was diagnosed as stage I (T1bN0M0. Due to renal dysfunction, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy (40 Gy without chemotherapy. A third EGD 1 month later revealed remarkable tumor reduction. He then underwent total esophagectomy with regional lymph node dissection (pStage 0, pT1aN0M0. After surgical operation, the patient was followed up without adjuvant therapy. Whole body computed tomography revealed lung metastasis 14 months after surgery, and the patient died 2 months later. The neoadjuvant radiotherapy for esophageal carcinosarcoma was considered to have contributed to the subsequent surgery and his prolonged survival time. Thus, radiotherapy alone might be a suitable neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal carcinosarcomas.

  12. Assessment of selected native plants growing along Nairobi river for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of selected native plants growing along Nairobi river for uptake of copper, zinc and cadmium. ... 0.74 mg/Kg, Zn 16.53 ± 2.59 mg/Kg and Cd 2.57 ± 0.83 mg/Kg. Based on the results observed in the plants, Zn showed the largest accumulation and can be considered as one of the major pollutants of Nairobi River.

  13. Intraoral tumor with rapid growing. Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Cebrián-Carretero, Jose Luis; Gómez-García, Elena; del Castillo-Pardo de Vera, Jose Luis; del Val, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The appearance of an intraoral mass is common in our specialty. Most are benign lesions, but some are primary malignancies. Metastases account for less than 1% of all oral malignancies. An 86 year old woman was referred to our department with a large, asymptomatic, intraoral, fast-growing mass. She had no previous cancer history or other relevant physical findings. The radiology studies showed underlying bone erosion. The histological study showed a metastatic adenocarcinoma with a suspected origin in the abdomen. We were unable to identify it by non invasive diagnostic procedures. Given the patient's general status and despite the ominous prognosis of such lesions, we decided not to perform any aggressive therapy beyond removing the oral mass, in order to maintain her quality of life. There have been no local recurrences until this time.

  14. Soybeans Growing inside the Advanced Astroculture Plant Growth Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This composite image shows soybean plants growing in the Advanced Astroculture experiment aboard the International Space Station during June 11-July 2, 2002. DuPont is partnering with NASA and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to grow soybeans aboard the Space Station to find out if they have improved oil, protein, carbohydrates or secondary metabolites that could benefit farmers and consumers. Principal Investigators: Dr. Tom Corbin, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., a Dupont Company, with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa, and Dr. Weijia Zhou, Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  15. Formaldehyde removal by common indoor plant species and various growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Ahu; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2011-05-01

    Three porous materials (growstone, expanded clay and activated carbon) were evaluated as hydroponic growing media and for their individual ability to remove the indoor volatile organic compound formaldehyde under three conditions: growing medium alone, dry medium in a pot, and wet medium in a pot. The total percent-reduction of formaldehyde by each growing media was evaluated over a 10-h period. In all cases, activated carbon achieved the highest removal under the three conditions studied with average percent reductions measured at about 98%. Four common interior plants: Hedera helix (English ivy), Chrysanthemum morifolium (pot mum), Dieffenbachia compacta (dump cane) and Epipremnum aureum (golden pathos) growing in growstone were then tested for their ability to remove formaldehyde. The removal capacity of the aerial plant parts (AP), the root zone (RZ) and the entire plant (EP) growing in growstone were determined by exposing the relevant parts to gaseous formaldehyde (˜2000 μg m -3) in a closed chamber over a 24-h period. The removal efficiency between species and plant parts were compared by determining the time interval required to decrease about 2/3 of the total formaldehyde concentration reduction, T 2/3. The T 2/3 measured were 23, 30, 34 and 56 min for EP of C. morifolium, E. aureum, D. compacta and H. helix, respectively. The formaldehyde removal by the root zone was found to be more rapid than the removal by the aerial plant parts.

  16. From Kennedy, to Beyond: Growing Plants in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Cedric, II; Seck, Sokhana A.; Massa, Gioia D.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts cannot have their cake and eat it too, but what about growing a salad and eating it? As NASA continues to push the envelope on Space exploration and inhabitance the need for a fresh food source becomes more vital. The Life Support team at NASA is using a system developed by ORBITEC the VEGGIE, in which astronauts aboard the ISS, and potentially the Moon and Mars, will be capable of growing food. The introduction of plants not only gives astronauts a means of independently supplying food, but also recreation, oxygen replenishment and psychological benefits. The plants were grown in "pillows", the system used for growing plants within the VEGGIE. This test included 4 types of media mixtures that are composed of a clay based media called Arcilite and Fafard #2, which is a peat moss-based media ( <1 mm Arcilite, 1-2 mm of Arcilite, 1:1 <1 mm & 1-2 mm mixture and 1:1 Arcilite & Fafard mixture). Currently, 3 lettuce cultivars are being grown in 4 mixtures of media. Tests were being conducted to see which form of media has the ratio of best growth and least amount of microbes that are harmful. That is essential because a person's body becomes more susceptible to illness when they leave Earth. As a result, test must be conducted on the "pillow" system to assess the levels of microbial activity. The cultivars were tested at different stages during their growing process for microbes. Datum show that the mix of Fafard and Arcilite had the best growth, but also the most microbes. This was due to the fact that Fafard is an organic substance so it contains material necessary for microbes to live. Data suggest that the <1 mm Arcilite has an acceptable amount of growth and a lower level of microbes, because it is non-organic.

  17. Frequency of rapid growing mycobacteria among tuberculosis suspected patients in Basra-Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sulami, Amin A. Al; Taee, Asaad Al; Hasan, Zainab A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of rapid growing mycobacteria among tuberculosis suspected patients in Basra governorate and study their resistance to drugs. Methods...

  18. Antioxidant properties of some plants growing wild in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serteser, A.; Kargioglu, M.; Gok, V.; Bagci, Y.; Musa Ozcan, M.; Arslan, D.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of 50% aqueous methanol extracts of 38 plants growing in the Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey were evaluated by various antioxidant assay, including free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) scavenging and metal (Fe{sup 2}+) chelating activities. The methanolic fruit extracts of the Cornus and Morus species (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and DPPH scavenging activities, Fe{sup 2}+ chelating activity) and the methanolic leaf extracts of the Mentha species (DPPH scavenging activities) examined in the assay showed the strongest activities. These antioxidant properties depended on the concentration of samples. (Author) 30 refs.

  19. Plant tissue culture of fast-growing trees for phytoremediation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couselo, José Luis; Corredoira, Elena; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The ability of plants to remove pollutants from the environment is currently used in a simple and low-cost cleaning technology known as phytoremediation. Unfortunately, little is known about the metabolic pathways involved in the transformation of xenobiotic compounds and the ability of certain plants to tolerate, detoxify, and store high concentrations of heavy metals. Plant cell and tissue culture is considered an important tool for fundamental studies that provide information about the plant-contaminant relationships, help to predict plant responses to environmental contaminants, and improve the design of plants with enhanced characteristics for phytoremediation. Callus, cell suspensions, hairy roots, and shoot multiplication cultures are used to study the interactions between plants and pollutants under aseptic conditions. Many plant species have an inherent ability to accumulate/metabolize a variety of pollutants, but they normally produce little biomass. However, fast-growing trees are excellent candidates for phytoremediation because of their rapid growth, extensive root system, and high water uptake. This chapter outlines the in vitro plant production of both somaclonal variants and transgenic plants of Populus spp. that exhibit high tolerance to heavy metals.

  20. Evaluation of Various Culture Media for Detection of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Clair L; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Perry, Audrey; Jones, Amanda L; Cummings, Stephen P; Perry, John D; Hogardt, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to overgrowth by rapidly growing species that colonize the lungs of patients with CF. Extended incubation on Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as an expedient culture method for the isolation of rapidly growing NTM in this setting. The aim of this study was to assess five selective media designed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex, along with two media designed for the isolation of mycobacteria (rapidly growing mycobacteria [RGM] medium and Middlebrook 7H11 agar), for their abilities to isolate NTM. All seven media were challenged with 147 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria and 185 isolates belonging to other species. RGM medium was then compared with the most selective brand of BCSA for the isolation of NTM from 224 sputum samples from patients with CF. Different agars designed for the isolation of B. cepacia complex varied considerably in their inhibition of other bacteria and fungi. RGM medium supported the growth of all isolates of mycobacteria and was more selective than any other medium. NTM were recovered from 17 of 224 sputum samples using RGM medium, compared with only 7 samples using the most selective brand of BCSA (P = 0.023). RGM medium offers a superior option, compared to other selective agars, for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with CF. Furthermore, the convenience of using RGM medium enables routine screening for rapidly growing NTM in all submitted sputum samples from patients with CF. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. An automated system for rapid non-destructive enumeration of growing microbes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roanna London

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The power and simplicity of visual colony counting have made it the mainstay of microbiological analysis for more than 130 years. A disadvantage of the method is the long time required to generate visible colonies from cells in a sample. New rapid testing technologies generally have failed to maintain one or more of the major advantages of culture-based methods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a new technology and platform that uses digital imaging of cellular autofluorescence to detect and enumerate growing microcolonies many generations before they become visible to the eye. The data presented demonstrate that the method preserves the viability of the microcolonies it detects, thus enabling generation of pure cultures for microbial identification. While visual colony counting detects Escherichia coli colonies containing about 5x10(6 cells, the new imaging method detects E. coli microcolonies when they contain about 120 cells and microcolonies of the yeast Candida albicans when they contain only about 12 cells. We demonstrate that digital imaging of microcolony autofluorescence detects a broad spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes and present a model for predicting the time to detection for individual strains. Results from the analysis of environmental samples from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants containing a mixture of unidentified microbes demonstrate the method's improved test turnaround times. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates a new technology and automated platform that substantially shortens test times while maintaining key advantages of the current methods.

  2. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    KAUST Repository

    Boudsocq, Marie

    2015-08-27

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone mediating important stress-related processes. We recently unveiled an ABA-activated MAPK signaling module constituted of MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14. Unlike classical rapid MAPK activation, we showed that the activation of the new MAPK module is delayed and relies on the MAP3K protein synthesis. In this addendum, we discuss the role of this original and unexpected activation mechanism of MAPK cascades which suggests that MAPKs can regulate both early and longterm plant stress responses.

  3. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mass measles immunisation campaign, with a target coverage rate of 85 - 90%, was launched in Khayelitsha, a rapidly growing urban township in the Cape Town area. Cross-sectional surveys of the measles immunisation status of resident 6 - 23-month-old infants were conducted immediately before, immediately after, ...

  4. Development of the optical waveguide solar lighting system for space-based plant growing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Case, J A; Mankamyer, M

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the study on the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Lighting System for space-based plant growing. In the OW solar lighting system, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator, which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the plant growing units where the solar radiation from the optical fibers is defocused and directed to the plants for optimum intensity for plant growing. In this study, the laboratory OW solar lighting system was constructed and tested for plant growth. The OW system consists of: 1) tracking reflective concentrators; 2) the optical waveguide transmission line; and 3) the plant lighting device. Results of the performance tests and the plant growth tests of the OW solar lighting system showed that the OW system is a viable plant lighting system for growing plant in space.

  5. Growing media alternatives for forest and native plant nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Nancy Morgan

    2009-01-01

    The choice of growing medium, along with container type, is one of the critical decisions that must be made when starting a nursery. The first growing medium was called "compost" and was developed in the 1930s at the John Innes Horticultural Institute in Great Britain. It consisted of a loam soil that was amended with peat moss, sand, and fertilizers (Bunt...

  6. Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov., a rapidly growing bacterium isolated from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2017-10-01

    A strain representing a rapidly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating and non-pigmented species of the genus Mycobacterium, designated strain S-I-6T, was isolated from groundwater at Daejeon in Korea. The strain grew at temperatures between 10 and 37 °C (optimal growth at 25 °C), between pH 4.0 and 9.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNAgene, hsp65, rpoB and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer indicated that strain S-I-6T belonged to the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium sphagni. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the bacterial strain was distinguished from its phylogenetic neighbours by chemotaxonomic properties and other biochemical characteristics. DNA-DNA relatedness among strain S-I-6T and the closest phylogenetic neighbour strongly support the proposal that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-I-6T (=KACC 17600T=NBRC 109805T=NCAIM B 02535T).

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria by microdilution - Experience of a tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Set R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.

  8. Reduced early growing season freezing resistance in alpine treeline plants under elevated atmospheric CO2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, M.; Gavazov, K.S.; Körner, S.; Rixen, C.

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of freezing events during the early growing season and the vulnerability to freezing of plants in European high-altitude environments could increase under future atmospheric and climate change. We tested early growing season freezing sensitivity in 10 species, from four plant

  9. Growing knowledge: an overview of Seed Plant diversity in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela C. Zappi; Filardi,Fabiana L. Ranzato; Leitman,Paula; Vinícius C. Souza; Walter, Bruno M. T.; Pirani,José R.; Morim,Marli P.; Queiroz, Luciano P; Cavalcanti,Taciana B.; Mansano, Vidal F.; Forzza,Rafaela C.; Abreu,Maria C.; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Agra,Maria de F.; Almeida Jr.,Eduardo B.

    2016-01-01

    An updated inventory of Brazilian seed plants is presented and offers important insights into the country’s biodiversity. This work started in 2010, with the publication of the Plants and Fungi Catalogue, and has been updated since by more than 430 specialists working online. Brazil is home to 32,086 native Angiosperms and 23 native Gymnosperms, showing an increase of 3% in its species richness in relation to 2010. The Amazon Rainforest is the richest Brazilian biome for Gymnosperms, while th...

  10. Air pollution tolerance indices of plants growing around Umuebulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A composite sample of eight leaves for each plant was used for laboratory analysis. Four physiological and biochemical parameters: leaf relative water content (RWC), ascorbic acid content (AAC), total leaf chlorophyll (TLC) and pH of leaf extract were used to compute the Air pollution tolerance indices (APTI). Results ...

  11. Growing under water - how plants cope with low CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Hinke, Anne Bækbo; Konnerup, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic plants are never short of water but instead they are challenged with low light and slow movement of oxygen (O₂) and carbon dioxide (CO₂). In the present paper, we focus on CO₂ limitation of underwater photosynthesis and the various strategies to overcome the limitation resulting from evol...

  12. Air pollution tolerance indices of plants growing around Umuebulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FRANKLIN

    2012-12-03

    Dec 3, 2012 ... photosynthesis; the light-driven process in which carbon dioxide is fixed to yield carbohydrates and oxygen. It is evident that chlorophyll content of plants varies from species to species; age of leaf and also with the pollution level as well as with other biotic and abiotic conditions. (Katiyar and Dubey, 2001).

  13. Clinical management of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections in patients after mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Stéphanie; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Guihot, Amelie; Deforges, Lionel; Carbonne, Anne; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric

    2009-11-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are expressing an interest in mesotherapy as a method of reducing body fat. Cutaneous infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria are a common complication of such procedures. We followed up patients who had developed cutaneous infections after undergoing mesotherapy during the period October 2006-January 2007. Sixteen patients were infected after mesotherapy injections performed by the same physician. All patients presented with painful, erythematous, draining subcutaneous nodules at the injection sites. All patients were treated with surgical drainage. Microbiological examination was performed on specimens that were obtained before and during the surgical procedure. Direct examination of skin smears demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in 25% of the specimens that were obtained before the procedure and 37% of the specimens obtained during the procedure; culture results were positive in 75% of the patients. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 11 patients, and Mycobacterium frederiksbergense was identified in 2 patients. Fourteen patients were treated with antibiotics, 6 received triple therapy as first-line treatment (tigecycline, tobramycin, and clarithromycin), and 8 received dual therapy (clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin). The mean duration of treatment was 14 weeks (range, 1-24 weeks). All of the patients except 1 were fully recovered 2 years after the onset of infection, with the mean time to healing estimated at 6.2 months (range, 1-15 months). This series of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections highlights the difficulties in treating such infections and suggests that in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics does not accurately predict their clinical efficacy.

  14. Stacked propagation: a new way to grow native plants from root cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Dreesen; Thomas D. Landis; Jeremy R. Pinto

    2006-01-01

    Stacked propagation is a novel method of growing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. [Salicaceae]) and other plants that reproduce from underground stems or root cuttings. Because the mother plant is not damaged, it is particularly well suited for rare plants or those that can’t be propagated by normal methods. Our initial trials indicate that...

  15. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  16. Grow light for plant factory using quantum dot LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Won Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the LED base next generation lighting is actively accomplished in the field of lighting for the energy saving for the global warming prevention. In this study, made the multifunctional LED light source as research on the lighting equipment that using the Quantum Dot. Synthesized the quantum dot having the wavelength of 510nm, 610nm, 660nm and confirmed the possibility of characteristic evaluation result that it was applicable as the result LED fluorescent substance. We synthesized quantum dot that mixed the resin and was spread on the blue LED having the wavelength of 455nm. We make the multi-wavelength LED device in order to confirm the possibility for application for the plant factory and evaluated the electrical characteristic of the LED light source. Also, we evaluated the growth characteristic so that the quantum dot could confirm the possibility for application by plant growth light source. Finally we presented the possibility for application of the quantum dot with the multifunction LED light source.

  17. Rapid plant regeneration of chrysanthemum ( Chrysanthemum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot multiplication of chrysanthemum was achieved from shoot tip explant, using MS media supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. Different parameters including shoot initiation percentage, average number of shoots per explant, length of shoots (cm), number of leaves per ...

  18. Rapid plant regeneration of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... Shoot multiplication of chrysanthemum was achieved from shoot tip explant, using MS media supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. Different parameters including shoot initiation percentage, average number of shoots per explant, length of shoots (cm) ...

  19. Rapid urbanization and the growing threat of violence and conflict: a 21st century crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak B; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-04-01

    As the global population is concentrated into complex environments, rapid urbanization increases the threat of conflict and insecurity. Many fast-growing cities create conditions of significant disparities in standards of living, which set up a natural environment for conflict over resources. As urban slums become a haven for criminal elements, youth gangs, and the arms trade, they also create insecurity for much of the population. Specific populations, such as women, migrants, and refugees, bear the brunt of this lack of security, with significant impacts on their livelihoods, health, and access to basic services. This lack of security and violence also has great costs to the general population, both economic and social. Cities have increasingly become the battlefield of recent conflicts as they serve as the seats of power and gateways to resources. International agencies, non-governmental organizations, and policy-makers must act to stem this tide of growing urban insecurity. Protecting urban populations and preventing future conflict will require better urban planning, investment in livelihood programs for youth, cooperation with local communities, enhanced policing, and strengthening the capacity of judicial systems.

  20. Cancer survivors in Switzerland: a rapidly growing population to care for

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors are a heterogeneous group with complex health problems. Data concerning its total number and growing dynamics for Switzerland are scarce and outdated. Methods Population and mortality data were retrieved from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office (FSO). Incidence and relative survival for invasive cancers were computed using data from the cancer registries Geneva (1970–2009), St. Gallen - Appenzell (1980–2010), Grisons & Glarus (1989–2010), and Valais (1989–2010). We estimated prevalence for 1990–2010 using the Prevalence, Incidence Approach MODel (PIAMOD) method. We calculated trends in prevalence estimates by Joinpoint analysis. Projections were extrapolated using the above models and based on time trends of the period 2007–2010. Results The estimated number of cancer survivors increased from 139′717 in 1990 (2.08% of the population) to 289′797 persons in 2010 (3.70%). The growth rate shows an exponential shape and was 3.3% per year in the period 2008 to 2010. Almost half of the survivors have a history of breast, prostate or colorectal cancer. Among cancer survivors, 55% are women but the increases have been more marked in men (p Switzerland. Conclusions There is a rapidly growing population of cancer survivors in Switzerland whose needs and concerns are largely unknown. PMID:23764068

  1. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M

    2016-08-01

    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  2. Rapid identification of the medicinal plant Taraxacum formosanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid identification of the medicinal plant Taraxacum formosanum and distinguishing of this plant from its adulterants by ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) based DNA barcode. YC Chiang, WT Chang, MD Chen, GH Lai, HJ Chen, J Chao, MK Lin, YS Chang, YM Chou, MS Lee, MS Lee ...

  3. 76 FR 13890 - Importation of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands AGENCY: Animal and... Aechmea, Cryptanthus, Guzmania, Hohenbergia, Neoregelia, Tillandsia, and Vriesea from Belgium, Denmark... plants, in accordance with Sec. 319.37-2. The Governments of Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands have...

  4. Feeding and survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae on plants growing in Kenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impoinvil, D.E.; Kongere, J.O.; Foster, W.A.; Njiru, B.N.; Killeen, G.F.; Githure, J.I.; Beier, J.C.; Hassanali, A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The propensity of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) to ingest sugars from various plants, and subsequent survival rates, were assessed with laboratory-reared males and females offered eight species of plants commonly cultivated and/or growing wild in western

  5. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W

    2012-06-26

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO(2) balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (± 30) kg · ha(-1) · y(-1), double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (± 176) kg · ha(-1), whereas net losses of soil N (0-100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (± 915) kg · ha(-1) (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ(13)C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg · ha(-1) · y(-1). All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32-54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass.

  6. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kyselková

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

  7. Microbial community induces a plant defense system under growing on the lunar regolith analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaetz, Irina; Mytrokhyn, Olexander; Lukashov, Dmitry; Mashkovska, Svitlana; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Foing, Bernard H.

    The lunar rock considered as a potential source of chemical elements essential for plant nutrition, however, this substrate is of a low bioavailability. The use of microorganisms for decomposition of silicate rocks and stimulation of plant growth is a key idea in precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for a lunar base (Kozyrovska et al., 2004; 2006; Zaetz et al., 2006). In model experiments a consortium of well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, analogous to a lunar rock. Inoculated plants appeared better seed germination, more fast development and also increased accumulation of K, Mg, Mn, Co, Cu and lowered level of the toxic Zn, Ni, Cr, comparing to control tagetes'. Bacteria regulate metal homeostasis in plants by changing their bioavailability and by stimulating of plant defense mechanisms. Inoculated plants were being accommodated to growth under stress conditions on anorthosite used as a substrate. In contrast, control plants manifested a heavy metal-induced oxidative stress, as quantified by protein carbonyl accumulation. Depending on the plant organ sampled and developmental stage there were increases or loses in the antioxidant enzyme activities (guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase). These changes were most evident in inoculated plants. Production of phenolic compounds, known as antioxidants and heavy metal chelators, is rised in variants of inoculated marigolds. Guaiacol peroxidase plays the main role, finally, in a reducing toxicity of heavy metals in plant leaves, while glutathione-S-transferase and phenolics overcome stress in roots.

  8. Spectral composition of light and growing of plants in controlled environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhomirov, A.A. [Institute of Biophysics, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    The curve of the action spectrum of photosynthesis is examined under the controlled influence of light that involves av 3-5 minutes irradiation with one specific spectral flux. Different curves were obtained for spectral affectivity of green leaf photosynthesis when plants have had long duration adaptation to lamps of different spectral composition and PAR intensity. The author suggests that the illumination of plants in natural conditions does not have to be copied for growing plants in controlled environments.

  9. The spatial biology of transcription and translation in rapidly growing Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath eBakshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP in live, rapidly growing E. coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0-3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20-30 min nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription

  10. Mycobacterium celeriflavum sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic bacterium isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Çavuşoğlu, Cengiz; Borroni, Emanuele; Heidarieh, Parvin; Koksalan, Orhan Kaya; Cabibbe, Andrea Maurizio; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Mariottini, Alessandro; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Cittaro, Davide; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Lazarevic, Dejan; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Molinari, Gian Lorenzo; Camaggi, Anna; Tortoli, Enrico

    2015-02-01

    Six strains of a rapidly growing scotochromogenic mycobacterium were isolated from pulmonary specimens of independent patients. Biochemical and cultural tests were not suitable for their identification. The mycolic acid pattern analysed by HPLC was different from that of any other mycobacterium. Genotypic characterization, targeting seven housekeeping genes, revealed the presence of microheterogeneity in all of them. Different species were more closely related to the test strains in various regions: the type strain of Mycobacterium moriokaense showed 99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, and 91.5-96.5 % similarity for the remaining six regions. The whole genome sequences of the proposed type strain and that of M. moriokaense presented an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 82.9 %. Phylogenetic analysis produced poorly robust trees in most genes with the exception of rpoB and sodA where Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium novocastrense were the closest species. This phylogenetic relatedness was confirmed by the tree inferred from five concatenated genes, which was very robust. The polyphasic characterization of the test strains, supported by the ANI value, demonstrates that they belong to a previously unreported species, for which the name Mycobacterium celeriflavum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFPC-000207(T) ( = DSM 46765(T) = JCM 18439(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  11. Isolation of Rapidly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Wounds Following Combat-Related Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Lauren C; Homeyer, Diane C; Zapor, Michael; Hartzell, Joshua; Warkentien, Tyler; Weintrob, Amy C; Ganesan, Anuradha; Burgess, Timothy; Snesrud, Erik; Waterman, Paige; Nielsen, Lindsey; Ressner, Roseanne A

    2016-06-01

    Rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) have yet to be described in combat-related injuries. This study investigates the epidemiology, clinical findings, treatment, and outcomes of RGNTM infections among combat casualties wounded in Afghanistan from 2010 to 2012. Patients with RGNTM were identified from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry through the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study. Trauma history, surgical management, and clinical data were collected. Six isolates from patients requiring antimycobacterial therapy were sequenced. Seventeen cases were identified. Six cases, predominantly associated with Mycobacterium abscessus, required aggressive debridement and a median of 180 days of multidrug antimycobacterial therapy that included clofazimine. M. abscessus isolates expressed the erythromycin resistance methylase (erm(41)) gene for inducible macrolide resistance, yet there were no clinical treatment failures when macrolides were utilized in combination therapy. No clonal similarity between M. abscessus isolates was found. Eleven cases had positive wound cultures, but did not require antimycobacterial therapy. The median duration of time of injury to first detection of a RGNTM was 57 days. This represents the first report of RGNTM infections in war-wounded patients. RGNTM should be recognized as potential pathogens in grossly infected combat wounds. Surgical debridement and multidrug antimycobacterial therapy, when clinically indicated, was associated with satisfactory clinical outcomes. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpato, Richard [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Campi de Castro, Claudio [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Radiology, Cerqueira Cesar, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hadad, David Jamil [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Nucleo de Doencas Infecciosas, Department of Internal Medicine, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da [Laboratorio de Patologia PAT, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Filho, Ezequiel Leal [UNIMED Diagnostico, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Marcal, Leonardo P. [The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  13. A hydroponic system for growing gnotobiotic vs. sterile plants to study phytoremediation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzbaum, E; Kirzhner, F; Armon, R

    2014-01-01

    In some phytoremediation studies it is desirable to separate and define the specific contribution of plants and root-colonizing bacteria towards contaminant removal. Separating the influence of plants and associated bacteria is a difficult task for soil root environments. Growing plants hydroponically provides more control over the biological factors in contaminant removal. In this study, a hydroponic system was designed to evaluate the role of sterile plant roots, rhizodeposition, and root-associated bacteria in the removal of a model contaminant, phenol. A strain of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes that grows on phenol was inoculated onto plant roots. The introduced biofilm persisted in the root zone and promoted phenol removal over non-augmented controls. These findings indicate that this hydroponic system can be a valuable tool for phytoremediation studies that investigate the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on pollution remediation.

  14. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Dispenza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  15. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dispenza, V.; Pasquale, C. de; Fascella, G.; Mammano, M.M.; Alonzo, G.

    2016-07-01

    Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v) of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  16. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woller, Jessica L; Kim, Ki Beom; Behrents, Rolf G; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures) following rapid maxillary expansion in growing children. The CBCT scans of 25 consecutively treated RME patients (10 male, 15 female) with mean age of 12.3±2.6 years, were examined before expansion and immediately following the last activation of the expansion appliance. Statistically significant (Pmaxillary first molars due to RME was also statistically significant. There was no statistically significant displacement of the transpalatal suture. Rapid maxillary expansion results in significant displacement of the bones of circummaxillary sutures in growing children.

  17. Two novel species of rapidly growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium lehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacterium neumannii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Sangal, Vartul; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Jando, Marlen; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Sutcliffe, Iain; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Two rapidly growing mycobacteria with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences were the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strains formed a well-supported subclade in the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely associated with the type strain of Mycobacterium novocastrense. Single and multilocus sequence analyses based on hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SN 1900T and SN 1904T are phylogenetically distinct but share several chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features that are are consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium. The two strains were distinguished by their different fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles, and by a combination of phenotypic features. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values for strains SN 1900T and SN 1904T were 61.0 % and 94.7 %, respectively; in turn, the corresponding dDDH and ANI values with M. novocastrense DSM 44203T were 41.4 % and 42.8 % and 89.3 % and 89.5 %, respectively. These results show that strains SN1900T and SN 1904T form new centres of taxonomic variation within the genus Mycobacterium. Consequently, strains SN 1900T (40T=CECT 8763T=DSM 43219T) and SN 1904T (2409T=CECT 8766T=DSM 43532T) are considered to represent novel species, for which the names Mycobacteriumlehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacteriumneumannii sp. nov. are proposed. A strain designated as 'Mycobacteriumacapulsensis' was shown to be a bona fide member of the putative novel species, M. lehmannii.

  18. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children

    OpenAIRE

    Woller,Jessica L.; Ki Beom Kim; Behrents, Rolf G.; Buschang, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures) following rapid maxillary expansion in gro...

  19. Mycobacterium iranicum sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic species isolated from clinical specimens on three different continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shojaei, H.; Daley, C.; Gitti, Z.; Hashemi, A.; Heidarieh, P.; Moore, E.R.; Naser, A.D.; Russo, C.; Ingen, J. van; Tortoli, E.

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of a novel, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic mycobacterial species is reported. Eight independent strains were isolated from clinical specimens from six different countries of the world, two in Iran, two in Italy and one in each of following countries: Greece, The

  20. Toward Self-Growing Soft Robots Inspired by Plant Roots and Based on Additive Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali; Mondini, Alessio; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we present a novel class of robots that are able to move by growing and building their own structure. In particular, taking inspiration by the growing abilities of plant roots, we designed and developed a plant root-like robot that creates its body through an additive manufacturing process. Each robotic root includes a tubular body, a growing head, and a sensorized tip that commands the robot behaviors. The growing head is a customized three-dimensional (3D) printer-like system that builds the tubular body of the root in the format of circular layers by fusing and depositing a thermoplastic material (i.e., polylactic acid [PLA] filament) at the tip level, thus obtaining movement by growing. A differential deposition of the material can create an asymmetry that results in curvature of the built structure, providing the possibility of root bending to follow or escape from a stimulus or to reach a desired point in space. Taking advantage of these characteristics, the robotic roots are able to move inside a medium by growing their body. In this article, we describe the design of the growing robot together with the modeling of the deposition process and the description of the implemented growing movement strategy. Experiments were performed in air and in an artificial medium to verify the functionalities and to evaluate the robot performance. The results showed that the robotic root, with a diameter of 50 mm, grows with a speed of up to 4 mm/min, overcoming medium pressure of up to 37 kPa (i.e., it is able to lift up to 6 kg) and bending with a minimum radius of 100 mm.

  1. Functional-structural plant models: a growing paradigm for plant studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievänen, Risto; Godin, Christophe; DeJong, Theodore M; Nikinmaa, Eero

    2014-09-01

    A number of research groups in various areas of plant biology as well as computer science and applied mathematics have addressed modelling the spatiotemporal dynamics of growth and development of plants. This has resulted in development of functional-structural plant models (FSPMs). In FSPMs, the plant structure is always explicitly represented in terms of a network of elementary units. In this respect, FSPMs are different from more abstract models in which a simplified representation of the plant structure is frequently used (e.g. spatial density of leaves, total biomass, etc.). This key feature makes it possible to build modular models and creates avenues for efficient exchange of model components and experimental data. They are being used to deal with the complex 3-D structure of plants and to simulate growth and development occurring at spatial scales from cells to forest areas, and temporal scales from seconds to decades and many plant generations. The plant types studied also cover a broad spectrum, from algae to trees. This special issue of Annals of Botany features selected papers on FSPM topics such as models of morphological development, models of physical and biological processes, integrated models predicting dynamics of plants and plant communities, modelling platforms, methods for acquiring the 3-D structures of plants using automated measurements, and practical applications for agronomic purposes.

  2. Why would plant species become extinct locally if growing conditions improve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.; Bijlsma, R.J.; Hickler, T.; Thuiller, W.

    2012-01-01

    Two assumptions underlie current models of the geographical ranges of perennial plant species: 1. current ranges are in equilibrium with the prevailing climate, and 2. changes are attributable to changes in macroclimatic factors, including tolerance of winter cold, the duration of the growing

  3. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lione

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. Methods This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1–CS2. The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1 and after 1 year (T2. A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. Results RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. Conclusions The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular

  4. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, Roberta; Brunelli, Valerio; Franchi, Lorenzo; Pavoni, Chiara; Quiroga Souki, Bernardo; Cozza, Paola

    2017-11-06

    The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1-CS2). The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm) until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1) and after 1 year (T2). A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular response to the maxillary expansion protocol in class-II-growing

  5. [The diagnosis and treatment of rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai-Jin; Cheng, Zheng-Ping; Yin, Li; Wu, Yu-Yu; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Jun-Fang; Shi, Hai-Hong

    2009-06-01

    To study the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis (NTMK). It was retrospective case series study. Twelve eyes in 12 patients with NTMK following corneal foreign body trauma in 2007 were studied retrospectively including the case histories, clinical findings, laboratory examinations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The main laboratory examination included corneal scrapings by culturing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), corneal lesions by histopathologic examinations and TEM. The patients received local and systemic antibiotics therapy, lesion cleaning followed by cauterization with tincture of iodine (5%) and (or) keratoplasty. All cases had a history of corneal trauma, there was corneal metallic foreign body removal at one hospital in 11 cases, corneal reed trauma in 1 case. The characteristic signs involved grayish-blue crystalloid keratopathy, multifocal infiltrates, satellites, radical form changes in the Descemet's membrane. The results of laboratory examinations of the scrapings of the cornea infection were as follows: all cultures (12/12) were positive for rapidly growing mycobacteria, and isolates from 5 patients were all diagnosed as mycobacterium chelonae subspecies abscess; acid-fast staining revealed positive bacilli in all the 4 patients; seven of 8 patients were positive for bacterium by PCR. Transmission electron microscopy in all the 3 specimens showed many slender rod-shaped or short coarse-shaped bacteria which were phagocytized by monocytes, and some necrotic tissue. Infections in 10 eyes were resolved by combined treatment regimen including a combination of antimicrobial agents (amikacin, rifampin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and/or ofloxacin, etc.) and local lesion cleaning followed by cauterization with 5% tincture of iodine within 2-5 months; two cases resolved by keratoplasty which poorly responded to antibiotic therapy for 6 months

  6. Elemental contents of plants growing on soil-covered retorted shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, A.P.; Lindsay, W.L.; Smith, P.J.

    The concentrations of several potentially toxic elements (F, B, Mo, Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr, Hg, Se, and As) were determined in plants growing on various depths of soil covering retorted (Paraho) shale. The plants that were sampled include: Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), western wheat-grass (Agropyron smithii), Sherman's big bluegrass (Poa ampla), Utah sweetvetch (Hedysarum boreale), and winterfat (Ceratoides lanata). The F levels were elevated in some of the plants growing on 30 cm of soil over shale. The concentrations of Mo and Cu/Mo ratios in the plants indicate that molybdenosis could be expected with livestock grazing on revegetated plants. Increasing the depth of soil cover reduced the Mo levels, but the second year's data indicate that increasing the soil depth may only temporarily reduce the potential molybdenosis problem. The plant levels of Pb, Co, Cd, and Hg were below analytical detection limits. The plant concentrations of Ni, As, Se, B, and Cd were too low to be of environmental concern.

  7. Morphogenesis of complex plant cell shapes: the mechanical role of crystalline cellulose in growing pollen tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouar, Leila; Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja

    2010-03-01

    Cellulose is the principal component of the load-bearing system in primary plant cell walls. The great resistance to tensile forces of this polysaccharide and its embedding in matrix components make the cell wall a material similar to a fiber composite. In the rapidly growing pollen tube, the amount of cellulose in the cell wall is untypically low. Therefore, we want to investigate whether the load-bearing function of cellulose is nevertheless important for the architecture of this cell. Enzymatic digestion with cellulase and inhibition of cellulose crystal formation with CGA (1-cyclohexyl-5-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenoxy)-1lambda4,2,4,6-thiatriazin-3-amine) resulted in the formation of tubes with increased diameter in Solanum chacoense and Lilium orientalis when present during germination. In pre-germinated tubes, application of both agents resulted in the transient arrest of growth accompanied by the formation of an apical swelling indicating a role in the mechanical stabilization of this cellular region. Once growth resumed in the presence of cellulase, however, the cell wall in the newly formed tube showed increased amounts of pectins, possibly to compensate for the reduced amount of cellulose. Scanning electron microscopy of pollen tubes subjected to digestion of matrix polysaccharides revealed the mechanical anisotropy of the cell wall. In both Lilium and Solanum, the angle of highest stability revealed by crack formation was significantly below 45 degrees , an indication that in the mature part of the cell cellulose may not the main stress-bearing component against turgor pressure induced tensile stress in circumferential direction.

  8. Plants survive rapid decompression: Implications for bioregenerative life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Wehkamp, C. A.; Stasiak, M. A.; Dixon, M. A.; Rygalov, V. Y.

    2011-05-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Latuca sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants were grown at either 98 kPa (ambient) or 33 kPa atmospheric pressure with constant 21 kPa oxygen and 0.12 kPa carbon dioxide in atmospherically closed pressure chambers. All plants were grown rockwool using recirculating hydroponics with a complete nutrient solution. At 20 days after planting, chamber pressures were pumped down as rapidly as possible, reaching 5 kPa after about 5 min and ˜1.5 kPa after about 10 min. The plants were held at 1.5 kPa for 30 min and then pressures were restored to their original settings. Temperature (22 °C) and humidity (65% RH) controls were engaged throughout the depressurization, although temperatures dropped to near 16 °C for a brief period. CO2 and O2 were not detectable at the low pressure, suggesting that most of the 1.5 kPa atmosphere consisted of water vapor. Following re-pressurization, plants were grown for another 7 days at the original pressures and then harvested. The lettuce, radish, and wheat plants showed no visible effects from the rapid decompression, and there were no differences in fresh or dry mass when compared to control plants maintained continuously at 33 or 98 kPa. But radish storage root fresh mass and lettuce head fresh and dry masses were less at 33 kPa compared to 98 kPa for both the controls and decompression treatment. The results suggest that plants are extremely resilient to rapid decompression, provided they do not freeze (from evaporative cooling) or desiccate. The water of the hydroponic system was below the boiling pressure during these tests and this may have protected the plants by preventing pressures from dropping below 1.5 kPa and maintaining humidity near 1.5 kPa. Further testing is needed to determine how long plants can withstand such low pressure, but the results suggest there are at least 30 min to respond to catastrophic pressure losses in a plant production chamber that might be used for life

  9. A simple and rapid method for determining transgenic cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohong; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Fang; Wang, Qinglian

    2013-01-01

    Determining transgenic events is a critical step for obtaining transgenic plants as well as the later stage of application. Traditional methods, such as Northern blotting and qRT-PCR, for determining transgenic events either require radioactively labeled substrates, expensive instruments, or long-time commitments, which result in lab and time-consuming as well as expensive costs. These methods also require destroying the transgenic events. In this chapter, we present a simple and rapid method for determining transgenic cotton plants in both laboratory and field conditions. This method is based on the sensitivity of transgenic and non-transgenic plants to a specific chemical, such as antibiotics or herbicides. This method will facilitate the screening of transgenic events, save time, reduce cost, and speed up the application of transgenic technology on cotton breeding and production. More important, this is a nondestructive bioassay method; the transgenic plants can be transferred into greenhouse or field for the later study after the detection process.

  10. Rapid, Long-Distance Electrical and Calcium Signaling in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Gyu; Hilleary, Richard; Swanson, Sarah J; Kim, Su-Hwa; Gilroy, Simon

    2016-04-29

    Plants integrate activities throughout their bodies using long-range signaling systems in which stimuli sensed by just a few cells are translated into mobile signals that can influence the activities in distant tissues. Such signaling can travel at speeds well in excess of millimeters per second and can trigger responses as diverse as changes in transcription and translation levels, posttranslational regulation, alterations in metabolite levels, and even wholesale reprogramming of development. In addition to the use of mobile small molecules and hormones, electrical signals have long been known to propagate throughout the plant. This electrical signaling network has now been linked to waves of Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species that traverse the plant and trigger systemic responses. Analysis of cell type specificity in signal propagation has revealed the movement of systemic signals through specific cell types, suggesting that a rapid signaling network may be hardwired into the architecture of the plant.

  11. Alternative soilless media using olive-mill and paper waste for growing ornamental plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysargyris, Antonios; Antoniou, Omiros; Tzionis, Andreas; Prasad, Munoo; Tzortzakis, Nikolaos

    2018-01-18

    Peat-based growing media are not ecologically sustainable and peat extraction threatens sensitive peatland ecosystem. In this study, olive-stone waste (OSW) and paper waste (PW) were used in different ratios-as growing media-for ornamental crop production, as peat (P) substitutes. Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.), petunia (Petunia x hybrita L.) and matthiola (Matthiola incana L.) plants were grown in (1) P (100%), (2) P:OSW (90%:10%), (3) P:OSW (70%:30%), and (4) P:OSW:PW (60%:20%:20%). The physicochemical properties of these substrates and the effects on plant growth were determined. The addition of 10-30% OSW into the substrate increased marigold height compared to plants grown in 100% peat. No differences in plant size, plant biomass (leaves and flowers), and dry matter content were found. Adding PW, in combination with OSW, maintained marigold height and total number of flowers produced to similar levels as in plants grown in 100% peat. In matthiola, adding 30% OSW into the substrate reduced plant size and fresh weight, but not plant height. No differences were observed when plants grew in lower OSW (i.e., 10%) content. Petunia's height, its total number of flowers and flower earliness (flower opening) were increased in the presence of OSW compared to the plants grown in 100% peat. The addition of OSW did not affect petunia's size and fresh weight among treatments. The addition of PW suppressed several plant growth-related parameters for both matthiola and petunia. The insertion of OSW did not change leaf chlorophyll content whereas the presence of PW decreased chlorophylls for marigold, petunia, and matthiola. Both OSW and PW altered the content of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) in leaves and flowers for marigold and petunia. Both 30% OSW and PW increased antioxidative enzyme metabolism due to the increased damage index and lipid peroxidation

  12. Evaluation of immunomodulatory effect of three herbal plants growing in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonime, Mohammed; Eldomany, Ramadan; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Soliman, Hesham

    2011-03-01

    A group of medicinal plant including Silene (Silene nocturna), Black seed (Nigella sativa) and Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) growing in Egypt were examined for their immunomodulatory effect in Balb/c mice. Treatment (intraperitoneal injection) with five doses of methanolic extract for each plant was found to enhance the total white blood cells count (up to 1.2 × 10(4) cells/mm(3)). Bone marrow cellularity also increased significantly (P plants. Furthermore, spleen weight of the treated groups was significantly increased (P plants extracts significantly (P immunomodulatory activity of Silene, Black seed, and Chamomile extracts and may have therapeutical implications in prophylactic treatment of opportunistic infections and as supportive treatment in oncogenic cases.

  13. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  14. 'Hearing' alpine plants growing after snowmelt: ultrasonic snow sensors provide long-term series of alpine plant phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitasse, Yann; Rebetez, Martine; Filippa, Gianluca; Cremonese, Edoardo; Klein, Geoffrey; Rixen, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In alpine environments, the growing season is severely constrained by low temperature and snow. Here, we aim at determining the climatic factors that best explain the interannual variation in spring growth onset of alpine plants, and at examining whether photoperiod might limit their phenological response during exceptionally warm springs and early snowmelts. We analysed 17 years of data (1998-2014) from 35 automatic weather stations located in subalpine and alpine zones ranging from 1560 to 2450 m asl in the Swiss Alps. These stations are equipped with ultrasonic sensors for snow depth measurements that are also able to detect plant growth in spring and summer, giving a unique opportunity to analyse snow and climate effects on alpine plant phenology. Our analysis showed high phenological variation among years, with one exceptionally early and late spring, namely 2011 and 2013. Overall, the timing of snowmelt and the beginning of plant growth were tightly linked irrespective of the elevation of the station. Snowmelt date was the best predictor of plant growth onset with air temperature after snowmelt modulating the plants' development rate. This multiple series of alpine plant phenology suggests that currently alpine plants are directly tracking climate change with no major photoperiod limitation.

  15. `Hearing' alpine plants growing after snowmelt: ultrasonic snow sensors provide long-term series of alpine plant phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitasse, Yann; Rebetez, Martine; Filippa, Gianluca; Cremonese, Edoardo; Klein, Geoffrey; Rixen, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In alpine environments, the growing season is severely constrained by low temperature and snow. Here, we aim at determining the climatic factors that best explain the interannual variation in spring growth onset of alpine plants, and at examining whether photoperiod might limit their phenological response during exceptionally warm springs and early snowmelts. We analysed 17 years of data (1998-2014) from 35 automatic weather stations located in subalpine and alpine zones ranging from 1560 to 2450 m asl in the Swiss Alps. These stations are equipped with ultrasonic sensors for snow depth measurements that are also able to detect plant growth in spring and summer, giving a unique opportunity to analyse snow and climate effects on alpine plant phenology. Our analysis showed high phenological variation among years, with one exceptionally early and late spring, namely 2011 and 2013. Overall, the timing of snowmelt and the beginning of plant growth were tightly linked irrespective of the elevation of the station. Snowmelt date was the best predictor of plant growth onset with air temperature after snowmelt modulating the plants' development rate. This multiple series of alpine plant phenology suggests that currently alpine plants are directly tracking climate change with no major photoperiod limitation.

  16. Multistate US Outbreak of Rapidly Growing Mycobacterial Infections Associated with Medical Tourism to the Dominican Republic, 2013-2014(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, David; Esposito, Douglas H; Gaines, Joanna; Ridpath, Alison; Barry, M Anita; Feldman, Katherine A; Mullins, Jocelyn; Burns, Rachel; Ahmad, Nina; Nyangoma, Edith N; Nguyen, Duc B; Perz, Joseph F; Moulton-Meissner, Heather A; Jensen, Bette J; Lin, Ying; Posivak-Khouly, Leah; Jani, Nisha; Morgan, Oliver W; Brunette, Gary W; Pritchard, P Scott; Greenbaum, Adena H; Rhee, Susan M; Blythe, David; Sotir, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During 2013, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in Baltimore, MD, USA, received report of 2 Maryland residents whose surgical sites were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria after cosmetic procedures at a clinic (clinic A) in the Dominican Republic. A multistate investigation was initiated; a probable case was defined as a surgical site infection unresponsive to therapy in a patient who had undergone cosmetic surgery in the Dominican Republic. We identified 21 case-patients in 6 states who had surgery in 1 of 5 Dominican Republic clinics; 13 (62%) had surgery at clinic A. Isolates from 12 (92%) of those patients were culture-positive for Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Of 9 clinic A case-patients with available data, all required therapeutic surgical intervention, 8 (92%) were hospitalized, and 7 (78%) required ≥3 months of antibacterial drug therapy. Healthcare providers should consider infection with rapidly growing mycobacteria in patients who have surgical site infections unresponsive to standard treatment.

  17. Absolute alpha activity measurements of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahawatte, P.; Hewamanna, R. (Colombo Univ. (Sri Lanka). Radioisotope Centre)

    1991-01-01

    Deposits of monazite bearing soils occur along the Southwest, West and East Coasts of Sri Lanka. High levels of gamma activity in some plant species growing in the West Coast have been reported. The high levels were due to the presence of the daughter nuclides of {sup 232}Th, most of which are alpha emitters. Absolute alpha activity measurements of ash samples of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils were carried out using the alpha sensitive polymeric nuclear track detector CR-39. The values ranged from 60-1900 mBq/g and were in good agreement with the values obtained from conventional scintillation counting method. The activity concentration of {sup 228}Th in the ash samples was also calculated by measuring the activity concentration of emanated thoron trapped inside a glass bottle with the use of a CR-39 track detector. (author).

  18. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas R. Cusumano; Vivy Tran; Aileen Tlamsa; Philip Chung; Robert Grossberg; Gregory Weston; Uzma N. Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors’ experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here. Methods: Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who pre...

  19. A novel culture medium for isolation of rapidly-growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Clair L; Perry, Audrey; Gray, Bethany; Kenna, Dervla T; Jones, Amanda L; Cummings, Stephen P; Robb, Ali; Thomas, Matthew F; Brodlie, Malcolm; O'Brien, Christopher J; Bourke, Stephen J; Perry, John D

    2016-03-01

    Isolation of mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to the overgrowth of cultures by other bacteria and fungi. In this setting, Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as a convenient and effective culture medium for the isolation of rapidly-growing, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). A novel selective culture medium (RGM medium) was evaluated for the isolation of rapidly-growing NTM from the sputum of children and adults with CF. A total of 118 isolates of rapidly-growing mycobacteria and 98 other bacteria and fungi were inoculated onto RGM medium. These were assessed for growth at 30°C over a seven day period. A total of 502 consecutive sputum samples were collected from 210 patients with CF. Each sample was homogenized and cultured onto RGM medium and also onto BCSA. Cultures were incubated for 10days at 30°C. Of 118 isolates of mycobacteria all but one grew well on RGM medium, whereas 94% of other bacteria and fungi were inhibited. A total of 55 sputum samples (from 33 distinct patients) yielded NTM using a combination of both RGM and BCSA (prevalence: 15.7%). NTM were recovered from 54 sputum samples using RGM medium compared with only 17 samples using BCSA (sensitivity 98% vs. 31%; P≤0.0001). A total of 419 isolates of non-mycobacteria were recovered from sputum samples on BCSA compared with 46 on RGM medium. RGM medium offers a simple and effective culture method for the isolation of rapidly-growing mycobacteria from sputum samples from patients with CF without decontamination of samples. RGM medium allows for the systematic screening of all sputum samples routinely referred for culture from patients with CF. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Woller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures following rapid maxillary expansion in growing children. METHODS: The CBCT scans of 25 consecutively treated RME patients (10 male, 15 female with mean age of 12.3 ± 2.6 years, were examined before expansion and immediately following the last activation of the expansion appliance. RESULTS: Statistically significant (P < 0.05 amounts of separation were found for the displacement of the bones of the frontonasal suture, the intermaxillary suture, the zygomaticomaxillary sutures, and the midpalatal suture. The change in angulation of the maxillary first molars due to RME was also statistically significant. There was no statistically significant displacement of the transpalatal suture. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid maxillary expansion results in significant displacement of the bones of circummaxillary sutures in growing children.

  1. The impact of entrepreneurial capital and rapidly growing firms: the Canadian example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    World-class competitiveness is no longer an option for firms seeking growth and survival in the increasingly competitive, dynamic and interconnected world. This paper expands on the concept of entrepreneurial capital and formalizes it as a catalyst that augments other productive factors. It provi...... hostile environments that also suffer from poor resources, this research offers significant lessons with implications for emerging firms, industries and associated regions that aspire to grow faster...

  2. Bacterial Root Microbiome of Plants Growing in Oil Sands Reclamation Covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo K. Mitter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oil sands mining in northern Alberta impacts a large footprint, but the industry is committed to reclaim all disturbed land to an ecologically healthy state in response to environmental regulations. However, these newly reconstructed landscapes may be limited by several factors that include low soil nutrient levels and reduced microbial activity. Rhizosphere microorganisms colonize plant roots providing hosts with nutrients, stimulating growth, suppressing disease and increasing tolerance to abiotic stress. High-throughput sequencing techniques can be used to provide a detailed characterization of microbial community structure. This study used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to characterize the bacterial root microbiome associated with annual barley (Hordeum vulgare and sweet clover (Melilotus albus growing in an oil sands reclamation area. Our results indicate that Proteobacteria dominated the endosphere, whereas other phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes were restricted to the rhizosphere, suggesting that plants have the ability to select for certain soil bacterial consortia. The bacterial community in the endosphere compartments were less rich and diverse compared to the rhizosphere. Furthermore, it was apparent that sweet clover plants were more selective, as the community exhibited a lower richness and diversity compared to barley. Members of the family Rhizobiaceae, such as Sinorhizobium and Rhizobium were mainly associated with clover, whereas Acholeplasma (wall-less bacteria transmitted by insects was unique to barley. Genera from the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Yersinia and Lentzea were also mostly detected in barley, while other genera such Pseudomonas and Pantoea were able to successfully colonize both plants. Endophytic bacterial profiles varied within the same plant species at different sampling locations; however, these differences were driven by factors other than slope positions or cover management. Our results

  3. Root growth, mycorrhization and physiological effects of plants growing on oil tailing sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt-Burisch, Katja M.; Naeth, Anne M.; Schneider, Bernd Uwe; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2015-04-01

    Surface mining creates large, intense disturbances of soils and produces large volumes of by-products and waste materials. After mining processes these materials often provide the basis for land reclamation and ecosystem restoration. In the present study, tailing sands (TS) and processed mature fine tailings (pMFT) from Fort McMurray (Alberta, Canada) were used. They represent challenging material for ecosystem rebuilding because of very low nutrient contents of TS and oil residuals, high density of MFT material. In this context, little is known about the interactions of pure TS, respectively mixtures of TS and MFT and root growth, mycorrhization and plant physiological effects. Four herbaceous plant species (Elymus trachycaulus, Koeleria macrantha, Deschampsia cespitosa, Lotus corniculatus) were chosen to investigate root development, chlorophyll fluorescence and mycorrhization intensity with and without application of Glomus mosseae (arbuscular mycorrhizae) on mainly tailing sands. Surprisingly both, plants growing on pure TS and plants growing on TS with additional AM-application showed mycorrhization of roots. In general, the mycorrhization intensity was lower for plants growing on pure tailings sands, but it is an interesting fact that there is a potential for mycorrhization available in tailing sands. The mycorrhizal intensity strongly increased with application of G. mosseae for K. macrantha and L. corniculatus and even more for E. trachycaulus. For D. cespitosa similar high mycorrhiza infection frequency was found for both variants, with and without AM-application. By the application of G. mosseae, root growth of E. trachycaulus and K. macrantha was significantly positively influenced. Analysis of leaf chlorophyll fluorescence showed no significant differences for E. trachycaulus but significant positive influence of mycorrhizal application on the physiological status of L. corniculatus. However, this effect could not be detected when TS was mixed with MFT

  4. Are plants growing at abandoned mine sites suitable for phytoremediation of contaminated soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Buffa, Gabriella; Fontana, Silvia; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest in the perspective to remediate contaminated soils by phytoremediation, a low cost and environmental friendly technique which uses metal-accumulator plants to clean up moderately contaminated areas. The choice of plants is a crucial aspect for the practical use of this technique, given the ability to accumulate metals in their tissues, being genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. Up today, more than 400 native plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported, Brassicaceae being the family with the largest number of hyperaccumulator species. For example, Alyssum bertoloni is well known as Ni accumulator, as well as Thlaspi caerulescens for Zn and Brassica napus for Pb. However, metal hyperaccumulation is not a common phenomenon in terrestrial higher plants, and many of the European hyperaccumulator plants are of small biomass, and have a slow growth rate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveying and screening of plants with ability to accumulate metals in their tissues and a relatively high biomass. In recent years, a survey of soils and plants growing on contaminated areas at several abandoned sulphide mines in Italy was carried out by working groups of the Universities of Florence, Siena, Cagliari, Bologna, Udine and Venice, in order to evaluate the ability of these plants to colonize mine waste and to accumulate metals, in the perspective of an ecological restoration of contaminated sites. We investigated the heavy metal concentration of the waste material, and the soils developed from, in order to determine the extent of heavy metal dispersion, and the uptake by plants, and deserved attention to wild plants growing at that sites, to find out new metal-tolerant species to utilize in soil remediation. Current results of these investigations, with particular emphasis on the Tuscan areas, are reported here. All the studied profiles are strongly enriched in metals; their

  5. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (Pofficinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth.

  6. Enzyme activities at different stages of plant biomass decomposition in three species of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa, Rafael R.; Hu, Haofu; Pilgaard, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites rely on the mutualistic fungus Termitomyces and gut microbes for plant biomass degradation. Due to a certain degree of symbiont complementarity, this tripartite symbiosis has evolved as a complex bioreactor, enabling decomposition of nearly any plant polymer, likely contri...... assays, transcriptomics and plant content measurements to shed light on how this decomposition of plant substrate is effectively accomplished.......Fungus-growing termites rely on the mutualistic fungus Termitomyces and gut microbes for plant biomass degradation. Due to a certain degree of symbiont complementarity, this tripartite symbiosis has evolved as a complex bioreactor, enabling decomposition of nearly any plant polymer, likely...... contributing to the success of the termites as the main plant decomposers in the Old World. Here we evaluate which plant polymers are decomposed and which enzymes are active during the decomposition process in two major genera of fungus-growing termites. We find a diversity of active enzymes at different...

  7. Aluminium-phosphorus interactions in plants growing on acid soils: does phosphorus always alleviate aluminium toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong Fu; Zhang, Fu Lin; Zhang, Qi Ming; Sun, Qing Bin; Dong, Xiao Ying; Shen, Ren Fang

    2012-03-30

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency are considered to be the main constraints for crop production in acid soils, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Conventionally, P addition is regarded as capable of alleviating Al toxicity in plants. However, this field is still rife with unsubstantiated theories, especially for different plant species growing on acid soils. In this review, the responses of plants to different methods of Al-P treatments are briefly summarized, and possible reasons are proposed by considering recent results from our laboratory. It is shown that: (1) long-term Al-P alternate treatment is advantageous for studying Al-P interactions in plants; (2) under the long-term Al-P alternate treatment, the roles of P in Al phytotoxicity might be associated with the Al resistance capability and P use efficiency of the plant, and a P/Al molar ratio exceeding 5 in roots may be the threshold of P alleviating Al toxicity based on the calculation of the tested plants; (3) in acid soils, P application may be effective only after Al stress is overcome for Al-sensitive species. Thus it is concluded that P application does not always alleviate Al toxicity under long-term Al-P alternate treatment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Rapid Control Prototyping Plataform for Didactic Plant Motor DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bazán-Orobio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a design, implementation and validation of a Rapid Control Prototype platform for a plant based on a DC motor is proposed. This low-cost prototype provides of an electronic card (with a motor DC and sensors manipulated by PC with free software tools using Linux, Scilab / Scicos and RTAI-Lab. This RCP System allows developing speed -position control trainings by using different types of PID industrial controllers with anti – wind up and bump less transfer schemes. We develop a speed control application structured in four steps: identification, controller design, simulation and real time control, where there are pedagogical advantages of a platform that not only allows simulation but also real-time control of a plant.

  9. Rapid evolution of manifold CRISPR systems for plant genome editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Qi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Advanced CRISPR-Cas9 based technologies first validated in mammalian cell systems are quickly being adapted for use in plants. These new technologies increase CRISPR-Cas9’s utility and effectiveness by diversifying cellular capabilities through expression construct system evolution and enzyme orthogonality, as well as enhanced efficiency through delivery and expression mechanisms. Here, we review the current state of advanced CRISPR-Cas9 and Cpf1 capabilities in plants and cover the rapid evolution of these tools from first generation inducers of double strand breaks for basic genetic manipulations to second and third generation multiplexed systems with myriad functionalities, capabilities and specialized applications. We offer perspective on how to utilize these tools for currently untested research endeavors and analyze strengths and weaknesses of novel CRISPR systems in plants. Advanced CRISPR functionalities and delivery options demonstrated in plants are primarily reviewed but new technologies just coming to the forefront of CRISPR development, or those on the horizon, are briefly discussed. Topics covered are focused on the expansion of expression and delivery capabilities for CRISPR-Cas9 components and broadening targeting range through orthogonal Cas9 and Cpf1 proteins.

  10. Rapidly growing cystic vestibular schwannoma with sudden onset facial palsy, ten years after subtotal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandinarasaiah, Manjunath; Grinblat, Golda; Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Taibah, Abdelkader; Sanna, Mario

    2017-07-19

    An elderly male patient diagnosed with a right-sided cystic vestibular schwannoma (CVS) at our center underwent a translabyrinthine approach with a subtotal excision to preserve the facial nerve (FN). The tumor grew slowly for the first 9 years but in the subsequent 2 years grew rapidly, with the patient developing a FN paralysis. Using the previous approach, a second surgery was done and the tumor was excised, leaving behind a sheath of tumor on the facial and lower cranial nerves. This case demonstrates that CVSs show unpredictable growth patterns and need to be followed up for a longer period of time. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Pampered inside, pestered outside? Differences and similarities between plants growing in controlled conditions and in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, Hendrik; Fiorani, Fabio; Pieruschka, Roland; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Putten, van der Wim H.; Kleyer, Michael; Schurr, Uli; Postma, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    (Table presented.). Summary: Plant biologists often grow plants in growth chambers or glasshouses with the ultimate aim to understand or improve plant performance in the field. What is often overlooked is how results from controlled conditions translate back to field situations. A meta-analysis

  12. Trends in biological activity research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić, A.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowering plants consists of more than 300.000 species around the world, out of which a small percentage has been sufficiently investigated from phytochemical and biological activity aspects. Plant diversity of the Balkans is very rich, but still poorly investigated. The aim of this paper is survey of current status and trends in research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans. Many aromatic plants are investigated from morphological, physiological, ecological, systematic and phytochemical aspects. However, traditionally used medicinal and aromatic plants can also be considered from applicative aspects, concerning their health effects, and from wide range of usage in cosmetics, and as food, agrochemical and pharmaceutical products. In order to achieve all planned objectives, following methodology has been applied: field research, taxonomic authentication and, comparative biologically assayed phytochemical investigations. The total herbal extracts, postdistillation waste (deodorized extracts, essential oils and individual compounds of some autochthonous plants have been considered as potential source of antibacterial, antifungal, anti-biofilm, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents. In this manuscript, composition of essential oils and extracts were evaluated in a number of species, from the Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Asteraceae families. Extracts which were rich in phenols mostly of flavonoids, often showed high antioxidant potential. Also, phenolic compounds identified in essential oils and extracts were mostly responsible for expected antimicrobial activity. Current worldwide demand is to reduce or, if possible, eliminate chemically synthesized food additives. Plant-produced compounds are becoming of interest as a source of more effective and safe substances than synthetically produced antimicrobial agents (as inhibitors, growth reducers or even inactivators that control growth of microorganisms. Many different pathogens have

  13. In-vitro evaluation of the adhesion to polypropylene sutures of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, N; Esteban, J; Kinnari, T J; Celdrán, A; Granizo, J J; Zafra, C

    2007-09-01

    The ability of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria (NPRGM) to attach to polypropylene sutures was evaluated using an in-vitro assay. Thirty clinical isolates and five culture collection strains of NPRGM, together with Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35983, were tested. Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae showed the highest attachment ability, which differed significantly from the results obtained with Mycobacterium peregrinum. According to these results, NPRGM are able to attach to polypropylene sutures, and the species implicated most frequently in human infection showed increased levels of attachment in comparison with the other mycobacteria studied.

  14. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  15. A rapidly growing moraine-dammed glacial lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah S.; Benn, Douglas I.; Dennis, Kathryn; Luckman, Adrian

    2012-04-01

    Moraine-dammed glacial lakes are becoming increasingly common in the Himalaya as a result of glacier mass loss, causing concern about glacier lake outburst flood risk. In addition to extant lakes, the potential exists for many more to form, as more glaciers ablate down to the level of potential moraine dams. In this paper, we document the recent rapid growth of, a moraine-dammed lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. Using a combination of ground-based mapping and sonar surveys, aerial photographs (< 1 m resolution), and ASTER imagery (15 m resolution), processes and rates of lake expansion have been determined. The lake first formed between 1984 and 1992 when collapse of an englacial conduit allowed water to accumulate at the level of a gap in the lateral moraine, ~km from the glacier terminus. Lake growth was initially slow, but since 2001 it has undergone exponential growth at an average rate of 10% y-1. In 2009, the lake area was 300,000 m2, and its volume was at least 2.2 million m3. Calving, subaqueous melting, and melting of subaerial ice faces all contribute to the expansion of the lake; but large-scale, full-height slab calving is now the dominant contributor to growth. Comparison with other lakes in the region indicate that lake growth will likely continue unchecked whilst the spillway remains at its current level and may attain a volume of hundreds of millions of cubic metres within the next few decades.

  16. Neonatal sepsis in a rapidly growing, tertiary neonatal intensive care unit: Trends over 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Ju Sun; Shin, Seung Han; Jung, Young Hwa; Kim, Ee-Kyung; Choi, Eun Hwa; Kim, Han-Suk; Lee, Hoan Jong; Choi, Jung-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    We investigated changes in the admission patterns of neonatal intensive care units and the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis following the rapid expansion and improvements in neonatal intensive care. Data on the admission of neonates with culture-proven sepsis between 1996 and 2013 (period I, 1996-2005; period II, 2006-2013) were collected retrospectively. The admission of extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants increased between periods I and II (11.1 vs 28.7 infants per 1000 live births, P sepsis among all infants and ELBW infants increased (all infants, 5.9 vs 12.7 cases per 1000 live births; ELBW infants, 189.5 vs 290.1 cases per 1000 live births). In ELBW infants, the incidence of sepsis caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS), significantly increased during period II (8.8 vs 25.4%, P = 0.039). On multivariate analysis, central vascular catheters and prolonged hospitalization were independently associated with increased sepsis rate, particularly CONS in ELBW infants. The inborn admission rate for ELBW infants has increased significantly and is accompanied by improved survival and longer hospital stay. The incidence of neonatal sepsis, particularly in ELBW infants, has also increased, and CONS has emerged as a major pathogen. Central vascular catheters and prolonged hospitalization could be independent risk factors for the increased sepsis rate, particularly sepsis due to CONS. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Modified AFLP technique for rapid genetic characterization in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, D G; Kane, M E; Guy, C L; Li, Q B

    2000-10-01

    The standard amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was modified to develop a convenient and reliable technique for rapid genetic characterization of plants. Modifications included (i) using one restriction enzyme, one adapter molecule and primer, (ii) incorporating formamide to generate more intense and uniform bands and (iii) using agarose gel electrophoresis. Sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.), pickerel-weed (Pontederia cordata L.), Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) and Penstemon heterophyllus Lindl. were used to determine the ability to generate adequate resolution power with both self- and cross-pollinated plant species including cultivars, ecotypes and individuals within populations. Reproducibility of bands was higher in all the AFLP experiments compared to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Formamide with or without bovine serum albumin improved band intensities compared to dimethyl sulfoxide and the standard reaction mixture with no organic solvents. Comparison between RAPD and modified AFLP using sea-oats population samples proved that modified AFLP exhibits (i) a low number of faint bands with increased specificity of amplified bands, (ii) a significantly higher number of polymorphic loci per primer, (iii) less primer screening time, (iv) easy scoring associated with fewer faint bands and (v) greatly enhanced reproducibility. The technique described here can be applied with a high degree of accuracy for plant genetic characterization.

  18. Testing fungistatic properties of soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzhu, Hu; Nesterenko, Elena; Liu, Professor Hong; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, Vladimir; Gurevich, Yu.; Kozlov, Vladimir; Khizhnyak, Serge; Xing, Yidong; Hu, Enzhu; Enzhu, Hu

    There are two ways of getting vegetable food in BLSS: in hydroponic culture and on soil substrates. In any case there is a chance that the plants will be affected by plant pathogenic microorganisms. The subject of the research was a soil-like substrate (SLS) for growing plants in a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). We estimated the fungistatic properties of SLS using test cultures of Bipolaris and Alternaria plant pathogenic fungi. Experiments were made with the samples of SLS, natural soil and sand (as control). We tested 2 samples of SLS produced by way of bioconversion of wheat and rice straw. We measured the disease severity of wheat seedlings and the incidence of common root rot in natural (non-infectious) background and man-made (infectious) conditions. The severity of disease on the SLS was considerably smaller both in non-infectious and infectious background conditions (8 and 12%) than on the natural soil (18 and 32%) and sand. It was the soil-like substrate that had the minimal value among the variants being compared (20% in non-infectious and 40% in infectious background conditions). This index in respect of the soil was 55 and 78%, correspondingly, and in respect of the sand - 60%, regardless of the background. It was found that SLS significantly suppressed conidia germination of Bipolaris soroikiniana (psignificant differences were found between SLS samples obtained from wheat and rice straw.

  19. Phytoextraction of rare earth elements in herbaceous plant species growing close to roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Borowiak, Klaudia; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of study was to determine the phytoextraction of rare earth elements (REEs) to roots, stems and leaves of five herbaceous plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale AND Tripleurospermum inodorum), growing in four areas located in close proximity to a road with varied traffic intensity. Additionally, the relationship between road traffic intensity, REE concentration in soil and the content of these elements in plant organs was estimated. A. vulgaris and P. rhoeas were able to effectively transport REEs in their leaves, independently of area collection. The highest content of REEs was observed in P. rhoeas leaves and T. inodorum roots. Generally, HREEs were accumulated in P. rhoeas roots and leaves and also in the stems of T. inodorum and T. officinale, whereas LREEs were accumulated in T. inodorum roots and T. officinale stems. It is worth underlining that there was a clear relationship between road traffic intensity and REE, HREE and LREE concentration in soil. No positive correlation was found between the concentration of these elements in soil and their content in plants, with the exception of T. officinale. An effective transport of REEs from the root system to leaves was observed, what points to the possible ability of some of the tested plant species to remove REEs from soils near roads.

  20. Growing Beyond Earth; Students Exploring Plant Varieties for Future Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzinger, Marion; Massa, Gioia

    2017-01-01

    Future space exploration and long duration space flight will pose an array of challenges to the health and wellbeing of astronauts. Since 2015, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (FTBG), in partnership with NASA's Veggie team, has been testing edible crops for space flight potential through a series of citizen science experiments. FTBG's interest in classroom-based science projects, along with NASA's successful operation of the Veggie system aboard the International Space Station (ISS), led to a NASA-FTBG partnership that gave rise to the Growing Beyond Earth STEM Initiative (GBE). Established in 2015, GBE now involves 131 middle and high school classrooms in South Florida, all conducting simultaneous plant science experiments. The results of those experiments (both numeric and visual) are directly shared with the space food production researchers at KSC. Through this session, we will explore the successful classroom implementation and integration into the curriculum, how the data is being used and the impact of the project on participating researchers, teachers, and students. Participating schools were supplied with specialized LED-lit growth chambers, mimicking the Veggie system on ISS, for growing edible plants under similar physical and environmental constraints. Research protocols were provided by KSC scientists, while edible plant varieties were selected mainly by the botanists at FTBG. In a jointly-led professional development workshop, participating teachers were trained to conduct GBE experiments in their classrooms. Teachers were instructed to not only teach basic botany concepts, but to also demonstrate practical applications of math, physics and chemistry. As experiments were underway, students shared data on plant germination, growth, and health in an online spreadsheet. Results from the students research show a promising selection of new plant candidates for possible further testing. Over a two year period, more than 5000 South Florida students, ages

  1. Internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 following Biological and Mechanical Disruption of Growing Spinach Plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hora, Rajneesh; Warriner, Keith; Shelp, Barry J; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2005-01-01

    The internalization and persistence of a bioluminescent Escherichia coli O157:H7 Ph1 was investigated in growing spinach plants that had been either biologically or mechanically damaged. In control (undamaged...

  2. Rapid divergence of ecotypes of an invasive plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Avik; Ray, Rajasri

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species demonstrate rapid evolution within a very short period of time allowing one to understand the underlying mechanism(s). Lantana camara, a highly invasive plant of the tropics and subtropics, has expanded its range and successfully established itself almost throughout India. In order to uncover the processes governing the invasion dynamics, 218 individuals from various locations across India were characterized with six microsatellites. By integrating genetic data with niche modelling, we examined the effect of drift and environmental selection on genetic divergence. We found multiple genetic clusters that were non-randomly distributed across space. Spatial autocorrelation revealed a strong fine-scale structure, i.e. isolation by distance. In addition, we obtained evidence of inhibitory effects of selection on gene flow, i.e. isolation by environmental distance. Perhaps, local adaptation in response to selection is offsetting gene flow and causing the populations to diverge. Niche models suggested that temperature and precipitation play a major role in the observed spatial distribution of this plant. Based on a non-random distribution of clusters, unequal gene flow among them and different bioclimatic niche requirements, we concluded that the emergence of ecotypes represented by two genetic clusters is underway. They may be locally adapted to specific climatic conditions, and perhaps at the very early stages of ecological divergence. PMID:25165061

  3. Hyperaccumulator of Pb in native plants growing on Peruvian mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria; Boluda, Rafael; Tume, Pedro; Duran, Paola; Poma, Wilfredo; Sanchez, Isidoro

    2014-05-01

    Tailings usually provide an unfavourable substrate for plant growth because of their extreme pH, low organic matter and nutrients, high concentrations of trace elements and physical disturbance, such as bad soil structure, and low water availability. Heavy metal contamination has also been one serious problem in the vicinity of mine sites due to the discharge and dispersion of mine-waste materials into the ecosystem. Moreover, Pb is considered a target metal when undertaking soil remediation, because it is usually quite immobile and not readily accumulated in upper plant parts. The presence of vegetation reduces water and wind erosion, which may decrease the downward migration of contaminants into the groundwater and improve aesthetical aspects. Plants growing on naturally metal-enriched soils are of particular interest in this perspective, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations, have an excellent adaptation to this multi-stress environment. Efficient phytoextraction requires plant species combining both high metal tolerance and elevated capacity for metal uptake and metal translocation to easily harvestable plant organs (e.g. shoots). Soil and plant samples were taken in Peru, at a polymetallic mine (mainly Ag, Pb and Cu) in Cajamarca Province, Hualgayoc district. Top soils (0-20 cm) were analysed for physical and chemical properties by standard methods. Total Pb concentrations in top soils were determined by ICP-OES. Pb content in plants were analysed separately (aerial and root system) by ICP-MS. Ti content was used as an indicator for contamination of plant samples with soil particles. Translocation Factor (TF) and Shoot Accumulation Factor (SAF) were determined to assess the tolerance strategies developed by these species and to evaluate their potential for phytoremediation purposes. The non-polluted soils had near neutral pH (6.8±0.1), a great content of organic carbon (42 ± 4.0 g•kg-1) and a silt loamy texture. Soil and plant

  4. Ice-Cap: A Method for Growing Arabidopsis and Tomato Plants in 96-well Plates for High-Throughput Genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shih-Heng; Clark, Katie A.; Gibbs, Nicole M.; Bush, Susan M.; Krysan, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming common for plant scientists to develop projects that require the genotyping of large numbers of plants. The first step in any genotyping project is to collect a tissue sample from each individual plant. The traditional approach to this task is to sample plants one-at-a-time. If one wishes to genotype hundreds or thousands of individuals, however, using this strategy results in a significant bottleneck in the genotyping pipeline. The Ice-Cap method that we describe here provides a high-throughput solution to this challenge by allowing one scientist to collect tissue from several thousand seedlings in a single day 1,2. This level of throughput is made possible by the fact that tissue is harvested from plants 96-at-a-time, rather than one-at-a-time. The Ice-Cap method provides an integrated platform for performing seedling growth, tissue harvest, and DNA extraction. The basis for Ice-Cap is the growth of seedlings in a stacked pair of 96-well plates. The wells of the upper plate contain plugs of agar growth media on which individual seedlings germinate. The roots grow down through the agar media, exit the upper plate through a hole, and pass into a lower plate containing water. To harvest tissue for DNA extraction, the water in the lower plate containing root tissue is rapidly frozen while the seedlings in the upper plate remain at room temperature. The upper plate is then peeled away from the lower plate, yielding one plate with 96 root tissue samples frozen in ice and one plate with 96 viable seedlings. The technique is named "Ice-Cap" because it uses ice to capture the root tissue. The 96-well plate containing the seedlings can then wrapped in foil and transferred to low temperature. This process suspends further growth of the seedlings, but does not affect their viability. Once genotype analysis has been completed, seedlings with the desired genotype can be transferred from the 96-well plate to soil for further propagation. We have demonstrated the

  5. Can Plants Grow on Mars and the Moon: A Growth Experiment on Mars and Moon Soil Simulants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Frissel, J.Y.; Krijnen, W.H.J.; Verwoert, M.R.; Goedhart, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    When humans will settle on the moon or Mars they will have to eat there. Food may be flown in. An alternative could be to cultivate plants at the site itself, preferably in native soils. We report on the first large-scale controlled experiment to investigate the possibility of growing plants in Mars

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium foliorum Strain 122 Isolated from a Plant Growing in a Chronically Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulthorpe, Roberta; Sentchilo, Vladimir; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbacterium foliorum strain 122 is a bacterial endophyte isolated from a Dactylis glomerata plant growing in a natural oil seep soil located in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada. We present here a draft genome sequence of an endophytic strain that has promising potential in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth promotion. PMID:28546498

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium foliorum Strain 122 Isolated from a Plant Growing in a Chronically Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Site

    OpenAIRE

    Lumactud, Rhea; Fulthorpe, Roberta; Sentchilo, Vladimir; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbacterium foliorum strain 122 is a bacterial endophyte isolated from a Dactylis glomerata plant growing in a natural oil seep soil located in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada. We present here a draft genome sequence of an endophytic strain that has promising potential in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth promotion.

  8. Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov., a rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species isolated from human clinical respiratory and blood culture specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto Enrique; Greninger, Alexander L; Ladutko, Lynn; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Jakubiec, Wesley; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Wallace, Richard J; Simmon, Keith E; Dunn, Bruce E; Jackoway, Gary; Vora, Surabhi B; Quinn, Kevin K; Qin, Xuan; Campbell, Sheldon

    2017-11-01

    A previously undescribed, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species of the genus Mycobacterium (represented by strains PB739 T and GK) was isolated from two clinical sources - the sputum of a 76-year-old patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of tuberculosis exposure and Mycobacterium avium complex isolated years prior; and the blood of a 15-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia status post bone marrow transplant. The isolates grew as dark orange colonies at 25-37 °C after 5 days, sharing features in common with other closely related species. Analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (1492 bp) of strain PB739 T demonstrated that the isolate shared 98.8 % relatedness with Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Partial 429 bp hsp65 and 744 bp rpoB region V sequence analyses revealed that the sequences of the novel isolate shared 94.8 and 92.1 % similarity with those of Mycobacterium neoaurum and Mycobacterium aurum, respectively. Biochemical profiling, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, HPLC/gas-liquid chromatography analyses and multilocus sequence typing support the taxonomic status of these isolates (PB739 T and GK) as representatives of a novel species. Both isolates were susceptible to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended antimicrobials for susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria including amikacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline/minocycline, imipenem, linezolid, clarithromycin and trimethropin/sulfamethoxazole. Both isolates PB739 T and GK showed intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin. We propose the name Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov. for this novel species and have deposited the type strain in the DSMZ and CIP culture collections. The type strain is PB739 T (=DSM 104744 T =CIP 111318 T ).

  9. In Vitro Assessment of Plants Growing in Cuba Belonging to Solanaceae Family Against Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Jiménez, Jenny; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez, Ingrid; Gutiérrez, Yamile; da Rocha, Cláudia Quintino; Marchi, Mary; Setzer, William N; Vilegas, Wagner

    2016-11-01

    In this study, an in vitro antileishmanial assessment of plant extracts from 12 genera and 46 species growing in Cuba belonging to Solanaceae family was performed. A total of 226 extracts were screened against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, and cytotoxicity of active extracts [median inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) promastigotes 5 were then assayed against intracellular amastigote. Metabolomics analysis of promissory extracts was performed using chemical profile obtained by ultra performance liquid chromatography. Only 11 extracts (4.9%) from nine plants were selected as potentially actives: Brunfelsia cestroides A. Rich, Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum chinense Jacq., Cestrum nocturnum L., Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv., Solanum havanense Jacq., Solanum myriacanthum Dunal, Solanum nudum Dunal and Solanum seaforthianum And., with IC 50  5. Metabolomics analysis demonstrated significant differences in the chemical profiles with an average of 42.8 (range 31-88) compounds from m/z 104 to 1477, which demonstrated the complex mixture of compounds. In addition, no common markers among active extracts were identified. The results demonstrate the importance of the Solanaceae family to search new antileishmanial agents, particularly in unexplored species of this family. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A Novel Growing Device Inspired by Plant Root Soil Penetration Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali; Tonazzini, Alice; Popova, Liyana; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Moving in an unstructured environment such as soil requires approaches that are constrained by the physics of this complex medium and can ensure energy efficiency and minimize friction while exploring and searching. Among living organisms, plants are the most efficient at soil exploration, and their roots show remarkable abilities that can be exploited in artificial systems. Energy efficiency and friction reduction are assured by a growth process wherein new cells are added at the root apex by mitosis while mature cells of the root remain stationary and in contact with the soil. We propose a new concept of root-like growing robots that is inspired by these plant root features. The device penetrates soil and develops its own structure using an additive layering technique: each layer of new material is deposited adjacent to the tip of the device. This deposition produces both a motive force at the tip and a hollow tubular structure that extends to the surface of the soil and is strongly anchored to the soil. The addition of material at the tip area facilitates soil penetration by omitting peripheral friction and thus decreasing the energy consumption down to 70% comparing with penetration by pushing into the soil from the base of the penetration system. The tubular structure provides a path for delivering materials and energy to the tip of the system and for collecting information for exploratory tasks. PMID:24587244

  11. Strategies of heavy metal uptake by plants growing under industrial emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, M D; Valdés, B; Oliva, S Rossini

    2007-05-01

    Total concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Pb and Zn have been estimated in soil (A-horizon) and in leaves and stem samples of two Mediterranean species (Nerium oleander L. and Pinus pinea L.) growing in an industrial area in Spain (Huelva). Both species showed a different behaviour for the elements studied. Bark and leaves of both species acted as excluders of Al, Ba, Cr, Fe and Pb, N. oleander acted as indicator of Cu and Zn and, needles and bark of P. pinea behaved as accumulators of Cu. The enrichment ratio data indicated that Cu in soil and plant was enhanced with anthropogenic activities, with industrial activities being the primary contributor for Cu. All the other elements studied were controlled by natural source variations, but Pb could also be anthropogenically enhanced. Wood did not accumulate pollutants, with the translocation from bark being rather reduced. Uptake patterns of metals into foliage and bark tissues were more or less the same in both species for almost all the studied elements, which indicates that both plant parts could be indifferently used as biomonitors.

  12. A novel growing device inspired by plant root soil penetration behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    Full Text Available Moving in an unstructured environment such as soil requires approaches that are constrained by the physics of this complex medium and can ensure energy efficiency and minimize friction while exploring and searching. Among living organisms, plants are the most efficient at soil exploration, and their roots show remarkable abilities that can be exploited in artificial systems. Energy efficiency and friction reduction are assured by a growth process wherein new cells are added at the root apex by mitosis while mature cells of the root remain stationary and in contact with the soil. We propose a new concept of root-like growing robots that is inspired by these plant root features. The device penetrates soil and develops its own structure using an additive layering technique: each layer of new material is deposited adjacent to the tip of the device. This deposition produces both a motive force at the tip and a hollow tubular structure that extends to the surface of the soil and is strongly anchored to the soil. The addition of material at the tip area facilitates soil penetration by omitting peripheral friction and thus decreasing the energy consumption down to 70% comparing with penetration by pushing into the soil from the base of the penetration system. The tubular structure provides a path for delivering materials and energy to the tip of the system and for collecting information for exploratory tasks.

  13. Microbial abundance in rhizosphere of medicinal and aromatic plant species in conventional and organic growing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamović Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of four different medicinal and aromatic plant species (basil, mint, dill and marigold grown under both conventional and organic management on the chernozem soil at the experimental field of Bački Petrovac (Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. Two sampling terms (June 1 and July 18, 2012 were performed to collect samples for microbiological analyses. The microbial abundance was higher in organic than in conventional system while at the same time significant differences were obtained only with dill rhizosphere. The differences in number of microorganisms belonging to different groups relied upon both plant species and sampling term. Thus, in mint, the recorded number of azotobacters and fungi was significantly higher whereas the number of ammonifiers was significantly lower. The present results indicate that organic growing system affected the abundance of microorganisms in rhizosphere of species investigated, especially in the second term of sampling.

  14. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, Lucas R; Tran, Vivy; Tlamsa, Aileen; Chung, Philip; Grossberg, Robert; Weston, Gregory; Sarwar, Uzma N

    2017-10-01

    Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors' experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here. Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who presented at the Montefiore Medical Center (Bronx, New York, USA) between August 2015 and June 2016 were identified. A review of patient medical records was performed. Four patients who presented with culture-proven RGM infections at the sites of recent cosmetic procedures were identified. All patients were treated with a combination of antibiotics and aggressive surgical treatment. This case series of RGM infections following recent cosmetic surgeries abroad highlights the risks of medical tourism. Close monitoring of affected patients by surgical and infectious disease specialties is necessary, as aggressive surgical debridement combined with appropriate antibiotic regimens is needed to achieve cure. Given the increasing reports of post-surgical RGM infections, consultants should have a low threshold for suspecting RGM, as rapid diagnosis may accelerate the initiation of targeted treatment and minimize morbidity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Compost-based growing media: influence on growth and nutrient use of bedding plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigatti, Marco; Giorgioni, Maria Eva; Ciavatta, Claudio

    2007-12-01

    The agronomic performance and the mineral composition and trace element content in Begonia semperflorens "Bellavista F1", Mimulus "Magic x hybridus", Salvia splendens "maestro", and Tagete patula xerecta "Zenith Lemon Yellow", were tested by growing the plants on substrates of white peat and 25-50-75-100% green waste and sewage sludge (80%+20%v/v) compost (CP). A commercial peat medium of black and white peat (2:1v/v) was used as control. At flowering, the agronomic parameters were compared by ANOVA and plant nutritional status was compared by vector analysis. Substrate-species interactions (PBegonia grown in 25% CP, showed the highest dry weight (DW) and number of flowers. Other treatments were comparable to the control. Mimulus and Salvia showed the highest DW in the 25-50% CP. Mimulus, after a DW increase up to 50% CP, showed the steepest reduction as the CP increased further. Tagete showed no differences in DW up to 50% CP, or in flower number up to 25% CP, compared to the control. The additional increases of CP in the medium showed a DW decrease similar to that of Salvia. Vector analysis showed the use of compost mainly induced a decrease of P concentration in tissues, except for Begonia which remained unchanged. Plant tissues showed a general P reduction due to a dilution effect in the low compost mixtures (25-50%) and a deficiency in the higher CP mixtures. In contrast, an increase of Mg in the aboveground tissues of all species was detectable as compost usage increased, with the exception of Salvia which suffered a Mg deficiency. Vector analysis also highlighted a Ni and partial Fe deficiency in Tagete and Salvia.

  16. Automated electrical impedance technique for rapid enumeration of fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, M P; Munoz, E F

    1979-01-01

    Fecal coliforms growing in a selective lactose-based broth medium at 44.5 degrees C generate a change in the electrical impedance of the culture relative to a sterile control when populations reach 10(6) to 10(7) per ml. The ratio of these changes was measured automatically, and the data were processed by computer. A linear relation was found between the log10 of the number of fecal coliforms in an inoculum and the time required for an electrical impedance ratio signal to be detected. Pure culture inocula consisting of 100 fecal coliforms in log phase or stationary phase were detected in 6.5 and 7.7 h, respectively. Standard curves of log10 fecal coliforms in wastewater inocula versus detection time, based on samples collected at a sewage treatment plant over a 4-month period, were found to vary from one another with time. Nevertheless, detection times were rapid and ranged from 5.8 to 7.9 h for 200 fecal coliforms to 8.7 to 11.4 h for 1 fecal coliform. Variations in detection times for a given number of fecal coliforms were also found among sewage treatment plants. A strategy is proposed which takes these variations into account and allows for rapid, automated enumeration of fecal coliforms in wastewater by the electrical impedance ratio technique. PMID:378128

  17. Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov., a scotochromogenic, rapidly growing species is able to infect human macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Rizvi, A; Banerjee, S; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-11-01

    Gram-stain-positive, acid-fast-positive, rapidly growing, rod-shaped bacteria (designated as strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431) were isolated from paddy cultivated soils on the Western Ghats of India. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three strains among the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium tokaiense 47503T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Mycobacterium murale MA112/96T (98.8 %) and a few other Mycobacterium species. The level of DNA-DNA reassociation of the three strains with M. tokaiense DSM 44635T was 23.4±4 % (26.1±3 %, reciprocal analysis) and 21.4±2 % (22.1±4 %, reciprocal analysis). The three novel strains shared >99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA reassociation values >85 %. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences (3071 bp) of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) revealed that strain JC290T is clearly distinct from all other Mycobacteriumspecies. The three strains had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, unidentified phospholipids, unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified lipid as polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone for all three strains was MK-9(H2). Fatty acids were C17 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C19 : 1ω7c/C19 : 1ω6c for all the three strains. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431 are members of a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium and for which the name Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC290T (=KCTC 39560T=LMG 28809T).

  18. Climatic Suitability of Growing Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. as a Medicinal Plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Irans climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005 for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan, 39 years (1966-2005 for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa, 28 years (1977-2005 for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan and 20 years (1985-2005 for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs. Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.

  19. Miniaturized extinction culturing is the preferred strategy for rapid isolation of fast‐growing methane‐oxidizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefman, Sven; van der Ha, David; De Vos, Paul; Boon, Nico; Heylen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Summary Methane‐oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have a large potential as a microbial sink for the greenhouse gas methane as well as for biotechnological purposes. However, their application in biotechnology has so far been hampered, in part due to the relative slow growth rate of the available strains. To enable the availability of novel strains, this study compares the isolation of MOB by conventional dilution plating with miniaturized extinction culturing, both performed after an initial enrichment step. The extinction approach rendered 22 MOB isolates from four environmental samples, while no MOB could be isolated by plating. In most cases, extinction culturing immediately yielded MOB monocultures making laborious purification redundant. Both type I (Methylomonas spp.) and type II (Methylosinus sp.) MOB were isolated. The isolated methanotrophic diversity represented at least 11 different strains and several novel species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence dissimilarity. These strains possessed the particulate (100%) and soluble (64%) methane monooxygenase gene. Also, 73% of the strains could be linked to a highly active fast‐growing mixed MOB community. In conclusion, miniaturized extinction culturing was more efficient in rapidly isolating numerous MOB requiring little effort and fewer materials, compared with the more widely applied plating procedure. This miniaturized approach allowed straightforward isolation and could be very useful for subsequent screening of desired characteristics, in view of their future biotechnological potential. PMID:22070783

  20. Wild plant species growing closely connected in a subalpine meadow host distinct root-associated bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Aleklett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots are known to harbor large and diverse communities of bacteria. It has been suggested that plant identity can structure these root-associated communities, but few studies have specifically assessed how the composition of root microbiota varies within and between plant species growing under natural conditions. We assessed the community composition of endophytic and epiphytic bacteria through high throughput sequencing using 16S rDNA derived from root tissues collected from a population of a wild, clonal plant (Orange hawkweed–Pilosella aurantiaca as well as two neighboring plant species (Oxeye daisy–Leucanthemum vulgare and Alsike clover–Trifolium hybridum. Our first goal was to determine if plant species growing in close proximity, under similar environmental conditions, still hosted unique root microbiota. Our results showed that plants of different species host distinct bacterial communities in their roots. In terms of community composition, Betaproteobacteria (especially the family Oxalobacteraceae were found to dominate in the root microbiota of L. vulgare and T. hybridum samples, whereas the root microbiota of P. aurantiaca had a more heterogeneous distribution of bacterial abundances where Gammaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria occupied a larger portion of the community. We also explored the extent of individual variance within each plant species investigated, and found that in the plant species thought to have the least genetic variance among individuals (P. aurantiaca still hosted just as diverse microbial communities. Whether all plant species host their own distinct root microbiota and plants more closely related to each other share more similar bacterial communities still remains to be fully explored, but among the plants examined in this experiment there was no trend that the two species belonging to the same family shared more similarities in terms of bacterial community composition.

  1. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).

  2. Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov., a rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium chelonae, isolated from marine teleost fish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Hanako; Wada, Shinpei; Kurata, Osamu; Katayama, Kinya; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-01

    A previously undescribed rapidly growing, non-pigmented mycobacterium was identified based on biochemical and nucleic acid analyses, as well as growth characteristics. Seven isolates were cultured from samples collected from five thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) and two farmed black scraper (Thamnaconus modestus). Bacterial growth occurred at 15-35 °C on Middlebrook 7H11 agar. The bacteria were positive for catalase activity at 68 °C and urease activity, intermediate for iron uptake, and negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, semi-quantitative catalase activity and arylsulfatase activity at day 3. No growth was observed on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with picric acid, and very little growth was observed in the presence of 5 % NaCl. α- and α'-mycolates were identified in the cell walls, and a unique profile of the fatty acid methyl esters and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles of the protein and cell-wall lipids were acquired. Sequence analysis revealed that the seven isolates shared identical sequences for the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65, recA and sodA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the five gene sequences confirmed that the isolates were unique, but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clarithromycin against this novel species was Mycobacterium salmoniphilum. The hsp65 PCR restriction enzyme analysis pattern differed from those of M. chelonae and M. salmoniphilum. Based on these findings, the name Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain being NJB0901T (=JCM 31611T=KCTC 39843T).

  3. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae–Mycobacterium abscessus group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M.; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and, in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae–Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M. abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1–2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values >70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results, demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, but constitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM 10906T ( = CCUG 66554T = LMG 28586T = INCQS 0733T). PMID:26358475

  4. Rapid identification of the medicinal plant Taraxacum formosanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... College J. 8: 35-46. Xue CY, Li DZ, Lu JM, Yang JB, Liu JQ (2006). Molecular authentication of the traditional Tibetan medical plant Swertia mussotii. Planta Med. 72: 721-726. Yuan CC (2001). Textual research of material medica Taraxacum mongolicum and varietal identification. Chinese Wild Plant Res.

  5. Cement dust pollution induces toxicity or deficiency of some essential elements in wild plants growing around a cement factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Salih; Atici, Ökkes; Gülen, Yasir

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cement dust pollution on contents of some significant essential elements (P, S, K, Ca, Fe and Cl) in wild plants (Medigago varia, Anchusa leptophylla, Euphorbia orientalis, Lactuca serriola, Artemisia spicigera, Crambe orientalis, Convolvulus sepium and Senecio vernalis) using wavelength-dispersive spectrometer X-ray fluorescence technique. Plant samples were collected from different locations around a cement factory which is located at Askale about 50 km from Erzurum (Turkey). The element contents in the plant specimens that existed in both 0-100 m (dense dusted) and 2000 m (undusted) areas were compared. P, S, K and Cl contents were found to be high in the plants growing in areas 0-100 m from the cement factory, compared to same plants at 2000 m far from the factory. However, Ca and Fe contents were determined to be low in plants growing in 0-100 m area from the factory. Results of the study can contribute to understand how mineral deficiency and toxicity lead to detrimental effects on plant growth and development in the fields contaminated by cement dust.

  6. Bioaccumulation of {sup 226}Ra by plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around the uranium industry at Jaduguda, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, V.N., E-mail: jhavn1971@gmail.co [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Tripathi, R.M., E-mail: tripathirm@yahoo.co [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Sethy, N.K.; Sahoo, S.K.; Shukla, A.K.; Puranik, V.D. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2010-09-15

    A field study has been conducted to evaluate the {sup 226}Ra bioaccumulation among aquatic plants growing in the stream/river adjoining the uranium mining and ore-processing complex at Jaduguda, India. Two types of plant group have been investigated namely free floating algal species submerged into water and plants rooted in stream and riverbed. The highest {sup 226}Ra activity concentration (9850 Bq kg{sup -1}) was found in filamentous algae growing in the residual water of tailings pond. The concentration ratios of {sup 226}Ra in filamentous algae (activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra in plant Bq kg{sup -1} fresh weight/activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra in water Bq l{sup -1}) widely varied i.e. from 1.1 x 10{sup 3} to 8.6 x 10{sup 4}. Other aquatic plants were also showing wide variability in the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration. The ln-transformed filamentous algae {sup 226}Ra activity concentration was significantly correlated with that of ln-transformed water concentration (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). There was no correlation between the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra in stream/riverbed rooted plants and the substrate. For this group, correlation between {sup 226}Ra activity concentration and Mn, Fe, Cu concentration in plants were statistically significant.

  7. Can plants grow on Mars and the moon: a growth experiment on Mars and moon soil simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamelink, G W Wieger; Frissel, Joep Y; Krijnen, Wilfred H J; Verwoert, M Rinie; Goedhart, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    When humans will settle on the moon or Mars they will have to eat there. Food may be flown in. An alternative could be to cultivate plants at the site itself, preferably in native soils. We report on the first large-scale controlled experiment to investigate the possibility of growing plants in Mars and moon soil simulants. The results show that plants are able to germinate and grow on both Martian and moon soil simulant for a period of 50 days without any addition of nutrients. Growth and flowering on Mars regolith simulant was much better than on moon regolith simulant and even slightly better than on our control nutrient poor river soil. Reflexed stonecrop (a wild plant); the crops tomato, wheat, and cress; and the green manure species field mustard performed particularly well. The latter three flowered, and cress and field mustard also produced seeds. Our results show that in principle it is possible to grow crops and other plant species in Martian and Lunar soil simulants. However, many questions remain about the simulants' water carrying capacity and other physical characteristics and also whether the simulants are representative of the real soils.

  8. Can plants grow on Mars and the moon: a growth experiment on Mars and moon soil simulants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G W Wieger Wamelink

    Full Text Available When humans will settle on the moon or Mars they will have to eat there. Food may be flown in. An alternative could be to cultivate plants at the site itself, preferably in native soils. We report on the first large-scale controlled experiment to investigate the possibility of growing plants in Mars and moon soil simulants. The results show that plants are able to germinate and grow on both Martian and moon soil simulant for a period of 50 days without any addition of nutrients. Growth and flowering on Mars regolith simulant was much better than on moon regolith simulant and even slightly better than on our control nutrient poor river soil. Reflexed stonecrop (a wild plant; the crops tomato, wheat, and cress; and the green manure species field mustard performed particularly well. The latter three flowered, and cress and field mustard also produced seeds. Our results show that in principle it is possible to grow crops and other plant species in Martian and Lunar soil simulants. However, many questions remain about the simulants' water carrying capacity and other physical characteristics and also whether the simulants are representative of the real soils.

  9. Evaluation of dredged sediment co-composted with green waste as plant growing media assessed by eco-toxicological tests, plant growth and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Paola; Pastorelli, Roberta; Rami, Gabriele; Mocali, Stefano; Giagnoni, Laura; Gonnelli, Cristina; Renella, Giancarlo

    2017-07-05

    Dredged sediments have currently no broad reuse options as compared to other wastes due to their peculiar physico-chemical properties, posing problems for the management of the large volumes of sediments dredged worldwide. In this study we evaluated the performance of sediment (S) co-composted with green waste (GW) as growing medium for ornamental plants. Analysis of the microbial community structure, eco-toxicological tests, were conducted on sediments at 1:1 and 3:1S:GW composting ratios. Sediment-based growing media were then reused to growth the ornamental plant Photina x fraseri in a pilot-scale experiment and plants' physiological and chemical parameters were measured. The results showed that co-composting with green waste increased the diversity of bacteria, fungi and archaea as compared to the untreated sediments, and that both the 1:1 and 3:1 S:GW composted sediments had no substantial eco-toxicological impacts, allowing an excellent plant growth. We concluded that co-composted of sediment with green waste produce a growing medium with suitable properties for growing ornamental plants, and represent a sustainable option for beneficial use of dredged sediments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. You grow where you're planted: Community building in Colstrip, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Ramsey

    The expansion of energy production in the 1970s resulted in the construction of large extraction and power production facilities in many parts of the American West. Boomtowns almost always accompanied these enterprises. Colstrip, Montana, became the focus of a wide variety of social and environmental controversies when the Montana Power Company began strip mining operations and power plant construction in the early 1970s. Nevertheless, a sense of community attachment in Colstrip has steadily grown. Increased participation in public affairs, often in response to challenges made to the community, has accompanied the integration of Colstrip's residents in the non-economic environments of families, churches, recreation, and school-related activities. Researchers in the 1970s and early '80s often took the view that rapid development disrupts long-standing patterns of community attachment and integration. Using a model derived from Ferdinand Tonnies' Gemeinschaft-Gesell schaft continuum, these researchers undertook to demonstrate the folly of the energy companies' activities. The decline of community has frequently appeared as a theme in sociology and history. Yet the venerable but erroneous and largely sentimental theoretical perspective used by some early social impact assessment researchers did not accurately represent the processes at work in Colstrip and places like it. I suggest that Colstrip demonstrates an evolutionary continuum, but precisely the opposite of Tonnies' proposition. The feeling of attachment and home we call community is a growth-oriented phenomenon, not a simply a passive object subject only to decline. Colstrip, where sociologists found community lacking, is now found by the historian as the model of community.

  11. Spatial root distribution of plants growing in vertical media for use in living walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    of rockwool) in transparent boxes under greenhouse conditions. Root frequency was registered and the activity of individual root systems was studied via 15N uptake and plant dry weight was measured. Results: Plants in coir had stronger root growth in all parts of the medium than plants in rockwool. Upwards...

  12. When Smokey says "No": Fire-less methods for growing plants adapted to cultural fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela Shebitz; Justine E. James

    2010-01-01

    Two culturally-significant plants (sweetgrass [Anthoxanthum nitens] and beargrass [Xerophyllum tenax]) are used as case studies for investigating methods of restoring plant populations that are adapted to indigenous burning practices without using fire. Reports from tribal members that the plants of interest were declining in traditional gathering areas provided the...

  13. 76 FR 67581 - Importation of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA..., Neoregelia, Tillandsia, and Vriesea from Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands to the list of plants that may..., Neoregelia, Tillandsia, and Vriesea from Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands to the list of plants that may...

  14. Effect of plant extracts on growth performance and insulin-like growth factor 1 secretion in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Mohana Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of plant extracts on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and immune blood characteristics in growing pigs. A total of 80 [(Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc] pigs with an initial body weight (BW of 27.31±2.15 kg were used in a 6-wk experiment. Pigs were allotted to one of four treatments (1 - Control (CON (basal diet; 2 - PE1 (CON + 0.05% plant extracts; 3 - PE2 (CON + 0.10% plant extracts; and 4 - PE3 (CON + 0.15% plant extracts in a randomized complete block design according to sex and initial BW. The PE1 and PE2 treatments provided a greater average daily gain than the CON treatment. From weeks 0 to 6 the pigs fed diets PE2 and PE3 showed greater apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter than those fed the CON diet. Pigs fed the plant-extract treatments had a reduction in total mercaptan emission on day 3 compared with control treatment. On day 5, fecal acetic acid content was decreased with increased blood WBC (white blood cells and lymphocyte counts and serum IGF-1concentration by plant extract supplementation compared with the control treatment. All the results showed a 95% significance level. Supplementation of plant extracts can improve growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs, decrease fecal gas emission, and increase immune components such as WBC and lymphocytes, and serum IGF-1 concentration in growing pigs.

  15. Direct quantitative evaluation of disease symptoms on living plant leaves growing under natural light

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsunaga, Tomoko M; Ogawa, Daisuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Ishimoto, Masao; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Habu, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    .... Digital scanners provide fixed conditions for obtaining image data, allowing stable and reliable comparison among samples, but require detached plant materials to capture images, and the destructive...

  16. Rapid identification of the medicinal plant Taraxacum formosanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Original identification of medicinal plants is essential for quality control. In this study, the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA served as a DNA barcode and was amplified by allele-specific PCR. This approach was exploited to differentiate Taraxacum formosanum from five.

  17. The Root-Associated Microbial Community of the World’s Highest Growing Vascular Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angel, R.; Conrad, R.; Dvorský, Miroslav; Kopecký, Martin; Kotilínek, M.; Hiiesalu, Inga; Schweingruber, F. H.; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 2 (2016), s. 394-406 ISSN 0095-3628 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : vascular plants * upward migration * subnival soil * plant-associated bacteria Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2016

  18. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant: a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werger, M.J.A.; During, H.J.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments.

  19. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant : a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shou-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai; Werger, Marinus J A; Dong, Ming; During, Heinjo J; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments.

  20. The Exogenous Amelioration Roles of Growth Regulators on Crop Plants Grow under Different Osmotic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of fresh and dry matter of maize, wheat, cotton, broad and parsley plants show a variable response to the elevation of salinity stress. The production of fresh and dry matter of shoots and roots in wheat and broad bean plants tended to decrease with increasing NaCl concentration, salt stress progressively decrease in fresh and dry matter yield of maize plants. The increase in salinization levels induced a general insignificant change in production of fresh and dry matter of both organs of parsley plants. However, salinity induced a marked increase in the values of fresh and dry matter yields of cotton plants grown at the lowest level (-0.3 MPa NaCl and a reduction at higher salinization levels. Leaf area of unsprayed plants was excesivly decreased with the rise of osmotic stress levels especially at higher salinity levels of maize, wheat, cotton, and broad bean and parsley plants. the total pigments concentration decreased with rise of salinization levels in maize and cotton, these contents remained more or less un affected up to the level of 0.6 MPa NaCl in wheat and up to 0.9 MPa in parsley plants, there above, they were significantly reduced with increasing salinity levels. In broad bean plants the total pigments contents showed a non-significant alterations at all salinity stress. Spraying the vegetative parts of the five tested plants with 200 ppm of either GA3 or kinetin completely ameliorated the deleterious effect of salinity in fresh, dry matter, leaf area and pigment contents.

  1. Rapid acceleration of plant speciation during the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chris D

    2015-08-01

    Speciation rates need to be considered when estimating human impacts on the numbers of species on Earth, given that past mass extinctions have been followed by the accelerated origination of new taxa. Here, I suggest that the Anthropocene is already exhibiting a greatly accelerated plant speciation rate due to agriculture, horticulture, and the human-mediated transport of species, followed by hybridisation. For example, more new plant species have come into existence in Europe over the past three centuries than have been documented as becoming extinct over the same period, even though most new hybrid-origin species are likely to remain undetected. Current speciation rates are unusually high and they could be higher than during or after previous mass extinctions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT OF COHERENT LIGHT ON RESISTANCE OF PLANTS GROWING IN UNFAVOURABLE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śliwka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of experiments on the effect of the coherent light emitted by lasers on plant material show that properly selected laser stimulation parameters, such as: wavelength, power, time and type of exposure, allow to obtain a greater growth of plant biomass, changes in the content of elements in the biomass and increasing plant resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of laser stimulation on selected plant species (Iris pseudoacorus L., Lemna minor L. to increase their resistance to low temperatures and the ability to adapt to an environment polluted by mining activities (Phelum pratense L.. Plants from experimental groups (Iris pseudoacorus L., Phelum pratense L., Lemna minor L. were stimulated with coherent light with specific characteristics. To irradiate plants from experimental groups different algorithms of stimulation parameters, differentiating the method and time of exposure were used. Plants group without the stimulation, were the reference group. The article discusses the results of preliminary experiments carried out on a laboratory scale and pot experiments.

  3. Uptake and accumulation of selenium by terrestrial plants growing on a coal fly ash landfill. 2. Forage and root crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, M.A.; Rubin, G.; Woodbury, P.B.; Schneider, R.E.; Weinstein, L.H. (Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, NY (USA). Environmental Biology Program)

    1992-09-01

    Plants grown on fly ash landfills can accumulate relatively high concentrations of selenium (Se), although concentrations can vary greatly among and within species. The accumulation of Se in forage and root crops grown on a fly ash landfill and nonlandfill sites and the relationship of soil Se to plant Se concentrations were examined. Because sulfur (S) can act as a competitive ion with Se in plant uptake of nutrients, gypsum (CaSO[sub 4].2H[sub 2]O) was applied to soil on a fly ash landfill to determine whether Se was reduced in plants in its presence. Slightly more Se was accumulated in plants grown on the landfill than on the nonlandfill site. Total Se concentration in soil was poorly correlated with Se concentration in alfalfa plants grown on the landfill. In alfalfa ([ital Medicago sativa L.]), oats ([ital Avena sativa L.]), and rutabaga ([ital Brassica napus L.]), application of gypsum at rates of 5.6 to 16.8 t ha[sup -1] reduced the uptake of Se from that of plants grown without gypsum. Results from this study indicate that gypsum amendment may be effective in decreasing the uptake of Se by plants growing on a fly ash landfill, but the response is quite variable, probably due to variability in concentration and availability of Se in the soil cap. The use of gypsum in limiting Se uptake by plants offers a possible management tool to control the cycling of Se through plants to other biota on fly ash landfills.

  4. Collision-induced fragmentation accurate mass spectrometric analysis methods to rapidly characterize plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid advances in analytical chromatography equipment have made the reliable and reproducible measurement of a wide range of plant chemical components possible. Full chemical characterization of a given plant material is possible with the new mass spectrometers currently available. For phytochem...

  5. Collision-induced fragmentation accurate mass spectrometric analysis methods to rapidly characterize phytochemicals in plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid advances in analytical chromatography equipment have made the reliable and reproducible measurement of a wide range of plant chemical components possible. Full chemical characterization of a given plant material is possible with the new mass spectrometers currently available. New methods a...

  6. Planting geometry and growing season effects on the growth and yield of dryland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The declining Ogallala Aquifer beneath the Southern High Plains may necessitate dryland crop production and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a well-adapted and potentially profitable alternative crop. The limited growing season duration of the Texas Panhandle and southwestern Kansas, however, impos...

  7. Community structure of actively growing bacterial populations in plant pathogen suppressive soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hjort, K.; Lembke, A.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Smalla, K.; Jansson, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial community in soil was screened by using various molecular approaches for bacterial populations that were activated upon addition of different supplements. Plasmodiophora brassicae spores, chitin, sodium acetate, and cabbage plants were added to activate specific bacterial populations

  8. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on plants growing on arsenic contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankong, P; Visoottiviseth, P

    2008-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may play an important role in phytoremediation of As-contaminated soil. In this study the effects of AMF (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and Glomus etunicatum) on biomass production and arsenic accumulation in Pityrogramma calomelanos, Tagetes erecta and Melastoma malabathricum were investigated. Soil (243 +/- 13 microg As g(-1)) collected from Ron Phibun District, an As-contaminated area in Thailand, was used in a greenhouse experiment. The results showed different effects of AMF on phytoremediation of As-contaminated soil by different plant species. For P. calomelanos and T. erecta, AMF reduced only arsenic accumulation in plants but had no significant effect on plant growth. In contrast, AMF improved growth and arsenic accumulation in M. malabathricum. These findings show the importance of understanding different interactions between AMF and their host plants for enhancing phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils.

  9. Biomécanique de mouvements rapides chez les plantes

    OpenAIRE

    Llorens, Coraline

    2014-01-01

    In this PhD work, we focus on the biomechanics of two motions among the fastest in plant kingdom. The first part is a theoretical study of the motion leading to a prey capture by the bladderwort’s traps, elastic millimeter-sized bladders closed by a flexible door. A dynamical model, based on mechanical, elastic and hydrodynamic ingredients, links the pressure difference between the trap and its surroundings with the door position by the means of two coupled ordinary differential equations. Th...

  10. Synergisms between microbial pathogens in plant disease complexes: a growing trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ram eLamichhane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant diseases are often thought to be caused by one species or even by a specific strain. Microbes in nature however mostly occur as part of complex communities and this has been noted since the time of van Leeuwenhoek. Interestingly, most laboratory studies focus on single microbial strains grown in pure culture; we were therefore unaware of possible interspecies and/or inter-kingdom interactions of pathogenic microbes in the wild. In human and animal infections, it is now being recognized that many diseases are the result of multispecies synergistic interactions. This increases the complexity of the disease and has to be taken into consideration in the development of more effective control measures. On the other hand, there are only a few reports of synergistic pathogen-pathogen interactions in plant diseases and the mechanisms of interactions are currently unknown. Here we review some of these reports of synergism between different plant pathogens and their possible implications in crop health. Finally, we briefly highlight the recent technological advances in diagnostics as these are beginning to provide important insights into the microbial communities associated with complex plant diseases. These examples of synergistic interactions of plant pathogens that lead to disease complexes might prove to be more common than expected and understanding the underlying mechanisms might have important implications in plant disease epidemiology and management.

  11. Lifeact-mEGFP reveals a dynamic apical F-actin network in tip growing plant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vidali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Actin is essential for tip growth in plants. However, imaging actin in live plant cells has heretofore presented challenges. In previous studies, fluorescent probes derived from actin-binding proteins often alter growth, cause actin bundling and fail to resolve actin microfilaments.In this report we use Lifeact-mEGFP, an actin probe that does not affect the dynamics of actin, to visualize actin in the moss Physcomitrella patens and pollen tubes from Lilium formosanum and Nicotiana tobaccum. Lifeact-mEGFP robustly labels actin microfilaments, particularly in the apex, in both moss protonemata and pollen tubes. Lifeact-mEGFP also labels filamentous actin structures in other moss cell types, including cells of the gametophore.Lifeact-mEGFP, when expressed at optimal levels does not alter moss protonemal or pollen tube growth. We suggest that Lifeact-mEGFP represents an exciting new versatile probe for further studies of actin's role in tip growing plant cells.

  12. Energetic utilization of residues from wine-growing. Sewage plant Iphofen; Energetische Nutzung von Weinbaureststoffen. Klaeranlage Iphofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinle, Eberhard; Carozzi, Alvaro [Dr.-Ing. Steinle Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Abwassertechnik mbH, Weyarn (Germany); Mend, Josef; Kurth, Matthias [Stadt Iphofen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The treatment of waste water from the wine-growing and the treatment of liquid residual substances in local purification plants frequently result in a temporary overloading and disturbances. An innovative drop-off scheme was introduced at the purification plant Iphofen (Federal Republic of Germany). With this drop-off scheme, the winegrowers directly supply the highly concentrated liquid residual substances from the winemaking to the purification plant. There the residual substances can be used for the support of the denitrification and fermentation. After the successful conversion of this system, a gas utilization with small cogeneration units could be installed. Thus the resulting mass of gas will be used to the production of electricity and thermal energy. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on this system approach and on first operational experiences.

  13. NLR-parser: rapid annotation of plant NLR complements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuernagel, Burkhard; Jupe, Florian; Witek, Kamil; Jones, Jonathan D G; Wulff, Brande B H

    2015-05-15

    The repetitive nature of plant disease resistance genes encoding for nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins hampers their prediction with standard gene annotation software. Motif alignment and search tool (MAST) has previously been reported as a tool to support annotation of NLR-encoding genes. However, the decision if a motif combination represents an NLR protein was entirely manual. The NLR-parser pipeline is designed to use the MAST output from six-frame translated amino acid sequences and filters for predefined biologically curated motif compositions. Input reads can be derived from, for example, raw long-read sequencing data or contigs and scaffolds coming from plant genome projects. The output is a tab-separated file with information on start and frame of the first NLR specific motif, whether the identified sequence is a TNL or CNL, potentially full or fragmented. In addition, the output of the NB-ARC domain sequence can directly be used for phylogenetic analyses. In comparison to other prediction software, the highly complex NB-ARC domain is described in detail using several individual motifs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. An improved, low-cost, hydroponic system for growing Arabidopsis and other plant species under aseptic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre-Cobos, Fulgencio; Calderón-Vázquez, Carlos; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Yong-Villalobos, Lenin; Pérez-Torres, Claudia-Anahí; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Méndez-Bravo, Alfonso; González-Morales, Sandra-Isabel; Gutiérrez-Alanís, Dolores; Chacón-López, Alejandra; Peña-Ocaña, Betsy-Anaid; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2014-03-21

    Hydroponics is a plant growth system that provides a more precise control of growth media composition. Several hydroponic systems have been reported for Arabidopsis and other model plants. The ease of system set up, cost of the growth system and flexibility to characterize and harvest plant material are features continually improved in new hydroponic system reported. We developed a hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis and other model plants. This low cost, proficient, and novel system is based on recyclable and sterilizable plastic containers, which are readily available from local suppliers. Our system allows a large-scale manipulation of seedlings. It adapts to different growing treatments and has an extended growth window until adult plants are established. The novel seed-holder also facilitates the transfer and harvest of seedlings. Here we report the use of our hydroponic system to analyze transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to nutriment availability and plant/pathogen interactions. The efficiency and functionality of our proposed hydroponic system is demonstrated in nutrient deficiency and pathogenesis experiments. Hydroponically grown Arabidopsis seedlings under long-time inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiency showed typical changes in root architecture and high expression of marker genes involved in signaling and Pi recycling. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of gene expression of Arabidopsis roots depleted of Pi by short time periods indicates that genes related to general stress are up-regulated before those specific to Pi signaling and metabolism. Our hydroponic system also proved useful for conducting pathogenesis essays, revealing early transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes.

  15. Behavior of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne growing in a heavy metal contaminated field: Plant metal concentration and phytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidar, G. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Garcon, G. [LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pruvot, C. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Dewaele, D. [Centre Commun de Mesures, MREI 1, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 145, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Cazier, F. [Centre Commun de Mesures, MREI 1, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 145, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Douay, F. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, P. [LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)]. E-mail: pirouz.shirali@univ-littoral.fr

    2007-06-15

    The use of a vegetation cover for the management of heavy metal contaminated soils needs prior investigations on the plant species the best sustainable. In this work, behaviors of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne, growing in a metal-polluted field located near a closed lead smelter, were investigated through Cd, Pb and Zn-plant metal concentrations and their phytotoxicity. In these plant species, metals were preferentially accumulated in roots than in shoots, as follow: Cd > Zn > Pb. Plant exposure to such metals induced oxidative stress in the considered organs as revealed by the variations in malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activities. These oxidative changes were closely related to metal levels, plant species and organs. Accordingly, L. perenne seemed to be more affected by metal-induced oxidative stress than T. repens. Taken together, these findings allow us to conclude that both the plant species could be suitable for the phytomanagement of metal-polluted soils. - Usefulness of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne for the phytomanagement of heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  16. Effects of Planted Versus Naturally Growing Vallisneria natans on the Sediment Microbial Community in West Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Liu, Shuangyuan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Biyun; Zeng, Lei; He, Feng; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2017-08-01

    Submerged macrophytes play an important role in aquatic ecosystems, which has led to an increase in studies on vegetation recovery in polluted lakes from which submerged macrophytes have disappeared. The comparison of microbial communities in sediment cloned with planted and naturally growing submerged macrophytes is an interesting but rarely studied topic. In this investigation, Maojiabu and Xilihu, two adjacent sublakes of West Lake (Hangzhou, China), were selected as aquatic areas with planted and naturally growing macrophytes, respectively. Sediment samples from sites with/without Vallisneria natans were collected from both sublakes. The results showed that sediment total nitrogen and organic matter were significantly lower in the plant-covered sites than that in the non-plant sites in Maojiabu. Additionally, the sediment microbial community characterized by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing differed more significantly for Maojiabu than for Xilihu. The relative abundances of microbes involved in C, N, and S elemental cycling were significantly higher in the sediments with plants than in those without. Results from both fatty acid methyl ester analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that vegetation significantly influenced the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Thus, the gene copies and composition of SRB were explored further. The relative gene abundance of SRB was 66% higher with natural vegetation colonization but was not influenced by artificial colonization. An increase in dominant SRB members from the families Syntrophobacteraceae and Thermodesulfovibrionaceae contributed to the increase of total SRB. Thus, macrophyte planting influences sediment nutrient levels and microbial community more than natural growth does, whereas the latter is more beneficial to sediment SRB.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of some coumarin containing herbal plants growing in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, T; Remes, S; Haansuu, P; Vuorela, H; Hiltunen, R; Haahtela, K; Vuorela, P

    2000-11-01

    Antimicrobial screening against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, mold, as well as plant pathogenic fungi, with emphasis on method optimization was carried out on methanol extracts prepared from seven plants grown in Finland. Sensitivity to the extracts was found to vary considerably among the micro-organisms, the extract from Petroselinum crispum and Ruta graveolens showing the highest toxicity against Rhizoctonia solani. The growth of Heterobasidium annosum was inhibited, whereas that of Phytophtora (cactorum) was promoted by all the extracts. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of six natural coumarin compounds were weak, except for the inhibitory effect against Fusarium culmorum.

  18. Effect of power plant (grow and bloom) on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and development parameters measured were significantly affected by the various treatments. Combined application of power plant and NPKMg 12-12-17-2 in equal ratio produced the best performance and it was significantly different from other treatments, while the least performance of seedlings was recorded in ...

  19. Direct quantitative evaluation of disease symptoms on living plant leaves growing under natural light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Tomoko M; Ogawa, Daisuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Ishimoto, Masao; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Habu, Yoshiki

    2017-06-01

    Leaf color is an important indicator when evaluating plant growth and responses to biotic/abiotic stress. Acquisition of images by digital cameras allows analysis and long-term storage of the acquired images. However, under field conditions, where light intensity can fluctuate and other factors (shade, reflection, and background, etc.) vary, stable and reproducible measurement and quantification of leaf color are hard to achieve. Digital scanners provide fixed conditions for obtaining image data, allowing stable and reliable comparison among samples, but require detached plant materials to capture images, and the destructive processes involved often induce deformation of plant materials (curled leaves and faded colors, etc.). In this study, by using a lightweight digital scanner connected to a mobile computer, we obtained digital image data from intact plant leaves grown in natural-light greenhouses without detaching the targets. We took images of soybean leaves infected by Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines, and distinctively quantified two disease symptoms (brown lesions and yellow halos) using freely available image processing software. The image data were amenable to quantitative and statistical analyses, allowing precise and objective evaluation of disease resistance.

  20. Identity and biodegradative abilities of yeasts isolated from plants growing in an arid climate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Plants harvested in the Canary Islands Lanzarote and Fuerteventura were analyzed for the yeasts inhabiting their surface. Half of the isolates (22 out of 44) were identified as Debaryomyces hansenii. Black ascomycetes, viz. Hortaea werneckii and two Hormonema species were represented by 7 strains.

  1. Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mapelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  2. Ability of cold-tolerant plants to grow in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Diana Bizecki; Knight, J Diane; Farrell, Richard E; Germida, James J

    2003-01-01

    Phytoremediation of hydrocarbons in soil involves plants and their associated microorganisms. Differences in environmental conditions and restrictions on species importation mean that each country may need to identify indigenous plants to use for phytoremedation. Screening plants for hydrocarbon tolerance before screening for degradation ability may prove more economical than screening directly for degradation. Thirty-nine cold-tolerant plants native, or exotic and naturalized, in western Canada were assessed for their ability to survive in crude oil-contaminated soil. Four naturalized grasses (i.e., Agropyron pectiniforme, Bromus inermis, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis), three naturalized legumes (i.e., Medicago sativa, Melilotus officinalis, and Trifolium repens), two native forbs (i.e., Artemisia frigida and Potentilla pensylvanica), one native grass (i.e., Bromus ciliatus) and two native legumes (i.e., Glycyrrhiza lepidota and Psoralea esculenta) exhibited phytoremediation potential, based on survival. We determined the effect of increasing crude oil concentrations on total and root biomass, and relative growth rate of those species with the highest survival. The addition of 0.5%, 1%, and 5% (crude oil wt/fresh soil wt) crude oil to soil significantly decreased both the total biomass by at least 22% of the control and the relative growth rate of all species except P. esculenta. Root biomass significantly decreased by at least 22% with crude oil addition in all species except P. esculenta and A. frigida. Total biomass production in contaminated soil had a significant negative correlation with the relative growth rate in uncontaminated soil.

  3. Effect of probiotic bacteria-fermented medicinal plants (Gynura procumbens, Rehmannia glutinosa, Scutellaria baicalensis) as performance enhancers in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Suk; Kim, In Ho

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of mixed fermented medicinal plants (FMP) obtained from exudates of Gynura procumbens, Rehmannia glutinosa and Scutellaria baicalensis fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus licheniformis, respectively, on growth performance in growing pigs in order to assess the feasibility of using FMP as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), such as tiamulin. A total of 150 growing pigs (body wieght 25.50 ± 2.50 kg) were used in a 6 weeks experiment and randomly divided into five groups with six replicates of five growing pigs each. The treatments were NC (basal diet), basal diet with 33 ppm tiamulin (PC), basal diet with FMP 0.05% (FMP 0.05), basal diet with FMP 0.1% (FMP 0.1) and basal diet with FMP 0.2% (FMP 0.2). Overall, body weight gain, feed conversion rate, the digestibility of dry matter and gross energy, noxious gas emission all improved with FMP supplementation as compared to NC. Taken together, these results suggest the feasibility of using FMP as an alternative to AGP for enhancing the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and excreta noxious gas emission of growing pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Restoration potential of pioneer plants growing on lead-zinc mine tailings in Lanping, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dongmei; Duan, Changqun

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on the restoration potential of ten pioneer plants (Artemisia roxburghiana, Artemisia tangutica, Carex inanis, Cyperaceae hebecarpus, Plantago depresa, Cynoglossum lanceolatum, Potentilla saundesiana, Coriaria sinica, Oxyria sinensis, and Miscanthus nepalensis) during the early phase of Pb-Zn mine tailings phytostabilization, in Lanping, China. The concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, and Cu) and soil fertility (the available N, P, K, and organic matter) in the rhizosphere of these species have been compared. The results showed a general improvement in the rhizosphere soil properties of pioneer plants. Of the ten species, the concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu in the rhizosphere of A. roxburghiana have the greatest reduction of 56.23%, 83.00%, and 84.36%, respectively, compared to the bulk soil. The best improvement in soil fertility was found in the rhizosphere of P. saundesiana, with an increase of 241.83%, 170.76%, 49.09%, and 81.60%, respectively, in the available N, P, K, and organic matter. Metals accumulated by the plants have been mainly distributed in the root tissues, and only small amounts transferred to the aboveground tissues. The highest contents of Pb and Zn have been recorded in C. hebecarpus with 57.84 and 87.92 mg/kg dry weight (dw), respectively. The maximum Cu content was observed in C. inanis with 1.19 mg/kg dw. Overall, pioneer plants will be ideal species for the phytostabilization of mine tailings, but the potential use varies in different pioneer plant species. Among these ten species, A. roxburghiana has been identified to be the most suitable for phytostabilization programs, due to its greatest improvement on physical-chemical properties in the rhizosphere soil.

  5. Phytoremediation potential of wild plants growing on soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čudić, Vladica; Stojiljković, Dragoslava; Jovović, Aleksandar

    2016-09-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants to cleanup contaminated environments, including metal-polluted soils. Because it produces a biomass rich in extracted toxic metals, further treatment of this biomass is necessary. The aim of our study was to assess the five-year potential of the following native wild plants to produce biomass and remove heavy metals from a polluted site: poplar (Populus ssp.), ailanthus (Ailanthus glandulosa L.), false acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), ragweed (Artemisia artemisiifolia L.), and mullein (Verbascum thapsus L). Average soil contamination with Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and As in the root zone was 22,948.6 mg kg-1, 865.4 mg kg-1, 85,301.7 mg kg-1, 3,193.3 mg kg-1, 50.7 mg kg-1, 41.7 mg kg-1,and 617.9 mg kg-1, respectively. We measured moisture and ash content, concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and As in the above-ground parts of the plants and in ash produced by combustion of the plants, plus gross calorific values. The plants' phytoextraction and phytostabilisation potential was evaluated based on their bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF). Mullein was identified as a hyperaccumulator for Cd. It also showed a higher gross calorific value (19,735 kJ kg-1) than ragweed (16,469 kJ kg-1).The results of this study suggest that mullein has a great potential for phytoextraction and for biomass generation, and that ragweed could be an effective tool of phytostabilisation.

  6. The Importance of Microtopography and Nurse Canopy for Successful Restoration Planting of the Slow-Growing Conifer Pilgerodendron uviferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Bauhus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that, owing to a lack of seed trees, the natural rate of recovery of fire-disturbed bog forests previously dominated by the endemic and endangered conifer Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don Florin is extremely slow. Hence, increasing the number of seed trees in the landscape through restoration planting could remove the principal biotic filter, limiting recovery of these forests. Here, we analyzed how the success of restoration plantings may be improved through the choice or manipulation of microsites in P. uviferum forests on Chiloé Island in North Patagonia. For this purpose, we manipulated microtopography in water-logged sites in bogs (mounds, flat terrain, mineral soil and changed canopy conditions (gaps, semi-open, closed canopy in upland sites with better drainage. In bogs, there was no significant effect of microtopography on growth and survival of P. uviferum plantings. However, fluorescence measurements indicated lower stress in seedlings established on mounds. Seedlings in upland areas established beneath a nurse canopy had lower mortality and higher relative shoot growth, foliar nutrients, photosynthetic light use efficiency and chlorophyll fluorescence values than those planted in the open. This indicates that seedlings of the slow growing P. uviferum can tolerate extremely wet conditions, yet suffer from stress when grown in the open. Here, the removal of canopy appeared to have also removed or reduced mycorrhizal networks for seedlings, leading to poorer nutrition and growth. Based on these results, recommendations for restoration plantings in highly degraded P. uviferum forests are presented.

  7. Assessment of native plant species for phytoremediation of heavy metals growing in the vicinity of NTPC sites, Kahalgaon, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Alka; Lal, Brij; Rai, Upendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to screen native plants growing in fly ash (FA) contaminated areas near National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), Kahalgaon, Bihar, India with a view to using them for the eco-restoration of the area. A total number of 30 plant species (5 aquatic and 25 terrestrial including 6 ferns) were collected and their diversity status and dominance were also studied. After screening of dominant species at highly polluted site, 8 terrestrial and 5 aquatic plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Si, Al, Pb, Cr, and Cd). Differential accumulations of various heavy metals by different species of plants were observed. Typha latifolia was found to be most efficient metal accumulator of Fe (927), Cu (58), Zn (87), Ni (57), Al (67), Cd (95), and Pb (69), and Azolla pinnata as Cr (93) hyper-accumulator among aquatic species in µg g(-1). In terrestrial species the maximum levels of Fe (998), Zn (81), Ni (93), Al (121), and Si (156) were found in Croton bonplandium. However, there was high spatial variability in total metal accumulation in different species indicated by coefficient of variation (CV%). These results suggest that various aquatic, some dominant terrestrial plants including fern species may be used in a synergistic way to remediate and restore the FA contaminated wastelands.

  8. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  9. Bacterial diseases of tomato plants in terms of open and covered growing of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V. Kolomiets

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It was established that the main causes of mass diseases of tomato in covered ground in Ukraine are agents of bacterial black spotting, bacterial speck and in open ground are agent of bacterial cancer of tomato plants. Typical symptoms of diseases are wilting and die-off of young plants, blackening of fiber vascular bundles, black spotting of leaves and fruits, and fruit stem rot. It was studied morphological and cultural, as well as physiological and biochemical properties of the selected strains of the agents of tomato bacterial diseases. We recommended biological preparations Phytocide and Phytohelp based on the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, to restrict the development of the agents of bacterial black spotting Xanthomonas vesicatoria and bacterial cancer Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

  10. Enhanced degradation activity by endophytic bacteria of plants growing in hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.; Germida, J.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Greer, C.W. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using phytoremediation for cleaning soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was discussed. Petroleum hydrocarbons are problematic because of their toxicity, mobility and persistence in the environment. Appropriate clean-up methods are needed, given that 60 per cent of Canada's contaminated sites contain these compounds. Phytoremediation is an in situ biotechnology in which plants are used to facilitate contaminant removal. The approach relies on a synergistic relationship between plants and their root-associated microbial communities. Previous studies on phytoremediation have focussed on rhizosphere communities. However, it is believed that endophytic microbes may also play a vital role in organic contaminant degradation. This study investigated the structural and functional dynamics of both rhizosphere and endophytic microbial communities of plants from a phytoremediation field site in south-eastern Saskatchewan. The former flare pit contains up to 10,000 ppm of F3 to F4 hydrocarbon fractions. Root samples were collected from tall wheatgrass, wild rye, saltmeadow grass, perennial ryegrass, and alfalfa. Culture-based and culture-independent methods were used to evaluate the microbial communities associated with these roots. Most probable number assays showed that the rhizosphere communities contained more n-hexadecane, diesel fuel, and PAH degraders. However, mineralization assays with 14C labelled n-hexadecane, naphthalene, and phenanthrene showed that endophytic communities had more degradation activities per standardized initial degrader populations. Total community DNA samples taken from bulk, rhizosphere, and endophytic samples, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It was shown that specific bacteria increased in endophytic communities compared to rhizosphere communities. It was suggested plants may possibly recruit specific bacteria in response to hydrocarbon contamination, thereby increasing degradation

  11. THE USE OF PHYSICAL METHODS FOR PLANT GROWING STIMULATION IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    ANNA ALADJADJIYAN

    2007-01-01

    Different chemical additives are used for rising productivity of plants and animals. Their application causes the contamination of raw materials for food production with toxins that is dangerous for consumers’ health. On-farm safety for fresh produce needs developing and implementing new methods for quality assurance. The influence of physical factors as microwave and laser radiation, magnetic field and ultrasound treatment is an alternative of soil additives and fertilizers. The substitution...

  12. A secret world - C and N rhizodeposition of pea, influenced by plant development and growing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hupe, Anke

    2017-01-01

    An accurate knowledge of the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) input through crops into soil is highly important. The estimation of the additional amount of nitrogen originating from rhizodeposition helps to improve crop rotations. The preceding crop effect of cultures can be more accurately evaluated and ultimately the use of nitrogen fertilizer can be reduced and costs can be saved. Moreover, a better knowledge of the amount of carbon emitted by plants and incorporated in the soil improves the es...

  13. Antinociceptive activity of extracts and secondary metabolites from wild growing and micropropagated plants of Renealmia alpinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Betancur, Isabel; Cortés, Natalie; Benjumea, Dora; Osorio, Edison; León, Francisco; Cutler, Stephen J

    2015-05-13

    Renealmia alpinia is native to the American continent and can be found from Mexico to Brazil, and in the Caribbean islands. It is known as "matandrea" in Colombia, and it has been commonly used in traditional medicine to treat painful diseases and ailments. Based on its traditional uses, it is of interest to evaluate the pharmacologic effects of this plant and its secondary metabolites. Methanol and aqueous extracts of wild and micropropagated R. alpinia (leaves) were obtained and chemically compared by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). The antinociceptive activity of these extracts was examined using an in vivo assay (Siegmund test). Additionally, the dichloromethane extract of R. alpinia was fractionated and pure compounds were isolated by chromatographic methods. The structure elucidation of isolated compounds was performed by NMR experiments and spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. Purified compounds were evaluated for their in vitro binding affinity for opioids and cannabinoids receptors. The dichloromethane extract of the plant's aerial part afforded sinostrobin (1), naringenin 7,4'-dimethyl ether (2), 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (3), 4-methoxy-6-(2-phenylethenyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (4), naringenin 7-methyl ether (5) and 3,5-heptanediol, 1,7-diphenyl (6), which were isolated using chromatographic methods. Their chemical structures were established by physical and spectroscopic techniques. The antinociceptive effects observed in mice by extracts of wild and micropropagated plants were similar. The compounds isolated from R. alpinia do not show affinity to opioid or cannabinoid receptors. Aqueous and methanol extracts of R. alpinia provide antinociceptive and analgesic effects in an in vivo model. These results contribute additional insight as to why this plant is traditionally used for pain management. Also, this is the first comprehensive report of a phytochemical study of R. alpinia. Copyright © 2015

  14. Preliminary evaluation for cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic potential of naturally growing ethnobotanically selected plants of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan-ul-Haq; Mirza, Bushra; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Park, Eun-Jung; Burns, Brittany E; Marler, Laura E; Pezzuto, John M

    2013-03-01

    Natural products are a very productive source of leads for the development of medicines. Six Pakistani plants were chosen for study based on ethnobotanical data. Exploration of important medicinal plants of Pakistan for cancer treatment. The crude extracts of the six plants and their fractions were tested for inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NFκB), aromatase, and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, induction of quinone reductase 1 (QR1), agonism of retinoid X receptor, and growth inhibition with MCF-7, LU-1 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Two samples of Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal (Solanaceae) demonstrated inhibition of TNF-α induced activity of NFκB with IC₅₀ values of 2.6 and 4.3 µg/mL, respectively. Two fractions from W. coagulans and Euphorbia wallichii Hook F. (Euphorbiaceae) aerial parts inhibited aromatase with IC₅₀ values of 17.0 and 17.7 µg/mL, respectively. A total of 13 samples (five from E. wallichii, one from Acer oblongifolium Hort. ex Dippel (Aceraceae), one from Aster thomsonii C. B. Clarke (Asteraceae) and six from W. coagulans aerial parts with fruits) inhibited NO production with IC₅₀ values ranging from 1.3 to 15.6 µg/mL. Fourteen samples demonstrated induction of QR1 with CD ranging from 1.0 to 20.6 µg/mL, and a total of eight extracts and fractions inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells in culture with IC₅₀ values ranging from 1.2 to 7.8 µg/mL. Selected plants can be a valuable source of chemopreventive and anticancer products. W. coagulans aerial parts showed the strongest activity.

  15. Indigenous Knowledge of Dayaks Bakumpai in Barito Kuala District on the Management of Plant Diversity Growing at Streams and Swamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmono Dharmono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at describing profile of indigenous knowldge owned by the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district on managing the diversity of herbs growing at the river flow and swamp. Data on herb used by the tribe were grouped based on the etnobotanic study, covering study botany, etnofarmacology, etnoantrophology, etnolinguistik and etnoekologi. We also observed how the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district preserve the diversity of plant in around them, and how their efforts in bequeathing or teaching the traditional knowledge of an old breed generation to his young daam in managing diversity of herbs around them. The study was carried out at three vellages, namely Simpang Arja, Pengulu and Ulu Benteng. The results showed that 52 plant species living along the river and 67 species that live in the marsh. Based on the interview we found that (1 the profile of indigenous knowldge dayaks bakumpai district batola in making use of the diversity of plant in surrounding shown through etno-linguistic, etno-economy, etno-anthropology, etno-farmacology and etno-ecology against 44 tufted herbs of 67 of herbs found, (2 Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district, to preserve the diversity of plant surrounding them, have done without planting, but by making use of herbs without a certain rule, making use of herbs by a certain rule, making use of herbs let plant grown in nature, and destroy plants that exist or cultivated, and (3 efforts for the inheriting the indigenous knowldge to its young generation have been done by women and quite alarming that many young ages of Dayaks Bakumpai do not know the name of herbs around them.

  16. Regulation of the efflux of putrescine and cadaverine from rapidly growing cultured RAW 264 cells by extracellular putrescine.

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandrawinata, R R; Byus, C V

    1995-01-01

    Cultures of the macrophage-like RAW 264 cells were adapted to divide normally in a synthetic serum-supplemented culture medium lacking any polyamines and diamine oxidase activity. These rapidly dividing cells actively effluxed large amounts of putrescine and cadaverine, compared with the intracellular levels, into the culture medium. The efflux of putrescine was stimulated by the amino acid ornithine, whereas efflux of cadaverine was inhibited. Relatively low levels of spermidine and N1-acety...

  17. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. Cusumano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: This case series of RGM infections following recent cosmetic surgeries abroad highlights the risks of medical tourism. Close monitoring of affected patients by surgical and infectious disease specialties is necessary, as aggressive surgical debridement combined with appropriate antibiotic regimens is needed to achieve cure. Given the increasing reports of post-surgical RGM infections, consultants should have a low threshold for suspecting RGM, as rapid diagnosis may accelerate the initiation of targeted treatment and minimize morbidity.

  18. Amino acid digestibility of plant protein feed ingredients for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, B; Ragland, D; Thomson, J E; Adeola, O

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine the N and AA digestibility of various protein sources (potato protein concentrate, soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, linseed meal, sunflower meal, cottonseed meal, canola meal, and camelina meal) fed to growing pigs. In each experiment, barrows were surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed 4 experimental diets and a N-free diet (NFD) on the basis of a replicated 5 × 2 crossover arrangement with 5 diets and 2 periods. For Exp. 1, 20 cannulated 25-kg barrows received potato concentrate, soy concentrate, soy isolate, and linseed meal. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N for potato concentrate, soy concentrate, and soy isolate were similar and greater than that for linseed meal ( protein concentrate than soy concentrate ( digestibility among protein sources ( protein sources ( digestibility of N and AA varies greatly among oilseed meals.

  19. Do farmers rapidly adapt to past growing conditions by sowing different proportions of early and late maturing cereals and cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short growing season of the northernmost European growing conditions, farmers are increasingly interested in expanding cultivation of later maturing crops at the expense of early maturing ones with lower yields. In this study we aimed to assess how the switching between spring cereals that differ in earliness was associated with different external factors. This was tested using unique datasets for regional cropping areas and cultivar use for the last 15 years. Early maturing barley was favored at the expense of later maturing wheat when a high number of days to crop maturity was required in the preceding year. In contrast, farmers reduced the barley area when a high number of cumulated degree days was required for a crop to mature in the previous year. A shift was recorded from early to late maturing cultivars. This study indicated that despite limited opportunities for farmers to alter land use, they readily responded to past conditions and used the knowledge gained for decision-making to reduce risk. This is a valuable operative model for studying adaptation to opportunities and constraints induced by climate change.

  20. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  1. Rapid plant identification using species- and group-specific primers targeting chloroplast DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Wallinger

    Full Text Available Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae, the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory.

  2. Growing substrates for aromatic plant species in green roofs and water runoff quality: pilot experiments in a Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cristina M; Calheiros, Cristina S C; Palha, Paulo; Castro, Paula M L

    2017-09-01

    Green roof technology has evolved in recent years as a potential solution to promote vegetation in urban areas. Green roof studies for Mediterranean climates, where extended drought periods in summer contrast with cold and rainy periods in winter, are still scarce. The present research study assesses the use of substrates with different compositions for the growth of six aromatic plant species - Lavandula dentata, Pelargonium odoratissimum, Helichrysum italicum, Satureja montana, Thymus caespititius and T. pseudolanuginosus, during a 2-year period, and the monitoring of water runoff quality. Growing substrates encompassed expanded clay and granulated cork, in combination with organic matter and crushed eggshell. These combinations were adequate for the establishment of all aromatic plants, allowing their propagation in the extensive system located on the 5th storey. The substrate composed of 70% expanded clay and 30% organic matter was the most suitable, and crushed eggshell incorporation improved the initial plant establishment. Water runoff quality parameters - turbidity, pH, conductivity, NH 4 + , NO 3 - , PO 4 3- and chemical oxygen demand - showed that it could be reused for non-potable uses in buildings. The present study shows that selected aromatic plant species could be successfully used in green roofs in a Mediterranean climate.

  3. Uptake of metals and metalloids by plants growing in a lead-zinc mine area, Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Hoang Ha; Sakakibara, Masayuki; Sano, Sakae; Mai, Trong Nhuan

    2011-02-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation and phytomining potential of 10 plant species growing naturally at one of the largest lead-zinc mines in Northern Vietnam. Total concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic were determined in the plant and in associated soil and water in and outside of the mine area. The results indicate that hyperaccumulation levels (mg kg(-1) dry weight) were obtained in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (1140) and Pteris vittata L. (3750) for arsenic, and in Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (1130), Potamogeton oxyphyllus Miq. (4210), and P. vittata (1020) for lead. To the best of our knowledge, the present paper is the first report on metal accumulation and hyperaccumulation by H. cordata, A. houstonianum, and P. oxyphyllus. Based on the obtained concentrations of metals, bioconcentration and translocation factors, as well as the biomass of these plants, the two latter species and P. vittata are good candidates for phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and multi-metals. None of the collected plants was suitable for phytomining, given their low concentrations of useful metals (e.g., silver, gallium, and indium). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Uptake of metals and metalloids by plants growing in a lead-zinc mine area, Northern Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Nguyen Thi Hoang [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sakakibara, Masayuki, E-mail: sakakiba@sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sano, Sakae [Department of Geology, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nhuan, Mai Trong [Department of Environmental Geology, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-02-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation and phytomining potential of 10 plant species growing naturally at one of the largest lead-zinc mines in Northern Vietnam. Total concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic were determined in the plant and in associated soil and water in and outside of the mine area. The results indicate that hyperaccumulation levels (mg kg{sup -1} dry weight) were obtained in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (1140) and Pteris vittata L. (3750) for arsenic, and in Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (1130), Potamogeton oxyphyllus Miq. (4210), and P. vittata (1020) for lead. To the best of our knowledge, the present paper is the first report on metal accumulation and hyperaccumulation by H. cordata, A. houstonianum, and P. oxyphyllus. Based on the obtained concentrations of metals, bioconcentration and translocation factors, as well as the biomass of these plants, the two latter species and P. vittata are good candidates for phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and multi-metals. None of the collected plants was suitable for phytomining, given their low concentrations of useful metals (e.g., silver, gallium, and indium).

  5. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts by rapid XTT colorimetry and bacterial enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, Amal G; Afifi, Fatma U

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of indigenous Jordanian plant extracts, dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, using the rapid XTT assay and viable count methods. XTT rapid assay was used for the initial screening of antimicrobial activity for the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity of potentially active plant extracts was further assessed using the "viable plate count" method. Four degrees of antimicrobial activity (high, moderate, weak and inactive) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, were recorded. The plant extracts of Hypericum triquetrifolium, Ballota undulata, Ruta chalepensis, Ononis natrix, Paronychia argentea and Marrubium vulgare had shown promising antimicrobial activity. This study showed that while both XTT and viable count methods are comparable when estimating the overall antimicrobial activity of experimental substances, there is no strong linear correlation between the two methods.

  6. An improved, low-cost, hydroponic system for growing Arabidopsis and other plant species under aseptic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydroponics is a plant growth system that provides a more precise control of growth media composition. Several hydroponic systems have been reported for Arabidopsis and other model plants. The ease of system set up, cost of the growth system and flexibility to characterize and harvest plant material are features continually improved in new hydroponic system reported. Results We developed a hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis and other model plants. This low cost, proficient, and novel system is based on recyclable and sterilizable plastic containers, which are readily available from local suppliers. Our system allows a large-scale manipulation of seedlings. It adapts to different growing treatments and has an extended growth window until adult plants are established. The novel seed-holder also facilitates the transfer and harvest of seedlings. Here we report the use of our hydroponic system to analyze transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to nutriment availability and plant/pathogen interactions. Conclusions The efficiency and functionality of our proposed hydroponic system is demonstrated in nutrient deficiency and pathogenesis experiments. Hydroponically grown Arabidopsis seedlings under long-time inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiency showed typical changes in root architecture and high expression of marker genes involved in signaling and Pi recycling. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of gene expression of Arabidopsis roots depleted of Pi by short time periods indicates that genes related to general stress are up-regulated before those specific to Pi signaling and metabolism. Our hydroponic system also proved useful for conducting pathogenesis essays, revealing early transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes. PMID:24649917

  7. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

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    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  8. Rapid and reliable extraction of genomic DNA from various wild-type and transgenic plants

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    Yang Moon-Sik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA extraction methods for PCR-quality DNA from calluses and plants are not time efficient, since they require that the tissues be ground in liquid nitrogen, followed by precipitation of the DNA pellet in ethanol, washing and drying the pellet, etc. The need for a rapid and simple procedure is urgent, especially when hundreds of samples need to be analyzed. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method of isolating high-quality genomic DNA for PCR amplification and enzyme digestion from calluses, various wild-type and transgenic plants. Results We developed new rapid and reliable genomic DNA extraction method. With our developed method, plant genomic DNA extraction could be performed within 30 min. The method was as follows. Plant tissue was homogenized with salt DNA extraction buffer using hand-operated homogenizer and extracted by phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1. After centrifugation, the supernatant was directly used for DNA template for PCR, resulting in successful amplification for RAPD from various sources of plants and specific foreign genes from transgenic plants. After precipitating the supernatant, the DNA was completely digested by restriction enzymes. Conclusion This DNA extraction procedure promises simplicity, speed, and efficiency, both in terms of time and the amount of plant sample required. In addition, this method does not require expensive facilities for plant genomic DNA extraction.

  9. Modeling Phosphorus Capture by Plants Growing in a Multispecies Riparian Buffer

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    J. M. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The NST 3.0 mechanistic nutrient uptake model was used to explore P uptake to a depth of 120 cm over a 126 d growing season in simulated buffer communities composed of mixtures of cottonwood (Populus deltoids Bartr., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., and smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss. Model estimates of P uptake from pure stands of smooth brome and cottonwood were 18.9 and 24.5 kg ha−1, respectively. Uptake estimates for mixed stands of trees and grasses were intermediate to pure stands. A single factor sensitivity analysis of parameters used to calculate P uptake for each cover type indicated that Imax, k, ro, and Lo were consistently the most responsive to changes ranging from −50% to +100%. Model exploration of P uptake as a function of soil depth interval indicated that uptake was highest in the 0–30 cm intervals, with values ranging from 85% of total for cottonwood to 56% for switchgrass.

  10. THE USE OF PHYSICAL METHODS FOR PLANT GROWING STIMULATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA ALADJADJIYAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Different chemical additives are used for rising productivity of plants and animals. Their application causes the contamination of raw materials for food production with toxins that is dangerous for consumers’ health. On-farm safety for fresh produce needs developing and implementing new methods for quality assurance. The influence of physical factors as microwave and laser radiation, magnetic field and ultrasound treatment is an alternative of soil additives and fertilizers. The substitution of chemical amelioration by physical one can reduce the toxins in raw materials and thus – raise the food safety. The use of some physical factors (laser irradiation; ultrasound influence; irradiation with microwave electromagnetic rays; magnetic field influence, gamma irradiation for stimulation of seed vitality in Bulgarian agriculture has been discussed.

  11. Testing soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Tirranen, L. S.; Karnachuk, R. A.; Dorofeev, V. Yu.

    We studied soil-like substrate (SLS) as a potential candidate for plant cultivation in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). The SLS was obtained by successive conversion of wheat straw by oyster mushrooms and worms. Mature SLS contained 9.5% humic acids and 4.9% fulvic acids. First, it was shown that wheat, bean and cucumber yields as well as radish yields when cultivated on mature SLS were comparable to yields obtained on a neutral substrate (expanded clay aggregate) under hydroponics. Second, the possibility of increasing wheat and radish yields on the SLS was assessed at three levels of light intensity: 690, 920 and 1150 μmol m -2 s -1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The highest wheat yield was obtained at 920 μmol m -2 s -1, while radish yield increased steadily with increasing light intensity. Third, long-term SLS fertility was tested in a BLSS model with mineral and organic matter recycling. Eight cycles of wheat and 13 cycles of radish cultivation were carried out on the SLS in the experimental system. Correlation coefficients between SLS nitrogen content and total wheat biomass and grain yield were 0.92 and 0.97, respectively, and correlation coefficients between nitrogen content and total radish biomass and edible root yield were 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. Changes in hormone content (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins and abscisic acid) in the SLS during matter recycling did not reduce plant productivity. Quantitative and species compositions of the SLS and irrigation water microflora were also investigated. Microbial community analysis of the SLS showed bacteria from Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Nocardia, Mycobacterium, Arthrobacter and Enterobacter genera, and fungi from Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Botrytis, and Cladosporium genera.

  12. Growing City and Rapid Land Use Transition: Assessing Multiple Hazards and Risks in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagawat Rimal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pokhara is one of the most naturally beautiful cities in the world with a unique geological setting. This important tourist city is under intense pressure from rapid urbanization and population growth. Multiple hazards and risks are rapidly increasing in Pokhara due to unsustainable land use practices, particularly the increase in built-up areas. This study examines the relationship among urbanization, land use/land cover dynamics and multiple hazard and risk analysis of the Pokhara valley from 1990 to 2013. We investigate some of the active hazards, such as floods, landslides, fire, sinkholes, land subsidence and earthquakes, and prepare an integrated multiple hazard risk map indicating the highly vulnerable zones. Land use and land cover maps from 1990 and 2013 from Landsat images (30 m resolution have been prepared and analyzed for the spatial dynamics of urbanization and the transition of land use and land cover. In the 23-year period, the built-up area more than doubled from 24.03 km² to 54.20 km². Although the landscape in the urban, peri-urban and rural areas appears to be fragmented, different drivers play pivotal roles in landscape change in these areas. The results provide substantial information for establishing innovative action plans for disaster risk management in the valley. Recommendations are made for the most suitable places for future urban expansion in the valley. This study is important for raising awareness among policy makers and other public officials to include multiple hazard risk mitigation in land use policies and plans. Establishing connections between urban expansions, escalating population growth and multiple hazards and risk assessment will also improve in modelling the latent impact of future catastrophes and emergency preparedness.

  13. Testing anti-fungal activity of a soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, E. V.; Kozlov, V. A.; Khizhnyak, S. V.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.; Liu, Hong; Xing, Yidong; Hu, Enzhu

    2009-10-01

    The object of this research is to study a soil-like substrate (SLS) to grow plants in a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). Wheat and rice straw were used as raw materials to prepare SLS. Anti-fungal activity of SLS using test cultures of Bipolaris sorokiniana, a plant-pathogenic fungus which causes wheat root rot was studied. Experiments were conducted with SLS samples, using natural soil and sand as controls. Infecting the substrates, was performed at two levels: the first level was done with wheat seeds carrying B. sorokiniana and the second level with seeds and additional conidia of B. sorokiniana from an outside source. We measured wheat disease incidence and severity in two crop plantings. Lowest disease incidence values were obtained from the second planting, SLS: 26% and 41% at the first and the second infection levels, respectively. For soil the values were 60% and 82%, respectively, and for sand they were 67% and 74%, respectively. Wheat root rot in the second crop planting on SLS, at both infection levels was considerably less severe (9% and 13%, respectively) than on natural soil (20% and 33%) and sand (22% and 32%). SLS significantly suppressed the germination of B. sorokiniana conidia. Conidia germination was 5% in aqueous SLS suspension, and 18% in clean water. No significant differences were found regarding the impact on conidia germination between the SLS samples obtained from wheat and rice straw. The anti-fungal activity in SLS increased because of the presence of worms. SLS also contained bacteria stimulating and inhibiting B. sorokiniana growth.

  14. Comparative study on elemental composition and DNA damage in leaves of a weedy plant species, Cassia occidentalis, growing wild on weathered fly ash and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Amit; Tandon, Rajesh; Banerjee, B D; Babu, C R

    2009-10-01

    Open dumping of fly ash in fly ash basins has significant adverse environmental impacts due to its elevated trace element content. In situ biomonitoring of genotoxicity is of practical value in realistic hazard identification of fly ash. Genotoxicity of openly disposed fly ash to natural plant populations inhabiting fly ash basins has not been investigated. DNA damage, and concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu and Ni in the leaves of natural populations of Cassia occidentalis growing at two contrasting sites-one having weathered fly ash (fly ash basin) and the other having soil (reference site) as plant growth substrates-were assessed. The foliar concentrations of As, Ni and Cr were two to eight fold higher in plants growing on fly ash as compared to the plants growing on soil, whereas foliar concentrations of Cu and Co were similar. We report, for the first time, based upon comet assay results, higher levels of DNA damage in leaf tissues of Cassia occidentalis growing wild on fly ash basin compared to C. occidentalis growing on soil. Correlation analysis between foliar DNA damage and foliar concentrations of trace elements suggests that DNA damage may perhaps be associated with foliar concentrations of As and Ni. Our observations suggest that (1) fly ash triggers genotoxic responses in plants growing naturally on fly ash basins; and (2) plant comet assay is useful for in situ biomonitoring of genotoxicity of fly ash.

  15. An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (southern Arizona): Major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Wonaschütz, Anna; Jarjour, Elias G; Hashimoto, Bryce I; Schichtel, Bret A; Betterton, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    This study reports a comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosol particle properties in relation to meteorological and back trajectory data in the southern Arizona region, which includes two of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States (Phoenix and Tucson). Multiple data sets (MODIS, AERONET, OMI/TOMS, MISR, GOCART, ground-based aerosol measurements) are used to examine monthly trends in aerosol composition, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and aerosol size. Fine soil, sulfate, and organics dominate PM2.5 mass in the region. Dust strongly influences the region between March and July owing to the dry and hot meteorological conditions and back trajectory patterns. Because monsoon precipitation begins typically in July, dust levels decrease, while AOD, sulfate, and organic aerosol reach their maximum levels because of summertime photochemistry and monsoon moisture. Evidence points to biogenic volatile organic compounds being a significant source of secondary organic aerosol in this region. Biomass burning also is shown to be a major contributor to the carbonaceous aerosol budget in the region, leading to enhanced organic and elemental carbon levels aloft at a sky-island site north of Tucson (Mt. Lemmon). Phoenix exhibits different monthly trends for aerosol components in comparison with the other sites owing to the strong influence of fossil carbon and anthropogenic dust. Trend analyses between 1988 and 2009 indicate that the strongest statistically significant trends are reductions in sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, and increases in fine soil during the spring (March-May) at select sites. These results can be explained by population growth, land-use changes, and improved source controls.

  16. Biosynthesis of chlorogenic acids in growing and ripening fruits of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiro, Yukiko; Jackson, Mel C; Katahira, Riko; Wang, Ming-Li; Nagai, Chifumi; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Chlorogenic acids are major secondary metabolites found in coffee seeds. The accumulation of chlorogenic acids and free quinic acids was studied in Coffea arabica cv. Tall Mokka and Coffea canephora seeds. Growth stages are specified from I to V, corresponding to rapid expansion and pericarp growth (I), endosperm formation (II), mature (green) (III), ripening (pink) (IV), and fully ripened (red) (V) stages. We detected monocaffeoylquinic acids (3CQA, 4CQA and 5CQA), dicaffeoylquinic acids (3,4diCQA, 3,5diCQA and 4,5diCQA) and a monoferuloylquinic acid (5FQA) in whole fruits (stage I), pericarps and seeds. The most abundant chlorogenic acid was 5CQA, which comprised 50-60% of the total of C. arabica and 45-50% of C. canephora seeds. The content of dicaffeoylquinic acid, mainly 3,5-diCQA, was high in C. canephora. A high content of 5FQA was found in seeds of stages III to V, especially in C. canephora. Total chlorogenic acids were accumulated up to 14 mg per fruit in C. arabica and 17 mg in C. canephora, respectively. In contrast, free quinic acid varied from 0.4-2.0 mg (C. arabica) and 0.2-4.0 mg (C. canephora) per fruit during growth. High biosynthetic activity of 5CQA, which was estimated via the incorporation of [U-14C]phenylalanine into chlorogenic acids, was found in young fruits (perisperm and pericarp) in stage I, and in developing seeds (endosperm) in stages II and III. The biosynthetic activity of chlorogenic acids was clearly reduced in ripening and ripe seeds, especially in C canephora. Transcripts of PAL1, C3'H and CCoAMT, three genes related to the chlorogenic acid biosynthesis, were detected in every stagè of growth, although the amounts were significantly less in stage V. Of these genes, CCoAMT, a gene for FQA biosynthesis, was expressed more weakly in stage I. The transcript level of CCoAMT was higher in seeds than in pericarp, but the reverse was found in PAL1. The pattern of expression of genes for the CQA and FQA synthesis is roughly related to

  17. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    concept of our modeling approach and describe its strengths and weaknesses. We furthermore use empirical data for the states of North and South Carolina to demonstrate how the modeling framework can be applied to a large, heterogeneous study system with diverse decision-making agents. Grimm et al. (2005) Pattern-Oriented Modeling of Agent-Based Complex Systems: Lessons from Ecology. Science 310, 987-991. Liu et al. (2013) Framing Sustainability in a Telecoupled World. Ecology and Society 18(2), 26. Meentemeyer et al. (2013) FUTURES: Multilevel Simulations of Merging Urban-Rural Landscape Structure Using a Stochastic Patch-Growing Algorithm. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103(4), 785-807.

  18. Phytochemical standardization and biological activities of certain desert plants growing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneera S. Al-Saleem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antitumor activities of Calendula tripterocarpa, Centarea sinaica, Centaurea pseudosinaica, Koelpinia linearis, Plectranthus arabicus, Plectranthus asirensis and Tripleurospermum auriculatum determined. The best antibacterial activity; 41.8 ± 0.23 mm, 39.7 ± 0.25 mm, 35.8 ± 0.58 mm, 34.7 ± 0.51 mm and 32.7 ± 0.25 mm was obtained by Plectranthus arabicus against Klebsiella pneumonia, Tripleurospermum auriculatum against Bacillus subtilis, Centaurea pseudosinaica against Bacillus subtilis, Centaurea pseudosinaica against Stroptococcus pyogenes and Plectranthus arabicus against Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. While the highest antifungal activity; 35.9 ± 1.15 mm, 34.6 ± 0.34, 30.6 ± 0.26 mm and 29.9 ± 0.63 mm was obtained by Tripleurospermum auriculatum against Geotricum candidum, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. The antitumor activity (IC50 obtained by Centarea sinaica; 3.1 ± 6.9 µg/ml, 14.3 ± 3.1 µg/ml and 22.7 ± 4.1 µg/ml was better than activity of vinblastine sulphate; 5.9 ± 0.4 µg/ml, 59.7 ± 2.1 µg/ml and 30.3 ± 1.4 µg/ml against breast carcinoma (MCF-7, cervical carcinoma (Hela and colorectal carcinoma (CACO, respectively. Plectranthus arabicus alcoholic extract showed higher antitumor activity; 15.3 ± 5.3 µg/ml, 28.6 ± 3.6 µg/ml and 24.3 ± 4.1 µg/ml than vinblastine; 21.2 ± 0.9 µg/ml, 59.7 ± 2.1 µg/ml and 30.3 ± 1.4 µg/ml against prostate carcinoma (Pc3, cervical carcinoma (Hela and colorectal carcinoma (CACO, respectively. Also, the antitumor activity of Plectranthus asirensis against cervical carcinoma (Hela (37.1 ± 2.6 µg/ml was potent than vinblastine sulphate (59.7 ± 2.1 µg/ml. The obtained results of LD50 and sub-chronic toxicity revealed that the plants have no

  19. Uptake of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes by plants growing in dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region (Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveyeva, Ilona; Burkitbayev, Mukhambetkali [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Planinsek, Petra; Smodis, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-04-01

    The activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in dominant species of plants (Xantium strumarium, Phragmites communis, Artemisia nitrosa and Artemisia serotina) growing on the territories contaminated by uranium industry of Kazakhstan (close to dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region) are presented. The obtained data showed the significant variations of activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in above ground parts. The concentrations of most of the investigated radionuclides in the root system are higher than in the aboveground parts; it can be explained by root barrier. It was found that the highest root barrier has Xantium strumarium, especially for uranium isotopes. The concentration ratios of radionuclides were calculated, and as the result it was found that the highest accumulation ability in the investigated region has Artemisia serotina.

  20. Use of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) as a growing medium in the nursery production of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, F; Castillo, J E; Chica, A F; López Bellido, L

    2008-01-01

    Five media prepared from old peat (OP), white peat (WP) and municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) were used to determine optimum growing media for tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv "Atletico"). The mixtures of substrates used were: OP (65%)+WP (30%)+perlite (5%), OP (65%)+MSWC (30%)+perlite (5%), WP (65%)+OP (30%)+perlite (5%), WP (65%)+MSWC (30%)+perlite (5%), MSWC (65%)+WP (30%)+perlite (5%). Various seedling indices were measured in order to assess the quality of the nursery-produced plant. Nursery-produced tomato seedlings grown in WP (65%)+MSWC (30%) displayed quality indices similar to those recorded for conventional mixtures of old and white peat sphagnum, due to a correct balance between the compost nutrient supply and the porosity and aeration provided by white peat.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence ofMicrobacterium foliorumStrain 122 Isolated from a Plant Growing in a Chronically Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumactud, Rhea; Fulthorpe, Roberta; Sentchilo, Vladimir; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2017-05-25

    Microbacterium foliorum strain 122 is a bacterial endophyte isolated from a Dactylis glomerata plant growing in a natural oil seep soil located in Oil Springs, Ontario, Canada. We present here a draft genome sequence of an endophytic strain that has promising potential in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth promotion. Copyright © 2017 Lumactud et al.

  2. Ecophysiological and biochemical traits of three herbaceous plants growing on the disposed coal combustion fly ash of different weathering stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecophysiological and biochemical traits of Calamagrostis epigejos (Roth. Festuca rubra L. and Oenothera biennis L. growing on two fly ash lagoons of different weathering stage (L1-3 years and L2-11 years of the “Nikola Tesla- A” thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia were studied. Species-dependent variations were observed at the L1 lagoon; the greatest vitality (Fv/Fm and Fm/Fo followed by higher photopigment and total phenolic contents were measured in O. biennis in relation to C. epigejos (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.001. At the L2 site, higher vitality was found in O. biennis (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.01 compared to C. epigejos. O. biennis had the highest photosynthetic capacity. The results obtained in this study indicate that all examined species maintained a level of photosynthesis that allowed them to survive and grow under the stressful conditions in ash lagoons, albeit with lower than optimal success. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173018

  3. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with plants growing in fly ash pond and their potential role in ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar Babu, A; Sudhakara Reddy, M

    2011-09-01

    Root colonization and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were analyzed in plants growing in fly ash pond. Eight species could be separated morphologically, while phylogenetic analyses after PCR amplification of the ITS region followed by RFLP and sequencing revealed seven different AM fungal sequence types. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these sequences cluster into four discrete groups, belonging to the genus Glomus and Archaeospora. Inoculation of plants with spores of AM fungal consortia (Glomus etunicatum, Glomus heterogama, Glomus maculosum, Glomus magnicaule, Glomus multicaule, Glomus rosea, Scutellospora heterogama, and Scutellospora nigra) along with colonized root pieces increased the growth (84.9%), chlorophyll (54%), and total P content (44.3%) of Eucalyptus tereticornis seedlings grown on fly ash compared to non-inoculated seedlings. The growth improvement was the consequence of increased P nutrition and decreased Al, Fe, Zn, and Cu accumulations. These observations suggested that the inoculation of tree seedlings with stress adapted AM fungi aid in the reclamation of fly ash ponds.

  4. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay to Rapidly Detect Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus in Quarantined Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwon Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method to rapidly diagnose Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV during quarantine inspections of imported wheat, corn, oats, and millet. The LAMP method was developed as a plant quarantine inspection method for the first time, and its simplicity, quickness, specificity and sensitivity were verified compared to current reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and nested PCR quarantine methods. We were able to quickly screen for WSMV at quarantine sites with many test samples; thus, this method is expected to contribute to plant quarantine inspections.

  5. Planting Seeds, Growing Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Last year, when students at Ridgecrest Intermediate School in Palos Verdes, California, were asked to name scientists, their answers--Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Edison, Albert Einstein, Bill Nye the Science Guy--reflected a common perception. Most of the leading scientists they came up with were white, male, or dead. Although women and people of…

  6. Fungal phytopathogens encode functional homologues of plant rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thynne, Elisha; Saur, Isabel M L; Simbaqueba, Jaime; Ogilvie, Huw A; Gonzalez-Cendales, Yvonne; Mead, Oliver; Taranto, Adam; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; McDonald, Megan C; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Jones, David A; Rathjen, John P; Solomon, Peter S

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we describe the presence of genes encoding close homologues of an endogenous plant peptide, rapid alkalinization factor (RALF), within the genomes of 26 species of phytopathogenic fungi. Members of the RALF family are key growth factors in plants, and the sequence of the RALF active region is well conserved between plant and fungal proteins. RALF1-like sequences were observed in most cases; however, RALF27-like sequences were present in the Sphaerulina musiva and Septoria populicola genomes. These two species are pathogens of poplar and, interestingly, the closest relative to their respective RALF genes is a poplar RALF27-like sequence. RALF peptides control cellular expansion during plant development, but were originally defined on the basis of their ability to induce rapid alkalinization in tobacco cell cultures. To test whether the fungal RALF peptides were biologically active in plants, we synthesized RALF peptides corresponding to those encoded by two sequenced genomes of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. One of these peptides inhibited the growth of tomato seedlings and elicited responses in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana typical of endogenous plant RALF peptides (reactive oxygen species burst, induced alkalinization and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation). Gene expression analysis confirmed that a RALF-encoding gene in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was expressed during infection on tomato. However, a subsequent reverse genetics approach revealed that the RALF peptide was not required by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici for infection on tomato roots. This study has demonstrated the presence of functionally active RALF peptides encoded within phytopathogens that harbour an as yet undetermined role in plant-pathogen interactions. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. Development of Rapid Isothermal Amplification Assays for Detection of Phytophthora spp. in Plant Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Timothy D; Martin, Frank N; Coffey, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Several isothermal amplification techniques recently have been developed that are tolerant of inhibitors present in many plant extracts, which can reduce the need for obtaining purified DNA for running diagnostic assays. One such commercially available technique that has similarities with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for designing primers and a labeled probe is recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). This technology was used to develop two simple and rapid approaches for detection of Phytophthora spp.: one genus-specific assay multiplexed with a plant internal control and the other species-specific assays for Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae. All assays were tested for sensitivity (ranging from 3 ng to 1 fg of DNA) and specificity using DNA extracted from more than 136 Phytophthora taxa, 21 Pythium spp., 1 Phytopythium sp., and a wide range of plant species. The lower limit of linear detection using purified DNA was 200 to 300 fg of DNA in all pathogen RPA assays. Six different extraction buffers were tested for use during plant tissue maceration and the assays were validated in the field by collecting 222 symptomatic plant samples from over 50 different hosts. Only 56 samples were culture positive for Phytophthora spp. whereas 91 were positive using the Phytophthora genus-specific RPA test and a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. A technique for the generation of sequencing templates from positive RPA amplifications to confirm species identification was also developed. These RPA assays have added benefits over traditional technologies because they are rapid (results can be obtained in as little as 15 min), do not require DNA extraction or extensive training to complete, use less expensive portable equipment than PCR-based assays, and are significantly more specific than current immunologically based methods. This should provide a rapid, field-deployable capability for pathogen detection that will facilitate point-of-sample collection processing

  8. The practical influence of rapid mixing on coagulation in a full-scale water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerdings, Demitri; Förster, Gerrit; Vasyukova, Ekaterina; Uhl, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the effect of rapid mixing on the coagulation efficiency in a full-scale drinking-water treatment plant and discusses the mechanisms involved in the floc-formation process. The results refer to three periods of operation of the waterworks when no mechanical mixing was provided in the tanks for coagulant dosing due to mechanical failure of the rapid mixers. Although a certain deterioration of the subsequent flocculation process was observed, as assessed using the data for suspended solids, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand, the overall water treatment performance was not affected. This suggests an insignificant role for intense rapid mixing in sweep flocculation during full-scale water treatment and reveals the potential to reduce the required energy costs for mechanical mixers.

  9. [Rapid growing liposarcoma in retroperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, L.E.; Mynster, T.

    2008-01-01

    inhomogeneous tumour adhesive to the right kidney capsule was removed in toto from retroperitoneum. Histological diagnosis: Sclerosing, low differentiated liposarcoma. Besides radical surgery only radiation therapy may have effect in treatment of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/29...

  10. Identification traits of se­condary triticale genotypes for the use in breeding and plant growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. З. Москалець

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To create and study genotypes of the secondary triticale of the hexaploid level for their effective use in further breeding and plant growing. Methods. Field study, laboratory analyses, intraspecific hybridization with subsequent individual selection. Results. New genotypes of the secon­dary triticale of the hexaploid level have been created and characterized for economic characters and agroecological traits and properties. Series of short-stem winter triticale was represented by ‘Pshenychne’, ‘Chaian’ to be adapted to the conditions of both intensive and organic farming. They are characterized by high drought resistance and winter hardiness, resistance to lodging, grain shedding, grain germination in the spike and spike fragility as well as by immunity to fungal diseases providing a high level of yield and technological quality of grain. The following new constant forms of triticale as ‘ПС_1-12’, ‘ПС_2-12’, ‘ПС_3-12’, that have an average height of the stem and belong to the Polissia-Forest-Steppe and Forest-Steppe ecotypes, demonstrated high productivity and adaptability in organic farming, particularly in case of the use of biologized elements of agrotechnology. Conclusions. For the creation a new parent material during breeding of hexaploid triticale, the method of intraspecific hybridization is desirable with the use of parent material to be contrasting for eco-geographical origin and adapted local forms, followed by individual selection of genotypes with the desired characteristics and properties in cleavable hybrid populations. New genotypes of the secondary triticale have been created and characterized for breeding, genetic and agroecological traits and properties. In breeding practice, it is advisable to use a whole new approach of agroecological and genetic certification of genotypes for the effective solution of a number of theoretical and practical tasks facing modern ecological and adaptive

  11. A simple electrochemical method for the rapid estimation of antioxidant potentials of some selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SEVEN MEDICINAL PLANTS: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants.

  12. Effect of shading on tomato plants grow under greenhouse Efeito do sombreamento sobre o crescimento do tomateiro em cultivo protegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angelo Sandri

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, to determine the effect of shading on tomato plants grown in a greenhouse. Sowing was done on July 4th and planting on August 27th, 2000, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2, using an organic commercial rooting medium. Water and nutrients were supplied on a daily basis using a nutrient solution. Two polyethylene tunnels (2.20 m height, 5 m width, 15 m length were used. In the first plastic tunnel, used as control, the transmissivity of global radiation was 83% and plants were conducted as a commercial crop. In the second tunnel, plants were grown under a 52% shading screen. Plant growth and development were measured at 19; 26; 33; 40; 47; 54; 61; 75 and 89 days after beginning of anthesis. Daily average solar radiation in the first tunnel from planting time to the end of the experiment was 12.4 MJ m-2 day-1, whereas in the shaded tunnel it was 5.0 MJ m-2 day-1. Number of fruits per square meter did not differ significantly between the unshaded control and shaded tomato plants. At the last harvest, dry mass from unshaded and shaded plants differed significantly, with values of 974.9 g m-2 and 762.5 g m-2 for total dry mass, 550.1 g m-2 and 419.74 g m-2 for fruits, and 424.75 g m-2 and 342.74 g m-2 for vegetative organs, respectively. Total plant growth was reduced to 21.7% by shading, but plants continued to grow, in spite of the radiation level below the trophic limit of 8.4 MJ m-2 day-1. To establish the climatic suitability of horticultural crops in different regions, it should be advisable to take in account other variables than solar radiation.O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, para determinar o efeito do sombreamento sobre o crescimento do tomateiro em cultivo protegido. A semeadura foi feita em 04/07/00 e o plantio em 27/08, na densidade de 3,3 plantas m-2, empregando substrato comercial orgânico. A

  13. Genetic transformation of moss plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akpobome uruemuesiri

    Bryophytes are among the simplest and oldest of the terrestrial plants. Due to the special living ... processes in plants. Mosses grow rapidly when cultured on simple ..... indole-3-acetic acid in gametophytes of the moss, Physcomitrella patens.

  14. Near-term lander experiments for growing plants on Mars: requirements for information on chemical and physical properties of Mars regolith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C; Ming, Douglas W; Newsom, Horton E; Ferl, Robert J; McKay, Christopher P

    2002-01-01

    In order to support humans for long-duration missions to Mars, bioregenerative Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems have been proposed that would use higher plants as the primary candidates for photosynthesis. Hydroponic technologies have been suggested as the primary method of plant production in ALS systems, but the use of Mars regolith as a plant growth medium may have several advantages over hydroponic systems. The advantages for using Mars regolith include the likely bioavailability of plant-essential ions, mechanical support for plants, and easy access of the material once on the surface. We propose that plant biology experiments must be included in near-term Mars lander missions in order to begin defining the optimum approach for growing plants on Mars. Second, we discuss a range of soil chemistry and soil physics tests that must be conducted prior to, or in concert with, a plant biology experiment in order to properly interpret the results of plant growth studies in Mars regolith. The recommended chemical tests include measurements on soil pH, electrical conductivity and soluble salts, redox potential, bioavailability of essential plant nutrients, and bioavailability of phytotoxic elements. In addition, a future plant growth experiment should include procedures for determining the buffering and leaching requirements of Mars regolith prior to planting. Soil physical tests useful for plant biology studies in Mars regolith include bulk density, particle size distribution, porosity, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity.

  15. Near-term lander experiments for growing plants on Mars: requirements for information on chemical and physical properties of Mars regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Newsom, Horton E.; Ferl, Robert J.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2002-01-01

    In order to support humans for long-duration missions to Mars, bioregenerative Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems have been proposed that would use higher plants as the primary candidates for photosynthesis. Hydroponic technologies have been suggested as the primary method of plant production in ALS systems, but the use of Mars regolith as a plant growth medium may have several advantages over hydroponic systems. The advantages for using Mars regolith include the likely bioavailability of plant-essential ions, mechanical support for plants, and easy access of the material once on the surface. We propose that plant biology experiments must be included in near-term Mars lander missions in order to begin defining the optimum approach for growing plants on Mars. Second, we discuss a range of soil chemistry and soil physics tests that must be conducted prior to, or in concert with, a plant biology experiment in order to properly interpret the results of plant growth studies in Mars regolith. The recommended chemical tests include measurements on soil pH, electrical conductivity and soluble salts, redox potential, bioavailability of essential plant nutrients, and bioavailability of phytotoxic elements. In addition, a future plant growth experiment should include procedures for determining the buffering and leaching requirements of Mars regolith prior to planting. Soil physical tests useful for plant biology studies in Mars regolith include bulk density, particle size distribution, porosity, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity.

  16. Growing Plants and Scientists: Fostering Positive Attitudes toward Science among All Participants in an Afterschool Hydroponics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Amie K.; Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael

    2017-06-01

    This study examines an out-of-school time program targeting elementary-aged youth from populations that are typically underrepresented in science fields (primarily African-American, Hispanic, and/or English Language Learner participants). The program aimed to foster positive attitudes toward science among youth by engaging them in growing plants hydroponically (in water without soil). Participants' attitudes toward science, including anxiety, desire, and self-concept, were examined through pre-post survey data ( n = 234) over the course of an afterschool program at three separate sites. Data showed that participants' anxiety decreased and desire increased for both male and female participants over the program. Self-concept increased for female participants at all three sites but did not change significantly for male participants. Participants' first language (English or Spanish) was not a factor in attitude outcomes. The primarily positive outcomes suggest that hydroponics can be a useful educational platform for engaging participants in garden-based programming year round, particularly for settings that do not have the physical space or climate to conduct outdoor gardening. Similarities in positive attitude outcomes at the three sites despite differences in format, implementation, and instructor background experience suggest that the program is resilient to variation in context. Understanding which aspects of the program facilitated positive outcomes in the varied contexts could be useful for the design of future programs.

  17. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Depositions of Inorganic Nitrogen during Plant Growing Season in the Coastal Zone of Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO42- and Na+ were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m−2, in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3-–N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4+–N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3-–N and NH4+–N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3-–N and NH4+–N in 0–10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD.

  18. Influence of sulfur on the accumulation of mercury in rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) growing in mercury contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Zhao, Jiating; Guo, Jingxia; Liu, Mengjiao; Xu, Qinlei; Li, Hong; Li, Yu-Feng; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Gao, Yuxi

    2017-09-01

    Sulfur (S) is an essential element for plant growth and its biogeochemical cycling is strongly linked to the species of heavy metals in soil. In this work, the effects of S (sulfate and elemental sulfur) treatment on the accumulation, distribution and chemical forms of Hg in rice growing in Hg contaminated soil were investigated. It was found that S could promote the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and decrease total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains, straw, and roots. Hg in the root was dominated in the form of RS-Hg-SR. Sulfate treatment increased the percentage of RS-Hg-SR to T-Hg in the rice root and changed the Hg species in soil. The dominant Hg species (70%) in soil was organic substance bound fractions. Sulfur treatment decreased Hg motility in the rhizosphere soils by promoting the conversion of RS-Hg-SR to HgS. This study is significant since it suggests that low dose sulfur treatment in Hg-containing water irrigated soil can decrease both T-Hg and MeHg accumulation in rice via inactivating Hg in the soil and promoting the formation of iron plaque in rice root, which may reduce health risk for people consuming those crops. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Use of soil-like substrate for growing plant to enhance closedness of biological lie support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, C.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Manuskovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Tirranen, L. S.; Gribovskaya, I. V.

    Soil-like substrate (SLS) a potential candidate for use for growing plants in closed biological life support systems (BLSS) was studied. SLS was made by successive transformation of wheat straw by oyster mushrooms and Californian worms. Fertility of SLS of different degree of maturity has been tested. Mature SLS contained 9.5 % of humus acids and 4.9 % of fulvic acids. Wheat, bean and cucumber crops cultivated on mature SLS were comparable to crops obtained on a neutral substrate (expanded clay aggregate). In the wheat-SLS system, net CO2 absorption started on the sixth day after sowing and stopped 5 days prior to harvesting whereas in the wheat-neutral substrate system, net CO2 absorption was registered throughout vegetation. In the SLS, dominant bacteria included the spore-forming bacteria of the Bacillus genus and dominant fungi included the genus Trichoderma. In the hydroponic cultivation on neutral substrate dominant bacteria were of the Pseudomonas genus, while most commonly found fungi were species of the Fusarium genus. Consequence of SLS incorporation in artificial BLSS for increasing the closure degree of internal mass exchange in comparison with a neutral substrate is considered.

  20. Protocol: a rapid and economical procedure for purification of plasmid or plant DNA with diverse applications in plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research in plant molecular biology involves DNA purification on a daily basis. Although different commercial kits enable convenient extraction of high-quality DNA from E. coli cells, PCR and agarose gel samples as well as plant tissues, each kit is designed for a particular type of DNA extraction work, and the cost of purchasing these kits over a long run can be considerable. Furthermore, a simple method for the isolation of binary plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells with satisfactory yield is lacking. Here we describe an easy protocol using homemade silicon dioxide matrix and seven simple solutions for DNA extraction from E. coli and A. tumefaciens cells, PCR and restriction digests, agarose gel slices, and plant tissues. Compared with the commercial kits, this protocol allows rapid DNA purification from diverse sources with comparable yield and purity at negligible cost. Following this protocol, we have demonstrated: (1 DNA fragments as small as a MYC-epitope tag coding sequence can be successfully recovered from an agarose gel slice; (2 Miniprep DNA from E. coli can be eluted with as little as 5 μl water, leading to high DNA concentrations (>1 μg/μl for efficient biolistic bombardment of Arabidopsis seedlings, polyethylene glycol (PEG-mediated Arabidopsis protoplast transfection and maize protoplast electroporation; (3 Binary plasmid DNA prepared from A. tumefaciens is suitable for verification by restriction analysis without the need for large scale propagation; (4 High-quality genomic DNA is readily isolated from several plant species including Arabidopsis, tobacco and maize. Thus, the silicon dioxide matrix-based DNA purification protocol offers an easy, efficient and economical way to extract DNA for various purposes in plant research.

  1. A Comparative Study of Leaf Structure as Modified by Three Environments Commonly Used to Grow Plants for Experimental Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    while leaves of radish plants grown in the growth chamber were quite different from those of field or greenhouse plants. Anatomy of morning-glory plants was less affected by environment than the other species tested. (Author)

  2. Leaf lifetime photosynthetic rate and leaf demography in whole plants of Ipomoea pes-caprae growing with a low supply of calcium, a 'non-mobile' nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, N

    2010-03-01

    The adaptive significance of leaf longevity has been established in relation to restrictive nutrients that can be retranslocated within the plant. However, the effect of deficiencies in 'non-mobile' nutrients on leaf lifespan and photosynthetic carbon gain is uncertain. Calcium is frequently given as an example of an essential nutrient with low phloem mobility that may alter the leaf senescence process. This study has been designed to estimate leaf lifespan, leaf production (L(p)) and leaf death (L(d)) rates, the age structure of leaves, and the decline in maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)) with age in plants of Ipomoea pes-caprae growing with a full supply of nutrients and with a low Ca supply. The Ca deficiency produced reductions in L(p) and leaf lifespan compared with control plants. In spite of the differences in the demographic parameters between treatments in control and low-Ca plants, the percentage of leaves of a given leaf age class is maintained in such a way that the number of leaves per plant continues to increase. No relationship was found between Ca supply and A(max). However, the decline in A(max) with leaf senescence was rather sudden in control plants compared with plants growing with a low Ca supply. The importance of simultaneously using the total leaf demographic census and the assimilation rate along with leaf lifespan data in order to understand the performance of whole plants under constrained conditions is discussed.

  3. Leaf lifetime photosynthetic rate and leaf demography in whole plants of Ipomoea pes-caprae growing with a low supply of calcium, a ‘non-mobile’ nutrient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, N.

    2010-01-01

    The adaptive significance of leaf longevity has been established in relation to restrictive nutrients that can be retranslocated within the plant. However, the effect of deficiencies in ‘non-mobile’ nutrients on leaf lifespan and photosynthetic carbon gain is uncertain. Calcium is frequently given as an example of an essential nutrient with low phloem mobility that may alter the leaf senescence process. This study has been designed to estimate leaf lifespan, leaf production (Lp) and leaf death (Ld) rates, the age structure of leaves, and the decline in maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax) with age in plants of Ipomoea pes-caprae growing with a full supply of nutrients and with a low Ca supply. The Ca deficiency produced reductions in Lp and leaf lifespan compared with control plants. In spite of the differences in the demographic parameters between treatments in control and low-Ca plants, the percentage of leaves of a given leaf age class is maintained in such a way that the number of leaves per plant continues to increase. No relationship was found between Ca supply and Amax. However, the decline in Amax with leaf senescence was rather sudden in control plants compared with plants growing with a low Ca supply. The importance of simultaneously using the total leaf demographic census and the assimilation rate along with leaf lifespan data in order to understand the performance of whole plants under constrained conditions is discussed. PMID:20080828

  4. Effects of herbaceous and woody plant control on Pinus palustris growth and foliar nutrients through six growing seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood

    2005-01-01

    To determine if either herbaceous or woody plants are more competitive with longleaf pine (Pinuspalustris P. Mill.) seedlings, two vegetation management treatments-herbaceous plant control (HPC, No or Yes) and woody plant control (WPC, No or Yes) were applied in newly established longleaf pine plantings in a randomized complete block 2 x 2 factorial...

  5. How Does Your Garden Grow? Early Conceptualization of Seeds and Their Place in the Plant Growth Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Anne K.; Gelman, Susan A.

    1995-01-01

    Examined young children's understanding of seed origins and growth preconditions and the stages of plant growth. Found that, by 4.5 years, children realized that natural causal mechanisms underlie plant growth and appreciated the relationship of seeds to plants. Results suggest that preschoolers hold theory-like understandings of plants similar to…

  6. ACE and platelet aggregation inhibitors from Tamarix hohenackeri Bunge (host plant of Herba Cistanches) growing in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yachao; Liao, Jing; Tang, Yingzhan; Zhang, Peng; Tan, Chengyu; Ni, Hui; Wu, Xueqin; Li, Ning; Jia, Xiaoguang

    2014-04-01

    Tamarix hohenackeri Bunge is a salt cedar that grows widespread in the desert mountains in Xinjiang. T. hohenackeri has not been investigated earlier, although there are many reports of phytochemical work on other Tamarix species. To find out natural angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and platelet aggregation inhibitors, the bioactive extract (ethyl acetate [EtOAc] fraction) from the dried aerial parts of T. hohenackeri were investigated. The active fraction was purified by repeated column chromatography, including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column, medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) (polyamide column) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The isolated major constituents were tested for their anti-platelet aggregation activity. Bioassay-directed separation of the EtOAc fraction of the 70% ethanol extract from the air-dried aerial parts of T. hohenackeri led to the isolation of a new triterpenoid lactone (1), together with 13 known compounds (2-14). It was the first time to focus on screening bioactive constituents for this plant. The chemical structures were established on the basis of spectral data (ESI-MS and NMR). The results showed that the flavonoid compounds (7 and 8) and phenolic compounds (9, 10, 11, and 14) were potential ACE inhibitors. And the flavonoid compounds (5 and 7) showed significant anti-platelet aggregation activities. On the basis of the chemical and biological data, the material basis of ACE inhibitory activity for the active part was the phenolic constituents. However, the flavonoid compounds were responsible for the anti-platelet aggregation. The primary structure and activity relationship were also discussed respectively.

  7. Pectinatus portalensis nov. sp., a relatively fast-growing, coccoidal, novel Pectinatus species isolated from a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan M; Jurado, Valme; Laiz, Leonila; Zimmermann, Johannes; Hermosin, Bernardo; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2004-10-01

    The genus Pectinatus is currently composed by two species, Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus and Pectinatus frisingensis , both asociated with beer spoilage. This study describes a novel isolate (strain B6) retrieved from a wastewater treatment plant collecting residues from a large number of wineries. Based on similarity analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain B6 belongs to the genus Pectinatus . Strain B6 is a strict anaerobe like other Pectinatus species and it presents non-motile, coccoid cells showing a slight oval shape. Strain B6 shows marked physiological differences with other Pectinatus species both in fatty acid composition and carbon source utilization. The most abundant fatty acids found in strain B6 were 18:1 (42.8%) and 16:0 (18.3%) representing a total of over 61% of fatty acids in this microorganism while these fatty acids represented 41.3% in P. cerevisiiphilusT and 2.4% in P. frisingensisT of their total. Fatty acid 15:0 was not significant in strain B6 and represented 28.6% and 13.3% for P. cerevisiiphilusT and P. frisingensisT, respectively. Strain B6 showed a faster growth rate and higher optimum temperature than its relatives P. cerevisiiphilus and P. frisingensis . Strain B6, P. cerevisiiphilus and P. frisingensis could be clearly differentiated by acid production tests from substrates such as esculine and gluconate, and the lack of acid production from rhamnose and fucose among others. G+C mol% content in strain B6 is 36.5%. Based on genotypic and phenotypic differences, strain B6 is proposed as a novel Pectinatus species, P. portalensis nov. sp. Both strain B6 and the two described species of Pectinatus grow on beers and wines. These results provide insights about the origin and reservoirs of Pectinatus species and spoiling alcoholic beverages.

  8. Validation of a new phytotoxicity test (phytotoxkit) against an established four-week growing test with pre-grown plant plugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Aguilera, M.; Os, van E.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to correlate results of a fast extract-based toxicity test with results of an established growing test with mostly pre-grown plants. A standard white peat was contaminated with four levels of TCA (trichloroacetic acid), a known toxic substance. A range was composed of five

  9. Genetic diversity and differentiation of yellowwood [Cladrastis kentukea (Dum.Cours.) Rudd] growing in the wild and in planted populations outside the natural range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas LaBonte; Jadelys Tonos; Colleen Hartel; Keith E. Woeste

    2017-01-01

    Yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea) grows in small, widely scattered populations in the wild, but is also a popular ornamental tree that thrives when planted in urban areas outside its natural range. Since the small native populations of yellowwood in several states are considered at risk of extirpation, the cultivated population could serve as an ex...

  10. Comparison of planted loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine development through 10 growing seasons in central Louisiana--an argument for longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Mary Anne S. Sayer; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2015-01-01

    Two studies were established in central Louisiana to compare development of planted loblolly (Pinus taeda L.), longleaf (P. palustris Mill.), and slash (P. elliottii Engelm.) pine. Study 1 was on a Beauregard silt loam, and Study 2 was on Ruston and McKamie fine sandy loams. After 10 growing seasons,...

  11. Do teachers and students get the Ed-Tech products they need: The challenges of Ed-Tech procurement in a rapidly growing market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Morrison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ed-tech courseware products to support teaching and learning are being developed and made available for acquisition by school districts at a rapid rate. In this growing market, developers and providers face challenges with making their products visible to customers, while school district stakeholders must grapple with “discovering” which products of the many available best address their instructional needs. The present study presents the experiences with and perceptions about the procurement process from 47 superintendents representing diverse school districts in the U. S. Results indicate that, while improvements are desired in many aspects of the procurement process, the superintendents, overall, believe that, once desired products are identified, they are generally able to acquire them. Difficulties lie in tighter budgets, discovering products that are potentially the best choices, and evaluating the effectiveness of the products selected as options. These findings are presented and interpreted in relation to five major “Action Points” in the procurement process, and also with regard to implications for evaluating how educational technology impacts K-12 instruction.

  12. In Vitro Comparison of Ertapenem, Meropenem, and Imipenem against Isolates of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria and Nocardia by Use of Broth Microdilution and Etest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Killingley, Jessica; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Bridge, Linda; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    We compared the activities of the carbapenems ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem against 180 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and 170 isolates of Nocardia using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A subset of isolates was tested using the Etest. The rate of susceptibility to ertapenem and meropenem was limited and less than that to imipenem for the RGM. Analysis of major and minor discrepancies revealed that >90% of the isolates of Nocardia had higher MICs by the broth microdilution method than by Etest, in contrast to the lower broth microdilution MICs seen for >80% of the RGM. Imipenem remains the most active carbapenem against RGM, including Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus For Nocardia, imipenem was significantly more active only against Nocardia farcinica Although there may be utility in testing the activities of the newer carbapenems against Nocardia, their activities against the RGM should not be routinely tested. Testing by Etest is not recommended by the CLSI. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Multilocus sequence analysis reveals taxonomic differences among Bradyrhizobium sp. symbionts of Lupinus albescens plants growing in arenized and non-arenized areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granada, Camille E; Beneduzi, Anelise; Lisboa, Bruno B; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia C; Vargas, Luciano K; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-07-01

    Lupinus albescens is a leguminous plant that belongs to "New World" lupine species, which is native to southern Brazil. This Brazilian region is characterized by poor degraded soils with low organic matter and is designated as an arenized area. The symbiosis between Lupinus plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus may help the plant establish itself in these areas. To characterize the bradyrhizobial population symbionts of L. albescens plants grown in arenized and non-arenized areas, a multilocus phylogenetic analysis allied to genetic diversity indices were conducted. Seventy-four bradyrhizobial isolates were analyzed, 38 coming from L. albescens plants growing in an arenized area and 36 from a non-arenized area. Isolates were different between arenized and non-arenized areas. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, dnaK, atpD, recA, glnII, rpoB, gyrB, nodA, nodB, and nodZ genes resulted in three supported clades, which were most likely to be three different new Bradyrhizobium species: one species from the arenized area and two from the non-arenized area. Estimates of genetic diversity, which decreased in arenized areas, were positively correlated with habitat variability. These results suggested that a few resistant and efficient Bradyrhizobium sp. strains were capable of forming nodules on L. albescens plants growing in an arenized area. An in vivo inoculation experiment with L. albescens plants showed that Bradyrhizobium ssp. isolated from this extreme environment were more efficient at promoting plant growth than those from the non-arenized area. This result suggested that the environment affected the selection of more efficient plant growth promoters in order to sustain plant growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid in vivo analysis of synthetic promoters for plant pathogen phytosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wusheng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to engineer transgenic plants for the purpose of early detection of plant pathogen infection, which was accomplished by employing synthetic pathogen inducible promoters fused to reporter genes for altered phenotypes in response to the pathogen infection. Toward this end, a number of synthetic promoters consisting of inducible regulatory elements fused to a red fluorescent protein (RFP reporter were constructed for use in phytosensing. Results For rapid analysis, an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assay was evaluated, then utilized to assess the inducibility of each synthetic promoter construct in vivo. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi leaves were infiltrated with Agrobacterium harboring the individual synthetic promoter-reporter constructs. The infiltrated tobacco leaves were re-infiltrated with biotic (bacterial pathogens or abiotic (plant defense signal molecules salicylic acid, ethylene and methyl jasmonate agents 24 and 48 hours after initial agroinfiltration, followed by RFP measurements at relevant time points after treatment. These analyses indicated that the synthetic promoter constructs were capable of conferring the inducibility of the RFP reporter in response to appropriate phytohormones and bacterial pathogens, accordingly. Conclusions These observations demonstrate that the Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression is an efficient method for in vivo assays of promoter constructs in less than one week. Our results provide the opportunity to gain further insights into the versatility of the expression system as a potential tool for high-throughput in planta expression screening prior to generating stably transgenic plants for pathogen phytosensing. This system could also be utilized for temporary phytosensing; e.g., not requiring stably transgenic plants.

  15. A Method to Teach Age-Specific Demography with Field Grown Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Martin G.; Terrana, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that rapid cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants) can be used in inquiry-based, student ecological fieldwork. We are the first to describe age-specific survival for field-grown Fast Plants and identify life history traits associated with individual survival. This experiment can be adapted by educators as a…

  16. Rapid transfer of photosynthetic carbon through the plant-soil system in differently managed species-rich grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deyn, de G.B.; Quirk, H.; Oakley, S.; Ostle, N.J.; Bartgett, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Plant-soil interactions are central to short-term carbon (C) cycling through the rapid transfer of recently assimilated C from plant roots to soil biota. In grassland ecosystems, changes in C cycling are likely to be influenced by land use and management that changes vegetation and the associated

  17. Fast Plants for Finer Science--An Introduction to the Biology of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Campestris (rapa) L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Stephen P.; Williams, Paul H.

    1990-01-01

    Rapid-cycling brassicas can be used in the classroom to teach concepts such as plant growth, tropisms, floral reproduction, pollination, embryonic development, and plant genetics. Directions on how to obtain them for classroom use and how they may be grown are included. Practical physiology and genetics exercises are listed. (KR)

  18. Rapid atmospheric transport and large-scale deposition of recently synthesized plant waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Daniel B.; Ladd, S. Nemiah; Schubert, Carsten J.; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2018-02-01

    Sedimentary plant wax 2H/1H ratios are important tools for understanding hydroclimate and environmental changes, but large spatial and temporal uncertainties exist about transport mechanisms from ecosystem to sediments. To assess atmospheric pathways, we collected aerosol samples for two years at four locations within a ∼60 km radius in northern Switzerland. We measured n-alkane distributions and 2H/1H ratios in these samples, and from local plants, leaf litter, and soil, as well as surface sediment from six nearby lakes. Increased concentrations and 2H depletion of long odd chain n-alkanes in early summer aerosols indicate that most wax aerosol production occurred shortly after leaf unfolding, when plants synthesize waxes in large quantities. During autumn and winter, aerosols were characterized by degraded n-alkanes lacking chain length preferences diagnostic of recent biosynthesis, and 2H/1H values that were in some cases more than 100‰ higher than growing season values. Despite these seasonal shifts, modeled deposition-weighted average 2H/1H values of long odd chain n-alkanes primarily reflected summer values. This was corroborated by n-alkane 2H/1H values in lake sediments, which were similar to deposition-weighted aerosol values at five of six sites. Atmospheric deposition rates for plant n-alkanes on land were ∼20% of accumulation rates in lakes, suggesting a role for direct deposition to lakes or coastal oceans near similar production sources, and likely a larger role for deposition on land and transport in river systems. This mechanism allows mobilization and transport of large quantities of recently produced waxes as fine-grained material to low energy sedimentation sites over short timescales, even in areas with limited topography. Widespread atmospheric transfer well before leaf senescence also highlights the importance of the isotopic composition of early season source water used to synthesize waxes for the geologic record.

  19. A modified MS2 bacteriophage plaque reduction assay for the rapid screening of antiviral plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Ian; Kalt, F R

    2010-07-01

    Traditional methods of screening plant extracts and purified components for antiviral activity require up to a week to perform, prompting the need to develop more rapid quantitative methods to measure the ability of plant based preparations to block viral replication. We describe an adaption of an MS2 plaque reduction assay for use in S. aureus. MS2 bacteriophage was capable of infecting and replicating in B. cereus, S. aureus and F + E. coli but not F- E. coli. Indeed, both B. cereus and S. aureus were more sensitive to MS2 induced lysis than F+ E. coli. When MS2 bacteriophage was mixed with Camellia sinensis extract (1 mg/ml), Scaevola spinescens extract (1 mg/ml) or Aloe barbadensis juice and the mixtures inoculated into S. aureus, the formation of plaques was reduced to 8.9 ± 3.8%, 5.4 ± 2.4% and 72.7 ± 20.9% of the untreated MS2 control values respectively. The ability of the MS2 plaque reduction assay to detect antiviral activity in these known antiviral plant preparations indicates its suitability as an antiviral screening tool. An advantage of this assay compared with traditionally used cytopathic effect reduction assays and replicon based assays is the more rapid acquisition of results. Antiviral activity was detected within 24 h of the start of testing. The MS2 assay is also inexpensive and non-pathogenic to humans making it ideal for initial screening studies or as a simulant for pathogenic viruses.

  20. Effect of Radiation on Seed Germinating Ability Ofwild-Growing and Cultivated Plants, Sources of Bioactive Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanov, Aleksandr; Tirranen, Lyalya; Zykova, Irina; Bondarenko, Gennadiy

    2016-07-01

    In the above-ground parts of common chickweed (Stellaria media) the content of vitamin C was experimentally quantified, which (in terms of dry matter) was 81.55 mg/100 g; 133 mg/100 g and 161.76 mg/100 g depending on the growing site. 52 components were detected in the essential oil of the above-ground parts of common chickweed (Stellaria media). Chamazulene, neophytodien and phytol are the major components of whole oil. A wide range of elements was identified in the plants and seeds of common chickweed (Stellaria media), and in the seeds of carrots, parsley and lettuce. It was established that UV irradiation (lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm and 283 nm) of chickweed seeds (Stellaria media) for 15 sec. and 100 sec. in a microbiological box on a table at a distance from the object didn't affect their germinating ability. The germinating ability of the experimental seeds was identical to the control (no irradiation) seeds. With the help of an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer Renger 2 (Germany) at a voltage of 1.6 kV during 15 sec. the effect of "soft" radiation on the seed germinating ability of chickweed, carrot, parsley and lettuce seeds was studied.Under the effect of "soft" radiation during 15 sec. all the experimental chickweed seeds sprouted, like in the control. The germinating ability of the exposed lettuce seeds was 100% after one day, while only 45% of the exposed parsley seeds grew after 21 days. The exposed carrot seeds (70%) grew after 18 days. The effect of "hard" radiation on the germinating ability of common chickweed seeds was investigated using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer S4 Pioneer (Germany) at a voltage of 60 kV for 15 sec and 100 sec. Under the effect of "hard" radiation and during 15 seconds of exposure, where the distance (L) from the focus of the X-ray tube to the seeds of chickweed was 20 mm, the germinating ability of the experimental chickweed seeds was 30 %. At a voltage of 60 kV and 100-second exposure the germinating ability of the

  1. Realizing the potential of rapid-cycling Brassica as a model system for use in plant biology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid-cycling Brassica populations were initially developed as a model for probing the genetic basis of plant disease. Paul Williams and co-workers selected accessions of the six main species for short time to flower and rapid seed maturation. Over multiple generations of breeding and selection, rapid-cycling populations of each of the six species were developed. Because of their close relationship with economically important Brassica species, rapid-cycling Brassica populations, especially those of B. rapa (RCBr) and B. oleracea, have seen wide application in plant and crop physiology investigations. Adding to the popularity of these small, short-lived plants for research applications is their extensive use in K-12 education and outreach.

  2. Evaluation of capillary and myofiber density in the pectoralis major muscles of rapidly growing, high-yield broiler chickens during increased heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, K S; Hamlin, G A; Lien, A R J; Bilgili, S F

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle development proceeds from early embryogenesis through marketing age in broiler chickens. While myofiber formation is essentially complete at hatching, myofiber hypertrophy can increase after hatch by assimilation of satellite cell nuclei into myofibers. As the diameter of the myofibers increases, capillary density peripheral to the myofiber is marginalized, limiting oxygen supply and subsequent diffusion into the myofiber, inducing microischemia. The superficial and deep pectoralis muscles constitute 25% of the total body weight in a market-age bird; thus compromise of those muscle groups can have profound economic impact on broiler production. We hypothesized that marginal capillary support relative to the hypertrophic myofibers increases the incidence of microischemia, especially in contemporary high-yield broilers under stressing conditions such as high environmental temperatures. We evaluated the following parameters in four different broiler strains at 39 and 53 days of age when reared under thermoneutral (20 to 25 C) versus hot (30 to 35 C) environmental conditions: capillary density, myofiber density and diameter, and degree of myodegeneration. Our data demonstrate that myofiber diameter significantly increased with age (P > or = 0.0001), while the absolute numbers of capillaries, blood vessels, and myofibers visible in five 400 x microscopic fields decreased (P > or = 0.0001). This is concomitant with marginalization of vascular support in rapidly growing myofibers. The myofiber diameter was significantly lower with hot environmental temperatures (P > or = 0.001); therefore, the absolute number of myofibers visible in five 400X microscopic fields was significantly higher. The incidence and subjective degree of myodegeneration characterized by loss of cross-striations, myocyte hyperrefractility, sarcoplasmic vacuolation, and nuclear pyknosis or loss also increased in hot conditions. Differences among strains were not observed.

  3. Point-of-use membrane filtration and hyperchlorination to prevent patient exposure to rapidly growing mycobacteria in the potable water supply of a skilled nursing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Chen, Tai-Ho; Keane, Tim; Toney, Nadege; Toney, Sean; Armbruster, Catherine R; Butler, W Ray; Arduino, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    Healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are frequently associated with contaminated tap water. A pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus in patients undergoing bronchoscopy was identified by 2 acute care hospitals. RGM was identified in bronchoscopy specimens of 28 patients, 25 of whom resided in the same skilled nursing facility (SNF). An investigation ruled out bronchoscopy procedures, specimen collection, and scope reprocessing at the hospitals as sources of transmission. To identify the reservoir for RGM within the SNF and evaluate 2 water system treatments, hyperchlorination and point-of-use (POU) membrane filters, to reduce RGM. A comparative in situ study of 2 water system treatments to prevent RGM transmission. An SNF specializing in care of patients requiring ventilator support. RGM and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria were examined in facility water before and after hyperchlorination and in a subsequent 24-week assessment of filtered water by colony enumeration on Middlebrook and R2A media. Mycobacterium chelonae was consistently isolated from the SNF water supply. Hyperchlorination reduced RGM by 1.5 log(10) initially, but the population returned to original levels within 90 days. Concentration of HPC bacteria also decreased temporarily. RGM were reduced below detection level in filtered water, a 3-log(10) reduction. HPC bacteria were not recovered from newly installed filters, although low quantities were found in water from 2-week-old filters. POU membrane filters may be a feasible prevention measure for healthcare facilities to limit exposure of sensitive individuals to RGM in potable water systems.

  4. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, V.N., E-mail: jhavn1971@gmail.com; Tripathi, R.M., E-mail: tripathirm@yahoo.com; Sethy, N.K., E-mail: sethybarc@rediffmail.com; Sahoo, S.K., E-mail: sksbarc@gmail.com

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r = 0.86, p < 0.003). For sediment rooted plants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). Both for other free floating species and sediment rooted plants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p < 0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. - Highlights: • Uranium mill tailings pond. • Jaduguda, India. • Fresh water plants. • Uranium uptake. • Relationship of uranium with stable elements.

  5. A Rapid and Reliable Method for Total Protein Extraction from Succulent Plants for Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledías, Fernando; Hernández, Felipe; Rivas, Viridiana; García-Mendoza, Abisaí; Cassab, Gladys I; Nieto-Sotelo, Jorge

    2017-08-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism plants have some morphological features, such as succulent and reduced leaves, thick cuticles, and sunken stomata that help them prevent excessive water loss and irradiation. As molecular constituents of these morphological adaptations to xeric environments, succulent plants produce a set of specific compounds such as complex polysaccharides, pigments, waxes, and terpenoids, to name a few, in addition to uncharacterized proteases. Since all these compounds interfere with the analysis of proteins by electrophoretic techniques, preparation of high quality samples from these sources represents a real challenge. The absence of adequate protocols for protein extraction has restrained the study of this class of plants at the molecular level. Here, we present a rapid and reliable protocol that could be accomplished in 1 h and applied to a broad range of plants with reproducible results. We were able to obtain well-resolved SDS/PAGE protein patterns in extracts from different members of the subfamilies Agavoideae (Agave, Yucca, Manfreda, and Furcraea), Nolinoideae (Dasylirion and Beucarnea), and the Cactaceae family. This method is based on the differential solubility of contaminants and proteins in the presence of acetone and pH-altered solutions. We speculate about the role of saponins and high molecular weight carbohydrates to produce electrophoretic-compatible samples. A modification of the basic protocol allowed the analysis of samples by bidimensional electrophoresis (2DE) for proteomic analysis. Furostanol glycoside 26-O-β-glucosidase (an enzyme involved in steroid saponin synthesis) was successfully identified by mass spectrometry analysis and de novo sequencing of a 2DE spot from an Agave attenuata sample.

  6. Screening of native plants and algae growing on fly-ash affected areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India for accumulation of toxic heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, S; Srivastava, S; Mishra, S; Dixit, B; Kumar, A; Tripathi, R D

    2008-10-30

    The present investigation was carried out to screen native plants growing in fly-ash (FA) contaminated areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India with a view to using them for the eco-restoration of the area. A total number of 17 plants (9 aquatic, 6 terrestrial and 2 algal species) were collected and screened for heavy metal (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, B, Si, Al, Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg and As) accumulation. Differential accumulation of various heavy metals by different species of plants was observed. Hydrilla verticillata was found to be the most efficient metal accumulator among 9 aquatic plants, Eclipta alba among 6 terrestrial plants and Phormedium papyraceum between 2 algal species. In general, the maximum levels of most metals were found in terrestrial plants while the lowest in algal species. However, translocation of the metals from root to shoot was found to be higher in aquatic plants than terrestrial ones. These results suggest that various aquatic, terrestrial and algal species of plants may be used in a synergistic way to remediate and restore the FA contaminated areas.

  7. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs.

  8. APLIKASI SISTEM MONITORING PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN BERBASIS WEB MENGGUNAKAN MACHINE VISION Application of Web-based Monitoring System for Plant Growing by Using Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Sutiarso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, demand for integrating between information technology (IT and development of agricultural system isin order to increase the productivity, efficiency and profitability in term of precision agriculture. This matter occurred due to some problems in the field, such as; unintensively monitoring activities for plant during the growing period. One of the alternative solutions to overcome the problem was introducing the machine vision technology in the farming system. The research is actually as a basic research that aims using technology of digital image processing and software of computation (mathematics to support a function of real-time monitoring system for plant growing. The research mechanism was started from digital image processing by using an image segmentation method that can identify between the main object (plant and others (soil, weed. Image processing algorithm used excess color method and color normalization to identify plants, to calculate crop area. Otsu method was used to convert it to binary images. The next was to calculate and analyze a percentage of the plant growing, from after planting until harvesting time. The analyzed data were stored as MySQL database format in the web server. Final output of the research was the web based monitoring instruments for plant growing that can be accessed through intranet (local area network as well as internet technology. From the software testing, monitoring with a machine vision system has a success rate reached 70 % for identifying plants. ABSTRAK Tuntutan integrasi teknologi sistem informasi dan sistem pertanian saat ini dimaksudkan guna mendukung efisiensi,produktivitas dan profitabiltas pertanian. Hal tersebut didorong oleh timbulnya permasalahan di lapangan terkait dengan belum optimalnya produktivitas tanaman yang diakibatkan antara lain, kurang intensifnya pemantauan (monitoring tanaman pada masa pertumbuhan. Salah satu alternatif solusi untuk memperbaiki permasalahan tersebut

  9. Analysis and forecasting of profit by using simulation models for growing pea in conventional and organic plant production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean is the third most important food legume crop of the world after soybean and groundnuts; it provides an important source of dietary proteins, carbohydrates, minerals and fiber essential in human nutrition worldwide. A high, per capita bean consumption of 13 to 40 kg yr-1 was observed in developing countries. In EU developed countries, market of the organic products is growing in average 10 % per annum, but this growth has not been followed by production growth and this is the chance for Serbian products. Organic bean growing enables the producers a higher profit. Expenses in organic production are higher (2170 EUR/ha than those in conventional bean production (1825 EUR/ha. However, net profit in the organic production was estimated to 1440 EUR/ha, while the profit in the conventional concept was 315 EUR/ha. Also, profitability rate and the economic efficiency coefficient had higher values when growing bean in organic concept.

  10. Rapid breeding of parthenocarpic tomato plants using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Risa; Abe, Chihiro; Watanabe, Takahito; Sugano, Shigeo S; Ishihara, Ryosuke; Ezura, Hiroshi; Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi

    2017-03-30

    Parthenocarpy in horticultural crop plants is an important trait with agricultural value for various industrial purposes as well as direct eating quality. Here, we demonstrate a breeding strategy to generate parthenocarpic tomato plants using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to introduce somatic mutations effectively into SlIAA9-a key gene controlling parthenocarpy-with mutation rates of up to 100% in the T0 generation. Furthermore, analysis of off-target mutations using deep sequencing indicated that our customized gRNAs induced no additional mutations in the host genome. Regenerated mutants exhibited morphological changes in leaf shape and seedless fruit-a characteristic of parthenocarpic tomato. And the segregated next generation (T1) also showed a severe phenotype associated with the homozygous mutated genome. The system developed here could be applied to produce parthenocarpic tomato in a wide variety of cultivars, as well as other major horticultural crops, using this precise and rapid breeding technique.

  11. Effects of plant maturity and growth media bacterial inoculum level on the surface contamination and internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in growing spinach leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shuaihua; Beaulieu, John C; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Ge, Beilei

    2009-11-01

    The incidence of foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce has increased in the United States. Particularly noteworthy was the 2006 Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with prepackaged baby spinach. This study aimed to determine whether E. coli O157:H7 would be present in the aerial leaf tissue of a growing spinach plant when introduced at various plant maturities and different inoculum levels in a greenhouse setting. Spinach seeds of a commercial variety were sown in 8-in. (20.32-cm) pots. After seed germination, two levels (10(3) and 10(7) CFU/ml) of an E. coli O157:H7 green fluorescent protein-expressing strain were introduced into the plant growth media weekly for a total of five times. Inoculated spinach plants were examined weekly for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 on leaves and in surrounding growth media. Among 120 spinach plant samples examined for internal leaf contamination, only one yielded a positive result. Surface leaf contamination occurred occasionally and clustered between 3 and 5 weeks of age, but not among leaves younger than 3 weeks of age. On the other hand, when inoculated at the 10(7) CFU/ml level, the E. coli O157:H7 green fluorescent protein strain survived the entire cultivation period, although with gradually reduced levels. The experiments demonstrated that internalization of E. coli O157:H7 of growing spinach plant leaves under greenhouse conditions was a rare event, but surface contamination did occur, primarily when the plants reached 3 weeks of age. The study provided important data to further assess the association between spinach age and potential contamination of E. coli O157:H7.

  12. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r=0.86, pplants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r=0.88, pplants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p<0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as “Hair Waste”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana A. Cavello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum’s supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p>0.05. These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876.

  14. A novel method for rapid and non-invasive detection of plants senescence using delayed fluorescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingrui; Xing, Da; Wang, Junsheng; Zeng, Lizhang; Li, Qiang

    2007-05-01

    Plants senescence is a phase of plants ontogeny marked by declining photosynthetic activity that is paralleled by a decline in chloroplast function. The photosystem II ( PSII ) in a plant is considered the primary site where light-induced delayed fluorescence (DF) is produced. With the leaves of Catharanthus roseus (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don) as testing models, we have studied the effects of plants senescence induced by dark and/or exogenous hormones treatments on characteristics of DF by using a home-made portable DF detection system, which can enable various DF parameters, such as DF decay kinetic curve and DF intensity, to be rapidly produced for the plants in a short time. The results show that the changes in DF intensity of green plants can truly reflect the changes in photosynthetic capacity and chlorophyll content. Therefore, DF may be used an important means of evaluating in vivo plants senescence physiology. The changes in DF intensity may provide a new approach for the rapid and early detection of plants senescence caused by age or other senescence-related factors. DF technique could be potential useful for high throughput screening and less time-consuming and automated identifying the interesting mutants with genetic modifications that change plants senescence progress.

  15. Growing Plants and Scientists: Fostering Positive Attitudes toward Science among All Participants in an Afterschool Hydroponics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Amie K.; Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study examines an out-of-school time program targeting elementary-aged youth from populations that are typically underrepresented in science fields (primarily African-American, Hispanic, and/or English Language Learner participants). The program aimed to foster positive attitudes toward science among youth by engaging them in growing plants…

  16. Assessment of contamination potential of lettuce by Salmonella enterica serovar Newport added to the plant growing medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Nirit; Sela, Shlomo; Neder-Lavon, Sarit

    2007-07-01

    The capacity of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport to contaminate Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Nogal) via the root system was evaluated in 17-, 20-, and 33-day-old plants. Apparent internalization of Salmonella via the root to the above-ground parts was identified in 33- but not 17- or 20-day-old plants and was stimulated by root decapitation. Leaves of lettuce plants with intact and damaged roots harbored Salmonella at 500 +/- 120 and 5,130 +/- 440 CFU/g of leaf, respectively, at 2 days postinoculation but not 5 days later. These findings are first to suggest that Salmonella Newport can translocate from contaminated roots to the aerial parts of lettuce seedlings and propose that the process is dependent on the developmental stage of the plant.

  17. Bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within roots of plants growing in a soil highly contaminated with aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) belong to phylum Glomeromycota, an early divergent fungal lineage forming symbiosis with plant roots. Many reports have documented that bacteria are intimately associated with AMF mycelia in the soil. However, the role of these bacteria remains unclear and their diversity within intraradical AMF structures has yet to be explored. We aim to assess the bacterial communities associated within intraradical propagules (vesicles and intraradical spores) harvested from roots of plant growing in the sediments of an extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted basin. Solidago rugosa roots were sampled, surface-sterilized, and microdissected. Eleven propagules were randomly collected and individually subjected to whole-genome amplification, followed by PCRs, cloning, and sequencing targeting fungal and bacterial rDNA. Ribotyping of the 11 propagules showed that at least five different AMF OTUs could be present in S. rugosa roots, while 16S rRNA ribotyping of six of the 11 different propagules showed a surprisingly high bacterial richness associated with the AMF within plant roots. Most dominant bacterial OTUs belonged to Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., Massilia sp., and Methylobacterium sp. This study provides the first evidence of the bacterial diversity associated with AMF propagules within the roots of plants growing in extremely petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted conditions. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of modification of growth medium and using of plant growth regulator to enhance growing power and growth of True Seed of Shallot (TSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudaryono T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Red onion is one of the main horticultural commodities in Indonesia. Generally red onion is cultivated by using tuber as a source of seeds. The weakness of the use of tuber as a source of seeds, besides the high cost also the quality of seed is less well guaranteed because it almost always carries of the pathogen disease. To overcome the weakness of red onion cultivation with tuber, the alternative is the cultivation with the seed of botani (True Seed of Shallot/TSS. The weakness of botanical seeds as a source of seed is the low germination/growing power. Therefore, to solve the problem of red onion cultivation with TSS, has been done research on the modification of growing medium and giving of plant growth regulator to produce seeds of red onion origin of botanical seed (TSS. Botanical seeds (TSS of red onion treated with coconut water and seeded on mixed soil + compost medium, soil + husk charcoal and soil + compost + chaff charcoal produce growing percentage and vegetative growth of optimum seeds. Based on the results of this study, coconut water can be used as a plant growth regulator in red onion seeding by using botanical seed (TSS.

  19. Rapid demise and recovery of plant ecosystems across the end-Permian extinction event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochuli, Peter A.; Hermann, Elke; Vigran, Jorunn Os; Bucher, Hugo; Weissert, Helmut

    2010-12-01

    The end-Permian extinction event was the most pronounced biotic and ecological crisis in the history of the Earth. It is assumed that over 80% of marine genera disappeared, and that this event had a major impact on the evolution of marine organisms. The impact of this event on terrestrial biota is poorly known and a matter of controversial discussions. In contrast to the fundamental changes in marine fauna most major groups of plants range from the Late Palaeozoic into the Mesozoic. Consequently the impact of the end-Permian extinction event on the evolution of plants was often regarded as minor. However, major changes in the composition of the plant communities have been documented and a number of catastrophic scenarios have been envisioned — including the almost total destruction of plant ecosystems. Based on expanded sections from the Southern Barents Sea (Northern Norway) we trace mid-latitudinal terrestrial ecosystems across the Permo-Triassic transition with a time resolution in the order of 10 kyr, based on a high resolution C org-isotope stratigraphy. Our results show that the floral turnovers are linked with major changes in the C-isotope record and hence with global carbon cycling. The palynological records document the successive steps in the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems. After gradual changes during the latest Permian, plant ecosystems suffered from a major environmental perturbation leading to a rapid turnover from gymnosperm dominated ecosystems to assemblages dominated by lycopods. The dominance of the lycopods, expressed in a spore-spike, represents a relatively short-lived event in the order of 10 kyr. This perturbation of the terrestrial ecosystems preceded the globally recognized negative δ 13C org isotope spike by up to 100 kyr. It coincides with a first end-Permian negative shift of the C-isotope curve and was probably induced by a first major perturbation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, related to the onset of the volcanic

  20. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDIANTO AMIRTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Amirta R, Yuliansyah, Angi EM, Ananto BR, Setiyono B, Haqiqi MT, Septiana HA, Lodong M, Oktavianto RN. 2016. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 22-30. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in intensifying the production and use of biomass to replace fossil fuels for the production of heat and electricity, especially for a remote area that generally abundance with the wood biomass resources including in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In this work, diversity of plant species that commonly growth in community forest area of East Kutai District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia had been studied to point out their energy potency to be used as biomass feedstock for the electricity generated. Diversity of plant species in the community forest was evaluated by making 13 sampling plots with 20mx20m size approximately. Concurently, the energy properties of plant biomass such as proximate and ultimate compositions were also analyzed using ASTM methods. Results showed that more than 30 species of tropical trees and wood shrubs were grown in the community forest. The presence of them was classified into two different growth of origins: natural and artificial plantation, and also three different categories of plant resources: tree species from logged over forest, commercial fast growing plant tree species for the fiber production and woody shrubs. The highest dominancy and productivity was found in Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen since the wood biomass was artificially planted for the commercial purposes. Among the 31 plant species analyzed we found the highest energy potency was obtained from Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. Blume that produced 3.17 MWh/ton, and the lowest was from Trema orientalis (L. Blume 0.97 MWh/ton. The woody shrubs species such as Vernonia amigdalina Delile., Piper aduncum L., Gliricidia

  1. Combining Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Rapid Recognition of an Hg-Contaminated Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-Cheng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of rapid recognition of an Hg-contaminated plant as a soil pollution indicator was investigated using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and chemometrics. The stem and leave of a native plant, Miscanthus floridulus (Labill. Warb. (MFLW, were collected from Hg-contaminated areas (n1=125 as well as from regular areas (n2=116. The samples were dried and crushed and the powders were sieved through an 80-mesh sieve. Reference analysis of Hg levels was performed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES. The actual Hg contents of contaminated and normal samples were 16.2–30.5 and 0.0–0.1 mg/Kg, respectively. The NIRS measurements of impacted sample powders were collected in the mode of reflectance. The DUPLEX algorithm was utilized to split the NIRS data into representative training and test sets. Different spectral preprocessing methods were performed to remove the unwanted and noncomposition-correlated spectral variations. Classification models were developed using partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA based on the raw, smoothed, second-order derivative (D2, and standard normal variate (SNV data, respectively. The prediction accuracy obtained by PLSDA with each data preprocessing option was 100%, indicating pattern recognition of Hg-contaminated MFLW samples using NIRS data was in perfect consistence with the ICP-AES results. NIRS combined with chemometrics will provide a tool to screen the Hg-contaminated MFLW, which can be potentially used as an indicator of soil pollution.

  2. Effect of directed-spray glyphosate applications on survival and growth of planted oaks after three growing seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Self; Andrew W. Ezell; Josh L. Moree; Rory O. Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of acres of oak (Quercus spp.) plantations are established across the South annually. Survival and growth of these plantings have been less than desirable. Several techniques have been utilized in attempts to achieve improved success in these areas. One such technique that has been recommended is the application of directed-spray herbicide...

  3. A comparative study of antimony accumulation in plants growing in two mining areas in Iran, Moghanlo, and Patyar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajiani, N.J.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Karimi, N.; Schat, H.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony occurs locally at high concentrations in some mineralized soils. Very little is known about behavior of antimony in plants. In this study, we analyzed the soil and vegetation of two mining areas in Iran, Patyar, and Moghanlo. Total Sb concentrations in soil were 358–3482 mg/kg in Moghanlo

  4. Development of a Rapid and Simple Method to Remove Polyphenols from Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imali Ranatunge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants, which are responsible for prevention of many diseases. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP has a high affinity towards polyphenols. This method involves the use of PVPP column to remove polyphenols under centrifugal force. Standards of gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, vanillin, and tea extracts (Camellia sinensis were used in this study. PVPP powder was packed in a syringe with different quantities. The test samples were layered over the PVPP column and subjected to centrifugation. Supernatant was tested for the total phenol content. The presence of phenolic compounds and caffeine was screened by HPLC and measuring the absorbance at 280. The antioxidant capacity of standards and tea extracts was compared with the polyphenol removed fractions using DPPH scavenging assay. No polyphenols were found in polyphenolic standards or tea extracts after PVPP treatment. The method described in the present study to remove polyphenols is simple, inexpensive, rapid, and efficient and can be employed to investigate the contribution of polyphenols present in natural products to their biological activity.

  5. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  6. Plant phenological responses to a long-term experimental extension of growing season and soil warming in the tussock tundra of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsand Rosa, Roxaneh; Oberbauer, Steven F; Starr, Gregory; Parker La Puma, Inga; Pop, Eric; Ahlquist, Lorraine; Baldwin, Tracey

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming is strongly altering the timing of season initiation and season length in the Arctic. Phenological activities are among the most sensitive plant responses to climate change and have important effects at all levels within the ecosystem. We tested the effects of two experimental treatments, extended growing season via snow removal and extended growing season combined with soil warming, on plant phenology in tussock tundra in Alaska from 1995 through 2003. We specifically monitored the responses of eight species, representing four growth forms: (i) graminoids (Carex bigellowii and Eriophorum vaginatum); (ii) evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre, Cassiope tetragona, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea); (iii) deciduous shrubs (Betula nana and Salix pulchra); and (iv) forbs (Polygonum bistorta). Our study answered three questions: (i) Do experimental treatments affect the timing of leaf bud break, flowering, and leaf senescence? (ii) Are responses to treatments species-specific and growth form-specific? and (iii) Which environmental factors best predict timing of phenophases? Treatment significantly affected the timing of all three phenophases, although the two experimental treatments did not differ from each other. While phenological events began earlier in the experimental plots relative to the controls, duration of phenophases did not increase. The evergreen shrub, Cassiope tetragona, did not respond to either experimental treatment. While the other species did respond to experimental treatments, the total active period for these species did not increase relative to the control. Air temperature was consistently the best predictor of phenology. Our results imply that some evergreen shrubs (i.e., C. tetragona) will not capitalize on earlier favorable growing conditions, putting them at a competitive disadvantage relative to phenotypically plastic deciduous shrubs. Our findings also suggest that an early onset of the growing season as a result of decreased snow cover

  7. Rapid transfer of photosynthetic carbon through the plant-soil system in differently managed species-rich grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. De Deyn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-soil interactions are central to short-term carbon (C cycling through the rapid transfer of recently assimilated C from plant roots to soil biota. In grassland ecosystems, changes in C cycling are likely to be influenced by land use and management that changes vegetation and the associated soil microbial communities. Here we tested whether changes in grassland vegetation composition resulting from management for plant diversity influences short-term rates of C assimilation and transfer from plants to soil microbes. To do this, we used an in situ 13C-CO2 pulse-labelling approach to measure differential C uptake among different plant species and the transfer of the plant-derived 13C to key groups of soil microbiota across selected treatments of a long-term plant diversity grassland restoration experiment. Results showed that plant taxa differed markedly in the rate of 13C assimilation and concentration: uptake was greatest and 13C concentration declined fastest in Ranunculus repens, and assimilation was least and 13C signature remained longest in mosses. Incorporation of recent plant-derived 13C was maximal in all microbial phosopholipid fatty acid (PLFA markers at 24 h after labelling. The greatest incorporation of 13C was in the PLFA 16:1ω5, a marker for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, while after 1 week most 13C was retained in the PLFA18:2ω6,9 which is indicative of assimilation of plant-derived 13C by saprophytic fungi. Our results of 13C assimilation and transfer within plant species and soil microbes were consistent across management treatments. Overall, our findings suggest that plant diversity restoration management may not directly affect the C assimilation or retention of C by individual plant taxa or groups of soil microbes, it can impact on the fate of recent C by changing their relative abundances

  8. Aromatic Plants growing in Nigeria: Essential Oil Constituents of Cassia alata (Linn. Roxb. and Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff O. Kamil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents identified from the leaves of two Nigerian plants are being reported. The oil samples were obtained from the studied plant species by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and then subsequently analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The quantitatively significant constituents of the leaf oil of Cassia alata (Linn. Roxb., (Fabaceae were 1, 8-cineole (39.8%, β-caryophyllene (19.1% and caryophyllene oxide (12.7%. Limonene (5.2%, germacrene D (5.5% and α-selinene (5.4% constituted the other significant compounds present in the oil. T he sunflower oil, Helianthus annuus L., (Asteraceae was rich in α-pinene (16.0%, germacrene D (14.4%, sabinene (9.4% and 14-hydroxy-α-muurolene (9.0%.

  9. Effects of planting density and genotype on loblolly pine stands growing in the mountains of southeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney E. Will; Thomas C. Hennessey; Thomas B. Lynch; Robert Heinemann; Randal Holeman; Dennis Wilson; Keith Anderson; Gregory Campbell

    2013-01-01

    We determined the effects of planting density (4- by 4-, 6- by 6-, 8- by 8-, and 10- by 10-foot spacing) on stand-level height, diameter at breast height, stem volume, basal area, and periodic annual increment for two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seed sources. Seed sources for the 25-year-old stands were a North Carolina seed source (NCC 8-01) and...

  10. A comparative study of antimony accumulation in plants growing in two mining areas in Iran, Moghanlo, and Patyar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali Hajiani, Naser; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Karimi, Naser; Schat, Henk

    2015-11-01

    Antimony occurs locally at high concentrations in some mineralized soils. Very little is known about behavior of antimony in plants. In this study, we analyzed the soil and vegetation of two mining areas in Iran, Patyar, and Moghanlo. Total Sb concentrations in soil were 358-3482 mg/kg in Moghanlo and 284-886 mg/kg in Patyar. Corresponding Sb concentrations in plant shoots were 0.8-287 and 1.3-49 mg/kg, respectively. In both areas, foliar Sb concentrations increased with acid-extractable soil Sb, although the slope was about 2-fold steeper for Patyar than for Moghanlo. Regressing the foliar concentrations on water-soluble Sb yielded identical slopes for both areas, suggesting that the soluble fraction of Sb rather than total Sb is the direct determinant of foliar Sb accumulation. Both in Patyar and Moghanlo, only a minor part of the total variance of shoot Sb was explained by soluble Sb. The major part was explained by plant species, demonstrating that plant taxonomic identity is the most important determinant of foliar Sb accumulation capacity in both areas. The translocation factor (TF) was highly variable too, with species as the only significant variance component. Only four species were able to accumulate more than 100 mg/kg Sb in their leaves. Among these species, Achillea wilhelmsii and Matthiola farinosa were by far the best Sb accumulators, with, on average, 141 and 132 mg/kg Sb in their leaves. Of these two, only Matthiola farinosa consistently maintained TF values far above unity across the whole range of soluble Sb in Moghanlo.

  11. Shifts in root-associated microbial communities of Typha latifolia growing in naphthenic acids and relationship to plant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lori A; Armstrong, Sarah A; Headley, John V; Greer, Charles W; Germida, James J

    2010-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex mixture of organic acid compounds released during the extraction of crude oil from oil sands operations. The accumulation of toxic NAs in tailings pond water (TPW) is of significant environmental concern, and phytoremediation using constructed wetlands is one remediation option being assessed. Since root-associated microorganisms are an important factor during phytoremediation of organic compounds, this study investigated the impact of NAs on the microbial communities associated with the macrophyte Typha latifolia (cattail). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the impact of NAs on microbial communities was niche dependent, with endophytic communities being the most stable and bulk water communities being the least stable. The type of NA used was significant to microbial response, with commercial NAs causing greater adverse changes than TPW NAs. In general, plant beneficial bacteria such as diazotrophs were favoured in cattails grown in TPW NAs, while potentially deleterious bacteria such as denitrifying Dechlorospirillum species increased in commercial NA treatments. These findings suggest that NAs may affect plant health by impacting root-associated microbial communities. A better understanding of these impacts may allow researchers to optimize those microbial communities that support plant health, and thus further optimize wetland treatment systems.

  12. Influence of irradiated chitosan on rice plants growing in hydroponic medium contaminated with salt and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.D.; Diep, T.B. [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique-VAEC, Nghiado, Cau giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Effect of chitosan and radiation-degraded chitosan on rice seedlings of a Vietnam's original variety was investigated. Potential of irradiated chitosan in plant tolerance for several stress factors (salt, zinc, and vanadium) also was studied as well. Chitosan represented in hydroponic medium clearly inhibited the growth of rice seedlings at concentrations arranging from 50 ppm. Radiation processing of chitosan with dose higher than 100 kGy reduced toxicity of chitosan and the efficacy was of dose proportion. Rice plant of 203 origin was almost normally grown in hydroponic solution containing chitosan that has been irradiated with dose of 150 and 200 kGy. Irradiated chitosan increased plant resistance to environmental stress caused by vanadium (V); thereby the seedlings could be recovered completely, even gained in biomass. This effect was not appeared when applied chitosan to rice in media contaminated by zinc (Zn) and salt (NaCl). The selectness of irradiated chitosan on various stress factors partly clarified the assistant action of chitosan in the vanadium intoxication because chelating with metal ions could not be evaluated as main mechanism. (author)

  13. Rapid and sensitive hormonal profiling of complex plant samples by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Maren

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant hormones play a pivotal role in several physiological processes during a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence, and the determination of endogenous concentrations of hormones is essential to elucidate the role of a particular hormone in any physiological process. Availability of a sensitive and rapid method to quantify multiple classes of hormones simultaneously will greatly facilitate the investigation of signaling networks in controlling specific developmental pathways and physiological responses. Due to the presence of hormones at very low concentrations in plant tissues (10-9 M to 10-6 M and their different chemistries, the development of a high-throughput and comprehensive method for the determination of hormones is challenging. Results The present work reports a rapid, specific and sensitive method using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS/MS to analyze quantitatively the major hormones found in plant tissues within six minutes, including auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxyic acid (the ethylene precursor, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Sample preparation, extraction procedures and UPLC-MS/MS conditions were optimized for the determination of all plant hormones and are summarized in a schematic extraction diagram for the analysis of small amounts of plant material without time-consuming additional steps such as purification, sample drying or re-suspension. Conclusions This new method is applicable to the analysis of dynamic changes in endogenous concentrations of hormones to study plant developmental processes or plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in complex tissues. An example is shown in which a hormone profiling is obtained from leaves of plants exposed to salt stress in the aromatic plant, Rosmarinus officinalis.

  14. Rapid plant invasion in distinct climates involves different sources of phenotypic variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Monty

    Full Text Available When exotic species spread over novel environments, their phenotype will depend on a combination of different processes, including phenotypic plasticity (PP, local adaptation (LA, environmental maternal effects (EME and genetic drift (GD. Few attempts have been made to simultaneously address the importance of those processes in plant invasion. The present study uses the well-documented invasion history of Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae in southern France, where it was introduced at a single wool-processing site. It gradually invaded the Mediterranean coast and the Pyrenean Mountains, which have noticeably different climates. We used seeds from Pyrenean and Mediterranean populations, as well as populations from the first introduction area, to explore the phenotypic variation related to climatic variation. A reciprocal sowing experiment was performed with gardens under Mediterranean and Pyrenean climates. We analyzed climatic phenotypic variation in germination, growth, reproduction, leaf physiology and survival. Genetic structure in the studied invasion area was characterized using AFLP. We found consistent genetic differentiation in growth traits but no home-site advantage, so weak support for LA to climate. In contrast, genetic differentiation showed a relationship with colonization history. PP in response to climate was observed for most traits, and it played an important role in leaf trait variation. EME mediated by seed mass influenced all but leaf traits in a Pyrenean climate. Heavier, earlier-germinating seeds produced larger individuals that produced more flower heads throughout the growing season. However, in the Mediterranean garden, seed mass only influenced the germination rate. The results show that phenotypic variation in response to climate depends on various ecological and evolutionary processes associated with geographical zone and life history traits. Seeing the relative importance of EME and GD, we argue that a "local

  15. Rapid development in vitro and in vivo of resistance to ceftazidime in biofilm-growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, N; Ciofu, O; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the development of resistance of biofilm-growing P. aeruginosa during treatment with ceftazidime. Biofilms were established in vitro using a modified Robbins device (MRD) and in vivo in the rat model of chronic lung infection. Three P. aeruginosa strains...

  16. Microbial community responses associated with the development of oomycete plant pathogens on tomato roots in soilless growing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Bado, L A; Petch, G; Parsons, N R; Morgan, J A W; Pettitt, T R; Whipps, J M

    2006-06-01

    To determine the spread of different oomycete pathogens in hydroponic, soilless tomato growing systems and their impact on established microbial communities, as baseline studies prior to future introduction of microbial inoculants for disease suppression. The oomycete pathogens, Pythium group F, Pythium aphanidermatum and Phytophthora cryptogea, were introduced into small-scale recirculating tomato growing systems containing rockwool 6 weeks after set-up when roots were well-established. Two weeks later, half of the systems were switched over to run-to-waste. Pythium aphanidermatum spreads the fastest, Pythium group F the slowest and Ph. cryptogea was intermediate in its spread. The switch to run-to-waste had no effect on pathogen recovery. Microbial communities, monitored by dilution plating, were well-established at the first sampling, 6 weeks after set-up and although differences in community levels were found between experiments, changes during any one experiment were small, generally less than 1 log10 CFU g(-1) for bacteria. Pathogen introduction increased microbial community levels in roots but the switch to run-to-waste had no effect. Analysis of bacterial communities through amplification of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene and DGGE profiling showed that different communities were established within each pathogen experiment and that different communities were established on roots, rockwool and in nutrient solutions. However, no significant changes in microbial profiles were found over time in any experiment. In these systems, the microbial communities were well-established 6 weeks after set-up and were resistant to biological and physical perturbation. The implication for microbial inoculation of such systems for disease suppression is that the micro-organisms would either have to be introduced very early during the set-up of the system or be able to replace an established but variable community.

  17. Structural and functional study in the rhizosphere of Oryza sativa L. plants growing under biotic and abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J A; García-Villaraco, A; Ramos, B; García-Cristobal, J; Algar, E; Gutierrez-Mañero, J

    2013-07-01

    A structural and functional study has been carried out in the rice production area of the Guadalquivir marshes in southern Spain aiming to increase knowledge of rice rhizosphere structure and function for further application on integrated management practices. Rhizosphere bacterial structure (analysis of 16S rRNA partial sequences from total soil DNA), metabolic diversity (analysed by Biolog FF for fungal community and GN for microbial community) and a screening for putative plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to identify potential isolates for development of local biofertilizers, and biodiversity of culturable micro-organisms (analysis of 16S rRNA partial sequences) from four areas differing in salinity and Magnaporthe oryzae incidence in two moments of the crop cycle were studied. Results indicate that the dominant taxon in libraries from the four areas was Proteobacteria. Metabolic diversity was higher in areas affected only by salinity or incidence of Magnaporthe than in the control or area affected by both stresses. It seems that rice plants selected, in their rhizosphere, micro-organisms able to affect plant hormonal balance under all conditions, and this activity relied in different bacterial genera depending on the environmental stress. Bacterial genera for each stress, as well as generalist strains, were found present in all the studied areas. Potential molecular markers and taxonomic markers (Sphingobacteria for salt and Thermococci for Magnaporthe) of the different stress situations have been highlighted, and Class Verrucomicrobiae could be a marker for nonstressed areas. In addition, putative PGPR strains isolated in this study could be used as biofertilizers. Rice paddies are great ecologically important ecosystems. The results are very relevant as they may be included in the process of rice production, improving crop conditions with less environmental impact. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Composting of wine industry wastes and their use as a substrate for growing soil less ornamental plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, E.; Moreno, M. T.; Aviles, M.; Ordovas, J.

    2012-11-01

    To study the process of composting of grape marc and test the resulting compost as a substrate for the cultivation of ornamental plants, six composting processes, with mixtures of dealcoholised grapevine marc and grape stalk (DM + GS) in a 1:1 ratio (v:v), were carried out in Seville (Spain) between 2000 and 2006. The duration of the composting ranged between 20 and 24 weeks in the Spring-Summer season. Weekly, temperature, pH, EC, N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} and N-NH{sub 4} +, were measured. The maximum temperatures reached values of 65-73 degree centigrade at a depth between 40 and 80 cm. The compost had a slightly alkaline pH, slightly salinity, high organic matter and total nitrogen contents. The final compost chemical composition in total elements showed values in the same range as those corresponding to plant material, except for Fe. The distribution in the size of the particles gives way to a total porous space that is close to the one considered as optimal in a substrate for soil less cropping. Pore size distribution showed a prevalence of big pores that produces unbalance in the water-air ratios, resulting in a material with a good aeration but with low water retention. The composts were tested as substrates for four ornamental species: geranium, petunia, carnation and gerbera. The results suggest that compost has no limiting characteristics for its use as a medium for the cultivation of ornamental plants in container, and can replace conventional substrates, such as peat and coconut fibre. (Author) 35 refs.

  19. Studies on planting, weed control and fertilizing when growing short rotation willow coppice; Utvaerdering av teknik foer plantering, ograesbekaempning och goedsling vid salixodling. Studier 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danfors, B.

    1998-12-01

    The report describes work studies into planting of Salix, weed control in newly planted plantations and annual stands, and fertilization in tall stands of Salix. The study is a continuation of work on Salix performed at JTI during 1989 and 1991. The report gives a description of the background to the problem, a brief review of earlier work, a description of the purpose of the study, and an account of its planning, extent and accomplishment. The results presented cover planting and weed control at four sites with an early follow-up of results, a description of the weed control and, further, a review of the results after the end of the growing season. The fertilization procedure used on six occasions is also discussed, together with spreading results using diagrams illustrating the distribution of the fertilizer. As mentioned above, similar studies were conducted at JTI during 1989 and 1991 In comparisons both concerning the level of knowledge and access to mechanical equipment, we may note that there has been considerable development within the sectors dealing with planting, weed control and fertilizing. Continued major tasks are to take the technical development further and to disseminate the new knowledge to growers prepared to invest in production of Salix as biofuel 13 refs, 18 figs, 9 figs

  20. How much selenium do medicinal plants contain? Results of a research on wild-growing species from Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Simona ANTAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultratrace element selenium is essential for higher animals and man. It is an active constituent of over twenty different selenoproteins from human tissues. As well, this rare nonmetal element is a potent anticarcinogen, inhibiting both chemically and virally induced tumors. The ever-increasing biological importance of Se determined us to perform the first largescale investigation of Romanian medicinal plants in what their Se content is concerned, and to evaluate the extraction ratio of this element during decoction. ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed average Se contents of 43 μg/kg dry matter. The highest Se content was found in aerial parts (average of 60 μg/kg, followed by leaves (58, roots (54, flowers (35 and fruits (12. Species grown on limestone weathering soils are significantly richer in Se than the ones grown on granite or phyllite. Outstanding Se contents were measured for samples of Betula pendula leaves – 381, 131 and 113 μg Se/kg, Agrimonia eupatoria herb - 332 μg/kg, and Galium verum herb – 287 μg/kg. The extraction ratio of Se through decoction ranges from 4% (valerian roots to 83% (chicory roots. The Se content and the high amounts of flavonoids in birch, agrimony and yellow bedstraw underline the value of these plants in the auxiliary treatment of various free-radical mediated diseases.

  1. Mercury-resistant rhizobial bacteria isolated from nodules of leguminous plants growing in high Hg-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Quiñones, Miguel A; Fajardo, Susana; López, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2012-10-01

    A survey of symbiotic bacteria from legumes grown in high mercury-contaminated soils (Almadén, Spain) was performed to produce a collection of rhizobia which could be well adapted to the environmental conditions of this region and be used for restoration practices. Nineteen Hg-tolerant rhizobia were isolated from nodules of 11 legume species (of the genera Medicago, Trifolium, Vicia, Lupinus, Phaseolus, and Retama) and characterized. Based on their growth on Hg-supplemented media, the isolates were classified into three susceptibility groups. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the effective concentrations that produce 50% mortality identified the patterns of mercury tolerance and showed that 15 isolates were tolerant. The dynamics of cell growth during incubation with mercury showed that five isolates were unaffected by exposure to Hg concentrations under the MICs. Genetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene assigned ten strains to Rhizobium leguminosarum, six to Ensifer medicae, two to Bradyrhizobium canariense, and one to Rhizobium radiobacter. Inoculation of host plants and analysis of the nodC genes revealed that most of them were symbiotically effective. Finally, three isolates were selected for bioremediation processes with restoration purposes on the basis of their levels of Hg tolerance, their response to high concentrations of this heavy metal, and their genetic affiliation and nodulation capacity.

  2. Assessing the Potential of Low-Cost 3D Cameras for the Rapid Measurement of Plant Woody Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nock

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed 3D plant architectural data have numerous applications in plant science, but many existing approaches for 3D data collection are time-consuming and/or require costly equipment. Recently, there has been rapid growth in the availability of low-cost, 3D cameras and related open source software applications. 3D cameras may provide measurements of key components of plant architecture such as stem diameters and lengths, however, few tests of 3D cameras for the measurement of plant architecture have been conducted. Here, we measured Salix branch segments ranging from 2–13 mm in diameter with an Asus Xtion camera to quantify the limits and accuracy of branch diameter measurement with a 3D camera. By scanning at a variety of distances we also quantified the effect of scanning distance. In addition, we also test the sensitivity of the program KinFu for continuous 3D object scanning and modeling as well as other similar software to accurately record stem diameters and capture plant form (<3 m in height. Given its ability to accurately capture the diameter of branches >6 mm, Asus Xtion may provide a novel method for the collection of 3D data on the branching architecture of woody plants. Improvements in camera measurement accuracy and available software are likely to further improve the utility of 3D cameras for plant sciences in the future.

  3. Establishment of propagation methods for growing promising aromatic plant species of the Lippia (Verbenaceae and Tagetes (Asteraceae genera in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Mauricio Herrera-Moreno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of asexual propagation with stem cuttings in the aromatic plant species Lippia origanoides (accessions CA-90 and CA-93, Lippia alba (accession CA-300 and Tagetes zypaquirensis (accession CA-247 and determine the germination behavior of Tagetes caracasana (accession CA-10, in order to contribute to the establishment of these promising aromatics as potential new crops in Colombia. The factors evaluated were the substrate (fine coconut fiber (FCF; fine coconut fiber: coal slag 1:1 (FCFCS; fine coconut fiber: coal slag: river sand 1:1:1 (FCFCSRS and IBA hormone concentration (0, 2,000 and 4,000 mg L-1. Germination tests of seeds of the accession CA-10 were carried out in Petri dishes with 50 seeds per dish, with three replicates in controlled conditions and constant temperature (25°C, humidity (90% and total darkness. In general, the accessions CA-90, CA-93, CA-300 and CA-247 showed better rooting percentage, root length, number of roots and root dry weight in the fine coconut fiber substrate and a higher number of roots with an exogenous application of 2,000 mg L-1 IBA. L. alba and T. zypaquirensis responded better than L. origanoides to the treatments. The latter species showed a relatively poor performance and may require more complex and improved propagation methods to obtain more satisfactory results. T. caracasana seeds had a relatively short germination time (less than three weeks and relatively high germination under controlled laboratory and greenhouse conditions (70 and 60%, respectively; these percentages are high relative to wild species of the same genus, meaning this method of seed propagation is appropriate for this wild species

  4. Anti-plasmodial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants growing in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agli, Mario; Sanna, Cinzia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Basilico, Nicoletta; Colombo, Elisa; Scaltrito, Maria M; Ndiath, Mamadou Ousmane; Maccarone, Luca; Taramelli, Donatella; Bicchi, Carlo; Ballero, Mauro; Bosisio, Enrica

    2012-07-02

    Sardinia is a Mediterranean area endemic for malaria up to the last century. During a screening study to evaluate the anti-plasmodial activity of some aromatic plants traditionally used in Sardinia, Myrtus communis (myrtle, Myrtaceae), Satureja thymbra (savory, Lamiaceae), and Thymus herba-barona (caraway thyme, Lamiaceae) were collected in three vegetative periods: before, during and after flowering. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation, fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and analysed by GC-FID-MS. Total oil and three main fractions were tested on D10 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Larvicidal and adulticidal activities were tested on Anopheles gambiae susceptible strains. The essential oil of savory, rich in thymol, was the most effective against P. falciparum with an inhibitory activity independent from the time of collection (IC50 17-26 μg/ml on D10 and 9-11 μg/ml on W2). Upon fractionation, fraction 1 was enriched in mono-sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons; fraction 2 in thymol (73-83%); and fraction 3 contained thymol, carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol, with a different composition depending on the time of collection. Thymol-enriched fractions were the most active on both strains (IC50 20-22 μg/ml on D10 and 8-10 μg/ml on W2) and thymol was confirmed as mainly responsible for this activity (IC50 19.7 ± 3.0 and 10.6 ± 2.0 μg/ml on D10 and W2, respectively). The essential oil of S. thymbra L. showed also larvicidal and adulticidal activities. The larvicidal activity, expressed as LC50, was 0.15 ± 0.002; 0.21 ± 0.13; and 0.15 ± 0.09 μg/ml (mean ± sd) depending on the time of collection: before, during and after flowering, respectively. This study provides evidence for the use of essential oils for treating malaria and fighting the vector at both the larval and adult stages. These findings open the possibility for further investigation aimed at the isolation of natural products with anti-parasitic properties.

  5. Rapid identification of a narcotic plant Papaver bracteatum using flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Aragane, Masako; Watanabe, Daisuke; Nakajima, Jun’ichi; YOSHIDA, Masao; Yoshizawa, Masao; Abe, Tomohiro; Nishiyama, Rei; Suzuki, Jin; Moriyasu, Takako; Nakae, Dai; Sudo, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hishida, Atuyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Makabe, So

    2014-01-01

    In May 2011, numerous poppy plants closely resembling Papaver bracteatum Lindl., a type of narcotic plant that is illegal in Japan, were distributed directly from several large flower shops or through online shopping throughout Japan, including the Tokyo Metropolitan area. In order to better identify the narcotic plants, the relative nuclear DNA content at the vegetative stage was measured by flow cytometric (FCM) analysis in 3 closely-related species of the genus Papaver section Oxytona, nam...

  6. Plant Lesions Promote the Rapid Multiplication of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Postharvest Lettuce▿

    OpenAIRE

    Brandl, M. T.

    2008-01-01

    Several outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections have been associated with minimally processed leafy vegetables in the United States. Harvesting and processing cause plant tissue damage. In order to assess the role of plant tissue damage in the contamination of leafy greens with E. coli O157:H7, the effect of mechanical, physiological, and plant disease-induced lesions on the growth of this pathogen on postharvest romaine lettuce was investigated. Within only 4 h after inoculation, th...

  7. A simple, rapid, and reliable protocol to localize hydrogen peroxide in large plant organs by DAB-mediated tissue printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Hua; Offler, Christina E; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays diverse roles in plant development and stress responses. However, its localization in large and thick plant organs (e.g., stem, roots, and fruits), other than leaves, has proven to be challenging due to the difficulties for the commonly used H2O2-specific chemicals, such as 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB), cerium chloride (CeCl3), and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF-DA), to penetrate those organs. Theoretically, the reaction of endogenous H2O2 with these chemicals could be facilitated by using thin organ sections. However, the rapid production of wound-induced H2O2 associated with this procedure inevitably disturbs the original distribution of H2O2 in vivo. Here, by employing tomato seedling stems and fruits as testing materials, we report a novel, simple, and rapid protocol to localize H2O2 in those organs using DAB-mediated tissue printing. The rapidity of the protocol (within 15 s) completely avoided the interference of wound-induced H2O2 during experimentation. Moreover, the H2O2 signal on the printing was stable for at least 1 h with no or little background produced. We conclude that DAB-mediated tissue printing developed here provide a new feasible and reliable method to localize H2O2 in large plant organs, hence should have broad applications in studying ROS biology.

  8. Rapid high-level production of functional HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in transient plant expression systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01 or a single chain antibody construct (m9, for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production.

  9. Rapid high-level production of functional HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in transient plant expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Yvonne; Sack, Markus; Montefiori, David; Forthal, Donald; Mao, Lingjun; Hernandez-Abanto, Segundo; Urban, Lori; Landucci, Gary; Fischer, Rainer; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01) or a single chain antibody construct (m9), for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production.

  10. Plants growing on contaminated and brownfield sites appropriate for use in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species. © 2010 SETAC.

  11. [Rapid diagnostics of early phosphorus deficiency in mini-cucumber plants under protected cultivation by near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-yong; Zou, Xiao-bo; Zhao, Jie-wen; Mao, Han-ping; Wang, Kai-liang; Chen, Zheng-wei; Huang, Xiao-wei

    2011-12-01

    The morphological symptom of phosphorus deficiency at early stage is similar to the appearance of leaf aging process in preliminary phase, so that visual diagnostics of phosphorus deficiency in mini-cucumber plants at early stage is practically impossible. Near infrared reflectance spectra contain information about differences in compositions of leaf tissues between phosphorus-deficient plants and healthy plants. In the present paper, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was used to provide diagnostic information on phosphorus deficiency of mini-cucumber plants grown under non-soil conditions. Near infrared spectra was collected from 90 leaves of mini-cucumber plants. Raw cucumber spectra was preprocessed by SNV and divided into 27 intervals. The top 10 principal components (PCs) were extracted as the input of BP-ANN classifiers by principal component analysis (PCA) while the values of nutrient deficient were used as the output variables of BP-ANN and three layers BP-ANN discrimination model was built. The best experiment results were based on the top 3 principal components of No. 7 interval when the spectra was divided into 27 intervals and identification rates of the ANN model are 100% in both training set and the prediction set. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with BP-ANN can be efficiently utilized for rapid and early diagnostics of phosphorus deficiency in mini-cucumber plants.

  12. Rapid transcriptional plasticity of duplicated gene clusters enables a clonally reproducing aphid to colonise diverse plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Thomas C; Chen, Yazhou; Kaithakottil, Gemy; Legeai, Fabrice; Mugford, Sam T; Baa-Puyoulet, Patrice; Bretaudeau, Anthony; Clavijo, Bernardo; Colella, Stefano; Collin, Olivier; Dalmay, Tamas; Derrien, Thomas; Feng, Honglin; Gabaldón, Toni; Jordan, Anna; Julca, Irene; Kettles, Graeme J; Kowitwanich, Krissana; Lavenier, Dominique; Lenzi, Paolo; Lopez-Gomollon, Sara; Loska, Damian; Mapleson, Daniel; Maumus, Florian; Moxon, Simon; Price, Daniel R G; Sugio, Akiko; van Munster, Manuella; Uzest, Marilyne; Waite, Darren; Jander, Georg; Tagu, Denis; Wilson, Alex C C; van Oosterhout, Cock; Swarbreck, David; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2017-02-13

    The prevailing paradigm of host-parasite evolution is that arms races lead to increasing specialisation via genetic adaptation. Insect herbivores are no exception and the majority have evolved to colonise a small number of closely related host species. Remarkably, the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, colonises plant species across 40 families and single M. persicae clonal lineages can colonise distantly related plants. This remarkable ability makes M. persicae a highly destructive pest of many important crop species. To investigate the exceptional phenotypic plasticity of M. persicae, we sequenced the M. persicae genome and assessed how one clonal lineage responds to host plant species of different families. We show that genetically identical individuals are able to colonise distantly related host species through the differential regulation of genes belonging to aphid-expanded gene families. Multigene clusters collectively upregulate in single aphids within two days upon host switch. Furthermore, we demonstrate the functional significance of this rapid transcriptional change using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knock-down of genes belonging to the cathepsin B gene family. Knock-down of cathepsin B genes reduced aphid fitness, but only on the host that induced upregulation of these genes. Previous research has focused on the role of genetic adaptation of parasites to their hosts. Here we show that the generalist aphid pest M. persicae is able to colonise diverse host plant species in the absence of genetic specialisation. This is achieved through rapid transcriptional plasticity of genes that have duplicated during aphid evolution.

  13. Rapid Py-GC/MS assessment of the structural alterations of lignins in genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rencoret, Jorge; Del Río, José Carlos; Nierop, Klaas G J; Gutiérrez, Ana; Ralph, John

    Genetic modifications for perturbing the lignin pathway in three different species of angiosperm plants, including non-woody (Arabidopsis and alfalfa) and woody (poplar) plants, were readily evaluated by analytical pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Pyrolysis

  14. Estimation of plant-available nitrogen in soils using rapid chemical and biological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Oenema, O.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between potential laboratory indices for plant-available nitrogen (N) and the plant N uptake in a pot experiment with ryegrass were assessed for 13 mineral soils and 2 peat soils. The methods included aerobic soil incubation, soil incubation in a bioreactor, hot potassium chloride

  15. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  16. Rapid identification of a narcotic plant Papaver bracteatum using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragane, Masako; Watanabe, Daisuke; Nakajima, Jun'ichi; Yoshida, Masao; Yoshizawa, Masao; Abe, Tomohiro; Nishiyama, Rei; Suzuki, Jin; Moriyasu, Takako; Nakae, Dai; Sudo, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hishida, Atuyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Makabe, So; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    In May 2011, numerous poppy plants closely resembling Papaver bracteatum Lindl., a type of narcotic plant that is illegal in Japan, were distributed directly from several large flower shops or through online shopping throughout Japan, including the Tokyo Metropolitan area. In order to better identify the narcotic plants, the relative nuclear DNA content at the vegetative stage was measured by flow cytometric (FCM) analysis in 3 closely-related species of the genus Papaver section Oxytona, namely P. orientale, P. pseudo-orientale, and P. bracteatum, based on the difference between the chromosome numbers of these species. The results showed that the nuclear DNA content differed between these 3 species, and that most of the commercially distributed plants examined in this study could be identified as P. bracteatum. The remaining plants were P. pseudo-orientale, a non-narcotic plant. In addition, the FCM results for the identification of P. bracteatum completely agreed with the results obtained by the morphological analysis, the inter-genic spacer sequence of rpl16-rpl14 (PS-ID sequence) of chloroplast DNA, and the presence of thebaine. These results clearly indicate the usefulness of FCM analysis for the identification of P. bracteatum plants, including when they are in their vegetative stage.

  17. The influence of ethephon application to processing tomato plants on yield structure in relation to weather conditions during the growing period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrszczyk Elżbieta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ethephon application (Agrostym 480 SL on the yield and yield structure of five processing tomato cultivars (Rumba, Hubal, Sokal F1 , Mieszko F1 and Polset F1 . The experiment was carried out in the open field in the years 2009-2011 in Mydlniki near Kraków, Poland. Two weeks before harvesting, half of the plants of each cultivar were treated with Agrostym 480 SL (3 dm3 ha-1 and the other half were left as a control without spraying. Marketable yield included properly shaped and welldeveloped light red and red fruits. Non-marketable yield included pink and turning fruits, mature green and breaker fruits, and diseased fruits. A generalized linear model (GLM for Poisson distribution with the log link function was used to determine the relationship between the years of the study and cultivar and selected values of the yield structure. The yield structure of tomato depended significantly on the weather conditions during the growing period in different years of the study, on the cultivar, and on the use of ethephon. Ethephon had a particularly beneficial effect on yield structure in the years with an unfavourable distribution of precipitation. Ethephon application in the years 2009 and 2010 had a beneficial effect on the health of tomato plants.

  18. Bacterial communities associated with the rhizosphere of pioneer plants (Bahia xylopoda and Viguiera linearis) growing on heavy metals-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Jan-Roblero, Janet; González-Chávez, Maria del Carmen; Hernández-Gama, Regina; Hernández-Rodríguez, César

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the bacterial communities associated with the rhizospheres of pioneer plants Bahia xylopoda and Viguiera linearis were explored. These plants grow on silver mine tailings with high concentration of heavy metals in Zacatecas, Mexico. Metagenomic DNAs from rhizosphere and bulk soil were extracted to perform a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis (DGGE) and to construct 16S rRNA gene libraries. A moderate bacterial diversity and twelve major phylogenetic groups including Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae and Actinobacteria phyla, and divisions TM7, OP10 and OD1 were recognized in the rhizospheres. Only 25.5% from the phylotypes were common in the rhizosphere libraries and the most abundant groups were members of the phyla Acidobacteria and Betaproteobacteria (Thiobacillus spp., Nitrosomonadaceae). The most abundant groups in bulk soil library were Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria, and no common phylotypes were shared with the rhizosphere libraries. Many of the clones detected were related with chemolithotrophic and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, characteristic of an environment with a high concentration of heavy metal-sulfur complexes, and lacking carbon and organic energy sources.

  19. Surviving and growing of seedlings planted with their tubes in arid areas prepared with different soil cultivatıon methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Gülcü

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, surviving percent and growing of seedlings planted with their tubes of Black pine [Pinus nigra Arnold. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe.], Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich, Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb. were evaluated in the areas prepared with different soil cultivation methods for afforestation studies in arid areas. For this aim, afforestation area in Karaman disrict was selected. In the experiment, 12 treatments for land preparation by using different equipments were applied. In parcels applied these treatments, seedlings of the species were planted as tubed only cutting their 1 cm partial of bottom. The experiment was established in completely randomized plot design with three replications, 20 seedlings for each one. At the end of the second vegetation period survival rate, seedling height, growth of the terminal shoot in the last year and bottom diameter of the seedlings were measured. According to results of data analysing, minimum survival rate was 38.89% (Balck pine, maximum was 88.89% (Crimean juniper. The treatments made top soil tillage combined disc harrows and gradoni terrace applications more successful than the other treatments for all seedling characteristics and surviving percentages. In addition the treatments, double riper + gradoni terrace and triple ripper + gradoni terrace, which had better performance can suggest for soil preparetaion in arid area. Because these treatments are more practicable and cheap than the others.

  20. Cultivo hidropônico da alface empregando substratos: uma alternativa a NFT? Growing lettuce plants in hydroponics using substrates: an alternative for the NFT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo L. Andriolo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um dispositivo experimental para o cultivo da alface em sistema hidropônico fechado empregando substratos. As bancadas foram constituídas por telhas de cimento amianto, cujos canais foram preenchidos com brita basáltica. Sobre a brita foram dispostos os substratos, formando uma camada de 0,05 m de altura, com a superfície revestida com filme de polietileno opaco branco. As mudas foram produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno e plantadas em orifícios feitos sobre a superfície do filme de polietileno. Uma solução nutritiva completa foi fornecida diariamente, por meio de tubos gotejadores localizados na superfície da camada de substrato e abaixo do filme de polietileno. A solução drenada foi recolhida por gravidade para dentro do reservatório principal. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, no período entre 16 de maio e 24 de junho e 1º e 28 de outubro de 2003, empregando as cultivares Regina e Mimosa e os substratos areia média e substrato orgânico Plantmax® Folhosas HA. No decorrer dos experimentos, houve diminuição dos valores de pH da solução nutritiva, tendo sido feita apenas uma correção em cada um dos experimentos. No dia mais quente do experimento de primavera, a temperatura foi mais elevada na areia, sem diferença significativa do substrato orgânico, cuja média situou-se 5,4ºC acima da temperatura da solução nutritiva e 0,4ºC acima daquela do ar. As médias mais elevadas das variáveis de crescimento e desenvolvimento foram observadas no substrato orgânico no outono, enquanto, na primavera, foram constatadas nos tratamentos tendo areia como substrato. O emprego dos substratos permitiu uma redução em torno de 92,4% no tempo de funcionamento da motobomba e simplificou tanto o manejo da fertirrigação como os controles da solução nutritiva.An experimental set-up to grow lettuce plants in a closed hydroponic growing system using substrates was made up and tested. Commercial fibber cement tiles

  1. The relative importance of rapid evolution for plant-microbe interactions depends on ecological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhorst, Casey P; Lennon, Jay T; Lau, Jennifer A

    2014-06-22

    Evolution can occur on ecological time-scales, affecting community and ecosystem processes. However, the importance of evolutionary change relative to ecological processes remains largely unknown. Here, we analyse data from a long-term experiment in which we allowed plant populations to evolve for three generations in dry or wet soils and used a reciprocal transplant to compare the ecological effect of drought and the effect of plant evolutionary responses to drought on soil microbial communities and nutrient availability. Plants that evolved under drought tended to support higher bacterial and fungal richness, and increased fungal : bacterial ratios in the soil. Overall, the magnitudes of ecological and evolutionary effects on microbial communities were similar; however, the strength and direction of these effects depended on the context in which they were measured. For example, plants that evolved in dry environments increased bacterial abundance in dry contemporary environments, but decreased bacterial abundance in wet contemporary environments. Our results suggest that interactions between recent evolutionary history and ecological context affect both the direction and magnitude of plant effects on soil microbes. Consequently, an eco-evolutionary perspective is required to fully understand plant-microbe interactions.

  2. Rapid plant-cover establishment on gold mine tailings in southern New Zealand: glasshouse screening trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K; Rufaut, C G; Smith, C; Mains, D; Craw, D

    2005-01-01

    The use of a short-term vegetation cover to temporarily control the negative environmental effects of inactive tailings ponds is notfrequently practiced during operational mining, but could have some merit This article reports on a glasshouse trial designed to examine some of the issues associated with short-term vegetation: fast germination of a high proportion of seed, the ability of seedlings to survive in unamended substrates, and potentially toxic substrate. Five nonindigenous plant species were tested--barley (Hordeum vulgare), rye corn (Secale cereale), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multifiorum), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)--in five different types of substrate: unamended tailings, tailings and fertilizer, tailings and greenwaste, biosolid-blend compost, and local topsoil. The nutrient and heavy metal status (As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb) of each substrate type was determined Plant species performance was monitored over 14 wk Substrate metal concentrations were low except for As, which was elevated in all substrate types. Plants in unamended tailings grew less vigorously than plants in tailings and compost or in topsoil. Plant performance in tailings and fertiliser was greatly suppressed following a high fertilization rate. Metal uptake in plants was highest for As (0.4-77 mg kg(-1) DW) and Cu (5.3-50.3 mg kg(-1) DW). Future field trials are necessary to authenticate findings, but barley and rye corn are promising species for a short-term tailings cover.

  3. Rapid, high-yield production in plants of individualized idiotype vaccines for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendandi, M; Marillonnet, S; Kandzia, R; Thieme, F; Nickstadt, A; Herz, S; Fröde, R; Inogés, S; Lòpez-Dìaz de Cerio, A; Soria, E; Villanueva, H; Vancanneyt, G; McCormick, A; Tusé, D; Lenz, J; Butler-Ransohoff, J-E; Klimyuk, V; Gleba, Y

    2010-12-01

    Animal and clinical studies with plant-produced single-chain variable fragment lymphoma vaccines have demonstrated specific immunogenicity and safety. However, the expression levels of such fragments were highly variable and required complex engineering of the linkers. Moreover, the downstream processing could not be built around standard methods like protein A affinity capture. We report a novel vaccine manufacturing process, magnifection, devoid of the above-mentioned shortcomings and allowing consistent and efficient expression in plants of whole immunoglobulins (Igs). Full idiotype (Id)-containing IgG molecules of 20 lymphoma patients and 2 mouse lymphoma models were expressed at levels between 0.5 and 4.8 g/kg of leaf biomass. Protein A affinity capture purification yielded antigens of pharmaceutical purity. Several patient Igs produced in plants showed specific cross-reactivity with sera derived from the same patients immunized with hybridoma-produced Id vaccine. Mice vaccinated with plant- or hybridoma-produced Igs showed comparable protection levels in tumor challenge studies. This manufacturing process is reliable and robust, the manufacturing time from biopsy to vaccine is antibodies in plants, providing 50- to 1000-fold higher yields than alternative plant expression methods.

  4. Rapid modulation of ultraviolet shielding in plants is influenced by solar ultraviolet radiation and linked to alterations in flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Tobler, Mark A; Keefover-Ring, Ken; Flint, Stephan D; Barkley, Anne E; Ryel, Ronald J; Lindroth, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) and the resultant decrease in epidermal UV transmittance (TUV ) are primary protective mechanisms employed by plants against potentially damaging solar UV radiation and are critical components of the overall acclimation response of plants to changing solar UV environments. Whether plants can adjust this UV sunscreen protection in response to rapid changes in UV, as occurs on a diurnal basis, is largely unexplored. Here, we use a combination of approaches to demonstrate that plants can modulate their UV-screening properties within minutes to hours, and these changes are driven, in part, by UV radiation. For the cultivated species Abelmoschus esculentus, large (30-50%) and reversible changes in TUV occurred on a diurnal basis, and these adjustments were associated with changes in the concentrations of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds and several quercetin glycosides. Similar results were found for two other species (Vicia faba and Solanum lycopersicum), but no such changes were detected in Zea mays. These findings reveal a much more dynamic UV-protection mechanism than previously recognized, raise important questions concerning the costs and benefits of UV-protection strategies in plants and have practical implications for employing UV to enhance crop vigor and quality in controlled environments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Development of an in vitro Assay, Based on the BioFilm Ring Test®, for Rapid Profiling of Biofilm-Growing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Enea G; Toma, Luigi; Provot, Christian; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Sperduti, Isabella; Prignano, Grazia; Gallo, Maria T; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Bordignon, Valentina; Bernardi, Thierry; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biofilm represents a major virulence factor associated with chronic and recurrent infections. Pathogenic bacteria embedded in biofilms are highly resistant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics and therefore difficult to eradicate. Thus, reliable tests to assess biofilm formation by bacterial strains as well as the impact of chemicals or antibiotics on biofilm formation represent desirable tools for a most effective therapeutic management and microbiological risk control. Current methods to evaluate biofilm formation are usually time-consuming, costly, and hardly applicable in the clinical setting. The aim of the present study was to develop and assess a simple and reliable in vitro procedure for the characterization of biofilm-producing bacterial strains for future clinical applications based on the BioFilm Ring Test® (BRT) technology. The procedure developed for clinical testing (cBRT) can provide an accurate and timely (5 h) measurement of biofilm formation for the most common pathogenic bacteria seen in clinical practice. The results gathered by the cBRT assay were in agreement with the traditional crystal violet (CV) staining test, according to the κ coefficient test (κ = 0.623). However, the cBRT assay showed higher levels of specificity (92.2%) and accuracy (88.1%) as compared to CV. The results indicate that this procedure offers an easy, rapid and robust assay to test microbial biofilm and a promising tool for clinical microbiology.

  6. Rapid Changes in Cell Wall Yielding of Elongating Begonia argenteo-guttata L. Leaves in Response to Changes in Plant Water Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpe, M D; Matthews, M A

    1992-12-01

    Elongation and epidermal cell turgor (P) of Begonia argenteoguttata L. leaves were simultaneously measured to determine the wall-yielding behavior of growing leaf cells in response to changes in plant water status. Rapid changes in plant water status were imposed by irrigating the rooting media with solutions of -0.20 and -0.30 MPa mannitol. These treatments caused decreases in P of 0.09 and 0.17 MPa, respectively. The decreases in P were complete within 10 min, and P did not change thereafter. Following treatments, leaf elongation was nil for periods of 25 to 38 min. Subsequently, elongation recovered to steady rates that were 45 or 75% lower than in the well-watered controls. Leaves of plants that were pretreated with -0.30 MPa of mannitol and rewatered showed an increase in P of 0.19 MPa, which was complete within 15 min; P did not change thereafter. Rewatering caused a several-fold increase in leaf elongation rates, which subsequently declined while P was increasing, to reach steady rates similar to that of the controls. Several estimates of elastic deformation indicated that most of the elongation responses to altered P were due to changes in irreversible deformation. The results showed that the initial effects of changes in P on leaf elongation were partially compensated for by changes in the cell wall-yielding properties. We conclude that linear relationships between P and adjusted growth rates are not necessarily indicative of constant wall-yielding properties. Instead, these relationships may reflect the effect of P on wall-loosening processes.

  7. Rapid Changes in Cell Wall Yielding of Elongating Begonia argenteo-guttata L. Leaves in Response to Changes in Plant Water Status 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpe, Marcelo D.; Matthews, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Elongation and epidermal cell turgor (P) of Begonia argenteoguttata L. leaves were simultaneously measured to determine the wall-yielding behavior of growing leaf cells in response to changes in plant water status. Rapid changes in plant water status were imposed by irrigating the rooting media with solutions of −0.20 and −0.30 MPa mannitol. These treatments caused decreases in P of 0.09 and 0.17 MPa, respectively. The decreases in P were complete within 10 min, and P did not change thereafter. Following treatments, leaf elongation was nil for periods of 25 to 38 min. Subsequently, elongation recovered to steady rates that were 45 or 75% lower than in the well-watered controls. Leaves of plants that were pretreated with −0.30 MPa of mannitol and rewatered showed an increase in P of 0.19 MPa, which was complete within 15 min; P did not change thereafter. Rewatering caused a several-fold increase in leaf elongation rates, which subsequently declined while P was increasing, to reach steady rates similar to that of the controls. Several estimates of elastic deformation indicated that most of the elongation responses to altered P were due to changes in irreversible deformation. The results showed that the initial effects of changes in P on leaf elongation were partially compensated for by changes in the cell wall-yielding properties. We conclude that linear relationships between P and adjusted growth rates are not necessarily indicative of constant wall-yielding properties. Instead, these relationships may reflect the effect of P on wall-loosening processes. PMID:16653208

  8. Gas purge-microsyringe extraction: a rapid and exhaustive direct microextraction technique of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Cui; Li, Huijie; Piao, Xiangfan; Li, Donghao

    2013-12-17

    Gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) is a rapid and exhaustive microextraction technique for volatile and semivolatile compounds. In this study, a theoretical system of GP-MSE was established by directly extracting and analyzing 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from plant samples. On the basis of theoretical consideration, a full factorial experimental design was first used to evaluate the main effects and interactions of the experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. Further experiments were carried out to determine the extraction kinetics and desorption temperature-dependent. The results indicated that three factors, namely desorption temperature (temperature of sample phase) Td, extraction time t, and gas flow rate u, had a significantly positive effect on the extraction efficiency of GP-MSE for PAHs. Extraction processes of PAHs in plant samples followed by first-order kinetics (relative coefficient R(2) of simulation curves were 0.731-1.000, with an average of 0.958 and 4.06% relative standard deviation), and obviously depended on the desorption temperature. Furthermore, the effect of the matrix was determined from the difference in Eapp,d. Finally, satisfactory recoveries of 16 PAHs were obtained using optimal parameters. The study demonstrated that GP-MSE could provide a rapid and exhaustive means of direct extraction of PAHs from plant samples. The extraction kinetics were similar that of the inverse process of the desorption kinetics of the sample phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intercellular communication in plants: evidence for two rapidly transmitted systemic signals generated in response to electromagnetic field stimulation in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubois, Elisabeth; Girard, Sebastien; Lallechere, Sebastien; Davies, Eric; Paladian, Françoise; Bonnet, Pierre; Ledoigt, Gerard; Vian, Alain

    2007-07-01

    Exposing all of a wild-type tomato plant to electromagnetic radiation evoked rapid and substantial accumulation of basic leucine-zipper transcription factor (bZIP) mRNA in the terminal leaf (#4) with kinetics very similar to that seen in response to wounding, while in the abscisic acid (ABA) mutant (Sitiens), the response was more rapid, but transient. Submitting just the oldest leaf (#1) of a wild-type plant to irradiation evoked bZIP mRNA accumulation both locally in the exposed leaf and systemically in the unexposed (distant) leaf #4, although systemic accumulation was delayed somewhat. Accumulation of Pin2 mRNA was less than bZIP in both the exposed and distant leaves in wild type, but there was no delay in the systemic response. In Sitiens, bZIP mRNA accumulation was far less than in wild type in both local and distant leaves, while Pin2 mRNA accumulation was stronger in the exposed leaf, but totally prevented in the systemic leaf. In the jasmonic acid (JA) mutant (JL-5) and in wild-type plants treated with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, naproxen, responses were similar to those in the ABA mutant, while treatment of the exposed leaf with calcium antagonists totally abolished both local and systemic increases in bZIP transcript accumulation.

  10. [A hydroponic cultivation system for rapid high-yield transient protein expression in Nicotiana plants under laboratory conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qianzhen; Mai, Rongjia; Yang, Zhixiao; Chen, Minfang; Yang, Tiezhao; Lai, Huafang; Yang, Peiliang; Chen, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaohong

    2012-06-01

    To develop a hydroponic Nicotiana cultivation system for rapid and high-yield transient expression of recombinant proteins under laboratory conditions. To establish the hydroponic cultivation system, several parameters were examined to define the optimal conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants. We used the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the geminiviral plant transient expression vector as the model protein/expression vector. We examined the impact of Nicotiana species, the density and time of Agrobacterium infiltration, and the post-infiltration growth period on the accumulation of GFP. The expression levels of GFP in Nicotiana leaves were then examined by Western blotting and ELISA. Our data indicated that a hydroponic Nicotiana cultivation system with a light intensity of 9000 LX/layer, a light cycle of 16 h day/8 h night, a temperature regime of 28 degrees celsius; day/21 degrees celsius; night, and a relative humidity of 80% could support the optimal plant growth and protein expression. After agroinfiltration with pBYGFPDsRed.R/LBA4404, high levels of GFP expression were observed in both N. benthamiana and N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants cultured with this hydroponic cultivation system. An optimal GFP expression was achieved in both Nicotiana species leaves 4 days after infiltration by Agrobacterium with an OD(600) of 0.8. At a given time point, the average biomass of N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) was significantly higher than that of N. benthamiana. The leaves from 6-week-old N. benthamiana plants and 5-week-old N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants could be the optimal material for agroinfiltration. We have established a hydroponic cultivation system that allows robust growth of N. benthamiana and N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants and the optimal GFP expression in the artificial climate box.

  11. Rapid Water Uptake and Limited Storage Capacity at Height of Growing Season in Four Temperate Tree Species in a Central Pennsylvania Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, K.; Meinzer, F. C.; Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    rapid water uptake and tree water storage limited to about a month in duration. These findings are necessary for modeling of hydrologic parameters that are influenced by tree water age. They also indicate that trees on shallow soil in this catchment may be at risk if droughts lasting over a month occur more frequently in future years.

  12. A simple, rapid and reliable protocol to localize hydrogen peroxide in large plant organs by DAB-mediated tissue printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua eLiu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a major reactive oxygen species (ROS and plays diverse roles in plant development and stress responses. However, its localization in large and thick plant organs (e.g. stem, roots and fruits, other than leaves, has proven to be challenging due to the difficulties for the commonly used H2O2-specific chemicals, such as 3, 3’-diaminobenzidine (DAB, cerium chloride (CeCl3 and 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF-DA, to penetrate those organs. Theoretically, the reaction of endogenous H2O2 with these chemicals could be facilitated by using thin organ sections. However, the rapid production of wound-induced H2O2 associated with this procedure inevitably disturbs the original distribution of H2O2 in vivo. Here, by employing tomato seedling stems and fruits as testing materials, we report a novel, simple and rapid protocol to localize H2O2 in those organs using DAB-mediated tissue printing. The rapidity of the protocol (within 15 s completely avoided the interference of wound-induced H2O2 during experimentation. Moreover, the H2O2 signal on the printing was stable for at least 1 h with no or little background produced. We conclude that DAB-mediated tissue printing developed here provide a new feasible and reliable method to localize H2O2 in large plant organs, hence should have broad applications in studying ROS biology.

  13. Applicability of a “Multi-Stage Pulse Labeling” 15N Approach to Phenotype N Dynamics in Maize Plant Components during the Growing Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Oliveira Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available HighlightsThis work utilizes “multi-stage pulse labeling” 15N applications, primarily during reproductive growth stages, as a phenotyping strategy to identify maize hybrids with superior N use efficiency (NUE under low N conditions.Research using labeled isotopic N (15N can precisely quantify fertilizer nitrogen (N uptake and organ-specific N allocation in field crops such as maize (Zea mays L.. The overall research objective was to study plant N uptake patterns potentially correlated with N use efficiency (NUE in field-grown maize hybrids using a “multi-stage pulse labeling” 15N phenotyping strategy with an emphasis on the reproductive period. Five hybrids varying in NUE were compared under zero N fertilizer application (0N plus a moderate rate of 112 kg N ha−1 (112N in 2013 (2 locations and 2014 growing seasons. The equivalent of 3.2 (2013 to 2.1 (2014 kg of 15N ha−1, as labeled Ca(15NO32, was injected into soil on both sides of consecutive plants at multiple stages between V14 and R5. Aboveground plant biomass was primarily collected in short-term intervals (4–6 days after each 15N application in both years, and following a single long-term interval (at R6 after 15N injection at R1 in 2014. Averaged across hybrids and site-years, the moderate N rate (112N increased absolute 15N uptake at all stages; however, plants in the 0N treatment allocated proportionally more 15N to reproductive organs. Before flowering, short-term recovery of 15N (15Nrec totaled ~0.30 or 0.40 kg kg−1 of the 15N applied, and ~50% of that accumulated 15Nu was found in leaves and 40% in stems. After flowering, plant 15Nrec totaled ~0.30 kg kg−1 of 15N applied, and an average 30% of accumulated 15Nu was present in leaves, 17% in stems, and the remainder—usually the majority—in ears. At the R5 stage, despite a declining overall rate of 15N uptake per GDD thermal unit, plant 15Nrec represented ~0.25 kg kg−1 of 15N applied, of which ~65% was allocated

  14. Haploid technology allows for the efficient and rapid generation of homozygous antibody-accumulating transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floss, Doreen M; Kumlehn, Jochen; Conrad, Udo; Saalbach, Isolde

    2009-09-01

    The large-scale production of plant-derived recombinant proteins requires the breeding of lines homozygous for the transgene(s). These can be selected by progeny testing over multiple sexual generations, but a more efficient means is to fix homozygosity in a single generation using doubled haploid technology. In this study, transgenic tobacco plants, hemizygous for both of the independently inherited genes encoding the light and heavy chains of the anti-human immunodeficiency virus monoclonal antibody 2F5, were used to establish embryogenic pollen cultures. The improved protocol employed in this study guaranteed a very high regeneration efficiency, with more than 50% of the regenerants being spontaneously doubled haploids. Hence, there was no requirement to chemically induce chromosome doubling to recover sufficient entirely homozygous recombinants. As expected, approximately 25% of the regenerants were homozygous for both transgenes. Thus, the employment of haploid technology allowed for the efficient and rapid generation of true-breeding tobacco lines accumulating functional immunoglobulins.

  15. A rapid and reliable procedure for extraction of cellular polyamines and inorganic ions from plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Walter C. Shortle; Stephanie L. Long; Subhash C. Minocha

    1994-01-01

    A fast and reliable method for the extraction of cellular polyamines and major inorganic ions (Ca, Mg, Mn, K, and P) from several plant tissues is described. The method involves repeated freezing and thawing of samples instead of homogenization. The efficiency of extraction of both the polyamines and inorganic ions by these two methods was compared for 10 different...

  16. COLORFUL-Circuit: a platform for rapid multigene assembly, delivery and expression in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan eGhareeb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Advancing basic and applied plant research requires the continuous innovative development of the available technology toolbox. Essential components of this toolbox are methods that simplify the assembly, delivery and expression of multiple transgenes of interest. To allow simultaneous and directional multigene assembly on the same plant transformation vector, several strategies based on overlapping sequences or restriction enzymes have recently been developed. However, the assembly of homologous and repetitive DNA sequences can be inefficient and the frequent occurrence of target sequences recognized by commonly used restriction enzymes can be a limiting factor. Here, we noted that recognition sites for the restriction enzyme SfiI are rarely occurring in plant genomes. This fact was exploited to establish a multigene assembly system called COLORFUL-Circuit. To this end, we developed a set of binary vectors which provide a flexible and cost efficient cloning platform. The gene expression cassettes in our system are flanked with unique SfiI sites, which allow simultaneous multi-gene cassette assembly in a hosting binary vector. We used COLORFUL-Circuit to transiently and stably express up to four fluorescent organelle markers in addition to a selectable marker and analyzed the impact of assembly design on coexpression efficiency. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of our optimized COLORFUL-Circuit system in an exemplary case study, in which we monitored simultaneously the subcellular behavior of multiple organelles in a biotrophic plant-microbe interaction by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy.

  17. A rapid HPLC-APCI-MS method to detect fluoroacetate in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many plant species worldwide can cause sudden death of grazing livestock. One diagnostic differential is the presence of monofluoroacetate (MFA) that is metabolised to fluorocitrate that subsequently inhibits the Kreb’s Cycle (the tricarboxylic acid cycle) leading to cellular respiration dysfunction...

  18. Rapid and accurate analyses of silicon and phosphorus in plants using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidinger, Stefan; Ramsey, Michael H; Hartley, Susan E

    2012-08-01

    The elemental analysis of plant material is a frequently employed tool across biological disciplines, yet accurate, convenient and economical methods for the determination of some important elements are currently lacking. For instance, digestion-based techniques are often hazardous and time-consuming and, particularly in the case of silicon (Si), can suffer from low accuracy due to incomplete solubilization and potential volatilization, whilst other methods may require large, expensive and specialised equipment. Here, we present a rapid, safe and accurate procedure for the simultaneous, nonconsumptive analysis of Si and phosphorus (P) in as little as 0.1 g dried and ground plant material using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (P-XRF). We used certified reference materials from different plant species to test the analytical performance of P-XRF and show that the analysis suffers from very little bias and that the repeatability precision of the measurements is as good as or better than that of other methods. Using this technique we were able to process and analyse 200 ground samples a day, so P-XRF could provide a particularly valuable tool for plant biologists requiring the simultaneous nonconsumptive analysis of multiple elements, including those known to be difficult to measure such as Si, in large numbers of samples. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Pilot plant study of alternative filter media for rapid gravity filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P D; Wheatley, A D

    2012-01-01

    Sand has been the main filter media used in rapid gravity filtration since its introduction. The dominance of sand has been due to its low cost and availability. Extensive experience has led to sand filters with a dependable and predictable performance. Sand remains the preferred filter medium but usually with a larger sized anthracite capping to reduce the onset of head loss. Other approved filter media are now commercially available and this paper compares sand with recycled glass, Filtralite(®) and slate at pilot scale. The results have reaffirmed the basic importance of particle size on head loss and turbidity performance rather than surface activity or specific surface area. The results did suggest, however, that particle shape and packing exerted a stronger influence on performance than previously acknowledged. These could be used to improve the design and the contribution to sustainability made by rapid gravity filters.

  20. Interagency partnering for weed prevention--progress on development of a National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrooks, R.; Westbrooks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, experience has shown that interagency groups provide an effective forum for addressing various invasive species issues and challenges on multiple land units. However, more importantly, they can also provide a coordinated framework for early detection, reporting, identification and vouchering, rapid assessment, and rapid response to new and emerging invasive plants in the United States. Interagency collaboration maximizes the use of available expertise, resources, and authority for promoting early detection and rapid response (EDRR) as the preferred management option for addressing new and emerging invasive plants. Currently, an interagency effort is underway to develop a National EDRR System for Invasive Plants in the United States. The proposed system will include structural and informational elements. Structural elements of the system include a network of interagency partner groups to facilitate early detection and rapid response to new invasive plants, including the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), State Invasive Species Councils, State Early Detection and Rapid Response Coordinating Committees, State Volunteer Detection and Reporting Networks, Invasive Plant Task Forces, and Cooperative Weed Management Areas. Informational elements and products being developed include Regional Invasive Plant Atlases, and EDRR Guidelines for EDRR Volunteer Network Training, Rapid Assessment and Rapid Response, and Criteria for Selection of EDRR Species. System science and technical support elements which are provided by cooperating state and federal scientists, include EDRR guidelines, training curriculum for EDRR volunteers and agency field personnel, plant identification and vouchering, rapid assessments, as well as predictive modeling and ecological range studies for invasive plant species.

  1. Portable plant chlorophyll fluorimeter based on blue LED rapid induced technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yibo; Mi, Ting; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Fluorimeter is an effective device for detecting chlorophyll a content in plants. In order to realize real-time nondestructive detection of plant blades, a camera based fluorescence instrument based on two color mirrors has been developed. The blue light LED is used as the excitation light source, and the lens is used for shaping and focusing the excitation light to ensure the excitation intensity and uniform illumination of the light source. The device uses a 45 degree two color mirror to separate the chlorophyll a excited light path and the fluorescence receiving light path. Finally, the fluorescent signal is collected by the silicon photocell, and the signal is processed by the circuit to transmit the digital information to the display. Through the analysis of the experimental data, the device has the advantages of small size, easy to carry, fast induction, etc., and can be widely applied in outdoor teaching and field investigation.

  2. Plant Lesions Promote the Rapid Multiplication of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Postharvest Lettuce▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M. T.

    2008-01-01

    Several outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections have been associated with minimally processed leafy vegetables in the United States. Harvesting and processing cause plant tissue damage. In order to assess the role of plant tissue damage in the contamination of leafy greens with E. coli O157:H7, the effect of mechanical, physiological, and plant disease-induced lesions on the growth of this pathogen on postharvest romaine lettuce was investigated. Within only 4 h after inoculation, the population sizes of E. coli O157:H7 increased 4.0-, 4.5-, and 11.0-fold on lettuce leaves that were mechanically bruised, cut into large pieces, and shredded into multiple pieces, respectively. During the same time, E. coli O157:H7 population sizes increased only twofold on leaves that were left intact after harvest. Also, the population size of E. coli O157:H7 was 27 times greater on young leaves affected by soft rot due to infection by Erwinia chrysanthemi than on healthy middle-aged leaves. Confocal microscopy revealed that leaf tip burn lesions, which are caused by a common physiological disorder of lettuce, harbored dense populations of E. coli O157:H7 cells both internally and externally. Investigation of the colonization of cut lettuce stems by E. coli O157:H7 showed that the pathogen grew 11-fold over 4 h of incubation after its inoculation onto the stems, from which large amounts of latex were released. The results of this study indicate that plant tissue damage of various types can promote significant multiplication of E. coli O157:H7 over a short time and suggest that harvesting and processing are critical control points in the prevention or reduction of E. coli O157:H7 contamination of lettuce. PMID:18641153

  3. Plant lesions promote the rapid multiplication of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on postharvest lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M T

    2008-09-01

    Several outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections have been associated with minimally processed leafy vegetables in the United States. Harvesting and processing cause plant tissue damage. In order to assess the role of plant tissue damage in the contamination of leafy greens with E. coli O157:H7, the effect of mechanical, physiological, and plant disease-induced lesions on the growth of this pathogen on postharvest romaine lettuce was investigated. Within only 4 h after inoculation, the population sizes of E. coli O157:H7 increased 4.0-, 4.5-, and 11.0-fold on lettuce leaves that were mechanically bruised, cut into large pieces, and shredded into multiple pieces, respectively. During the same time, E. coli O157:H7 population sizes increased only twofold on leaves that were left intact after harvest. Also, the population size of E. coli O157:H7 was 27 times greater on young leaves affected by soft rot due to infection by Erwinia chrysanthemi than on healthy middle-aged leaves. Confocal microscopy revealed that leaf tip burn lesions, which are caused by a common physiological disorder of lettuce, harbored dense populations of E. coli O157:H7 cells both internally and externally. Investigation of the colonization of cut lettuce stems by E. coli O157:H7 showed that the pathogen grew 11-fold over 4 h of incubation after its inoculation onto the stems, from which large amounts of latex were released. The results of this study indicate that plant tissue damage of various types can promote significant multiplication of E. coli O157:H7 over a short time and suggest that harvesting and processing are critical control points in the prevention or reduction of E. coli O157:H7 contamination of lettuce.

  4. Factors influencing rapid clonal propagation of Chlorophytum arundinaceum (Liliales: Liliaceae), an endangered medicinal plant

    OpenAIRE

    Sanghamitra Samantaray; Satyabrata Maiti

    2011-01-01

    Chlorophytum arundinaceum is an important medicinal plant and its tuberous roots are used for various health ailment treatments. It has become an endangered species in the Eastern Ghats, and a rare medicinal herb in India, due to its excessive collection from its natural habitat and its destructive harvesting techniques, coupled with poor seed germination and low vegetative multiplication ratio. In order to contribute to its production systems, an efficient protocol was developed for in vitro...

  5. Establishment of a Rapid Plant Regeneration System in Physalis angulata L. through Axillary Meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An optimal plant propagation method of Physalis angulata L., a medicinally important herbaceous plant species has been developed using axillary meristem explants. Shoot bud proliferation was initiated from axillary meristem explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 0.5-2.5mg/L/(BAP/(Zeatin/(KIN. The maximum in vitro response of shooting frequency of explants (88.1% and shoots per explant (42 was achieved with medium containing 1.0mg/L BAP. Multiple shoot culture was established by repeated subculturing of the shoot buds of axillary meristems on shoot multiplication medium. Among the subculture media BAP in combination with 1.5mg/L (IAA+0.25mg/L(GA3 produced maximum shoots per explant (128±0.29 after two weeks of culture. Effective in vitro shoot elongation and rooting was achieved on 1.0mg/L(GA3 and 1.0mg/L(IBA, respectively. Most of the generated shoots were successfully transferred to soil under field conditions. The survival percentage of the transferred plants on soil was found to be 90 per cent.  This protocol can be used for commercial propagation and for future genetic improvement studies.

  6. Structurally functional changes in the microbiota of nutrient solution with addition of liquid human wastes, used for growing plants in a closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirranen, L. S.; Borodina, E. V.; Markov, A. A.

    The investigations have proved the dependence of microbial community of nutrient solution development upon the specific conditions of a closed human life-support ecological system: the time of using permanent solution, introduction of additives into the nutrient medium and system gas exchange closure. For the first time, liquid human wastes were introduced into the nutrient solution to increase the mass exchange closure. Correlation analysis revealed the direct dependence between the time of liquid native human excretions introduction into the nutrient solution and the development of organisms participating in nitrogen transformation and growth of microflora potentially dangerous for humans and plants. With the help of correlation analysis it has been determined that particularly close connection exists between the duration of introduction of liquid human wastes and bacteria Escherichia coli, denitrificators, ammonificators and urobacteria. The correlation coefficient for these microbial groups was: r = 0,78. The investigations showed that by the end of experiment the microbial community of nutrient solution fulfilled the role of native urine destructor successfully. Thus, introduction of human native excretions (at 70% substitution of nitrate nitrogen with urine nitrogen) into the nutrient solution used for growing wheat monoculture in a closed ecosystem is possible.

  7. Adjustment of a rapid method for quantification of Fusarium spp. spore suspensions in plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore-Gei, Pablo F; Valdez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The use of a Neubauer chamber is a broadly employed method when cell suspensions need to be quantified. However, this technique may take a long time and needs trained personnel. Spectrophotometry has proved to be a rapid, simple and accurate method to estimate the concentration of spore suspensions of isolates of the genus Fusarium. In this work we present a linear formula to relate absorbance measurements at 530nm with the number of microconidia/ml in a suspension. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. High frequency microcloning of Aloe vera and their true-to-type conformity by molecular cytogenetic assessment of two years old field growing regenerated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Sk Moquammel; Ghosh, Biswajit

    2013-12-01

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f is an important industrial crop, which has enormous application in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Thereby, the demand for quality planting material of A. vera is increasing worldwide. Micropropagation is the widely accepted practical application of plant biotechnology that has gained the status of a multibillion-dollar industry throughout the world and this techniques can be used to meet the industrial demand of A. vera. Present studies aim to develop a proficient methods of high-frequency true-to-type plantlet regeneration without intermediate callus phase for A. vera. Nodal portion of rhizomatous stem of A. vera were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (Physiol. Plant. 15:473 - 497, 1962) supplemented with various cytokinin and A. vera leaf gel (AvG) as organic supplement. Number of proliferated shoots per explant was increased along with the regeneration cycles and on MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine and 10.0% (v/v) AvG, only 17.8 ± 0.35 shoots per explant were induced on 1(st) regeneration cycle whereas on 3(rd) regeneration cycle these number increase to 38.5 ± 0.44 shoots per explant on the same medium composition. AvG have an encouraging role to increase the proliferation rate and on 3(rd) regeneration cycle 27.6 ± 0.53 shoot per explant induced on 2.5 mg/L BAP, but these number increase to 38.5 ± 0.44 shoots per explant when 10.0% (v/v) AvG was added along with 2.5 mg/L BAP. After transfer of individual excised shoots to a one-third strength MS medium containing 20.0% (v/v) AvG, all the shoots formed whole plantlets with maximum number (9.6 ± 0.29) of roots per shoot. 95.0% of the regenerated plantlets survived on poly-green house. Normal flower appeared in 84.2% field growing micropropagated plants after 18 to 20 months of field transfer. Further, clonal fidelity of the two years old micropropagated plants was established by studying mitotic and meiotic

  9. Arabidopsis seedling flood-inoculation technique: a rapid and reliable assay for studying plant-bacterial interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppalapati Srinivasa R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae model pathosystem is one of the most widely used systems to understand the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis and plant innate immunity. Several inoculation methods have been used to study plant-pathogen interactions in this model system. However, none of the methods reported to date are similar to those occurring in nature and amicable to large-scale mutant screens. Results In this study, we developed a rapid and reliable seedling flood-inoculation method based on young Arabidopsis seedlings grown on MS medium. This method has several advantages over conventional soil-grown plant inoculation assays, including a shorter growth and incubation period, ease of inoculation and handling, uniform infection and disease development, requires less growth chamber space and is suitable for high-throughput screens. In this study we demonstrated the efficacy of the Arabidopsis seedling assay to study 1 the virulence factors of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, including type III protein secretion system (TTSS and phytotoxin coronatine (COR; 2 the effector-triggered immunity; and 3 Arabidopsis mutants affected in salicylic acid (SA- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs-mediated pathways. Furthermore, we applied this technique to study nonhost resistance (NHR responses in Arabidopsis using nonhost pathogens, such as P. syringae pv. tabaci, pv. glycinea and pv. tomato T1, and confirmed the functional role of FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2 in NHR. Conclusions The Arabidopsis seedling flood-inoculation assay provides a rapid, efficient and economical method for studying Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas interactions with minimal growth chamber space and time. This assay could also provide an excellent system for investigating the virulence mechanisms of P. syringae. Using this method, we demonstrated that FLS2 plays a critical role in conferring NHR against nonhost pathovars of P. syringae, but not to

  10. Multichannel microfluidic chip for rapid and reliable trapping and imaging plant-parasitic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrit, Ratthasart; Sripumkhai, Witsaroot; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Jeamsaksiri, Wutthinan; Tangchitsomkid, Nuchanart; Sutapun, Boonsong

    2013-05-01

    Faster and reliable testing technique to count and identify nematode species resided in plant roots is therefore essential for export control and certification. This work proposes utilizing a multichannel microfluidic chip with an integrated flow-through microfilter to retain the nematodes in a trapping chamber. When trapped, it is rather simple and convenient to capture images of the nematodes and later identify their species by a trained technician. Multiple samples can be tested in parallel using the proposed microfluidic chip therefore increasing number of samples tested per day.

  11. Intermountain Range plant names and symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Perry Plummer; Stephen B. Monsen; Richard Stevens

    1977-01-01

    This revised alphabetical list of botanical and common names of vascular plants that primarily grow on wildlands of the Intermountain region and adjacent areas has been assembled for use in quickly recording occurrence of plants in the field and for rapid machine processing of field data. Included are plants found in Utah, Nevada, southern Idaho, and Wyoming, and most...

  12. Biotechnology of Tohoku Electric Power Co. Application of plant biotechnology/Biomass utilization/Development of technology to control cold resistance of plant/Practical application of passion fruit growing technology/Identification of useful genes of plant/Light supplement growing of rose/Electric stimulus growing of shiitake mushroom,etc; Tohoku Denryoku no biotechnology. Shokubutsu biotechnology oyo, biomass riyo, shokubutsu no taireisei seigyo gijutsu kaihatsu, passion fruit saibai gijutsu no jitsuyoka, shokubutsu no yuyo idenshi dotei, bara no hoko saibai, shiitake denki shigeki saibai gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The paper introduced the biotechnology study in Tohoku Electric Power Co. in terms of the above-captioned items. In the study of the plant biotechnology application, with garlic growing as a target, technology to increase seedlings in large quantity by texture cultivation technology was studied. In the biomass utilization study, as to one of the biomass crops, its economical efficiency was studied in case of using it as energy. In the development of the technology to control cold resistance of plant, genes of Superoxide dismutase, etc. were introduced to rice plant to obtain a result which indicates enhancement of cold resistance. In the development of the technology to grow passion fruit, a method was established to grow a tropical fruit, passion fruit produced in Brazil, without heating in winter and to enable two harvests a year, for the contribution to the regional activation. In the study on the identification of useful genes of plant, the development of DNA markers was conducted, trying the identification of a rice blight true resistance gene, Pi-Z{sup t}. 32 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  14. Rapid evolution and range expansion of an invasive plant are driven by provenance-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenni, Rafael D; Bailey, Joseph K; Simberloff, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    To improve our ability to prevent and manage biological invasions, we must understand their ecological and evolutionary drivers. We are often able to explain invasions after they happen, but our predictive ability is limited. Here, we show that range expansions of introduced Pinus taeda result from an interaction between genetic provenance and climate and that temperature and precipitation clines predict the invasive performance of particular provenances. Furthermore, we show that genotypes can occupy climate niche spaces different from those observed in their native ranges and, at least in our case, that admixture is not a main driver of invasion. Genotypes respond to climate in distinct ways, and these interactions affect the ability of populations to expand their ranges. While rapid evolution in introduced ranges is a mechanism at later stages of the invasion process, the introduction of adapted genotypes is a key driver of naturalisation of populations of introduced species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  15. Rapid estimation of nutrients in chicken manure during plant-field composting using physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangqun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Han, Lujia

    2011-01-01

    Regression equations which relate livestock and poultry manure nutrient content to its several physicochemical properties have been reported by previous researchers. This study explores the feasibility and efficiency to determine the nutrients (TN; TP; TK; Cu and Zn) in chicken manure during composting using physicochemical properties (pH, EC and DM), and compares the performances of regression equations in this study with those in the literature. The results show that DM is the best predictor to construct the single linear regressions for all the nutrients (R2≥0.84, p<0.001). In addition, the multiple linear regression equations based on DM and pH are all notable. These findings show the potential of physicochemical models for TN, TP, TK, Cu and Zn with more convenience and rapidness, but further research is needed to develop better models with higher accuracy for the above and other more nutrients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT.Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated.Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group.The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  17. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueling; Liu, Dongxu; Liu, Ju; Wu, Zizhong; Xie, Yongtao; Li, Liang; Liu, Hong; Guo, Tiantian; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE) treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30) was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated. Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A) of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI) of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn) of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR) ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group. The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  18. Flower litters of alpine plants affect soil nitrogen and phosphorus rapidly in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinniu; Xu, Bo; Wu, Yan; Gao, Jing; Shi, Fusun

    2016-10-01

    Litters of reproductive organs have rarely been studied despite their role in allocating nutrients for offspring reproduction. This study determines the mechanism through which flower litters efficiently increase the available soil nutrient pool. Field experiments were conducted to collect plant litters and calculate biomass production in an alpine meadow of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. C, N, P, lignin, cellulose content, and their relevant ratios of litters were analyzed to identify their decomposition features. A pot experiment was performed to determine the effects of litter addition on the soil nutrition pool by comparing the treated and control samples. The litter-bag method was used to verify decomposition rates. The flower litters of phanerophyte plants were comparable with non-flower litters. Biomass partitioning of other herbaceous species accounted for 10-40 % of the aboveground biomass. Flower litter possessed significantly higher N and P levels but less C / N, N / P, lignin / N, and lignin and cellulose concentrations than leaf litter. The litter-bag experiment confirmed that the flower litters of Rhododendron przewalskii and Meconopsis integrifolia decompose approximately 3 times faster than mixed litters within 50 days. Pot experiment findings indicated that flower litter addition significantly increased the available nutrient pool and soil microbial productivity. The time of litter fall significantly influenced soil available N and P, and soil microbial biomass. Flower litters fed the soil nutrition pool and influenced nutrition cycling in alpine ecosystems more efficiently because of their non-ignorable production, faster decomposition rate, and higher nutrient contents compared with non-flower litters. The underlying mechanism can enrich nutrients, which return to the soil, and non-structural carbohydrates, which feed and enhance the transitions of soil microorganisms.

  19. Rapid Growth and Apparent Total Nitrogen Increases in Rice and Corn Plants following Applications of Triacontanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N R; Ries, S K

    1981-12-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA) increased fresh and dry weight and total reducible nitrogen (total N) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings within 40 minutes. Increases in total N in the supernatants from homogenates of corn (Zea mays L.) and rice leaves treated with TRIA for one minute before grinding occurred within 30 and 80 minutes, respectively. The source for the increase was investigated utilizing atmospheric substitution and enrichment and depletion studies with (15)N. The increase in total N in seedlings was shown to be independent of method of N analysis and the presence of nitrate in the plants. Automated Kjeldahl determinations showing apparent increases in N composition due to TRIA were shown to be correlated with hand Kjeldahl, elemental analysis, and chemiluminescent analysis in three independent laboratories. TRIA did not alter the nitrate uptake or endogenous levels of nitrate in corn and rice seedlings. Enrichment experiments revealed that the total N increases in rice seedlings, in vivo, and in supernatants of corn leaf homogenates, in vitro, are not due to atmospheric N(2). TRIA increased the soluble N pools of the plants, specifically the free amino acid and soluble protein fractions. No differences in depletion or enrichment of (15)N incorporated into soluble and insoluble N fractions of rice seedlings could be detected on an atom per cent (15)N basis. The apparent short-term total N increases cannot be explained by current knowledge of major N assimilation pathways. TRIA may stimulate a change in the chemical composition of the seedlings, resulting in interference with standard methods of N analysis.

  20. Should I fight or should I grow now? The role of cytokinins in plant growth and immunity and in the growth-defence trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Tessa; Argueso, Cristiana T

    2017-03-01

    Perception and activation of plant immunity require a remarkable level of signalling plasticity and control. In Arabidopsis and other plant species, constitutive defence activation leads to resistance to a broad spectrum of biotrophic pathogens, but also frequently to stunted growth and reduced seed set. Plant hormones are important integrators of the physiological responses that influence the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. We review the mechanisms by which the plant hormone cytokinin regulates both plant growth and response to pathogens, and how cytokinins may connect these two processes, ultimately affecting the growth trade-offs observed in plant immunity.

  1. Application of barcode high-resolution melting for rapid authentication of the medicinal plant Psammosilene tunicoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjian Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psammosilene tunicoides is an important herb used in traditional Chinese medicine. It has been proved to benefit the stomach and treat rheumatism and gout. On the market, this herbal medicine is frequently adulterated by the related species Silene viscidula. Correct identification of P. tunicoides is important to ensure herbal quality, safety, authenticity and health for consumers. However, the identification of the P. tunicoides and S. viscidula species is complicated because of their morphological similarities. Therefore, a reliable method to authenticate these two medicinal plants is needed. In this study, the ITS2 barcode region coupled with high-resolution melting (Bar-HRM was evaluated as a novel approach for differentiating P. tunicoides from its adulterant S. viscidula. Our findings showed that Bar-HRM not only detected the adulteration, but also quantified the most common admixture. Bar-HRM sensitivity in adulterant detection was assessed by analysing samples mixed with different proportions of S. viscidula and P. tunicoides control. The results are presented as a linear regression with R2 = 0.9852, which implied the capability of the method to detect adulteration. This study is significant to verify the authenticity for better quality control of this herbal species.

  2. Ball mill assisted rapid mechanochemical extraction method for natural products from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Bi, Wentao; Huang, Xiaohua; Chen, David Da Yong

    2016-06-03

    A ball mill assisted mechanochemical extraction method was developed to extract compounds of natural product (NP) from plant using ionic liquid (IL). A small volume ball mill, also known as PastPrep(®) Homogenizer, which is often used for high-speed lysis of biological samples and for other applications, was used to dramatically increase the speed, completeness and reproducibility of the extraction process at room temperature to preserve the chemical integrity of the extracted compounds. In this study, tanshinones were selected as target compounds to evaluate the performance of this extraction method. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the duration, IL concentration and solid/liquid ratio were systematically optimized using the response surface methodology. Under the optimized conditions, the described method was more efficient and much faster than the conventional extraction methods such as methanol based ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and heat reflux extraction (HRE) that consumes a lot more organic solvent. In addition, the natural products of interest were enriched by anion metathesis of ionic liquids, combining extraction and preconcentration in the same process. The extractant was analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS. The reproducibility (RSD, n=5), correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curve, and the limit of detection, were determined to be in the range of 4.7-5.2%, 0.9992-0.9995, and 20-51ng/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interaction rewiring and the rapid turnover of plant-pollinator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CaraDonna, Paul J; Petry, William K; Brennan, Ross M; Cunningham, James L; Bronstein, Judith L; Waser, Nickolas M; Sanders, Nathan J

    2017-03-01

    Whether species interactions are static or change over time has wide-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. However, species interaction networks are typically constructed from temporally aggregated interaction data, thereby implicitly assuming that interactions are fixed. This approach has advanced our understanding of communities, but it obscures the timescale at which interactions form (or dissolve) and the drivers and consequences of such dynamics. We address this knowledge gap by quantifying the within-season turnover of plant-pollinator interactions from weekly censuses across 3 years in a subalpine ecosystem. Week-to-week turnover of interactions (1) was high, (2) followed a consistent seasonal progression in all years of study and (3) was dominated by interaction rewiring (the reassembly of interactions among species). Simulation models revealed that species' phenologies and relative abundances constrained both total interaction turnover and rewiring. Our findings reveal the diversity of species interactions that may be missed when the temporal dynamics of networks are ignored. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Recent origin and rapid speciation of Neotropical orchids in the world's richest plant biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Chomicki, Guillaume; Condamine, Fabien L; Karremans, Adam P; Bogarín, Diego; Matzke, Nicholas J; Silvestro, Daniele; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    The Andean mountains of South America are the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets. We find that the majority of Andean orchid lineages only originated in the last 20-15 million yr. Andean lineages are derived from lowland Amazonian ancestors, with additional contributions from Central America and the Antilles. Species diversification is correlated with Andean orogeny, and multiple migrations and recolonizations across the Andes indicate that mountains do not constrain orchid dispersal over long timescales. Our study sheds new light on the timing and geography of a major Neotropical diversification, and suggests that mountain uplift promotes species diversification across all elevational zones. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. [Rapid determination of eight organic acids in plant tissue by sequential extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianzhi; Wang, Shijie; Liu Xiuming; Liu, Hong; Wu, Yanyou; Luo Xuqiang

    2014-12-01

    A sequential extraction method was developed to determine different forms of oxalate and seven oxalate-metabolism-related organic acids (glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid) in plant tissue. The ultra-pure water was used as the extraction medium to obtain water-soluble oxalic acid and the other seven water-soluble organic acids. After the extraction of the water-soluble organic acids, the residues were extracted by dilute hydrochloric acid successively to get the acid-soluble oxalate which entered the liquid phase. A Hypersil ODS column was used with 5 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH 2. 8) as the mobile phase. The diode array detector was set at 210 nm and the column temperature at 30 °C with the injection volume of 5 µL. The flow rate was controlled at different times which allowed a good and rapid separation of the organic acids and hydrochloric acid. Under these conditions, the linear ranges of the method were 1-2000 mg/L for oxalic acid, 25-2,000 mg/L for acetic acid, and 10-2,000 mg/L for glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid, with the correlation coefficients of the eight organic acids ≥ 0. 9996. The average recoveries of the eight organic acids in leaves and roots were 93. 5%-104. 4% and 85. 3%-105. 4% with RSDs of 0. 15% -2.43% and 0. 31%-2. 9% (n=7), respectively. The limits of detection ranged from 1 to 10 ng (S/N=3). The results indicated that the method is accurate, rapid and reproducible for the determination of organic acids in plant samples.

  6. Bleach Plant Capital Reduction with Rapid DO Bleaching and Simplified (D/E/D) Stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. McDonough; C. E. Courchene; J-C. Baromes

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate the capabilities of a bleaching sequence that combined a short retention time initial chlorine dioxide stage, referred to as rapid D0, (D0R), with simplified bleaching stages, (D1/E/D2), that required only one final bleach washer. The test sequence DR(EPO)(D/E/D/) was compared to a control sequence, D(EPO)D, for both hardwood and softwood pulps. The capabilities of the DR(EPO)(D/E/D) sequence were successfully demonstrated. An existing three- or four-stage bleach plan can be converted to the more powerful DR(EPO)(D/E/D) sequence without the major capital cost of additional washers. The results from this study showed that the DR(EPO)(D/E/D) sequence can reach 85 brightness on SW with 2.8% total C1O2, while the control sequence, D(EPO)D, required 3.9% C1O2. There was a corresponding decrease in AOX for the test sequence. The strength of pulp bleached in the test sequence was similar to or slightly higher than the control. For the HW pu lp, the test sequence reached 88 brightness with 2.2% C1O2 compared to 3.3% C1O2 for the control. There was a corresponding decrease in AOX generation with the lower chemical requirements. The final viscosity and pulp strength for the test sequence on HW was significantly higher than the corresponding values for the control sequence.

  7. Factors influencing rapid clonal propagation of Chlorophytum arundinaceum (Liliales: Liliaceae, an endangered medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Samantaray

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophytum arundinaceum is an important medicinal plant and its tuberous roots are used for various health ailment treatments. It has become an endangered species in the Eastern Ghats, and a rare medicinal herb in India, due to its excessive collection from its natural habitat and its destructive harvesting techniques, coupled with poor seed germination and low vegetative multiplication ratio. In order to contribute to its production systems, an efficient protocol was developed for in vitro clonal propagation through shoot bud culture. For this, multiple shoots were induced from shoot bud explants on Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with 2.5-3.0mg/L BAP, 0.01-0.1mg/L NAA and 3% (w/v sucrose. Inclusion of Adenine Sulphate (25mg/L in the culture medium improved the frequency of multiple shoot production and recovered the chlorotic symptoms of the leaves. Media having pH 5.9 and 4% sucrose showed significant improvement on shoot bud multiplication and growth. In vitro flowering was observed when the subcultures were carried out for over four months in the same multiplication media. Rooting was readily achieved upon transferring the shoots on to half- strength MS medium supplemented with 0.1mg/L IBA and 2% (w/v sucrose. Micropropagated plantlets were hardened in the green house, successfully established, and flowered in the field. This method could effectively be applied for the conservation and clonal propagation to meet the demand of planting materials. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 435-445. Epub 2011 March 01.Chlorophytum arundinaceum es una planta medicinal importante y sus raíces se utilizan en diversos tratamientos contra enfermedades. Se ha convertido en una especie en peligro de extinción en el Ghats Oriental y una hierba medicinal rara en la India, debido a la recolecta excesiva en su hábitat natural y la manera destructiva de cosecharla, asociado con una mala germinación y pobre multiplicación vegetativa. Para contribuir con

  8. The Mansonia genus (diptera: culicidae) and mosquitoes growing in Tucurui hydroelectric power plant (Para - Brazil); O genero Mansonia (diptera: culicidae) e a proliferacao de mosquitos na Usina Hidreletrica de Tucurui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radei, Wanderli Pedro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Dams formed for hydroelectric generation normally are invaded by some kinds of aquatic plants. This plants besides the problems in navigation are also responsible for the growing of some mosquitoes. In Tucuri`s dam this plants appeared in so large quantity and make appear mosquitoes and others insects. In this study many captures were making in various places, identifying the mosquitoes and quantifying them from hour to hour. Some considerations were made about the characteristics of this mosquitoes. In conclusion the study shows that the growing of mosquito`s population can cause the appearing of epidemics not knowledge at this places with the population not prepared for them 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Microwave assisted extraction-solid phase extraction for high-efficient and rapid analysis of monosaccharides in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Hai-Fang; Ma, Yuan; Jin, Yan; Kong, Guanghui; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Monosaccharides are the fundamental composition units of saccharides which are a common source of energy for metabolism. An effective and simple method consisting of microwave assisted extraction (MAE), solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detector (HPLC-RID) was developed for rapid detection of monosaccharides in plants. The MAE was applied to break down the structure of the plant cells and release the monosaccharides, while the SPE procedure was adopted to purify the extract before analysis. Finally, the HPLC-RID was employed to separate and analyze the monosaccharides with amino column. As a result, the extraction time was reduced to 17 min, which was nearly 85 times faster than soxhlet extraction. The recoveries of arabinose, xylose, fructose and glucose were 85.01%, 87.79%, 103.17%, and 101.24%, with excellent relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.94%, 1.13%, 0.60% and 1.67%, respectively. The proposed method was demonstrated to be efficient and time-saving, and had been applied to analyze monosaccharides in tobacco and tea successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 5S-rRNA-NTS region: a rapid and precise method for plant identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertea, Cinzia Margherita; Gnavi, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Molecular genetic methods have several advantages over classical morphological and chemical analyses. The genetic method requires genotype instead than phenotype, therefore PCR-based techniques have been widely used for a rapid identification of plant species, varieties and chemotypes. Recently, the molecular discrimination of some higher plant species has been evaluated using sequences of a 5S-rRNA gene spacer region. The variation in the nontranscribed sequence (NTS) region has been used in a number of plant species for studying intraspecific variation, genome evolution, and phylogenetic reconstruction. Here, we describe a rapid method based on the use of the 5S-rRNA-NTS region as a tool for plant DNA fingerprinting, which combines PCR, sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses.

  11. Rapid compositional change and significant loss of plant species diversity among Triassic-Jurassic palynofloras in East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Kürschner, Wolfram; McElwain, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J; 200Ma) transition coincides with the eruption of massive flood basalts associated with the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. This is thought to have lead to a fourfold increase in palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide, a consequent rise in global temperatures of between 3 and 6 degrees Celsius, and a rise in atmospheric pollutants such as sulphur dioxide. Recent work has employed either plant macrofossils (mostly leaves) or sporomorphs (pollen and spores) to reconstruct the response of terrestrial vegetation to this episode of major environmental change. Investigations of the macrofossil record at Astartekloft in East Greenland indicate a rapid loss of plant diversity in the Late Rhaetian, culminating in an 80% species turnover at the Tr-J boundary interval. However, evidence for such catastrophic diversity loss is conspicuously absent from the sporomorph record. This fossil group indicates that the Tr-J boundary interval in central and northwest Europe is characterized by compositional change and a transient shift from gymnosperm forests to fern-dominated vegetation. In order to address this uncertainty regarding Tr-J vegetation change according to macrofossils versus sporomorphs, we present an analysis of sporomorph diversity and compositional change across the Tr-J at Astartekloft, East Greenland. Sporomorph diversity was estimated using individual and sample-based rarefaction techniques, and compositional differences between sporomorph samples were assessed using non-metric multidimensional scaling. These analyses reveal that sporomorph assemblages from the Tr-J boundary interval at Astartekloft are between 23 and 27% less taxonomically diverse than other Triassic assemblages, and that this interval is characterized by a dramatic shift in the composition of the standing vegetation. These results are statistically significant and are also unrelated to changes in the environment of deposition. These results indicate that the magnitude of

  12. Protection via parasitism: Datura odors attract parasitoid flies, which inhibit Manduca larvae from feeding and growing but may not help plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J K; Woods, H A

    2015-12-01

    Insect carnivores frequently use olfactory cues from plants to find prey or hosts. For plants, the benefits of attracting parasitoids have been controversial, partly because parasitoids often do not kill their host insect immediately. Furthermore, most research has focused on the effects of solitary parasitoids on growth and feeding of hosts, even though many parasitoids are gregarious (multiple siblings inhabit the same host). Here, we examine how a gregarious parasitoid, the tachinid fly Drino rhoeo, uses olfactory cues from the host plant Datura wrightii to find the sphingid herbivore Manduca sexta, and how parasitism affects growth and feeding of host larvae. In behavioral trials using a Y-olfactometer, female flies were attracted to olfactory cues emitted by attacked plants and by cues emitted from the frass produced by larval Manduca sexta. M. sexta caterpillars that were parasitized by D. rhoeo grew to lower maximum weights, grew more slowly, and ate less of their host plant. We also present an analytical model to predict how tri-trophic interactions change with varying herbivory levels, parasitization rates and plant sizes. This model predicted that smaller plants gain a relatively greater benefit compared to large plants in attracting D. rhoeo. By assessing the behavior, the effects of host performance, and the variation in ecological parameters of the system, we can better understand the complex interactions between herbivorous insects, the plants they live on and the third trophic level members that attack them.

  13. Terrestrial Plant Biomarkers Preserved in Cariaco Basin Sediments: Records of Abrupt Tropical Vegetation Response to Rapid Climate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughen, K. A.; Eglinton, T. I.; Makou, M.; Xu, L.; Sylva, S.

    2004-12-01

    Organic-rich sediments from the anoxic Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, preserve high concentrations of biomarkers for reconstruction of terrestrial environmental conditions. Molecular-level investigations of organic compounds provide a valuable tool for extracting terrestrial signals from these annually laminated marine sediments. Differences in hydrogen isotopic fractionation between C16-18 and C24-30 n-alkanoic acids suggest a marine source for the shorter chain lengths and a terrestrial source for the longer chains. Records of carbon and hydrogen isotopes, as well as average carbon chain length (ACL), from long-chain n-alkanoic acids parallel millennial-scale changes in vegetation and climate between the late Glacial and Preboreal periods, 15,000 to 10,000 years ago. Data from all terrestrial chain lengths were combined to produce single δ D and δ 13C indices through deglaciation, exhibiting enrichment during the late Glacial and Younger Dryas and depletion during the Bolling-Allerod and Preboreal periods. δ D reflects the hydrogen isotopic composition of environmental water used for plant growth, combined with evaporative enrichment within leaf spaces, and as such may act as a proxy for local aridity. Leaf wax δ 13C, which is a proxy for C3 versus C4 metabolic pathways, indicates that C3 plants predominated in the Cariaco watershed during warm/wet Bolling-Allerod and Holocene periods, and C4 plant biomass proliferated during cool/dry Glacial and Younger Dryas intervals. Coupled carbon and hydrogen isotopic measurements together clearly distinguish deglacial climatic periods as wetter with C3 vegetation versus drier with C4 vegetation. High resolution biomarker records reveal the rapidity of vegetation changes in northern South America during the last deglaciation. The leaf wax data reveal that local vegetation biomass, although not necessarily entire assemblages, shifted between arid grassland and wetter forest taxa on timescales of decades. Comparison of ACL

  14. Investigation of Chlorosis in Peach Trees Growing in the Tokat Region Using Soil and Plant Analysis and the Effects of Soil Moisture on the Determination of the Amounts of DTPA-exractable Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn

    OpenAIRE

    Karaman, M.Rüştü

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the fertility analysis of soil and leaf samples collected from areas under ohlorotic and healty peach trees, and the determination of the periodical relationship between the soil properties and nutrition status of trees. The effects of soil moisture on the amounts of DTPA-extractable Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn in soil collected from these areas were also determined by incubation study. The plant and soil analysis conducted at two different stages of the growing season showed ...

  15. DNA-based genetic markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa (Fast Plants type designed for the teaching laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryn E. Slankster

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr, also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for Brassica rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a nongenic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology.

  16. Rapid ammonia gas transport accounts for futile transmembrane cycling under NH3/NH4+ toxicity in plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T; Li, Mingyuan; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2013-12-01

    Futile transmembrane NH3/NH4(+) cycling in plant root cells, characterized by extremely rapid fluxes and high efflux to influx ratios, has been successfully linked to NH3/NH4(+) toxicity. Surprisingly, the fundamental question of which species of the conjugate pair (NH3 or NH4(+)) participates in such fluxes is unresolved. Using flux analyses with the short-lived radioisotope (13)N and electrophysiological, respiratory, and histochemical measurements, we show that futile cycling in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is predominately of the gaseous NH3 species, rather than the NH4(+) ion. Influx of (13)NH3/(13)NH4(+), which exceeded 200 µmol g(-1) h(-1), was not commensurate with membrane depolarization or increases in root respiration, suggesting electroneutral NH3 transport. Influx followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for NH3 (but not NH4(+)), as a function of external concentration (Km = 152 µm, Vmax = 205 µmol g(-1) h(-1)). Efflux of (13)NH3/(13)NH4(+) responded with a nearly identical Km. Pharmacological characterization of influx and efflux suggests mediation by aquaporins. Our study fundamentally revises the futile-cycling model by demonstrating that NH3 is the major permeating species across both plasmalemma and tonoplast of root cells under toxicity conditions.

  17. DNA-Based Genetic Markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica Rapa (Fast Plants Type) Designed for the Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slankster, Eryn E.; Chase, Jillian M.; Jones, Lauren A.; Wendell, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr), also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for B. rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a non-genic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology. PMID:22675329

  18. Rapid detection by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) of psychoactive plant drugs of abuse: the case of Mitragyna speciosa aka "Kratom".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Ashton D; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Musah, Rabi A

    2014-09-01

    Mitragyna speciosa, also known commonly as "Kratom" or "Ketum", is a plant with psychoactive properties that have been attributed to the presence of various indole alkaloids such as mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. M. speciosa use is gaining popularity internationally as a natural and legal alternative to narcotics. As a drug of abuse, its detection and identification are not straightforward, since M. speciosa plant material is not particularly distinctive. Here, we show that direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) can be used not only to rapidly identify M. speciosa plant material and distinguish it from other plants, but also to distinguish between M. speciosa plant varieties, based on differences between their chemical profiles. The method is rapid and the analysis expeditious. Plant material such as that found at a crime scene can be analyzed directly with no sample pre-preparation steps. Furthermore, we show that the basis set of principal components that permit characterization of the plant material can be used to positively identify M. speciosa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a triple hyphenated HPLC-radical scavenging detection-DAD-SPE-NMR system for the rapid identification of antioxidants in complex plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Waard, de P.

    2005-01-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous detection and identification of radical scavenging compounds in plant extracts was developed by combining an HPLC with on-line radical scavenging using DPPH as a model radical and an HPLC¿DAD¿SPE¿NMR system. Using this method a commercial rosemary extract was

  20. Development of a rapid and sensitive battery of bioassays for risk assessment of cyanobacterial microcystin-LR in drinking water of rural water treatment plants, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available become necessary to assess and develop additional methods that are rapid, yet realistic and cheap for the detection of cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water of rural conventional water treatment plants in South Africa. A well-known cyanobacterial...

  1. A rapid and robust method for simultaneously measuring changes in the phytohormones ABA, JA and SA in plants following biotic and abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansfield John W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe an efficient method for the rapid quantitative determination of the abundance of three acidic plant hormones from a single crude extract directly by LC/MS/MS. The method exploits the sensitivity of MS and uses multiple reaction monitoring and isotopically labelled samples to quantify the phytohormones abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in Arabidopsis leaf tissue.

  2. A rapid and robust method for simultaneously measuring changes in the phytohormones ABA, JA and SA in plants following biotic and abiotic stress.

    OpenAIRE

    Forcat, S; Bennett, M; Mansfield, J; Grant, M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We describe an efficient method for the rapid quantitative determination of the abundance of three acidic plant hormones from a single crude extract directly by LC/MS/MS. The method exploits the sensitivity of MS and uses multiple reaction monitoring and isotopically labelled samples to quantify the phytohormones abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in Arabidopsis leaf tissue.

  3. Teaching Human Genetics with Mustard: Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Fast Plants Type) as a Model for Human Genetics in the Classroom Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Douglas L.; Pickard, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    We have developed experiments and materials to model human genetics using rapid cycling "Brassica rapa", also known as Fast Plants. Because of their self-incompatibility for pollination and the genetic diversity within strains, "B. rapa" can serve as a relevant model for human genetics in teaching laboratory experiments. The experiment presented…

  4. Identification of different subtypes of rapid growing Atypical Mycobacterium from water and soil sources: Using PCR-RFLP using hsp65 and rRNA 16s-23s genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varahram, Mohammad; Farnia, Parissa; Saif, Shima; Marashian, Mehran; Farnia, Poopak; Ghanavi, Jaladein; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2016-12-01

    Nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) are a diverse group of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans including skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal tract infection. Generally, NTM are classified into two categories: rapid (7days). In this study, we aimed to investigate NTM frequency and prevalence in environmental samples. Additionally, we tried to identify various subtypes of isolated rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM). Through a prospective descriptive cross-sectional study, water and soil samples were gathered from four neighboring towns around Tehran, the capital of Iran, at different geographic directions. Every 100m(2) of the studied areas gave one sample containing 6g of soil in 3-5cm depth deposited in 50mL sterile water as sampling media. After digestion and decontamination, DNA from culture-positive specimens (RGM) were extracted using phenol-chloroform methods. Then the molecular identification of species and subspecies were performed using 16s-23s rRNA and hsp65 gene. In total, 341 RGM were found, out of which 322 (94.4%) were identified and 20 (5.8%) could not be identified. The most frequent RGM was, Mycobacterium fortuitum (72; 22%), Mycobacterium senegalense (58; 17.7%), Mycobacterium parafortuitum (44; 13.4%) and Mycobacterium conceptionense type 1 (24; 7.2%), and Mycobacterium cheloni type 1 (20; 6.0%). As shown in Table 1, M. fortuitum had more subtypes (8), and the frequency of subtypes 1 (27.7%), 4 (16.6%), and 5 (13.8%) were higher. Among subtypes of M. senegalense, subtype 1 had a higher frequency (70.4%) in comparison to subtype 2 (29.5%). M. cheloni had just one subtype. Our results showed M. fortuitum as the most prominent strain isolated from environmental samples. The frequency was similar in different places, irrespective of climatic variations. Availability of various subtypes of M. fortuitum might indicate a large circulation of this RGM in soil and water of Iranian territory. This high prevalence of M. fortuitum might

  5. Growing and marketing woody species to support pollinators: An emerging opportunity for forest, conservation, and native plant nurseries in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Tara Luna

    2016-01-01

    The decline of insects that pollinate flowers is garnering more attention by land managers, policymakers, and the general public. Nursery managers who grow native trees, shrubs, and woody vines have a promising opportunity to showcase these species, marketing their contributions to pollinator health and other ecosystem services in urban and wild landscapes....

  6. Aquaponics: What a Way to Grow! Fifth Graders Design Systems for Fish and Plants While Exploring Human Impacts on the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Amy; Raja, Shella

    2016-01-01

    In light of increasing populations and dwindling natural resources, elementary teachers play a crucial role in ensuring children understand and commit to more sustainable lifestyles. Climate change, growing pressures on global fisheries, and the harmful effects of traditional agricultural methods exacerbate this call. Coupled with this emphasis is…

  7. Influence of fertilization, mulch color, early forcing, fruit order, planting date, shading, growing Environment, and genotype on the contents of selected phenolics in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttonen, Mikko J; Hoppula, Kalle I; Nestby, Rolf; Verheul, Michél J; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2006-04-05

    The influence of agricultural practices (fertilization, mulch color, early forcing, and planting date), environment (light and growing area), cultivar, and fruit order on the selected phenolic content and antioxidant activity in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruits was studied. Three different levels of fertilization were given to plants in the fertilization experiment. The lowest fertilization level increased the contents of flavonols and ellagic acid from 19 to 57%. Between cultivars, up to 4-fold differences were found in the flavonol content, and it also varied according to growing environment. Planting date in glasshouse production was important for the phenolic content, and a statistically significant interaction was found between planting date and fruit order. Fruit order caused at highest 1.5-2.0-fold differences in the contents of phenolics. Interestingly, compared with other phenolics, anthocyanins were affected differently by many factors. Thus, the findings show that minor cultivation changes can increase the content of phenolics, especially in under-glass production where conditions can be easily manipulated.

  8. Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov., Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium arcueilense sp. nov., members of a novel group of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria recovered from a water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjek, Julie; Souded, Sabiha; Guerardel, Yann; Trivelli, Xavier; Bernut, Audrey; Kremer, Laurent; Welte, Benedicte; Joyeux, Michel; Dubrou, Sylvie; Euzeby, Jean-Paul; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Sapriel, Guillaume; Heym, Beate

    2016-09-01

    From our recent survey of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria in the Parisian water system, three groups of isolates (taxons 1-3) corresponding to possible novel species were selected for taxonomic study. The three taxa each formed creamy white, rough colonies, had an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C, hydrolyzed Tween 80, were catalase-positive at 22 °C and expressed arylsulfatase activity. All three were susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and tigecycline. The three taxa produced specific sets of mycolic acids, including one family that has never previously been described, as determined by thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The partial rpoB sequences (723 bp) showed 4-6 % divergence from each other and more than 5 % differences from the most similar species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 99 % identity within each species. The most similar sequences for 16S rRNA genes (98-99 % identity over 1444-1461 bp) were found in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, Mycobacterium septicum and Mycobacterium farcinogenes. The three taxa formed a new clade (bootstrap value, 99 %) on trees reconstructed from concatenated partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB sequences. The above results led us to propose three novel species for the three groups of isolates, namely Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov. [type strain 071T=ParisRGMnew_1T (CIP 110656T=DSM 46713T)], Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. [type strain 196T=ParisRGMnew_2T (CIP 110655T=DSM 46714T)] and Mycobacteriu marcueilense sp. nov. [type strain of 269T=ParisRGMnew_3T (CIP 110654T=DSM 46715T)].

  9. An ecophysiological study of plants growing on the fly ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Pavle; Mitrović, Miroslava; Djurdjević, Lola

    2004-05-01

    This ecophysiological research on the ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia covered 10 plant species (Tamarix gallica, Populus alba, Spiraea van-hauttei, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Amorpha fruticosa, Eupatorium cannabinum, Crepis setosa, Epilobium collinum, Verbascum phlomoides, and Cirsium arvense). This paper presents the results of a water regime analysis, photosynthetic efficiency and trace elements (B, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, and Cd) content in vegetative plant parts. Water regime parameters indicate an overall stability in plant-water relations. During the period of summer drought, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was low, ranging from 0.429 to 0.620 for all the species that were analyzed. An analysis of the tissue trace elements content showed a lower trace metal concentration in the plants than in the ash, indicating that heavy metals undergo major concentration during the combustion process and some are not readily taken up by plants. The Zn and Pb concentrations in all of the examined species were normal whereas Cu and Mn concentrations were in the deficiency range. Boron concentrations in plant tissues were high, with some species even showing levels of more than 100 microg/g (Populus sp., Ambrosia sp., Amorpha sp., and Cirsium sp.). The presence of Cd was not detected. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this research that biological recultivation should take into account the existing ecological, vegetation, and floristic potential of an immediate environment that is abundant in life forms and ecological types of plant species that can overgrow the ash deposit relatively quickly. Selected species should be adapted to toxic B concentrations with moderate demands in terms of mineral elements (Cu and Mn).

  10. Uptake and transport of iron ions (Fe+2, Fe+3 supplied to roots or leaves in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. plants growing under different light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In experiments carried out in a phytotron using aqueous cultures, there was investigated the effect of root or foliar application of different types of iron salts on spinach plant productivity, leaf and root iron content as well as the rate of transport of iron from the roots to the leaves. Plants were grown in Hoagland's solution with a single concentration at two fluorescent light intensities: 290 and 95 µmol × m-2 × s-1 PAR. To fertilize the plants, iron was supplied at a dose of 25 mg Fe in the nutrient solution or as foliar sprays using the following salts: 1 – Fe 0; 2 – FeCl2 × 4H2O; 3 – FeCl3 × 4H2O; 4 – FeSO4 × 7H2O; 5 – Fe2(SO43 × nH2O; 6 – Fe-Cit. The obtained results showed that the productivity of spinach plants treated with FeCl2 and FeSO4 using foliar sprays and of those fed with Fe-citrate (Fe-Cit through the roots was significantly higher than in the case of the other salts used. Root application of the salts used had a significant effect on root iron content, whereas their foliar application significantly affected leaf iron content. In this respect, ferrous salts were generally the most beneficial, while ferric salts were the least beneficial. The rate of transport of iron to the leaves, irrespective of the method of its application, was clearly higher for ferrous salts and Fe-Cit than for ferric salts. The free proline content in the leaves of plants not fertilized with Fe was 2–4 times lower than in plants supplied with this nutrient. An irradiance of 290 µmol × m-2 × s-1 had a positive effect on plant productivity and root Fe content. .

  11. Impact of defoliation intensities on plant biomass, nutrient uptake and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus tenuis growing in a saline-sodic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, I; Mendoza, R

    2012-11-01

    The impact of different defoliation intensities on the ability of Lotus tenuis plants to regrowth, mobilise nutrients and to associate with native AM fungi and Rhizobium in a saline-sodic soil was investigated. After 70 days, plants were subjected to 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% defoliation and shoot regrowth was assessed at the end of subsequent 35 days. Compared to non-defoliated plants, low or moderate defoliation up to 75% did not affect shoot regrowth. However, 100% treatment affected shoot regrowth and the clipped plants were not able to compensate the growth attained by non-defoliated plants. Root growth was more affected by defoliation than shoot growth. P and N concentrations in shoots and roots increased with increasing defoliation while Na(+) concentration in shoots of non-defoliated and moderately defoliated plants was similar. Non-defoliated and moderately defoliated plants prevented increases of Na(+) concentration in shoots through both reducing Na(+) uptake and Na(+) transport to shoots by accumulating Na(+) in roots. At high defoliation, the salinity tolerance mechanism is altered and Na(+) concentration in shoots was higher than in roots. Reduction in the photosynthetic capacity induced by defoliation neither changed the root length colonised by AM fungi nor arbuscular colonisation but decreased the vesicular colonisation. Spore density did not change, but hyphal density and Rhizobium nodules increased with defoliation. The strategy of the AM symbiont consists in investing most of the C resources to preferentially retain arbuscular colonisation as well as inoculum density in the soil. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Growing Out of Stress: The Role of Cell- and Organ-Scale Growth Control in Plant Water-Stress Responses[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Neil E.

    2016-01-01

    Water is the most limiting resource on land for plant growth, and its uptake by plants is affected by many abiotic stresses, such as salinity, cold, heat, and drought. While much research has focused on exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular signaling events governing water-stress responses, it is also important to consider the role organismal structure plays as a context for such responses. The regulation of growth in plants occurs at two spatial scales: the cell and the organ. In this review, we focus on how the regulation of growth at these different spatial scales enables plants to acclimate to water-deficit stress. The cell wall is discussed with respect to how the physical properties of this structure affect water loss and how regulatory mechanisms that affect wall extensibility maintain growth under water deficit. At a higher spatial scale, the architecture of the root system represents a highly dynamic physical network that facilitates access of the plant to a heterogeneous distribution of water in soil. We discuss the role differential growth plays in shaping the structure of this system and the physiological implications of such changes. PMID:27503468

  13. A Protocol for Rapid, Measurable Plant Tissue Culture Using Stem Disc Meristem Micropropagation of Garlic ("Allium Sativum L.")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Gerry; Jones, Meriel

    2012-01-01

    Plant tissue culture is becoming an important technique for the mass propagation of plants. Problems with existing techniques, such as slow growth and contamination, have restricted the practical work in plant tissue culture carried out in schools. The new protocol using garlic meristematic stem discs explained in this article addresses many of…

  14. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  15. The effect of heavy metals on the total protein concentration of Typha latifolia plants, growing in a substrate containing sewage sludge compost and watered with metaliferus wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, T; Stentiford, E I; Millner, P

    2002-09-01

    Typha latifolia plants, commonly known as cattails, were grown in a mixture of sewage sludge compost, commercial compost and perlite. Large 6.5 L pots were used with one well developed plant in each pot, divided in five groups. Four groups were irrigated with a solution containing different concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn for a period of 10 weeks, where the fifth was used as a blank. Changes in the concentration of total protein in the leaves/stems were monitored aiming to study the effect of heavy metals from both the substrate and the wastewater on the plants' development and health. At the end of the experiment in the leaves/stems of Typha latifolia the mean concentration of Ni and Zn reached values of 27.50 and 60.83 mg/kg of d.w. respectively. Similar high concentrations were recorded for all five metals. This, however, did not resulted in an inhibition of the plants development and health in three of the four groups as evidenced by the increasing concentrations of the total protein in the leaves' tissue. Only in the fourth group, where the stronger solution was used, some evidence of inhibition occurred after the 8th week. The presence of NO- as part of the metals' salts (growth factor), the short period of the experiment and the natural tolerance of Typha latifolia in heavy metals toxicity could explain such phenomenon.

  16. Activity and isoenzyme spectrum of peroxidases and dehydrins of some plant species, growing on the shores of lake Baikal, under abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Zhivet’ev

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Termostability and optimal pH of weak-associated with plant cell wall and soluble peroxidases was shown to change in relation to natural conditions and season of year. Also the activity of peroxidase was variable during vegetation period. Dehydrine expression was followed by spike of peroxidase activity (and, a priori, an increase of hydrogen peroxide concentration.

  17. Ecological impacts of using chloropicrin to control laminated root rot in Northwest conifer forests: growth and mycorrhiza formation of planted Douglas-fir seedlings after two growing seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Castellano; Donaraye McKay; Walter G. Thles

    1993-01-01

    Bareroot Douglas-fir seedlings inoculated with Rhizopogon sp. and processed by standard nursery and reforestation procedures performed equally well whether planted near Douglas-fir stumps previously fumigated with two dosages of chloropicrin to control Phellinus weirii infection or near stumps not fumigated. Before stump-...

  18. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils from wild growing aromatic plant species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous ...

  19. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Myrcianthes hallii (O. Berg McVaugh (Myrtaceae, a Traditional Plant Growing in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Chavez Carvajal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myrcianthes hallii (O. Berg McVaugh (Myrtaceae is a plant native to Ecuador, traditionally used for its antiseptic properties. The composition of the hydro-methanolic extract of this plant was determined by submitting it to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC hyphenated to heated-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and UV detection. The presence of antimicrobial components prompted us to test the extract against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, multidrug-resistant and susceptible Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus pyogenes strains. The chromatographic analysis led to the identification of 38 compounds, including polyphenols and organic acids, and represents the first chemical characterization of this plant. The extract showed modest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, with the exception of E. coli which was found to be less sensitive. Whilst methicillin-resistant strains usually display resistance to several drugs, no relevant differences were observed between methicillin-susceptible and resistant strains. Considering its long-standing use in folk medicine, which suggests the relative safety of the plant, and the presence of many known antibacterial polyphenolic compounds responsible for its antibacterial activity, the results show that M. hallii extract could be used as a potential new antiseptic agent. Moreover, new anti-infective biomaterials and nanomaterials could be designed through the incorporation of M. hallii polyphenols. This prospective biomedical application is also discussed.

  20. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  1. Biomarker responses of rice plants growing in a potentially toxic element polluted region: A case study in the Le'An Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiaoli; Peng, Yongwen; Cai, Gaotang; Gao, Guiqing; Wu, Jianqiang; Liu, Jiali

    2017-11-01

    Rice plants, planted and grown in the field, were chosen in this study to evaluate the potentially toxic element pollution by combining pollutant analysis and a molecular biomarker response evaluation together in the Le'An Region, a highly polluted area due to anthropogenic activities. Soils and crops at 18 sites classified into four areas based on hydrological, geological and pollutant survey results were collected during the whole growth cycle for chemical and biological analysis. Sediment quality values and pollution indexes were combined with statistical analyses to assess the hazard of potentially toxic elements and evaluate ecological risks. As effective stress-related signals, chlorophyll (Chl), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), glutathione content (GSH) and lipoperoxidation (as TBARS) were also determined during the rice plant growth period. The results revealed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than corresponding background values and significantly related to those of the soils. The maximum concentration of potentially toxic elements was observed at the tillering stage, followed by the grain filling stage and heading stage. As biomarkers in field monitoring, a significant increase or decrease in Chl, SOD, POD, CAT, GSH and TBARS in crops means a potential relationship between the indexes and pollutants. This study also demonstrates that the integrated biomarker response (IBR) calculated by combining different biomarkers could be used effectively to evaluate the pollutant-induced stress levels in different areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of different growing substrates on the plant water relations and marketable fruit yield greenhouse-grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2009-2011, a study was conducted in a greenhouse, using fertigation, to determine water relations and fruit yield of tomato grown in different substrates. Tomato plants were grown on rockwool slabs, 15 dm3  in volume, and on slabs of the same volume made of the following straw chaff: rape straw; rape straw + peat (3:1; rape straw + pine bark (3:1; triticale straw; triticale straw + peat (3:1; triticale straw + pine bark (3:1. 2 tomato plants were grown on each slab, leaving 22 fruit clusters on each plant during the period from February to October. The obtained results showed that water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water saturation deficit, and leaf free proline content in tomato grown on rockwool and on rape or triticale straw chaff substrates did not differ statistically significantly. Also, no significant differences were found in marketable tomato fruit yield and dry matter content in tomato fruits. Peat or pine bark addition to rape or triticale straw substrates had no significant effect on the change in their commercially useful traits. In the opinion of the present authors, substrates made of rape or triticale straw alone, and even more so with the addition of peat or bark, are not inferior in any way to commonly used rockwool.

  3. Rapid Transient Production in Plants by Replicating and Non-Replicating Vectors Yields High Quality Functional Anti-HIV Antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Sainsbury; Markus Sack; Johannes Stadlmann; Heribert Quendler; Rainer Fischer; Lomonossoff, George P.

    2010-01-01

    Background The capacity of plants and plant cells to produce large amounts of recombinant protein has been well established. Due to advantages in terms of speed and yield, attention has recently turned towards the use of transient expression systems, including viral vectors, to produce proteins of pharmaceutical interest in plants. However, the effects of such high level expression from viral vectors and concomitant effects on host cells may affect the quality of the recombinant product. Meth...

  4. Lead, zinc, and cadmium uptake, accumulation, and phytoremediation by plants growing around Tang-e Douzan lead-zinc mine, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesami, Reza; Salimi, Azam; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid

    2018-01-10

    In the current study, soils of Tang-e Douzan mine, located in Isfahan, Iran, were collected and analyzed for soluble, exchangeable, and total amounts of Pb, Zn, Cd, Ca, and Mg. The maximum Pb, Zn, Cd, Ca, and Mg concentrations in soils were 2500, 1100, 59, 43,800, and 1320 mg/kg for total metals, 86, 83, 6.3, 4650, and 48 mg/kg for their exchangeable fractions, and 59, 3.7, 0.53, 430, and 6.4 mg/kg for their soluble fractions, respectively. All specimens collected, including 69 plant species, were analyzed for Pb, Zn, and Cd. Moreover, their phytoremediation potential was investigated by calculating bioconcentration factors (BCF), translocation factors (TF), and extraction factors (EF) for each heavy metal. Analysis of the leaves for heavy metals showed no metal hyperaccumulation. The highest shoot concentrations of Pb (298 mg/kg) and Zn (740 mg/kg) were found in Roemeria hybrida subsp. dodecandra and Cd (43 mg/kg) in Chenopodium foliosum. Plants having BCFs and TFs > 1 are capable of phytoextraction. Among the analyzed species, four had both TFs and BCFs > 1 for Zn, 13 for Cd, and none for Pb. R. hybrida, Bromus squarrosus, Descurainia sophia, and Poa bulbosa seem to be the best choices for phytoextraction of Zn. Aegilops columnaris, Allium ampeloprasum subsp. iranicum, B. squarrosus, and Cousinia piptocephala are the best choices for phytoextraction of Cd. Plants with BCF > 1 and TF < 1, including Cerastium dichotomum and Muscari neglectum for Pb, Ceratocephala falcata, M. neglectum, Ornithogalum orthophyllum, and Ranunculus arvensis for Zn and C. falcata, M. neglectum, O. orthophyllum, and R. hybrida subsp. dodecandra for Cd, are proposed to be the most efficient species for metal phytostabilization.

  5. A Novel System for Rapid and Cost-Effective Production of Detection and Diagnostic Reagents of West Nile Virus in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyun He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat of West Nile virus (WNV epidemics necessitates the development of a technology platform that can produce reagents to support detection and diagnosis rapidly and inexpensively. A plant expression system is attractive for protein production due to its low-cost and high-scalability nature and its ability to make appropriate posttranslational modifications. Here, we investigated the feasibility of using plants to produce two WNV detection and diagnostic reagents to address the current cost and scalability issues. We demonstrated that WNV DIII antigen and E16 monoclonal antibody are rapidly produced at high levels in two plant species and are easily purified. Furthermore, they are effective in identifying WNV and in detecting human IgM response to WNV infection. E16 mAb does not cross-react with other flaviviruses, therefore, is valuable for improving diagnostic accuracy. This study provides a proof of principle for using plants as a robust and economical system to produce diagnostic reagents for arboviruses.

  6. Rapid Analytical Method for the Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from...

  7. Plant lesions promote the rapid multiplication of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on post-harvest lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) infections have been associated with minimally processed leafy vegetables in the U.S. Harvesting and processing cause plant tissue damage. In order to assess the role of plant tissue damage in the contamination of leafy greens with EcO157, the e...

  8. Enrichment of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic acids by oil-degrading bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plants growing in oil-contaminated soil from Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Annett; Omirbekova, Anel; Schumann, Peter; Reinhard, Anne; Sheikhany, Halah; Berzhanova, Ramza; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2015-05-01

    Three microbial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (Festuca rubra, 75 %; Lolium perenne, 20 %; Poa pratensis, 10 %), and rape (Brassica napus) on the basis of their high capacity to use crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source. These isolates used an unusually wide spectrum of hydrocarbons as substrates (more than 80), including n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging from C12 to C32, monomethyl- and monoethyl-substituted alkanes (C12-C23), n-alkylcyclo alkanes with alkyl chain lengths from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, as well as substituted monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons. These three strains were identified as Gordonia rubripertincta and Rhodococcus sp. SBUG 1968. During their transformation of this wide range of hydrocarbon substrates, a very large number of aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic acids was detected, 44 of them were identified by GC/MS analyses, and 4 of them are described as metabolites for the first time. Inoculation of plant seeds with these highly potent bacteria had a beneficial effect on shoot and root development of plants which were grown on oil-contaminated sand.

  9. In vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activities of extracts from wild growing and in vitro plants of Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Paul Mauricio; Villarreal, María Luisa; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Trejo-Tapia, Gabriela

    2013-12-12

    Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (Orobanchaceae) is a perennial shrub used since the 16(th) century in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of a number of health disorders including inflammation, stomach pain and tumors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activities of ethyl acetate (EaE), methanol (ME) and aqueous extracts (AE) of Castilleja tenuiflora wild grown (CtW) and in vitro plants (CtIv). Phytochemical analysis of the phenylethanoid glycoside (PhG) and iridoid glycoside (IG) components was carried out by chromatographic methods. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the extracts was evaluated in the following four carcinoma cell lines: colon (HF-6), breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC-3), and nasopharyngeal (KB). The topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in mouse ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Anti-ulcerogenic activity was evaluated in rats using an absolute ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer model. The main compounds in the extracts were isoverbascoside, verbascoside and aucubin and their concentration depended both on the solvent used and on the plant material origin. None of the extracts showed cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines. In contrast, CtWEaE, CtWAE and CtIvEaE (1.6 mg/ear) showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity similar to dexamethasone (1 mg/ear) with a 38.2, 39.3 and 49.1% decrease of inflammation, respectively. CtWEaE and CtIvEaE (100 mg/kg) showed high anti-ulcerogenic activity with 88.3 and 83.1% inhibition, respectively, compared to famotidine (20 mg/kg, 32.8% inhibition). Castilleja tenuiflora extracts provided significant gastric protection in an acute ulcer induction model and topical anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse ear edema model. These activities are related to verbascoside and may explain the traditional use of Castilleja tenuiflora in the treatment of anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal disorders. Cultured

  10. Rapid burst of H2O2 by plant growth regulators increases intracellular Ca2+ amounts and modulates CD4+ T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asma; Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Deobagkar, Mukta; Naik, Tanushree; Nandi, Dipankar

    2010-11-01

    The identification of small molecules that affect T cell activation is an important area of research. Three molecules that regulate plant growth and differentiation, but not their structurally similar analogs, were identified to enhance primary mouse CD4(+) T cell activation in conjunction with soluble anti-CD3 stimulation: Indoleacetic acid (natural plant auxin), 1-Napthaleneacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin and herbicide). These effects are distinct in comparison to Curcumin, the well known phenolic immunomodulator, which lowers T cell activation. An investigation into the mechanisms of action of the three plant growth regulators revealed a rapid induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly comprising H(2)O(2). In addition, these three molecules synergize with soluble anti-CD3 signaling to enhance intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations [Ca(2+)](i), leading to greater T cell activation, e.g. induction of CD25 and IL-2. Enhanced production of TNFα and IFNγ by CD4(+) T cells is also observed upon plant growth regulator treatment with soluble anti-CD3. Interestingly, maximal IL-2 production and CD4(+) T cell cycle progression are observed upon activation with soluble anti-CD3 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a phorbol ester. Additionally, stimulation with PMA and Ionomcyin (a Ca(2+) ionophore), which activates T cells by circumventing the TCR, and plant growth regulators also demonstrated the role of the strength of signal (SOS): T cell cycle progression is enhanced with gentle activation conditions but decreased with strong activation conditions. This study demonstrates the direct effects of three plant growth regulators on CD4(+) T cell activation and cycling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Leaf anatomy of two reciprocally non-monophyletic mountain plants (Heliosperma spp.): does heritable adaptation to divergent growing sites accompany the onset of speciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertel, Clara; Schönswetter, Peter; Frajman, Božo; Holzinger, Andreas; Neuner, Gilbert

    2017-05-01

    Evolution is driven by natural selection, favouring individuals adapted in phenotypic traits to the environmental conditions at their growing site. To shed light on ecological and (epi-) genetically based differentiation between Heliosperma pusillum and Heliosperma veselskyi, two reciprocally non-monophyletic, but morphologically and ecologically divergent species from the south-eastern Alps, we studied various leaf anatomical traits and investigated chloroplast ultrastructure in leaves of the two species grown either in their natural habitat or in a common garden. The alpine H. pusillum occurs in open, wet rock habitats, whereas its close relative H. veselskyi is restricted to dry, shady habitats below overhanging rocks in the montane belt. H. pusillum exhibited higher thickness of leaves and palisade layers as adjustments and/or adaptations to higher irradiance and a higher stomatal area index reflecting better water availability. Traits were adjusted plastically, but differed between species grown in a common garden, suggesting that the differentiation between the two species is not solely based on phenotypic plasticity but also has a genetic basis. Our study thus supports the hypothesis that differentiation between the highly interfertile species is likely driven by natural selection.

  12. Populations of selected microbial and fungal species growing on the surface of rape seeds following treatment with desiccants or plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frac, Magdalena; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Tys, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of desiccants and plant growth regulators on selected microbial species affecting rape seeds, with special emphasis on the growth of fungi and identification of the genus and species composition. The experimental material in the study was seeds of winter rape cv. Californium that were collected from the field during combine harvest. The chemical agents applied, both desiccants and growth regulators, generally decreased the populations of bacteria occurring on the surface of rape seeds. The responses of fungi depended upon the type of agent applied and were manifested as either stimulation or inhibition of the growth of the fungal species. The fungi isolated from the surface of rape seeds were characteristic of those found in the field environment (Cladosporium and Penicillium) and typical for those present on the surface of rape seeds (Alternaria).

  13. Rapid discovery of cyclopamine analogs from Fritillaria and Veratrum plants using LC-Q-TOF-MS and LC-QqQ-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuan; Zheng, Zu-Guo; Yu, Yue; Wu, Zi-Tian; Liang, Dan; Li, Ping; Jiang, Yan; Li, Hui-Jun

    2017-08-05

    Cyclopamine, an inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, has been paid much attention in treating a wide variety of tumors. However, isolation and purification of cyclopamine analogs from medicinal plants remain challengeable. We herein proposed an efficient strategy using liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS) for rapid screening and targeted isolation of cyclopamine analogs in Fritillaria and Veratrum plants. Firstly, fifteen reference compounds were characterized by LC-Q-TOF-MS and their characteristic fragment ions were summarized. Secondly, according to the characteristic fragment ions at m/z 67.1, 84.1, 109.1 and 114.1, rapid chemical screening of plant extracts was carried out by LC-QqQ-MS using precursor ion scan mode and 69 pre-target compounds were screened out. Thirdly, 24 real target compounds were verified by LC-Q-TOF-MS based on relative abundances (over 20%) of characteristic fragment ions. Fourthly, the targeted isolation of Fritillaria ussuriensis bulb and Veratrum dahuricum rhizome afforded a novel cyclopamine analog namely 15β-hydroxy-23-isopengbeisine B as well as four known ones, whose structures were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Additionally, these five analogs were evaluated for the inhibitory activity of Hh signaling pathway in NIH/3T3 cell and cytotoxicity in PANC-1 and HepG2 cells. These results indicated that the proposed strategy was reliable for rapid discovery and targeted isolation of important natural products from chemically complex plant matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sap-direct RT-PCR for the rapid detection of coleus blumei viroids of the genus Coleviroid from natural host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongmei; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui; Sano, Teruo; Li, Shifang

    2011-06-01

    A simple and fast sap-direct RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) for the rapid detection of 3 viroids of the genus Coleviroid is presented. The templates for cDNA synthesis were obtained directly from the sap of coleus using a pipettor, a common tool in molecular biology laboratories, and 3 coleus blumei viroids (CbVds) were detected simultaneously using a pair of universal primers designed according to sequences in the central conserved region (CCR) of CbVds. RT-PCR results demonstrated that CbVd-1, CbVd-5, and CbVd-6 can be detected accurately in viroid-infected plants but not in viroid-free plants. The results of RT-PCR, dot-blot, sequencing, and batch-detection revealed that this method can be used to identify CbVds rapidly. The method also reduces cross-contamination among different samples to a minimum. It is considered that this rapid and simple technique is an effective method for the identification and cloning of CbVds. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolomic response of Calotropis procera growing in the desert to changes in water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Ahmed; Sabir, Jamal S M; Alakilli, Saleha Y M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Gadalla, Nour O; Edris, Sherif; Al-Kordy, Magdy A; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Bahieldin, Ahmed; Baker, Neil R; Willmitzer, Lothar; Irgang, Susann

    2014-01-01

    Water availability is a major limitation for agricultural productivity. Plants growing in severe arid climates such as deserts provide tools for studying plant growth and performance under extreme drought conditions. The perennial species Calotropis procera used in this study is a shrub growing in many arid areas which has an exceptional ability to adapt and be productive in severe arid conditions. We describe the results of studying the metabolomic response of wild C procera plants growing in the desert to a one time water supply. Leaves of C. procera plants were taken at three time points before and 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after watering and subjected to a metabolomics and lipidomics analysis. Analysis of the data reveals that within one hour after watering C. procera has already responded on the metabolic level to the sudden water availability as evidenced by major changes such as increased levels of most amino acids, a decrease in sucrose, raffinose and maltitol, a decrease in storage lipids (triacylglycerols) and an increase in membrane lipids including photosynthetic membranes. These changes still prevail at the 6 hour time point after watering however 12 hours after watering the metabolomics data are essentially indistinguishable from the prewatering state thus demonstrating not only a rapid response to water availability but also a rapid response to loss of water. Taken together these data suggest that the ability of C. procera to survive under the very harsh drought conditions prevailing in the desert might be associated with its rapid adjustments to water availability and losses.

  16. Application of power plant flue gas in a photobioreactor to grow Spirulina algae, and a bioactivity analysis of the algal water-soluble polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Yang, Tsung-Shi; Chen, Mao-Jing; Chang, Yu-Ching; Lin, Chai-Yi; Wang, Eugene I-Chen; Ho, Chen-Lung; Huang, Kue-Ming; Yu, Chi-Cheng; Yang, Feng-Ling; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Lu, Ying-Chen; Chao, Louis Kuop-Ping

    2012-09-01

    A novel photobioreactor was developed with a total volume of 30 m(3) which required merely 100 m(3) of land footprint. The bioreactor was capable of utilizing CO(2) in the flue gas of a power plant as the carbon source for the growth of a freshwater alga, Spirulina platensis, mitigating the greenhouse effect caused by the same amount of CO(2) discharge. Results of the study indicated that the photobioreactor was capable of fixing 2,234 kg of CO(2) per annum. Upon deducting the energy consumption of operating the bioreactor unit, the estimated amount of CO(2) to be fixed by a scaled-up reactor would be 74 tons ha(-1)year(-1). In addition, the study prove that protein-free polysaccharides of S. platensis could induce the production of pro-IL-1 and IL-1 proteins through the mediation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPKs pathways. As a consequence, immunogenic activities of the macrophage cells were enhanced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular and immunological characterization of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen after exposure of the plants to elevated ozone over a whole growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Ulrike; Heller, Werner; Durner, Jörg; Winkler, J Barbro; Engel, Marion; Behrendt, Heidrun; Holzinger, Andreas; Braun, Paula; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima; Mayer, Klaus; Pfeifer, Matthias; Ernst, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and air pollution, including ozone is known to affect plants and might also influence the ragweed pollen, known to carry strong allergens. We compared the transcriptome of ragweed pollen produced under ambient and elevated ozone by 454-sequencing. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out for the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Pollen surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and phenolics were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Elevated ozone had no influence on the pollen size, shape, surface structure or amount of phenolics. ATR-FTIR indicated increased pectin-like material in the exine. Transcriptomic analyses showed changes in expressed-sequence tags (ESTs), including allergens. However, ELISA indicated no significantly increased amounts of Amb a 1 under elevated ozone concentrations. The data highlight a direct influence of ozone on the exine components and transcript level of allergens. As the total protein amount of Amb a 1 was not altered, a direct correlation to an increased risk to human health could not be derived. Additional, the 454-sequencing contributes to the identification of stress-related transcripts in mature pollen that could be grouped into distinct gene ontology terms.

  18. Molecular and immunological characterization of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen after exposure of the plants to elevated ozone over a whole growing season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Kanter

    Full Text Available Climate change and air pollution, including ozone is known to affect plants and might also influence the ragweed pollen, known to carry strong allergens. We compared the transcriptome of ragweed pollen produced under ambient and elevated ozone by 454-sequencing. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was carried out for the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Pollen surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, and phenolics were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Elevated ozone had no influence on the pollen size, shape, surface structure or amount of phenolics. ATR-FTIR indicated increased pectin-like material in the exine. Transcriptomic analyses showed changes in expressed-sequence tags (ESTs, including allergens. However, ELISA indicated no significantly increased amounts of Amb a 1 under elevated ozone concentrations. The data highlight a direct influence of ozone on the exine components and transcript level of allergens. As the total protein amount of Amb a 1 was not altered, a direct correlation to an increased risk to human health could not be derived. Additional, the 454-sequencing contributes to the identification of stress-related transcripts in mature pollen that could be grouped into distinct gene ontology terms.

  19. Rapid Construction of Complex Plant RNA Virus Infectious cDNA Clones for Agroinfection Using a Yeast-E. coli-Agrobacterium Shuttle Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Zhao, Danyang; Liu, Yong; Huang, Changjun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhenghe

    2017-11-07

    The availability of infectious full-length clone is indispensable for reverse genetics studies of virus biology, pathology and construction of viral vectors. However, for RNA viruses with large genome sizes or those exhibiting inherent cloning difficulties, procedure to generate biologically active circular DNA (cDNA) clones can be time-consuming or technically challenging. Here we have constructed a yeast- Escherichia coli - Agrobacterium shuttle vector that enables highly efficient homologous recombination in yeast for assembly of Agrobacterium compatible plant virus clones. Using this vector, we show that infectious cDNA clones of a plant negative-stranded RNA virus, sonchus yellow net rhabdovirus, can be rapidly assembled. In addition, one-step assembly of infectious clones of potato virus Y in yeast, either with or without intron, was readily achieved from as many as eight overlapping DNA fragments. More importantly, the recovered yeast plasmids can be transformed directly into Agrobacterium for inoculation, thereby obviating the E. coli cloning steps and associated toxicity issues. This method is rapid, highly efficient and cost-effective and should be readily applicable to a broad range of plant viruses.

  20. Rapid Construction of Complex Plant RNA Virus Infectious cDNA Clones for Agroinfection Using a Yeast-E. coli-Agrobacterium Shuttle Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The availability of infectious full-length clone is indispensable for reverse genetics studies of virus biology, pathology and construction of viral vectors. However, for RNA viruses with large genome sizes or those exhibiting inherent cloning difficulties, procedure to generate biologically active complementary DNA (cDNA clones can be time-consuming or technically challenging. Here we have constructed a yeast-Escherichia coli-Agrobacterium shuttle vector that enables highly efficient homologous recombination in yeast for assembly of Agrobacterium compatible plant virus clones. Using this vector, we show that infectious cDNA clones of a plant negative-stranded RNA virus, sonchus yellow net rhabdovirus, can be rapidly assembled. In addition, one-step assembly of infectious clones of potato virus Y in yeast, either with or without intron, was readily achieved from as many as eight overlapping DNA fragments. More importantly, the recovered yeast plasmids can be transformed directly into Agrobacterium for inoculation, thereby obviating the E. coli cloning steps and associated toxicity issues. This method is rapid, highly efficient and cost-effective and should be readily applicable to a broad range of plant viruses.

  1. Rapid Screening of Natural Plant Extracts with Calcium Diacetate for Differential Effects Against Foodborne Pathogens and a Probiotic Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, William; Brehm-Stecher, Byron; Shetty, Kalidas; Pometto, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    This study focused on advancing a rapid turbidimetric bioassay to screen antimicrobials using specific cocktails of targeted foodborne bacterial pathogens. Specifically, to show the relevance of this rapid screening tool, the antimicrobial potential of generally recognized as safe calcium diacetate (DAX) and blends with cranberry (NC) and oregano (OX) natural extracts was evaluated. Furthermore, the same extracts were evaluated against beneficial lactic acid bacteria. The targeted foodborne pathogens evaluated were Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus using optimized initial cocktails (∼108 colony-forming unit/mL) containing strains isolated from human food outbreaks. Of all extracts evaluated, 0.51% (w/v) DAX in ethanol was the most effective against all four pathogens. However, DAX when reduced to 0.26% and with added blends from ethanol extractions consisting of DAX:OX (3:1), slightly outperformed or was equal to same levels of DAX alone. Subculture of wells in which no growth occurred after 1 week indicated that all water and ethanol extracts were bacteriostatic against the pathogens tested. All the targeted antimicrobials had no effect on the probiotic organism Lactobacillus plantarum. The use of such rapid screening methods combined with the use of multistrain cocktails of targeted foodborne pathogens from outbreaks will allow rapid large-scale screening of antimicrobials and enable further detailed studies in targeted model food systems.

  2. Rapid and efficient isolation of high-quality small RNAs from recalcitrant plant species rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Peng

    Full Text Available Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, are important regulators of plant development and gene expression. The acquisition of high-quality small RNAs is the first step in the study of its expression and function analysis, yet the extraction method of small RNAs in recalcitrant plant tissues with various secondary metabolites is not well established, especially for tropical and subtropical plant species rich in polysaccharides and polyphenols. Here, we developed a simple and efficient method for high quality small RNAs extraction from recalcitrant plant species. Prior to RNA isolation, a precursory step with a CTAB-PVPP buffer system could efficiently remove compounds and secondary metabolites interfering with RNAs from homogenized lysates. Then, total RNAs were extracted by Trizol reagents followed by a differential precipitation of high-molecular-weight (HMW RNAs using polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000. Finally, small RNAs could be easily recovered from supernatant by ethanol precipitation without extra elimination steps. The isolated small RNAs from papaya showed high quality through a clear background on gel and a distinct northern blotting signal with miR159a probe, compared with other published protocols. Additionally, the small RNAs extracted from papaya were successfully used for validation of both predicted miRNAs and the putative conserved tasiARFs. Furthermore, the extraction method described here was also tested with several other subtropical and tropical plant tissues. The purity of the isolated small RNAs was sufficient for such applications as end-point stem-loop RT-PCR and northern blotting analysis, respectively. The simple and feasible extraction method reported here is expected to have excellent potential for isolation of small RNAs from recalcitrant plant tissues rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides.

  3. A Rapid Analytical Method for Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g. as salad dressings) but also for preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to their high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential, in order to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and inter-laboratory validated analytical method for analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  4. Rapid transient production in plants by replicating and non-replicating vectors yields high quality functional anti-HIV antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Frank; Sack, Markus; Stadlmann, Johannes; Quendler, Heribert; Fischer, Rainer; Lomonossoff, George P

    2010-11-12

    The capacity of plants and plant cells to produce large amounts of recombinant protein has been well established. Due to advantages in terms of speed and yield, attention has recently turned towards the use of transient expression systems, including viral vectors, to produce proteins of pharmaceutical interest in plants. However, the effects of such high level expression from viral vectors and concomitant effects on host cells may affect the quality of the recombinant product. To assess the quality of antibodies transiently expressed to high levels in plants, we have expressed and characterised the human anti-HIV monoclonal antibody, 2G12, using both replicating and non-replicating systems based on deleted versions of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) RNA-2. The highest yield (approximately 100 mg/kg wet weight leaf tissue) of affinity purified 2G12 was obtained when the non-replicating CPMV-HT system was used and the antibody was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Glycan analysis by mass-spectrometry showed that the glycosylation pattern was determined exclusively by whether the antibody was retained in the ER and did not depend on whether a replicating or non-replicating system was used. Characterisation of the binding and neutralisation properties of all the purified 2G12 variants from plants showed that these were generally similar to those of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-produced 2G12. Overall, the results demonstrate that replicating and non-replicating CPMV-based vectors are able to direct the production of a recombinant IgG similar in activity to the CHO-produced control. Thus, a complex recombinant protein was produced with no apparent effect on its biochemical properties using either high-level expression or viral replication. The speed with which a recombinant pharmaceutical with excellent biochemical characteristics can be produced transiently in plants makes CPMV-based expression vectors an attractive option for biopharmaceutical development

  5. Rapid transient production in plants by replicating and non-replicating vectors yields high quality functional anti-HIV antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Sainsbury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of plants and plant cells to produce large amounts of recombinant protein has been well established. Due to advantages in terms of speed and yield, attention has recently turned towards the use of transient expression systems, including viral vectors, to produce proteins of pharmaceutical interest in plants. However, the effects of such high level expression from viral vectors and concomitant effects on host cells may affect the quality of the recombinant product.To assess the quality of antibodies transiently expressed to high levels in plants, we have expressed and characterised the human anti-HIV monoclonal antibody, 2G12, using both replicating and non-replicating systems based on deleted versions of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV RNA-2. The highest yield (approximately 100 mg/kg wet weight leaf tissue of affinity purified 2G12 was obtained when the non-replicating CPMV-HT system was used and the antibody was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Glycan analysis by mass-spectrometry showed that the glycosylation pattern was determined exclusively by whether the antibody was retained in the ER and did not depend on whether a replicating or non-replicating system was used. Characterisation of the binding and neutralisation properties of all the purified 2G12 variants from plants showed that these were generally similar to those of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell-produced 2G12.Overall, the results demonstrate that replicating and non-replicating CPMV-based vectors are able to direct the production of a recombinant IgG similar in activity to the CHO-produced control. Thus, a complex recombinant protein was produced with no apparent effect on its biochemical properties using either high-level expression or viral replication. The speed with which a recombinant pharmaceutical with excellent biochemical characteristics can be produced transiently in plants makes CPMV-based expression vectors an attractive option for

  6. An Ambition to Grow

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Kemp; Hakkert, R.

    2006-01-01

    This report tries to gain insight in the willingness or ambition to grow of a small business owner. The main question of this report is therefore: Which factors influence the ambition to grow a business? To examine the ambition to grow an economic and a psychological perspective is given in this study.

  7. Genetic transformation of moss plant | Jing | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bryophytes are among the simplest and oldest of the terrestrial plants. Due to the special living environment and characteristics, bryophytes have become attractive experimental tools for the elucidation of complex biological processes in plants. Mosses grow rapidly when cultured on simple salt media, thereby making them ...

  8. Rapid, single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, E F; Silverman, M P

    1979-01-01

    A single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in sewage treatment plant effluents is described. The method requires the use of only one lactose-based medium and a single incubation temperature of 44.5 degrees C, and it can be completed in 18 h or less, as compared with up to 72 h for the standard most-probable-number method. The appearance of growth is the sole criterion used for designating positives, which can be determined either by increases in the electrical impedance ratio of inoculated medium, as compared to an uninoculated control using a Bactometer model 32, or by visual examination of inoculated medium for turbidity. In trials with 53 samples of unchlorinated sewage treatment plant effluent, fecal coliform counts by the single-step most-probable-number method, throughout a range of less than 10 to almost 10(7) fecal coliforms per 100 ml of effluent, were in excellent agreement with counts abtained by the standard most-probable-number procedure. Similar agreement was obtained in comparative trials with 31 chlorinated effluent samples from two sewage treatment plants. Overall, 87% of 452 positives were confirmed as containing fecal coliforms. The applicability of the single-step most-probable-number method to automated sewage treatment plant operations is discussed. PMID:378129

  9. Hyphenated chromatographic techniques for the rapid screening and identification of antioxidants in methanolic extracts of pharmaceutically used plants .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchou, V.; Fiamegos, Y.C.; Beek, van T.A.; Nanos, C.G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis is an important scientific research area, which normally relies on a number of rather laborious and time-consuming techniques for compound identification. Isolation of the ingredients of plant extracts in adequate quantities for spectral and biological analysis was the basis

  10. A method for rapid production of heteromultimeric protein complexes in plants: assembly of protective bluetongue virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuenemann, Eva C; Meyers, Ann E; Verwey, Jeanette; Rybicki, Edward P; Lomonossoff, George P

    2013-09-01

    Plant expression systems based on nonreplicating virus-based vectors can be used for the simultaneous expression of multiple genes within the same cell. They therefore have great potential for the production of heteromultimeric protein complexes. This work describes the efficient plant-based production and assembly of Bluetongue virus-like particles (VLPs), requiring the simultaneous expression of four distinct proteins in varying amounts. Such particles have the potential to serve as a safe and effective vaccine against Bluetongue virus (BTV), which causes high mortality rates in ruminants and thus has a severe effect on the livestock trade. Here, VLPs produced and assembled in Nicotiana benthamiana using the cowpea mosaic virus-based HyperTrans (CPMV-HT) and associated pEAQ plant transient expression vector system were shown to elicit a strong antibody response in sheep. Furthermore, they provided protective immunity against a challenge with a South African BTV-8 field isolate. The results show that transient expression can be used to produce immunologically relevant complex heteromultimeric structures in plants in a matter of days. The results have implications beyond the realm of veterinary vaccines and could be applied to the production of VLPs for human use or the coexpression of multiple enzymes for the manipulation of metabolic pathways. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Produção e qualidade do morangueiro em sistemas fechados de cultivo sem solo com emprego de substratos Fruit production and quality of strawberry plants grown in closed soilless growing systems with substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo dos Santos Godoi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o crescimento, a produção e a qualidade das frutas do morangueiro cultivado em três sistemas fechados sem solo e com dois substratos. Os sistemas foram testados no interior de um abrigo telado, no Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, no período entre 27 de abril e 21 de novembro de 2006. Esses sistemas foram constituídos por sacolas fertirrigadas por tubos gotejadores e calhas e leito de cultivo fertirrigados por subirrigação. Foram empregados substrato orgânico Plantmax PXT® e areia. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi um fatorial 3 x 2, com quatro repetições. A fertirrigação foi feita com solução nutritiva completa, sem nenhum descarte durante todo o período experimental, e as frutas foram colhidas maduras. Foram determinados os seguintes parâmetros: a produção, a firmeza, a acidez e o teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Interações significativas entre os sistemas e os substratos foram observadas. Na areia, destacou-se o cultivo nas calhas, com produção de 1017,4g planta-1, sendo 8,13% e 8,33% superior às sacolas e ao leito de cultivo, respectivamente. A produção mais elevada foi de 1196,5g planta-1, obtida com substrato orgânico no leito de cultivo, superior às sacolas em 10,9% e às calhas em 29,33%. Concluiu-se que o cultivo sem solo do morangueiro sem descartes de solução nutritiva é possível e que a produção é influenciada pelo sistema de cultivo e pelo substrato, sem efeitos sobre a qualidade das frutas.The objective of the research was to determine fruit production and quality of strawberry plants grown in three different closed soilless systems and two substrates. The experiment was conducted in a screenhouse at Department of Fitotecnia, UFSM, from April to November, 2006. The soilless growing systems were plastic bags, plastic troughs and growing beds, and the substrates were sand and the organic substrate Plantmax PXT®. A 3 x 2 factorial experimental design

  12. Rapid determination of endogenous cytokinins in plant samples by combination of magnetic solid phase extraction with hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Cai, Bao-Dong; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2012-04-01

    A 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (Fe₃O₄/SiO₂/P(AMPS-co-EGDMA)) copolymer was prepared and used as a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) medium for recovery of endogenous cytokinins (CKs) from plant extracts. This magnetic porous polymer was characterized by electron microscopy, nitrogen sorption experiments, elemental analysis and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. It was demonstrated to have high extraction capacity toward CKs in plants due to its specificity, surface area and porous structure. Coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS), a rapid, simple, and effective MSPE-HILIC-MS/MS analytical method for the quantitative analysis of endogenous CKs in Oryza sativa (O. sativa) roots was successfully established. Good linearities were obtained for all CKs investigated with correlation coefficients (R²>0.9975. The results showed that LODs (S/N=3) were ranged from 0.18 to 3.65 pg mL⁻¹. Reproducibility of the method was obtained with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 16.1% and the recoveries in plant samples ranged from 72.8% to 115.5%. Finally, the MSPE-HILIC-MS/MS method was applied to several plant samples, and the amounts of endogenous CKs in O. sativa roots, leaves and Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) were successfully determined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PENGARUH LOKASI TUMBUH, UMUR TANAMAN DAN VARIASI JENIS DESTILASI TERHADAP KOMPOSISI SENYAWA MINYAK ATSIRI RIMPANG Curcuma mangga PRODUKSI BEBERAPA SENTRA DI YOGYAKARTA (Impact of Growing Sites, Plant Ages and Variance of Distillation Types to Curcuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Astuti

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil of Curcuma mangga has been known to be toxic to several cancer cells. The toxicity is influenced by the substances composition. The substances composition of the essential oil is influenced by ecological factor and isolation method. Therefore, this study have several aims to recognize the impact of growing sites, plant ages and variance of distillation types to C. mangga essential oil compositions. To study the impact of the growing sites, C. mangga samples are collected from several places in Yogyakarta. To determine the impact of substances composition of C. mangga essential oil, samples of 1, 3, 7, 10, 11 and 12 months were chosen, while for distillation method, steam and water-steam distillations were used. For C. mangga essential oil’s susbtances analysis, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS was performed. The results of study shown that the land samples contain more substances variance in comparison with the planteau samples, it is probably influenced by the rainfall frequency of land areas, which is lower than planteau areas. In addition, the optimum essential oil are the 8-10 month samples and the distillation method influences to the essential oil compositions. However, all variance treatment has the same main component, i.e., β-ocimene, β-pinene, β-myrcene and p-cineole.

  14. Establishment of a Rapid Plant Regeneration System in Physalis angulata L. through Axillary Meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An optimal plant propagation method of Physalis angulata L., a medicinally important herbaceous plant species has been developed using axillary meristem explants. Shoot bud proliferation was initiated from axillary meristem explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 0.5-2.5mg/L/(BAP/(Zeatin/(KIN. The maximum in vitro response of shooting frequency of explants (88.1% and shoots per explant (42 was achieved with medium containing 1.0mg/L BAP. Multiple shoot culture was established by repeated subculturing of the shoot buds of axillary meristems on shoot multiplication medium. Among the subculture media BAP in combination with 1.5mg/L (IAA+0.25mg/L(GA3 produced maximum shoots per explant (128±0.29 after two weeks of culture. Effective in vitro shoot elongation and rooting was achieved on 1.0mg/L(GA3 and 1.0mg/L(IBA, respectively. Most of the generated shoots were successfully transferred to soil under field conditions. The survival percentage of the transferred plants on soil was found to be 90 per cent.  This protocol can be used for commercial propagation and for future genetic improvement studies.

  15. Rapid in vitro propagation system through shoot tip cultures of Vitex trifolia L.-an important multipurpose plant of the Pacific traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rafique; Anis, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    A rapid and efficient plant propagation system through shoot tip explants was established in Vitex trifolia L., a medicinally important plant belonging to the family Verbenaceae. Multiple shoots were induced directly on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium consisting of different cytokinins, 6-benzyladenine (BA), kinetin (Kin) and 2-isopentenyl adenine (2-iP), BA at an optimal concentration of 5.0 μM was most effective in inducing multiple shoots where 90 % explants responded with an average shoot number (4.4±0.1) and shoot length (2.0±0.1 cm) after 6 weeks of culture. Inclusion of NAA in the culture medium along with the optimum concentration of BA promoted a higher rate of shoot multiplication and length of the shoot, where 19.2±0.3 well-grown healthy shoots with an average shoot length of 4.4±0.1 cm were obtained on completion of 12 weeks culture period. Ex vitro rooting was achieved best directly in soilrite when basal portion of the shoots were treated with 500 μM indole-3-butyric acid for 15 min which was the most effective in inducing roots, as 95 % of the microshoots produced roots. Plantlets went through a hardening phase in a controlled plant growth chamber, prior to ex-vitro transfer. Micropropagated plants grew well, attained maturity and flowered with 92 % survival rate. The results of this study provide the first report on in vitro plant regeneration of Vitex trifolia L. using shoot tip explants.

  16. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  17. CARROT SEED GROWING THROUGH WINTERING SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Zvedenuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research work on carrot seed growing through wintering seedlings carried out at laboratory of seed studies and seed production of Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture, on the soil of the first terrace at the rive Dniester were presented in the article. Seed bearing plants of garden carrot ‘Krasavka’ were the object of the study. The seeds were sown to produce the seedlings on 15-16 August. In the first decade of December the plants were covered with white agrotextile with density 23g/m2 that was removed at the beginning of April. The proportion of plant that passed the winter depending on a year of cultivation was 95-100% under argotextile, and 50-80% in open plot. The plants under agrotextile reached 28 cm a high and had 5-7 well-developed leaves, while those on the open plot were at phase of active foliage growing about 10-13 cm. long. Thus, for early mechanized planting in optimal terms the wintering seedlings grown under agrotextile had the best biometrical characteristics. Moreover the outcome of carrot seedlings was 1.2-1.25 million per hectare. Such quantity of seedlings was sufficient to plant 9-10 ha of carrot plants, where the coefficient of multiplication reached 9-10, and only 3 when growing seeds through mother plant as biennial culture. Viability of seed plants grown through seedlings was 100%. Losses of plant with weight 120-150 grams from damage caused by diseases was 23%. The seed yield, when growing seedlings was 639 kg/ha, but growing through plants was 332 kg/ha. The seed outcome suitable for precise mechanized sowing through seedling growing was 77%, where seed germination was 90%, with seed fraction 1.51 and >2.0 mm. It was essentially improved their yielding characteristics. Seed outcome from this fraction obtained through planting method was 32%. The proportion of seeds in fraction 1-1.5 mm was 68%. For mechanized single-seed sowing, the seeds can be used only after mini-coating. The seed

  18. A Rapid Screening Analysis of Antioxidant Compounds in Native Australian Food Plants Using Multiplexed Detection with Active Flow Technology Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Janaka Rochana Rupesinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional techniques for identifying antioxidant and phenolic compounds in native Australian food plants are laborious and time-consuming. Here, we present a multiplexed detection technique that reduces analysis time without compromising separation performance. This technique is achieved using Active Flow Technology-Parallel Segmented Flow (AFT-PSF columns. Extracts from cinnamon myrtle (Backhousia myrtifolia and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora leaves were analysed via multiplexed detection using an AFT-PSF column with underivatised UV-VIS, mass spectroscopy (MS, and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• derivatisation for antioxidants as detection methods. A number of antioxidant compounds were detected in the extracts of each leaf extract.

  19. High-level rapid production of full-size monoclonal antibodies in plants by a single-vector DNA replicon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhong; Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo; Lai, Huafang; Piensook, Khanrat; Cardineau, Guy; Zeitlin, Larry; Whaley, Kevin J; Arntzen, Charles J; Mason, Hugh S; Chen, Qiang

    2010-05-01

    Plant viral vectors have great potential in rapid production of important pharmaceutical proteins. However, high-yield production of hetero-oligomeric proteins that require the expression and assembly of two or more protein subunits often suffers problems due to the "competing" nature of viral vectors derived from the same virus. Previously we reported that a bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV)-derived, three-component DNA replicon system allows rapid production of single recombinant proteins in plants (Huang et al., 2009. Biotechnol Bioeng 103: 706-714). In this article, we report further development of this expression system for its application in high-yield production of oligomeric protein complexes including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in plants. We showed that the BeYDV replicon system permits simultaneous efficient replication of two DNA replicons and thus, high-level accumulation of two recombinant proteins in the same plant cell. We also demonstrated that a single vector that contains multiple replicon cassettes was as efficient as the three-component system in driving the expression of two distinct proteins. Using either the non-competing, three-vector system or the multi-replicon single vector, we produced both the heavy and light chain subunits of a protective IgG mAb 6D8 against Ebola virus GP1 (Wilson et al., 2000. Science 287: 1664-1666) at 0.5 mg of mAb per gram leaf fresh weight within 4 days post-infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. We further demonstrated that full-size tetrameric IgG complex containing two heavy and two light chains was efficiently assembled and readily purified, and retained its functionality in specific binding to inactivated Ebola virus. Thus, our single-vector replicon system provides high-yield production capacity for hetero-oligomeric proteins, yet eliminates the difficult task of identifying non-competing virus and the need for co-infection of multiple expression modules. The multi-replicon vector represents a

  20. Rapid radiosynthesis of [11C] and [14C]azelaic, suberic, and sebacic acids for in vivo mechanistic studies of systemic acquired resistance in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best M.; Fowler J.; Best, M.; Gifford, A.N.; Kim, S.W.; Babst, B.; Piel, M.; Roesch, F.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-11-25

    A recent report that the aliphatic dicarboxylic acid, azelaic acid (1,9-nonanedioic acid) but not related acids, suberic acid (1,8-octanedioic acid) or sebacic (1,10-decanedioic acid) acid induces systemic acquired resistance to invading pathogens in plants stimulated the development of a rapid method for labeling these dicarboxylic acids with {sup 11}C and {sup 14}C for in vivo mechanistic studies in whole plants. {sup 11}C-labeling was performed by reaction of ammonium [{sup 11}C]cyanide with the corresponding bromonitrile precursor followed by hydrolysis with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. Total synthesis time was 60 min. Median decay-corrected radiochemical yield for [{sup 11}C]azelaic acid was 40% relative to trapped [{sup 11}C]cyanide, and specific activity was 15 GBq/{micro}mol. Yields for [{sup 11}C]suberic and sebacic acids were similar. The {sup 14}C-labeled version of azelaic acid was prepared from potassium [{sup 14}C]cyanide in 45% overall radiochemical yield. Radiolabeling procedures were verified using {sup 13}C-labeling coupled with {sup 13}C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The {sup 11}C and {sup 14}C-labeled azelaic acid and related dicarboxylic acids are expected to be of value in understanding the mode-of-action, transport, and fate of this putative signaling molecule in plants.

  1. A simple and rapid HPLC-DAD method for simultaneously monitoring the accumulation of alkaloids and precursors in different parts and different developmental stages of Catharanthus roseus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qifang; Saiman, Mohd Zuwairi; Mustafa, Natali Rianika; Verpoorte, Robert; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-03-01

    A rapid and simple reversed phase liquid chromatographic system has been developed for simultaneous analysis of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) and their precursors. This method allowed separation of 11 compounds consisting of eight TIAs (ajmalicine, serpentine, catharanthine, vindoline, vindolinine, vincristine, vinblastine, and anhydrovinblastine) and three related precursors i.e., tryptophan, tryptamine and loganin. The system has been applied for screening the TIAs and precursors in Catharanthus roseus plant extracts. In this study, different organs i.e., flowers, leaves, stems, and roots of C. roseus were investigated. The results indicate that TIAs and precursor accumulation varies qualitatively and quantitatively in different organs of C. roseus. The precursors showed much lower levels than TIAs in all organs. Leaves and flowers accumulate higher level of vindoline, catharanthine and anhydrovinblastine while roots have higher level of ajmalicine, vindolinine and serpentine. Moreover, the alkaloid profiles of leaves harvested at different ages and different growth stages were studied. The results show that the levels of monoindole alkaloids decreased while bisindole alkaloids increased with leaf aging and upon plant growth. The HPLC method has been successfully applied to detect TIAs and precursors in different types of C. roseus samples to facilitate further study of the TIA pathway and its regulation in C. roseus plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Salivary glucose oxidase from caterpillars mediates the induction of rapid and delayed-induced defenses in the tomato plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donglan Tian

    Full Text Available Caterpillars produce oral secretions that may serve as cues to elicit plant defenses, but in other cases these secretions have been shown to suppress plant defenses. Ongoing work in our laboratory has focused on the salivary secretions of the tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea. In previous studies we have shown that saliva and its principal component glucose oxidase acts as an effector by suppressing defenses in tobacco. In this current study, we report that saliva elicits a burst of jasmonic acid (JA and the induction of late responding defense genes such as proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2. Transcripts encoding early response genes associated with the JA pathway were not affected by saliva. We also observed a delayed response to saliva with increased densities of Type VI glandular trichomes in newly emerged leaves. Proteomic analysis of saliva revealed glucose oxidase (GOX was the most abundant protein identified and we confirmed that it plays a primary role in the induction of defenses in tomato. These results suggest that the recognition of GOX in tomato may represent a case for effector-triggered immunity. Examination of saliva from other caterpillar species indicates that saliva from the noctuids Spodoptera exigua and Heliothis virescens also induced Pin2 transcripts.

  3. Salivary glucose oxidase from caterpillars mediates the induction of rapid and delayed-induced defenses in the tomato plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Donglan; Peiffer, Michelle; Shoemaker, Erica; Tooker, John; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Caterpillars produce oral secretions that may serve as cues to elicit plant defenses, but in other cases these secretions have been shown to suppress plant defenses. Ongoing work in our laboratory has focused on the salivary secretions of the tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea. In previous studies we have shown that saliva and its principal component glucose oxidase acts as an effector by suppressing defenses in tobacco. In this current study, we report that saliva elicits a burst of jasmonic acid (JA) and the induction of late responding defense genes such as proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2). Transcripts encoding early response genes associated with the JA pathway were not affected by saliva. We also observed a delayed response to saliva with increased densities of Type VI glandular trichomes in newly emerged leaves. Proteomic analysis of saliva revealed glucose oxidase (GOX) was the most abundant protein identified and we confirmed that it plays a primary role in the induction of defenses in tomato. These results suggest that the recognition of GOX in tomato may represent a case for effector-triggered immunity. Examination of saliva from other caterpillar species indicates that saliva from the noctuids Spodoptera exigua and Heliothis virescens also induced Pin2 transcripts.

  4. Rapid, single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, E. F.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    A single-step most-probable-number method for determining the number of fecal coliform bacteria present in sewage treatment plant effluents is discussed. A single growth medium based on that of Reasoner et al. (1976) and consisting of 5.0 gr. proteose peptone, 3.0 gr. yeast extract, 10.0 gr. lactose, 7.5 gr. NaCl, 0.2 gr. sodium lauryl sulfate, and 0.1 gr. sodium desoxycholate per liter is used. The pH is adjusted to 6.5, and samples are incubated at 44.5 deg C. Bacterial growth is detected either by measuring the increase with time in the electrical impedance ratio between the innoculated sample vial and an uninnoculated reference vial or by visual examination for turbidity. Results obtained by the single-step method for chlorinated and unchlorinated effluent samples are in excellent agreement with those obtained by the standard method. It is suggested that in automated treatment plants impedance ratio data could be automatically matched by computer programs with the appropriate dilution factors and most probable number tables already in the computer memory, with the corresponding result displayed as fecal coliforms per 100 ml of effluent.

  5. Hydraulics and gas exchange recover more rapidly from severe drought stress in small pot-grown grapevines than in field-grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Pascual; Botía, Pablo; Keller, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Modifications of plant hydraulics and shoot resistances (Rshoot) induced by water withholding followed by rewatering, and their relationships with plant water status, leaf gas exchange and water use efficiency at the leaf level, were investigated in pot-grown and field-grown, own-rooted Syrah grapevines in an arid climate. Water stress induced anisohydric behavior, gradually reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf photosynthesis (A) in response to decreasing midday stem water potential (Ψs). Water stress also rapidly increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/gs); this effect persisted for many days after rewatering. Whole-plant (Kplant), canopy (Kcanopy), shoot (Kshoot) and leaf (Kleaf) hydraulic conductances decreased during water stress, in tune with the gradual decrease in Ψs, leaf gas exchange and whole plant water use. Water-stressed vines also had a lower Ψ gradient between stem and leaf (ΔΨl), which was correlated with lower leaf transpiration rate (E). E and ΔΨl increased with increasing vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in non-stressed control vines but not in stressed vines. Perfusion of xylem-mobile dye showed that water flow to petioles and leaves was substantially reduced or even stopped under moderate and severe drought stress. Leaf blade hydraulic resistance accounted for most of the total shoot resistance. However, hydraulic conductance of the whole root system (Kroot) was not significantly reduced until water stress became very severe in pot-grown vines. Significant correlations between Kplant, Kcanopy and Ψs, Kcanopy and leaf gas exchange, Kleaf and Ψs, and Kleaf and A support a link between water supply, leaf water status and gas exchange. Upon re-watering, Ψs recovered faster than gas exchange and leaf-shoot hydraulics. A gradual recovery of hydraulic functionality of plant organs was also observed, the leaves being the last to recover after rewatering. In pot-grown vines, Kcanopy recovered rather quickly following restoration of

  6. Russian plant grows monocrystals for CERN collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "..Experts of an enterprise in Murmansk Region has started to make so-called monocrystals. They are needed for making of a huge device the construction of which has started in Switzerland. Thanks to this unique equipment scientists of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) will be able to model the creation of the universe for the first time ever" (1/2 page).

  7. Rapid Growth and Apparent Total Nitrogen Increases in Rice and Corn Plants following Applications of Triacontanol 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N. Richard; Ries, Stanley K.

    1981-01-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA) increased fresh and dry weight and total reducible nitrogen (total N) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings within 40 minutes. Increases in total N in the supernatants from homogenates of corn (Zea mays L.) and rice leaves treated with TRIA for one minute before grinding occurred within 30 and 80 minutes, respectively. The source for the increase was investigated utilizing atmospheric substitution and enrichment and depletion studies with 15N. The increase in total N in seedlings was shown to be independent of method of N analysis and the presence of nitrate in the plants. Automated Kjeldahl determinations showing apparent increases in N composition due to TRIA were shown to be correlated with hand Kjeldahl, elemental analysis, and chemiluminescent analysis in three independent laboratories. TRIA did not alter the nitrate uptake or endogenous levels of nitrate in corn and rice seedlings. Enrichment experiments revealed that the total N increases in rice seedlings, in vivo, and in supernatants of corn leaf homogenates, in vitro, are not due to atmospheric N2. TRIA increased the soluble N pools of the plants, specifically the free amino acid and soluble protein fractions. No differences in depletion or enrichment of 15N incorporated into soluble and insoluble N fractions of rice seedlings could be detected on an atom per cent 15N basis. The apparent short-term total N increases cannot be explained by current knowledge of major N assimilation pathways. TRIA may stimulate a change in the chemical composition of the seedlings, resulting in interference with standard methods of N analysis. PMID:16662092

  8. A plant natriuretic peptide-like molecule of the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes rapid changes in the proteome of its citrus host

    KAUST Repository

    Garavaglia, Betiana S

    2010-03-21

    Background: Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) belong to a novel class of peptidic signaling molecules that share some structural similarity to the N-terminal domain of expansins and affect physiological processes such as water and ion homeostasis at nano-molar concentrations. The citrus pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri possesses a PNP-like peptide (XacPNP) uniquely present in this bacteria. Previously we observed that the expression of XacPNP is induced upon infection and that lesions produced in leaves infected with a XacPNP deletion mutant were more necrotic and lead to earlier bacterial cell death, suggesting that the plant-like bacterial PNP enables the plant pathogen to modify host responses in order to create conditions favorable to its own survival.Results: Here we measured chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and water potential of citrus leaves infiltrated with recombinant purified XacPNP and demonstrate that the peptide improves the physiological conditions of the tissue. Importantly, the proteomic analysis revealed that these responses are mirrored by rapid changes in the host proteome that include the up-regulation of Rubisco activase, ATP synthase CF1 ? subunit, maturase K, and ?- and ?-tubulin.Conclusions: We demonstrate that XacPNP induces changes in host photosynthesis at the level of protein expression and in photosynthetic efficiency in particular. Our findings suggest that the biotrophic pathogen can use the plant-like hormone to modulate the host cellular environment and in particular host metabolism and that such modulations weaken host defence. 2010 Garavaglia et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  9. Yield and seed oil content response of dwarf, rapid-cycling Brassica to nitrogen treatments, planting density, and carbon dioxide enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, J.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of N level (15 to 30 mM), time of N increase (14 to 28 days after planting), and planting density (1163 to 2093 plants/m2) were determined for crop yield responses of dwarf, rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica napus L., CrGC 5-2, Genome: ACaacc). Crops were grown in solid-matrix hydroponic systems and under controlled-environment conditions, including nonsupplemented (ambient) or elevated CO2 concentrations (998 +/- 12 micromoles mol-1). The highest seed yield rate obtained (4.4 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the lowest N level (15 mM) applied at the latest treatment time (day 28). In all trials, CO2 enrichment reduced seed yield rate and harvest index by delaying the onset of flowering and senescence and stimulating vegetative shoot growth. The highest shoot biomass accumulation rate (55.5 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the highest N level (30 mM) applied at the earliest time (day 14). Seed oil content was not significantly affected by CO2 enrichment. Maximum seed oil content (30% to 34%, dry weight basis) was obtained using the lowest N level (15 mM) initiated at the latest treatment time (day 28). In general, an increase in seed oil content was accompanied by a decrease in seed protein. Seed carbohydrate, moisture, and ash contents did not vary significantly in response to experimental treatments. Effects of N level and time of N increase were consistently significant for most crop responses. Planting density was significant only under elevated CO2 conditions.

  10. A plant natriuretic peptide-like molecule of the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes rapid changes in the proteome of its citrus host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottado Jorgelina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs belong to a novel class of peptidic signaling molecules that share some structural similarity to the N-terminal domain of expansins and affect physiological processes such as water and ion homeostasis at nano-molar concentrations. The citrus pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri possesses a PNP-like peptide (XacPNP uniquely present in this bacteria. Previously we observed that the expression of XacPNP is induced upon infection and that lesions produced in leaves infected with a XacPNP deletion mutant were more necrotic and lead to earlier bacterial cell death, suggesting that the plant-like bacterial PNP enables the plant pathogen to modify host responses in order to create conditions favorable to its own survival. Results Here we measured chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and water potential of citrus leaves infiltrated with recombinant purified XacPNP and demonstrate that the peptide improves the physiological conditions of the tissue. Importantly, the proteomic analysis revealed that these responses are mirrored by rapid changes in the host proteome that include the up-regulation of Rubisco activase, ATP synthase CF1 α subunit, maturase K, and α- and β-tubulin. Conclusions We demonstrate that XacPNP induces changes in host photosynthesis at the level of protein expression and in photosynthetic efficiency in particular. Our findings suggest that the biotrophic pathogen can use the plant-like hormone to modulate the host cellular environment and in particular host metabolism and that such modulations weaken host defence.

  11. Rapid and scalable plant-based production of a cholera toxin B subunit variant to aid in mass vaccination against cholera outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Teasley Hamorsky

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB is a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine. The protein induces neutralizing antibodies against the holotoxin, the virulence factor responsible for severe diarrhea. A field clinical trial has suggested that the addition of CTB to killed whole-cell bacteria provides superior short-term protection to whole-cell-only vaccines; however, challenges in CTB biomanufacturing (i.e., cost and scale hamper its implementation to mass vaccination in developing countries. To provide a potential solution to this issue, we developed a rapid, robust, and scalable CTB production system in plants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a preliminary study of expressing original CTB in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana, the protein was N-glycosylated with plant-specific glycans. Thus, an aglycosylated CTB variant (pCTB was created and overexpressed via a plant virus vector. Upon additional transgene engineering for retention in the endoplasmic reticulum and optimization of a secretory signal, the yield of pCTB was dramatically improved, reaching >1 g per kg of fresh leaf material. The protein was efficiently purified by simple two-step chromatography. The GM1-ganglioside binding capacity and conformational stability of pCTB were virtually identical to the bacteria-derived original B subunit, as demonstrated in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, surface plasmon resonance, and fluorescence-based thermal shift assay. Mammalian cell surface-binding was corroborated by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. pCTB exhibited strong oral immunogenicity in mice, inducing significant levels of CTB-specific intestinal antibodies that persisted over 6 months. Moreover, these antibodies effectively neutralized the cholera holotoxin in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results demonstrated that pCTB has robust producibility in Nicotiana plants and retains most, if not all, of major

  12. Application of next-generation sequencing for rapid marker development in molecular plant breeding: a case study on anthracnose disease resistance in Lupinus angustifolius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last 30 years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin) as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA) sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Results Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible) in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM), and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA fingerprinting method for

  13. Application of next-generation sequencing for rapid marker development in molecular plant breeding: a case study on anthracnose disease resistance in Lupinus angustifolius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Huaan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last 30 years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Results Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM, and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA

  14. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, Agustina; Easdale, Tomás A; Grau, H Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1) y(-1)) and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2) ha(-1) y(-1)). Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis) into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species), rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively). However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  15. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Malizia

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1 y(-1 and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2 ha(-1 y(-1. Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species, rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively. However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  16. Rapid Recovery of Chironomidae (Diptera) in Little Mill Creek (Kansas, U.S.A.) After the Decommissioning of a Waste Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, R. W.; Ferrington, L. C.

    2005-05-01

    In June 1995 the Lenexa Waste Water Treatment Plant was decommissioned, providing an opportunity to study recovery of Chironomidae community structure in Little Mill Creek. Using pupal exuviae, weekly changes in the species richness and composition of Chironomidae emerging upstream and downstream of the effluent outfall was evaluated from two weeks before decommissioning to eight weeks post-decommissioning. Chironomidae emergence was clearly different between upstream and downstream sites both before and shortly after effluent input ceased. Before decommissioning, sites immediately downstream of the effluent had low species richness and were dominated by Chironomus riparius (Meigen) and other tolerant taxa, with some recovery at sites farther downstream. Two weeks after decommissioning, only sites immediately downstream of the former effluent were clearly impacted, but effects were reduced compared to pre-recovery collections. At five weeks post-decommissioning, species richness was only slightly lower at the sites immediately downstream of the former effluent and the composition of common species (i.e., >5% of relative abundance) was similar between upstream and downstream sites. Rapid recovery of chironomid emergence below the sewage effluent likely resulted from both colonization of drifting larvae from upstream sources and adult dispersal and oviposition, indicating rapid responses in emergence as water quality conditions improved.

  17. Rapid diagnostic detection of plum pox virus in Prunus plants by isothermal AmplifyRP(®) using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulu; Ravelonandro, Michel; Russell, Paul; McOwen, Nathan; Briard, Pascal; Bohannon, Seven; Vrient, Albert

    2014-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes the most destructive viral disease known as plum pox or Sharka disease in stone fruit trees. As an important regulated pathogen, detection of PPV is thus of critical importance to quarantine and eradication of the spreading disease. In this study, the innovative development of two AmplifyRP(®) tests is reported for a rapid isothermal detection of PPV using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification. In an AmplifyRP(®) test, all specific recombination and amplification reactions occur at a constant temperature without thermal cycling and the test results are either recorded in real-time with a portable fluorescence reader or displayed using a lateral flow strip contained inside an amplicon detection chamber. The major improvement of this assay is that the entire test from sample preparation to result can be completed in as little as 20min and can be performed easily both in laboratories and in the field. The results from this study demonstrated the ability of the AmplifyRP(®) technique to detect all nine PPV strains (An, C, CR, D, EA, M, Rec, T, or W). Among the economic benefits to pathogen surveys is the higher sensitivity of the AmplifyRP(®) to detect PPV when compared to the conventional ELISA and ImmunoStrip(®) assays. This is the first report describing the use of such an innovative technique to detect rapidly plant viruses affecting perennial crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A lateral flow colloidal gold-based immunoassay for rapid detection of miroestrol in samples of White Kwao Krua, a phytoestrogen-rich plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitisripanya, Tharita; Inyai, Chadathorn; Komaikul, Jukrapun; Krittanai, Supaluk; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Putalun, Waraporn

    2017-10-01

    White Kwao Krua (WKK)-derived products have been used worldwide as dietary supplements to relieve climacteric symptoms in menopausal women. Miroestrol is a unique chromene found in WKK tuberous roots that corresponds to the estrogenic activity of WKK. However, miroestrol naturally accumulates at low levels in WKK samples, which are difficult to detect. The development of a rapid and sensitive assay to detect miroestrol in numerous products derived from this plant would be a practical and useful method to guarantee the quality of raw materials. To allow rapid and easy qualitative detection of miroestrol, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) using a colloidal gold-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) against miroestrol was developed. The qualitative LFIA was based on the competition of free miroestrol in the sample and immobilized miroestrol-conjugated proteins on the strip for a limited number of antibodies in the detection reagent. Anti-miroestrol mAb was colored by colloidal gold labels and used as the detection reagent in LFIA. Anti-mouse immunoglobulin G was used to indicate the functioning of the LFIA system. The detection limit of the LFIA was 0.156 μg of miroestrol. The LFIA was applied to determine the miroestrol content in WKK samples and products. The result was compared with the validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and demonstrated a correlative outcome. This study shows that the developed LFIA is practical and suitable for detecting small amounts of miroestrol in WKK samples. This qualitative assay is more rapid in screening miroestrol in WKK samples (within 10 min) than conventional methods (ELISA and HPLC).

  19. Melting ice, growing trade?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sami Bensassi; Julienne C. Stroeve; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Andrew P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR...

  20. Analysis of the hybrid proline-rich protein families from seven plant species suggests rapid diversification of their sequences and expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Lukáš

    2007-11-01

    , modification or loss of the proline-rich domains. Most of the diversity in gymnosperms and angiosperms originates from different branches of the HyPRP family. Rapid sequence diversification is consistent with only limited requirements for structure conservation and, together with high variability of gene expression patterns, limits the interpretation of any functional study focused on a single HyPRP gene or a couple of HYPRP genes in single plant species.

  1. Rapid in vitro multiplication and ex vitro rooting of Rotula aquatica Lour., a rare rhoeophytic woody medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K P

    2003-01-01

    Single medium-based efficient protocols for large-scale multiplication of the rare woody aromatic medicinal plant Rotula aquatica Lour. by means of axillary bud multiplication and indirect organogenesis were established using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. There were no significant differences with respect to the induction of shoots per node or callus and roots per shoot on media prepared either with tap water and commercial sugar or those prepared with double distilled water and tissue culture-grade sucrose. The most effective medium for axillary bud proliferation was MS medium fortified with 1.0 mg l(-1 )N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.5 mg l(-1 )indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), on which shoots were induced at the rate of 15 per node. The excision of node segments from the in vitro-derived shoots and their subsequent culture on medium supplemented with same concentrations of BAP and IBA facilitated enhanced axillary bud proliferation. Callus that developed from the lower cut end of the node explants induced shoots during subculture on half-strength MS medium with 1.0 mg l(-1 )BAP and 0.5 mg l(-1 )kinetin. The shoots developed rooted best on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1 )naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Rooted shoots, following acclimation in the greenhouse, were successfully transferred to field conditions, and 80% of the plantlets survived. When the basal ends of shoots harvested from multiplication medium were dipped in an NAA (0.5 mg l(-1)) solution for 25 days, a mean of 5.6 roots per shoot developed; the transfer to small pots facilitated the survival of 75% of the rooted shoots. Ex vitro rooting by direct transfer of the shoots from the multiplication medium to the greenhouse resulted in a 65% survival. Commercial sugar and tap water and ex vitro rooting make the protocol economically advantageous. About 750 plantlets were procured in a 3-month period starting from a single node explant.

  2. Molecular Dissection of The Cellular Mechanisms Involved In Nickel Hyperaccumulation in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Salt

    2002-04-08

    Hyperaccumulator plant species are able to accumulate between 1-5% of their biomass as metal. However, these plants are often small, slow growing, and do not produce a high biomass. Phytoextraction, a cost-effective, in situ, plant based approach to soil remediation takes advantage of the remarkable ability of hyperaccumulating plants to concentrate metals from the soil and accumulate them in their harvestable, above-ground tissues. However, to make use of the valuable genetic resources identified in metal hyperaccumulating species, it will be necessary to transfer this material to high biomass rapidly growing crop plants. These plants would then be ideally suited to the phytoremediation process, having the ability to produce large amount of metal-rich plant biomass for rapid harvest and soil cleanup. Although progress is being made in understanding the genetic basis of metal hyperaccumulation a more complete understanding will be necessary before we can take full advantage of the genetic potential of these plants.

  3. Determinação rápida de alumínio em plantas Rapid determination of aluminum in plant material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Um método rápido e sensível espectrofotométrico de determinação do sistema alumínio-hematoxilina pode ser usado para se conhecer o teor de alumínio em tecidos de plantas. Êste trabalho descreve o método analítico com modificações introduzidos, estuda as interferências e inclui sua adaptação para plantas. Depois do incineração do material orgânico, o alumínio é dosado usualmente numa alíquota do extrato de cinzas equivalente a 0,005 a 0,020 g de material sêco. A côr é obtida em condições controladas de pH com solução buffer de acetato e alcalinização com carbonato de amônio. No processo podem ser determinadas, rapidamente, pequenas quantidades de alumínio, sem interferência de outros elementos, nos concentrações que usualmente ocorrem nas plantas.A procedure is described for the spectrophotometric determination of aluminum in ash extracts of plant tissue using the organic dye hematoxylin, without removal of iron. It has been devised by modifying and incorporating previously published procedures for water and uranium materials. The proposed method provides a rapid determination of small amounts of aluminum up to 5 micrograms, with a recovery error smaller than ±5 per cent, as tested for several plant materials. Manganese, copper, molybdenum, vanadium, cobalt, and chromium in quantities usually encountered in plant tissue do not interfere with the method.

  4. A reversible Renilla luciferase protein complementation assay for rapid identification of protein-protein interactions reveals the existence of an interaction network involved in xyloglucan biosynthesis in the plant Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Christian H; Bromley, Jennifer R; Stenbæk, Anne; Rasmussen, Randi E; Scheller, Henrik V; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur amongst glycosyltransferases (GTs) required for plant glycan biosynthesis (e.g. cell wall polysaccharides and N-glycans) in the Golgi apparatus, and may control the functions of these enzymes. However, identification of PPIs in the endomembrane system in a relatively fast and simple fashion is technically challenging, hampering the progress in understanding the functional coordination of the enzymes in Golgi glycan biosynthesis. To solve the challenges, we adapted and streamlined a reversible Renilla luciferase protein complementation assay (Rluc-PCA), originally reported for use in human cells, for transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. We tested Rluc-PCA and successfully identified luminescence complementation amongst Golgi-localizing GTs known to form a heterodimer (GAUT1 and GAUT7) and those which homooligomerize (ARAD1). In contrast, no interaction was shown between negative controls (e.g. GAUT7, ARAD1, IRX9). Rluc-PCA was used to investigate PPIs amongst Golgi-localizing GTs involved in biosynthesis of hemicelluloses. Although no PPI was identified among six GTs involved in xylan biosynthesis, Rluc-PCA confirmed three previously proposed interactions and identified seven novel PPIs amongst GTs involved in xyloglucan biosynthesis. Notably, three of the novel PPIs were confirmed by a yeast-based split-ubiquitin assay. Finally, Gateway-enabled expression vectors were generated, allowing rapid construction of fusion proteins to the Rluc reporters and epitope tags. Our results show that Rluc-PCA coupled with transient expression in N. benthamiana is a fast and versatile method suitable for analysis of PPIs between Golgi resident proteins in an easy and mid-throughput fashion in planta. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Capacidade de absorção do chumbo por plantas do género Cistus espontâneas em ambientes mineiros Lead uptake capacity of Cistus plants growing in mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Abreu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A actividade mineira pode gerar grandes quantidades de materiais provenientes da mineralização mais ou menos alterada, fragmentada ou britada, das rochas encaixantes e de escórias que constituem escombreiras, muitas vezes quimicamente instáveis, e que podem fornecer elevados teores de elementos químicos potencialmente contaminantes para os ecossistemas. As plantas que se desenvolvem nestes ambientes degradados podem contribuir para a minimização dos impactos negativos quer de natureza química, quer física e paisagista. Para avaliar o potencial de absorção do Pb das plantas do género Cistus que crescem espontaneamente nas áreas mineiras do Braçal (NW Portugal e de São Domingos (SE Portugal, analisaram-se, respectivamente, por espectrometria de massa com fonte de plasma indutivamente acoplado e espectrofotometria de absorção atómica, após digestão ácida, a parte aérea (folhas e raminhos de Cistus inflatus e as folhas de Cistus ladanifer. Os solos daquelas áreas foram caracterizados relativamente ao pH (H2O, carbono orgânico, capacidade de troca catiónica, Fe e Mn livres, N total e K e P assimiláveis. Determinou-se também (fracção Mining activity can give rise to large quantities of chemically unstable waste rocks and tailings which can drain potential environmentally harmful lixiviates rich in chemical elements. Plants growing in such environments can minimize chemical, physical and visual negative impacts. To evaluate lead absorption by native Cistus growing in Braçal (NW Portugal and São Domingos (SE Portugal mining areas, Cistus inflatus (aerial parts and Cistus ladanifer (leaves were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometric, respectively, after acid digestions. Soils were characterized by pH(H2O, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, free Fe and Mn, total nitrogen, and assimilable K and P. Total lead was determined in soils (fraction < 2 mm by inductively

  6. [Studies on the alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Meng-Hua; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yong-Gang; Yang, Cui-Ping; Su, Wei-Wei

    2011-05-01

    To study alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong. The rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MS/MS) was used to analyse alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong, and senkirkine was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography. Four alkaloids were identified as senkirkine, dehydrosenkirkine, monocrotaline and adonifoline, and senkirkine was firstly isolated from Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong. Senkirkine is the main component of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong.

  7. Growing Up with "1984."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  8. Growing through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and…

  9. Growing Old in Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liversage, Anika; Mirdal, Gretty Mizrahi

    2017-01-01

    Some studies on immigrants and ageing focus on the question of return; others focus on how immigrants, who grow old in their countries of destination, ‘age in place’, including whether they turn to their children or to public host country provisions for care and support. However, the issues of re...

  10. Metabolomic response of Calotropis procera growing in the desert to changes in water availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ramadan

    Full Text Available Water availability is a major limitation for agricultural productivity. Plants growing in severe arid climates such as deserts provide tools for studying plant growth and performance under extreme drought conditions. The perennial species Calotropis procera used in this study is a shrub growing in many arid areas which has an exceptional ability to adapt and be productive in severe arid conditions. We describe the results of studying the metabolomic response of wild C procera plants growing in the desert to a one time water supply. Leaves of C. procera plants were taken at three time points before and 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after watering and subjected to a metabolomics and lipidomics analysis. Analysis of the data reveals that within one hour after watering C. procera has already responded on the metabolic level to the sudden water availability as evidenced by major changes such as increased levels of most amino acids, a decrease in sucrose, raffinose and maltitol, a decrease in storage lipids (triacylglycerols and an increase in membrane lipids including photosynthetic membranes. These changes still prevail at the 6 hour time point after watering however 12 hours after watering the metabolomics data are essentially indistinguishable from the prewatering state thus demonstrating not only a rapid response to water availability but also a rapid response to loss of water. Taken together these data suggest that the ability of C. procera to survive under the very harsh drought conditions prevailing in the desert might be associated with its rapid adjustments to water availability and losses.

  11. Technique for rapid establishment of American lotus in remediation efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M. G.; Jett, R. T.; McCracken, M. K.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Fortner, A. M.; Goins, K. N.; Riazi, A. S.

    2013-03-01

    A technique for increasing the establishment rate of American lotus (Nelumbo lutea) and simplifying planting was developed as part of a pond remediation project. Lotus propagation techniques typically require scarification of the seed, germination in heated water, and planting in nursery containers. Then mature (~ 1 yr) nursery-grown stock is transferred to planting site or scarified seed are broadcast applied. Mature plants should grow more quickly, but can be sensitive to handling, require more time to plant, and cost more. Scarified seeds are easier to plant and inexpensive, but have a lag time in growth, can fail to germinate, and can be difficult to site precisely. We developed an intermediate technique using small burlap bags that makes planting easier, provides greater germination success, and avoids lag time in growth. Data on survival and growth from experiments using mature stock, scarified seeds, and bag lotus demonstrate that bag lotus grow rapidly in a variety of conditions, have a high survival rate, can be processed and planted easily and quickly, and are very suitable for a variety of remediation projects

  12. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  13. Evaluating the influence of the Red Edge band from RapidEye sensor in quantifying leaf area index for hydrological applications specifically focussing on plant canopy interception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Shoko, Cletah; Chemura, Abel

    2017-08-01

    Reliable and accurate quantification of plant Leaf Area Index (LAI) is critical in understanding its role in reducing runoff. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the Red Edge (RE) band derived from RapidEye in estimating LAI for applications in quantifying canopy interception at landscape scale. To achieve this objective, the study also compares the predictive power of two machine learning algorithms (Random Forest-RF and Stochastic Gradient Boosting-SGB) in estimating LAI. Comparatively, the results of the study have demonstrated that the inclusion of spectral information derived from the Red Edge band yields high accurate LAI estimates, when compared to the use of traditional traditional Red, Green, Blue and Near Infra-Red (traditional RGBNIR) spectral information. The results indicate that the use of the four traditional RGBNIR bands yielded comparatively lower R2 values and high Root Mean Squares, Mean Absolute Error (Pinus taeda: R2 of 0.60; the lowest RMSE (0.35 m2/m2) and MAE of 28); whereas the use of integration of traditional RGBNIR + RE in more accurate LAI estimates (Pinus taeda: R2 = 0.65; RMSE = 0.30 m2/m2) and the lowest MAE of 0.23). These findings therefore underscores the importance of new generation multispectral sensors with strategically-position bands and machine learning algorithms in estimating LAI for quantifying canopy interception, especially in resource-poor areas.

  14. Establishment of a rapid, inexpensive protocol for extraction of high quality RNA from small amounts of strawberry plant tissues and other recalcitrant fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Anastasis; Georgiadou, Egli C; Filippou, Panagiota; Manganaris, George A; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2014-03-01

    Strawberry plant tissues and particularly fruit material are rich in polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds, thus rendering the isolation of nucleic acids a difficult task. This work describes the successful modification of a total RNA extraction protocol, which enables the isolation of high quantity and quality of total RNA from small amounts of strawberry leaf, root and fruit tissues. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of GAPDH housekeeping gene from isolated RNA further supports the proposed protocol efficiency and its use for downstream molecular applications. This novel procedure was also successfully followed using other fruit tissues, such as olive and kiwifruit. In addition, optional treatment with RNase A following initial nucleic acid extraction can provide sufficient quality and quality of genomic DNA for subsequent PCR analyses, as evidenced from PCR amplification of housekeeping genes using extracted genomic DNA as template. Overall, this optimized protocol allows easy, rapid and economic isolation of high quality RNA from small amounts of an important fruit crop, such as strawberry, with extended applicability to other recalcitrant fruit crops. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid Ammonia Gas Transport Accounts for Futile Transmembrane Cycling under NH3/NH4+ Toxicity in Plant Roots1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Li, Mingyuan; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Futile transmembrane NH3/NH4+ cycling in plant root cells, characterized by extremely rapid fluxes and high efflux to influx ratios, has been successfully linked to NH3/NH4+ toxicity. Surprisingly, the fundamental question of which species of the conjugate pair (NH3 or NH4+) participates in such fluxes is unresolved. Using flux analyses with the short-lived radioisotope 13N and electrophysiological, respiratory, and histochemical measurements, we show that futile cycling in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is predominately of the gaseous NH3 species, rather than the NH4+ ion. Influx of 13NH3/13NH4+, which exceeded 200 µmol g–1 h–1, was not commensurate with membrane depolarization or increases in root respiration, suggesting electroneutral NH3 transport. Influx followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for NH3 (but not NH4+), as a function of external concentration (Km = 152 µm, Vmax = 205 µmol g–1 h–1). Efflux of 13NH3/13NH4+ responded with a nearly identical Km. Pharmacological characterization of influx and efflux suggests mediation by aquaporins. Our study fundamentally revises the futile-cycling model by demonstrating that NH3 is the major permeating species across both plasmalemma and tonoplast of root cells under toxicity conditions. PMID:24134887

  16. Geothermal Grows Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  17. The vulnerable, rapidly growing thoracic spine of the adolescent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at fault, refusing to allow a 'trivial complaint' to stand in the way of the success of the team in which their sons play a key role. Department of Orthopaedics, University .... hence the diagnosis of 'postural, non-structural, thoracic kyphosis'. In a small percentage of these cases, structural changes have been seen later, but with ...

  18. The vulnerable, rapidly growing thoracic spine of the adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolapse of disc tissue occurs into the verfebral body, causing a disturbance of growth but little if any pain. The vertebrae in the mid-thoracic region become wedge-shaped, and a kyphotic deformity results, the so-called Scheuermann's disease, or adolescent kyphosis. A plea is made for the screening of children exposed to ...

  19. Effects of photodynamic therapy on rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Min-Hsiu; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2011-01-05

    The authors investigated the antimicrobial effect of methylene blue (MB)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Mycobacterium fortuitum keratitis. In the in vitro study, the mycobacterial suspension and colonies were treated with the following: no MB, no light (normal control); MB and no light (dye control); light and no MB (light control); MB and light (PDT). Morphologic characteristics were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The bactericidal effects of combined PDT and antibiotic therapy (ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and amikacin) were determined using the broth microdilution technique. Twenty-one rabbits with Mycobacterium keratitis were randomly divided into three groups (no treatment, topical amikacin treatment, and PDT combined with amikacin treatment). The clinical features of keratitis were scored and graded before treatment and before euthanatization. The diseased corneas were trephined for quantitative bacteriologic analysis to determine the antibacterial efficacy of the treatment. In the in vitro tests, the bacterial count had a 2-log reduction immediately after PDT treatment at 100 J/cm(2) with 10(-3)% MB. After PDT at 100 J/cm(2) with 10(-2)% MB, almost no viable bacteria were detected. PDT had a synergistic antimicrobial effect in combination with antibiotics. The phototoxicity occurred in the cytoplasm first and then disrupted the mycobacterial cell walls by lysis. In the rabbit keratitis model, combined PDT resulted in significantly less bacterial burden (P PDT against Mycobacterium fortuitum. PDT could be a potential alternative treatment for nontuberculous mycobacterial corneal infections.

  20. Neuropsychology of music – a rapidly growing branch of psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Habe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between brain and music is of interest to musicians, psychologists and neuroscientists. In recent years no other area of psychology of music has seen as much advancement as neuropsychology of music. The aim of the article is to present some main issues in the neuropsychology of music abroad and in Slovenia, to classify research studies into larger categories and to predict the future development of this field.There are different levels of inquiry into the neuropsychology of music: (1 the analysis of normal and abnormal psychological and physiological functions to determine the principles and modes by which the human brain processes, codifies, stores, and produces music, and (2 a description of the clinical deficits in music perception or performance resulting from localized or diffuse damage to the nervous system. Main topics that occupy neuropsychology of music are neuropsychological models of musical processing, functional imaging of musical perception and cognition, and the use of music as a therapeutic and clinical tool. Although some important studies have already been conducted since the year 2003, in Slovenia we faced a "formal" turning point in acknowledging the importance of the connection between music, mind and brain with the Sinapsa's Week of the brain 2009 under the title Brain and music.

  1. Uso de malhas pigmentadas e mulching em túneis para cultivo de rúcula: efeito no ambiente e nas plantas modelo Use of pigmented mesh covers tunnels and mulchings for growing roquette: environmental effects on model plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ricardo Cantu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O uso de malhas pigmentadas em cultivos de hortaliças folhosas permite a melhor adequação do ambiente às plantas, com destaque para a rúcula. Essa hortaliça vem conquistando maior espaço no mercado consumidor brasileiro desde o final da década de 90. Essa pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar as condições ambientais proporcionadas pelo uso de telas pigmentadas na cobertura de túneis de cultivo, relacionando com as respostas agronômicas da rúcula, cultivada dentro desses túneis sobre diferentes coberturas de solo. As coberturas de túneis foram: a Chromatinet® azul, Chromatinet® vermelha, tela aluminizada prata, Sombrite® 50% e filme plástico transparente de polietileno de baixa densidade de 100µ. As coberturas de solo, também denominadas mulchings, dentro dos túneis foram: o filme plástico de polietileno de cor preta; de polietileno de dupla-face nas cores preta e branca, com a face branca voltada para cima; casca de arroz e a ausência de mulching. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com 24 tratamentos e três repetições. Nas condições do experimento, o emprego de algumas coberturas de túnel e de solo modificou o ambiente e melhorou as respostas agronômicas das plantas de rúcula.The use of pigmented screens for growing vegetable crops provides an opportunity for adjusting environmental conditions, especially for roquette. This vegetable crop is consumed mainly as raw, and has a large proportion in Brazilian vegetable market since 1990s. The present research was aimed to evaluate the effect the altered environmental conditions (by using pigmented screens tunnels on agronomic performance of roquette, grown inside tunnels having different color covers. Coverage screens colors were blue, red, silver, screen of shading 50% and transparent plastic. Beside this the effect of different mulching practices was also evaluated inside the tunnels. The experiment was laid out under randomized complete blocks design

  2. Surge in the heating market. Renewable energies rapidly gaining market share; Wende im Waermemarkt. Erneuerbare Energien gewinnen rasant an Marktanteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briese, Dirk; Hein, Thomas; Gatena, Jens [trend:research GmbH Institut fuer Trend- und Marktforschung, Bremen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The proportion of heat produced from renewable energies is rapidly growing in Germany. The main reasons for this dynamic development are governmental funds for heating technologies based on renewable energy, the growing importance attached by large parts of the population to environmentally responsible energy production and the rising costs of fossil fuels. Biomass plants, solar thermal installations and heat pumps will be widely used in upcoming refurbishment and new building projects, as a recent study shows.

  3. Using organic fertilizers in forest and native plant nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    Since World War II, synthetic fertilizers have been used almost exclusively to grow forest and native plant nursery crops because they are quickly soluble and readily taken up by crops, producing the rapid growth rates that are necessary in nursery culture. In recent years, however, a wide variety of new organic fertilizers have become available. We divided these...

  4. Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms for Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, P C; Dubey, Rama Kant; Tripathi, Vishal; Gupta, Vijai K; Singh, Harikesh B

    2016-11-01

    Agrochemicals used to meet the needs of a rapidly growing human population can deteriorate the quality of ecosystems and are not affordable to farmers in low-resource environments. Here, we propose the use of plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) as a tool for sustainable food production without compromising ecosystems services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid Buildup of Genetic Diversity in Founder Populations of the Gynodioecious Plant Species Origanum vulgare after Semi-Natural Grassland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Kenny; Jacquemyn, Hans; Hermy, Martin; Vandepitte, Katrien; Honnay, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    In most landscapes the success of habitat restoration is largely dependent on spontaneous colonization of plant species. This colonization process, and the outcome of restoration practices, can only be considered successful if the genetic makeup of founding populations is not eroded through founder effects and subsequent genetic drift. Here we used 10 microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic effects of recent colonization of the long-lived gynodioecious species Origanum vulgare in restored semi-natural grassland patches. We compared the genetic diversity and differentiation of fourteen recent populations with that of thirteen old, putative source populations, and we evaluated the effects of spatial configuration of the populations on colonization patterns. We did not observe decreased genetic diversity in recent populations, or inflated genetic differentiation among them. Nevertheless, a significantly higher inbreeding coefficient was observed in recent populations, although this was not associated with negative fitness effects. Overall population genetic differentiation was low (FST = 0.040). Individuals of restored populations were assigned to on average 6.1 different source populations (likely following the ‘migrant pool’ model). Gene flow was, however, affected by the spatial configuration of the grasslands, with gene flow into the recent populations mainly originating from nearby source populations. This study demonstrates how spontaneous colonization after habitat restoration can lead to viable populations in a relatively short time, overcoming pronounced founder effects, when several source populations are nearby. Restored populations can therefore rapidly act as stepping stones and sources of genetic diversity, likely increasing overall metapopulation viability of the study species. PMID:23840642

  6. A rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of aliphatic and polar molecules containing free carboxyl groups in plant extracts by LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventure Gustavo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aliphatic molecules containing free carboxyl groups are important intermediates in many metabolic and signalling reactions, however, they accumulate to low levels in tissues and are not efficiently ionized by electrospray ionization (ESI compared to more polar substances. Quantification of aliphatic molecules becomes therefore difficult when small amounts of tissue are available for analysis. Traditional methods for analysis of these molecules require purification or enrichment steps, which are onerous when multiple samples need to be analyzed. In contrast to aliphatic molecules, more polar substances containing free carboxyl groups such as some phytohormones are efficiently ionized by ESI and suitable for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Thus, the development of a method with which aliphatic and polar molecules -which their unmodified forms differ dramatically in their efficiencies of ionization by ESI- can be simultaneously detected with similar sensitivities would substantially simplify the analysis of complex biological matrices. Results A simple, rapid, specific and sensitive method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of free aliphatic molecules (e.g., free fatty acids (FFA and small polar molecules (e.g., jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA containing free carboxyl groups by direct derivatization of leaf extracts with Picolinyl reagent followed by LC-MS/MS analysis is presented. The presence of the N atom in the esterified pyridine moiety allowed the efficient ionization of 25 compounds tested irrespective of their chemical structure. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained after analysis of Nicotiana attenuata leaf material with previously described analytical methods. Conclusion The method presented was used to detect 16 compounds in leaf extracts of N. attenuata plants. Importantly, the method can be adapted based on the specific analytes of interest with the only consideration that the

  7. A rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of aliphatic and polar molecules containing free carboxyl groups in plant extracts by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenbach, Mario; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2009-11-25

    Aliphatic molecules containing free carboxyl groups are important intermediates in many metabolic and signalling reactions, however, they accumulate to low levels in tissues and are not efficiently ionized by electrospray ionization (ESI) compared to more polar substances. Quantification of aliphatic molecules becomes therefore difficult when small amounts of tissue are available for analysis. Traditional methods for analysis of these molecules require purification or enrichment steps, which are onerous when multiple samples need to be analyzed. In contrast to aliphatic molecules, more polar substances containing free carboxyl groups such as some phytohormones are efficiently ionized by ESI and suitable for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Thus, the development of a method with which aliphatic and polar molecules -which their unmodified forms differ dramatically in their efficiencies of ionization by ESI- can be simultaneously detected with similar sensitivities would substantially simplify the analysis of complex biological matrices. A simple, rapid, specific and sensitive method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of free aliphatic molecules (e.g., free fatty acids (FFA)) and small polar molecules (e.g., jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA)) containing free carboxyl groups by direct derivatization of leaf extracts with Picolinyl reagent followed by LC-MS/MS analysis is presented. The presence of the N atom in the esterified pyridine moiety allowed the efficient ionization of 25 compounds tested irrespective of their chemical structure. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained after analysis of Nicotiana attenuata leaf material with previously described analytical methods. The method presented was used to detect 16 compounds in leaf extracts of N. attenuata plants. Importantly, the method can be adapted based on the specific analytes of interest with the only consideration that the molecules must contain at least one free carboxyl group.

  8. Growing unculturable bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric J

    2012-08-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field.

  9. Challenges of the growing African cement market – environmental issues, regulative framework, and quality infrastructure requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The African cement, concrete and construction business is growing at rapid pace. The cement sales are expected to grow rapidly until 2050. The number of newly built cement plants increases dramatically and in addition more cements are being imported from outside the continent, e.g. from Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia, and China, driven by overcapacities in the countries of origin. This causes a high number of potentials and challenges at the same time. Newly built cement plants can operate directly at best technological state of the art and thus incorporate more sustainable technologies as well as produce new and more sustainable products such as cements blended with sustainable supplementary cementitious materials such as calcined clays, and industrial or agricultural by products. At the same time the new variety of binding agent as well as the international imports, which are driven by price considerations, make the cement market prone to quality scatter. This puts pressure on the quality control regulations and institutions to ensure safety of construction, healthy application, and environmental safety for the population. The paper presents possible solutions to build up the rapidly increasing African cement production more sustainably than in the rest of the world as well as the related challenges and obstacles that need to be overcome. Based on experiences with a series of pan-African cement testing laboratory proficiency schemes conclusions are made on technical, regulative and political level.

  10. Oxygen, pH, and Eh microprofiles around submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans response to growing stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, B.; Wang, G. X.; Yu, H. G.

    2017-08-01

    The periphyton, attached to the surfaces of submerged plants, has important effects on plant growth and development in eutrophic waters. Periphyton complicates the microenvironment of diffusive boundary layer around submerged plants. We researched periphyton characteristics, oxygen (O2), pH, and Eh microprofiles at various growing stages of Vallisneria natans. The results suggested that during the growing period of V. natans, O2 concentration and pH decreased from 0 to 2 mm above the leaf surface, whereas the Eh increased. As V. natans grew, O2 and pH gradually increased until they peaked during stable growing stages, while the Eh decreased. However, during the decline stage, O2 and pH gradually decreased, and Eh increased. To summarise, O2 and pH showed a unimodal pattern in response to the life cycle of V. natans, with the maximum levels during the stable growth stage and the minimum levels during the rapid growth and decline stages. Our study demonstrated that V. natans growth induced steep gradients in O2 concentrations, pH, and Eh at the DBL by increasing the layer’s thickness, macrophyte photosynthetic capacity, and periphyton biomass in eutrophic waters.

  11. Plants in alpine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  12. Growing evening primroses (Oenothera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eGreiner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The model plant Oenothera has contributed significantly to the biological sciences and it dominated the early development of plant genetics, cytogenetics, and evolutionary biology. The great advantage of using Oenothera as a model system is a large body of genetic, cytological, morphological, and ecological information collected over more than a century. The Oenothera system offers a well-studied taxonomy, population structure, and ecology. Cytogenetics and formal genetics at the population level are extensively developed, providing an excellent basis to study evolutionary questions. Further, Oenothera is grown as an oil seed crop for the production of essential fatty acids (gamma-linoleic acid and is considered to be a medicinal plant due to its many pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, such as ellagitannins. Although Oenothera has been cultivated as a laboratory organism since the end of the 19th century, there is a substantial lack of literature dealing with modern greenhouse techniques for the genus. This review compiles an overview about the growth requirements for the genus Oenothera, with a special focus on its genetically best-studied subsections Oenothera and Munzia. Requirements for greenhouse, field, and agronomic cultures are presented, together with information on substrate types, pest control, as well as vegetative and seed propagation, cross pollination, harvest and seed storage. Particular aspects like germination, bolting and flowering induction in taxonomically diverse material are reviewed. Methods recommended are supported by ecological and experimental data. An overview of the possibilities for wide hybridization and polyploidy induction in the genus is given. Germplasm resources are referenced. In summary, a comprehensive guideline for successful laboratory cultivation of Oenothera species is provided.

  13. Fruit-Growing in Latvia – Industry and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmane Edīte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In all times, fruit trees for family use have been grown at Latvian farms. Yet these fruits obtained market value only after the land ownership reform in 19th century. This facilitated rapid area increase of different fruit crops, allowing supply with fruits not only the local market, but also for export to the largest cities of Russia. Especially fast development of fruit-growing was observed during the first independent republic (1919–1940. The demand for planting material increased, and plants were imported from Western Europe. Choice of unsuitable cultivars and rootstocks was the main reason of the massive orchard area loss during the following severe winters. After the Second World War, the Soviet powers supported only the establishment of large orchards for processing needs, 200-300 ha, which were unsuitable for the Latvian climate and terrain. At the same time, numbers of allotment gardens rapidly increased and part of their produce was sold also on the market. After regaining of independence and private property, interest in fresh fruit and berry production for market, as well as processing, renewed. It was hindered by lack of continuity in experience and knowledge. Diversity of terrain, soils and climate all demand considerate choice of suitable orchard location and cultivars. Direct use of foreign experience often led to failure. At present, development of the fruit industry is most of all hindered by lack of qualified specialists of different levels, which does not allow to establish an appropriate consulting system. Cooperation of growers for easier marketing also is developing too slowly. Insufficient economic and market research does not allow to balance the demand with increase of plantation area, especially for large-scale processing and export, so strategic guidance of the fruit industry is not possible. Development of fruit-growing is hindered also by a lack of continuous long-term support to horticultural science. As a

  14. Evaluation of virus removal efficiency of coagulation-sedimentation and rapid sand filtration processes in a drinking water treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Tatsuya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Torrey, Jason Robert; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-15

    In order to properly assess and manage the risk of infection by enteric viruses in tap water, virus removal efficiency should be evaluated quantitatively for individual processes in actual drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs); however, there have been only a few studies due to technical difficulties in quantifying low virus concentration in water samples. In this study, the removal efficiency of indigenous viruses was evaluated for coagulation-sedimentation (CS) and rapid sand filtration (RSF) processes in a DWTP in Bangkok, Thailand by measuring the concentration of viruses before and after treatment processes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Water samples were collected and concentrated from raw source water, after CS, and after RSF, and inhibitory substances in water samples were reduced by use of a hydrophobic resin (DAX-8). Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and JC polyomavirus (JC PyV) were found to be highly prevalent in raw waters, with concentrations of 10(2.88 ± 0.35) and 10(3.06 ± 0.42) copies/L (geometric mean ± S.D.), respectively. Step-wise removal efficiencies were calculated for individual processes, with some variation observed between wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, PMMoV was removed less by CS and more by RSF on average (0.40 log10 vs 1.26 log10, respectively), while the reverse was true for JC PyV (1.91 log10 vs 0.49 log10, respectively). Both viruses were removed similarly during the dry season, with CS removing the most virus (PMMoV, 1.61 log10 and 0.78 log10; JC PyV, 1.70 log10, and 0.59 log10; CS and RSF, respectively). These differences between seasons were potentially due to variations in raw water quality and the characteristics of the viruses themselves. These results suggest that PMMoV and JC PyV, which are more prevalent in environmental waters than the other enteric viruses evaluated in this study, could be useful in determining viral fate for the risk management of viruses in water treatment

  15. Growing for different ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  17. Responses of Calathea species in different growing media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIHORT), Ibadan to investigate the most suitable medium for the growing of Calathea species. Four Calathea species namely: C. ornata; C.nigerica; C. princeps and C.zebrina, were planted each in three growing media made up of top soil; top ...

  18. Mediation of rapid electrical, metabolic, transpirational, and photosynthetic changes by factors released from wounds. I. variation potentials and putative action potentials in intact plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Barres; T.J.Sambeek Perry; Barbara G. Pickard

    1976-01-01

    Damaging representative plants from five angiosperm families by heating or crushing a small portion of a single leaf results in an electrical change which may spread throughout the shoot. In Mimosa similar changes have previously been identified as variation potentials.Except in one of the five plants, a variation...

  19. Nanomaterial-enabled Rapid Detection of Water Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shun; Chang, Jingbo; Zhou, Guihua; Chen, Junhong

    2015-10-28

    Water contaminants, e.g., inorganic chemicals and microorganisms, are critical metrics for water quality monitoring and have significant impacts on human health and plants/organisms living in water. The scope and focus of this review is nanomaterial-based optical, electronic, and electrochemical sensors for rapid detection of water contaminants, e.g., heavy metals, anions, and bacteria. These contaminants are commonly found in different water systems. The importance of water quality monitoring and control demands significant advancement in the detection of contaminants in water because current sensing technologies for water contaminants have limitations. The advantages of nanomaterial-based sensing technologies are highlighted and recent progress on nanomaterial-based sensors for rapid water contaminant detection is discussed. An outlook for future research into this rapidly growing field is also provided. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Rapid efficient synthesis and characterization of silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles from the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica and their application in biofilm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Gayatri R; Ghosh, Sougata; Santosh Kumar, R J; Khade, Samiksha; Vashisth, Priya; Kale, Trupti; Chopade, Snehal; Pruthi, Vikas; Kundu, Gopal; Bellare, Jayesh R; Chopade, Balu A

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have gained significance in medical fields due to their high surface-area-to-volume ratio. In this study, we synthesized NPs from a medicinally important plant - Plumbago zeylanica. Aqueous root extract of P. zeylanica (PZRE) was analyzed for the presence of flavonoids, sugars, and organic acids using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), and biochemical methods. The silver NPs (AgNPs), gold NPs (AuNPs), and bimetallic NPs (AgAuNPs) were synthesized from root extract and characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The effects of these NPs on Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli biofilms were studied using quantitative biofilm inhibition and disruption assays, as well as using fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. PZRE showed the presence of phenolics, such as plumbagin, and flavonoids, in addition to citric acid, sucrose, glucose, fructose, and starch, using HPTLC, GC-TOF-MS, and quantitative analysis. Bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO₃) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl₄) were confirmed at absorbances of 440 nm (AgNPs), 570 nm (AuNPs), and 540 nm (AgAuNPs), respectively. The maximum rate of synthesis at 50°C was achieved with 5 mM AgNO₃ within 4.5 hours for AgNPs; and with 0.7 mM HAuCl4 within 5 hours for AuNPs. The synthesis of AgAuNPs, which completed within 90 minutes with 0.7 mM AgNO₃ and HAuCl₄, was found to be the fastest. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed bioreduction, while EDS and XRD patterns confirmed purity and the crystalline nature of the NPs, respectively. TEM micrographs and DLS showed about 60 nm monodispersed Ag nanospheres, 20-30 nm Au nanospheres adhering to form Au nanotriangles, and about 90 nm hexagonal blunt

  1. Phylogenetics and evolution of Su(var)3-9 SET genes in land plants: rapid diversification in structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinyu; Ma, Hong; Chen, Zhiduan

    2011-03-09

    Plants contain numerous Su(var)3-9 homologues (SUVH) and related (SUVR) genes, some of which await functional characterization. Although there have been studies on the evolution of plant Su(var)3-9 SET genes, a systematic evolutionary study including major land plant groups has not been reported. Large-scale phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses can help to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms and contribute to improve genome annotation. Putative orthologs of plant Su(var)3-9 SET protein sequences were retrieved from major representatives of land plants. A novel clustering that included most members analyzed, henceforth referred to as core Su(var)3-9 homologues and related (cSUVHR) gene clade, was identified as well as all orthologous groups previously identified. Our analysis showed that plant Su(var)3-9 SET proteins possessed a variety of domain organizations, and can be classified into five types and ten subtypes. Plant Su(var)3-9 SET genes also exhibit a wide range of gene structures among different paralogs within a family, even in the regions encoding conserved PreSET and SET domains. We also found that the majority of SUVH members were intronless and formed three subclades within the SUVH clade. A detailed phylogenetic analysis of the plant Su(var)3-9 SET genes was performed. A novel deep phylogenetic relationship including most plant Su(var)3-9 SET genes was identified. Additional domains such as SAR, ZnF_C2H2 and WIYLD were early integrated into primordial PreSET/SET/PostSET domain organization. At least three classes of gene structures had been formed before the divergence of Physcomitrella patens (moss) from other land plants. One or multiple retroposition events might have occurred among SUVH genes with the donor genes leading to the V-2 orthologous group. The structural differences among evolutionary groups of plant Su(var)3-9 SET genes with different functions were described, contributing to the design of further experimental studies.

  2. Phylogenetics and evolution of Su(var3-9 SET genes in land plants: rapid diversification in structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants contain numerous Su(var3-9 homologues (SUVH and related (SUVR genes, some of which await functional characterization. Although there have been studies on the evolution of plant Su(var3-9 SET genes, a systematic evolutionary study including major land plant groups has not been reported. Large-scale phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses can help to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms and contribute to improve genome annotation. Results Putative orthologs of plant Su(var3-9 SET protein sequences were retrieved from major representatives of land plants. A novel clustering that included most members analyzed, henceforth referred to as core Su(var3-9 homologues and related (cSUVHR gene clade, was identified as well as all orthologous groups previously identified. Our analysis showed that plant Su(var3-9 SET proteins possessed a variety of domain organizations, and can be classified into five types and ten subtypes. Plant Su(var3-9 SET genes also exhibit a wide range of gene structures among different paralogs within a family, even in the regions encoding conserved PreSET and SET domains. We also found that the majority of SUVH members were intronless and formed three subclades within the SUVH clade. Conclusions A detailed phylogenetic analysis of the plant Su(var3-9 SET genes was performed. A novel deep phylogenetic relationship including most plant Su(var3-9 SET genes was identified. Additional domains such as SAR, ZnF_C2H2 and WIYLD were early integrated into primordial PreSET/SET/PostSET domain organization. At least three classes of gene structures had been formed before the divergence of Physcomitrella patens (moss from other land plants. One or multiple retroposition events might have occurred among SUVH genes with the donor genes leading to the V-2 orthologous group. The structural differences among evolutionary groups of plant Su(var3-9 SET genes with different functions were described, contributing to the

  3. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THREE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR THEIR ANTIULCER AND ANTI- OXIDANT ACTIVITIES IN ALBINO RAT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Shweta Sao*, Saurabh Dubey

    2016-01-01

    India has a vast variety of medicinal plants. Medicinal plants synthesize variety of phytochemical that helps to defend against wide variety of bacterial, viral and various other types of infections. The synthesized also has anticancer and antioxidant properties. Use of plant as a source of medicine has been an ancient practice and is important component of health system in India. General public, academic and government interest in traditional medicine is growing rapidly due to increase side ...

  4. Rapid revegetation by sowing seed mixtures of shrub and herbaceous species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J.; Zhang, C.; Zhao, T.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-05-01

    Fast revegetation by means of sowing seed mixtures of shrub and herbaceous species is a measure to prevent bare soils from wind and water erosion. A field experiment was used to test the effect of species selection and the ratio of shrub to herbaceous species on vegetation formation and shrub growth. Results showed that herbaceous species hastened cover formation and maintained a high coverage for a longer period. However, the growth of shrubs was hindered. In the North China Plain or where the soil and climate are similar, the ratio of shrub to herbaceous seeds is proposed to be 6 : 4-7 : 3 (weight ratio). Among the herbaceous species tested, Festuca arundinacea Schreb. grows relatively slow, so it should be mixed with other fast-growing species in the practice of rapid revegetation, and a seeding density lower than 6 g m-2 is proposed when applied; Orychophragmus violaceus O. E. Schulz. wilts when the seeds are ripe, leading to a significant decrease of coverage, so other species with different phenology should be involved when it is applied; Viola philippica Car. is a good ground cover plant which grows fast and maintains a stable coverage from July to October, and a seeding density of 1.5 g m-2 is proposed for rapid revegetation. Herbaceous species have different traits. Three different types of herbs were found in our experiment: slow-growing stable species (F. arundinacea), fast-growing unstable species (O. violaceus) and fast-growing stable species (V. philippica). Shrubs, slow-growing stable species and fast-growing unstable species should not be used alone because they cannot cover the ground fast or they cannot maintain a long period of good coverage. A small seeding rate of fast-growing stable species should be used to ensure a fair coverage against erosion. Because natural environmental conditions are heterogeneous and stochastic, more species should be added to enhance the stability of plant community.

  5. Membrane flow in plants: Fractionation of growing pollen tubes of tobacco by preparative free-flow electrophoresis and kinetics of labeling of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus with (/sup 3/H)leucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappler, R.; Kristen, U.; Morre, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) pollen, germinated 4 hours in suspension culture,was labeled with radioactive leucine and fractionated into constituent membranes by the technique of preparative free-flow electrophoresis. Tubes were ruptured by sonication directly into the electrophoresis buffer. Unfortunately, the Golgi apparatus of the rapidly elongating pollen tubes did not survive the sonication step. However, it was possible to obtain useful fractions of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. To obtain Golgi apparatus, glutaraldehyde was added to the homogenization buffer during sonication. Plasma membrane, which accounted for only about 3% of the total membrane of the homogenates as determined by staining with phosphotungstate at low pH, was obtained in insufficient quantity and fraction purity to permit analysis. Results show rapid incorporation of (/sup 3/H)leucine into endoplasmic reticulum followed by rapid chase out. The half-time for loss of radioactivity from the pollen tube endoplasmic reticulum was about 10 minutes. Concomitant with the loss of radioactivity from endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus fraction was labeled reaching a maximum 20 minutes post chase. The findings suggest flow of membranes from endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus during pollen tube growth.

  6. Comparative effect of ZnO NPs, ZnO bulk and ZnSO4in the antioxidant defences of two plant species growing in two agricultural soils under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Concepción; Obrador, Ana; González, Demetrio; Babín, Mar; Fernández, María Dolores

    2017-07-01

    The present study has investigated the toxicity of ZnO NPs to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) crops grown to maturity under greenhouse conditions using an acidic (soil pH5.4) and a calcareous soil (soil pH8.3). The potentially available Zn in the soils and the Zn accumulation in the leaves from NPs applied to the soil (3, 20 and 225mgZnkg -1 ) and changes in the chlorophylls, carotenoids and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured at 15, 30, 60 and 90days and compared with those caused by bulk ZnO and ZnSO 4 . The available Zn in the soil and the leaf Zn content did not differ among the Zn chemical species, except in the acidic soil at the highest concentration of Zn applied as Zn ions, where the highest values of the two variables were found. The ZnO NPs showed comparable Zn toxicity or biostimulation to their bulk counterparts and Zn salts, irrespective of certain significant differences suggesting a higher activity of the Zn ion. The treatments altered the photosynthetic pigment concentration and induced oxidative stress in plants. ROS formation was observed at Zn plant concentrations ranging from 590 to 760mgkg -1 , but the effects on the rest of the parameters were highly dependent on the plant species, exposure time and especially soil type. In general, the effects were higher in the acidic soil than in the calcareous soil for the bean and the opposite for the tomato. The similar uptakes and toxicities of the different Zn forms suggest that the Zn ions derived from the ZnO NPs exerted a preferential toxicity in plants. However, several results obtained in soils treated with NPs at 3mgZnkg -1 soil indicated that may exist other underlying mechanisms related to the intrinsic nanoparticle properties, especially at low NP concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On the front line of modern data-management and Open Access publishing: Two years of PhytoKeys – the fastest growing journal in plant systematics