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Sample records for rapidly growing mycobacterial

  1. Rapidly-growing mycobacterial infection: a recognized cause of early-onset prosthetic joint infection.

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    Jitmuang, Anupop; Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Charoencholvanich, Keerati; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2017-12-28

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a major complication of total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA). Although mycobacteria are rarely the causative pathogens, it is important to recognize and treat them differently from non-mycobacterial infections. This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, associated factors and long-term outcomes of mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of patients aged ≥18 years who were diagnosed with PJI of the hip or knee at Siriraj Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. Patient characteristics, clinical data, treatments and outcomes were evaluated. A total of 178 patients were included, among whom 162 had non-mycobacterial PJI and 16 had mycobacterial PJI. Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) (11) and M. tuberculosis (MTB) (5) were the causative pathogens of mycobacterial PJI. PJI duration and time until onset were significantly different between mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. Infection within 90 days of arthroplasty was significantly associated with RGM infection (OR 21.86; 95% CI 4.25-112.30; p infection. RGM were the major pathogens of early onset PJI after THA and TKA. Both a high clinical index of suspicion and mycobacterial cultures are recommended when medically managing PJI with negative cultures or non-response to antibiotics. Removal of infected implants was associated with favorable outcomes.

  2. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings.

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    Volpato, Richard; de Castro, Claudio Campi; Hadad, David Jamil; da Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya; Filho, Ezequiel Leal; Marcal, Leonardo P

    2015-09-01

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5%), small nodules (61.5%), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5%), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4%), and collections (26.9%). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5%), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8%), and collections (15.4%). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1%), small nodules (42.3%), nodules (15.4%), and collections (11.5%). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. • Rapidly growing mycobacterial infection may occur following laparoscopy. • Post-laparoscopy mycobacterial infection CT findings are densification, collection, and nodules. • Rapidly growing mycobacterial infection following laparoscopy may involve the peritoneal cavity. • Post-laparoscopy rapidly growing mycobacterial intraperitoneal infection is not associated with ascites or lymphadenopathy.

  3. Clinical management of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections in patients after mesotherapy.

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    Regnier, Stéphanie; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Guihot, Amelie; Deforges, Lionel; Carbonne, Anne; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric

    2009-11-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are expressing an interest in mesotherapy as a method of reducing body fat. Cutaneous infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria are a common complication of such procedures. We followed up patients who had developed cutaneous infections after undergoing mesotherapy during the period October 2006-January 2007. Sixteen patients were infected after mesotherapy injections performed by the same physician. All patients presented with painful, erythematous, draining subcutaneous nodules at the injection sites. All patients were treated with surgical drainage. Microbiological examination was performed on specimens that were obtained before and during the surgical procedure. Direct examination of skin smears demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in 25% of the specimens that were obtained before the procedure and 37% of the specimens obtained during the procedure; culture results were positive in 75% of the patients. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 11 patients, and Mycobacterium frederiksbergense was identified in 2 patients. Fourteen patients were treated with antibiotics, 6 received triple therapy as first-line treatment (tigecycline, tobramycin, and clarithromycin), and 8 received dual therapy (clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin). The mean duration of treatment was 14 weeks (range, 1-24 weeks). All of the patients except 1 were fully recovered 2 years after the onset of infection, with the mean time to healing estimated at 6.2 months (range, 1-15 months). This series of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections highlights the difficulties in treating such infections and suggests that in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics does not accurately predict their clinical efficacy.

  4. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

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    Volpato, Richard; Campi de Castro, Claudio; Hadad, David Jamil; Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da; Filho, Ezequiel Leal; Marcal, Leonardo P.

    2015-01-01

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  5. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

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    Volpato, Richard [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Campi de Castro, Claudio [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Radiology, Cerqueira Cesar, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hadad, David Jamil [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Nucleo de Doencas Infecciosas, Department of Internal Medicine, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da [Laboratorio de Patologia PAT, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Filho, Ezequiel Leal [UNIMED Diagnostico, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Marcal, Leonardo P. [The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  6. Rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, L.E.; Hoffner, S.E.; Ansehn, S.

    1988-01-01

    Mycobacterial growth was monitored by bioluminescence assay of mycobacterial ATP. Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and of 25 clinical isolates of the same species were exposed to serial dilutions of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin. A suppression of ATP, indicating growth inhibition, occurred for susceptible but not resistant strains within 5 to 7 days of incubation. Breakpoint concentrations between susceptibility and resistance were determined by comparing these results with those obtained by reference techniques. Full agreement was found in 99% of the assays with the resistance ratio method on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and 98% of the assays were in full agreement with the radiometric system (BACTEC). A main advantage of the bioluminescence method is its rapidity, with results available as fast as with the radiometric system but at a lower cost and without the need for radioactive culture medium. The method provides kinetic data concerning drug effects within available in vivo drug concentrations and has great potential for both rapid routine susceptibility testing and research applications in studies of drug effects on mycobacteria

  7. [Experience of rapid drug desensitization therapy in the treatment of mycobacterial disease].

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    Sasaki, Yuka; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Morimoto, Kozo; Okumura, Masao; Watanabe, Masato; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Ogata, Hideo; Gotoh, Hajime; Kudoh, Shoji; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    Drugs for tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis mycobacterial diseases are limited. In particular, no new drugs for non-tuberculosis mycobacterial disease have been developed in recent years. Antimycobacterial drugs have many adverse reactions, for which drug desensitization therapy has been used. Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) therapy, including antituberculosis drugs and clarithromycin, has been implemented in many regions in Europe and the United States. We investigated the validity of RDD therapy in Japan. We report our experience with RDD therapy in 13 patients who developed severe drug allergy to antimycobacterial treatment. The desensitization protocol reported by Holland and Cernandas was adapted. The underlying diseases were 7 cases of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease and 6 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. Isoniazid was readministered in 2 (100%) of 2 patients; rifampicin, in 8 (67.7%) of 12 patients; ethambutol, in 4 (67.7%) of 6 patients; and clarithromycin, in 2 (100%) of 2 patients. In Japan, the desensitization therapy recommended by the Treatment Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis have been implemented generally. We think RDD therapy is effective and safe as the other desensitization therapy. We will continue to investigate the efficiency of RDD therapy in patients who had discontinued antimycobacterial treatment because of the drug allergic reaction.

  8. Rapid radiometric methods to detect and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis from other mycobacterial species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Hwangbo, C.C.; Silcox, V.; Good, R.C.; Snider, D.E. Jr.; Middlebrook, G.

    1984-01-01

    Rapid methods for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis (TB complex) from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli) were developed and evaluated in a three-phase study. In the first phase, techniques for identification of Mycobacterium species were developed by using radiometric technology and BACTEC Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Based on 14 CO 2 evolution, characteristic growth patterns were established for 13 commonly encountered mycobacterial species. Mycobacteria belonging to the TB complex were differentiated from other mycobacteria by cellular morphology and rate of 14 CO 2 evolution. For further differentiation, radiometric tests for niacin production and inhibition by Q-nitro-alpha-acetyl amino-beta-hydroxy-propiophenone (NAP) were developed. In the second phase, 100 coded specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as members of the TB complex, MOTT bacilli, bacteria other than mycobacteria, or ''no viable organisms'' within 3 to 12 (average 6.4) days of receipt from the Centers for Disease Control. Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from 20 simulated sputum specimens were carried out in phase III. Out of 20 sputum specimens, 16 contained culturable mycobacteria, and all of the positives were detected by the BACTEC method in an average of 7.3 days. The positive mycobacterial cultures were isolated and identified as TB complex or MOTT bacilli in an average of 12.8 days. The radiometric NAP test was found to be highly sensitive and specific for a rapid identification of TB complex, whereas the radiometric niacin test was found to have some inherent problems. Radiometric BACTEC and conventional methodologies were in complete agreement in Phase II as well as in Phase III

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria by microdilution - Experience of a tertiary care centre

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    Set R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.

  10. Rapid-Growing Mycobacteria Infections in Medical Tourists: Our Experience and Literature Review.

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    Singh, Mansher; Dugdale, Caitlin M; Solomon, Isaac H; Huang, Anne; Montgomery, Mary W; Pomahac, Bohdan; Yawetz, Sigal; Maguire, James H; Talbot, Simon G

    2016-09-01

    "Medical tourism" has gained popularity over the past few decades. This is particularly common with patients seeking elective cosmetic surgery in the developing world. However, the risk of severe and unusual infectious complications appears to be higher than for patients undergoing similar procedures in the United States. The authors describe their experience with atypical mycobacterial infections in cosmetic surgical patients returning to the United States postoperatively. A review of patient medical records presenting with infectious complications after cosmetic surgery between January 2010 and July 2015 was performed. Patients presenting with mycobacterial infections following cosmetic surgery were reviewed in detail. An extensive literature review was performed for rapid-growing mycobacteria (RGM) related to cosmetic procedures. Between January 2010 and July 2015, three patients presented to our institution with culture-proven Mycobacterium abscessus at the sites of recent cosmetic surgery. All had surgery performed in the developing world. The mean age of these patients was 36 years (range, 29-44 years). There was a delay of up to 16 weeks between the initial presentation and correct diagnosis. All patients were treated with surgical drainage and combination antibiotics with complete resolution. We present series of patients with mycobacterial infections after cosmetic surgery in the developing world. This may be related to the endemic nature of these bacteria and/or inadequate sterilization or sterile technique. Due to low domestic incidence of these infections, diagnosis may be difficult and/or delayed. Consulting physicians should have a low threshold to consider atypical etiologies in such scenarios. 5 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Changing Pattern of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease

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    Joseph O Falkinham

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria are human opportunistic pathogens whose source of infection is the environment. These include both slow-growing (eg, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium and rapid-growing (eg, Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium fortuitum species. Transmission is through ingestion or inhalation of water, particulate matter or aerosols, or through trauma. The historic presentation of pulmonary disease in older individuals with predisposing lung conditions and in children has been changing. Pulmonary disease in elderly individuals who lack the classic predisposing lung conditions is increasing. Pulmonary disease and hypersensitivity pneumonitis have been linked with occupational or home exposures to nontuberculous mycobacteria. There has been a shift from Mycobacterium scrofulaceum to M avium in children with cervical lymphadenitis. Further, individuals who are immunosuppressed due to therapy or HIV-infection are at a greatly increased risk for nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. The changing pattern of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease is due in part to the ability of these pathogens to survive and proliferate in habitats that they share with humans, such as drinking water. The advent of an aging population and an increase in the proportion of immunosuppressed individuals suggest that the prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease will increase.

  12. Clinical and taxonomic status of pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria.

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    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J

    2002-10-01

    The history, taxonomy, geographic distribution, clinical disease, and therapy of the pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are reviewed. Community-acquired disease and health care-associated disease are highlighted for each species. The latter grouping includes health care-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks as well as sporadic disease cases. Treatment recommendations for each species and type of disease are also described. Special emphasis is on the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, including M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and the unnamed third biovariant complex with its recent taxonomic changes and newly recognized species (including M. septicum, M. mageritense, and proposed species M. houstonense and M. bonickei). The clinical and taxonomic status of M. chelonae, M. abscessus, and M. mucogenicum is also detailed, along with that of the closely related new species, M. immunogenum. Additionally, newly recognized species, M. wolinskyi and M. goodii, as well as M. smegmatis sensu stricto, are included in a discussion of the M. smegmatis group. Laboratory diagnosis of RGM using phenotypic methods such as biochemical testing and high-performance liquid chromatography and molecular methods of diagnosis are also discussed. The latter includes PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, hybridization, ribotyping, and sequence analysis. Susceptibility testing and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the RGM are also annotated, along with the current recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) for mycobacterial susceptibility testing.

  13. Two novel species of rapidly growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium lehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacterium neumannii sp. nov.

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    Nouioui, Imen; Sangal, Vartul; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Jando, Marlen; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Sutcliffe, Iain; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Two rapidly growing mycobacteria with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences were the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strains formed a well-supported subclade in the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely associated with the type strain of Mycobacterium novocastrense. Single and multilocus sequence analyses based on hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SN 1900 T and SN 1904 T are phylogenetically distinct but share several chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features that are are consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium. The two strains were distinguished by their different fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles, and by a combination of phenotypic features. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values for strains SN 1900 T and SN 1904 T were 61.0 % and 94.7 %, respectively; in turn, the corresponding dDDH and ANI values with M. novocastrense DSM 44203 T were 41.4 % and 42.8 % and 89.3 % and 89.5 %, respectively. These results show that strains SN1900 T and SN 1904 T form new centres of taxonomic variation within the genus Mycobacterium. Consequently, strains SN 1900 T (40 T =CECT 8763 T =DSM 43219 T ) and SN 1904 T (2409 T =CECT 8766 T =DSM 43532 T ) are considered to represent novel species, for which the names Mycobacteriumlehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacteriumneumannii sp. nov. are proposed. A strain designated as 'Mycobacteriumacapulsensis' was shown to be a bona fide member of the putative novel species, M. lehmannii.

  14. Rapidly Growing Thyroid Mass in an Immunocompromised Young Male Adult

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    Mónica Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 20-year-old man diagnosed with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, admitted to our hospital due to pancytopenia and fever of undetermined origin after myelosuppression with chemotherapy. Disseminated aspergillosis (DIA was suspected when he developed skin and lung involvement. A rapidly growing mass was detected on the left neck area, during hospitalization. A thyroid ultrasound reported a 3.7×2.5×2.9 cm oval heterogeneous structure, suggestive of an abscess versus a hematoma. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid revealed invasion of aspergillosis. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence. Thyroid fungal infection is difficult to diagnose; for this reason it is rarely diagnosed antemortem. To our knowledge, this is the 10th case reported in the literature in an adult where the diagnosis of fungal invasion to the thyroid was able to be corroborated antemortem by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

  15. In vitro activity of flomoxef against rapidly growing mycobacteria.

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    Tsai, Moan-Shane; Tang, Ya-Fen; Eng, Hock-Liew

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro sensitivity of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) to flomoxef in respiratory secretions collected from 61 consecutive inpatients and outpatients at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung medical center between July and December, 2005. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of flomoxef were determined by the broth dilution method for the 61 clinical isolates of RGMs. The MICs of flomoxef at which 90% of clinical isolates were inhibited was >128 microg/mL in 26 isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus and 4 microg/mL in 31 isolates of M. fortuitum. Three out of 4 clinical M. peregrinum isolates were inhibited by flomoxef at concentrations of 4 microg/mL or less. Although the numbers of the clinical isolates of RGMs were small, these preliminary in vitro results demonstrate the potential activity of flomoxef in the management of infections due to M. fortuitum, and probably M. peregrinum in humans.

  16. Rapidly growing mycobacteria in Singapore, 2006-2011.

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    Tang, S S; Lye, D C; Jureen, R; Sng, L-H; Hsu, L Y

    2015-03-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria infection is a growing global concern, but data from Asia are limited. This study aimed to describe the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) isolates in Singapore. Clinical RGM isolates with antibiotic susceptibility tests performed between 2006 and 2011 were identified using microbiology laboratory databases and minimum inhibitory concentrations of amikacin, cefoxitin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, imipenem, linezolid, moxifloxacin, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline and tobramycin were recorded. Regression analysis was performed to detect changes in antibiotic susceptibility patterns over time. A total of 427 isolates were included. Of these, 277 (65%) were from respiratory specimens, 42 (10%) were related to skin and soft tissue infections and 36 (8%) were recovered from blood specimens. The two most common species identified were Mycobacterium abscessus (73%) and Mycobacterium fortuitum group (22%), with amikacin and clarithromycin being most active against the former, and quinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against the latter. Decreases in susceptibility of M. abscessus to linezolid by 8.8% per year (p 0.001), M. fortuitum group to imipenem by 9.5% per year (p 0.023) and clarithromycin by 4.7% per year (p 0.033) were observed. M. abscessus in respiratory specimens is the most common RGM identified in Singapore. Antibiotic options for treatment of RGM infections are increasingly limited. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapidly Growing Esophageal Carcinosarcoma Reduced by Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Alone

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    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. It is generally treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to the protocols used for other esophageal cancers. However, the treatment of esophageal carcinosarcoma by radiotherapy alone before surgery has not been previously described. We report a patient with a rapidly growing esophageal carcinosarcoma that was efficiently reduced by neoadjuvant radiotherapy alone. A previously healthy 69-year-old man was admitted with dysphagia. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a small nodular polypoid lesion of about 10 mm in the middle esophagus. A second EGD 1 month later showed that the tumor had expanded into a huge mass. A biopsy specimen revealed that the tumor comprised squamous cell carcinoma with spindle cell components, and the tumor was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma which was diagnosed as stage I (T1bN0M0. Due to renal dysfunction, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy (40 Gy without chemotherapy. A third EGD 1 month later revealed remarkable tumor reduction. He then underwent total esophagectomy with regional lymph node dissection (pStage 0, pT1aN0M0. After surgical operation, the patient was followed up without adjuvant therapy. Whole body computed tomography revealed lung metastasis 14 months after surgery, and the patient died 2 months later. The neoadjuvant radiotherapy for esophageal carcinosarcoma was considered to have contributed to the subsequent surgery and his prolonged survival time. Thus, radiotherapy alone might be a suitable neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal carcinosarcomas.

  18. A novel screening method based on menadione mediated rapid reduction of tetrazolium salt for testing of anti-mycobacterial agents.

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    Singh, Upasana; Akhtar, Shamim; Mishra, Abhishek; Sarkar, Dhiman

    2011-02-01

    A microplate-based rapid, inexpensive and robust technique is developed by using tetrazolium salt 2,3-bis[2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and menadione to determine the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis bacilli in microplate format. In general, XTT reduction is an extremely slow process which takes almost 24 h to produce a detectable signal. Menadione could drastically induce this reduction to an almost equal extent within a few minutes in a dose dependent manner. The reduction of XTT is directly proportional to the cell concentration in the presence of menadione. The standardized protocol used 200 μM of XTT and 60 μM of menadione in 250 μl of cell suspension grown either in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The cell suspension of M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis were incubated for 40 min before reading the optical density at 470 nm whereas M. smegmatis was incubated for 20 min. Calculated Signal/Noise (S/N) ratios obtained by applying this protocol were 5.4, 6.4 and 9.4 using M. bovis BCG, M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis respectively. The calculated Z' factors were >0.8 for all mycobacterium bacilli indicating the robustness of the XTT Reduction Menadione Assay (XRMA) for rapid screening of inhibitors. The assay protocol was validated by applying 10 standard anti-tubercular agents on M. tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values were found to be similar to reported values from Colony Forming Unit (CFU) and REMA (resazurin microplate assay) assays. Altogether, XRMA is providing a novel anti-tubercular screening protocol which could be useful in high throughput screening programs against different physiological stages of the bacilli. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. E-cigarettes: a rapidly growing Internet phenomenon.

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    Yamin, Cyrus K; Bitton, Asaf; Bates, David W

    2010-11-02

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) aerosolize nicotine and produce a vapor that emulates that of cigarettes but purportedly has fewer traditional toxins than secondhand smoke. Although e-cigarettes are widely sold online and by retailers, new research suggests that they may contain unexpected toxins and may provide unreliable nicotine delivery. Many countries have already banned or strictly regulated e-cigarettes. Currently in the United States, e-cigarettes are exempt from regulation as drug-delivery devices. Meanwhile, the presence of e-cigarettes on the Internet, including in Web searches, virtual user communities, and online stores where people sell e-cigarettes on commission, is increasing rapidly. Physicians should be aware of the popularity, questionable efficacy claims, and safety concerns of e-cigarettes so that they may counsel patients against use and advocate for research to inform an evidence-based regulatory approach.

  20. Real-time PCR assay using fine-needle aspirates and tissue biopsy specimens for rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial lymphadenitis in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, E. S.; Lindeboom, J. A.; Prins, J. M.; Peeters, M. F.; Claas, E. C. J.; Kuijper, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay was developed to diagnose and identify the causative agents of suspected mycobacterial lymphadenitis. Primers and probes for the real-time PCR were designed on the basis of the internal transcribed spacer sequence, enabling the recognition of the genus Mycobacterium and the

  1. Mycobacterial panniculitis caused by in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Vishkautsan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for chronic, bilateral, ulcerative dermatitis affecting the inguinal region and lateral aspects of both pelvic limbs. Histopathologic examination of skin biopsies collected throughout the course of disease revealed chronic pyogranulomatous ulcerative dermatitis. Aerobic bacterial skin cultures yielded growth of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium amycolatum . Upon referral the clinical findings were suggestive of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species infection. Previously obtained skin cultures failed to yield growth of mycobacterial organisms. A deep skin biopsy was collected and submitted for mycobacterial culture. At 5 weeks of incubation Mycobacterium thermoresistibile was isolated. In previous reports, M thermoresistibile has been isolated after 2–4 days of incubation, suggesting that this strain may have been a slower growing variant, or other factors (such as prior antimicrobial therapy inhibited rapid growth of this isolate. The cat was hospitalized for intravenous antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement of wounds, vacuum-assisted wound closure therapy and reconstruction procedures. The wounds were ultimately primarily closed and the cat was discharged to the owner after 50 days of hospitalization. Seven months after hospitalization, the ulcerative skin lesions had healed. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, only two cases of M thermoresistibile panniculitis have been reported in cats. In the only detailed report of feline M thermoresistibile panniculitis, treatment was not attempted. The second case only reported detection of M thermoresistibile by PCR without a clinical description of the case. In our case report, severe chronic skin infection with M thermoresistibile was addressed using prolonged specific antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement and reconstructions, and treatment of secondary bacterial infections.

  2. Rapidly growing ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the vagina: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghun Na

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: Epithelial ovarian cancer may grow very rapidly. The frequent measurement of tumor size by ultrasonography may provide important information on detection in a subset of ovarian carcinomas that develop from preexisting, detectable lesions.

  3. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... an abundant occurrence of mycobacteria in low pH (P value = 0001). We also ..... between large numbers of mycobacterial and high soil acidity as ... (2002). Chlorine disinfection of atypical mycobacteria isolated from a.

  4. Structural analysis of biofilm formation by rapidly and slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) such as M. abscessus, M. mucogenicum, M. chelonae and M. fortuitum, implicated in healthcare-associated infections, are often isolated from potable water supplies as part of the microbial flora. To understa...

  5. Immune Response to Mycobacterial Infection: Lessons from Flow Cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Rovina, Nikoletta; Panagiotou, Marios; Pontikis, Konstantinos; Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini; Koulouris, Nikolaos G.; Koutsoukou, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and treating active and latent tuberculosis are pivotal elements for effective infection control; yet, due to their significant inherent limitations, the diagnostic means for these two stages of tuberculosis (TB) to date remain suboptimal. This paper reviews the current diagnostic tools for mycobacterial infection and focuses on the application of flow cytometry as a promising method for rapid and reliable diagnosis of mycobacterial infection as well as discrimination between active...

  6. Clinical and Taxonomic Status of Pathogenic Nonpigmented or Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Wallace, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    The history, taxonomy, geographic distribution, clinical disease, and therapy of the pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are reviewed. Community-acquired disease and health care-associated disease are highlighted for each species. The latter grouping includes health care-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks as well as sporadic disease cases. Treatment recommendations for each species and type of disease are also described. Special emphasis is on ...

  7. Rapidly Growing Chondroid Syringoma of the External Auditory Canal: Report of a Rare Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiadis, Ioannis; Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Petousis, Aristotelis; Karakostas, Euthimios; Simantirakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Chondroid syrinoma of the external auditory canal is an extremely rare benign neoplasm representing the cutaneous counterpart of pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands. Less than 35 cases have been reported in the international literature. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 34-year-old male in whom a rapidly growing, well-circumscribed tumor arising from the external auditory canal was presented. Otoscopy revealed a smooth, nontender lesion covered by normal skin that almost obstructs the external auditory meatus. MRI was performed to define the extension of the lesion. It confirmed the presence of a 1.5 × 0.8 cm T2 high-signal intensity lesion in the superior and posterior wall of EAC without signs of bone erosion. The patient underwent complete resection of the tumor. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Conclusion. Although chondroid syringoma is extremely rare, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp. Chondroid syringomas are usually asymptomatic, slow-growing, single benign tumors in subcutaneous or intradermal location. In our case, the new information is that this benign tumor could present also as a rapidly growing lesion, arising the suspicion for malignancy. PMID:21941560

  8. Rapidly Growing Chondroid Syringoma of the External Auditory Canal: Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Vasileiadis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chondroid syrinoma of the external auditory canal is an extremely rare benign neoplasm representing the cutaneous counterpart of pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands. Less than 35 cases have been reported in the international literature. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 34-year-old male in whom a rapidly growing, well-circumscribed tumor arising from the external auditory canal was presented. Otoscopy revealed a smooth, nontender lesion covered by normal skin that almost obstructs the external auditory meatus. MRI was performed to define the extension of the lesion. It confirmed the presence of a 1.5×0.8 cm T2 high-signal intensity lesion in the superior and posterior wall of EAC without signs of bone erosion. The patient underwent complete resection of the tumor. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Conclusion. Although chondroid syringoma is extremely rare, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp. Chondroid syringomas are usually asymptomatic, slow-growing, single benign tumors in subcutaneous or intradermal location. In our case, the new information is that this benign tumor could present also as a rapidly growing lesion, arising the suspicion for malignancy.

  9. Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov., a rapidly growing bacterium isolated from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2017-10-01

    A strain representing a rapidly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating and non-pigmented species of the genus Mycobacterium, designated strain S-I-6 T , was isolated from groundwater at Daejeon in Korea. The strain grew at temperatures between 10 and 37 °C (optimal growth at 25 °C), between pH 4.0 and 9.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNAgene, hsp65, rpoB and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer indicated that strain S-I-6 T belonged to the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium sphagni. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the bacterial strain was distinguished from its phylogenetic neighbours by chemotaxonomic properties and other biochemical characteristics. DNA-DNA relatedness among strain S-I-6 T and the closest phylogenetic neighbour strongly support the proposal that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-I-6 T (=KACC 17600 T =NBRC 109805 T =NCAIM B 02535 T ).

  10. The impact of entrepreneurial capital and rapidly growing firms: the Canadian example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    . It provides empirical evidence from small, young, high-growth enterprises that entrepreneurial capital contributes significantly to their growth through such augmentation. As emerging industries and regions face similar challenges as those of high and rapidly-growing smaller enterprises in increasingly more......World-class competitiveness is no longer an option for firms seeking growth and survival in the increasingly competitive, dynamic and interconnected world. This paper expands on the concept of entrepreneurial capital and formalizes it as a catalyst that augments other productive factors...

  11. Rapidly- growing firms and their main characteristics: a longitudinal study from United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    concerning the theoretical relations between high-growth and location, size and temporal characteristics of the high-growth enterprises. Using non parametric tests, we analyze a 21-year longitudinal database of privately held rapidly growing enterprises from the USA. This analysis indicates that these firms...... are relatively smaller enterprises and their high growth rates are not restricted to a particular location, industrial region, size or time period. The findings of this analysis point to a population of high-growth enterprises with diverse locations, sizes and times with important implications for scholarly...

  12. Rapidly growing ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the vagina: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sunghun; Hwang, Jongyun; Lee, Hyangah; Lee, Jiyeon; Lee, Dongheon

    2011-12-01

    We present a rare case of a very rapidly growing stage IV ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the uterine cervix and vagina without lymph node involvement. A 43-year-old woman visited the hospital with complaints of lower abdominal discomfort and vaginal bleeding over the previous 3 months. Serum levels of tumor marker CA 125 and SCC antigen (TA-4) were normal. On magnetic resonance imaging, a 7.9×9.7cm heterogeneous mass with intermediate signal intensity was observed in the posterior low body of the uterus. Two months ago, a computed tomography scan revealed an approximate 4.5×3.0cm heterogeneously enhanced subserosal mass with internal ill-defined hypodensities. A laparotomy, including a total abdominal hysterectomy with resection of the upper vagina, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection, appendectomy, total omentectomy, and biopsy of rectal serosa was performed. A histological examination revealed poorly differentiated endometrioid ovarian adenocarcinoma with vaginal involvement. The patient had an uncomplicated post-operative course. After discharge, she completed six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel (175mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (300mg/m(2)) and has remained clinically disease-free until June 2010. Epithelial ovarian cancer may grow very rapidly. The frequent measurement of tumor size by ultrasonography may provide important information on detection in a subset of ovarian carcinomas that develop from preexisting, detectable lesions. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Surgical site infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria in puducherry, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kavitha; Ragunathan, Latha; Sakthivel, Sulochana; Sasidar, A R; Muralidaran; Venkatachalam, G K

    2015-03-01

    Rapidly growing Mycobacteria are increasingly recognized, nowadays as an important pathogen that can cause wide range of clinical syndromes in humans. We herein describe unrelated cases of surgical site infection caused by Rapidly growing Mycobacteria (RGM), seen during a period of 12 months. Nineteen patients underwent operations by different surgical teams located in diverse sections of Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Karnataka, India. All patients presented with painful, draining subcutaneous nodules at the infection sites. Purulent material specimens were sent to the microbiology laboratory. Gram stain and Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used for direct examination. Culture media included blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey agar, Sabourauds agar and Lowenstein-Jensen medium for Mycobacteria. Isolated microorganisms were identified and further tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by standard microbiologic procedures. Mycobacterium fortuitum and M.chelonae were isolated from the purulent drainage obtained from wounds by routine microbiological techniques from all the specimens. All isolates analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were sensitive to clarithromycin, linezolid and amikacin but were variable to ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and tobramycin. Our case series highlights that a high level of clinical suspicion should be maintained for patients presenting with protracted soft tissue lesions with a history of trauma or surgery as these infections not only cause physical but also emotional distress that affects both the patients and the surgeon.

  14. [Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

    2013-03-01

    Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for

  15. Anti-Mycobacterial Peptides: From Human to Phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieshan Teng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the major pathogen of tuberculosis (TB. With the growing problem of M. tuberculosis resistant to conventional antibiotics, especially multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB, the need for new TB drugs is now more prominent than ever. Among the promising candidates for anti-TB drugs, anti-mycobacterial peptides have a few advantages, such as low immunogenicity, selective affinity to prokaryotic negatively charged cell envelopes, and diverse modes of action. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the anti-mycobacterial peptides, highlighting the sources, effectiveness and bactericidal mechanisms of these antimicrobial peptides. Most of the current anti-mycobacterial peptides are derived either from host immune cells, bacterial extraction, or mycobacteriophages. Besides trans-membrane pore formation, which is considered to be the common bactericidal mechanism, many of the anti-mycobacterial peptides have the second non-membrane targets within mycobacteria. Additionally, some antimicrobial peptides play critical roles in innate immunity. However, a few obstacles, such as short half-life in vivo and resistance to antimicrobial peptides, need overcoming before clinical applications. Nevertheless, the multiple functions of anti-mycobacterial peptides, especially direct killing of pathogens and immune-modulators in infectious and inflammatory conditions, indicate that they are promising candidates for future drug development.

  16. Rapid urbanization and the growing threat of violence and conflict: a 21st century crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak B; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-04-01

    As the global population is concentrated into complex environments, rapid urbanization increases the threat of conflict and insecurity. Many fast-growing cities create conditions of significant disparities in standards of living, which set up a natural environment for conflict over resources. As urban slums become a haven for criminal elements, youth gangs, and the arms trade, they also create insecurity for much of the population. Specific populations, such as women, migrants, and refugees, bear the brunt of this lack of security, with significant impacts on their livelihoods, health, and access to basic services. This lack of security and violence also has great costs to the general population, both economic and social. Cities have increasingly become the battlefield of recent conflicts as they serve as the seats of power and gateways to resources. International agencies, non-governmental organizations, and policy-makers must act to stem this tide of growing urban insecurity. Protecting urban populations and preventing future conflict will require better urban planning, investment in livelihood programs for youth, cooperation with local communities, enhanced policing, and strengthening the capacity of judicial systems.

  17. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M

    2016-08-01

    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  18. Familial cerebral cavernous haemangioma diagnosed in an infant with a rapidly growing cerebral lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, B.H.K.; Pereira, J.K.; Ghedia, S.; Pinner, J.; Mowat, D.; Vonau, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cavernous haemangiomas of the central nervous system are vascular malformations best imaged by MRI. They may present at any age, but to our knowledge only 39 cases in the first year of life have previously been reported. A familial form has been described and some of the underlying genetic mutations have recently been discovered. We present the clinical features and serial MRI findings of an 8-week-old boy who presented with subacute intracranial haemorrhage followed by rapid growth of a surgically proven cavernous haemangioma, mimicking a tumour. He also developed new lesions. A strong family history of neurological disease was elucidated. A familial form of cavernous haemangioma was confirmed by identification of a KRIT 1 gene mutation and cavernous haemangiomas in the patient and other family members. We stress the importance of considering cavernous haemangiomas in the context of intracerebral haemorrhage and in the differential diagnosis of rapidly growing lesions in this age group. The family history is also important in screening for familial disease

  19. [Rapidly-growing nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elıyatkin, Nuket; Karasu, Başak; Selek, Elif; Keçecı, Yavuz; Postaci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is a benign proliferative lesion of the mammary stroma that rarely presents as a localized mass. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is characterized by a dense, collagenous proliferation of the mammary stroma, associated with capillary-like spaces. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia can be mistaken with fibroadenoma on radiological examination or with low-grade angiosarcoma on histological examination. Its main importance is its distinction from angiosarcoma. The presented case was a 40-year-old woman who was admitted with a rapidly growing breast tumor. Physical examination revealed an elastic-firm, well-defined, mobile and painless mass in her right breast. Mammograms revealed a 6.7 x 3.7 cm, lobulated, well-circumscribed mass in her right breast but no calcification. Sonographic examination showed a well-defined and homogenous mass, not including any cyst. Based on these findings, a provisional diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made. Considering the rapid growth history of the mass, tumor excision was performed. The excised tumor was well demarcated and had a smooth external surface. Histological examination revealed the tumor to be composed of markedly increased fibrous stroma and scattered epithelial components (cystic dilatation of the ducts, blunt duct adenosis). The fibrous stroma contained numerous anastomosing slit-like spaces. Isolated spindle cells appeared intermittently at the margins of the spaces resembled endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the spindle cells were positive for CD34 and negative for Factor VIII-related antigen. The lesion was diagnosed as nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia.

  20. Immune response to mycobacterial infection: lessons from flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovina, Nikoletta; Panagiotou, Marios; Pontikis, Konstantinos; Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Koutsoukou, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and treating active and latent tuberculosis are pivotal elements for effective infection control; yet, due to their significant inherent limitations, the diagnostic means for these two stages of tuberculosis (TB) to date remain suboptimal. This paper reviews the current diagnostic tools for mycobacterial infection and focuses on the application of flow cytometry as a promising method for rapid and reliable diagnosis of mycobacterial infection as well as discrimination between active and latent TB: it summarizes diagnostic biomarkers distinguishing the two states of infection and also features of the distinct immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) at certain stages of infection as revealed by flow cytometry to date.

  1. Immune Response to Mycobacterial Infection: Lessons from Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoletta Rovina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting and treating active and latent tuberculosis are pivotal elements for effective infection control; yet, due to their significant inherent limitations, the diagnostic means for these two stages of tuberculosis (TB to date remain suboptimal. This paper reviews the current diagnostic tools for mycobacterial infection and focuses on the application of flow cytometry as a promising method for rapid and reliable diagnosis of mycobacterial infection as well as discrimination between active and latent TB: it summarizes diagnostic biomarkers distinguishing the two states of infection and also features of the distinct immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb at certain stages of infection as revealed by flow cytometry to date.

  2. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kyselková

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

  3. The spatial biology of transcription and translation in rapidly growing Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath eBakshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP in live, rapidly growing E. coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0-3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20-30 min nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription

  4. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Li, Guilian; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Haican; Wan, Kanglin; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Clinical isolates (73) were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. M. abscessus (75.34%) and M. fortuitum (15.07%), the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  5. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Methods. Clinical isolates (73 were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. Results. M. abscessus (75.34% and M. fortuitum (15.07%, the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Conclusions. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  6. Rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection of prosthetic knee joints: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Manyoung; Ha, Chul-Won; Jang, Jae Won; Park, Yong-Beom

    2017-08-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause prosthetic knee joint infections in rare cases. Infections with rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) are difficult to treat due to their aggressive clinical behavior and resistance to antibiotics. Infections of a prosthetic knee joint by RGNTM have rarely been reported. A standard of treatment has not yet been established because of the rarity of the condition. In previous reports, diagnoses of RGNTM infections in prosthetic knee joints took a long time to reach because the condition was not suspected, due to its rarity. In addition, it is difficult to identify RGNTM in the lab because special identification tests are needed. In previous reports, after treatment for RGNTM prosthetic infections, knee prostheses could not be re-implanted in all cases but one, resulting in arthrodesis or resection arthroplasty; this was most likely due to the aggressiveness of these organisms. In the present report, two cases of prosthetic knee joint infection caused by RGNTM (Mycobacterium abscessus) are described that were successfully treated, and in which prosthetic joints were finally reimplanted in two-stage revision surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis: a diagnostic conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswaran N

    2014-05-01

    infectious agent all along, and the organism was originally misidentified on the basis of less accurate tests.Conclusion: Recurrent atypical mycobacterial endophthalmitis requires expedient identification and management to prevent poor visual outcomes. Standard biochemical testing can identify the causative organism but is limited by the inability to distinguish between nontuberculous species reliably. We recommend the use of PCR in conjunction with sequencing of the hsp65 gene for reliable differentiation of M. chelonae and M. abscessus in atypical mycobacterial ocular infections. Minimum inhibitory concentration antibiotic susceptibility tests on cultured strains are the best guide to antibiotic selection, given the rapidly rising resistance to antimicrobials in atypical mycobacterial species.Keywords: atypical mycobacteria, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, hsp65, Mycobacterium chelonae, neurotrophic keratopathy, visual outcome

  8. Urban cyclist exposure to fine particle pollution in a rapidly growing city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, B. W.; Barrett, T. E.; Ponette-González, A.

    2017-12-01

    Urban cyclists are exposed to elevated atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter (particles vehicle exhaust, which is emitted directly into cyclists' "breathing zone." In cities, human exposure to PM2.5 is a concern because its small size allows it to be inhaled deeper into the lungs than most particles. The aim of this research is to determine "hotspots" (locations with high PM2.5 concentrations) within the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex, Texas, where urban cyclists are most exposed to fine particle pollution. Recent research indicates that common exposure hotspots include traffic signals, junctions, bus stations, parking lots, and inclined streets. To identify these and other hotspots, a bicycle equipped with a low-cost, portable, battery-powered particle counter (Dylos 1700) coupled with a Trimble Geo 5T handheld Global Positioning System (GPS; ≤1 m ± resolution) will be used to map and measure particle mass concentrations along predetermined routes. Measurements will be conducted during a consecutive four-month period (Sep-Dec) during morning and evening rush hours when PM2.5 levels are generally highest, as well as during non-rush hour times to determine background concentrations. PM2.5 concentrations will be calculated from particle counts using an equation developed by Steinle et al. (2015). In addition, traffic counts will be conducted along the routes coinciding with the mobile monitoring times. We will present results on identified "hotspots" of high fine particle concentrations and PM2.5 exposure in the City of Denton, where particle pollution puts urban commuters most at risk, as well as average traffic counts from monitoring times. These data can be used to determine pollution mitigation strategies in rapidly growing urban areas.

  9. Rare Rapidly Growing Thumb Lesion in a 12-Year-Old Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana J Arnold, MD, MBA

    2018-04-01

    t amenable to surgery.4 Surgery is the mainstay of care. The first medical treatment, denosumab, was approved by the FDA for use in adults and skeletally mature adolescents with surgically unresectable lesions.5 It is critical to obtain definitive imaging and biopsy of any rapidly growing lesions in patients presenting with masses and no history of trauma or constitutional symptoms. The best imaging study is MRI, to assess for bony and tissue involvement and surgical approach. Computed tomography may be used; however, it doesn’t delineate the soft tissue and bony connections as well. Standard oncology labs should be drawn as well, including: CBC with differential, LDH, uric acid, CMP, ESR. The growth of the tumor is insidious and therefore imaging should be done based on clinical concern. In the ED setting, if close follow up can be ensured, imaging can be done as an out-patient. Annual surveillance is recommended for at least 5 years in most patients, even after total resection, according to some studies.3 Our patient underwent GCTB resection with plastics surgery of the distal phalanx of thumb. He was seen in follow-up in the oncology clinic. Pathology of the tumor had negative margins, and he was told to follow-up in six months with plastics. Per hematology, no further follow-up was needed. Topics: Pediatrics, giant cell tumor, thumb lesion

  10. Anti-mycobacterial peptides: made to order with delivery included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, James; O' Mahony, Jim

    2011-01-01

    "TB is too often a death sentence. It does not have to be this way,"- Nelson Mandela. Despite the success of anti-mycobacterial drugs over the past 70 years, mycobacterial disease, particularly tuberculosis is still responsible for millions of annual deaths worldwide. Additionally, the emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR-TB) and Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR-TB) Tuberculosis has motivated calls by the World Health Organization (WHO) for novel drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests. Consequently, the identification and evaluation of a range of anti-mycobacterial compounds against pathogenic mycobacterial species is of paramount importance. My colleagues and I at Cork Institute of Technology (CIT) and University College Cork (UCC) have tackled this issue through the initial optimization of the rapid, robust and inexpensive microtitre alamarBlue assay (MABA) and subsequent employment of this assay to facilitate the rapid assessment of a new wave of potential therapeutic compounds, namely bacteriocins, in particular type 1 bacteriocins known as lantibiotics. The gene encoded nature of these peptides facilitates their genetic manipulation and consequent activities as anti-microbial agents. In this regard, it may be possible to one day develop diverse populations of anti-mycobacterial bacteriocins with species specific activities. This may in turn provide more targeted therapies, resulting in less side effects, shorter treatment times and thus better patient compliance. Although current drug regimes are effective in the interim, previous lessons have taught us not to be complacent. In the words of the Intel founder Andrew Grove, 'Success breeds complacency. Complacency breeds failure. Only the paranoid survive'. Armed with knowledge of previous failures, it is the duty of the scientific community to anticipate future bacterial resistance and have an arsenal of compounds standing by in such an eventuality.

  11. Molecular-based mycobacterial identification in a clinical laboratory setting: a comparison of two methods.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, N

    2012-01-01

    Many mycobacterial species are pathogenic to humans, with infection occurring worldwide. Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a well-described global phenomenon, but other mycobacterial species are increasingly shown to be the cause of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary infection and are managed differently from M. tuberculosis infection. Rapid and accurate differentiation of mycobacterial species is, therefore, critical to guide timely and appropriate therapeutic and public health management. This study evaluates two commercially available DNA strip assays, the Genotype Common Mycobacteria (CM) assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) and the Speed-oligo Mycobacteria assay (Vircell, Spain) for their usefulness in a clinical laboratory setting. Both assays were evaluated on 71 clinical mycobacterial isolates, previously identified using Gen-Probe AccuProbe and through a UK mycobacteriology reference laboratory, as well as 29 non-mycobacterial isolates. Concordant results were obtained for 98% of isolates using both assays. The sensitivity was 97% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 93.3-100%) for the CM assay and 98.6% (95% CI: 95.9-100%) for the Speed-oligo assay. Overall, both assays proved to be useful tools for rapid and sensitive mycobacterial species identification, although interpretation of results was easier with the CM assay. Finally, results were available within one day, compared to current identification times which range between seven days and four weeks.

  12. Myofibroblastoma: An Unusual Rapidly Growing Benign Tumour in a Male Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, A.; Arshad, A.

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma is an unusual benign tumour of the breast predominantly seen in men in their sixth to seventh decade. The gross appearance is that of a well circumscribed nodule, characteristically small, seldom exceeding 3 cm. We present a case of an unusually large myofibroblastoma, which mimicked a malignant breast tumour. A 40 years old male, known case of tetralogy of Fallot, was operated in infancy in abroad, presented with a rapid enlargement of right breast over 5 - 6 weeks. Examination revealed a firm 10 cm hemispherical lump occupying the whole of the right breast with normal overlying skin. Since core biopsy was inconclusive, a subcutaneous mastectomy was performed to remove the tumour, which weighed 500 gms. Histopathology and immunocytochemistry revealed a mixed classical and collagenised type of myofibroblastoma. The patient is well with no evidence of recurrence. (author)

  13. Immunomodulating microRNAs of mycobacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Paulo; Pires, David; Anes, Elsa

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by sequence-specific binding to target mRNAs. Some microRNAs block translation, while others promote mRNA degradation, leading to a reduction in protein availability. A single miRNA can potentially regulate the expression of multiple genes and their encoded proteins. Therefore, miRNAs can influence molecular signalling pathways and regulate many biological processes in health and disease. Upon infection, host cells rapidly change their transcriptional programs, including miRNA expression, as a response against the invading microorganism. Not surprisingly, pathogens can also alter the host miRNA profile to their own benefit, which is of major importance to scientists addressing high morbidity and mortality infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. In this review, we present recent findings on the miRNAs regulation of the host response against mycobacterial infections, providing new insights into host-pathogen interactions. Understanding these findings and its implications could reveal new opportunities for designing better diagnostic tools, therapies and more effective vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov., a rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species isolated from human clinical respiratory and blood culture specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto Enrique; Greninger, Alexander L; Ladutko, Lynn; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Jakubiec, Wesley; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Wallace, Richard J; Simmon, Keith E; Dunn, Bruce E; Jackoway, Gary; Vora, Surabhi B; Quinn, Kevin K; Qin, Xuan; Campbell, Sheldon

    2017-11-01

    A previously undescribed, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species of the genus Mycobacterium (represented by strains PB739 T and GK) was isolated from two clinical sources - the sputum of a 76-year-old patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of tuberculosis exposure and Mycobacterium avium complex isolated years prior; and the blood of a 15-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia status post bone marrow transplant. The isolates grew as dark orange colonies at 25-37 °C after 5 days, sharing features in common with other closely related species. Analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (1492 bp) of strain PB739 T demonstrated that the isolate shared 98.8 % relatedness with Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Partial 429 bp hsp65 and 744 bp rpoB region V sequence analyses revealed that the sequences of the novel isolate shared 94.8 and 92.1 % similarity with those of Mycobacterium neoaurum and Mycobacterium aurum, respectively. Biochemical profiling, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, HPLC/gas-liquid chromatography analyses and multilocus sequence typing support the taxonomic status of these isolates (PB739 T and GK) as representatives of a novel species. Both isolates were susceptible to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended antimicrobials for susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria including amikacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline/minocycline, imipenem, linezolid, clarithromycin and trimethropin/sulfamethoxazole. Both isolates PB739 T and GK showed intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin. We propose the name Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov. for this novel species and have deposited the type strain in the DSMZ and CIP culture collections. The type strain is PB739 T (=DSM 104744 T =CIP 111318 T ).

  15. Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov., a scotochromogenic, rapidly growing species is able to infect human macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Rizvi, A; Banerjee, S; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-11-01

    Gram-stain-positive, acid-fast-positive, rapidly growing, rod-shaped bacteria (designated as strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431) were isolated from paddy cultivated soils on the Western Ghats of India. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three strains among the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium tokaiense 47503T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Mycobacterium murale MA112/96T (98.8 %) and a few other Mycobacterium species. The level of DNA-DNA reassociation of the three strains with M. tokaiense DSM 44635T was 23.4±4 % (26.1±3 %, reciprocal analysis) and 21.4±2 % (22.1±4 %, reciprocal analysis). The three novel strains shared >99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA reassociation values >85 %. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences (3071 bp) of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) revealed that strain JC290T is clearly distinct from all other Mycobacteriumspecies. The three strains had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, unidentified phospholipids, unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified lipid as polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone for all three strains was MK-9(H2). Fatty acids were C17 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C19 : 1ω7c/C19 : 1ω6c for all the three strains. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431 are members of a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium and for which the name Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC290T (=KCTC 39560T=LMG 28809T).

  16. Applying the One Health Concept to Mycobacterial Research - Overcoming Parochialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, S; Plain, K M; de Silva, K; Marais, B J; Whittington, R J

    2017-09-01

    Mycobacterial infections remain a public health problem. Historically important, globally ubiquitous and with a wide host range, we are still struggling to control mycobacterial infections in humans and animals. While previous reviews have focused on individual mycobacterial infections in either humans or animals, a comprehensive review of the zoonotic aspect of mycobacteria in the context of the One Health initiative is lacking. With the purpose of providing a concise and comprehensive resource, we have collated literature to address the zoonotic potential of different mycobacterial species and elaborate on the necessity for an inter-sectorial approach to attain a new vision to combat mycobacterial infections. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov., a rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium chelonae, isolated from marine teleost fish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Hanako; Wada, Shinpei; Kurata, Osamu; Katayama, Kinya; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-01

    A previously undescribed rapidly growing, non-pigmented mycobacterium was identified based on biochemical and nucleic acid analyses, as well as growth characteristics. Seven isolates were cultured from samples collected from five thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) and two farmed black scraper (Thamnaconus modestus). Bacterial growth occurred at 15-35 °C on Middlebrook 7H11 agar. The bacteria were positive for catalase activity at 68 °C and urease activity, intermediate for iron uptake, and negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, semi-quantitative catalase activity and arylsulfatase activity at day 3. No growth was observed on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with picric acid, and very little growth was observed in the presence of 5 % NaCl. α- and α'-mycolates were identified in the cell walls, and a unique profile of the fatty acid methyl esters and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles of the protein and cell-wall lipids were acquired. Sequence analysis revealed that the seven isolates shared identical sequences for the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65, recA and sodA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the five gene sequences confirmed that the isolates were unique, but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clarithromycin against this novel species was Mycobacterium salmoniphilum. The hsp65 PCR restriction enzyme analysis pattern differed from those of M. chelonae and M. salmoniphilum. Based on these findings, the name Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain being NJB0901 T (=JCM 31611 T =KCTC 39843 T ).

  18. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).

  19. The economic case for low-carbon development in rapidly growing developing world cities: A case study of Palembang, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colenbrander, Sarah; Gouldson, Andy; Sudmant, Andrew Heshedahl; Papargyropoulou, Effie

    2015-01-01

    Where costs or risks are higher, evidence is lacking or supporting institutions are less developed, policymakers can struggle to make the case for low-carbon investment. This is especially the case in developing world cities where decision-makers struggle to keep up with the pace and scale of change. Focusing on Palembang in Indonesia, this paper considers the economic case for proactive investment in low-carbon development. We find that a rapidly growing industrial city in a developing country can reduce emissions by 24.1% in 2025, relative to business as usual levels, with investments of USD405.6 million that would reduce energy expenditure in the city by USD436.8 million. Emissions from the regional grid could be reduced by 12.2% in 2025, relative to business as usual trends, with investments of USD2.9 billion that would generate annual savings of USD175 million. These estimates understate the savings from reduced expenditure on energy subsidies and energy infrastructure. The compelling economic case for mainstreaming climate mitigation in this developing country city suggests that the constraints on climate action can be political and institutional rather than economic. There is therefore a need for more effective energy governance to drive the transition to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic case for low carbon investment in a developing world city. • Cost-effective measures could reduce emissions by 24.1% relative to BAU levels. • These pay for themselves in <1 year and generate savings throughout their lifetime. • Further savings come from reduced expenditure on energy infrastructure, subsidies. • Limitations on climate action seem to be political/institutional – not economic

  20. Effects of landscape change on fish assemblage structure in a rapidly growing metropolitan area in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, J.G.; Chang, M.; Tracy, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated a comprehensive set of natural and land-use attributes that represent the major facets of urban development at fish monitoring sites in the rapidly growing Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area. We used principal component and correlation analysis to obtain a nonredundant subset of variables that extracted most variation in the complete set. With this subset of variables, we assessed the effect of urban growth on fish assemblage structure. We evaluated variation in fish assemblage structure with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). We used correlation analysis to identify the most important environmental and landscape variables associated with significant NMDS axes. The second NMDS axis is related to many indices of land-use/land-cover change and habitat. Significant correlations with proportion of largest forest patch to total patch size (r = -0.460, P < 0.01), diversity of patch types (r = 0.554, P < 0.001), and population density (r = 0.385, P < 0.05) helped identify NMDS axis 2 as a disturbance gradient. Positive and negative correlations between the abundance of redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus and bluehead chub Nocomis leptocephalus, respectively, and NMDS axis 2 also were evident. The North Carolina index of biotic integrity and many of its component metrics were highly correlated with urbanization. These results indicate that aquatic ecosystem integrity would be optimized by a comprehensive integrated management strategy that includes the preservation of landscape function by maximizing the conservation of contiguous tracts of forested lands and vegetative cover in watersheds. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  1. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-12-18

    Dec 18, 2006 ... Although prokaryotic genomes derive some plasticity due to microsatellite mutations they have in-built mechanisms to arrest undue expansions of microsatellites and one such mechanism is constituted by post-replicative DNA repair enzymes MutL, MutH and MutS. The mycobacterial genomes lack these ...

  2. Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications of Tuberculosis Among Nomadic Pastoralists in Three Local Governments of Plateau State, North ... Bovine and human tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, and apart from meat inspection at the abattoir, which is not very effective, no control measures are ...

  3. Detection and differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial isolates by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nabin K; Tuohy, Marion J; Hall, Gerri S; Reischl, Udo; Gordon, Steven M; Procop, Gary W

    2003-11-01

    Mycobacteria cause a variety of illnesses that differ in severity and public health implications. The differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is of primary importance for infection control and choice of antimicrobial therapy. Despite advances in molecular diagnostics, the ability to rapidly diagnose M. tuberculosis infections by PCR is still inadequate, largely because of the possibility of false-negative reactions. We designed and validated a real-time PCR for mycobacteria by using the LightCycler system with 18 reference strains and 168 clinical mycobacterial isolates. All clinically significant mycobacteria were detected; the mean melting temperatures (with 99.9% confidence intervals [99.9% CI] in parentheses) for the different mycobacteria were as follows: M. tuberculosis, 64.35 degrees C (63.27 to 65.42 degrees C); M. kansasii, 59.20 degrees C (58.07 to 60.33 degrees C); M. avium, 57.82 degrees C (57.05 to 58.60 degrees C); M. intracellulare, 54.46 degrees C (53.69 to 55.23 degrees C); M. marinum, 58.91 degrees C (58.28 to 59.55 degrees C); rapidly growing mycobacteria, 53.09 degrees C (50.97 to 55.20 degrees C) or 43.19 degrees C (42.19 to 44.49 degrees C). This real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis consistently accurately detected and differentiated M. tuberculosis from NTM. Detection of an NTM helps ensure that the negative result for M. tuberculosis is a true negative. The specific melting temperature also provides a suggestion of the identity of the NTM present, when the most commonly encountered mycobacterial species are considered. In a parallel comparison, both the LightCycler assay and the COBAS Amplicor M. tuberculosis assay correctly categorized 48 of 50 specimens that were proven by culture to contain M. tuberculosis, and the LightCycler assay correctly characterized 3 of 3 specimens that contained NTM.

  4. Tetracycline resistance and presence of tetracycline resistance determinants .i.tet./i.(V) and .i.tap./i. in rapidly growing mycobacteria from agricultural soils and clinical isolates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Chroňáková, Alica; Volná, Lucie; Němec, Jan; Ulmann, V.; Scharfen, J.; Elhottová, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2012), s. 413-422 ISSN 1342-6311 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : efflux pump * rapidly growing Mycobacterium * tetracycline resistance * tap * tet (V) Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2012

  5. Diversity, Community Composition, and Dynamics of Nonpigmented and Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria in an Urban Tap Water Production and Distribution System

    OpenAIRE

    Dubrou, S.; Konjek, J.; Macheras, E.; Welté, B.; Guidicelli, L.; Chignon, E.; Joyeux, M.; Gaillard, J. L.; Heym, B.; Tully, T.; Sapriel, G.

    2013-01-01

    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 w...

  6. Do farmers rapidly adapt to past growing conditions by sowing different proportions of early and late maturing cereals and cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short growing season of the northernmost European growing conditions, farmers are increasingly interested in expanding cultivation of later maturing crops at the expense of early maturing ones with lower yields. In this study we aimed to assess how the switching between spring cereals that differ in earliness was associated with different external factors. This was tested using unique datasets for regional cropping areas and cultivar use for the last 15 years. Early maturing barley was favored at the expense of later maturing wheat when a high number of days to crop maturity was required in the preceding year. In contrast, farmers reduced the barley area when a high number of cumulated degree days was required for a crop to mature in the previous year. A shift was recorded from early to late maturing cultivars. This study indicated that despite limited opportunities for farmers to alter land use, they readily responded to past conditions and used the knowledge gained for decision-making to reduce risk. This is a valuable operative model for studying adaptation to opportunities and constraints induced by climate change.

  7. Mycobacterial infection and atopy in childhood : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obihara, Charles C.; Bollen, Casper W.; Beyers, Nulda; Kimpen, Jan L. L.

    2007-01-01

    The epidemiological relation between mycobacterial infection and the prevalence of atopic disease in humans is still unclear. This is in contrast to studies in murine models in which a clear suppression of atopic symptoms was observed after exposure to mycobacteria or mycobacterial products. We

  8. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  9. Carbon nanotubes growing on rapid thermal annealed Ni and their application to a triode-type field emission device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uh, Hyung Soo; Park, Sang Sik

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new triode-type field emitter arrays using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as an electron emitter source. In the proposed structure, the gate electrode is located underneath the cathode electrode and the extractor electrode is surrounded by CNT emitters. CNTs were selectively grown on the patterned Ni catalyst layer by using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Vertically aligned CNTs were grown with gas mixture of acetylene and ammonia under external DC bias. Compared with a conventional under-gate structure, the proposed structure reduced the turn-on voltage by about 30%. In addition, with a view to controlling the density of CNTs, Ni catalyst thickness was varied and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment was optionally adopted before CNT growth. With controlled Ni thickness and RTA condition, field emission efficiency was greatly improved by reducing the density of CNTs, which is due to the reduction of the electric field screening effect caused by dense CNTs

  10. Blood neutrophil counts in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: association with sputum mycobacterial load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Kerkhoff

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that neutrophils play a role in the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined whether neutrophil counts in peripheral blood are associated with tuberculosis (TB and with mycobacterial load in sputum in HIV-infected patients.Adults enrolling in an antiretroviral treatment (ART clinic in a Cape Town township were screened for TB regardless of symptoms. Paired sputum samples were examined using liquid culture, fluorescence microscopy, and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were measured in blood samples. Of 602 HIV-infected patients screened, 523 produced one or more sputum samples and had complete results available for analysis. Among these 523 patients, the median CD4 count was 169×10(9/L (IQR, 96-232 and median ANC was 2.6×10(9/L (IQR, 1.9-3.6. Culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 89 patients. Patients with TB had a median ANC of 3.4×10(9/L (IQR, 2.4-5.1 compared to 2.5×10(9/L (IQR, 1.8-3.4 among those who were culture negative (p7.5×10(9/L; p = 0.0005. Patients were then classified into four mutually exclusive groups with increasing sputum mycobacterial load as defined by the results of culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and sputum smear microscopy. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that increasing sputum mycobacterial load was positively associated with blood ANC ≥2.6×10(9/L and with neutrophilia.Increased blood neutrophil counts were independently associated with pulmonary TB and sputum mycobacterial burden in this HIV-infected patient group. This observation supports the growing body of literature regarding the potential role for neutrophils in the host response to TB.

  11. Compartmental analysis of roots in intact rapidly-growing Spergularia marina and Lactuca sativa: partial characterization of the symplasms functional in the radial transport of Na+ and K+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazof, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques of compartmental analysis were adapted to the study of intact roots of rapidly-growing Spergularia marine and Lactuca sativa. Using large numbers of plants short time-courses of uptake and chase, 42 K + and 22 Na + transport could be resolved, even during a chase following a brief 10 minute labeling period. The use of intact plant systems allowed distinction of that portion of the isotope flux into the root, associated with the ion-conducting symplasms. A small compartment, which rapidly (t/sub .5/ + , accounting for the observed obtention of linear translocation rates within minutes of transferring to labeled solution. The ion contents of this compartment varied in proportion to the external ion concentration. When K + was at a high external concentration, labeled K + exchanged into this same symplasm, but chasing a short pulse indicated that K + transport to the xylem was not through a rapidly-exchanging compartment. At physiological concentrations of K + the evidence indicated that transport of K + across the root proceeded through a compartment which was not exchanging rapidly with the external medium. The rise to a linear rate of isotope translocation was gradual and translocation during a chase, following a brief pulse,was prolonged, indicating that this compartment retained its specific activity for a considerable period

  12. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    concept of our modeling approach and describe its strengths and weaknesses. We furthermore use empirical data for the states of North and South Carolina to demonstrate how the modeling framework can be applied to a large, heterogeneous study system with diverse decision-making agents. Grimm et al. (2005) Pattern-Oriented Modeling of Agent-Based Complex Systems: Lessons from Ecology. Science 310, 987-991. Liu et al. (2013) Framing Sustainability in a Telecoupled World. Ecology and Society 18(2), 26. Meentemeyer et al. (2013) FUTURES: Multilevel Simulations of Merging Urban-Rural Landscape Structure Using a Stochastic Patch-Growing Algorithm. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103(4), 785-807.

  13. Network Analysis of Human Genes Influencing Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Ettie M.; Garcia, Benjamin J.; Strong, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections constitute a high burden of pulmonary disease in humans, resulting in over 1.5 million deaths per year. Building on the premise that genetic factors influence the instance, progression, and defense of infectious disease, we undertook a systems biology approach to investigate relationships among genetic factors that may play a role in increased susceptibility or control of mycobacterial infections. We combined literature and database mining with network analysis and pathway enrichment analysis to examine genes, pathways, and networks, involved in the human response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. This approach allowed us to examine functional relationships among reported genes, and to identify novel genes and enriched pathways that may play a role in mycobacterial susceptibility or control. Our findings suggest that the primary pathways and genes influencing mycobacterial infection control involve an interplay between innate and adaptive immune proteins and pathways. Signaling pathways involved in autoimmune disease were significantly enriched as revealed in our networks. Mycobacterial disease susceptibility networks were also examined within the context of gene-chemical relationships, in order to identify putative drugs and nutrients with potential beneficial immunomodulatory or anti-mycobacterial effects. PMID:26751573

  14. Mycobacterial infections: Still a millennium bug - the imaging features of mycobacterial infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, D.M.; Bell, J.R.G.; Burkill, G.J.C.; Padley, S.P.G.; Healy, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterial infection is re-emerging as a major health care concern. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is still the most important pathogen, atypical mycobacterium (AMB) infections are becoming increasingly common. We present a pictorial review of the imaging features of these infections in the chest, abdomen, brain and musculoskeletal system. Imaging similarities and differences between the normal and the immunocompromised host will be highlighted. Koh, D. M. et al. Clinical Radiology (2001)

  15. A Framework Predicting Water Availability in a Rapidly Growing, Semi-Arid Region under Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B.; Benner, S. G.; Glenn, N. F.; Lindquist, E.; Dahal, K. R.; Bolte, J.; Vache, K. B.; Flores, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can lead to dramatic variations in hydrologic regime, affecting both surface water and groundwater supply. This effect is most significant in populated semi-arid regions where water availability are highly sensitive to climate-induced outcomes. However, predicting water availability at regional scales, while resolving some of the key internal variability and structure in semi-arid regions is difficult due to the highly non-linearity relationship between rainfall and runoff. In this study, we describe the development of a modeling framework to evaluate future water availability that captures elements of the coupled response of the biophysical system to climate change and human systems. The framework is built under the Envision multi-agent simulation tool, characterizing the spatial patterns of water demand in the semi-arid Treasure Valley area of Southwest Idaho - a rapidly developing socio-ecological system where urban growth is displacing agricultural production. The semi-conceptual HBV model, a population growth and allocation model (Target), a vegetation state and transition model (SSTM), and a statistically based fire disturbance model (SpatialAllocator) are integrated to simulate hydrology, population and land use. Six alternative scenarios are composed by combining two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) with three population growth and allocation scenarios (Status Quo, Managed Growth, and Unconstrained Growth). Five-year calibration and validation performances are assessed with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Irrigation activities are simulated using local water rights. Results show that in all scenarios, annual mean stream flow decreases as the projected rainfall increases because the projected warmer climate also enhances water losses to evapotranspiration. Seasonal maximum stream flow tends to occur earlier than in current conditions due to the earlier peak of snow melting. The aridity index and water deficit generally increase in the

  16. Safety dose of three commercially used growth promoters: nuricell- aqua, hepaprotect-aqua and rapid-grow on growth and survival of Thai pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ariful Islam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To optimize the dose of 3 commonly used growth promoters, viz., Nuricell-Aqua (composition: glucomannan complex and mannose polymer, Hepaprotect-Aqua (composition: β-glucan, mannose polymer and essential oil and Rapid-Grow (composition: organic acid and their salt, β-glucan, mannose oligosaccharide and essential oil, using Thai pangas (Pangasiandon hypophthalmus as cultured species. Methods: Thai pangas fingerlings with an average length and weight of 11 cm and 10 g were reared under laboratory condition and growth promoters were fed after incorporating them with a test diet at a ratio of 10% of their body weight for a period of 28 d. Estimation of data on growth such as weight gain (g, specific growth rate, survivability (% test in each aquarium were conducted and data were analyzed using statistical software. Results: After 28 d of feeding with Nutricell-Aqua, 10 mg/(20 g feed·day, which was the dose recommended by the manufacturer, was found better. When Hepaprotect-Aqua and Rapid-Grow were employed, performance was found to be better with the dose of 60 mg/(20 g feed·day which was 1.5 times higher than the dose recommended by the corresponding manufacturer. Conclusions: These results suggest that chemicals and feed additives marketed in Bangladesh Fish Feed Market need further testing under Bangladesh climatic condition before being marketed.

  17. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic approaches to characterize the role of genetic recombination in mycobacterial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Silvia E; Showers-Corneli, Patrice; Dardenne, Caitlin N; Harpending, Henry H; Martin, Darren P; Beiko, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium encompasses over one hundred named species of environmental and pathogenic organisms, including the causative agents of devastating human diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. The success of these human pathogens is due in part to their ability to rapidly adapt to their changing environment and host. Recombination is the fastest way for bacterial genomes to acquire genetic material, but conflicting results about the extent of recombination in the genus Mycobacterium have been reported. We examined a data set comprising 18 distinct strains from 13 named species for evidence of recombination. Genomic regions common to all strains (accounting for 10% to 22% of the full genomes of all examined species) were aligned and concatenated in the chromosomal order of one mycobacterial reference species. The concatenated sequence was screened for evidence of recombination using a variety of statistical methods, with each proposed event evaluated by comparing maximum-likelihood phylogenies of the recombinant section with the non-recombinant portion of the dataset. Incongruent phylogenies were identified by comparing the site-wise log-likelihoods of each tree using multiple tests. We also used a phylogenomic approach to identify genes that may have been acquired through horizontal transfer from non-mycobacterial sources. The most frequent associated lineages (and potential gene transfer partners) in the Mycobacterium lineage-restricted gene trees are other members of suborder Corynebacterinae, but more-distant partners were identified as well. In two examined cases of potentially frequent and habitat-directed transfer (M. abscessus to Segniliparus and M. smegmatis to Streptomyces), observed sequence distances were small and consistent with a hypothesis of transfer, while in a third case (M. vanbaalenii to Streptomyces) distances were larger. The analyses described here indicate that whereas evidence of recombination in core regions within the genus is

  18. national jalma institute for leprosy & other mycobacterial diseases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. NATIONAL JALMA INSTITUTE FOR LEPROSY & OTHER MYCOBACTERIAL DISEASES : MAJOR THRUST AREAS. LEPROSY : Understanding the disease better using electrophysiological, immunological, molecular and electron-microscopic tools. Developing better ...

  19. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection in Children A Prospective National Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blyth, Christopher C.; Best, Emma J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Nourse, Clare; Goldwater, Paul N.; Daley, Andrew J.; Burgner, David; Henry, Guy; Palasanthiran, Pamela

    Background: The epidemiology and management of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection in Australian children is unknown. Methods: From July 2004 to June 2007, clinicians identified children with NTM infection as part of a nationwide active surveillance network. Following notification, detailed

  20. The Type of Growth Medium Affects the Presence of a Mycobacterial Capsule and Is Associated With Differences in Protective Efficacy of BCG Vaccination Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Carreño, Leandro J.; Weinrick, Brian; Batista-Gonzalez, Ana; Glatman-Freedman, Aarona; Xu, Jiayong; Chan, John; Jacobs, William R.; Porcelli, Steven A.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is widely used for the prevention of tuberculosis, despite limited efficacy. Most immunological studies of BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains grow bacteria in the presence of detergent, which also strips the mycobacterial capsule. The impact of the capsule on vaccine efficacy has not been explored.

  1. Grow, Baby, Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybe you quit smoking during your pregnancy. Or maybe you struggled and weren’t able to stay quit. Now that your baby is here, trying to stay away from smoking is still important. That’s because the chemicals in smoke can make it harder for your baby to grow like he or she should.

  2. Effect of Rapid Maxillary Expansion on Glenoid Fossa and Condyle-Fossa Relationship in Growing Patients (MEGP): Study Protocol for a Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoussoub, Mona Sayegh; Rifai, Khaldoun; Garcia, Robert; Sleilaty, Ghassan

    2018-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthodontic nonsurgical procedure aiming at increasing the width of the maxilla by opening mainly the intermaxillary suture in patients presenting a transverse maxillary skeletal deficiency. The objectives of the current prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study are to evaluate the hypothesis that RME in growing patients will result in radiographic changes at the level of interglenoid fossa distance, condyle-fossa relationship, and nasal cavity widths compared to the group who received no treatment initially and served as untreated control. Materials and Methods: In this prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study, forty healthy growing patients selected from a school-based population following a large screening campaign, ranging in age between 8 and 13 years, presenting a maxillary constriction with bilateral crossbite, and candidates for RME are being recruited. The first group will include participants willing to undergo treatment (n = 25) and the other group will include those inclined to postpone (n = 15). Results: The primary outcome is to compare radiologically the interglenoid fossa distance and the condyle-fossa relationship; nasal cavity width will be a secondary outcome. A multivariable analysis of Covariance model will be used, with the assessment of the time by group interaction, using age as covariate. The project protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Lebanese University, National Institute in Lebanon (CUEMB process number 31/04/2015). The study is funded by the Lebanese University and Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Lebanon (Number: 652 on 14/04/2016). Conclusion: This prospective controlled clinical trial will give information about the effect of RME on the glenoid fossa and condyle-fossa relationship and its impact on the nasal cavity width. Trial Registration: Retrospectively registered in BioMed Central (DOI10.1186/ISRCTN

  3. Mycobacterial growth inhibition is associated with trained innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Simone A; van Meijgaarden, Krista E; Arend, Sandra M; Prins, Corine; Oftung, Fredrik; Korsvold, Gro Ellen; Kik, Sandra V; Arts, Rob Jw; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G; Ottenhoff, Tom Hm

    2018-05-01

    The lack of defined correlates of protection hampers development of vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). In vitro mycobacterial outgrowth assays are thought to better capture the complexity of the human host/Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) interaction. Here, we used a mycobacterial growth inhibition assay (MGIA) based on peripheral blood mononuclear cells to investigate the capacity to control outgrowth of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Interestingly, strong control of BCG outgrowth was observed almost exclusively in individuals with recent exposure to Mtb, but not in (long-term) latent TB infection, and only modestly in BCG vaccinees. Mechanistically, control of mycobacterial outgrowth strongly correlated with the presence of a CD14dim monocyte population, but also required the presence of T cells. The nonclassical monocytes produced CXCL10, and CXCR3 receptor blockade inhibited the capacity to control BCG outgrowth. Expression of CXCR3 splice variants was altered in recently Mtb-exposed individuals. Cytokines previously associated with trained immunity were detected in MGIA supernatants, and CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 represent new markers of trained immunity. These data indicate that CXCR3 ligands are associated with trained immunity and are critical factors in controlling mycobacterial outgrowth. In conclusion, control of mycobacterial outgrowth early after exposure to Mtb is the result of trained immunity mediated by a CXCL10-producing nonclassical CD14dim monocyte subset.

  4. Do teachers and students get the Ed-Tech products they need: The challenges of Ed-Tech procurement in a rapidly growing market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Morrison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ed-tech courseware products to support teaching and learning are being developed and made available for acquisition by school districts at a rapid rate. In this growing market, developers and providers face challenges with making their products visible to customers, while school district stakeholders must grapple with “discovering” which products of the many available best address their instructional needs. The present study presents the experiences with and perceptions about the procurement process from 47 superintendents representing diverse school districts in the U. S. Results indicate that, while improvements are desired in many aspects of the procurement process, the superintendents, overall, believe that, once desired products are identified, they are generally able to acquire them. Difficulties lie in tighter budgets, discovering products that are potentially the best choices, and evaluating the effectiveness of the products selected as options. These findings are presented and interpreted in relation to five major “Action Points” in the procurement process, and also with regard to implications for evaluating how educational technology impacts K-12 instruction.

  5. In Vitro Comparison of Ertapenem, Meropenem, and Imipenem against Isolates of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria and Nocardia by Use of Broth Microdilution and Etest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Killingley, Jessica; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Bridge, Linda; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    We compared the activities of the carbapenems ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem against 180 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and 170 isolates of Nocardia using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A subset of isolates was tested using the Etest. The rate of susceptibility to ertapenem and meropenem was limited and less than that to imipenem for the RGM. Analysis of major and minor discrepancies revealed that >90% of the isolates of Nocardia had higher MICs by the broth microdilution method than by Etest, in contrast to the lower broth microdilution MICs seen for >80% of the RGM. Imipenem remains the most active carbapenem against RGM, including Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus For Nocardia, imipenem was significantly more active only against Nocardia farcinica Although there may be utility in testing the activities of the newer carbapenems against Nocardia, their activities against the RGM should not be routinely tested. Testing by Etest is not recommended by the CLSI. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's 4. annual oil sands supply and infrastructure conference : maximizing opportunity and mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference addressed the challenges facing oil sands development, with particular reference to supply and infrastructure issues. Updates on oil sands markets and opportunities were presented along with strategies for mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market. The best practices for supplying a demanding market through supply shortages and high prices were identified along with policies that should be implemented to help overcome labour shortages. Some presentations expressed how commodities pricing and trends can impact business. Others showed how markets in China and the United States are prepared for oilsands products. The views of other international companies on oil sands was also discussed along with proposed plans to eliminate the infrastructure congestion and risks caused by expanding oil sands development. The challenges and benefits of investing in Alberta's oil sands were reviewed along with strategies to enhance upgrading and refining capacity in the province. Economic drivers and the creation of new markets were examined, and various export opportunities were reviewed along with industry management challenges concerning human resources, labour supply, training and education. The conference featured 10 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakham, F.; Belayachi, L.; Ussery, David

    2011-01-01

    . Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length...... defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene...... the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str...

  8. The use of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit typing and whole genome sequencing to inform tuberculosis prevention and control activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2013-07-01

    Molecular strain typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been possible for only about 20 years; it has significantly improved our understanding of the evolution and epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and tuberculosis disease. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit typing, based on 24 variable number tandem repeat unit loci, is highly discriminatory, relatively easy to perform and interpret and is currently the most widely used molecular typing system for tuberculosis surveillance. Nevertheless, clusters identified by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit typing sometimes cannot be confirmed or adequately defined by contact tracing and additional methods are needed. Recently, whole genome sequencing has been used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms and other mutations, between genotypically indistinguishable isolates from the same cluster, to more accurately trace transmission pathways. Rapidly increasing speed and quality and reduced costs will soon make large scale whole genome sequencing feasible, combined with the use of sophisticated bioinformatics tools, for epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis.

  9. Anti-mycobacterial screening of five Indian medicinal plants and partial purification of active extracts of Cassia sophera and Urtica dioica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rambir Singh; Shariq Hussain; Rajesh Verma; Poonam Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the anti-mycobacterial potential of Cassia sophera (C. sophera), Urticadioica (U. dioica), Momordica dioica, Tribulus terrestris and Coccinia indica plants against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Methods: Plant materials were extracted successively with solvents of increasing polarity. Solvent extracts were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against fast growing, non-pathogenic mycobacterium strain, Mycobacterium semegmatis, by disk diffusion method. The active extracts were tested against MDR and clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by absolute concentration and proportion methods. The active extracts were subjected to bio-autoassay on TLC followed by silica column chromatography for isolation of potential drug leads. Results: Hexane extract of U. dioica (HEUD) and methanol extract of C. sophera (MECS) produced inhibition zone of 20 mm in disc diffusion assay and MIC of 250 and 125 μg/mL respectively in broth dilution assay against Mycobacteriumsemegmatis. Semipurified fraction F2 from MECS produced 86% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. F18 from HEUD produced 81% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis indicated that anti-mycobacterial activity of MECS may be due to presence of alkaloids or flavonoids and that of HEUD due to terpenoids. Conclusions: C. sophera and U. dioica plant extracts exhibited promising anti-mycobacterial activity against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. This is the first report of anti-mycobacterial activity form C. sophera. This study showed possibility of purifying novel anti-mycobacterial compound(s) from C. sophera and U. dioica.

  10. Anti-mycobacterial screening of five Indian medicinal plants and partial purification of active extracts of Cassia sophera and Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rambir; Hussain, Shariq; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Poonam

    2013-05-13

    To find out the anti-mycobacterial potential of Cassia sophera (C. sophera), Urtica dioica (U. dioica), Momordica dioica, Tribulus terrestris and Coccinia indica plants against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Plant materials were extracted successively with solvents of increasing polarity. Solvent extracts were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against fast growing, non-pathogenic mycobacterium strain, Mycobacterium semegmatis, by disk diffusion method. The active extracts were tested against MDR and clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by absolute concentration and proportion methods. The active extracts were subjected to bio-autoassay on TLC followed by silica column chromatography for isolation of potential drug leads. Hexane extract of U. dioica (HEUD) and methanol extract of C. sophera (MECS) produced inhibition zone of 20 mm in disc diffusion assay and MIC of 250 and 125 μ g/mL respectively in broth dilution assay against Mycobacterium semegmatis. Semipurified fraction F2 from MECS produced 86% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. F18 from HEUD produced 81% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis indicated that anti-mycobacterial activity of MECS may be due to presence of alkaloids or flavonoids and that of HEUD due to terpenoids. C. sophera and U. dioica plant extracts exhibited promising anti-mycobacterial activity against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. This is the first report of anti-mycobacterial activity form C. sophera. This study showed possibility of purifying novel anti-mycobacterial compound(s) from C. sophera and U. dioica. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mycobacterium eburneum sp. nov., a non-chromogenic, fast-growing strain isolated from sputum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Igual, José M; Jando, Marlen; Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Sutcliffe, Iain; Sangal, Vartul; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic position of a non-chromogenic, rapidly growing Mycobacterium strain that had been isolated from sputum. The strain, CECT 8775T, has chemotaxonomic and cultural properties consistent with its classification in the genus Mycobacterium and was distinguished from the type strains of closely related mycobacterial species, notably from Mycobacterium paraense DSM 46749T, its nearest phylogenetic neighbour, based on 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB gene sequence data. These organisms were also distinguished by a broad range of chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features and by a digital DNA-DNA relatedness value of 22.8 %. Consequently, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of Mycobacterium for which the name Mycobacterium eburneum sp. nov is proposed; the type strain is X82T (CECT 8775T=DSM 44358T).

  12. Diversity, community composition, and dynamics of nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria in an urban tap water production and distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrou, S; Konjek, J; Macheras, E; Welté, B; Guidicelli, L; Chignon, E; Joyeux, M; Gaillard, J L; Heym, B; Tully, T; Sapriel, G

    2013-09-01

    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 water samples from 36 sites, covering all production units, water storage tanks, and distribution units; RGM isolates were identified by using rpoB gene sequencing. We detected 18 RGM species and putative new species, with most isolates being Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium llatzerense. Using hierarchical clustering and principal-component analysis, we found that RGM were organized into various communities correlating with water origin (groundwater or surface water) and location within the distribution network. Water treatment plants were more specifically associated with species of the Mycobacterium septicum group. On average, M. chelonae dominated network sites fed by surface water, and M. llatzerense dominated those fed by groundwater. Overall, the M. chelonae prevalence index increased along the distribution network and was associated with a correlative decrease in the prevalence index of M. llatzerense, suggesting competitive or niche exclusion between these two dominant species. Our data describe the great diversity and complexity of RGM species living in the interconnected environments that constitute the water production and distribution system of a large city and highlight the prevalence index of the potentially pathogenic species M. chelonae in the distribution network.

  13. [Mycobacterial bovis BCG cutaneous infections following mesotherapy: 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Bonnet, J; Beylot-Barry, M; Texier-Maugein, J; Barucq, J P; Supply, P; Doutre, M S; Beylot, C

    2002-05-01

    Infectious complications following mesotherapy are usually due to ordinary bacteria or atypical mycobacteria. We report two new cases of mycobacterial bovis BCG infections following mesotherapy. To our knowledge only one case has already been reported. A 52 year-old woman developed vaccinal MERIEUX BCG cutaneous abscesses following mesotherapy. Identification was made by a novel class of repeated sequences: Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units. Despite prolonged anti-tuberculous therapy, complete remission was not obtained and surgical excision was performed. The second case was a 49 year-old man who developed a mycobacterial bovis BCG cutaneous abscess (Connaught) after mesotherapy, the regression of which was obtained with anti-tuberculous therapy. The severity of these two mycobacterial infections following mesotherapy illustrate the potential risks of mesotherapy. Identification is possible by molecular biology techniques (PCR and sequencing). The origin of this infection is unclear and therapeutic decision is difficult. Some authors recommend anti-tuberculous therapy but surgical excision may be necessary as in our cases.

  14. Simplified Automated Image Analysis for Detection and Phenotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Porous Supports by Monitoring Growing Microcolonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hertog, Alice L.; Visser, Dennis W.; Ingham, Colin J.; Fey, Frank H. A. G.; Klatser, Paul R.; Anthony, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Even with the advent of nucleic acid (NA) amplification technologies the culture of mycobacteria for diagnostic and other applications remains of critical importance. Notably microscopic observed drug susceptibility testing (MODS), as opposed to traditional culture on solid media or automated liquid culture, has shown potential to both speed up and increase the provision of mycobacterial culture in high burden settings. Methods Here we explore the growth of Mycobacterial tuberculosis microcolonies, imaged by automated digital microscopy, cultured on a porous aluminium oxide (PAO) supports. Repeated imaging during colony growth greatly simplifies “computer vision” and presumptive identification of microcolonies was achieved here using existing publically available algorithms. Our system thus allows the growth of individual microcolonies to be monitored and critically, also to change the media during the growth phase without disrupting the microcolonies. Transfer of identified microcolonies onto selective media allowed us, within 1-2 bacterial generations, to rapidly detect the drug susceptibility of individual microcolonies, eliminating the need for time consuming subculturing or the inoculation of multiple parallel cultures. Significance Monitoring the phenotype of individual microcolonies as they grow has immense potential for research, screening, and ultimately M. tuberculosis diagnostic applications. The method described is particularly appealing with respect to speed and automation. PMID:20544033

  15. Simplified automated image analysis for detection and phenotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on porous supports by monitoring growing microcolonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice L den Hertog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Even with the advent of nucleic acid (NA amplification technologies the culture of mycobacteria for diagnostic and other applications remains of critical importance. Notably microscopic observed drug susceptibility testing (MODS, as opposed to traditional culture on solid media or automated liquid culture, has shown potential to both speed up and increase the provision of mycobacterial culture in high burden settings. METHODS: Here we explore the growth of Mycobacterial tuberculosis microcolonies, imaged by automated digital microscopy, cultured on a porous aluminium oxide (PAO supports. Repeated imaging during colony growth greatly simplifies "computer vision" and presumptive identification of microcolonies was achieved here using existing publically available algorithms. Our system thus allows the growth of individual microcolonies to be monitored and critically, also to change the media during the growth phase without disrupting the microcolonies. Transfer of identified microcolonies onto selective media allowed us, within 1-2 bacterial generations, to rapidly detect the drug susceptibility of individual microcolonies, eliminating the need for time consuming subculturing or the inoculation of multiple parallel cultures. SIGNIFICANCE: Monitoring the phenotype of individual microcolonies as they grow has immense potential for research, screening, and ultimately M. tuberculosis diagnostic applications. The method described is particularly appealing with respect to speed and automation.

  16. [Serological and cellular reactivity to mycobacterial proteins in Hansen's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Elsa; Aranzazu, Nacarid; Rodríguez, Vestalia; Borges, Rafael; Convit, Jacinto

    2010-09-01

    The study was designed for evaluating immunological reactivity to various mycobacterial protein preparations using serological and cell-mediated immunological tests in patients with clinical leprosy signs, predominantly, with the multibacillary forms. All patients were adults with ages between 20 and 30 years. Fifty eight (n = 81) percent corresponded to Lepromatous Leprosy (LL), 29% (n = 41) to Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy (BL) and 10% (n = 41) to Borderline Borderline Leprosy (BB); only 3% were Borderline Tuberculoid (BT) patients: 74% males and 26% females. The most frequent reactional phenomenon was of the Erythema Nodosum (ENL) type. The mycobacterial proteins tested were: total crude Mycobacterium leprae antigens (MISA); Mycobacterium bovis (MbSA and excretion MbSA); partially purified excretion protein antigen, with a 30 kDa relative movility (Ml30); and recombinant M. leprae proteins (Mt70, Mb 65, Ml 36, 28, 18 and 10 kDa). Two of the recombinant proteins (Ml10 and Ml 36 kDa) presented a statiscally significant higher serological reactivity, directly related with a larger bacillary load (p = 0.0051 and 0.050 respectively). The 30 kDa protein was predominantly recognized by antibodies from multibacillary patients. Results show that mean antibody values were higher in non reactional patients when tested against complete proteins (MbSA and ex MbSA) when compared with the group of patients who presented reactional phenomena (p = 0.000567 and 0.000061, respectively). Comparing reactional with non reactional patients, it was seen that mean antibody values against complete proteins (MbSA and ex MbSA) were higher in non reactional individuals (p = 0.000567 and 0.000061, respectively). This same behavior occurred towards individual mycobacterial proteins (30, 10 and 36 kDa). The T lymphocyte prolypherative response in reactional and non reactional patients towards mycobacterial proteins (MlSA, Ml 10 kDa, MbSA, ex MbSA) was negative.

  17. Obesity reduces bone density through activation of PPAR gamma and suppression of Wnt/Beta-Catenin in rapidly growing male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between obesity and skeletal development remains largely ambiguous. In this report, total enteral nutrition (TEN) was used to feed growing male rats intragastrically, with a high 45% fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. We found that fat mass was increased (P<0.05) compared to rats fed...

  18. Secondary metabolites from Tetracera potatoria stem bark with anti-mycobacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomogne-Fodjo, M C Y; Ndinteh, D T; Olivier, D K; Kempgens, P; van Vuuren, S; Krause, R W M

    2017-01-04

    Tetracera potatoria Afzel. Exg. Don (Dilleniaceae) is a medicinal plant used traditionally in Africa for the treatment of tuberculosis related ailments and respiratory infections. The antibacterial activity of the medium polar extracts of T. potatoria leaves and stem bark was recently reported against Mycobacterium smegmatis (MIC 25µg/mL) and M. aurum (65µg/mL), two fast-growing Mycobacterium strains used as model micro-organisms for the more pathogenic strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Fomogne-Fodjo et al., 2014). The aim of this study was consequently to isolate the compounds possibly contributing to this activity, and which may therefore be promising precursors to be used for the development of novel anti-TB drugs. T. potatoria medium polar extract [MeOH/DCM (1:1, v/v)] was fractionated sequentially with petroleum ether to which EtOAC and MeOH were gradually added to increase the polarity. The examination of T. potatoria extract and its fractions was guided by bioassays for anti-mycobacterial activity against M. smegmatis (ATCC 23246) and M. aurum (NCTC 10437) using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. All the isolated compounds were structurally elucidated using spectroscopic techniques and evaluated for their anti-mycobacterial activity. Two novel secondary metabolites (1, 2) named tetraceranoate and N-hydroxy imidate-tetracerane, together with five known compounds [β-stigmasterol (3), stigmast-5-en-3β-yl acetate (4), betulinic acid (5), betulin (6) and lupeol (7)] were isolated and identified. Tetraceranoate exhibited the best activity against M. smegmatis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 7.8µg/mL, while β-stigmasterol, betulinic acid and betulin showed appreciable anti-mycobacterial activity against both strains (MIC 15µg/mL). Seven compounds were isolated from the medium polar extract [MeOH/DCM (1:1, v/v)] of T. potatoria stem bark. Only tetraceranoate one of the isolated compounds showed antibacterial activity against

  19. Target-Specific Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Mycobacterium chimaera DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zozaya-Valdés, Enrique; Porter, Jessica L; Coventry, John; Fyfe, Janet A M; Carter, Glen P; Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Schultz, Mark B; Seemann, Torsten; Johnson, Paul D R; Stewardson, Andrew J; Bastian, Ivan; Roberts, Sally A; Howden, Benjamin P; Williamson, Deborah A; Stinear, Timothy P

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterium chimaera is an opportunistic environmental mycobacterium belonging to the Mycobacterium avium - M. intracellulare complex. Although most commonly associated with pulmonary disease, there has been growing awareness of invasive M. chimaera infections following cardiac surgery. Investigations suggest worldwide spread of a specific M. chimaera clone, associated with contaminated hospital heater-cooler units used during the surgery. Given the global dissemination of this clone, its potential to cause invasive disease, and the laboriousness of current culture-based diagnostic methods, there is a pressing need to develop rapid and accurate diagnostic assays specific for M. chimaera Here, we assessed 354 mycobacterial genome sequences and confirmed that M. chimaera is a phylogenetically coherent group. In silico comparisons indicated six DNA regions present only in M. chimaera We targeted one of these regions and developed a TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for M. chimaera with a detection limit of 100 CFU/ml in whole blood spiked with bacteria. In vitro screening against DNA extracted from 40 other mycobacterial species and 22 bacterial species from 21 diverse genera confirmed the in silico -predicted specificity for M. chimaera Screening 33 water samples from heater-cooler units with this assay highlighted the increased sensitivity of PCR compared to culture, with 15 of 23 culture-negative samples positive by M. chimaera qPCR. We have thus developed a robust molecular assay that can be readily and rapidly deployed to screen clinical and environmental specimens for M. chimaera . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakham, F; Belayachi, L; Ussery, D; Akrim, M; Benjouad, A; El Aouad, R; Ennaji, M M

    2011-02-08

    The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species.

  1. Production of matrix metalloproteinases in response to mycobacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiding-Järbrink, M; Smith, D A; Bancroft, G J

    2001-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a large family of enzymes with specificity for the various proteins of the extracellular matrix which are implicated in tissue remodeling processes and chronic inflammatory conditions. To investigate the role of MMPs in immunity to mycobacterial infections, we incubated murine peritoneal macrophages with viable Mycobacterium bovis BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and assayed MMP activity in the supernatants by zymography. Resting macrophages secreted only small amounts of MMP-9 (gelatinase B), but secretion increased dramatically in a dose-dependent manner in response to either BCG or M. tuberculosis in vitro. Incubation with mycobacteria also induced increased MMP-2 (gelatinase A) activity. Neutralization of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-alpha), and to a lesser extent interleukin 18 (IL-18), substantially reduced MMP production in response to mycobacteria. Exogenous addition of TNF-alpha or IL-18 induced macrophages to express MMPs, even in the absence of bacteria. The immunoregulatory cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), IL-4, and IL-10 all suppressed BCG-induced MMP production, but through different mechanisms. IFN-gamma treatment increased macrophage secretion of TNF-alpha but still reduced their MMP activity. Conversely, IL-4 and IL-10 seemed to act by reducing the amount of TNF-alpha available to the macrophages. Finally, infection of BALB/c or severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with either BCG or M. tuberculosis induced substantial increases in MMP-9 activity in infected tissues. In conclusion, we show that mycobacterial infection induces MMP-9 activity both in vitro and in vivo and that this is regulated by TNF-alpha, IL-18, and IFN-gamma. These findings indicate a possible contribution of MMPs to tissue remodeling processes that occur in mycobacterial infections.

  2. Original Mycobacterial Sin, a consequence of highly homologous antigens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, A O; Michel, A; Rutten, V

    2017-05-01

    The role of antigens shared between Mycobacteria in in-vivo cross-reactive immune responses in host animals, have been reported to be responsible for reduced BCG vaccination efficacy as well reduced specificity of routine immunological diagnostic tests. This presents with significant disease control challenges in humans and animals. The present review highlights the results of previous studies on the effect of pre-sensitization to environmental mycobacteria on either pathogenic mycobacteria and/or M. bovis BCG, in experimental animals. It also takes an in-depth view into assessing the genetic similarities and relationships between atypical mycobacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and how they might explain the immunological imprint of environmental mycobacteria in directing the hosts' immune response upon subsequent exposure to other classes of mycobacteria. The outcome of this review suggests that genetic closeness between particular atypical mycobacteria and MTBC usually indicate a higher level of homology for certain shared protective antigens. This ultimately results in a higher level of cross reactive immune responses as compared with other atypical mycobacteria that are further away genetically. This would explain the different effects of environmental mycobacteria on MTBC that have been reported in the different studies. In other words the direction of the host immune system in response to exposure to MTBC would depend on the type of environmental mycobacteria that was encountered in the initial exposure. We also explain these mycobacterial interactions in the context of the phenomenon of "Original Mycobacterial Sin". The effects of these inevitable mycobacterial interactions on field diagnosis and control by vaccination and how to circumvent them are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mycobacterial mutants with defective control of phagosomal acidification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of mycobacterial infection is associated with an ability to interfere with maturation of the phagosomal compartment after ingestion by macrophages. Identification of the mycobacterial components that contribute to this phenomenon will allow rational design of novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis. Microarray-based screening of a transposon library was used to identify mutations that influence the fate of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG following uptake by macrophages. A screen based on bacterial survival during a 3-d infection highlighted genes previously implicated in growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages and in mice, together with a number of other virulence genes including a locus encoding virulence-associated membrane proteins and a series of transporter molecules. A second screen based on separation of acidified and non-acidified phagosomes by flow cytometry identified genes involved in mycobacterial control of early acidification. This included the KefB potassium/proton antiport. Mutants unable to control early acidification were significantly attenuated for growth during 6-d infections of macrophages. Early acidification of the phagosome is associated with reduced survival of BCG in macrophages. A strong correlation exists between genes required for intracellular survival of BCG and those required for growth of M. tuberculosis in mice. In contrast, very little correlation exists between genes required for intracellular survival of BCG and those that are up-regulated during intracellular adaptation of M. tuberculosis. This study has identified targets for interventions to promote immune clearance of tuberculosis infection. The screening technologies demonstrated in this study will be useful to the study of pathogenesis in many other intracellular microorganisms.

  4. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Tenosynovitis in the Hand: Two Case Reports with the MR Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jong Won; Yoon, Young Cheol; Choi, Sang Hee

    2011-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections can cause destructive tenosynovitis of the hand. We report on and discuss the clinical course and distinctive radiologic findings of two patients with hand tenosynovitis secondary to M. marinum and intracellulare infection, which are different from those of the nontuberculous mycobacterial infections reported in the previous literature.

  5. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Tenosynovitis in the Hand: Two Case Reports with the MR Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Jong Won; Yoon, Young Cheol; Choi, Sang Hee [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections can cause destructive tenosynovitis of the hand. We report on and discuss the clinical course and distinctive radiologic findings of two patients with hand tenosynovitis secondary to M. marinum and intracellulare infection, which are different from those of the nontuberculous mycobacterial infections reported in the previous literature.

  6. Mycobacterium arosiense sp. nov., a slowly growing, scotochromogenic species causing osteomyelitis in an immunocompromised child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D.; Herlin, T.; Stegger, M.

    2008-01-01

    A yellow-pigmented, scotochromogenic, slowly growing mycobacterial strain, designated T1921(T), was isolated from the disseminated osteomyelitic lesions of a 7-year-old child with an underlying partial gamma interferon receptor alpha-1 deficiency. Hybridization by the line probe assay indicated...

  7. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  8. Rapid development in vitro and in vivo of resistance to ceftazidime in biofilm-growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, N; Ciofu, O; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the development of resistance of biofilm-growing P. aeruginosa during treatment with ceftazidime. Biofilms were established in vitro using a modified Robbins device (MRD) and in vivo in the rat model of chronic lung infection. Three P. aeruginosa strains...... of ceftazidime to biofilms established in MDR, a statistically significant development of resistance to ceftazidime in PAO 579 or 19676A bacterial populations occurred. When ceftazidime was administered 4 h/day (200 mg/l) for 2 weeks, the frequency of resistant 19676A having MIC>25 mg/l was 4.4 10(-1) compared...... to 6.0-10(-5) in the control biofilm. The same trend was observed after continuous administration of ceftazidime. MICceftazidime of the more resistant variants was increased 500-fold for PAO 579 and 8-fold for 19676A, and the specific basal beta-lactamase activities from 19 to 1,400 units for PAO 579...

  9. Decoding the similarities and differences among mycobacterial species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Malhotra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteriaceae comprises pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae and M. abscessus, as well as non-pathogenic species, for example, M. smegmatis and M. thermoresistibile. Genome comparison and annotation studies provide insights into genome evolutionary relatedness, identify unique and pathogenicity-related genes in each species, and explore new targets that could be used for developing new diagnostics and therapeutics. Here, we present a comparative analysis of ten-mycobacterial genomes with the objective of identifying similarities and differences between pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. We identified 1080 core orthologous clusters that were enriched in proteins involved in amino acid and purine/pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways, DNA-related processes (replication, transcription, recombination and repair, RNA-methylation and modification, and cell-wall polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways. For their pathogenicity and survival in the host cell, pathogenic species have gained specific sets of genes involved in repair and protection of their genomic DNA. M. leprae is of special interest owing to its smallest genome (1600 genes and ~1300 psuedogenes, yet poor genome annotation. More than 75% of the pseudogenes were found to have a functional ortholog in the other mycobacterial genomes and belong to protein families such as transferases, oxidoreductases and hydrolases.

  10. Atypical mycobacterial infection resembles sporotrichosis in elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurani Fauziah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atypical mycobacterial (AM infection is caused by Mycobacterium species other than M.tuberculosis. AM skin infection has clinical manifestations that resemble M. tuberculosis infection and deep fungal infection. Laboratory workup is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. An 83-year old female came with a painful lump and swelling on her right lower extremity since three months before admission. Physical examination revealed a plaque consisting, of multiple erythematous and hyperpigmented papules and nodules, diffuse erythematous lesion, and shallow ulcers partially covered with pus and crust. Histopathological features showed tuberculoid granuloma. Direct test and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining of the skin biopsy found no fungal element nor acid-fast bacilli (AFB. Culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR of M. tuberculosis were negative. The working diagnosis was atypical mycobacterial infection and treatment with 450 mg rifampicin and 100 mg minocycline daily were administered accordingly. In two months observation following the treatment, the pain was no longer exist, the ulcers were completely healed, and some nodules were in the process of healing Among other Mycobacterium spp, M.marinum is the most common cause of AM infrections. Clinical manifestation of M. marinum infection may present as solitary or multiple nodules on the hands, feet, elbows and knees with sporotrichoid spreading patern. The diagnosis of AM was established based on clinical and laboratory examination. The diagnosis was also confirmed by good clinical response to minocycline and rifampicin.

  11. CD1 and mycobacterial lipids activate human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rhijn, Ildiko; Moody, D Branch

    2015-03-01

    For decades, proteins were thought to be the sole or at least the dominant source of antigens for T cells. Studies in the 1990s demonstrated that CD1 proteins and mycobacterial lipids form specific targets of human αβ T cells. The molecular basis by which T-cell receptors (TCRs) recognize CD1-lipid complexes is now well understood. Many types of mycobacterial lipids function as antigens in the CD1 system, and new studies done with CD1 tetramers identify T-cell populations in the blood of tuberculosis patients. In human populations, a fundamental difference between the CD1 and major histocompatibility complex systems is that all humans express nearly identical CD1 proteins. Correspondingly, human CD1 responsive T cells show evidence of conserved TCRs. In addition to natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells), conserved TCRs define other subsets of human T cells, including germline-encoded mycolyl-reactive (GEM) T cells. The simple immunogenetics of the CD1 system and new investigative tools to measure T-cell responses in humans now creates a situation in which known lipid antigens can be developed as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic reagents for tuberculosis disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Development of an in vitro Assay, based on the BioFilm Ring Test®, for Rapid Profiling of Biofilm-Growing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Gino Di Domenico

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilm represents a major virulence factor associated with chronic and recurrent infections. Pathogenic bacteria embedded in biofilms are highly resistant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics and therefore difficult to eradicate. Thus, reliable tests to assess biofilm formation by bacterial strains as well as the impact of chemicals or antibiotics on biofilm formation represent desirable tools for a most effective therapeutic management and microbiological risk control. Current methods to evaluate biofilm formation are usually time-consuming, costly, and hardly applicable in the clinical setting.The aim of the present study was to develop and assess a simple and reliable in vitro procedure for the characterization of biofilm-producing bacterial strains for future clinical applications based on the BioFilm Ring Test® (BRT technology. The procedure developed for clinical testing (cBRT can provide an accurate and timely (5 hours measurement of biofilm formation for the most common pathogenic bacteria seen in clinical practice. The results gathered by the cBRT assay were in agreement with the traditional crystal violet (CV staining test, according to the kappa coefficient test (kappa = 0.623. However, the cBRT assay showed higher levels of specificity (92.2% and accuracy (88.1% as compared to CV. The results indicate that this procedure offers an easy, rapid and robust assay to test microbial biofilm and a promising tool for clinical microbiology.

  13. Mycobacterial Infection of the Gallbladder Masquerading as Gallbladder Cancer with a False Positive Pet Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeeb Majid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated mycobacterial infection of gall bladder is an extremely rare entity. Only anecdotal reports are evident in the literature. A preoperative diagnosis of mycobacterial infection of gallbladder is therefore very difficult. The case of a 72-year-old male who underwent surgery for suspected gallbladder cancer is presented. The diagnosis of cancer was based on radiological findings and an abnormal uptake of fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG on positron emission tomography (PET scan whilst being followed up for colorectal cancer. He underwent cholecystectomy and gallbladder bed resection. Histopathology was consistent with mycobacterial infection of the gallbladder.

  14. microRNAs in mycobacterial disease: friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali D Mehta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As the role of microRNA in all aspects of biology continues to be unraveled, the interplay between microRNAs and human disease is becoming clearer. It should come of no surprise that microRNAs play a major part in the outcome of infectious diseases, since early work has implicated microRNAs as regulators of the immune response. Here, we provide a review on how microRNAs influence the course of mycobacterial infections, which cause two of humanity’s most ancient infectious diseases: tuberculosis and leprosy. Evidence derived from profiling and functional experiments suggests that regulation of specific microRNAs during infection can either enhance the immune response or facilitate pathogen immune evasion. Now, it remains to be seen if the manipulation of host cell microRNA profiles can be an opportunity for therapeutic intervention for these difficult-to-treat diseases.

  15. Identification of novel sRNAs in mycobacterial species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsun Tsai

    Full Text Available Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs are short transcripts that typically do not encode proteins and often act as regulators of gene expression through a variety of mechanisms. Regulatory sRNAs have been identified in many species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. Here, we use a computational algorithm to predict sRNA candidates in the mycobacterial species M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG and confirmed the expression of many sRNAs using Northern blotting. Thus, we have identified 17 and 23 novel sRNAs in M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG, respectively. We have also applied a high-throughput technique (Deep-RACE to map the 5' and 3' ends of many of these sRNAs and identified potential regulators of sRNAs by analysis of existing ChIP-seq datasets. The sRNAs identified in this work likely contribute to the unique biology of mycobacteria.

  16. Rare Case of Non Tuberculous Mycobacterial: A Diagnostic dilemma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marathe, N

    2017-02-01

    Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial (NTM) infections occur in HIV-negative patients with or without underlying lung disease. It is generally felt that these organisms are acquired from the environment. Unlike tuberculosis, there are no convincing data demonstrating human-to-human OR animal-to-human transmission of NTM. We report a case of NTM infection in a 38 year old patient with underlying emphysematous lung disease. The case highlights the diagnostic dilemma which occurs when persistent sputum Acid- Fast Bacilli (AFB) smears are positive, but Nucleic acid amplification test is negative. To aid the diagnosis and rule out Pulmonary Tuberculosis as the other differential diagnosis, we applied American Thoracic Society\\/Infectious Disease Society of America (ATS\\/IDSA) guidelines & recommendations1. The decision to treat was taken on basis of CT findings, clinical, microbiologic criteria and expert consultation with Microbiology department at Waterford.

  17. ESTHETIC OUTCOME OF SURGICAL EXCISION VERSUS ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY FOR NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIAL CERVICOFACIAL LYMPHADENITIS IN CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, Jerome A.; Lindeboom, Robert; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, Elisabeth S.; Kuijper, Ed J.; Tuk, Jacco; Prins, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred children with microbiologically proven nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis were randomly assigned to excision of the involved lymph nodes, or antibiotic therapy consisting of clarithromycin and rifabutin. The esthetic outcome was rated using a revised and weighted

  18. Esthetic outcome of surgical excision versus antibiotic therapy for nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, J.A.; Lindeboom, R.; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, E.S.; Kuijper, E.J.; Tuk, J.; Prins, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred children with microbiologically proven nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis were randomly assigned to excision of the involved lymph nodes, or antibiotic therapy consisting of clarithromycin and rifabutin. The esthetic outcome was rated using a revised and weighted

  19. Conservative Wait-and-See Therapy Versus Antibiotic Treatment for Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Cervicofacial Lymphadenitis in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, Jerome A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. In this explorative study, 50 children with microbiologically confirmed nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis were randomized to either receive antibiotic therapy or follow a conservative wait-and-see approach. Our primary objective was to assess the time for all

  20. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  1. Gas industry construction expenditures to grow rapidly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarles, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, the natural gas industry will invest $28.297 billion to install additional facilities for natural gas production and storage, transmission, underground storage, gas distribution and for other general expenditures, estimates the American Gas Association as shown in the 1990 Gas Facts. This is a 38% investment increase from the forecasts in the 1989 Gas Facts. This issue forecasts investments of $13.303 billion for 1991 and $18.396 billion for 1992. This issue does not include investments for 1993. In 1989, (the last figures released) the gas industry invested $7,341 billion for new transmission lines, distribution mains, underground storage, production and storage and general facilities. Included in the 1989 expenditures are: $3.980 billion in distribution facilities; $2.081 billion in gas transmission systems and $159 million in underground storage facilities. Investment in new distribution facilities in 1991 and $4.550 billion in 1993. This is a steady increase for these three years. Investments in natural gas transmission facilities show a steady increase also. In 1991, pipe line operating companies will invest $9.391 billion for new facilities, $9.005 in 1992 and $9.901 billion in 1993

  2. microRNA-146a promotes mycobacterial survival in macrophages through suppressing nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Wang, Jinli; Fang, Yimin; Gong, Sitang; Li, Meiyu; Wu, Minhao; Lai, Xiaomin; Zeng, Gucheng; Wang, Yi; Yang, Kun; Huang, Xi

    2016-03-30

    Macrophages play a crucial role in host innate anti-mycobacterial defense, which is tightly regulated by multiple factors, including microRNAs. Our previous study showed that a panel of microRNAs was markedly up-regulated in macrophages upon mycobacterial infection. Here, we investigated the biological function of miR-146a during mycobacterial infection. miR-146a expression was induced both in vitro and in vivo after Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection. The inducible miR-146a could suppress the inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) expression and NO generation, thus promoting mycobacterial survival in macrophages. Inhibition of endogenous miR-146a increased NO production and mycobacterial clearance. Moreover, miR-146a attenuated the activation of nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways during BCG infection, which in turn repressed iNOS expression. Mechanistically, miR-146a directly targeted tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) at post-transcriptional level. Silencing TRAF6 decreased iNOS expression and NO production in BCG-infected macrophages, while overexpression of TRAF6 reversed miR-146a-mediated inhibition of NO production and clearance of mycobacteria. Therefore, we demonstrated a novel role of miR-146a in the modulation of host defense against mycobacterial infection by repressing NO production via targeting TRAF6, which may provide a promising therapeutic target for tuberculosis.

  3. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT.Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated.Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group.The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  4. Techniques of DNA hybridization detect small numbers of mycobacteria with no cross-hybridization with non-mycobacterial respiratory organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, S.A.; Fisher, J.H.; Scoggin, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional methods used in identifying mycobacteria, such as acid-fast bacillus stains and culture, are often time-consuming, insensitive, and nonspecific. As part of an ongoing program to improve diagnosis and characterization of mycobacteria, the authors have found that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization techniques using isotopically labeled, single-stranded, total DNA can be used to detect as little as 10(-4) micrograms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) DNA. This amount of DNA represents approximately 2 X 10(4) genomes. They have also shown the MTb DNA is sufficiently different from the DNA of non-mycobacterial microorganisms such that cross-hybridization with MTb DNA does not occur under the hybridization conditions employed. The authors speculate that DNA hybridization techniques may allow the rapid, sensitive, and specific identification of mycobacteria

  5. Defensins: The Case for Their Use against Mycobacterial Infections

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    Haodi Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human tuberculosis remains a huge global public health problem with an estimated 1/3rd of the population being infected. Defensins are antibacterial cationic peptides produced by a number of cell types, most notably neutrophil granulocytes and epithelial cells. All three defensin types (α-, β-, and θ-defensins have antibacterial activities, mainly through bacterial membrane permeabilization. Defensins are effective against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including mycobacteria and are active both intra- and extracellularly. Mycobacterial resistance has never been demonstrated although the mprF gene encoding resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. In addition to their antibacterial effect, defensins are chemoattractants for macrophages and neutrophils. There are many cases for their use for therapy or prophylaxis in tuberculosis as well. In conclusion, we propose that there is considerable scope and potential for exploring their use as therapeutic/prophylactic agents and more comprehensive survey of defensins from different species and their bioactivity is timely.

  6. Over-expression of the mycobacterial trehalose-phosphate phosphatase OtsB2 results in a defect in macrophage phagocytosis associated with increased mycobacterial-macrophage adhesion

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    Hao Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (OtsB2 is involved in the OtsAB trehalose synthesis pathway to produce free trehalose and is strictly essential for mycobacterial growth. We wished to determine the effects of OtsB2 expression on mycobacterial phenotypes such as growth, phagocytosis and survival in macrophages. Mycobacterium bovis-BCG (BCG over-expressing OtsB2 were able to better survive in stationary phase. Over-expression of OtsB2 led to a decrease in phagocytosis but not survival in THP-1 macrophage-like cells, and this was not due to a decrease in general macrophage phagocytic activity. Surprisingly, when we investigated macrophage-mycobacterial interactions by flow cytometry and atomic force microscopy, we discovered that BCG over-expressing OtsB2 have stronger binding to THP-1 cells than wild-type BCG. These results suggest that altering OtsB2 expression has implications for mycobacterial host-pathogen interactions. Macrophage-mycobacteria phagocytic interactions are complex and merit further study.

  7. Leaderless Transcripts and Small Proteins Are Common Features of the Mycobacterial Translational Landscape.

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    Scarlet S Shell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA-seq technologies have provided significant insight into the transcription networks of mycobacteria. However, such studies provide no definitive information on the translational landscape. Here, we use a combination of high-throughput transcriptome and proteome-profiling approaches to more rigorously understand protein expression in two mycobacterial species. RNA-seq and ribosome profiling in Mycobacterium smegmatis, and transcription start site (TSS mapping and N-terminal peptide mass spectrometry in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, provide complementary, empirical datasets to examine the congruence of transcription and translation in the Mycobacterium genus. We find that nearly one-quarter of mycobacterial transcripts are leaderless, lacking a 5' untranslated region (UTR and Shine-Dalgarno ribosome-binding site. Our data indicate that leaderless translation is a major feature of mycobacterial genomes and is comparably robust to leadered initiation. Using translational reporters to systematically probe the cis-sequence requirements of leaderless translation initiation in mycobacteria, we find that an ATG or GTG at the mRNA 5' end is both necessary and sufficient. This criterion, together with our ribosome occupancy data, suggests that mycobacteria encode hundreds of small, unannotated proteins at the 5' ends of transcripts. The conservation of small proteins in both mycobacterial species tested suggests that some play important roles in mycobacterial physiology. Our translational-reporter system further indicates that mycobacterial leadered translation initiation requires a Shine Dalgarno site in the 5' UTR and that ATG, GTG, TTG, and ATT codons can robustly initiate translation. Our combined approaches provide the first comprehensive view of mycobacterial gene structures and their non-canonical mechanisms of protein expression.

  8. Genotyping and drug susceptibility testing of mycobacterial isolates from population-based tuberculosis prevalence survey in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Addo, Samuel Ofori; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Mosi, Lydia; Bonsu, Frank Adae

    2017-12-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM) infections differ clinically, making rapid identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) very critical for infection control and drug therapy. This study aims to use World Health Organization (WHO) approved line probe assay (LPA) to differentiate mycobacterial isolates obtained from tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey in Ghana and to determine their drug resistance patterns. A retrospective study was conducted whereby a total of 361 mycobacterial isolates were differentiated and their drug resistance patterns determined using GenoType Mycobacterium Assays: MTBC and CM/AS for differentiating MTBC and NTM as well MTBDRplus and NTM-DR for DST of MTBC and NTM respectively. Out of 361 isolates, 165 (45.7%) MTBC and 120 (33.2%) NTM (made up of 14 different species) were identified to the species levels whiles 76 (21.1%) could not be completely identified. The MTBC comprised 161 (97.6%) Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 4 (2.4%) Mycobacterium africanum. Isoniazid and rifampicin monoresistant MTBC isolates were 18/165 (10.9%) and 2/165(1.2%) respectively whiles 11/165 (6.7%) were resistant to both drugs. Majority 42/120 (35%) of NTM were M. fortuitum. DST of 28 M. avium complex and 8 M. abscessus complex species revealed that all were susceptible to macrolides (clarithromycin, azithromycin) and aminoglycosides (kanamycin, amikacin, and gentamicin). Our research signifies an important contribution to TB control in terms of knowledge of the types of mycobacterium species circulating and their drug resistance patterns in Ghana.

  9. Myths, perceptions knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) linked to mycobacterial infection management among the pastoralist communities of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kankya, Clovice; Muwonge, Adrian; Skjerve, Eystein

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess community myths, perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, practices (KAP) of the pastoral farmers and explore mycobacterial infection management practices. Both structured questionnaire survey and participatory rural appraisal approaches were used. This study revealed that mycobacterial infection especially tuberculosis as referred to in vernacular as akakonko, akasubba or akafuba because of the persistent cough and other respiratory symptoms. Knowledge att...

  10. Shifts in Mycobacterial Populations and Emerging Drug-Resistance in West and Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Gehre

    Full Text Available In this study, we retrospectively analysed a total of 605 clinical isolates from six West or Central African countries (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Guinea-Conakry, Niger and Senegal. Besides spoligotyping to assign isolates to ancient and modern mycobacterial lineages, we conducted phenotypic drug-susceptibility-testing for each isolate for the four first-line drugs. We showed that phylogenetically modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are more likely associated with drug resistance than ancient strains and predict that the currently ongoing replacement of the endemic ancient by a modern mycobacterial population in West/Central Africa might result in increased drug resistance in the sub-region.

  11. Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov., Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium arcueilense sp. nov., members of a novel group of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria recovered from a water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjek, Julie; Souded, Sabiha; Guerardel, Yann; Trivelli, Xavier; Bernut, Audrey; Kremer, Laurent; Welte, Benedicte; Joyeux, Michel; Dubrou, Sylvie; Euzeby, Jean-Paul; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Sapriel, Guillaume; Heym, Beate

    2016-09-01

    From our recent survey of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria in the Parisian water system, three groups of isolates (taxons 1-3) corresponding to possible novel species were selected for taxonomic study. The three taxa each formed creamy white, rough colonies, had an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C, hydrolyzed Tween 80, were catalase-positive at 22 °C and expressed arylsulfatase activity. All three were susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and tigecycline. The three taxa produced specific sets of mycolic acids, including one family that has never previously been described, as determined by thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The partial rpoB sequences (723 bp) showed 4-6 % divergence from each other and more than 5 % differences from the most similar species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 99 % identity within each species. The most similar sequences for 16S rRNA genes (98-99 % identity over 1444-1461 bp) were found in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, Mycobacterium septicum and Mycobacterium farcinogenes. The three taxa formed a new clade (bootstrap value, 99 %) on trees reconstructed from concatenated partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB sequences. The above results led us to propose three novel species for the three groups of isolates, namely Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov. [type strain 071T=ParisRGMnew_1T (CIP 110656T=DSM 46713T)], Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. [type strain 196T=ParisRGMnew_2T (CIP 110655T=DSM 46714T)] and Mycobacteriu marcueilense sp. nov. [type strain of 269T=ParisRGMnew_3T (CIP 110654T=DSM 46715T)].

  12. MicroRNA in innate immunity and autophagy during mycobacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyung; Kim, Tae Sung; Basu, Joyoti; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2017-01-01

    The fine-tuning of innate immune responses is an important aspect of host defenses against mycobacteria. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, play essential roles in regulating multiple biological pathways including innate host defenses against various infections. Accumulating evidence shows that many miRNAs regulate the complex interplay between mycobacterial survival strategies and host innate immune pathways. Recent studies have contributed to understanding the role of miRNAs, the levels of which can be modulated by mycobacterial infection, in tuning host autophagy to control bacterial survival and innate effector function. Despite considerable efforts devoted to miRNA profiling over the past decade, further work is needed to improve the selection of appropriate biomarkers for tuberculosis. Understanding the roles and mechanisms of miRNAs in regulating innate immune signaling and autophagy may provide insights into new therapeutic modalities for host-directed anti-mycobacterial therapies. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the recent literature regarding miRNA profiling in tuberculosis and the roles of miRNAs in modulating innate immune responses and autophagy defenses against mycobacterial infections. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An essential nonredundant role for mycobacterial DnaK in native protein folding.

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    Allison Fay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein chaperones are essential in all domains of life to prevent and resolve protein misfolding during translation and proteotoxic stress. HSP70 family chaperones, including E. coli DnaK, function in stress induced protein refolding and degradation, but are dispensable for cellular viability due to redundant chaperone systems that prevent global nascent peptide insolubility. However, the function of HSP70 chaperones in mycobacteria, a genus that includes multiple human pathogens, has not been examined. We find that mycobacterial DnaK is essential for cell growth and required for native protein folding in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Loss of DnaK is accompanied by proteotoxic collapse characterized by the accumulation of insoluble newly synthesized proteins. DnaK is required for solubility of large multimodular lipid synthases, including the essential lipid synthase FASI, and DnaK loss is accompanied by disruption of membrane structure and increased cell permeability. Trigger Factor is nonessential and has a minor role in native protein folding that is only evident in the absence of DnaK. In unstressed cells, DnaK localizes to multiple, dynamic foci, but relocalizes to focal protein aggregates during stationary phase or upon expression of aggregating peptides. Mycobacterial cells restart cell growth after proteotoxic stress by isolating persistent DnaK containing protein aggregates away from daughter cells. These results reveal unanticipated essential nonredunant roles for mycobacterial DnaK in mycobacteria and indicate that DnaK defines a unique susceptibility point in the mycobacterial proteostasis network.

  14. Primed Mycobacterial Uveitis (PMU): Histologic and Cytokine Characterization of a Model of Uveitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepple, Kathryn L; Rotkis, Lauren; Van Grol, Jennifer; Wilson, Leslie; Sandt, Angela; Lam, Deborah L; Carlson, Eric; Van Gelder, Russell N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the histologic features and cytokine profiles of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and a primed mycobacterial uveitis (PMU) model in rats. In Lewis rats, EAU was induced by immunization with interphotoreceptor binding protein peptide, and PMU was induced by immunization with a killed mycobacterial extract followed by intravitreal injection of the same extract. Clinical course, histology, and the cytokine profiles of the aqueous and vitreous were compared using multiplex bead fluorescence immunoassays. Primed mycobacterial uveitis generates inflammation 2 days after intravitreal injection and resolves spontaneously 14 days later. CD68+ lymphocytes are the predominant infiltrating cells and are found in the anterior chamber, surrounding the ciliary body and in the vitreous. In contrast to EAU, no choroidal infiltration or retinal destruction is noted. At the day of peak inflammation, C-X-C motif ligand 10 (CXCL10), IL-1β, IL-18, and leptin were induced in the aqueous of both models. Interleukin-6 was induced 2-fold in the aqueous of PMU but not EAU. Cytokines elevated in the aqueous of EAU exclusively include regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX), growth-related oncogene/keratinocyte chemokine (GRO/KC), VEGF, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and IL-17A. In the vitreous, CXCL10, GRO/KC, RANTES, and MIP-1α were elevated in both models. Interleukin-17A and IL-18 were elevated exclusively in EAU. Primed mycobacterial uveitis generates an acute anterior and intermediate uveitis without retinal involvement. Primed mycobacterial uveitis has a distinct proinflammatory cytokine profile compared with EAU, suggesting PMU is a good complementary model for study of immune-mediated uveitis. CXCL10, a proinflammatory cytokine, was increased in the aqueous and vitreous of both models and may be a

  15. Mycobacterial biofilms: a greasy way to hold it together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, María Mercedes; Kolter, Roberto

    2005-12-02

    Microorganisms growing on surfaces can form biofilms under certain conditions. In this issue of Cell, Ojha et al. (2005) investigate biofilm formation in mycobacteria. They identify new cell-wall components that are required for the formation of architecturally complex mature biofilms in these bacteria and the surprising involvement of a chaperone protein in this process.

  16. Change in lung function in never-smokers with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Kobayashi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Never-smokers account for a large proportion of subjects in general population studies on nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease (NTM-LD. However, the influence of NTM infection on the lung function of never-smokers has not yet been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine how NTM-LD impairs the lung function in never-smokers, and whether there are an association between successful NTM-LD treatment in radiologic outcomes and improvement in lung function of never-smokers with NTM-LD or not. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients (1 who have never smoked during their lifetime; (2 with at least two respiratory specimens from sputum, one bronchial washing sample, or one lung tissue that were culture positive for the same NTM species; and (3 who underwent at least two pulmonary function tests. We enrolled healthy never-smokers as the control group. Results: In 22 never-smokers with NTM-LD, the median forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC at baseline was lower than those in 9 healthy never-smokers [1800 vs 2080 ml (p = 0.23 and 2230 vs 2620 ml (p = 0.06], respectively. The median change in FEV1 in never-smokers with NTM-LD was lower than that in healthy never-smokers [−70 vs 20 ml per year (p = 0.07, respectively]. On univariate analysis, baseline %-predicted FEV1 in never-smokers with NTM-LD was associated with changes in FVC (p = 0.026 and FEV1 (p = 0.013. Anti-NTM treatment was administered for at least 1 year in 19 patients (86.4%. The relationship between worsening chest CT findings and rapid progressive decline in both FVC (p = 0.66 and FEV1 (p = 0.23 were not significant. Conclusion: Never-smokers with NTM-LD showed lung function decline. There was no association between successful NTM-LD treatment in radiologic outcomes and improvement in lung function of never-smokers. Keywords: Lung function, Never-smoker, Nontuberculous mycobacterial

  17. Immunohistological Analysis of In Situ Expression of Mycobacterial Antigens in Skin Lesions of Leprosy Patients Across the Histopathological Spectrum : Association of Mycobacterial Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and Mycobacterium leprae Phenolic Glycolipid-I (PGL-I) with Leprosy Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, Claudia; Faber, William; Klatser, Paul; Buffing, Anita; Naafs, Ben; Das, Pranab

    1999-01-01

    The presence of mycobacterial antigens in leprosy skin lesions was studied by immunohistological methods using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Mycobacterium leprae-specific phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) and to cross-reactive mycobacterial antigens of 36 kd, 65 kd, and lipoarabinomannan (LAM). The staining patterns with MAb to 36 kd and 65 kd were heterogeneous and were also seen in the lesions of other skin diseases. The in situ staining of PGL-I and LAM was seen only in ...

  18. Surgical excision versus antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, Jerome A.; Kuijper, Ed J.; van Coppenraet, Elisabeth S. Bruijnesteijn; Lindeboom, Robert; Prins, Jan M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment of nontuberculosis mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis in children has not been established. Until recently, surgical excision was the standard treatment, but the number of reports of successful antibiotic treatment is increasing, which questions whether surgery is

  19. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  20. How do normal faults grow?

    OpenAIRE

    Blækkan, Ingvild; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher; Tvedt, Anette

    2018-01-01

    Faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length (isolated fault model), or by rapid length establishment and subsequent displacement accrual (constant-length fault model). To test the significance and applicability of these two models, we use time-series displacement (D) and length (L) data extracted for faults from nature and experiments. We document a range of fault behaviours, from sympathetic D-L fault growth (isolated growth) to sub-vertical D-L growth trajectorie...

  1. Introducing the new BTS Guideline: Management of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Charles S; Floto, R Andres

    2017-11-01

    The new BTS Guidelines for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease combine the best available evidence with expert consensus to generate a set of pragmatic Guidelines, published as a supplement to this issue of Thorax, to assist in the management of these challenging infections. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Mycobacterial laminin-binding histone-like protein mediates collagen-dependent cytoadherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Alves Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When grown in the presence of exogenous collagen I, Mycobacterium bovis BCG was shown to form clumps. Scanning electron microscopy examination of these clumps revealed the presence of collagen fibres cross-linking the bacilli. Since collagen is a major constituent of the eukaryotic extracellular matrices, we assayed BCG cytoadherence in the presence of exogenous collagen I. Collagen increased the interaction of the bacilli with A549 type II pneumocytes or U937 macrophages, suggesting that BCG is able to recruit collagen to facilitate its attachment to host cells. Using an affinity chromatography approach, we have isolated a BCG collagen-binding protein corresponding to the previously described mycobacterial laminin-binding histone-like protein (LBP/Hlp, a highly conserved protein associated with the mycobacterial cell wall. Moreover, Mycobacterium leprae LBP/Hlp, a well-characterized adhesin, was also able to bind collagen I. Finally, using recombinant fragments of M. leprae LBP/Hlp, we mapped the collagen-binding activity within the C-terminal domain of the adhesin. Since this protein was already shown to be involved in the recognition of laminin and heparan sulphate-containing proteoglycans, the present observations reinforce the adhesive activities of LBP/Hlp, which can be therefore considered as a multifaceted mycobacterial adhesin, playing an important role in both leprosy and tuberculosis pathogenesis.

  3. Recombinant gamma interferon for the treatment of pulmonary and mycobacterial diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Idrian; Milanes, Maria T; Cayon, Isis; Santos, Yamilet et. al

    2009-01-01

    An increased antibiotic resistance is described for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterial species; therefore, new treatments are required. Immunocompromised patients have increased risk, as demonstrated by complications after BCG vaccination. On the other hand, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal disease, with no therapy available to modify course of the disease. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) plays an essential role as main activator of cytokine secretion in macrophages, also showing a potent anti-fibrotic effects. To evaluate the adjuvant effect of IFN-γ on these three clinical scenarios, five clinical trials were carried out. Patients treated with IFN gamma had satisfactory response according to clinical, imaging and functional criteria since their first evaluations, significantly improving when compared to the control group receiving placebo in a study of pulmonary atypical mycobacteriosis. Fast sputum conversion was obtained in mycobacterial infections, including tuberculosis. In the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis study, 75% of treated patients were considered as responders (improvement + stable). Here we report the cases of two nursing babies with suppurative regional lymphadenitis caused by BCG, who were successfully treated with recombinant human IFN-γ. Treatment was well tolerated, with most of the adverse reactions corresponding to classical flu-like symptoms produced by the cytokine. We can conclude that IFN-γ is useful and well tolerated as adjuvant therapy in patients with pulmonary mycobacterial diseases or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (author)

  4. Hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for IFNγR1 deficiency protects mice from mycobacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Miriam; Mucci, Adele; Blank, Patrick; Nguyen, Ariane Hai Ha; Schiller, Jan; Halle, Olga; Kühnel, Mark-Philipp; Billig, Sandra; Meineke, Robert; Brand, Daniel; Herder, Vanessa; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Bange, Franz-Christoph; Goethe, Ralph; Jonigk, Danny; Förster, Reinhold; Gentner, Bernhard; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Bustamante, Jacinta; Schambach, Axel; Kalinke, Ulrich; Lachmann, Nico

    2018-02-01

    Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by severe infections caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria. Biallelic null mutations in genes encoding interferon gamma receptor 1 or 2 ( IFNGR1 or IFNGR2 ) result in a life-threatening disease phenotype in early childhood. Recombinant interferon γ (IFN-γ) therapy is inefficient, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has a poor prognosis. Thus, we developed a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy approach using lentiviral vectors that express Ifnγr1 either constitutively or myeloid specifically. Transduction of mouse Ifnγr1 -/- HSCs led to stable IFNγR1 expression on macrophages, which rescued their cellular responses to IFN-γ. As a consequence, genetically corrected HSC-derived macrophages were able to suppress T-cell activation and showed restored antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in vitro. Transplantation of genetically corrected HSCs into Ifnγr1 -/- mice before BCG infection prevented manifestations of severe BCG disease and maintained lung and spleen organ integrity, which was accompanied by a reduced mycobacterial burden in lung and spleen and a prolonged overall survival in animals that received a transplant. In summary, we demonstrate an HSC-based gene therapy approach for IFNγR1 deficiency, which protects mice from severe mycobacterial infections, thereby laying the foundation for a new therapeutic intervention in corresponding human patients. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. Metabolic regulation of mycobacterial growth and antibiotic sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hun Baek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of chronic bacterial infections, such as tuberculosis (TB, requires a remarkably long course of therapy, despite the availability of drugs that are rapidly bacteriocidal in vitro. This observation has long been attributed to the presence of bacterial populations in the host that are "drug-tolerant" because of their slow replication and low rate of metabolism. However, both the physiologic state of these hypothetical drug-tolerant populations and the bacterial pathways that regulate growth and metabolism in vivo remain obscure. Here we demonstrate that diverse growth-limiting stresses trigger a common signal transduction pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis that leads to the induction of triglyceride synthesis. This pathway plays a causal role in reducing growth and antibiotic efficacy by redirecting cellular carbon fluxes away from the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Mutants in which this metabolic switch is disrupted are unable to arrest their growth in response to stress and remain sensitive to antibiotics during infection. Thus, this regulatory pathway contributes to antibiotic tolerance in vivo, and its modulation may represent a novel strategy for accelerating TB treatment.

  6. Immune defects in active mycobacterial diseases in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs

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    Wen-I Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural human immunity to the mycobacteria group, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG or nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM, and/or Salmonella species, relies on the functional IL-12/23-IFN-γ integrity of macrophages (monocyte/dendritic cell connecting to T lymphocyte/NK cells. Patients with severe forms of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs have more profound immune defects involving this impaired circuit in patients with severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID including complete DiGeorge syndrome, X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (HIGM (CD40L mutation, CD40 deficiency, immunodeficiency with or without anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (NEMO and IKBA mutations, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD and hyper IgE recurrent infection syndromes (HIES. The patients with severe PIDs have broader diverse infections rather than mycobacterial infections. In contrast, patients with an isolated inborn error of the IL-12/23-IFN-γ pathway are exclusively prone to low-virulence mycobacterial infections and nontyphoid salmonella infections, known as Mendelian susceptibility to the mycobacterial disease (MSMD phenotype. Restricted defective molecules in the circuit, including IFN-γR1, IFN-γR2, IL-12p40, IL-12R-β1, STAT-1, NEMO, IKBA and the recently discovered CYBB responsible for autophagocytic vacuole and proteolysis, and interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8 for dendritic cell immunodeficiency, have been identified in around 60% of patients with the MSMD phenotype. Among all of the patients with PIDs referred for investigation since 1985, we have identified four cases with the specific defect (IFNRG1 for three and IL12RB for one, presenting as both BCG-induced diseases and NTM infections, in addition to some patients with SCID, HIGM, CGD and HIES. Furthermore, manifestations in patients with autoantibodies to IFN-γ (autoAbs-IFN-γ, which is categorized as an anticytokine autoantibody syndrome, can resemble the relatively

  7. GenoMycDB: a database for comparative analysis of mycobacterial genes and genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanho, Marcos; Mascarenhas, Daniel; Degrave, Wim; Miranda, Antonio Basílio de

    2006-03-31

    Several databases and computational tools have been created with the aim of organizing, integrating and analyzing the wealth of information generated by large-scale sequencing projects of mycobacterial genomes and those of other organisms. However, with very few exceptions, these databases and tools do not allow for massive and/or dynamic comparison of these data. GenoMycDB (http://www.dbbm.fiocruz.br/GenoMycDB) is a relational database built for large-scale comparative analyses of completely sequenced mycobacterial genomes, based on their predicted protein content. Its central structure is composed of the results obtained after pair-wise sequence alignments among all the predicted proteins coded by the genomes of six mycobacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strains H37Rv and CDC1551), M. bovis AF2122/97, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K10, M. leprae TN, and M. smegmatis MC2 155. The database stores the computed similarity parameters of every aligned pair, providing for each protein sequence the predicted subcellular localization, the assigned cluster of orthologous groups, the features of the corresponding gene, and links to several important databases. Tables containing pairs or groups of potential homologs between selected species/strains can be produced dynamically by user-defined criteria, based on one or multiple sequence similarity parameters. In addition, searches can be restricted according to the predicted subcellular localization of the protein, the DNA strand of the corresponding gene and/or the description of the protein. Massive data search and/or retrieval are available, and different ways of exporting the result are offered. GenoMycDB provides an on-line resource for the functional classification of mycobacterial proteins as well as for the analysis of genome structure, organization, and evolution.

  8. Ecthyma gangrenosum like lesions in disseminated mycobacterial tuberculosis infection in a renal transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjyot Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG is a relatively rare skin manifestation that is most commonly described in Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia. It is more frequently seen in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of 60-year-old renal transplant recipient on triple immunosuppressants and diabetes mellitus type 2 on insulin therapy who developed EG-like lesions due to disseminated mycobacterial tuberculosis (MTB infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of EG-like lesions associated with disseminated kochs.

  9. Mycobacterial lesions in fish, amphibians, reptiles, rodents, lagomorphs, and ferrets with reference to animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavill, Drury R; Schmidt, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a serious disease across many animal species. Approximately more than 120 species are currently recognized in the genus Mycobacterium. This article describes the zoonotic potential of mycobacteria and mycobacteriosis in fish, amphibians, rodents, rabbits, and ferrets. It considers clinical signs; histology; molecular methods of identification, such as polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing; routes of infection; and disease progression. Studying the disease in animals may aid in understanding the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infections in humans and identify better therapy and preventative options such as vaccines.

  10. Identification of drug susceptibility pattern and mycobacterial species in sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without HIV co-infection in north west Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonen, Mekdem; Abate, Ebba; Aseffa, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is among the high-burden countries of tuberculosis (TB) in the world Since mycobacterial culture and susceptibility testing are not routinely performed in Ethiopia, recent data on susceptibility patterns and the mycobacterial species cultured from sputum smear positive patients are limited....

  11. DESTRUCTIVE LESIONS OF BONES AS A RESULT OF MYCOBACTERIAL PROCESS IN CHILDREN WITH INITIAL IMMUNODEFICIENCIES (CLINICAL, DIAGNOSTICAL AND TACTIC PECULIARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yu. Mushkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial immunodeficiencies are genetically conditioned defects of immune system; they are the basis for generalized infections including those induced by mycobacteria of tuberculosis complex. The lesions of skeleton in those patients are of different types depending on the kind of immunodeficiency. The article presents the results of clinical observation, conservative and surgical treatment of 12 children with mycobacterial lesions of skeleton on the ground different initial immunodeficiencies — severe combined immune deficiency, chronic granulematosis and insufficiency of interferon and interleukin 12.Key words: children, initial immunodeficiency, mycobacterial infection, bone lesions, surgical treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 60–64

  12. Active site of mycobacterial dUTPase: Structural characteristics and a built-in sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Balazs; Barabas, Orsolya; Takacs, Eniko; Nagy, Nikolett; Nagy, Peter; Vertessy, Beata G.

    2008-01-01

    dUTPases are essential to eliminate dUTP for DNA integrity and provide dUMP for thymidylate biosynthesis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis apparently lacks any other thymidylate biosynthesis pathway, therefore dUTPase is a promising antituberculotic drug target. Crystal structure of the mycobacterial enzyme in complex with the isosteric substrate analog, α,β-imido-dUTP and Mg 2+ at 1.5 A resolution was determined that visualizes the full-length C-terminus, previously not localized. Interactions of a conserved motif important in catalysis, the Mycobacterium-specific five-residue-loop insert and C-terminal tetrapeptide could now be described in detail. Stacking of C-terminal histidine upon the uracil moiety prompted replacement with tryptophan. The resulting sensitive fluorescent sensor enables fast screening for binding of potential inhibitors to the active site. K d for α,β-imido-dUTP binding to mycobacterial dUTPase is determined to be 10-fold less than for human dUTPase, which is to be considered in drug optimization. A robust continuous activity assay for kinetic screening is proposed

  13. Recognition of the mycobacterial cord factor by Mincle: relevance for granuloma formation and resistance to tuberculosis

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    Roland eLang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s most successful intracellular bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB, survives inside macrophages by blocking phagosome maturation and establishes chronic infection characterized by the formation of granulomas. Trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM, the mycobacterial cord factor, is the most abundant cell wall lipid of virulent mycobacteria, is sufficient to cause granuloma formation, and has long been known to be a major virulence factor of MTB. Recently, TDM has been shown to activate the Syk-Card9 signaling pathway in macrophages through binding to the C-type lectin receptor Mincle. The Mincle-Card9 pathway is required for activation of macrophages by TDM in vitro and for granuloma formation in vivo following injection of TDM. Whether this pathway is also exploited by MTB to reprogram the macrophage into a comfortable niche has not been explored yet. Several recent studies have investigated the phenotype of Mincle-deficient mice in mycobacterial infection, yielding divergent results in terms of a role for Mincle in host resistance. Here, we review these studies, discuss possible reasons for discrepant results and highlight open questions in the role of Mincle and other C-type lectin receptors in the infection biology of MTB.

  14. 7.5-Å cryo-em structure of the mycobacterial fatty acid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad; Leibundgut, Marc

    2013-03-11

    The mycobacterial fatty acid synthase (FAS) complex is a giant 2.0-MDa α(6) homohexameric multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of fatty acid precursors of mycolic acids, which are major components of the cell wall in Mycobacteria and play an important role in pathogenicity. Here, we present a three-dimensional reconstruction of the Mycobacterium smegmatis FAS complex at 7.5Å, highly homologous to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis multienzyme, by cryo-electron microscopy. Based on the obtained structural data, which allowed us to identify secondary-structure elements, and sequence homology with the fungal FAS, we generated an accurate architectural model of the complex. The FAS system from Mycobacteria resembles a minimized version of the fungal FAS with much larger openings in the reaction chambers. These architectural features of the mycobacterial FAS may be important for the interaction with mycolic acid processing and condensing enzymes that further modify the precursors produced by FAS and for autoactivation of the FAS complex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Macrophage and T cell dynamics during the development and disintegration of mycobacterial granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egen, Jackson G; Rothfuchs, Antonio Gigliotti; Feng, Carl G; Winter, Nathalie; Sher, Alan; Germain, Ronald N

    2008-02-01

    Granulomas play a key role in host protection against mycobacterial pathogens, with their breakdown contributing to exacerbated disease. To better understand the initiation and maintenance of these structures, we employed both high-resolution multiplex static imaging and intravital multiphoton microscopy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced liver granulomas. We found that Kupffer cells directly capture blood-borne bacteria and subsequently nucleate formation of a nascent granuloma by recruiting both uninfected liver-resident macrophages and blood-derived monocytes. Within the mature granuloma, these myeloid cell populations formed a relatively immobile cellular matrix that interacted with a highly dynamic effector T cell population. The efficient recruitment of these T cells was highly dependent on TNF-alpha-derived signals, which also maintained the granuloma structure through preferential effects on uninfected macrophage populations. By characterizing the migration of both innate and adaptive immune cells throughout the process of granuloma development, these studies provide a new perspective on the cellular events involved in mycobacterial containment and escape.

  16. Nutritional status and eating disorders: neglected risks factor for nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Karina; Morera, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD) in immunocompetent patients is an increasingly important epidemiologic concern. However, risk factors associated with susceptibility to NTMLD are not completely known. A prevalence of NTMLD appears to be rising, mainly in some populations such as middle-aged or elderly thin women, (a group including those with Lady Windermere syndrome) with neither remarkable history of respiratory disease nor smoking habit. Right middle lobe (RML) and lingula are often involved. Various predisposing factors and genetic defects have been described as possible causes of development of NTMLD, namely: voluntary suppression of cough, RML anatomical factors, menopause and mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Malnutrition is also an important and common risk factor associated with other mycobacterial disease like tuberculosis (TB) and its probable association with NTMLD as have been pointed out for some authors. However, a real description of all nutritional aspects and eating habits of patients prior to NTMLD diagnosis is lacking. We hypothesized that malnutrition and eating disorders like anorexia nervosa could be risk factors that may promoting NTMLD. From a clinical viewpoint, if this hypothesis proves to be correct, eating habits and nutritional aspects should be taken into account in the diagnosis process of suspected NTMLD, since they are easily identifiable and treatable conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, Virginia G.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Growing Safflower in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, M. G.; Israelsen, C. E.; Creech, E.; Allen, N.

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information on growing safflower in Utah. It has become popular on dryland farms in rotation with winter wheat. Safflower seed provides three products, oil, meal, and birdseed.

  19. Playing hide-and-seek with host macrophages through the use of mycobacterial cell envelope phthiocerol dimycocerosates and phenolic glycolipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa eARBUES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB, have evolved a remarkable ability to evade the immune system in order to survive and to colonize the host. Among the most important evasion strategies is the capacity of these bacilli to parasitize host macrophages, since these are major effector cells against intracellular pathogens that can be used as long-term cellular reservoirs. Mycobacterial pathogens employ an array of virulence factors that manipulate macrophage function to survive and establish infection. Until recently, however, the role of mycobacterial cell envelope lipids as virulence factors in macrophage subversion has remained elusive. Here, we will address exclusively the proposed role for phthiocerol dimycocerosates (DIM in the modulation of the resident macrophage response and that of phenolic glycolipids (PGL in the regulation of the recruitment and phenotype of incoming macrophage precursors to the site of infection. We will provide a unique perspective of potential additional functions for these lipids, and highlight obstacles and opportunities to further understand their role in the pathogenesis of TB and other mycobacterial diseases.

  20. Whole genome sequencing reveals mycobacterial microevolution among concurrent isolates from sputum and blood in HIV infected TB patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssengooba, Willy; de Jong, Bouke C.; Joloba, Moses L.; Cobelens, Frank G.; Meehan, Conor J.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of advanced immunosuppression, M. tuberculosis is known to cause detectable mycobacteremia. However, little is known about the intra-patient mycobacterial microevolution and the direction of seeding between the sputum and blood compartments. From a diagnostic study of HIV-infected TB

  1. Experienced and Perceived Risks of Mycobacterial Diseases: A Cross Sectional Study among Agropastoral Communities in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Martin Kilale

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to assess experienced risk factors and perceptions of mycobacterial diseases in communities in northern Tanzania.We conducted a cross-sectional study in Arusha and Manyara regions in Northern Tanzania. We enrolled tuberculosis (TB patients attending Mount Meru Hospital, Enduleni Hospital and Haydom Lutheran Hospitals in Arusha municipality, Ngorongoro and Mbulu districts, respectively. Patient addresses were recorded during their first visit to the hospitals. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of TB by sputum smear microscopy and/or culture at central laboratory were followed up and interviewed using pre-tested questionnaires, and selected relatives and neighbors were also interviewed. The study was conducted between June 2011 and May 2013.The study involved 164 respondents: 41(25% were TB patients, 68(41.5% were their relatives and 55(33.5% their neighbors. Sixty four (39% knew a risk factor for mycobacterial disease. Overall, 64(39% perceived to be at risk of mycobacterial diseases. Exposure to potential risks of mycobacterial diseases were: keeping livestock, not boiling drinking water, large family, smoking and sharing dwelling with TB patients. Rural dwellers were more often livestock keepers (p<0.01, more often shared dwelling with livestock (p<0.01 than urban dwellers. More primary school leavers reported sharing dwelling with TB patients than participants with secondary and higher education (p = 0.01.Livestock keeping, sharing dwelling with livestock, sharing household with a TB patient were perceived risk factors for mycobacterial diseases and the participants were exposed to some of these risk factors. Improving knowledge about the risk factors may protect them from these serious diseases.

  2. Experienced and Perceived Risks of Mycobacterial Diseases: A Cross Sectional Study among Agropastoral Communities in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilale, Andrew Martin; Ngadaya, Esther; Kagaruki, Gibson Benard; Lema, Yakobo Leonard; Muhumuza, Julius; Ngowi, Bernard James; Mfinanga, Sayoki Godfrey; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund

    2015-01-01

    The current study was conducted to assess experienced risk factors and perceptions of mycobacterial diseases in communities in northern Tanzania. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Arusha and Manyara regions in Northern Tanzania. We enrolled tuberculosis (TB) patients attending Mount Meru Hospital, Enduleni Hospital and Haydom Lutheran Hospitals in Arusha municipality, Ngorongoro and Mbulu districts, respectively. Patient addresses were recorded during their first visit to the hospitals. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of TB by sputum smear microscopy and/or culture at central laboratory were followed up and interviewed using pre-tested questionnaires, and selected relatives and neighbors were also interviewed. The study was conducted between June 2011 and May 2013. The study involved 164 respondents: 41(25%) were TB patients, 68(41.5%) were their relatives and 55(33.5%) their neighbors. Sixty four (39%) knew a risk factor for mycobacterial disease. Overall, 64(39%) perceived to be at risk of mycobacterial diseases. Exposure to potential risks of mycobacterial diseases were: keeping livestock, not boiling drinking water, large family, smoking and sharing dwelling with TB patients. Rural dwellers were more often livestock keepers (p<0.01), more often shared dwelling with livestock (p<0.01) than urban dwellers. More primary school leavers reported sharing dwelling with TB patients than participants with secondary and higher education (p = 0.01). Livestock keeping, sharing dwelling with livestock, sharing household with a TB patient were perceived risk factors for mycobacterial diseases and the participants were exposed to some of these risk factors. Improving knowledge about the risk factors may protect them from these serious diseases.

  3. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  4. Growing Backyard Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall

    1975-01-01

    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  5. The Host Response to a Clinical MDR Mycobacterial Strain Cultured in a Detergent-Free Environment: A Global Transcriptomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisching, Gina; Pietersen, Ray-Dean; Mpongoshe, Vuyiseka; van Heerden, Carel; van Helden, Paul; Wiid, Ian; Baker, Bienyameen

    2016-01-01

    During Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection, the initial interactions between the pathogen and the host cell determines internalization and innate immune response events. It is established that detergents such as Tween alter the mycobacterial cell wall and solubilize various lipids and proteins. The implication of this is significant since induced changes on the cell wall affect macrophage uptake and the immune response to M.tb. Importantly, during transmission between hosts, aerosolized M.tb enters the host in its native form, i.e. in a detergent-free environment, thus in vitro and in vivo studies should mimic this as closely as possible. To this end, we have optimized a procedure for growing and processing detergent-free M.tb and assessed the response of murine macrophages (BMDM) infected with multi drug-resistant M.tb (R179 Beijing 220 clinical isolate) using RNAseq. We compared the effects of the host response to M.tb cultured under standard laboratory conditions (Tween 80 containing medium -R179T), or in detergent-free medium (R179NT). RNAseq comparisons reveal 2651 differentially expressed genes in BMDMs infected with R179T M.tb vs. BMDMs infected with R179NT M.tb. A range of differentially expressed genes involved in BMDM receptor interaction with M.tb (Mrc1, Ifngr1, Tlr9, Fpr1 and Itgax) and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines (Il6, Il1b, Tnf, Ccl5 and Cxcl14) were selected for analysis through qPCR. BMDMs infected with R179NT stimulate a robust inflammatory response. Interestingly, R179NT M.tb induce transcription of Fpr1, a receptor which detects bacterial formyl peptides and initiates a myriad of immune responses. Additionally we show that the host components Cxcl14, with an unknown role in M.tb infection, and Tlr9, an emerging role player, are only stimulated by infection with R179NT M.tb. Taken together, our results suggest that the host response differs significantly in response to Tween 80 cultured M.tb and should therefore not be used in

  6. The Host Response to a Clinical MDR Mycobacterial Strain Cultured in a Detergent-Free Environment: A Global Transcriptomics Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Leisching

    Full Text Available During Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb infection, the initial interactions between the pathogen and the host cell determines internalization and innate immune response events. It is established that detergents such as Tween alter the mycobacterial cell wall and solubilize various lipids and proteins. The implication of this is significant since induced changes on the cell wall affect macrophage uptake and the immune response to M.tb. Importantly, during transmission between hosts, aerosolized M.tb enters the host in its native form, i.e. in a detergent-free environment, thus in vitro and in vivo studies should mimic this as closely as possible. To this end, we have optimized a procedure for growing and processing detergent-free M.tb and assessed the response of murine macrophages (BMDM infected with multi drug-resistant M.tb (R179 Beijing 220 clinical isolate using RNAseq. We compared the effects of the host response to M.tb cultured under standard laboratory conditions (Tween 80 containing medium -R179T, or in detergent-free medium (R179NT. RNAseq comparisons reveal 2651 differentially expressed genes in BMDMs infected with R179T M.tb vs. BMDMs infected with R179NT M.tb. A range of differentially expressed genes involved in BMDM receptor interaction with M.tb (Mrc1, Ifngr1, Tlr9, Fpr1 and Itgax and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines (Il6, Il1b, Tnf, Ccl5 and Cxcl14 were selected for analysis through qPCR. BMDMs infected with R179NT stimulate a robust inflammatory response. Interestingly, R179NT M.tb induce transcription of Fpr1, a receptor which detects bacterial formyl peptides and initiates a myriad of immune responses. Additionally we show that the host components Cxcl14, with an unknown role in M.tb infection, and Tlr9, an emerging role player, are only stimulated by infection with R179NT M.tb. Taken together, our results suggest that the host response differs significantly in response to Tween 80 cultured M.tb and should therefore not

  7. Atypical mycobacterial infection mimicking carbuncle in an elderly patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terlinda Barros

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atypical mycobacterium infection occurs under certain skin conditions, namely the disruption of skin integrity and mucous membranes accompanied by the reduction of cellular immunity. However, atypical mycobacterial infection in elderly patients is rarely reported. Case: A 64 years old male patient, complained of red lumps on the upper-backfor a month, accompanied by mild fever and minimal pain. Three months before, the patient had accupuncture on the neck and upper back. Physical examination showed multiple miliar to lenticular sized papules and pustules on an erythematous-violaceus base with hard and immobile palpable nodes and infiltrate. After clinical and laboratory workup, the patient was diagnosed withcarbuncle with Candida spp colonization. The treatment consisted of systemicantibiotics and topical antifungals. There was no clinical improvement after 3 weeks. Histopathology and laboratory results suggested atypical mycobacterium infection. Discussion: Atypical mycobacterium infection should be considered in elderly patients with skin and soft tissue infections that show no clinical improvement tostandard therapy.

  8. Virtual screening of combinatorial library of novel benzenesulfonamides on mycobacterial carbonic anhydrase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikant F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorial library of novel benzenesulfonamides was docked (Schrodinger Glide into mycobacterial carbonic anhydrase (mtCA II and human (hCA II isoforms with an aim to find drug candidates with selective activity on mtCA II. The predicted selectivity was calculated based on optimized MM-GBSA free energies for ligand enzyme interactions. Selectivity, LogP (o/w and interaction energy were used to calculate the selection index which determined the subset of best scoring molecules selected for further evaluation. Structure-activity relationship was found for fragment subsets, showing us the possible way regarding how to influence lipophilicity without affecting ligand-enzyme binding properties.

  9. Coupling of Petri Net Models of the Mycobacterial Infection Process and Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael V. Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational and mathematical modeling is important in support of a better understanding of complex behavior in biology. For the investigation of biological systems, researchers have used computers to construct, verify, and validate models that describe the mechanisms behind biological processes in multi-scale representations. In this paper we combine Petri net models that represent the mycobacterial infection process and innate immune response at various levels of organization, from molecular interaction to granuloma dissemination. In addition to the conventional graphical representation of the Petri net, the outcome of the model is projected onto a 3D model representing the zebrafish embryo. In this manner we provide a visualization of the process in a simulation framework that portrays the infection in the living system.

  10. The MycoBrowser portal: a comprehensive and manually annotated resource for mycobacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Lew, Jocelyne M; Cole, Stewart T

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the MycoBrowser portal (http://mycobrowser.epfl.ch/), a resource that provides both in silico generated and manually reviewed information within databases dedicated to the complete genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium smegmatis. A central component of MycoBrowser is TubercuList (http://tuberculist.epfl.ch), which has recently benefited from a new data management system and web interface. These improvements were extended to all MycoBrowser databases. We provide an overview of the functionalities available and the different ways of interrogating the data then discuss how both the new information and the latest features are helping the mycobacterial research communities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug resistance pattern of mycobacterial isolates in HIV and non-HIV population in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umamaheshwari Shivaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence of drug resistance has complicated the treatment of tuberculosis (TB. WHO reports India to be one among 27 “high burden” multidrug-resistant (MDR TB countries. Objective: To diagnose TB and detect drug resistance of mycobacterial isolates in acid-fast bacilli (AFB smear negative HIV reactive patients (Group A and compare them with HIV seropositive AFB smear positive (Group B and HIV-seronegative AFB positive cases (Group C. Materials and Methods: Clinical specimens collected in all groups were processed as per the standard protocol except blood, which was processed by lysis centrifugation technique. They were then inoculated with Lowenstein-Jensen media and the isolates obtained were subjected to drug susceptibility test (DST by proportion method and genotype MTBDR plus assay. Results: In Group A, 162 patients were included. Of the 443 clinical samples collected, 76 mycobacterial strains were obtained from 67 (41% patients. Of these, 50 (65.8% were sensitive to all drugs and 26 (34.2% resistant to one or more anti-tubercular drugs. Antibiogram of Group A when compared with Group B and C showed that the MDR rate 6.6%, 6.7% and 8% respectively did not differ much; but resistance to at least single drug was (26 [34.2%], 3 [10%], and 8 [16%], respectively. Conclusion: Our study suggests that HIV has no influence on the anti-tubercular resistance pattern, but increased MDR rate along with HIV in high TB burden setting stresses the need for early diagnosis and DST in providing proper regimens and improve prognosis.

  12. microRNA-124 negatively regulates TLR signaling in alveolar macrophages in response to mycobacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunyan; Li, Yong; Li, Min; Deng, Guangcun; Wu, Xiaoling; Zeng, Jin; Hao, Xiujing; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Jing; Cho, William C S; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2014-11-01

    The emerging roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating immune responses have attracted increasing attention in recent years; and the alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the main targets of mycobacterial infection, which play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However, the immunoregulatory role of miRNAs in AMs has not been fully demonstrated. In this study, we find that miR-124 is up-regulated in the peripheral leukocytes of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis; furthermore, the expression miR-124 can be induced upon Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection in both RAW264.7 AM cells in vitro and murine AMs in vivo. Mechanistically, miR-124 is able to modulate toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling activity in RAW264.7 cells in response to BCG infection. In this regard, multiple components of TLR signaling cascade, including the TLR6, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), TNFR-associated factor 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α are directly targeted by miR-124. In addition, both overexpression of TLR signaling adaptor MyD88 and BCG infection are able to augment miR-124 transcription, while MyD88 expression silenced by small interfering RNA dramatically suppresses miR-124 expression in AMs in vitro. Moreover, the abundance of miR-124 transcript in murine AMs of MyD88 deficient mice is significantly less than that of their wild-type or heterozygous littermates; and the BCG infection fails to induce miR-124 expression in the lung of MyD88 deficient mouse. These results indicate a negative regulatory role of miR-124 in fine-tuning inflammatory response in AMs upon mycobacterial infection, in part through a mechanism by directly targeting TLR signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase: biochemical features of a crucial enzyme for mycobacterial cell wall biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P Lucarelli

    Full Text Available The selection and soaring spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant strains (XDR-TB is a severe public health problem. Currently, there is an urgent need for new drugs for tuberculosis treatment, with novel mechanisms of action and, moreover, the necessity to identify new drug targets. Mycobacterial phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (MtbPRPPase is a crucial enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of decaprenylphosphoryl-arabinose, an essential precursor for the mycobacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Moreover, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate, which is the product of the PRPPase catalyzed reaction, is the precursor for the biosynthesis of nucleotides and of some amino acids such as histidine and tryptophan. In this context, the elucidation of the molecular and functional features of MtbPRPPase is mandatory. MtbPRPPase was obtained as a recombinant form, purified to homogeneity and characterized. According to its hexameric form, substrate specificity and requirement of phosphate for activity, the enzyme proved to belong to the class I of PRPPases. Although the sulfate mimicked the phosphate, it was less effective and required higher concentrations for the enzyme activation. MtbPRPPase showed hyperbolic response to ribose 5-phosphate, but sigmoidal behaviour towards Mg-ATP. The enzyme resulted to be allosterically activated by Mg(2+ or Mn(2+ and inhibited by Ca(2+ and Cu(2+ but, differently from other characterized PRPPases, it showed a better affinity for the Mn(2+ and Cu(2+ ions, indicating a different cation binding site geometry. Moreover, the enzyme from M. tuberculosis was allosterically inhibited by ADP, but less sensitive to inhibition by GDP. The characterization of M. tuberculosis PRPPase provides the starting point for the development of inhibitors for antitubercular drug design.

  14. Influence of maternal gestational treatment with mycobacterial antigens on postnatal immunity in an experimental murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jubayer Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the immune system could be primed as early as during the fetal life and this might have an impact on postnatal vaccination. Therefore, we addressed in murine models whether gestational treatment with mycobacterial antigens could induce better immune responses in the postnatal life. METHODS/FINDINGS: BALB/c mice were treated subcutaneously (s.c. at the second week of gestation with antigen (Ag85A or heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA in the absence of adjuvant. Following birth, offspring mice were immunized intranasally (i.n. with the same antigens formulated with the adjuvant cholera toxin (CT at week 1 and week 4. One week after the last immunization, we assessed antigen-specific recall interferon gamma (IFN-gamma responses by in vitro restimulation of lung-derived lymphocytes. Protection against infection was assessed by challenge with high dose Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG given i.n. We found that recall IFN-gamma responses were higher in the offspring born to the treated mother compared to the untreated-mother. More importantly, we observed that the offspring born to the treated mother controlled infection better than the offspring born to the untreated mother. Since the gestational treatment was done in absence of adjuvant, essentially there was no antibody production observed in the pregnant mice and therefore no influence of maternal antibodies was expected. We hypothesized that the effect of maternal treatment with antigen on the offspring occurred due to antigen transportation through placenta. To trace the antigens, we conjugated fluorescent nanocrystals with Ag85A (Qdot-ITK-Ag85A. After inoculation in the pregnant mice, Qdot-ITK-Ag85A conjugates were detected in the liver, spleen of pregnant females and in all the fetuses and placentas examined. CONCLUSION: The fetal immune system could be primed in utero by mycobacterial antigens transported through the placenta.

  15. The Type of Growth Medium Affects the Presence of a Mycobacterial Capsule and Is Associated With Differences in Protective Efficacy of BCG Vaccination Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Carreño, Leandro J; Weinrick, Brian; Batista-Gonzalez, Ana; Glatman-Freedman, Aarona; Xu, Jiayong; Chan, John; Jacobs, William R; Porcelli, Steven A; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is widely used for the prevention of tuberculosis, despite limited efficacy. Most immunological studies of BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains grow bacteria in the presence of detergent, which also strips the mycobacterial capsule. The impact of the capsule on vaccine efficacy has not been explored. We tested the influence of detergent in cultures of BCG and M. tuberculosis strains on the outcome of vaccination experiments on mice and transcriptional responses on M. tuberculosis  Vaccination of mice with encapsulated BCG promoted a more potent immune response relative to vaccination with unencapsulated BCG, including higher polysaccharide-specific capsule antibody titers, higher interferon γ and interleukin 17 splenic responses, and more multifunctional CD4(+) T cells. These differences correlated with variability in the bacterial burden in lung and spleen of mice infected with encapsulated or unencapsulated M. tuberculosis The combination of vaccination and challenge with encapsulated strains resulted in the greatest protection efficacy. The transcriptome of encapsulated M. tuberculosis was similar to that of starvation, hypoxia, stationary phase, or nonreplicating persistence. The presence of detergent in growth media and a capsule on BCG were associated with differences in the outcome of vaccination, implying that these are important variables in immunological studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. How to Grow Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bertrand Russell

    2008-01-01

    <正>1. In spite of the title, this article will really be on how not to grow old, which, at my time of life, is a much more important subject. My first advice would be to choose your ancestors carefully. Although both my parents died young, I have done well in this respect as regards my other ancestors. My maternal grandfather, it is true, was cut off in the flower of his youth at the age of sixty-seven,

  17. Geothermal Grows Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  18. Germline but macrophage-tropic CYBB mutations in kindreds with X-linked predisposition to tuberculous mycobacterial diseases

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Germline mutations in the human CYBB gene, encoding the gp91phox subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, impair the respiratory burst of phagocytes and result in X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. We report two kindreds in which otherwise healthy male adults show X-linked recessive Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. These patients harbor mutations in CYBB that profoundly reduce the respiratory burst in monocyte-derived macrophages, but not in monocyte...

  19. A hospital-acquired outbreak of catheter-related nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in children on peritoneal dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Takuji; Ushijima, Katsumi; Uemura, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Catheter-related nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in children with chronic renal failure on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is rare. However, there have been five such infections in infants among PD patients at our center. Although the patients were treated with antibiotics to which the organisms showed in vitro sensitivity, they were clinically drug resistant. Hence, all PD catheters needed to be removed. Thereafter, following hemodialysis treatment for approximately 1 month, the PD catheters...

  20. Identification of protective postexposure mycobacterial vaccine antigens using an immunosuppression-based reactivation model in the zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Myllymäki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Roughly one third of the human population carries a latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, with a 5-10% lifetime risk of reactivation to active tuberculosis and further spreading the disease. The mechanisms leading to the reactivation of a latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are insufficiently understood. Here, we used a natural fish pathogen, Mycobacterium marinum, to model the reactivation of a mycobacterial infection in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio. A low-dose intraperitoneal injection (∼40 colony-forming units led to a latent infection, with mycobacteria found in well-organized granulomas surrounded by a thick layer of fibrous tissue. A latent infection could be reactivated by oral dexamethasone treatment, which led to disruption of the granuloma structures and dissemination of bacteria. This was associated with the depletion of lymphocytes, especially CD4+ T cells. Using this model, we verified that ethambutol is effective against an active disease but not a latent infection. In addition, we screened 15 mycobacterial antigens as postexposure DNA vaccines, of which RpfB and MMAR_4207 reduced bacterial burdens upon reactivation, as did the Ag85-ESAT-6 combination. In conclusion, the adult zebrafish-M. marinum infection model provides a feasible tool for examining the mechanisms of reactivation in mycobacterial infections, and for screening vaccine and drug candidates. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

  1. Increased serum anti-mycobacterial antibody titers in rheumatoid arthritis patients: Is there any specific antigenic target?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Emel S.; Aksoy, Ali M

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the presence of immunoreactivity against mycobacterial antigens in the sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (Ra) and to detect the target of the immune reaction. This study was carried out on 60 patients with RA, and 25 patients with no joint diseases in the laboratory of Clinical Microbiology Department of Ankara University Medical Faculty, Ankara, Turkey between July 2003 to January 2004. Secreted and cellular antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) H37Rv and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) were isolated and purified by high performance liquid chromatography to antigenic fractions. The immunoreactivity of patient and control sera against these antigens were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunoreactivity against mycobacterial antigens in RA patients were significantly higher than controls. Significant difference between patients and controls has been determined with M. bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) culture fluid and sonicate antigens, but not with M. tuberculosis H37Rv. This suggests that the antigen triggering immune response in patients with RA may belong to or mainly expressed on M. bovis BCG. The ELISA results showed significant difference between RA patients and controls with all antigenic fractions. Presence of increased immunoreactivity against mycobacterial antigens in the sera of patients with RA was detected. When statistical analysis was considered, we cannot put forward any antigenic fraction alone as the one responsible for the increased reactivity. (author)

  2. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  3. The growing fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Linda M; Sara, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Fibroadenomas (FAs) are the most common tumors of the breast clinically and pathologically in adolescent and young women but may be discovered at any age. With increasing use of core biopsy rather than excision for diagnosis, it is now commonplace to follow these lesions with imaging. To assess the incidence of epithelial abnormalities (atypia, in situ or invasive, ductal or lobular malignancies) in FAs diagnosed by core biopsy and to re-evaluate the management paradigm for any growing FA. A retrospective review of the senior author’s pathology results over 19 years identified 2062 nodular FAs (biopsied by ultrasound or stereotactic guidance). Eighty-three core biopsied FAs were identified which subsequently enlarged. Twelve of 2062 of core biopsied nodules demonstrated atypia, in situ, or invasive malignancy (ductal or lobular) within or adjacent to the FA (0.58%). Eighty-three FAs enlarged and underwent either surgical excision (n = 65), repeat core biopsy (n = 9), or imaging follow-up (n = 9). The incidence of atypia, in situ or invasive malignancy was 0/83 (0%). Two enlarging FAs were subsequently surgically diagnosed as benign phyllodes tumors (PT). Malignancy in or adjacent to a core biopsied FA is rare. The risk of cancer in a growing FA is even rarer; none were present in our series. FAs with abnormal epithelial abnormalities require excision. Otherwise, FAs without epithelial abnormality diagnosed by core biopsy need no specific follow-up considering the negligible incidence of conversion to malignancy. The breast interventionalist must know how to manage discordant pathology results

  4. Atypical Mycobacterial Infection after Abdominoplasty Overseas: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabin Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing number of medical tourists travel internationally for cosmetic procedures. Lipotourism is a form of medical tourism becoming popular among patients of developed countries due to the cost efficiency of cosmetic procedures when performed in developing nations. There is a paucity of data on quality, safety, and risks involved with these surgeries. Many cases of infections have been documented in patients following cosmetic surgeries in developing countries. We present a case of a 34-year-old female who underwent abdominoplasty in Dominican Republic that was complicated with development of multiple abdominal wall abscesses due to infection from rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM. In the absence of clear treatment guidelines, she was treated with a combination of intermittent surgical drainage and prolonged antibiotic course. This case is of interest as more than one species of RGM was isolated from the same patient. Our case highlights the fact that identification of these organisms can be difficult requiring referral of samples to specialized laboratories and treatment duration can last several months, which is determined by clinical and microbiological response.

  5. Identification of a chemical that inhibits the mycobacterial UvrABC complex in nucleotide excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum, Nayef; Stegman, Melanie A; Croteau, Deborah L; Van Houten, Bennett; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Ling, Yan; Dickinson, Caitlyn; Venugopal, Aditya; Towheed, Mohammad Atif; Nathan, Carl

    2011-03-01

    Bacterial DNA can be damaged by reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediates (RNI and ROI) generated by host immunity, as well as by antibiotics that trigger bacterial production of ROI. Thus a pathogen's ability to repair its DNA may be important for persistent infection. A prominent role for nucleotide excision repair (NER) in disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was suggested by attenuation of uvrB-deficient Mtb in mice. However, it was unknown if Mtb's Uvr proteins could execute NER. Here we report that recombinant UvrA, UvrB, and UvrC from Mtb collectively bound and cleaved plasmid DNA exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation or peroxynitrite. We used the DNA incision assay to test the mechanism of action of compounds identified in a high-throughput screen for their ability to delay recovery of M. smegmatis from UV irradiation. 2-(5-Amino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylbenzo[f]chromen-3-one) (ATBC) but not several closely related compounds inhibited cleavage of damaged DNA by UvrA, UvrB, and UvrC without intercalating in DNA and impaired recovery of M. smegmatis from UV irradiation. ATBC did not affect bacterial growth in the absence of UV exposure, nor did it exacerbate the growth defect of UV-irradiated mycobacteria that lacked uvrB. Thus, ATBC appears to be a cell-penetrant, selective inhibitor of mycobacterial NER. Chemical inhibitors of NER may facilitate studies of the role of NER in prokaryotic pathobiology.

  6. Tattoo-associated nontuberculous mycobacterial skin infections--multiple states, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Permanent tattoos have become increasingly common, with 21% of adults in the United States reporting having at least one tattoo. On rare occasions, outbreaks of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) skin infections have been reported after tattooing. In January 2012, public health officials in New York received reports of Mycobacterium chelonae skin infections in 14 New York residents who received tattoos during September-December 2011. All infections were associated with use of the same nationally distributed, prediluted gray ink manufactured by company A. CDC disseminated an Epi-X public health alert to identify additional tattoo-associated NTM skin infections; previously identified cases were reported from three states (Washington, Iowa, and Colorado). Public health investigations by CDC, state and local health departments, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found NTM contamination in tattoo inks used in two of five identified clusters. All infected persons were exposed to one of four different brands of ink. NTM contamination of inks can occur during the manufacturing process as a result of using contaminated ingredients or poor manufacturing practices, or when inks are diluted with nonsterile water by tattoo artists. No specific FDA regulatory requirement explicitly provides that tattoo inks must be sterile. However, CDC recommends that ink manufacturers ensure ink is sterile and that tattoo artists avoid contamination of ink through dilution with nonsterile water. Consumers also should be aware of the health risks associated with getting an intradermal tattoo.

  7. Pre-Columbian mycobacterial genomes reveal seals as a source of New World human tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Kirsten I.; Harkins, Kelly M.; Herbig, Alexander; Coscolla, Mireia; Weber, Nico; Comas, Iñaki; Forrest, Stephen A.; Bryant, Josephine M.; Harris, Simon R.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Campbell, Tessa J.; Majander, Kerrtu; Wilbur, Alicia K.; Guichon, Ricardo A.; Wolfe Steadman, Dawnie L.; Cook, Della Collins; Niemann, Stefan; Behr, Marcel A.; Zumarraga, Martin; Bastida, Ricardo; Huson, Daniel; Nieselt, Kay; Young, Douglas; Parkhill, Julian; Buikstra, Jane E.; Gagneux, Sebastien; Stone, Anne C.; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Modern strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Americas are closely related to those from Europe, supporting the assumption that human tuberculosis was introduced post-contact1. This notion, however, is incompatible with archaeological evidence of pre-contact tuberculosis in the New World2. Comparative genomics of modern isolates suggests that M. tuberculosis attained its worldwide distribution following human dispersals out of Africa during the Pleistocene epoch3, although this has yet to be confirmed with ancient calibration points. Here we present three 1,000-year-old mycobacterial genomes from Peruvian human skeletons, revealing that a member of the M. tuberculosis complex caused human disease before contact. The ancient strains are distinct from known human-adapted forms and are most closely related to those adapted to seals and sea lions. Two independent dating approaches suggest a most recent common ancestor for the M. tuberculosis complex less than 6,000 years ago, which supports a Holocene dispersal of the disease. Our results implicate sea mammals as having played a role in transmitting the disease to humans across the ocean. PMID:25141181

  8. Revisiting tuberculous pleurisy: pleural fluid characteristics and diagnostic yield of mycobacterial culture in an endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Lin, Jou-Wei; Chien, Jung-Yien; Huang, Chun-Ta; Kuo, Yao-Wen; Lee, Li-Na; Yu, Chong-Jen J

    2012-09-01

    Tuberculous pleurisy is traditionally indicated by extreme lymphocytosis in pleural fluid and low yield of effusion culture. However, there is considerable inconsistency among previous study results. In addition, these data should be updated due to early effusion studies and advances in culture methods. From January 2004 to June 2009, patients with tuberculous pleurisy were retrospectively identified from the mycobacteriology laboratories and the pathology and tuberculosis registration databases of two hospitals in Taiwan where tuberculosis is endemic. Pleural fluid characteristics and yields of mycobacterial cultures using liquid media were evaluated. A total of 382 patients with tuberculous pleurisy were identified. The median lymphocyte percentage of total cells in pleural fluids was 84% (IQR 64-95%) and 17% of cases had a lymphocyte percentage of pleural biopsy specimens. The degree of lymphocyte predominance in tuberculous pleurisy was lower than was previously thought. The lymphocyte percentage in pleural fluid was negatively associated with the probability of a positive effusion culture. With the implementation of a liquid culture method, the sensitivity of effusion culture was much higher than has been previously reported, and the combination of effusion and sputum cultures provided a good diagnostic yield.

  9. Anti-Mycobacterial Activity of Marine Fungus-Derived 4-Deoxybostrycin and Nigrosporin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Lai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 4-Deoxybostrycin is a natural anthraquinone compound isolated from the Mangrove endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. collected from the South China Sea. Nigrosporin is the deoxy-derivative of 4-deoxybostrycin. They were tested against mycobacteria, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test, they both had inhibition zone sizes of over 25 mm. The results of the absolute concentration susceptibility test suggested that they had inhibitory effects against mycobacteria. Moreover, 4-deoxybostrycin exhibited good inhibition which was even better than that of first line anti-tuberculosis (TB drugs against some clinical multidrug-resistant (MDR M. tuberculosis strains. The gene expression profile of M. tuberculosis H37Rv after treatment with 4-deoxybostrycin was compared with untreated bacteria. One hundred and nineteen out of 3,875 genes were significantly different in M. tuberculosis exposed to 4-deoxybostrycin from control. There were 46 functionally known genes which are involved in metabolism, information storage and processing and cellular processes. The differential expressions of six genes were further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The present study provides a useful experiment basis for exploitation of correlative new drugs against TB and for finding out new targets of anti-mycobacterial therapy.

  10. Anti-mycobacterial activity of marine fungus-derived 4-deoxybostrycin and nigrosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Wang, Juan; Huang, Yuhong; Chen, Hong; Li, Yan; Zhong, Lili; Chen, Yi; Chen, Shengping; Wang, Jun; Kang, Juling; Peng, Yi; Yang, Bin; Lin, Yongcheng; She, Zhigang; Lai, Xiaomin

    2013-01-29

    4-Deoxybostrycin is a natural anthraquinone compound isolated from the Mangrove endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. collected from the South China Sea. Nigrosporin is the deoxy-derivative of 4-deoxybostrycin. They were tested against mycobacteria, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test, they both had inhibition zone sizes of over 25 mm. The results of the absolute concentration susceptibility test suggested that they had inhibitory effects against mycobacteria. Moreover, 4-deoxybostrycin exhibited good inhibition which was even better than that of first line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs against some clinical multidrug-resistant (MDR) M. tuberculosis strains. The gene expression profile of M. tuberculosis H37Rv after treatment with 4-deoxybostrycin was compared with untreated bacteria. One hundred and nineteen out of 3,875 genes were significantly different in M. tuberculosis exposed to 4-deoxybostrycin from control. There were 46 functionally known genes which are involved in metabolism, information storage and processing and cellular processes. The differential expressions of six genes were further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The present study provides a useful experiment basis for exploitation of correlative new drugs against TB and for finding out new targets of anti-mycobacterial therapy.

  11. Host-detrimental role of Esx-1-mediated inflammasome activation in mycobacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredric Carlsson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Esx-1 (type VII secretion system is a major virulence determinant of pathogenic mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium marinum. However, the molecular events and host-pathogen interactions underlying Esx-1-mediated virulence in vivo remain unclear. Here we address this problem in a non-lethal mouse model of M. marinum infection that allows detailed quantitative analysis of disease progression. M. marinum established local infection in mouse tails, with Esx-1-dependent formation of caseating granulomas similar to those formed in human tuberculosis, and bone deterioration reminiscent of skeletal tuberculosis. Analysis of tails infected with wild type or Esx-1-deficient bacteria showed that Esx-1 enhanced generation of proinflammatory cytokines, including the secreted form of IL-1beta, suggesting that Esx-1 promotes inflammasome activation in vivo. In vitro experiments indicated that Esx-1-dependent inflammasome activation required the host NLRP3 and ASC proteins. Infection of wild type and ASC-deficient mice demonstrated that Esx-1-dependent inflammasome activation exacerbated disease without restricting bacterial growth, indicating a host-detrimental role of this inflammatory pathway in mycobacterial infection. These findings define an immunoregulatory role for Esx-1 in a specific host-pathogen interaction in vivo, and indicate that the Esx-1 secretion system promotes disease and inflammation through its ability to activate the inflammasome.

  12. Reconstitution of active mycobacterial binuclear iron monooxygenase complex in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Toshiki; Hayashi, Mika; Kino, Kuniki

    2013-10-01

    Bacterial binuclear iron monooxygenases play numerous physiological roles in oxidative metabolism. Monooxygenases of this type found in actinomycetes also catalyze various useful reactions and have attracted much attention as oxidation biocatalysts. However, difficulties in expressing these multicomponent monooxygenases in heterologous hosts, particularly in Escherichia coli, have hampered the development of engineered oxidation biocatalysts. Here, we describe a strategy to functionally express the mycobacterial binuclear iron monooxygenase MimABCD in Escherichia coli. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of the mimABCD gene expression in E. coli revealed that the oxygenase components MimA and MimC were insoluble. Furthermore, although the reductase MimB was expressed at a low level in the soluble fraction of E. coli cells, a band corresponding to the coupling protein MimD was not evident. This situation rendered the transformed E. coli cells inactive. We found that the following factors are important for functional expression of MimABCD in E. coli: coexpression of the specific chaperonin MimG, which caused MimA and MimC to be soluble in E. coli cells, and the optimization of the mimD nucleotide sequence, which led to efficient expression of this gene product. These two remedies enabled this multicomponent monooxygenase to be actively expressed in E. coli. The strategy described here should be generally applicable to the E. coli expression of other actinomycetous binuclear iron monooxygenases and related enzymes and will accelerate the development of engineered oxidation biocatalysts for industrial processes.

  13. Ocular localization of mycobacterial lesions in tank-reared juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A C N; Suepaul, R; Soto, E

    2017-12-01

    Severe clinical mycobacteriosis with consistent ocular lesion localization was diagnosed in a population of 800 juvenile tank-reared Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) which experienced a sudden increase in mortality approximately 5 months after arriving into Trinidad and Tobago from Florida, USA. Moderate daily mortality (15-20 animals per day) persisted for just over 1 month. Moribund fish displayed circling behaviour and had an open-mouth gape upon death. Fish consistently presented with bilateral exophthalmia, corneal cloudiness and hyphema. Non-branching acid-fast rods were detected in aqueous humour touch preparations. Histological analysis revealed severe bilateral intra-ocular granulomatous responses in all specimens. Mycobacterium sp. was identified using a real-time PCR assay detecting the RNA polymerase β-subunit (rpoB) gene in different tissue samples. Specimens did not present with characteristic granulomatous responses usually seen in viscera. To the best of our knowledge, this represents only the third documentation of piscine mycobacterial infection presenting with only localized ocular lesions, and the second documented case of mycobacteriosis in cobia. It is, however, the first documentation of an ocular presentation of mycobacteriosis in a marine species and is the first documentation of such a presentation in cobia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Characterization of the receptors for mycobacterial cord factor in Guinea pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Toyonaga

    Full Text Available Guinea pig is a widely used animal for research and development of tuberculosis vaccines, since its pathological disease process is similar to that present in humans. We have previously reported that two C-type lectin receptors, Mincle (macrophage inducible C-type lectin, also called Clec4e and MCL (macrophage C-type lectin, also called Clec4d, recognize the mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM. Here, we characterized the function of the guinea pig homologue of Mincle (gpMincle and MCL (gpMCL. gpMincle directly bound to TDM and transduced an activating signal through ITAM-bearing adaptor molecule, FcRγ. Whereas, gpMCL lacked C-terminus and failed to bind to TDM. mRNA expression of gpMincle was detected in the spleen, lymph nodes and peritoneal macrophages and it was strongly up-regulated upon stimulation of zymosan and TDM. The surface expression of gpMincle was detected on activated macrophages by a newly established monoclonal antibody that also possesses a blocking activity. This antibody potently suppressed TNF production in BCG-infected macrophages. Collectively, gpMincle is the TDM receptor in the guinea pig and TDM-Mincle axis is involved in host immune responses against mycobacteria.

  15. Characterization of the receptors for mycobacterial cord factor in Guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, Kenji; Miyake, Yasunobu; Yamasaki, Sho

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pig is a widely used animal for research and development of tuberculosis vaccines, since its pathological disease process is similar to that present in humans. We have previously reported that two C-type lectin receptors, Mincle (macrophage inducible C-type lectin, also called Clec4e) and MCL (macrophage C-type lectin, also called Clec4d), recognize the mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM). Here, we characterized the function of the guinea pig homologue of Mincle (gpMincle) and MCL (gpMCL). gpMincle directly bound to TDM and transduced an activating signal through ITAM-bearing adaptor molecule, FcRγ. Whereas, gpMCL lacked C-terminus and failed to bind to TDM. mRNA expression of gpMincle was detected in the spleen, lymph nodes and peritoneal macrophages and it was strongly up-regulated upon stimulation of zymosan and TDM. The surface expression of gpMincle was detected on activated macrophages by a newly established monoclonal antibody that also possesses a blocking activity. This antibody potently suppressed TNF production in BCG-infected macrophages. Collectively, gpMincle is the TDM receptor in the guinea pig and TDM-Mincle axis is involved in host immune responses against mycobacteria.

  16. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial (NTM) Disease in Immunocompetent Patients: Expanding Image Findings on Chest CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyo Hyun; Seon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Mok Hee; Choi, Song; Song, Sang Gook; Shin, Sang Soo; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Park, Jin Gyoon [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chest CT features of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease regardless of the specific organisms. This study included 74 consecutive patients (35 men, 39 women; mean age, 63 years; age range, 25-89 years) who were diagnosed with NTM disease according to the American Thoracic Society Guidelines (1997 and 2007) between January 2005 and July 2007. Chest CT images were randomly reviewed by two radiologists with consensus. The most common organism associated with NTM disease is M. avium-intracellulare complex (87.8%), followed by M. abscesses, M. kansasii, and M. chelonae. The most common chest CT finding was a nodular bronchiectatic lesion (n = 35, 46.7%), followed by a cavitary lesion of the upper lobe (n = 21, 28.0%), combined lesions of two prior subtypes (n = 6, 8.0%), consolidative lesion (s) (n = 5, 6.7%), a bronchogenic spreading pulmonary tuberculosis-like lesion (n = 5, 6.7%), a cavitary mass lesion with small satellite nodules (n = 2, 2.7%), and a miliary nodular lesion (n = 1, 1.3%). More than 5 segments were involved in 60 cases (81.1%). The nodular bronchiectatic lesion or cavitary lesion of upper lobe presents with multi-segmental involvement and the occurrence of combined consolidation is indicative of NTM disease

  17. A spatial epidemiological analysis of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Michael P; Clements, Archie C A; Thomson, Rachel M

    2014-05-21

    The epidemiology of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been changing and the incidence has been increasing in some settings. The main route of transmission to humans is considered to be from the environment. We aimed to describe spatial clusters of cases of NTM infections and to identify associated climatic, environmental and socio-economic variables. NTM data were obtained from the Queensland Mycobacterial Reference Laboratory for the period 2001-2011. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was constructed at the postcode level, with covariates including soil variables, maximum, mean and minimum rainfall and temperature, income (proportion of population earning Queensland region overlying the Surat sub-division of the Great Artesian Basin, as well as in the lower North Queensland Local Government Area known as the Whitsunday region. Our models estimated an expected increase of 21% per percentage increase of population earning Queensland, and a number of socio-ecological, economic and environmental factors were found to be associated with NTM infection risk.

  18. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  19. Methods of rapid diagnosis for the etiology of meningitis in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Nathan C; Boulware, David R

    2014-01-01

    Infectious meningitis may be due to bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal or viral agents. Diagnosis of meningitis must take into account numerous items of patient history and symptomatology along with regional epidemiology and basic cerebrospinal fluid testing (protein, etc.) to allow the clinician to stratify the likelihood of etiology possibilities and rationally select additional diagnostic tests. Culture is the mainstay for diagnosis in many cases, but technology is evolving to provide more rapid, reliable diagnosis. The cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (Immuno-Mycologics) has revolutionized diagnosis of cryptococcosis and automated nucleic acid amplification assays hold promise for improving diagnosis of bacterial and mycobacterial meningitis. This review will focus on a holistic approach to diagnosis of meningitis as well as recent technological advances. PMID:25402579

  20. Fostering and sustaining innovation in a Fast Growing Agile Company

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, NilsBrede; Barney, Sebastian; Aurum, Aybüe; Khurum, Mahvish; Wohlin, Claes; Barney, Hamish; Gorschek, Tony; Winata, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Sustaining innovation in a fast growing software development company is difficult. As organisations grow, peoples' focus often changes from the big picture of the product being developed to the specific role they fill. This paper presents two complementary approaches that were successfully used to support continued developer-driven innovation in a rapidly growing Australian agile software development company. The method "FedEx TM Day" gives developers one day to showcase a proof of concept th...

  1. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  2. Expression and Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterial Ag85B/ESAT-6 Antigens Produced in Transgenic Plants by Elastin-Like Peptide Fusion Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Manuela Floss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored a novel system combining plant-based production and the elastin-like peptide (ELP fusion strategy to produce vaccinal antigens against tuberculosis. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the mycobacterial antigens Ag85B and ESAT-6 fused to ELP (TBAg-ELP were generated. Purified TBAg-ELP was obtained by the highly efficient, cost-effective, inverse transition cycling (ICT method and tested in mice. Furthermore, safety and immunogenicity of the crude tobacco leaf extracts were assessed in piglets. Antibodies recognizing mycobacterial antigens were produced in mice and piglets. A T-cell immune response able to recognize the native mycobacterial antigens was detected in mice. These findings showed that the native Ag85B and ESAT-6 mycobacterial B- and T-cell epitopes were conserved in the plant-expressed TBAg-ELP. This study presents the first results of an efficient plant-expression system, relying on the elastin-like peptide fusion strategy, to produce a safe and immunogenic mycobacterial Ag85B-ESAT-6 fusion protein as a potential vaccine candidate against tuberculosis.

  3. In vitro antimycobacterial activity and toxicity of eight medicinal plants against pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph M; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A; Otchere, Isaac Darko; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a serious public health challenge towards which new hits are urgently needed. Medicinal plants remains a major source of new ligands against global infectious illnesses. In our laboratories, we are currently investigating locally used ethnobotanicals for novel compounds against zoonotic tuberculosis. The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used to study the anti-TB activity while the CellTiter 96® AQ ueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients (R 2 ) were used to compare the relationship between antimycobacterial activity of the eight crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium bovis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) values indicated that all the eight tested medicinal plant species had activity against all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration value as low as 19.5µg/mL was observed against non-pathogenic strains M. bovis. Activity of the crude extracts against M. aurum was the best predictor of natural product activity against the pathogenic Mycobacterium bovis strain, with a correlation coefficient value (R 2 ) of 0.1371. Results obtained from the current study validate, in part, the traditional utilization of the tested medicinal plants against tuberculosis. The unripe fruits from Solanum torvum are a potential source of safe and efficacious anti-TB crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents, and thus deserve further investigation towards development of a new class of molecules with activity against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. bovis. Copyright © 2016.

  4. Bacillus calmette-guerin infection in NADPH oxidase deficiency: defective mycobacterial sequestration and granuloma formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Deffert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD lack generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS through the phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2. CGD is an immune deficiency that leads to frequent infections with certain pathogens; this is well documented for S. aureus and A. fumigatus, but less clear for mycobacteria. We therefore performed an extensive literature search which yielded 297 cases of CGD patients with mycobacterial infections; M. bovis BCG was most commonly described (74%. The relationship between NOX2 deficiency and BCG infection however has never been studied in a mouse model. We therefore investigated BCG infection in three different mouse models of CGD: Ncf1 mutants in two different genetic backgrounds and Cybb knock-out mice. In addition, we investigated a macrophage-specific rescue (transgenic expression of Ncf1 under the control of the CD68 promoter. Wild-type mice did not develop severe disease upon BCG injection. In contrast, all three types of CGD mice were highly susceptible to BCG, as witnessed by a severe weight loss, development of hemorrhagic pneumonia, and a high mortality (∼ 50%. Rescue of NOX2 activity in macrophages restored BCG resistance, similar as seen in wild-type mice. Granulomas from mycobacteria-infected wild-type mice generated ROS, while granulomas from CGD mice did not. Bacterial load in CGD mice was only moderately increased, suggesting that it was not crucial for the observed phenotype. CGD mice responded with massively enhanced cytokine release (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-12 early after BCG infection, which might account for severity of the disease. Finally, in wild-type mice, macrophages formed clusters and restricted mycobacteria to granulomas, while macrophages and mycobacteria were diffusely distributed in lung tissue from CGD mice. Our results demonstrate that lack of the NADPH oxidase leads to a markedly increased severity of BCG infection through mechanisms including increased cytokine

  5. Rv0004 is a new essential member of the mycobacterial DNA replication machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Katherine M; Huang, Deborah L; Hooppaw, Anna J; Logsdon, Michelle M; Richardson, Kirill; Lee, Hark Joon; Kimmey, Jacqueline M; Aldridge, Bree B; Stallings, Christina L

    2017-11-01

    DNA replication is fundamental for life, yet a detailed understanding of bacterial DNA replication is limited outside the organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Many bacteria, including mycobacteria, encode no identified homologs of helicase loaders or regulators of the initiator protein DnaA, despite these factors being essential for DNA replication in E. coli and B. subtilis. In this study we discover that a previously uncharacterized protein, Rv0004, from the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for bacterial viability and that depletion of Rv0004 leads to a block in cell cycle progression. Using a combination of genetic and biochemical approaches, we found that Rv0004 has a role in DNA replication, interacts with DNA and the replicative helicase DnaB, and affects DnaB-DnaA complex formation. We also identify a conserved domain in Rv0004 that is predicted to structurally resemble the N-terminal protein-protein interaction domain of DnaA. Mutation of a single conserved tryptophan within Rv0004's DnaA N-terminal-like domain leads to phenotypes similar to those observed upon Rv0004 depletion and can affect the association of Rv0004 with DnaB. In addition, using live cell imaging during depletion of Rv0004, we have uncovered a previously unappreciated role for DNA replication in coordinating mycobacterial cell division and cell size. Together, our data support that Rv0004 encodes a homolog of the recently identified DciA family of proteins found in most bacteria that lack the DnaC-DnaI helicase loaders in E. coli and B. subtilis. Therefore, the mechanisms of Rv0004 elucidated here likely apply to other DciA homologs and reveal insight into the diversity of bacterial strategies in even the most conserved biological processes.

  6. Effect of Apoptotic Cell Recognition on Macrophage Polarization and Mycobacterial Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Fulco, Tatiana; Andrade, Priscila Ribeiro; de Mattos Barbosa, Mayara Garcia; Pinto, Thiago Gomes Toledo; Ferreira, Paula Fernandez; Ferreira, Helen; da Costa Nery, José Augusto; Real, Suzana Côrte; Borges, Valéria Matos; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Sampaio, Elizabeth Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular Mycobacterium leprae infection modifies host macrophage programming, creating a protective niche for bacterial survival. The milieu regulating cellular apoptosis in the tissue plays an important role in defining susceptible and/or resistant phenotypes. A higher density of apoptotic cells has been demonstrated in paucibacillary leprosy lesions than in multibacillary ones. However, the effect of apoptotic cell removal on M. leprae-stimulated cells has yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether apoptotic cell removal (efferocytosis) induces different phenotypes in proinflammatory (Mϕ1) and anti-inflammatory (Mϕ2) macrophages in the presence of M. leprae. We stimulated Mϕ1 and Mϕ2 cells with M. leprae in the presence or absence of apoptotic cells and subsequently evaluated the M. leprae uptake, cell phenotype, and cytokine pattern in the supernatants. In the presence of M. leprae and apoptotic cells, Mϕ1 macrophages changed their phenotype to resemble the Mϕ2 phenotype, displaying increased CD163 and SRA-I expression as well as higher phagocytic capacity. Efferocytosis increased M. leprae survival in Mϕ1 cells, accompanied by reduced interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-6 levels and increased transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and IL-10 secretion. Mϕ1 cells primed with M. leprae in the presence of apoptotic cells induced the secretion of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in autologous T cells compared with cultures stimulated with M. leprae or apoptotic cells alone. Efferocytosis did not alter the Mϕ2 cell phenotype or cytokine secretion profile, except for TGF-β. Based on these data, we suggest that, in paucibacillary leprosy patients, efferocytosis contributes to mycobacterial persistence by increasing the Mϕ2 population and sustaining the infection. PMID:25024361

  7. In vitro antimycobacterial activity and toxicity of eight medicinal plants against pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Nguta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a serious public health challenge towards which new hits are urgently needed. Medicinal plants remains a major source of new ligands against global infectious illnesses. In our laboratories, we are currently investigating locally used ethnobotanicals for novel compounds against zoonotic tuberculosis. The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA was used to study the anti-TB activity while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients (R2 were used to compare the relationship between antimycobacterial activity of the eight crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium bovis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs values indicated that all the eight tested medicinal plant species had activity against all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration value as low as 19.5 μg/mL was observed against non-pathogenic strains M. bovis. Activity of the crude extracts against M. aurum was the best predictor of natural product activity against the pathogenic Mycobacterium bovis strain, with a correlation coefficient value (R2 of 0.1371. Results obtained from the current study validate, in part, the traditional utilization of the tested medicinal plants against tuberculosis. The unripe fruits from Solanum torvum are a potential source of safe and efficacious anti-TB crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents, and thus deserve further investigation towards development of a new class of molecules with activity against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. bovis.

  8. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease: diagnosis based on computed tomography of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Nakwon; Han, Sung Koo; Yim, Jae-Joon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 101 Daehak-Ro, Jongno-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Ju [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Ae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Institute of Chest Diseases, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Ho [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To elucidate the accuracy and inter-observer agreement of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTM-LD) diagnosis based on chest CT findings. Two chest radiologists and two pulmonologists interpreted chest CTs of 66 patients with NTM-LD, 33 with pulmonary tuberculosis and 33 with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. These observers selected one of these diagnoses for each case without knowing any clinical information except age and sex. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated according to degree of observer confidence. Inter-observer agreement was assessed using Fleiss' κ values. Multiple logistic regression was performed to elucidate which radiological features led to the correct diagnosis. The sensitivity of NTM-LD diagnosis was 56.4 % (95 % CI 47.9-64.7) and specificity 80.3 % (73.1-86.0). The specificity of NTM-LD diagnosis increased with confidence: 44.4 % (20.5-71.3) for possible, 77.4 % (67.4-85.0) for probable, 95.2 % (87.2-98.2) for definite (P < 0.001) diagnoses. Inter-observer agreement for NTM-LD diagnosis was moderate (κ = 0.453). Tree-in-bud pattern (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 6.24, P < 0.001), consolidation (aOR 1.92, P = 0.036) and atelectasis (aOR 3.73, P < 0.001) were associated with correct NTM-LD diagnoses, whereas presence of pleural effusion (aOR 0.05, P < 0.001) led to false diagnoses. NTM-LD diagnosis based on chest CT findings is specific but not sensitive. (orig.)

  9. The mycobacterial DNA-binding protein 1 (MDP1 from Mycobacterium bovis BCG influences various growth characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurischat Sven

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogenic mycobacteria such as M. tuberculosis, M. bovis or M. leprae are characterised by their extremely slow growth rate which plays an important role in mycobacterial virulence and eradication of the bacteria. Various limiting factors influence the generation time of mycobacteria, and the mycobacterial DNA-binding protein 1 (MDP1 has also been implicated in growth regulation. Our strategy to investigate the role of MDP1 in mycobacterial growth consisted in the generation and characterisation of a M. bovis BCG derivative expressing a MDP1-antisense gene. Results The expression rate of the MDP1 protein in the recombinant M. bovis BCG containing the MDP1-antisense plasmid was reduced by about 50% compared to the reference strain M. bovis BCG containing the empty vector. In comparison to this reference strain, the recombinant M. bovis BCG grew faster in broth culture and reached higher cell masses in stationary phase. Likewise its intracellular growth in mouse and human macrophages was ameliorated. Bacterial clumping in broth culture was reduced by the antisense plasmid. The antisense plasmid increased the susceptibility of the bacteria towards Ampicillin. 2-D protein gels of bacteria maintained under oxygen-poor conditions demonstrated a reduction in the number and the intensity of many protein spots in the antisense strain compared to the reference strain. Conclusion The MDP1 protein has a major impact on various growth characteristics of M. bovis BCG. It plays an important role in virulence-related traits such as aggregate formation and intracellular multiplication. Its impact on the protein expression in a low-oxygen atmosphere indicates a role in the adaptation to the hypoxic conditions present in the granuloma.

  10. Adjuvants based on synthetic mycobacterial cord factor analogues: Biophysical properties of neat glycolipids and nano-self-assemblies with DDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallerup, Rie Selchau; Franzyk, Henrik; Schiøth, Mikkel Lohmann

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic mycobacterial cord factor analogues, e.g., trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB), are highly promising adjuvants due to their strong immunopotentiating capabilities, but their biophysical properties have remained poorly characterized. Here, we report the synthesis of an array of synthetic TDB...... trehalose mono- (TMX) and diester (TDX) analogues with symmetrically shortened acyl chains [denoted by X: arachidate (A), stearate (S), palmitate (P), myristate (Myr) and laurate (L)] and an analogue with a short hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker inserted between the trehalose headgroup of TDS...

  11. An unusual outbreak of nontuberculous mycobacteria in hospital respiratory wards: Association with nontuberculous mycobacterial colonization of hospital water supply network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore D′Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM infection is increasing worldwide arousing concerns that NTM infection may become a serious health challenge. We recently observed a significant increase of NTM-positive sputa samples from patients referred to respiratory disease wards of a large tertiary hospital in Rome. A survey to identify possible NTM contamination revealed a massive presence of NTM in the hospital water supply network. After decontamination procedures, NTM presence dropped both in water pipelines and sputa samples. We believe that this observation should encourage water network surveys for NTM contamination and prompt decontamination procedures should be considered to reduce this potential source of infection.

  12. Diffuse Pulmonary Uptake of Tc-99m Methylene Diphosphonate in a Patient with Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Ab-Aziz, Aini

    2010-01-01

    Extra-osseous uptake of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported at various sites and it is known to be induced by various causes. Diffuse pulmonary infection, such as tuberculosis, can be a cause of lung uptake of bone-scan agent. Here we report on a patient with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection (NTM) who demonstrated diffuse pulmonary uptake on Tc-99m MDP bone scan. After medical treatment for NTM, the patient's lung lesions improved. Estra skeletal lung Tc-99m MDP uptake on bone scan may suggest lung parenchymal damage associated with disease activity.

  13. Diffuse Pulmonary Uptake of Tc-99m Methylene Diphosphonate in a Patient with Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ab-Aziz, Aini [University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, (Morocco)

    2010-06-15

    Extra-osseous uptake of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported at various sites and it is known to be induced by various causes. Diffuse pulmonary infection, such as tuberculosis, can be a cause of lung uptake of bone-scan agent. Here we report on a patient with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection (NTM) who demonstrated diffuse pulmonary uptake on Tc-99m MDP bone scan. After medical treatment for NTM, the patient's lung lesions improved. Estra skeletal lung Tc-99m MDP uptake on bone scan may suggest lung parenchymal damage associated with disease activity.

  14. Mycobacterial infection in Northern snakehead (Channa argus) from the Potomac River catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Christine L.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Henderson, A.P.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Odenkirk, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Northern snakehead, Channa argus (Cantor), is a non-native predatory fish that has become established regionally in some temperate freshwater habitats within the United States. Over the past decade, Northern snakehead populations have developed within aquatic ecosystems throughout the eastern USA, including the Potomac River system within Virginia, Maryland and Washington, D.C. Since this species was initially observed in this region in 2002, the population has expanded considerably (Odenkirk & Owens 2007). In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, populations of Northern snakehead exist in the lower Potomac River and Rappahannock Rivers on the Western shore of the Bay, and these fish have also been found in middle or upper reaches of river systems on the Eastern shore of the Bay, including the Nanticoke and Wicomico Rivers among others. Over the past several years, many aspects of Northern snakehead life history in the Potomac River have been described, including range and dispersal patterns, microhabitat selection and diet (Lapointe, Thorson & Angermeier 2010; Saylor, Lapointe & Angermeier 2012; Lapointe, Odenkirk & Angermeier 2013). However, comparatively little is known about their health status including susceptibility to parasitism and disease and their capacity to serve as reservoirs of disease for native wildlife. Although considered hardy by fisheries biologists, snakehead fish have demonstrated susceptibility to a number of described piscine diseases within their native range and habitat in Asia. Reported pathogens of significance in snakehead species in Asia include snakehead rhabdovirus (Lio-Po et al. 2000), aeromonad bacteria (Zheng, Cao & Yang 2012), Nocardia (Wang et al. 2007) andMycobacterium spp. (Chinabut, Limsuwan & Chantatchakool 1990; ). Mycobacterial isolates recovered from another snakehead species (Channa striata) in the previous studies have included M. marinum and M. fortuitum, as identified through molecular

  15. Fasciola hepatica infection reduces Mycobacterium bovis burden and mycobacterial uptake and suppresses the pro-inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Cuartero, L; O'Sullivan, J; Blanco, A; McNair, J; Welsh, M; Flynn, R J; Williams, D; Diggle, P; Cassidy, J; Mulcahy, G

    2016-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, has an annual incidence in cattle of 0.5% in the Republic of Ireland and 4.7% in the UK, despite long-standing eradication programmes being in place. Failure to achieve complete eradication is multifactorial, but the limitations of diagnostic tests are significant complicating factors. Previously, we have demonstrated that Fasciola hepatica infection, highly prevalent in these areas, induced reduced sensitivity of the standard diagnostic tests for BTB in animals co-infected with F. hepatica and M. bovis. This was accompanied by a reduced M. bovis-specific Th1 immune response. We hypothesized that these changes in co-infected animals would be accompanied by enhanced growth of M. bovis. However, we show here that mycobacterial burden in cattle is reduced in animals co-infected with F. hepatica. Furthermore, we demonstrate a lower mycobacterial recovery and uptake in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from F. hepatica-infected cattle which is associated with suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a switch to alternative activation of macrophages. However, the cell surface expression of TLR2 and CD14 in MDM from F. hepatica-infected cattle is increased. These findings reflecting the bystander effect of helminth-induced downregulation of pro-inflammatory responses provide insights to understand host-pathogen interactions in co-infection. © 2016 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Comparison of clinical and laboratory findings between those with pulmonary tuberculosis and those with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanachartwet, Vipa; Desakorn, Varunee; Duangrithi, Duangjai; Chunpongthong, Pongsak; Phojanamongkolkij, Kamol; Jitruckthai, Pasakorn; Kasetjaroen, Yuttichai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee

    2014-01-01

    In tuberculosis endemic areas, patients with sputum positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are usually diagnosed and treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease is often ascertained only after lung disease progression occurs, increasing the risk of severe morbidity and mortality. We conducted a matched case-control study among a prospective cohort of 300 patients with newly diagnosed AFB-positive sputum in Thailand during 2010-2012. We compared clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, NTM lung disease and NTM colonization. A mycobacterial culture was performed in all patients. Ten patients with NTM lung disease were compared to 50 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 10 patients with NTM colonization. The presence of diabetes mellitus or human immunodeficiency virus infection, were associated with NTM lung disease (p = 0.030). Patients with NTM lung disease had a significantly lower body weight prior to treatment (p = 0.021), a higher body weight change from baseline (p = 0.038), and were more likely to have cavitations on chest radiograph (p = 0.033) than those with NTM colonization. In tuberculosis endemic areas, mycobacterial identification should be performed among patients with impaired immune function. NTM lung disease treatment should be considered in patients with NTM sputum isolates who have a history of significant weight loss or cavitations on chest radiography.

  17. Pathology of pulmonary tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease: Facts, misconceptions, and practical tips for pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepali; Ghosh, Subha; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay

    2017-11-01

    Most pathologists are familiar with the microscopic features of tuberculosis and the need to examine special stains for acid-fast bacteria (AFB) in cases of granulomatous lung disease. However, misconceptions do exist, including the concept that finding AFB in "caseating granulomas" confirms the diagnosis of tuberculosis. This dogma is attributable to the high prevalence of tuberculosis in many countries, as well as unfamiliarity with the microscopic spectrum of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease. This review aims to provide surgical pathologists with practical tips to identify AFB, illustrate the histologic overlap between pulmonary tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease, and highlight the importance of cultures in this setting. M. tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria cannot be reliably differentiated either on the basis of the tissue reaction or by bacterial morphology on acid-fast stains. Although a presumptive clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis can be made without culture-confirmation, the only definitive means to determine the true identity of AFB is by cultures or molecular methods. Making this distinction is most critical when AFB are found in incidentally detected lung nodules in geographic locations where the incidence of tuberculosis is low, because in such settings AFB in necrotizing granulomas of the lung are more likely to be non-tuberculous mycobacteria than M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mycobacterial secretion systems ESX-1 and ESX-5 play distinct roles in host cell death and inflammasome activation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Abdallah

    2011-09-28

    During infection of humans and animals, pathogenic mycobacteria manipulate the host cell causing severe diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. To understand the basis of mycobacterial pathogenicity, it is crucial to identify the molecular virulence mechanisms. In this study, we address the contribution of ESX-1 and ESX-5 - two homologous type VII secretion systems of mycobacteria that secrete distinct sets of immune modulators - during the macrophage infection cycle. Using wild-type, ESX-1- and ESX-5-deficient mycobacterial strains, we demonstrate that these secretion systems differentially affect subcellular localization and macrophage cell responses. We show that in contrast to ESX-1, the effector proteins secreted by ESX-5 are not required for the translocation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium marinum to the cytosol of host cells. However, the M. marinum ESX-5 mutant does not induce inflammasome activation and IL-1b activation. The ESX-5 system also induces a caspase-independent cell death after translocation has taken place. Importantly, by means of inhibitory agents and small interfering RNA experiments, we reveal that cathepsin B is involved in both the induction of cell death and inflammasome activation upon infection with wild-type mycobacteria. These results reveal distinct roles for two different type VII secretion systems during infection and shed light on how virulent mycobacteria manipulate the host cell in various ways to replicate and spread. Copyright © 2011 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Growing container seedlings: Three considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2015-01-01

    The science of growing reforestation and conservation plants in containers has continually evolved, and three simple observations may greatly improve seedling quality. First, retaining stock in its original container for more than one growing season should be avoided. Second, strongly taprooted species now being grown as bareroot stock may be good candidates...

  20. Asymmetry and aging of mycobacterial cells leads to variable growth and antibiotic susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Aldridge, Bree B.; Fernandez-Suarez, Marta; Heller, Danielle; Ambravaneswaran, Vijay; Irimia, Daniel; Toner, Mehmet; Fortune, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Cells use both deterministic and stochastic mechanisms to generate cell–to-cell heterogeneity, which enables the population to better withstand environmental stress. Here we show that, within a clonal population of mycobacteria, there is significant deterministic heterogeneity in elongation rate that arises because mycobacteria grow in an unusual, unipolar fashion. Division of the asymmetrically growing mother cell gives rise to daughter cells that differ in elongation rate and size. Because ...

  1. The anti-mycobacterial activity of the cytochrome bcc inhibitor Q203 can be enhanced by small-molecule inhibition of cytochrome bd.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, P.; Asseri, A.H.O.; Kremer, Martijn; Maaskant, Janneke; Ummels, Roy; Lill, H.; Bald, D.

    2018-01-01

    Mycobacterial energy metabolism currently attracts strong attention as new target space for development of anti-tuberculosis drugs. The imidazopyridine Q203 targets the cytochrome bcc complex of the respiratory chain, a key component in energy metabolism. Q203 blocks growth of Mycobacterium

  2. Cd1b-Mediated T Cell Recognition of a Glycolipid Antigen Generated from Mycobacterial Lipid and Host Carbohydrate during Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, D. Branch; Guy, Mark R.; Grant, Ethan; Cheng, Tan-Yun; Brenner, Michael B.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Porcelli, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    T cells recognize microbial glycolipids presented by CD1 proteins, but there is no information regarding the generation of natural glycolipid antigens within infected tissues. Therefore, we determined the molecular basis of CD1b-restricted T cell recognition of mycobacterial glycosylated mycolates, including those produced during tissue infection in vivo. Transfection of the T cell receptor (TCR) α and β chains from a glucose monomycolate (GMM)-specific T cell line reconstituted GMM recognition in TCR-deficient T lymphoblastoma cells. This TCR-mediated response was highly specific for natural mycobacterial glucose-6-O-(2R, 3R) monomycolate, including the precise structure of the glucose moiety, the stereochemistry of the mycolate lipid, and the linkage between the carbohydrate and the lipid. Mycobacterial production of antigenic GMM absolutely required a nonmycobacterial source of glucose that could be supplied by adding glucose to media at concentrations found in mammalian tissues or by infecting tissue in vivo. These results indicate that mycobacteria synthesized antigenic GMM by coupling mycobacterial mycolates to host-derived glucose. Specific T cell recognition of an epitope formed by interaction of host and pathogen biosynthetic pathways provides a mechanism for immune response to those pathogenic mycobacteria that have productively infected tissues, as distinguished from ubiquitous, but innocuous, environmental mycobacteria. PMID:11015438

  3. Organization of growing random networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-01-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A k . When A k grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N k (t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A k growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A k is asymptotically linear, N k (t)∼tk -ν , with ν dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2 -2 power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network

  4. The external PASTA domain of the essential serine/threonine protein kinase PknB regulates mycobacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turapov, Obolbek; Loraine, Jessica; Jenkins, Christopher H; Barthe, Philippe; McFeely, Daniel; Forti, Francesca; Ghisotti, Daniela; Hesek, Dusan; Lee, Mijoon; Bottrill, Andrew R; Vollmer, Waldemar; Mobashery, Shahriar; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Mukamolova, Galina V

    2015-07-01

    PknB is an essential serine/threonine protein kinase required for mycobacterial cell division and cell-wall biosynthesis. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of the external PknB_PASTA domain in mycobacteria results in delayed regrowth, accumulation of elongated bacteria and increased sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics. These changes are accompanied by altered production of certain enzymes involved in cell-wall biosynthesis as revealed by proteomics studies. The growth inhibition caused by overexpression of the PknB_PASTA domain is completely abolished by enhanced concentration of magnesium ions, but not muropeptides. Finally, we show that the addition of recombinant PASTA domain could prevent regrowth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and therefore offers an alternative opportunity to control replication of this pathogen. These results suggest that the PknB_PASTA domain is involved in regulation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis and maintenance of cell-wall architecture.

  5. First Canadian Reports of Cervical Adenitis due to Mycobacterium malmoense and a 10-Year Review of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Adenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris McCrossin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report reviews a decade of experience with nontuberculous mycobacterial adenitis at a pediatric referral centre, noting that patients are often subjected to multiple ineffective antibiotic courses, and that delays in diagnosis and referral for appropriate therapy are common. Notable clinical features include a mean age of presentation of 3.4 years, a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.5 and a gradual onset of painless, unilateral cervical adenopathy. Fever was absent in most patients (77%, and the disease failed to respond to antistaphylococcal antibiotics. The mean time to correct diagnosis was longer than three months (15 weeks. The clinical features of the disease are highlighted and presented with a practical diagnostic approach to the child with subacute/chronic adenitis. New molecular diagnostic tools and emerging mycobacteria are discussed, including the first reports of Mycobacterium malmoense adenitis in Canada.

  6. Germline CYBB mutations that selectively affect macrophages in kindreds with X-linked predisposition to tuberculous mycobacterial disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Jacinta; Arias, Andres A; Vogt, Guillaume; Picard, Capucine; Galicia, Lizbeth Blancas; Prando, Carolina; Grant, Audrey V; Marchal, Christophe C; Hubeau, Marjorie; Chapgier, Ariane; de Beaucoudrey, Ludovic; Puel, Anne; Feinberg, Jacqueline; Valinetz, Ethan; Jannière, Lucile; Besse, Céline; Boland, Anne; Brisseau, Jean-Marie; Blanche, Stéphane; Lortholary, Olivier; Fieschi, Claire; Emile, Jean-François; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Woda, Bruce; Newburger, Peter E; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Dinauer, Mary C; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Germline mutations in CYBB, the human gene encoding the gp91phox subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, impair the respiratory burst of all types of phagocytes and result in X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). We report here two kindreds in which otherwise healthy male adults developed X-linked recessive Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) syndromes. These patients had previously unknown mutations in CYBB that resulted in an impaired respiratory burst in monocyte-derived macrophages but not in monocytes or granulocytes. The macrophage-specific functional consequences of the germline mutation resulted from cell-specific impairment in the assembly of the NADPH oxidase. This ‘experiment of nature’ indicates that CYBB is associated with MSMD and demonstrates that the respiratory burst in human macrophages is a crucial mechanism for protective immunity to tuberculous mycobacteria. PMID:21278736

  7. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  8. Mycobacterial RNA isolation optimized for non-coding RNA: high fidelity isolation of 5S rRNA from Mycobacterium bovis BCG reveals novel post-transcriptional processing and a complete spectrum of modified ribonucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hia, Fabian; Chionh, Yok Hian; Pang, Yan Ling Joy; DeMott, Michael S; McBee, Megan E; Dedon, Peter C

    2015-03-11

    A major challenge in the study of mycobacterial RNA biology is the lack of a comprehensive RNA isolation method that overcomes the unusual cell wall to faithfully yield the full spectrum of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) species. Here, we describe a simple and robust procedure optimized for the isolation of total ncRNA, including 5S, 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and tRNA, from mycobacteria, using Mycobacterium bovis BCG to illustrate the method. Based on a combination of mechanical disruption and liquid and solid-phase technologies, the method produces all major species of ncRNA in high yield and with high integrity, enabling direct chemical and sequence analysis of the ncRNA species. The reproducibility of the method with BCG was evident in bioanalyzer electrophoretic analysis of isolated RNA, which revealed quantitatively significant differences in the ncRNA profiles of exponentially growing and non-replicating hypoxic bacilli. The method also overcame an historical inconsistency in 5S rRNA isolation, with direct sequencing revealing a novel post-transcriptional processing of 5S rRNA to its functional form and with chemical analysis revealing seven post-transcriptional ribonucleoside modifications in the 5S rRNA. This optimized RNA isolation procedure thus provides a means to more rigorously explore the biology of ncRNA species in mycobacteria. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Cheap heat grows in fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2006-01-01

    Slovak farmers resemble the peasants from the film T he Magnificent Seven . They keep complaining about their fate but consider any innovation as an interference. And that is why they still have not started growing fast-growing wood although the number of heating plants processing bio-mass from forests and fields is growing. Natural gas is expensive and coal creates pollution. Energy from biomass is becoming a good business and also creates new business opportunities - growing the raw material it needs. Such heating plants usually use waste from wood processing companies and Slovak Forests (Lesy SR) has also started deliveries of chip wood from old forests. There are plantations of fast growing wood suitable for heat production of over 500-thousand hectares throughout the EU. This is about 10% of Slovakian's area where the first plantations are also already being set up. The first promising plantation project was launched this spring. And this is not a project launched and backed by a big company but a starting up businessman, Miroslav Forgac from Kosice. He founded his company, Forgim, last winter. Without big money involved and thank to a new business idea he managed to persuade farmers to set up the first plantations. He supplied the seedlings and the business has started with 75 ha of plantations around Trnava, Sala, Komarno, Lucenec, Poprad and Kosice. He is gradually signing contracts with other landowners and next year the area of plantations is set to grow by 1500 ha. Plantations of fast growing trees such as willow, poplar and acacia regenerate by new trees growing out of the roots of the old and from cut trees so from one seedling and one investment there can be several harvests. Swedish willows from Forgim regenerate 20 to 25 years after the first planting. And only then new seedlings have to be purchased. Using special machines that even cut the wood to wood chips the plantations can be 'harvested' every three years. Unlike crops, the fields do not

  10. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  11. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  12. Growing an Emerging Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birx, Donald L.; Anderson-Fletcher, Elizabeth; Whitney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The emerging research college or university is one of the most formidable resources a region has to reinvent and grow its economy. This paper is the first of two that outlines a process of building research universities that enhance regional technology development and facilitate flexible networks of collaboration and resource sharing. Although the…

  13. Growing Crystals on the Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method of studying growing crystals in a classroom utilizing a carrousel projector standing vertically. A saturated salt solution is placed on a slide on the lens of the projector and the heat from the projector causes the water to evaporate and salt to crystalize. (Author/DS)

  14. Agglomerative clustering of growing squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castermans, Thom; Speckmann, Bettina; Staals, Frank; Verbeek, Kevin; Bender, M.A.; Farach-Colton, M.; Mosteiro, M.A.

    2018-01-01

    We study an agglomerative clustering problem motivated by interactive glyphs in geo-visualization. Consider a set of disjoint square glyphs on an interactive map. When the user zooms out, the glyphs grow in size relative to the map, possibly with different speeds. When two glyphs intersect, we wish

  15. Inferences from growing trees backwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate how longitudinal stress wave techniques can be useful in tracking the future quality of a growing tree. Monitoring the quality of selected trees in a plantation forest could provide early input to decisions on the effectiveness of management practices, or future utilization options, for trees in a plantation. There will...

  16. COFFEE GROWING AREAS OF ETHIOPIA"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accelerated economic growth, part of which is hoped to be achieved via increased ... at the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy held at the United ... Samuel and Ludi: Agricultural commercialisation in coffee growing areas. ... Ethiopia produces and exports one of the best fighland coffees in the world.

  17. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  18. Millennium bim managing growing demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Francisca Barbosa Malpique de Paiva

    2014-01-01

    Millennium bim, the Mozambican operation of Millennium bcp group, was the Company selected to serve as background for the development of a teaching case in Marketing. This case is followed by a teaching note, and is intended to be used as a pedagogical tool in undergraduate and/or graduate programs. Even though Mozambique is still characterized by high financial exclusion, the number of people entering within the banking industry has been growing at a fast pace. Actually, the demand for fi...

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of small libraries of triazolylmethoxy chalcones, flavanones and 2-aminopyrimidines as inhibitors of mycobacterial FAS-II and PknG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Namrata; Singh, Priyanka; Sharma, Anindra; Tiwari, Sameer; Singh, Vandana; Singh, Diwakar K; Srivastava, Kishore K; Singh, B N; Tripathi, Rama Pati

    2012-09-01

    A synthetic strategy to access small libraries of triazolylmethoxy chalcones 4{1-20}, triazolylmethoxy flavanones 5{1-10} and triazolylmethoxy aminopyrimidines 6{1-17} from a common substrate 4-propargyloxy-2-hydroxy acetophenone using a set of different reactions has been developed. The chalcones and flavanones were screened against mycobacterial FAS-II pathway using a recombinant mycobacterial strain, against which the most potent compound showed ∼88% inhibition in bacterial growth and substantially induction of reporter gene activity at 100 μM concentration. The triazolylmethoxy aminopyrimdines were screened against PknG of Mycobaceterium tuberculosis displaying moderate to good activity (23-53% inhibition at 100 μM), comparable to the action of a standard inhibitor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial soft tissue swelling in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra S Athavale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM include those mycobacterium species that are not members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. They assumed significance with the growing pandemic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS since the 1980s, when Mycobacterium avium infections were found to be associated with AIDS. However, the epidemiology of NTM disease among patients without Human immunodeficiency virus infections is not well documented. We report a case of NTM soft tissue swelling in an immunocompetent 18-year-old male who responded well to local excision and antitubercular treatment.

  1. Adenoviral vector-mediated GM-CSF gene transfer improves anti-mycobacterial immunity in mice - role of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singpiel, Alena; Kramer, Julia; Maus, Regina; Stolper, Jennifer; Bittersohl, Lara Friederike; Gauldie, Jack; Kolb, Martin; Welte, Tobias; Sparwasser, Tim; Maus, Ulrich A

    2018-03-01

    Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor involved in differentiation, survival and activation of myeloid and non-myeloid cells with important implications for lung antibacterial immunity. Here we examined the effect of pulmonary adenoviral vector-mediated delivery of GM-CSF (AdGM-CSF) on anti-mycobacterial immunity in M. bovis BCG infected mice. Exposure of M. bovis BCG infected mice to AdGM-CSF either applied on 6h, or 6h and 7days post-infection substantially increased alveolar recruitment of iNOS and IL-12 expressing macrophages, and significantly increased accumulation of IFNγ pos T cells and particularly regulatory T cells (Tregs). This was accompanied by significantly reduced mycobacterial loads in the lungs of mice. Importantly, diphtheria toxin-induced depletion of Tregs did not influence mycobacterial loads, but accentuated immunopathology in AdGM-CSF-exposed mice infected with M. bovis BCG. Together, the data demonstrate that AdGM-CSF therapy improves lung protective immunity against M. bovis BCG infection in mice independent of co-recruited Tregs, which however critically contribute to limit lung immunopathology in BCG-infected mice. These data may be relevant to the development of immunomodulatory strategies to limit immunopathology-based lung injury in tuberculosis in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Differences between Mycobacterium-Host Cell Relationships in Latent Tuberculous Infection of Mice Ex Vivo and Mycobacterial Infection of Mouse Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ufimtseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for factors that account for the reproduction and survival of mycobacteria, including vaccine strains, in host cells is the priority for studies on tuberculosis. A comparison of BCG-mycobacterial loads in granuloma cells obtained from bone marrow and spleens of mice with latent tuberculous infection and cells from mouse bone marrow and peritoneal macrophage cultures infected with the BCG vaccine in vitro has demonstrated that granuloma macrophages each normally contained a single BCG-Mycobacterium, while those acutely infected in vitro had increased mycobacterial loads and death rates. Mouse granuloma cells were observed to produce the IFNγ, IL-1α, GM-CSF, CD1d, CD25, CD31, СD35, and S100 proteins. None of these activation markers were found in mouse cell cultures infected in vitro or in intact macrophages. Lack of colocalization of lipoarabinomannan-labeled BCG-mycobacteria with the lysosomotropic LysoTracker dye in activated granuloma macrophages suggests that these macrophages were unable to destroy BCG-mycobacteria. However, activated mouse granuloma macrophages could control mycobacterial reproduction in cells both in vivo and in ex vivo culture. By contrast, a considerable increase in the number of BCG-mycobacteria was observed in mouse bone marrow and peritoneal macrophages after BCG infection in vitro, when no expression of the activation-related molecules was detected in these cells.

  3. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  4. Dental implants in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of teeth by implants is usually restricted to patients with completed craniofacial growth. The aim of this literature review is to discuss the use of dental implants in normal growing patients and in patients with ectodermal dysplasia and the influence of maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental growth on the stability of those implants. It is recommended that while deciding the optimal individual time point of implant insertion, the status of skeletal growth, the degree of hypodontia, and extension of related psychological stress should be taken into account, in addition to the status of existing dentition and dental compliance of a pediatric patient.

  5. Torsion of a growing shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Manzhirov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The torsion of a shaft by rigid disks is considered. The shaft has the form of circular cylinder. Two rigid disks are attached to its end faces. The process of continuous growth of such shaft under the influence of twisting torques applied to the disks is studied. Dual series equations which reflect the mathematical content of the problem at the different stages of the growing process are derived and solved. Results of the numerical analysis and singularities of the qualitative mechanical behaviour of the fundamental characteristics are discussed.

  6. Growing energy demand - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Often they can help the public and its representatives to understand the likely causes of events (such as natural and technological disasters) and to estimate the possible effects of projected policies. Often they can testify to what is not possible. Even so, scientists can seldom bring definitive answers to matters of public debate. Some issues are too complex to fit within the current scope of science, or there may be little reliable information available, or the values involved may lie outside of science. Scientists and technologists strive to find an answer to the growing energy demand

  7. How fast do eels grow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Not so very much about the growth pattern of the eel is known yet. Eels move about nearly all the time. They are thus very difficult to follow and we do not, for examble, yet know how long it actually takes for them to grow to maturity in the wild. So far, a macroscopic analysis of the number of bright and dark areas (growth rings) in the 'earstones' has been used to determine eel age, but this method was recently challenged. Use of radioisotopes has been suggested previously for this purpose. For this present study the rare earth elements, europium-152 and europium-155 are used. When incubated in artificial sea water, a satisfactory final radioactive label was achieved. Two experiments were planned in collaboration with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. 2000 Elvers were set out in 1982, in the cooling water outlet of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant, each marked with europium-155. In 1984 another 10 000 elvers labelled with europium-152 were set out under similar conditions. The idea was mainly to see how fast the eels would grow, and to compare their known age with that determined by examining the earstones. Results showed that there was no clear-cut correlation between actual eel age and the biological age determination used so far. During four years, only 10 of the original 1300 eels were recaptured. It is thus hard to say anything definite from our results on the viability of setting out elvers in the environment

  8. Ubiquitin-fusion degradation pathway: A new strategy for inducing CD8 cells specific for mycobacterial HSP65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianying; Hisaeda, Hajime; Chou Bin; Yu Qingsheng; Tu Liping; Himeno, Kunisuke

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays an indispensable role in inducing MHC class I-restricted CD8 + T cells. In this study, we exploited UPS to induce CD8 + T cells specific for mycobacterial HSP65 (mHSP65), one of the leading vaccine candidates against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A chimeric DNA termed pU-HSP65 encoding a fusion protein between murine ubiquitin and mHSP65 was constructed, and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were immunized with the DNA using gene gun bombardment. Mice immunized with the chimeric DNA acquired potent resistance against challenge with the syngeneic B16F1 melanoma cells transfected with the mHSP65 gene (HSP65/B16F1), compared with those immunized with DNA encoding only mHSP65. Splenocytes from the former group of mice showed a higher grade of cytotoxic activity against HSP65/B16F1 cells and contained a larger number of granzyme B- or IFN-γ-producing CD8 + T cells compared with those from the latter group of mice

  9. Mucosal-associated invariant T cells are numerically and functionally deficient in patients with mycobacterial infection and reflect disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Soo; Cho, Young-Nan; Kim, Moon-Ju; Jin, Hye-Mi; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Kang, Jeong-Hwa; Park, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Jong; Kee, Hae Jin; Kim, Nacksung; Kee, Seung-Jung; Park, Yong-Wook

    2015-05-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells contribute to protection against certain microorganism infections. The aims of this study were to examine the levels of MAIT cells in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease patients, to evaluate the clinical relevance of MAIT cell levels, and to investigate the functions of MAIT cells. Patients with pulmonary TB (n = 35), NTM (n = 29), and healthy controls (n = 75) were enrolled in the study. MAIT cell levels and functions were measured by flow cytometry. Circluating MAIT cell levels were found to be reduced in TB and NTM patients. MAIT cell deficiency reflects a variety of clinical conditions. In particular, MAIT cell numbers were significantly correlated with sputum AFB positivity, extent of disease, hemoglobin levels, lymphocyte counts, CRP and ESR levels. MAIT cells in TB patients failed to produce interferon-γ irrespective of the mode of stimulation, whereas NTM patients displayed a defect in MR1-dependent signaling pathway. Notably, an elevated expression of programmed death-1 was also associated with MAIT cell deficiency in TB. This study shows that MAIT cells are numerically and functionally deficient in TB and NTM patients and these deficiencies could contribute to immune system dysreguation in mycobacterial infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mycobacterial and nonbacterial pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A prospective, cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afessa Bekele

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective observational study was done to describe nonbacterial pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Methods The study included 1,225 consecutive hospital admissions of 599 HIV-infected patients treated from April 1995 through March 1998. Data included demographics, risk factors for HIV infection, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score, pulmonary complications, CD4+ lymphocyte count, hospital stay and case-fatality rate. Results Patient age (mean ± SD was 38.2 ± 8.9 years, 62% were men, and 84% were African American. The median APACHE II score was 14, and median CD4+ lymphocyte count was 60/μL. Pulmonary complications were Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (85 in 78 patients, Mycobacterium avium complex (51 in 38, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (40 in 35, Mycobacterium gordonae (11 in 11, Mycobacterium kansasii (10 in 9, Cytomegalovirus (10 in 10, Nocardia asteroides (3 in 3, fungus ball (2 in 2, respiratory syncytial virus (1, herpes simplex virus (1, Histoplasma capsulatum (1, lymphoma (3 in 3, bronchogenic carcinoma (2 in 2, and Kaposi sarcoma (1. The case-fatality rate of patients was 11% with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 5%, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 6%, Mycobacterium avium complex; and 7%, noninfectious pulmonary complications. Conclusion Most pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with HIV are from Pneumocystis and mycobacterial infection.

  11. Progressing features of atypical mycobacterial infection in the lung on conventional and high resolution CT (HRCT) images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Daizo; Niwatsukino, Hiroshi; Nakajo, Masayuki; Oyama, Takao

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the localization of abnormalities within secondary pulmonary lobules and the changes in follow-up studies of pulmonary atypical mycobacterial infection (AMI) by conventional and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Forty-six patients (16 men and 30 women; 43-84 years) with pulmonary AMI (M. intracellulare 36; M. avium 10) in the lung were examined by conventional and HRCT. In peripheral zones, all patients had the nodule located in the terminal or lobular bronchiole, and most of the patients also had nodules accompanied with a wedge-shaped or linear shadow connected with the pleura. In the follow-up scans, new centrilobular nodules appeared in other segments, and consolidation or ground-glass pattern appeared newly and was preceded by nodules. Bronchiectasis became more severe in five of 38 follow-up patients. The common HRCT findings of AMI were centrilobular, peribronchovascular nodules, bronchiectasis, consolidation, and pleural thickening/adhesion. The nodules frequently connected with the pleura. The initial and follow-up studies suggest that the disease may begin in the terminal bronchiole or as preexisting bronchiectasis and spread transbronchially along the draining bronchus or towards the pleura to produce lesions such as new nodules, cavities, consolidation, pleuritis, and bronchiectasis, or more severe bronchiectasis. (author)

  12. [Implementation of the technical requirements of the UNE-EN-ISO 15189 quality standard in a mycobacterial laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Ocete Mochón, M Dolores; Lahiguera, M José; Bresó, M Carmen; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2013-02-01

    The UNE-EN-ISO 15189:2007 standard defines the requirements for quality and competence that must be met by medical laboratories. These laboratories should use this international standard to develop their own quality management systems and to evaluate their own competencies; in turn, this standard will be used by accreditation bodies to confirm or recognize the laboratories' competence. In clinical microbiology laboratories, application of the standard implies the implementation of the technical and specific management requirements that must be met to achieve optimal quality when carrying out microbiological tests. In Spain, accreditation is granted by the Spanish Accreditation Body (Entidad Nacional de Acreditación). This review aims to discuss the practical application of the standard's technical requirements in mycobacterial laboratory. Firstly, we define the scope of accreditation. Secondly, we specify how the items of the standard on personnel management, control of equipment, environmental facilities, method validation, internal controls and customer satisfaction surveys were developed and implemented in our laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated High-Throughput Genotyping for Study of Global Epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Based on Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supply, Philip; Lesjean, Sarah; Savine, Evgueni; Kremer, Kristin; van Soolingen, Dick; Locht, Camille

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is especially challenging, as the current typing methods are labor-intensive and the results are difficult to compare among laboratories. Here, automated typing based on variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) of genetic elements named mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs) in 12 mammalian minisatellite-like loci of M. tuberculosis is presented. This system combines analysis of multiplex PCRs on a fluorescence-based DNA analyzer with computerized automation of the genotyping. Analysis of a blinded reference set of 90 strains from 38 countries (K. Kremer et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:2607–2618, 1999) demonstrated that it is 100% reproducible, sensitive, and specific for M. tuberculosis complex isolates, a performance that has not been achieved by any other typing method tested in the same conditions. MIRU-VNTRs can be used for analysis of the global genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis complex strains at different levels of evolutionary divergence. To fully exploit the portability of this typing system, a website was set up for the analysis of M. tuberculosis MIRU-VNTR genotypes via the Internet. This opens the way for global epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis and should lead to novel insights into the evolutionary and population genetics of this major pathogen. PMID:11574573

  14. The Warburg effect in mycobacterial granulomas is dependent on the recruitment and activation of macrophages by interferon-γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelberg, Rui; Moreira, Diana; Barreira-Silva, Palmira; Borges, Margarida; Silva, Letícia; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Resende, Mariana; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Jordan, Michael B; Ferreira, Nuno C; Abrunhosa, Antero J; Silvestre, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Granulomas are the hallmark of mycobacterial disease. Here, we demonstrate that both the cell recruitment and the increased glucose consumption in granulomatous infiltrates during Mycobacterium avium infection are highly dependent on interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Mycobacterium avium-infected mice lacking IFN-γ signalling failed to developed significant inflammatory infiltrations and lacked the characteristic uptake of the glucose analogue fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). To assess the role of macrophages in glucose uptake we infected mice with a selective impairment of IFN-γ signalling in the macrophage lineage (MIIG mice). Although only a partial reduction of the granulomatous areas was observed in infected MIIG mice, the insensitivity of macrophages to IFN-γ reduced the accumulation of FDG. In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro assays showed that macrophage activated by IFN-γ displayed increased rates of glucose uptake and in vitro studies showed also that they had increased lactate production and increased expression of key glycolytic enzymes. Overall, our results show that the activation of macrophages by IFN-γ is responsible for the Warburg effect observed in organs infected with M. avium. PMID:25807843

  15. Impaired IFNγ-Signaling and Mycobacterial Clearance in IFNγR1-Deficient Human iPSC-Derived Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Neehus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD is caused by inborn errors of interferon gamma (IFNγ immunity and is characterized by severe infections by weakly virulent mycobacteria. Although IFNγ is the macrophage-activating factor, macrophages from these patients have never been studied. We demonstrate the generation of heterozygous and compound heterozygous (iMSMD-cohet induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from a single chimeric patient, who suffered from complete autosomal recessive IFNγR1 deficiency and received bone-marrow transplantation. Loss of IFNγR1 expression had no influence on the macrophage differentiation potential of patient-specific iPSCs. In contrast, lack of IFNγR1 in iMSMD-cohet macrophages abolished IFNγ-dependent phosphorylation of STAT1 and induction of IFNγ-downstream targets such as IRF-1, SOCS-3, and IDO. As a consequence, iMSMD-cohet macrophages show impaired upregulation of HLA-DR and reduced intracellular killing of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin. We provide a disease-modeling platform that might be suited to investigate novel treatment options for MSMD and to gain insights into IFNγ signaling in macrophages.

  16. The interplay of multiple feedback loops with post-translational kinetics results in bistability of mycobacterial stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Abhinav; Igoshin, Oleg A; Balázsi, Gábor; Gennaro, Maria Laura

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial persistence is the phenomenon in which a genetically identical fraction of a bacterial population can survive exposure to stress by reduction or cessation of growth. Persistence in mycobacteria has been recently linked to a stress-response network, consisting of the MprA/MprB two-component system and alternative sigma factor σ E . This network contains multiple positive transcriptional feedback loops which may give rise to bistability, making it a good candidate for controlling the mycobacterial persistence switch. To analyze the possibility of bistability, we develop a method that involves decoupling of the network into transcriptional and post-translational interaction modules. As a result we reduce the dimensionality of the dynamical system and independently analyze input–output relations in the two modules to formulate a necessary condition for bistability in terms of their logarithmic gains. We show that neither the positive autoregulation in the MprA/MprB network nor the σ E -mediated transcriptional feedback is sufficient to induce bistability in a biochemically realistic parameter range. Nonetheless, inclusion of the post-translational regulation of σ E by RseA increases the effective cooperativity of the system, resulting in bistability that is robust to parameter variation. We predict that overexpression or deletion of RseA, the key element controlling the ultrasensitive response, can eliminate bistability

  17. In vitro anti-mycobacterial activity of nine medicinal plants used by ethnic groups in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Zepeda, Ramón Enrique; Coronado-Aceves, Enrique Wenceslao; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos Arturo; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo; Navarro-Navarro, Moisés; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana

    2013-11-25

    Sonoran ethnic groups (Yaquis, Mayos, Seris, Guarijíos, Pimas, Kikapúes and Pápagos) use mainly herbal based preparations as their first line of medicinal treatment. Among the plants used are those with anti-tuberculosis properties; however, no formal research is available. Organic extracts were obtained from nine medicinal plants traditionally used by Sonoran ethnic groups to treat different kinds of diseases; three of them are mainly used to treat tuberculosis. All of the extracts were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using the Alamar Blue redox bioassay. Methanolic extracts from Ambrosia confertiflora, Ambrosia ambrosioides and Guaiacum coulteri showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 200, 790 and 1000 μg/mL, respectively, whereas no effect was observed with the rest of the methanolic extracts at the concentrations tested. Chloroform, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts from Ambrosia confertiflora showed a MIC of 90, 120 and 160 μg/mL, respectively. A. confertiflora and A. ambrosioides showed the best anti-mycobacterial activity in vitro. The activity of Guaiacum coulteri is consistent with the traditional use by Sonoran ethnic groups as anti-tuberculosis agent.For these reasons, it is important to investigate a broader spectrum of medicinal plants in order to find compounds active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  18. The HyVac4 subunit vaccine efficiently boosts BCG-primed anti-mycobacterial protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Billeskov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current vaccine against tuberculosis (TB, BCG, has failed to control TB worldwide and the protective efficacy is moreover limited to 10-15 years. A vaccine that could efficiently boost a BCG-induced immune response and thus prolong protective immunity would therefore have a significant impact on the global TB-burden. METHODS/FINDINGS: In the present study we show that the fusion protein HyVac4 (H4, consisting of the mycobacterial antigens Ag85B and TB10.4, given in the adjuvant IC31® or DDA/MPL effectively boosted and prolonged immunity induced by BCG, leading to improved protection against infection with virulent M. tuberculosis (M.tb. Increased protection correlated with an increased percentage of TB10.4 specific IFNγ/TNFα/IL-2 or TNFα/IL-2 producing CD4 T cells at the site of infection. Moreover, this vaccine strategy did not compromise the use of ESAT-6 as an accurate correlate of disease development/vaccine efficacy. Indeed both CD4 and CD8 ESAT-6 specific T cells showed significant correlation with bacterial levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: H4-IC31® can efficiently boost BCG-primed immunity leading to an increased protective anti-M.tb immune response dominated by IFNγ/TNFα/IL-2 or TNFα/IL2 producing CD4 T cells. H4 in the CD4 T cell inducing adjuvant IC31® is presently in clinical trials.

  19. Impact of industrial structure and soil exposure on the regional variations in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Satoshi; Ito, Yutaka; Hirai, Toyohiro; Murase, Kimihiko; Tsuji, Takahiro; Fujita, Kohei; Mio, Tadashi; Maekawa, Koichi; Fujii, Takashi; Ono, Shigeki; Nishimura, Takashi; Hayashi, Akihiko; Komori, Toshiaki; Fujita, Naohisa; Niimi, Akio; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Chin, Kazuo; Mishima, Michiaki

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (pNTM) disease, including Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), varies widely according to geographic region. However, the factors that influence regional variations in pNTM disease prevalence remain unknown. This study was undertaken to examine whether environmental or occupational factors or host traits could influence regional variations in pNTM disease prevalence. We collected laboratory data on pulmonary tuberculosis (pTB) and pNTM from two hospitals in the West Harima area of Japan and five hospitals in Kyoto City, Japan from 2012 to 2013. We estimated microbiological pNTM disease prevalence by multiplying all pTB cases in each area with the ratio of pNTM cases and pTB cases at the survey hospitals in each area. We administered a standardized questionnaire to 52 patients and 120 patients with pulmonary MAC (pMAC) disease at Ako City Hospital and Kyoto University Hospital, respectively. The estimated prevalence of microbiological pNTM disease in the West Harima area (85.4/100,000 population-years) was significantly higher than that observed in Kyoto City (23.6/100,000 population-years; pdisease prevalence. Copyright © 2016 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease: genetic, immunological, and clinical features of inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare condition characterized by predisposition to clinical disease caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria, in otherwise healthy individuals with no overt abnormalities in routine hematological and immunological tests. MSMD designation does not recapitulate all the clinical features, as patients are also prone to salmonellosis, candidiasis and tuberculosis, and more rarely to infections with other intramacrophagic bacteria, fungi, or parasites, and even, perhaps, a few viruses. Since 1996, nine MSMD-causing genes, including seven autosomal (IFNGR1, IFNGR2, STAT1, IL12B, IL12RB1, ISG15, and IRF8) and two X-linked (NEMO, CYBB) genes have been discovered. The high level of allelic heterogeneity has already led to the definition of 18 different disorders. The nine gene products are physiologically related, as all are involved in IFN-γ-dependent immunity. These disorders impair the production of (IL12B, IL12RB1, IRF8, ISG15, NEMO) or the response to (IFNGR1, IFNGR2, STAT1, IRF8, CYBB) IFN-γ. These defects account for only about half the known MSMD cases. Patients with MSMD-causing genetic defects may display other infectious diseases, or even remain asymptomatic. Most of these inborn errors do not show complete clinical penetrance for the case-definition phenotype of MSMD. We review here the genetic, immunological, and clinical features of patients with inborn errors of IFN-γ-dependent immunity. PMID:25453225

  1. Cationic liposomes formulated with synthetic mycobacterial cordfactor (CAF01: a versatile adjuvant for vaccines with different immunological requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Marie Agger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is now emerging that for vaccines against a range of diseases including influenza, malaria and HIV, the induction of a humoral response is insufficient and a substantial complementary cell-mediated immune response is necessary for adequate protection. Furthermore, for some diseases such as tuberculosis, a cellular response seems to be the sole effector mechanism required for protection. The development of new adjuvants capable of inducing highly complex immune responses with strong antigen-specific T-cell responses in addition to antibodies is therefore urgently needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Herein, we describe a cationic adjuvant formulation (CAF01 consisting of DDA as a delivery vehicle and synthetic mycobacterial cordfactor as immunomodulator. CAF01 primes strong and complex immune responses and using ovalbumin as a model vaccine antigen in mice, antigen specific cell-mediated- and humoral responses were obtained at a level clearly above a range of currently used adjuvants (Aluminium, monophosphoryl lipid A, CFA/IFA, Montanide. This response occurs through Toll-like receptor 2, 3, 4 and 7-independent pathways whereas the response is partly reduced in MyD88-deficient mice. In three animal models of diseases with markedly different immunological requirement; Mycobacterium tuberculosis (cell-mediated, Chlamydia trachomatis (cell-mediated/humoral and malaria (humoral immunization with CAF01-based vaccines elicited significant protective immunity against challenge. CONCLUSION: CAF01 is potentially a suitable adjuvant for a wide range of diseases including targets requiring both CMI and humoral immune responses for protection.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Novel Entry Mechanisms and a Central Role of SRC in Host Defense during High Multiplicity Mycobacterial Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Zhang

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB infects an estimated one-third of the global population and is one of the main causes of mortality from an infectious agent. The characteristics of macrophages challenged by MTB with a high multiplicity of infection (MOI, which mimics both clinical disseminated infection and granuloma formation, are distinct from macrophages challenged with a low MOI. To better understand the cross talk between macrophage host cells and mycobacteria, we compared the transcription patterns of mouse macrophages infected with bacille Calmette-Guérin, H37Ra and M. smegmatis. Attention was focused on the changes in the abundance of transcripts related to immune system function. From the results of a transcriptome profiling study with a high mycobacterial MOI, we defined a pathogen-specific host gene expression pattern. The present study suggests that two integrins, ITGA5 and ITGAV, are novel cell surface receptors mediating mycobacterium entry into macrophages challenged with high MOI. Our results indicate that SRC likely plays a central role in regulating multiple unique signaling pathways activated by MTB infection. The integrated results increase our understanding of the molecular networks behind the host innate immune response and identify important targets that might be useful for the development of tuberculosis therapy.

  3. Impaired IFNγ-Signaling and Mycobacterial Clearance in IFNγR1-Deficient Human iPSC-Derived Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neehus, Anna-Lena; Lam, Jenny; Haake, Kathrin; Merkert, Sylvia; Schmidt, Nico; Mucci, Adele; Ackermann, Mania; Schubert, Madline; Happle, Christine; Kühnel, Mark Philipp; Blank, Patrick; Philipp, Friederike; Goethe, Ralph; Jonigk, Danny; Martin, Ulrich; Kalinke, Ulrich; Baumann, Ulrich; Schambach, Axel; Roesler, Joachim; Lachmann, Nico

    2018-01-09

    Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is caused by inborn errors of interferon gamma (IFNγ) immunity and is characterized by severe infections by weakly virulent mycobacteria. Although IFNγ is the macrophage-activating factor, macrophages from these patients have never been studied. We demonstrate the generation of heterozygous and compound heterozygous (iMSMD-cohet) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a single chimeric patient, who suffered from complete autosomal recessive IFNγR1 deficiency and received bone-marrow transplantation. Loss of IFNγR1 expression had no influence on the macrophage differentiation potential of patient-specific iPSCs. In contrast, lack of IFNγR1 in iMSMD-cohet macrophages abolished IFNγ-dependent phosphorylation of STAT1 and induction of IFNγ-downstream targets such as IRF-1, SOCS-3, and IDO. As a consequence, iMSMD-cohet macrophages show impaired upregulation of HLA-DR and reduced intracellular killing of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin. We provide a disease-modeling platform that might be suited to investigate novel treatment options for MSMD and to gain insights into IFNγ signaling in macrophages. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Viking Disruptions or Growing Integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper...... demonstrates how formal network analysis can be combined with a contextual reading of evidence relating to a long-distance communication network in the past. A study of the combined distributions of ten vessel types in 152 settlement sites from the 10th century suggests the outline of the core structure...... of the network. The model implies that 10th century long-distance exchange in the North Sea region featured long-distance links equal to those of the Carolingian emporia trade, and represented a growth in terms of new axes of integration, above all the growing links between the Scandinavian Peninsula...

  5. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  6. Supplies should match growing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmusen, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The natural gas industry is currently enjoying healthy growth prospects. Not only is the demand for natural gas steadily growing; the outlook for increasing gas reserves is promising as well. The success of natural gas in the marketplace reflects, on one hand, continuous attention paid to public and customer requirements and, on the other hand, the ability of the gas industry to direct technological developments toward the increasing public demand for gas at competitive market prices supplied in a reliable, safe and environmentally friendly manner. In the past, the gas industry has been involved in the development of technologies for everything from gas production to the end user and from borehole to burner tip, and the author believes that the industry must continue or even increase its emphasis on technology in the future in order to capture new market opportunities. He explains this by looking at the supply side, the demand side and the structural side of the business

  7. How to grow great leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Douglas A

    2004-12-01

    Few leaders excel at both the unit and enterprise levels. More than ever, though, corporations need people capable of running business units, functions, or regions and focusing on broader company goals. It's up to organizations to develop leaders who can manage the inherent tensions between unit and enterprise priorities. Take the example of RBC Financial Group, one of the largest, most profitable companies in Canada. In the mid-1990's, RBC revamped its competitive strategy in a couple of ways. After the government announced that the Big Six banks in Canada could neither merge with nor acquire one another, RBC decided to grow through cross-border acquisitions. Additionally, because customers were starting to seek bundled products and services, RBC reached across its traditional stand-alone businesses to offer integrated solutions. These changes in strategy didn't elicit immediate companywide support. Instinctively, employees reacted against what would amount to a delicate balancing act: They would have to lift their focus out of their silos while continuing to meet unit goals. However, by communicating extensively with staff members, cross-fertilizing talent across unit boundaries, and targeting rewards to shape performance, RBC was able to cultivate rising leaders with the unit expertise and the enterprise vision to help the company fulfill its new aims. Growing such well-rounded leaders takes sustained effort because unit-enterprise tensions are quite real. Three common conditions reinforce these tensions. First, most organizational structures foster silo thinking and unimaginative career paths. Second, most companies lack venues for airing and resolving conflicts that arise when there are competing priorities. Third, many have misguided reward systems that pit unit performance against enterprise considerations. Such long-established patterns of organizational behavior are tough to break. Fortunately, as RBC discovered, people can be trained to think and work

  8. Rapid reconnection of flux lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.

    1982-01-01

    The rapid reconnection of flux lines in an incompressible fluid through a singular layer of the current density is discussed. It is shown that the liberated magnetic energy must partially appear in the form of plasma kinetic energy. A laminar structure of the flow is possible, but Alfven velocity must be achieved in eddies of growing size at the ends of the layer. The gross structure of the flow and the magnetic configuration may be obtained from variational principles. (author)

  9. Mycobacterial Response to Organic Solvents and Possible Implications on Cross-Resistance With Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Pacífico

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium vaccae, a bacterium found in soil, has been receiving attention as adjuvant to antituberculosis treatment, vaccines and immunotherapies and even as antidepressant. This bacterium is also able to degrade several pollutants, including aromatic compounds. The increasing presence of organic solvents in the environment may lead to M. vaccae adapted populations. A possible relationship between solvent tolerance and decreased susceptibility to other types of chemicals, including antibiotics, may pose a problem during opportunistic infections. The present study thus aimed at assessing if solvent adapted cells presented higher tolerance to antibiotics and efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs. M. vaccae cells were able to thrive and grow in the presence of up 20% (v/v glycerol, 5% (v/v ethanol, 1% (v/v methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and 0.1% (v/v toluene. During adaptation to increasing concentration of ethanol and MTBE, the cells changed their fatty acid profile, zeta potential and morphology. Adapted cells acquired an improved tolerance toward the EPIs thioridazine and omeprazole, but became more susceptible to the antibiotics levofloxacin and teicoplanin when compared with non-adapted cells.

  10. Catalytic function of the mycobacterial binuclear iron monooxygenase in acetone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Toshiki; Nakao, Tomomi; Kino, Kuniki

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium smegmatis strain mc(2)155 and Mycobacterium goodii strain 12523 are able to grow on acetone and use it as a source of carbon and energy. We previously demonstrated by gene deletion analysis that the mimABCD gene cluster, which encodes a binuclear iron monooxygenase, plays an essential role in acetone metabolism in these mycobacteria. In the present study, we determined the catalytic function of MimABCD in acetone metabolism. Whole-cell assays were performed using Escherichia coli cells expressing the MimABCD complex. When the recombinant E. coli cells were incubated with acetone, a product was detected by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Based on the retention time and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) spectrum, the reaction product was identified as acetol (hydroxyacetone). The recombinant E. coli cells produced 1.02 mM of acetol from acetone within 24 h. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MimABCD also was able to convert methylethylketone (2-butanone) to 1-hydroxy-2-butanone. Although it has long been known that microorganisms such as mycobacteria metabolize acetone via acetol, this study provides the first biochemical evidence for the existence of a microbial enzyme that catalyses the conversion of acetone to acetol. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Protein synthesis in the growing rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.; Chrin, L.

    1986-01-01

    Developmental control of protein synthesis in the postnatal growth of the lung has not been systematically studied. In male Fischer 344 rats, lung growth continues linearly as a function of body weight (from 75 to 450 g body weight). To study total protein synthesis in lungs of growing rats, we used the technique of constant intravenous infusion of tritiated leucine, an essential amino acid. Lungs of sacrificed animals were used to determine the leucine incorporation rate into newly synthesized protein. The specific radioactivity of the leucine associated with tRNA extracted from the same lungs served as an absolute index of the precursor leucine pool used for lung protein synthesis. On the basis of these measurements, we were able to calculate the fractional synthesis rate (the proportion of total protein destroyed and replaced each day) of pulmonary proteins for each rat. Under the conditions of isotope infusion, leucyl-tRNA very rapidly equilibrates with free leucine of the plasma and of the extracellular space of the lung. Infusions lasting 30 minutes or less yielded linear rates of protein synthesis without evidence of contamination of lung proteins by newly labeled intravascular albumin. The fractional synthesis rate is considerably higher in juvenile animals (55% per day) than in adult rats (20% per day). After approximately 12 weeks of age, the fractional synthesis rate remains extremely constant in spite of continued slow growth of the lung. It is apparent from these data that in both young and adult rats the bulk of total protein synthesis is devoted to rapidly turning over proteins and that less than 4 percent of newly made protein is committed to tissue growth

  12. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  13. How Cloud Computing can help SMEs to grow faster?

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ahmed Anwar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Cloud computing has successfully created hype and lots of people think that cloud computing might be the next big thing. The cloud platform is growing rapidly and lots of cloud service provider companies are coming up with huge number of innovative ideas where they are addressing specific needs of different organisations. The cloud computing is based on a service model architecture which is highly customisable and can fit into a specific or unique business process. Cloud comp...

  14. Czochralski method of growing single crystals. State-of-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukowski, A.; Zabierowski, P.

    1999-01-01

    Modern Czochralski method of single crystal growing has been described. The example of Czochralski process is given. The advantages that caused the rapid progress of the method have been presented. The method limitations that motivated the further research and new solutions are also presented. As the example two different ways of the technique development has been described: silicon single crystals growth in the magnetic field; continuous liquid feed of silicon crystals growth. (author)

  15. Mycobacterial nonhomologous end joining mediates mutagenic repair of chromosomal double-strand DNA breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanou, Nicolas C; Gao, Feng; Bongiorno, Paola; Ehrt, Sabine; Schnappinger, Dirk; Shuman, Stewart; Glickman, Michael S

    2007-07-01

    Bacterial nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is a recently described DNA repair pathway best characterized in mycobacteria. Bacterial NHEJ proteins LigD and Ku have been analyzed biochemically, and their roles in linear plasmid repair in vivo have been verified genetically; yet the contributions of NHEJ to repair of chromosomal DNA damage are unknown. Here we use an extensive set of NHEJ- and homologous recombination (HR)-deficient Mycobacterium smegmatis strains to probe the importance of HR and NHEJ in repairing diverse types of chromosomal DNA damage. An M. smegmatis Delta recA Delta ku double mutant has no apparent growth defect in vitro. Loss of the NHEJ components Ku and LigD had no effect on sensitivity to UV radiation, methyl methanesulfonate, or quinolone antibiotics. NHEJ deficiency had no effect on sensitivity to ionizing radiation in logarithmic- or early-stationary-phase cells but was required for ionizing radiation resistance in late stationary phase in 7H9 but not LB medium. In addition, NHEJ components were required for repair of I-SceI mediated chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs), and in the absence of HR, the NHEJ pathway rapidly mutates the chromosomal break site. The molecular outcomes of NHEJ-mediated chromosomal DSB repair involve predominantly single-nucleotide insertions at the break site, similar to previous findings using plasmid substrates. These findings demonstrate that prokaryotic NHEJ is specifically required for DSB repair in late stationary phase and can mediate mutagenic repair of homing endonuclease-generated chromosomal DSBs.

  16. Case grows for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hileman, B.

    1999-08-09

    In the four years since the IPCC stated that 'the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate', evidence for anomalous warming has become more compelling, and as a result scientists have become more concerned that human-induced climate change has already arrived. The article summarises recent extra evidence on global temperatures, carbon dioxide measurements, ice shelf breakup, coral bleaching, unstable climates and improved climate models. At the time of the Kyoto conference, the US became keen on the idea that enhancing forest and soil carbon sequestration was a good way to offset emissions reduction targets. Congress is however under the opinion on that the Kyoto protocol presents a threat to the US economy, and senate is very unlikely to ratify the protocol during the Clinton Administration. The debate as to whether the US government should mandate major emission reduction or wait for more scientific certainty may continue for a number of years, but, growing concern of scientists and the public for the harmful effects of climate change may cause a change. 4 figs., 8 photos.

  17. Impact of growing income inequality on sustainable development in China: a provincial-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.B.M.; Ma, J.

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of literature has documented the rapidly increasing income disparities that accompanied China's economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s, and the driving factors behind this. Growing income inequality in its turn may have important implications for the accumulation of physical capital,

  18. Unravelling the Secrets of Mycobacterial Cidality through the Lens of Antisense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvinder Kaur

    Full Text Available One of the major impediments in anti-tubercular drug discovery is the lack of a robust grammar that governs the in-vitro to the in-vivo translation of efficacy. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is capable of growing both extracellular as well as intracellular; encountering various hostile conditions like acidic milieu, free radicals, starvation, oxygen deprivation, and immune effector mechanisms. Unique survival strategies of Mtb have prompted researchers to develop in-vitro equivalents to simulate in-vivo physiologies and exploited to find efficacious inhibitors against various phenotypes. Conventionally, the inhibitors are screened on Mtb under the conditions that are unrelated to the in-vivo disease environments. The present study was aimed to (1. Investigate cidality of Mtb targets using a non-chemical inhibitor antisense-RNA (AS-RNA under in-vivo simulated in-vitro conditions.(2. Confirm the cidality of the targets under in-vivo in experimental tuberculosis. (3. Correlate in-vitro vs. in-vivo cidality data to identify the in-vitro condition that best predicts in-vivo cidality potential of the targets. Using cidality as a metric for efficacy, and AS-RNA as a target-specific inhibitor, we delineated the cidality potential of five target genes under six different physiological conditions (replicating, hypoxia, low pH, nutrient starvation, nitrogen depletion, and nitric oxide.In-vitro cidality confirmed in experimental tuberculosis in BALB/c mice using the AS-RNA allowed us to identify cidal targets in the rank order of rpoB>aroK>ppk>rpoC>ilvB. RpoB was used as the cidality control. In-vitro and in-vivo studies feature aroK (encoding shikimate kinase as an in-vivo mycobactericidal target suitable for anti-TB drug discovery. In-vitro to in-vivo cidality correlations suggested the low pH (R = 0.9856 in-vitro model as best predictor of in-vivo cidality; however, similar correlation studies in pathologically relevant (Kramnik mice are warranted. In

  19. Single-cell tracking reveals antibiotic-induced changes in mycobacterial energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglica, Željka; Özdemir, Emre; McKinney, John D

    2015-02-17

    ATP is a key molecule of cell physiology, but despite its importance, there are currently no methods for monitoring single-cell ATP fluctuations in live bacteria. This is a major obstacle in studies of bacterial energy metabolism, because there is a growing awareness that bacteria respond to stressors such as antibiotics in a highly individualistic manner. Here, we present a method for long-term single-cell tracking of ATP levels in Mycobacterium smegmatis based on a combination of microfluidics, time-lapse microscopy, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based ATP biosensors. Upon treating cells with antibiotics, we observed that individual cells undergo an abrupt and irreversible switch from high to low intracellular ATP levels. The kinetics and extent of ATP switching clearly discriminate between an inhibitor of ATP synthesis and other classes of antibiotics. Cells that resume growth after 24 h of antibiotic treatment maintain high ATP levels throughout the exposure period. In contrast, antibiotic-treated cells that switch from ATP-high to ATP-low states never resume growth after antibiotic washout. Surprisingly, only a subset of these nongrowing ATP-low cells stains with propidium iodide (PI), a widely used live/dead cell marker. These experiments also reveal a cryptic subset of cells that do not resume growth after antibiotic washout despite remaining ATP high and PI negative. We conclude that ATP tracking is a more dynamic, sensitive, reliable, and discriminating marker of cell viability than staining with PI. This method could be used in studies to evaluate antimicrobial effectiveness and mechanism of action, as well as for high-throughput screening. New antimicrobials are urgently needed to stem the rising tide of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. All antibiotics are expected to affect bacterial energy metabolism, directly or indirectly, yet tools to assess the impact of antibiotics on the ATP content of individual bacterial cells are lacking. The

  20. Culture-positive Pediatric Tuberculosis in Toronto, Ontario: Sources of Infection and Relationship of Birthplace and Mycobacterial Lineage to Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayment, Jonathan H; Guthrie, Jennifer L; Lam, Karen; Whelan, Michael; Lee, Brenda; Jamieson, Frances B; Kitai, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Few data relate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lineage and disease phenotype in the pediatric population or examine the contribution of travel to the tuberculosis (TB)-endemic country in North America. We examined clinical, demographic and Mtb genotype data from patients with TB who were treated in Toronto between 2002 and 2012. Consecutive Mtb culture-positive, pediatric patients were included. Clinical data were collected from a prospectively populated clinical database. Mtb case isolate genotypes were identified using Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and spoligotyping and were categorized into phylogeographic lineages for analysis. The 77 patients included 30.4% of all culture-positive pediatric TB cases in Ontario from 2002 to 2012. Seventy-six (99%) patients were first or second generation Canadians. Foreign-born patients were more likely to have extrathoracic disease [odds ratios (OR) = 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-8.71; P < 0.05] and less likely to have a genotype match in the Public Health Ontario Laboratories database [OR = 0.32 (95% CI: 0.11-0.90); P < 0.05] than Canadian-born patients. For those without a known TB contact, Canadian-born patients were more likely to have travelled to a TB-endemic country [OR = 13.0 (95% CI: 2.5-78.5); P < 0.001]. Extrathoracic disease was less likely in patients infected with the East Asian Mtb lineage [OR = 0.1 (95% CI: 0.01-0.9); P < 0.05] and more likely in those infected with the Indo-Oceanic Mtb lineage [OR = 5.4 (95% CI: 1.5-19.2); P < 0.05]. Travel to TB-endemic countries likely plays an important part in the etiology of pediatric TB infection and disease, especially in Canadian-born children. Mtb lineage seems to contribute to disease phenotype in children as it has been described in adults.

  1. Tomography high Resolution CT findings of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease: Comparison between the first treatment and the re treatment group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwak, Soon Hyuk; Cho, Bum Sang; Jeon, Min Hee; Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Min Ho; Yi, Kyung Sik; Lee, Seung Young; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Ki Man [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju, (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To analyze and compare the thin section CT findings of first and re treatment nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease. Between January 2005 and April 2010, 121 patients with positive sputum culture for NTM were recruited. We included only 32 patients underwent high resolution chest CT and were confirmed by American Thoracic Society criteria NTM pulmonary infection (first treatment 15, re treatment 17 patients). CT images of 32 patients were reviewed retrospectively. We evaluated the frequency and laterality of the followings; nodule, increased density, bronchial change, parenchymal change. The significantly frequent CT findings of the re treatment NTM group were well defined nodules (retreatment 82.4%, first treatment 33.3%, p = 0.00), consolidations (retreatment 88.2%, first treatment 53.3%, p = 0.03), bronchial changes (bronchiectasis; retreatment 100%, first treatment 66.6%, p = 0.01, bronchial narrowing; retreatment 23.5%, first treatment 0%, p = 0.04 and mucoid impaction; retreatment-58.8%, first treatment-20.0%, p = 0.03) and atelectasis with bronchiectasis (retreatment-88.2%, first treatment 26.7%, p = 0.00). However, most of the evaluated thin section CT findings, such as centrilobular and ill defined nodules, lobular, segmental and subpleural consolidations, ground glass attenuation, bronchial wall thickening, cavities, pleural lesions, fibrotic band, emphysema and laterality of lesions, have not shown significant differences between first treatment and the re treatment group. Thin section CT findings of well defined nodules, consolidations, bronchial changes (bronchiectasis, bronchial narrowing and mucoid impaction) and atelectasis with bronchiectasis are highly suggestive of re treatment NTM pulmonary disease.

  2. Nontuberculous mycobacterial species and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex coinfection in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Mertaniasih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective/Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the detection of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM species derived from sputum specimens of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB suspects. Increasing prevalence and incidence of pulmonary infection by NTM species have widely been reported in several countries with geographical variation. Materials and Methods: Between January 2014 and September 2015, sputum specimens from chronic pulmonary TB suspect patients were analyzed. Laboratory examination of mycobacteria was conducted in the TB laboratory, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. Detection and identification of mycobacteria were performed by the standard culture method using the BACTEC MGIT 960 system (BD and Lowenstein–Jensen medium. Identification of positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC was based on positive acid-fast bacilli microscopic smear, positive niacin accumulation, and positive TB Ag MPT 64 test results (SD Bioline. If the growth of positive cultures and acid-fast bacilli microscopic smear was positive, but niacin accumulation and TB Ag MPT 64 (SD Bioline results were negative, then the isolates were categorized as NTM species. MTBC isolates were also tested for their sensitivity toward first-line anti-TB drugs, using isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and streptomycin. Results: From 2440 sputum specimens of pulmonary TB suspect patients, 459 isolates (18.81% were detected as MTBC and 141 (5.78% as NTM species. Conclusion: From the analyzed sputum specimens, 18.81% were detected as MTBC and 5.78% as NTM species. Each pulmonary TB suspect patient needed clinical settings to suspect causative agents of MTBC and/or NTM species; clinicians have to understand the local epidemiological data for the evaluation of causes of lung infection to determine appropriate therapy.

  3. Systemic BCG immunization induces persistent lung mucosal multifunctional CD4 T(EM cells which expand following virulent mycobacterial challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryan A Kaveh

    Full Text Available To more closely understand the mechanisms of how BCG vaccination confers immunity would help to rationally design improved tuberculosis vaccines that are urgently required. Given the established central role of CD4 T cells in BCG induced immunity, we sought to characterise the generation of memory CD4 T cell responses to BCG vaccination and M. bovis infection in a murine challenge model. We demonstrate that a single systemic BCG vaccination induces distinct systemic and mucosal populations of T effector memory (T(EM cells in vaccinated mice. These CD4+CD44(hiCD62L(loCD27⁻ T cells concomitantly produce IFN-γ and TNF-α, or IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α and have a higher cytokine median fluorescence intensity MFI or 'quality of response' than single cytokine producing cells. These cells are maintained for long periods (>16 months in BCG protected mice, maintaining a vaccine-specific functionality. Following virulent mycobacterial challenge, these cells underwent significant expansion in the lungs and are, therefore, strongly associated with protection against M. bovis challenge. Our data demonstrate that a persistent mucosal population of T(EM cells can be induced by parenteral immunization, a feature only previously associated with mucosal immunization routes; and that these multifunctional T(EM cells are strongly associated with protection. We propose that these cells mediate protective immunity, and that vaccines designed to increase the number of relevant antigen-specific T(EM in the lung may represent a new generation of TB vaccines.

  4. Protein Export by the Mycobacterial SecA2 System Is Determined by the Preprotein Mature Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltcher, Meghan E.; Gibbons, Henry S.; Ligon, Lauren S.

    2013-01-01

    At the core of the bacterial general secretion (Sec) pathway is the SecA ATPase, which powers translocation of unfolded preproteins containing Sec signal sequences through the SecYEG membrane channel. Mycobacteria have two nonredundant SecA homologs: SecA1 and SecA2. While the essential SecA1 handles “housekeeping” export, the nonessential SecA2 exports a subset of proteins and is required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence. Currently, it is not understood how SecA2 contributes to Sec export in mycobacteria. In this study, we focused on identifying the features of two SecA2 substrates that target them to SecA2 for export, the Ms1704 and Ms1712 lipoproteins of the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis. We found that the mature domains of Ms1704 and Ms1712, not the N-terminal signal sequences, confer SecA2-dependent export. We also demonstrated that the lipid modification and the extreme N terminus of the mature protein do not impart the requirement for SecA2 in export. We further showed that the Ms1704 mature domain can be efficiently exported by the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway. Because the Tat system exports only folded proteins, this result implies that SecA2 substrates can fold in the cytoplasm and suggests a putative role of SecA2 in enabling export of such proteins. Thus, the mycobacterial SecA2 system may represent another way that bacteria solve the problem of exporting proteins that can fold in the cytoplasm. PMID:23204463

  5. Protein nutrition of growing cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, W.; Scott, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    In vitro studies on apparent degradation of amino acids by mixed and pure cultures of rumen bacteria demonstrated that (a) amino acids are degraded at differing rates (Arg, Thr>Lys, Phe, Leu, Ile>Val, Met); (b) certain amino acids (Met, Val, Try, Orn) are degraded to greater extents when fermented alone than in conjunction with other amino acids; (c) individual strains of rumen bacteria do not utilize all amino acids; and (d) total ruminal degradation of amino acids is the result of extensive bacterial interaction, and may vary greatly depending on the predominant types of micro-organisms present. Abomasal infusion of a mixture of 10 essential amino acids consistently increased nitrogen retention, but attempts to elucidate primary limiting amino acids were not conclusive. Our data suggested that supplementary methionine alone may not significantly increase nitrogen retention, but methionine must be present in order to obtain responses from other amino acids. Methionine plus lysine plus threonine usually increased nitrogen retention, but the magnitude of responses varied. The classical nitrogen balance technique may lack the sensitivity needed to detect small responses resulting from supplements of single amino acids, or growing cattle, unlike sheep used for wool growth, may not be suffering from specific amino acid deficiencies. Chemical suppression of ruminal degradation of amino acids produced significant increases in nitrogen retention and growth, and improved feed efficiencies. Productivity responses to rumen bypass techniques would seem to depend primarily upon (a) the degree to which dietary protein is degraded in the rumen, and (b) the quantity of absorbable amino acids supplied by the diet in relation to quantities required by the animal. (author)

  6. Growing population causes of unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    At the March, 1995, International Meeting on Population and Social Development in Copenhagen, during the session on unemployment, underemployment, and population it was stated that the problem of employment was the extent to which a nation's labor supply was not matched by labor demand or job opportunities. Population was thus a supply factor, and the country's economic situation was a demand factor. The demographic variables that were considered important in the supply of labor were: a) the size and rate of growth of the population, which was a function of the birth rate, the death rate, and migration; and b) the age structure of the population, which was also a product of the rate of growth of the population and its distribution. An imbalance between the supply of labor and the demand for it gave rise to unemployment and underemployment. The vicious cycle generated by a high dependency burden associated with a young age-structure led to low savings and investments, which in turn led to low economic growth and a low standard of living. This produced high fertility rates, which in turn heightened the dependency burden perpetuating the cycle. This vicious cycle could be broken at only two points: at the high fertility stage, primarily by introducing family planning programs; and at the stage of low economic growth, by adopting policies to accelerate economic growth. To be successful, however, both actions had to be pursued simultaneously. Numerous participants emphasized the global nature of the issue of unemployment and underemployment; the effects of international competition and restrictive trade policies on employment opportunities. The growing disparity between North and South had created a social injustice between countries. Several participants called for more humane policies that favored democracy and promoted human development, and asked for assistance to help create an enabling environment for social and economic development.

  7. PV supply chain growing pains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, A. [Matrix Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  8. PV supply chain growing pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  9. How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs How Your Fetus ... 2018 PDF Format How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Pregnancy How does pregnancy begin? What is the ...

  10. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zinc Metalloprotease-1 Elicits Tuberculosis-specific Humoral Immune Response Independent of Mycobacterial Load in Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Harika eVemula

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, facultative intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, the tuberculosis (TB causing bacilli in human is cleared by cell-mediated immunity (CMI with CD4+ T cells playing instrumental role in protective immunity, while antibody-mediated immunity (AMI is considered non-protective. This longstanding convention has been challenged with recent evidences of increased susceptibility of hosts with compromised AMI and monoclonal antibodies conferring passive protection against TB and other intracellular pathogens. Therefore, novel approaches towards vaccine development include strategies aiming at induction of humoral response along with CMI. This necessitates the identification of mycobacterial proteins with properties of immunomodulation and strong immunogenicity. In this study, we determined the immunogenic potential of M.tb Zinc metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1, a secretory protein essential for intracellular survival and pathogenesis of M.tb. We observed that Zmp1 was secreted by in vitro grown M.tb under granuloma-like stress conditions (acidic, oxidative, iron deficiency and nutrient deprivation and generated Th2 cytokine microenvironment upon exogenous treatment of Peripheral Blood Mononulear Cells (PBMCs with recombinant Zmp1 (rZmp1. This was supported by recording specific and robust humoral response in TB patients in a cohort of 295. The anti-Zmp1 titers were significantly higher in TB patients (n=121 as against healthy control (n=62, household contacts (n=89 and non-specific infection controls (n=23. A significant observation of the study is the presence of equally high titers of anti-Zmp1 antibodies in a range of patients with high bacilli load (sputum bacilli load of 300+ per mL to paucibacillary smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases. This clearly indicated the potential of Zmp1 to evoke an effective humoral response independent of mycobacterial load. Such mycobacterial proteins can be explored as antigen

  12. Synthesis and Evaluation of Bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-Based UDP-Galf Analogues as Inhibitors of the Mycobacterial Galactofuranosyltransferase GlfT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd L. Lowary

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available UDP-galactofuranose (UDP-Galf is the donor substrate for both bifunctional galactofuranosyltransferases, GlfT1 and GlfT2, which are involved in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial galactan. In this paper, a group of UDP-Galf mimics were synthesized via reductive amination of a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-based amine by reacting with aromatic, linear, or uridine-containing aldehydes. These compounds were evaluated against GlfT2 using a coupled spectrophotometric assay, and were shown to be weak inhibitors of the enzyme.

  13. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  14. Mycobacterium talmoniae sp. nov., a slowly growing mycobacterium isolated from human respiratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca M; DeGroote, Mary Ann; Marola, Jamie L; Buss, Sarah; Jones, Victoria; McNeil, Michael R; Freifeld, Alison G; Elaine Epperson, L; Hasan, Nabeeh A; Jackson, Mary; Iwen, Peter C; Salfinger, Max; Strong, Michael

    2017-08-01

    A novel slowly growing, non-chromogenic species of the class Actinobacteria was isolated from a human respiratory sample in Nebraska, USA, in 2012. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequence supported placement into the genus Mycobacterium with high sequence similarity to a previously undescribed strain isolated from a patient respiratory sample from Oregon, USA, held in a collection in Colorado, USA, in 2000. The two isolates were subjected to phenotypic testing and whole genome sequencing and found to be indistinguishable. The bacteria were acid-fast stain-positive, rod-shaped and exhibited growth after 7-10 days on solid media at temperatures ranging from 25 to 42°C. Colonies were non-pigmented, rough and slightly raised. Analyses of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight profiles showed no matches against a reference library of 130 mycobacterial species. Full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical for the two isolates, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) between their genomes was 99.7 % and phylogenetic comparisons classified the novel mycobacteria as the basal most species in the slowly growing Mycobacterium clade. Mycobacterium avium is the most closely related species based on rpoB gene sequence similarity (92 %), but the ANI between the genomes was 81.5 %, below the suggested cut-off for differentiating two species (95 %). Mycolic acid profiles were more similar to M. avium than to Mycobacterium simiae or Mycobacterium abscessus. The phenotypic and genomic data support the conclusion that the two related isolates represent a novel Mycobacterium species for which the name Mycobacterium talmoniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NE-TNMC-100812T (=ATCC BAA-2683T=DSM 46873T).

  15. Predictive factors for a one-year improvement in nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease: An 11-year retrospective and multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadelis, Gilbert; Ducrot, Rodolphe; Bourdin, Arnaud; Rastogi, Nalin

    2017-08-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) has become an emerging infectious disease and is responsible for more deaths than tuberculosis in industrialized countries. NTM-PD mortality remains high in some series reportedly ranging from 25% to 40% at five years and often due to unfavorable evolution of NTM-PD despite established treatment. The purpose of our study was to search for early factors that could predict the favorable or unfavorable evolution of NTM-PD at the first year of treatment. In this retrospective and multicenter study, we selected 119 patients based on clinical, radiological and microbiological data from 2002 to 2012 from three French university hospitals (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montpellier) with definite (meeting the criteria of the American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Disease Society of America in 2007; ATS/IDSA) or probable (one positive sputum culture) NTM-PD. We compared two patient groups: those who improved at one year (clinical symptoms, radiological lesions and microbiology data) and those who did not improve at one year. The data were analyzed for all patients as well as for subgroups by gender, HIV-positive patients, and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. The average patient age was 50 years ± 19.4; 58% had respiratory comorbidities, 24% were HIV positive and 19% had cystic fibrosis. Coughing concerned 66% of patients and bronchiectasis concerned 45%. The most frequently isolated NTM were MAC (46%). 57% (n = 68) of patients met the ATS criteria and improved status concerned 38.6% (n = 46). The improvement factors at one year of NTM-PD were associated with the duration of ethambutol treatment: (Odds ratio adjusted [ORa]: 2.24, 95% Confidence interval [CI]; 2.11-3.41), HIV-positive status: (ORa: 3.23, 95% CI; 1.27-8.45), and male gender: (ORa: 2.34, 95% CI; 1.26-8.16). For the group with NTM-PD due to MAC, improvement was associated with the duration of macrolide treatment (ORa: 3.27, 95% CI; 1

  16. Predictive factors for a one-year improvement in nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease: An 11-year retrospective and multicenter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Cadelis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD has become an emerging infectious disease and is responsible for more deaths than tuberculosis in industrialized countries. NTM-PD mortality remains high in some series reportedly ranging from 25% to 40% at five years and often due to unfavorable evolution of NTM-PD despite established treatment. The purpose of our study was to search for early factors that could predict the favorable or unfavorable evolution of NTM-PD at the first year of treatment.In this retrospective and multicenter study, we selected 119 patients based on clinical, radiological and microbiological data from 2002 to 2012 from three French university hospitals (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montpellier with definite (meeting the criteria of the American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Disease Society of America in 2007; ATS/IDSA or probable (one positive sputum culture NTM-PD. We compared two patient groups: those who improved at one year (clinical symptoms, radiological lesions and microbiology data and those who did not improve at one year. The data were analyzed for all patients as well as for subgroups by gender, HIV-positive patients, and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC infection.The average patient age was 50 years ± 19.4; 58% had respiratory comorbidities, 24% were HIV positive and 19% had cystic fibrosis. Coughing concerned 66% of patients and bronchiectasis concerned 45%. The most frequently isolated NTM were MAC (46%. 57% (n = 68 of patients met the ATS criteria and improved status concerned 38.6% (n = 46. The improvement factors at one year of NTM-PD were associated with the duration of ethambutol treatment: (Odds ratio adjusted [ORa]: 2.24, 95% Confidence interval [CI]; 2.11-3.41, HIV-positive status: (ORa: 3.23, 95% CI; 1.27-8.45, and male gender: (ORa: 2.34, 95% CI; 1.26-8.16. For the group with NTM-PD due to MAC, improvement was associated with the duration of macrolide treatment (ORa: 3.27, 95% CI; 1

  17. Drug-sensitive tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in nonAIDS adults: comparisons of thin-section CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Sung Mok; Koh, Won-Jung; Kwon, O Jung; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Seonwoo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare thin-section CT (TSCT) findings of drug-sensitive (DS) tuberculosis (TB), multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease in nonAIDS adults. During 2003, 216 (113 DS TB, 35 MDR TB, and 68 NTM) patients with smear-positive sputum for acid-fast bacilli (AFB), and who were subsequently confirmed to have mycobacterial pulmonary disease, underwent thoracic TSCT. The frequency of lung lesion patterns on TSCT and patients' demographic data were compared. The commonest TSCT findings were tree-in-bud opacities and nodules. On a per-person basis, significant differences were found in the frequency of multiple cavities and bronchiectasis (P<0.001, chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis). Multiple cavities were more frequent in MDR TB than in the other two groups and extensive bronchiectasis in NTM disease (multiple logistic regression analysis). Patients with MDR TB were younger than those with DS TB or NTM disease (P<0.001, multiple logistic regression analysis). Previous tuberculosis treatment history was significantly more frequent in patients with MDR TB or NTM disease (P<0.001, chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis). In patients with positive sputum AFB, multiple cavities, young age, and previous tuberculosis treatment history imply MDR TB, whereas extensive bronchiectasis, old age, and previous tuberculosis treatment history NTM disease. (orig.)

  18. Mycobacterial UvrD1 is a Ku-dependent DNA helicase that plays a role in multiple DNA repair events, including double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Krishna Murari; Stephanou, Nicolas C; Gao, Feng; Glickman, Michael S; Shuman, Stewart

    2007-05-18

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial pathogens have a Ku-dependent nonhomologous end joining pathway of DNA double-strand break repair. Here we identify mycobacterial UvrD1 as a novel interaction partner for Ku in a genome-wide yeast two-hybrid screen. UvrD1 per se is a vigorous DNA-dependent ATPase but a feeble DNA helicase. Ku stimulates UvrD1 to catalyze ATP-dependent unwinding of 3'-tailed DNAs. UvrD1, Ku, and DNA form a stable ternary complex in the absence of ATP. The Ku binding determinants are located in the distinctive C-terminal segment of UvrD1. A second mycobacterial paralog, UvrD2, is a vigorous Ku-independent DNA helicase. Ablation of UvrD1 sensitizes Mycobacterium smegmatis to killing by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and to a single chromosomal break generated by I-SceI endonuclease. The physical and functional interactions of bacterial Ku and UvrD1 highlight the potential for cross-talk between components of nonhomologous end joining and nucleotide excision repair pathways.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Heterologous HIV-1gp120 Gene Expression Disruption in Mycobacterium bovis BCG Host Strain: A Critical Issue for Engineering Mycobacterial Based-Vaccine Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joan; Fernández-Lloris, Raquel; Pezzat, Elías; Saubi, Narcís; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Mothe, Beatriz; Gatell, Josep Maria

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as a live vector of recombinant bacterial vaccine is a promising system to be used. In this study, we evaluate the disrupted expression of heterologous HIV-1gp120 gene in BCG Pasteur host strain using replicative vectors pMV261 and pJH222. pJH222 carries a lysine complementing gene in BCG lysine auxotrophs. The HIV-1 gp120 gene expression was regulated by BCG hsp60 promoter (in plasmid pMV261) and Mycobacteria spp. α-antigen promoter (in plasmid pJH222). Among 14 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pMV261) colonies screened, 12 showed a partial deletion and two showed a complete deletion. However, deletion was not observed in all 10 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pJH222) colonies screened. In this study, we demonstrated that E. coli/Mycobacterial expression vectors bearing a weak promoter and lysine complementing gene in a recombinant lysine auxotroph of BCG could prevent genetic rearrangements and disruption of HIV 1gp120 gene expression, a key issue for engineering Mycobacterial based vaccine vectors. PMID:20617151

  20. Molecular Characterization of Heterologous HIV-1gp120 Gene Expression Disruption in Mycobacterium bovis BCG Host Strain: A Critical Issue for Engineering Mycobacterial Based-Vaccine Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG as a live vector of recombinant bacterial vaccine is a promising system to be used. In this study, we evaluate the disrupted expression of heterologous HIV-1gp120 gene in BCG Pasteur host strain using replicative vectors pMV261 and pJH222. pJH222 carries a lysine complementing gene in BCG lysine auxotrophs. The HIV-1 gp120 gene expression was regulated by BCG hsp60 promoter (in plasmid pMV261 and Mycobacteria spp. α-antigen promoter (in plasmid pJH222. Among 14 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pMV261 colonies screened, 12 showed a partial deletion and two showed a complete deletion. However, deletion was not observed in all 10 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pJH222 colonies screened. In this study, we demonstrated that E. coli/Mycobacterial expression vectors bearing a weak promoter and lysine complementing gene in a recombinant lysine auxotroph of BCG could prevent genetic rearrangements and disruption of HIV 1gp120 gene expression, a key issue for engineering Mycobacterial based vaccine vectors.

  1. A High Throughput Screening Assay for Anti-Mycobacterial Small Molecules Based on Adenylate Kinase Release as a Reporter of Cell Lysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Forbes

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is well-established to be one of the most important bacterial pathogens for which new antimicrobial therapies are needed. Herein, we describe the development of a high throughput screening assay for the identification of molecules that are bactericidal against Mycobacteria. The assay utilizes the release of the intracellular enzyme adenylate kinase into the culture medium as a reporter of mycobacterial cell death. We demonstrate that the assay is selective for mycobactericidal molecules and detects anti-mycobacterial activity at concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration of many molecules. Thus, the AK assay is more sensitive than traditional growth assays. We have validated the AK assay in the HTS setting using the Mtb surrogate organism M. smegmatis and libraries of FDA approved drugs as well as a commercially available Diversity set. The screen of the FDA-approved library demonstrated that the AK assay is able to identify the vast majority of drugs with known mycobactericidal activity. Importantly, our screen of the Diversity set revealed that the increased sensitivity of the AK assay increases the ability of M. smegmatis-based screens to detect molecules with relatively poor activity against M. smegmatis but good to excellent activity against Mtb.

  2. Naive helper T cells from BCG-vaccinated volunteers produce IFN-gamma and IL-5 to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoĂŤl Pestel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-GuĂŠrin (BCG is a live vaccine that has been used in routine vaccination against tuberculosis for nearly 80 years. However, its efficacy is controversial. The failure of BCG vaccination may be at least partially explained by the induction of poor or inappropriate host responses. Dendritic cells (DCs are likely to play a key role in the induction of immune response to mycobacteria by polarizing the reactivity of T lymphocytes toward a Th1 profile, contributing to the generation of protective cellular immunity against mycobacteria. In this study we aimed to investigate the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by naive CD4+ T cells to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed DCs in the group of young, healthy BCG vaccinated volunteers. The response of naive helper T cells was compared with the response of total blood lymphocytes. Our present results clearly showed that circulating naive CD45RA+CD4+ lymphocytes from BCG-vaccinated subjects can become effector helper cells producing IFN-gamma and IL-5 under the stimulation by autologous dendritic cells presenting mycobacterial protein antigen-PPD or infected with live M. bovis BCG bacilli.

  3. Naive helper T cells from BCG-vaccinated volunteers produce IFN-gamma and IL-5 to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Kaźmierczak, Dominik; Donevski, Stefan; Biet, Franck; Pestel, Joël; Rudnicka, Wiesława

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a live vaccine that has been used in routine vaccination against tuberculosis for nearly 80 years. However, its efficacy is controversial. The failure of BCG vaccination may be at least partially explained by the induction of poor or inappropriate host responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) are likely to play a key role in the induction of immune response to mycobacteria by polarizing the reactivity of T lymphocytes toward a Th1 profile, contributing to the generation of protective cellular immunity against mycobacteria. In this study we aimed to investigate the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by naive CD4+ T cells to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed DCs in the group of young, healthy BCG vaccinated volunteers. The response of naive helper T cells was compared with the response of total blood lymphocytes. Our present results clearly showed that circulating naive CD45RA+CD4+ lymphocytes from BCG-vaccinated subjects can become effector helper cells producing IFN-gamma and IL-5 under the stimulation by autologous dendritic cells presenting mycobacterial protein antigen-PPD or infected with live M. bovis BCG bacilli.

  4. Drug-sensitive tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in nonAIDS adults: comparisons of thin-section CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Sung Mok [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Koh, Won-Jung; Kwon, O Jung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Kang, Eun Young [Korea University Guro Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Seonwoo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit of the Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this work was to compare thin-section CT (TSCT) findings of drug-sensitive (DS) tuberculosis (TB), multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease in nonAIDS adults. During 2003, 216 (113 DS TB, 35 MDR TB, and 68 NTM) patients with smear-positive sputum for acid-fast bacilli (AFB), and who were subsequently confirmed to have mycobacterial pulmonary disease, underwent thoracic TSCT. The frequency of lung lesion patterns on TSCT and patients' demographic data were compared. The commonest TSCT findings were tree-in-bud opacities and nodules. On a per-person basis, significant differences were found in the frequency of multiple cavities and bronchiectasis (P<0.001, chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis). Multiple cavities were more frequent in MDR TB than in the other two groups and extensive bronchiectasis in NTM disease (multiple logistic regression analysis). Patients with MDR TB were younger than those with DS TB or NTM disease (P<0.001, multiple logistic regression analysis). Previous tuberculosis treatment history was significantly more frequent in patients with MDR TB or NTM disease (P<0.001, chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis). In patients with positive sputum AFB, multiple cavities, young age, and previous tuberculosis treatment history imply MDR TB, whereas extensive bronchiectasis, old age, and previous tuberculosis treatment history NTM disease. (orig.)

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of SGR6054, a Streptomyces homologue of the mycobacterial integration host factor mIHF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Ryohei; Tezuka, Takeaki; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Ohnishi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    A Streptomyces homologue of the mycobacterial integration host factor mIHF was heterologously produced, purified and crystallized in the presence of a 16-mer duplex DNA by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.22 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2. The mycobacterial integration host factor (mIHF) is a small nonspecific DNA-binding protein that is essential for the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis. mIHF homologues are widely distributed among Actinobacteria, and a Streptomyces homologue of mIHF is involved in control of sporulation and antibiotic production in S. coelicolor A3(2). Despite their important biological functions, a structure of mIHF or its homologues has not been elucidated to date. Here, the S. griseus mIHF homologue (SGR6054) was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and crystallized in the presence of a 16-mer duplex DNA by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The plate-shaped crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.53, b = 69.35, c = 77.71 Å, β = 96.63°, and diffracted X-rays to 2.22 Å resolution

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of SGR6054, a Streptomyces homologue of the mycobacterial integration host factor mIHF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomoto, Ryohei; Tezuka, Takeaki; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Ohnishi, Yasuo [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2012-08-31

    A Streptomyces homologue of the mycobacterial integration host factor mIHF was heterologously produced, purified and crystallized in the presence of a 16-mer duplex DNA by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.22 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2. The mycobacterial integration host factor (mIHF) is a small nonspecific DNA-binding protein that is essential for the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis. mIHF homologues are widely distributed among Actinobacteria, and a Streptomyces homologue of mIHF is involved in control of sporulation and antibiotic production in S. coelicolor A3(2). Despite their important biological functions, a structure of mIHF or its homologues has not been elucidated to date. Here, the S. griseus mIHF homologue (SGR6054) was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and crystallized in the presence of a 16-mer duplex DNA by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The plate-shaped crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.53, b = 69.35, c = 77.71 Å, β = 96.63°, and diffracted X-rays to 2.22 Å resolution.

  7. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  8. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  9. Response of growing bones to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, D.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of ionizing radiations on growing bones. The epiphyseal disc of growing mouse tibia was selected as a model for the experiments. An attempt has been made to obtain clinical data from irradiated bones during the childhood and to quantitate this information. Within the range of possibilities correlations have been established between the experimental and clinical data. (Auth.)

  10. [Evaluation of mycobacterial microscopy and culture results of Sureyyapasa Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Training and Research Hospital: A 3-year analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akduman Alaşehir, Elçin; Balıkçı, Ahmet; Partal, Mualla; Çatmabacak, Gülay; Yaman, Görkem

    2016-09-01

    Effective diagnosis of tuberculosis is of great importance for transmission control and treatment success. The purpose of this study is to evaluate microscopic examination results of Ehrlich-Ziehl Neelsen (EZN) and Auramine-Rhodamine staining methods and automated BACTEC MGIT 960™ system and Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) culture results of various clinical samples in the light of recent data from the world and Turkey. Specimens that were sent from various clinics to Sureyyapasa Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Training and Research Hospital Microbiology Laboratory from January 2012 to December 2015 were evaluated retrospectively. From a total of 62456 samples; 60923 (97.5%) were pulmonary and 1533 (2.5%) were non-pulmonary samples, especially pleura. 2853 (4.6%) Acid-resistant bacilli (ARB) positivity was detected and mycobacterial culture positivity was in total 12.2%. 7076 (93%) and 535 (7%) mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) strains were isolated. In 356 specimens the cultures were negative in despite the positive ARB results. Considering mycobacterial culture as the gold standard; the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of ARB microscopy were 32.8%, 99.4%, 87.5% and 91.4%, respectively. The contamination rates in total were within acceptable limits being 2.7% for L-J and 3.8% for MGIT. Analysis of our data indicated that the sensitivity of microscopy is low and it should be evaluated together with the mycobacterial culture to rule out tuberculosis infection. With the use of fluorescent staining and also L-J and MGIT broth together for routine culture since 2013; ARB false negativity rate was observed to fall to 51.7% from 74.1% compared to the years. The follow-up of data such as the sensitivity of microscopy, culture positivity, false-positivity and false-negativity rates and contamination values is of great importance in terms of assessing compliance with laboratory quality standards and contributing to the surveillance

  11. TLR-4/miRNA-32-5p/FSTL1 signaling regulates mycobacterial survival and inflammatory responses in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Ai-Rong; Xu, Min; Lou, Jun; Qiu, Wei-Qiang

    2017-03-15

    Macrophages play a pivotal role in host immune response against mycobacterial infection, which is tightly modulated by multiple factors, including microRNAs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biological function and potential mechanism of miR-32-5p in human macrophages during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection. The results demonstrated that miR-32-5p was robustly enhanced in THP-1 and U937 cells in response to M.tb infection. TLR-4 signaling was required for upregulation of miR-32-5p induced by M.tb infection. Additionally, the introduction of miR-32-5p strongly increased the survival rate of intracellular mycobacteria, whereas inhibition of miR-32-5p suppressed intracellular growth of mycobacteria during M.tb challenged. Furthermore, forced expression of miR-32-5p dramatically attenuated the accumulation of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α induced by M.tb infection. Conversely, downregulated expression of miR-32-5p led to enhancement in these inflammatory cytokines. More importantly, our study explored that Follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1) was a direct and functional target of miR-32-5p. qRT-PCR and western blot analysis further validated that miR-32-5p negatively regulated the expression of FSTL1. Mechanistically, re-expression of FSTL1 attenuated the ability of miR-32-5p to promote mycobacterial survival. Meanwhile, miR-32-5p-mediated inhibition of the inflammatory cytokine production were completely reversed by overexpression of FSTL1. Collectively, our findings demonstrated a novel role of TLR-4/miRNA-32-5p/FSTL1 in the modulation of host defense against mycobacterial infection, which may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and useful information for developing potential therapeutic interventions against the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  13. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  14. Visualization of airflow growing soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rahbi, Hamood; Bock, Matthew; Ryu, Sangjin

    2016-11-01

    Visualizing airflow inside growing soap bubbles can answer questions regarding the fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing, which is a model system for flows with a gas-liquid-gas interface. Also, understanding the soap bubble blowing process is practical because it can contribute to controlling industrial processes similar to soap bubble blowing. In this study, we visualized airflow which grows soap bubbles using the smoke wire technique to understand how airflow blows soap bubbles. The soap bubble blower setup was built to mimic the human blowing process of soap bubbles, which consists of a blower, a nozzle and a bubble ring. The smoke wire was placed between the nozzle and the bubble ring, and smoke-visualized airflow was captured using a high speed camera. Our visualization shows how air jet flows into the growing soap bubble on the ring and how the airflow interacts with the soap film of growing bubble.

  15. Anticipated ethical challenges with growing molecular prenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anticipated ethical challenges with growing molecular prenatal diagnosis in Nigeria. ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... Ethical standards in medical laboratories are derived from medical ethics therefore, the four fundamental ...

  16. Growing America's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  17. Growing skull hemangioma: first and unique description in a patient with Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Loo, Lars E; Beckervordersandforth, Jan; Colon, Albert J; Schijns, Olaf E M G

    2017-02-01

    We present the first and unique case of a rapid-growing skull hemangioma in a patient with Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome. This case report provides evidence that not all rapid-growing, osteolytic skull lesions need to have a malignant character but certainly need a histopathological verification. This material offers insight into the list of rare pathological diagnoses in an infrequent syndrome.

  18. Isolation and antibiotic susceptibility testing of rapidly-growing mycobacteria from grassland soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Chroňáková, Alica; Němec, Jan; Kotrbová, Lucie; Elhottová, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2013), s. 76-80 ISSN 1338-5178 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) GAJU 04-142/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : mycobakterium isolation and cultivation * grassland soil * antibiotic resistance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  19. Mycobacterium komaniense sp. nov., a rapidly growing non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species detected in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Rutten, Victor P M G; van Pittius, Nicolaas Gey; Naicker, Brendon; Michel, Anita L

    2018-05-01

    Some species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been reported to be opportunistic pathogens of animals and humans. Recently there has been an upsurge in the number of cases of NTM infections, such that some NTM species are now recognized as pathogens of humans and animals. From a veterinary point of view, the major significance of NTM is the cross-reactive immune response they elicit against Mycobacterium bovis antigens, leading to misdiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Four NTM isolates were detected from a bovine nasal swab, soil and water, during an NTM survey in South Africa. These were all found using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be closely related to Mycobacterium moriokaense. The isolates were further characterised by sequence analysis of the partial fragments of hsp65, rpoB and sodA. The genome of the type strain was also elucidated. Gene (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) and protein sequence data analysis of 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT 6) and 10 kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10) revealed that these isolates belong to a unique Mycobacterium species. Differences in phenotypic and biochemical traits between the isolates and closely related species further supported that these isolates belong to novel Mycobacterium species. We proposed the name Mycobacterium komaniense sp. nov. for this new species. The type strain is GPK 1020 T (=CIP 110823T=ATCC BAA-2758).

  20. Practice nurses in general practice: a rapidly growing profession in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Noordman, J.; Korevaar, J.; Dorsman, S.W.; Hingstman, L.; Dulmen, S. van; Bakker, D. de

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 1999, nurse practitioners were introduced. The main objectives were to improve quality of care for chronic ill and to reduce workload of general practitioners. In ten years the number of practice nurses has grown tremendously. Meanwhile there are new tasks as a result of aging.

  1. A rapidly growing electronic publishing trend: audiobooks for leisure and education

    OpenAIRE

    J.J. Engelen

    2008-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the relatively new phenomenon of the purely commercial availability of audiobooks, sometimes also called “spoken books”, “talking books” or “narrated books”. Having the text of a book read aloud and recorded has been for a very long time the favourite solution to make books and other texts accessible for persons with a serious reading impairment such as blindness or low vision. Specialised production centres do exist in most countries of the world for producing th...

  2. Mycobacterium hippocampi sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic species isolated from a seahorse with tail rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, José Luis; Planas, Miquel; Pintado, José

    2014-09-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, non-sporulating, acid-fast, and rod-shaped bacterium (BFLP-6(T)), previously isolated from a seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) with tail rot, was studied using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Growth occurred at 15-35 °C (optimum 25 °C), at pH 5.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 6 % (w/v). The G+C content of DNA was 66.7 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were C(18:1) ω9c, C(16:0) and C(16:1) ω6c. A mycolic acid pattern of alpha-mycolates and keto-mycolates was detected. Analysis of concatenated sequences (16S rRNA, rpoB, ssrA and tuf genes), and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features indicated that strain BFLP-6(T) represents a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium hippocampi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BFLP-6(T) (=DSM 45391(T) =LMG 25372(T)).

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria in Western Taiwan: SMART Program 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsi-Shu Huang

    2008-04-01

    Conclusion: The resistance of RGM in Taiwan is not as high as previously reported (notably for tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and cefoxitin, but reduction in the susceptibility rates of clarithromycin and imipenem for the M. fortuitum and M. abscessus groups demonstrates the importance of in vitro susceptibility testing of clinically important isolates, as susceptibility may differ in different geographical areas, even regionally, and over time.

  4. Emerging Development Pathways of Urban Livestock Production in Rapidly Growing West Africa Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Roessler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we try to capture the degree of specialization or integration, and of intensification or extensification, of (peri- urban livestock production, along with the factors that influence such decisions and their impact on natural resource uses. A total of 181 and 187 structured questionnaires were completed in livestock-keeping households in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso and Tamale (Ghana. Categorical principal component and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify homogenous groups of livestock-keeping households. Cross tabulation and logistic regression analysis revealed factors that influence livestock husbandry, showing their impacts on resource use by livestock keepers in the two cities. A diversity of livestock species was kept, mostly integrated with crop farming. Yet, some households specialized in either sheep, pig or commercial milk production, and partly intensified their production. The decision to specialize and/or intensify livestock production is site-specific and influenced by the education level of the household head and security of land ownership. Higher inputs in livestock systems do not necessarily lead to higher outputs, and specialization inevitably leads to higher manure wastages. Therefore, links of livestock producers to crop farmers and markets for livestock manure must be strengthened to enable recycling of resources and limit negative externalities of specialized livestock production. Strategies need to be identified to improve livestock productivity by enhancing outputs as input use increases.

  5. Mycobacterium aquaticum sp. nov., a rapidly growing species isolated from haemodialysis water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Trovato, Alberto; Droz, Sara; Haidarieh, Parvin; Borroni, Emanuele; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Mannino, Roberta; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Mariottini, Alessandro; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Tortoli, Enrico

    2017-09-01

    The characterization of five Iranian isolates, four from hospital haemodialysis water and one from the sputum of a patient, led to the detection of a novel mycobacterium species. The strains were characterized by mucoid colonies developing in 3-5 days at temperatures ranging from 25 to 37 °C. The biochemical test pattern was unremarkable while the HPLC profile of mycolic acids resembled that of Mycobacterium fortuitum. The sequences of three major housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB) were unique and differed from those of any other mycobacterium. Mycobacterium brisbanense, which is the species that shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.03 %), was distinct, as shown by the average nucleotide identity and by the genome to genome distance values (91.05 and 43.10 %, respectively). The strains are thus considered to represent a novel species of the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquaticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RW6T (=DSM 104277T=CIP111198T).

  6. [Case report: Rapidly growing abdominal wall giant desmoid tumour during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Zertuche, Jorge Tadeo; Cardona-Huerta, Servando; Juárez-García, María Luisa; Valdés-Flores, Everardo; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique

    Desmoid tumours are one of the rarest tumours worldwide, with an estimated yearly incidence of 2-4 new cases per million people. They are soft tissue monoclonal neoplasms that originate from mesenchymal stem cells. It seems that the hormonal and immunological changes occurring during pregnancy may play a role in the severity and course of the disease. The case is presented on 28-year-old female in her fifth week of gestation, in whom an abdominal wall tumour was found attached to left adnexa and uterus while performing a prenatal ultrasound. The patient was followed up under clinical and ultrasonographic surveillance. When she presented with abnormal uterine activity at 38.2 weeks of gestation, she was admitted and obstetrics decided to perform a caesarean section. Tumour biopsy was taken during the procedure. Histopathology reported a desmoid fibromatosis. A contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan was performed, showing a tumour of 26×20.5×18cm, with well-defined borders in contact with the uterus, left adnexa, bladder and abdominal wall, with no evidence of infiltration to adjacent structures. A laparotomy, with tumour resection, hysterectomy and left salpingo-oophorectomy, components separation techniques, polypropylene mesh insertion, and drainage was performed. The final histopathology report was desmoid fibromatosis. There is no evidence of recurrence after 6 months follow-up. Desmoid tumours are locally aggressive and surgical resection with clear margins is the basis for the treatment of this disease, using radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy as an adjunct in the treatment. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF LEGAL ORGANISATION OF RAPIDLY GROWING COMPANIES FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Novak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of a company’s legal form for the process of internationalisation using a sample of 1577 Slovenian companies. We refer to previous studies and on the basis of additional statistical data evaluate whether the choice of corporate legal structure influences a company’s ability to compete internationally. In the domestic market, most companies operate as limited liability companies; this is also the most frequent legal form in which companies enter foreign markets. We conclude that the form by itself does not influence the decision to go international.

  8. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measles outbreak over the 1987 Christmas/New Year period by increasing herd .... migration, the benefits of such a campaign may be short-lived, especially when ... services, including a long-term immunisation programme. Joseph9 advocates a ... which Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape. Town, has ...

  9. Predictors of Postpartum Depression in Dubai, a Rapidly Growing Multicultural Society in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhammadi, Salwa M; Hashem, Lien Abou; Abusbeih, Zainah R; Alzaabi, Fatima S; Alnuaimi, Salama N; Jalabi, Ala F; Nair, Satish C; Carrick, Frederick R; Abdulrahman, Mahera

    2017-09-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem adversely affecting mothers, their newborns, and other members of the family. Although PPD is common and potentially dangerous, only a minority of the cases are identified in primary health care settings during routine care, and the majority of depressed mothers in the community lies unrecognized and therefore untreated. In this study, a total of 1500 mothers were approached randomly, 808 accepted to participate, and 504 were within the inclusion criteria (women who had a birth of a singleton full-term healthy infant, had an uncomplicated pregnancy, and were within their one week to six months postpartum). The participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. A total of 168 women had an EPDS score ≥10, yielding a crude prevalence rate of 33%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 14 out of 504 (3%), among which 11 (79%) had EPDS score of ≥10. We fitted multiple linear regression models to evaluate the predictors of variables measured on the EPDS scale. This model was statistically significant pemployment status, baby's birth weight, stressful life event and marital conflict were statistically significant predictors. The findings of this study are anticipated to entail the government and policy makers in the region to pay more attention to the apparently high prevalence of unrevealed PPD in the community. It is crucial to enhance screening mechanisms for early detection, providing interventions to manage symptoms, and at the same time mandating local guidelines to address the PPD pathology as a high priority for the UAE population.

  10. An accelerating reference frame for electromagnetic waves in a rapidly growing plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yablonovitch, E.

    1989-01-01

    In 1974, Hawking showed that black holes can evaporate by the emission of low temperature thermal radiation, now named Hawking radiation. Shortly thereafter, a closely related effect called Unruh radiation became apparent. The author discusses how, according to Unruh and Davies, observers of the electromagnetic field in an accelerating reference frame should see thermal radiation at a temperature T: KT = h/2π a/c where a is the acceleration relative to an inertial frame, c is the speed of light and h and K are Planck's and Boltzmann's constant respectively. In a frame accelerating at g = 980 cm/sec 2 , equivalent to the acceleration experienced at the earth's surface, this thermal radiation is at a temperature of only 4 x 10 -20 degrees K. Therefore, physicists hoping to observe this radiation, have sought out systems being subjected to extreme acceleration

  11. A Little Salesmanship "Grows" a Long Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montas, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Goshen Elementary PTA's membership shrank the first year the author was PTA president. In the back of her mind, she was bothered by the fact that their membership numbers had dropped. So, after she attended a regional session with her vice president on growing membership, she got the courage to propose something different. They discussed with…

  12. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  13. Level crossing analysis of growing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazi, F; Sobhanian, S; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Khorram, S; Frootan, G R; Zahed, H

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the average frequency of positive slope ν + α , crossing the height α = h - h-bar in the surface growing processes. The exact level crossing analysis of the random deposition model and the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation in the strong coupling limit before creation of singularities is given

  14. The Growing Diversity of Work Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shirley J.

    1986-01-01

    The author highlights the predominance of the five-day, 40-hour workweek. Although finding little change in recent years in the proportion of workers on 40-hour schedules, Smith notes that there have been some changes in work patterns, with a still small but growing group of workers on "compressed" full-time weeks of less than five days.…

  15. Protect Your Health as You Grow Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you get older. It’s important to: Keep your body and mind active Choose healthy foods Get enough sleep Talk to your doctor ... Just like physical activity is good for your body, activities that challenge your ... your brain healthy. As you grow older, it's important to: Learn ...

  16. Cyber threat intelligence exchange: A growing requirement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, Namosha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing the rise of cyber-attacks has become a growing challenge. Cyber space has become a battleground of threats ranging from malware to phishing, spam and password theft. Cybersecurity solutions mainly try to take a defensive stance and build a...

  17. Growing a New Generation of Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrack, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of the United States, there is a growing shortage of music teachers to take the place of the retiring teachers. This is most evident in rural areas. If music teachers are not available to fill openings, music positions are sometimes combined, spreading music teachers too thin and requiring them to possess multiple music…

  18. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  19. IntelliGrow 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Jakob; Aaslyng, Jesper Peter Mazanti; Kalita, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    the system in full scale in five Danish commercial nurseries. The four steps to reach the goal are: 1) development of a demonstrator giving the grower advice on optimal climate control based on the IntelliGrow concept 2) testing the demonstrator at research facilities followed by tests at growers 3...

  20. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  1. The Slow-Growing Orange, A Demographer’s Look at Future Los Angeles,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    and even some downtown Los Angeles neighborhoods, through " gentrification "--will grow rapidly at the expense of others. A second dramatic aspect of...shores. Modern developments in commuaications and transportation, which have enabled us to expand trade with Asia and Latin America, have also

  2. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  3. Rapid Detection of Cell-Free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in Tuberculous Pleural Effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Nanying; Yang, Xinting; Liu, Zichen; Li, Kun; Chen, Xiaoyou

    2017-05-01

    Tuberculous pleurisy is one of the most common types of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, but its diagnosis remains difficult. In this study, we report for the first time on the detection of cell-free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in pleural effusion and an evaluation of a newly developed molecular assay for the detection of cell-free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. A total of 78 patients with pleural effusion, 60 patients with tuberculous pleurisy, and 18 patients with alternative diseases were included in this study. Mycobacterial culture, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, the adenosine deaminase assay, the T-SPOT.TB assay, and the cell-free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA assay were performed on all the pleural effusion samples. The cell-free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA assay and adenosine deaminase assay showed significantly higher sensitivities of 75.0% and 68.3%, respectively, than mycobacterial culture and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, which had sensitivities of 26.7% and 20.0%, respectively ( P pleural effusion showed the highest sensitivity of 95.0% but the lowest specificity of 38.9%. The cell-free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA assay detected as few as 1.25 copies of IS 6110 per ml of pleural effusion and showed good accordance of the results between repeated tests ( r = 0.978, P = 2.84 × 10 -10 ). These data suggest that the cell-free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA assay is a rapid and accurate molecular test which provides direct evidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis etiology. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Post liposuction Mycobacterium abscessus surgical site infection in a returned medical tourist complicated by a paradoxical reaction during treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siong H. Hui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacterial skin and soft tissue infections are known to complicate cosmetic surgical procedures. Treatment consists of more surgery and prolonged antibiotic therapy guided by drug susceptibility testing. Paradoxical reactions occurring during antibiotic therapy can further complicate treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. We report a case of post liposuction Mycobacterium abscessus surgical site infection in a returned medical tourist and occurrence of paradox during treatment.

  5. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  6. Growing electronic documents created by researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Weiss

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world technology is an indispensable element, both in personal and professional sphere. Despite the fact, that we do not attach significance to it in our everyday lives, the technological development engulfed us and still reminds us about that. In the face of dynamically growing digitization there occurred a new form of document – an electronic document. The study concerns the growing electronic documentation among researchers working at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. The analysis of surveys and interviews resulted in thesis, that researchers use e-document more frequently than analog documentation. Flexibility and accessibility of this type of documents become a problem in personal papers which will be archived in the future – maybe in most part in the form of electronic documentation.

  7. Petroleum demand continues to grow but slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    While it is always entertaining and intellectually stimulating to look at all the marvelous technological alternatives just around the corner for transport, the transport task in Australia continues to grow and so does petroleum consumption. Australia presently consumes more than 750,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Latest figures are given for petroleum consumption up to the end of August 1998. They indicate that total demand for petrol has continued to grow, but very slowly. Growth in 1997-1998 compared with 1996-1997 was only 0.3%. This trend for very low growth has been continued into July and August, perhaps indicative of a slow down in the economy

  8. An inducible expression system for high-level expression of recombinant proteins in slow growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leotta, Lisa; Spratt, Joanne M; Kong, Carlyn U; Triccas, James A

    2015-09-01

    A novel protein expression vector utilising the inducible hspX promoter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was constructed and evaluated in this study. High-level induction of three mycobacterial antigens, comprising up to 9% of bacterial sonicate, was demonstrated in recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG when grown under low-oxygen tension, which serves to enhance hspX promoter activity. Recombinant proteins were efficiently purified from bacterial lysates in a soluble form by virtue of a C-terminal 6-histidine tag. Purification of the immunodominant M. tuberculosis Ag85B antigen using this system resulted in a recombinant protein that stimulated significant IFN-γ release from Ag85B-reactive T cells generated after vaccination of mice with an Ag85B-expressing vaccine. Further, the M. tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) protein purified from recombinant BCG displayed strong enzymatic activity in recombinant form. This study demonstrated that high levels of native-like recombinant mycobacterial proteins can be produced in mycobacterial hosts, and this may aid the analysis of mycobacterial protein function and the development of new treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  10. Shape of the growing front of biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Stone, Howard A.; Golestanian, Ramin

    2017-12-01

    The spatial organization of bacteria in dense biofilms is key to their collective behaviour, and understanding it will be important for medical and technological applications. Here we study the morphology of a compact biofilm that undergoes unidirectional growth, and determine the condition for the stability of the growing interface as a function of the nutrient concentration and mechanical tension. Our study suggests that transient behaviour may play an important role in shaping the structure of a biofilm.

  11. Australia: A Growing Market for Asean Exports?

    OpenAIRE

    Tongzon, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Much has been written regarding South East Asian countries as growing markets for Australian exports particularly in the past decade. But nothing so far has been done to examine whether ASEAN exports have also experienced some redirection towards the Australian market. The findings confirm our a priori expectations: no significant general reorientation was observed for the ASEAN group of countries, and ASEAN’s country bias declined over the period under study. This is in contrast to the Austr...

  12. Growing Role of Retail in Distribution Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the growing role of retail trade (retail) in the channels of distribution of goods both in domestic and international markets. Technical-technological development has provided great opportunities for all production of material goods, so that the focus of problem in the economic possibilities of playing shifted from production to sales opportunities, or consumption. The ultimate consumers and their needs and requirements have become a central area of study, bas...

  13. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Martha [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-04-17

    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  14. Comparison of rapid diagnostic tests to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis disseminated infection in bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Tajbakhsh, Samaneh; Mosavari, Nader

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants. The presence of MAP in tissues other than intestines and associated lymph nodes, such as meat and liver, is a potential public health concern. In the present study, the relationship between the results of rapid diagnostic tests of the Johne's disease, such as serum ELISA, rectal scraping PCR, and acid-fast staining, and the presence of MAP in liver was evaluated. Blood, liver, and rectal scraping samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattle with unknown Johne's disease status. ELISA was performed to determine the MAP antibody activity in the serum. Acid-fast staining was performed on rectal scraping samples, and PCR was performed on rectal scraping and liver samples. PCR-positive liver samples were used for mycobacterial culture. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that MAP can be detected and cultured from liver of slaughtered cattle and rapid diagnostic tests of Johne's disease have limited value in detecting cattle with MAP infection in liver. These findings show that the presence of MAP in liver tissue may occur in cows with negative results for rapid diagnostic tests and vice versa. Hence, liver might represent another possible risk of human exposure to MAP. Given concerns about a potential zoonotic role for MAP, these results show the necessity to find new methods for detecting cattle with MAP disseminated infection.

  15. Number of Single-Sex Schools Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Tal

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's office for civil rights has proposed amending the regulations governing Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972--which prohibits sex discrimination in programs that receive federal money--to allow more flexibility in offering single-sex schools or classes. This article discusses the rapid growth of…

  16. Fruit-Growing in Latvia – Industry and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmane Edīte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In all times, fruit trees for family use have been grown at Latvian farms. Yet these fruits obtained market value only after the land ownership reform in 19th century. This facilitated rapid area increase of different fruit crops, allowing supply with fruits not only the local market, but also for export to the largest cities of Russia. Especially fast development of fruit-growing was observed during the first independent republic (1919–1940. The demand for planting material increased, and plants were imported from Western Europe. Choice of unsuitable cultivars and rootstocks was the main reason of the massive orchard area loss during the following severe winters. After the Second World War, the Soviet powers supported only the establishment of large orchards for processing needs, 200-300 ha, which were unsuitable for the Latvian climate and terrain. At the same time, numbers of allotment gardens rapidly increased and part of their produce was sold also on the market. After regaining of independence and private property, interest in fresh fruit and berry production for market, as well as processing, renewed. It was hindered by lack of continuity in experience and knowledge. Diversity of terrain, soils and climate all demand considerate choice of suitable orchard location and cultivars. Direct use of foreign experience often led to failure. At present, development of the fruit industry is most of all hindered by lack of qualified specialists of different levels, which does not allow to establish an appropriate consulting system. Cooperation of growers for easier marketing also is developing too slowly. Insufficient economic and market research does not allow to balance the demand with increase of plantation area, especially for large-scale processing and export, so strategic guidance of the fruit industry is not possible. Development of fruit-growing is hindered also by a lack of continuous long-term support to horticultural science. As a

  17. Exposure to vibrations in wine growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Pessina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart the winter period, the activity in specialized agricultural cultivations (i.e. wine- and fruit-growing is distributed for a long period of the year. Some tasks, such as pesticide distribution, are repeated several times during the growing season. On the other hand, mechanization is one of the pillars on which is based the modern agriculture management. As a consequence, in wine growing the tractor driver has to be considered a worker potentially subjected to high level of vibrations, due to the poor machinery conditions often encountered, and sometimes to the rough soil surface of the vineyard combined with the high travelling speed adopted in carrying out many operations. About vibrations, the Italian Decree 81/08 basically refers to the European Directive 2002/44/CE, that provides some very strict limits of exposure, both for whole body and hand-arm districts. In Oltrepo pavese, a large hilly area located the south part of the Pavia province (Lombardy - Italy wine growing is the main agricultural activity; for this reason, a detailed survey on the vibration levels recorded at the tractor driver’s seat was carried out, in order to ascertain the real risk to which the operators are exposed. The activity in wine growing has been classified into 6 groups of similar tasks, as follows: 1. canopy management: pruning, trimming, binding, stripping, etc.; 2. soil management: harrowing, hoeing, subsoiling etc.; 3. inter-row management: chopping of pruning , pinching, grass mowing, etc.; 4. crop protection: pesticides and fungicides distribution, sulfidation, foliar fertilization, etc.; 5. grape harvesting: manual or mechanical; 6. transport: from the vineyard to the cellar. For each group of tasks, the vibration levels on 3 the traditional axes (x, y and z were recorded, and then an exposure time was calculated for each of them, in order to ascertain the risk level in comparison to what provided by the dedicated standard. Finally, a detailed

  18. Cell wall lipids from Mycobacterium bovis BCG are inflammatory when inoculated within a gel matrix: characterization of a new model of the granulomatous response to mycobacterial components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Elizabeth R; Geisel, Rachel E; Butcher, Barbara A; McDonough, Sean; Russell, David G

    2005-05-01

    The chronic inflammatory response to Mycobacterium generates complex granulomatous lesions that balance containment with destruction of infected tissues. To study the contributing factors from host and pathogen, we developed a model wherein defined mycobacterial components and leukocytes are delivered in a gel, eliciting a localized response that can be retrieved and analysed. We validated the model by comparing responses to the cell wall lipids from Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to reported activities in other models. BCG lipid-coated beads and bone marrow-derived macrophages (input macrophages) were injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice. Input macrophages and recruited peritoneal exudate cells took up fluorescently tagged BCG lipids, and matrix-associated macrophages and neutrophils produced tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1alpha, and interleukin-6. Leukocyte numbers and cytokine levels were greater in BCG lipid-bearing matrices than matrices containing non-coated or phosphatidylglycerol-coated beads. Leukocytes arrived in successive waves of neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils, followed by NK and T cells (CD4(+), CD8(+), or gammadelta) at 7 days and B cells within 12 days. BCG lipids also predisposed matrices for adherence and vascularization, enhancing cellular recruitment. We submit that the matrix model presents pertinent features of the murine granulomatous response that will prove to be an adaptable method for study of this complex response.

  19. The Phytochemical Bergenin Enhances T Helper 1 Responses and Anti-Mycobacterial Immunity by Activating the MAP Kinase Pathway in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debprasad Chattopadhyay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains one of the greatest health concerns worldwide, which has hindered socioeconomic development in certain parts of the world for many centuries. Although current TB therapy, “Directly Observed Treatment Short-course,” is effective, it is associated with unwanted side effects and the risk for the generation of drug-resistant organisms. The majority of infected individuals successfully confine the mycobacterial organisms and remain asymptotic unless immune responses are perturbed. Thus, host immunity can protect against TB and immunomodulation is therefore an attractive therapeutic option. Previous studies have shown that TNF-α and Nitric Oxide (NO in conjunction with IFN-γ-producing T helper 1 (Th1 cells play critical roles in host protection against TB. Here, we show that bergenin, a phytochemical isolated from tender leaves of Shorea robusta, activates the MAP kinase and ERK pathways and induces TNF-α, NO and IL-12 production in infected macrophages. We further show that bergenin induces Th1 immune responses and potently inhibits bacillary growth in a murine model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These findings identify bergenin as a potential adjunct to TB therapy.

  20. Effect of study design and setting on tuberculosis clustering estimates using Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Jessica; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Cohen, Theodore; McHugh, Timothy D; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2015-01-21

    To systematically review the evidence for the impact of study design and setting on the interpretation of tuberculosis (TB) transmission using clustering derived from Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) strain typing. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, Web of Science and Scopus were searched for articles published before 21st October 2014. Studies in humans that reported the proportion of clustering of TB isolates by MIRU-VNTR were included in the analysis. Univariable meta-regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of study design and setting on the proportion of clustering. The search identified 27 eligible articles reporting clustering between 0% and 63%. The number of MIRU-VNTR loci typed, requiring consent to type patient isolates (as a proxy for sampling fraction), the TB incidence and the maximum cluster size explained 14%, 14%, 27% and 48% of between-study variation, respectively, and had a significant association with the proportion of clustering. Although MIRU-VNTR typing is being adopted worldwide there is a paucity of data on how study design and setting may influence estimates of clustering. We have highlighted study design variables for consideration in the design and interpretation of future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Serologic follow-up of IgG responses against recombinant mycobacterial proteins ML0405, ML2331 and LID-1 in a leprosy hyperendemic area in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Rada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a slowly evolving disease that occurs mainly in adults. In this study, the Mamaría Village, state of Portuguesa was selected because it had one of the highest prevalence rates (13.25% of leprosy cases in 1997. Between 1998-2004, 20.2% of the 89 cases registered in this village were less than 15 years old and 61.8% were males. Pau-cibacillary (PB lesions were the predominant clinical forms identified, although also multibacillary (MB forms were found. Additionally, 76% of the patients were bacteriologically negative. At the time of diagnosis, 75% of the patients presented with grade 0 disabilities, 23% with grade 1 and 2% with grade 2. Serum samples were collected from 18 PB and 15 MB patients, in addition to 14 family contacts, at the beginning and end of treatment. All the groups were re-evaluated during a three-year period (2008-2011. The proteins used for evaluation were ML0405, ML2331 and LID-1. These mycobacterial proteins were highly specific for Mycobacterium leprae and the IgG responses decreased in both MB and PB patients during multidrug treatment. Our results suggest that these antigens could be used as markers for successful treatment of non-reactional lepromatous patients.

  2. T Cell Reactivity against Mycolyl Transferase Antigen 85 of M. tuberculosis in HIV-TB Coinfected Subjects and in AIDS Patients Suffering from Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Launois

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycolyl transferase antigen 85 complex is a major secreted protein family from mycobacterial culture filtrate, demonstrating powerful T cell stimulatory properties in most HIV-negative, tuberculin-positive volunteers with latent M.tuberculosis infection and only weak responses in HIV-negative tuberculosis patients. Here, we have analyzed T cell reactivity against PPD and Ag85 in HIV-infected individuals, without or with clinical symptoms of tuberculosis, and in AIDS patients with disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Whereas responses to PPD were not significantly different in HIV-negative and HIV-positive tuberculin-positive volunteers, responses to Ag85 were significantly decreased in the HIV-positive (CDC-A and CDC-B group. Tuberculosis patients demonstrated low T cell reactivity against Ag85, irrespective of HIV infection, and finally AIDS patients suffering from NTM infections were completely nonreactive to Ag85. A one-year follow-up of twelve HIV-positive tuberculin-positive individuals indicated a decreased reactivity against Ag85 in patients developing clinical tuberculosis, highlighting the protective potential of this antigen.

  3. Enhanced effect of BCG vaccine against pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice with lung Th17 response to mycobacterial heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Masayuki; Shinjo, Kikuko; Umemura, Masayuki; Shigeno, Satoko; Harakuni, Tetsuya; Arakawa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Goro

    2015-12-01

    Although the BCG vaccine can prevent tuberculosis (TB) in infants, its ability to prevent adult pulmonary TB is reportedly limited. Therefore, development of a novel effective vaccine against pulmonary TB has become an international research priority. We have previously reported that intranasal vaccination of mice with a mycobacterial heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) plus mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) enhances production of IFN-γ and anti-HBHA antibody and suppresses extrapulmonary bacterial dissemination after intranasal infection with BCG. In the present study, the effects of intranasal HBHA + CT vaccine on murine pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection were examined. Intranasal HBHA + CT vaccination alone failed to reduce the bacterial burden in the infected lung. However, a combination vaccine consisting of s.c. BCG priming and an intranasal HBHA + CT booster significantly enhanced protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection on day 14 compared with BCG vaccine alone. Further, it was found that intranasal HBHA + CT vaccine enhanced not only IFN-γ but also IL-17A production by HBHA-specific T cells in the lung after pulmonary Mtb infection. Therefore, this combination vaccine may be a good candidate for a new vaccine strategy against pulmonary TB. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thin film growing by the laser ablation technique: possibilities for growing of dosimetric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas R, E.M.; Melo M, M.; Enriquez Z, E.; Fernandez G, M.; Haro P, E.; Hernandez P, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    In this talk we will present the basics about the laser ablation technique and how it is used for thin film growing, either as a single film or a stack of thin films, as well as some methods to characterize in real time the film thickness. Finally, we will discuss the possibilities of using laser ablation for growing thin films with applications to dosimetry. (Author)

  6. Growing media constituents determine the microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media for horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Oliver; Reheul, Dirk; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Perneel, Maaike; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy food diet, however, the eco-sustainability of the production of these can still be significantly improved. European farmers and consumers spend an estimated €15.5 billion per year on inorganic fertilizers and the production of N-fertilizers results in a high carbon footprint. We investigated if fertilizer type and medium constituents determine microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media and can be used as a next step towards a more sustainable horticulture. We demonstrated that growing media constituents showed differences in urea hydrolysis, ammonia and nitrite oxidation and in carbon dioxide respiration rate. Interestingly, mixing of the growing media constituents resulted in a stimulation of the function of the microorganisms. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in an increase in amoA gene copy number by factor 100 compared to inorganic fertilizers. Our results support our hypothesis that the activity of the functional microbial community with respect to nitrogen turnover in an organic growing medium can be improved by selecting and mixing the appropriate growing media components with each other. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional microbial community in growing media and its potential role towards a more responsible horticulture. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Nurturing a growing field: Computers & Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Pebesma, Edzer

    2017-10-01

    Computational issues are becoming increasingly critical for virtually all fields of geoscience. This includes the development of improved algorithms and models, strategies for implementing high-performance computing, or the management and visualization of the large datasets provided by an ever-growing number of environmental sensors. Such issues are central to scientific fields as diverse as geological modeling, Earth observation, geophysics or climatology, to name just a few. Related computational advances, across a range of geoscience disciplines, are the core focus of Computers & Geosciences, which is thus a truly multidisciplinary journal.

  8. Play Games to Grow up Bilingual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2007-01-01

    A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items......, that the player can collect and exchange for other words or for concrete objects. A prototype is currently under development, and it will be tested in cooperation with local schools. By design this linguistic game will also be extensible, so parents and teachers can tailor it with respect to languages...... and learning contexts....

  9. Play Games to Grow up Bilingual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2008-01-01

    A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items......, that the player can collect and exchange for other words or for concrete objects. A prototype is currently under development, and it will be tested in cooperation with local schools. By design this linguistic game will also be extensible, so parents and teachers can tailor it with respect to languages...... and learning contexts....

  10. Parallelized Seeded Region Growing Using CUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjin Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests.

  11. Evaluation of a rapid radiometric differentiation test for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by selective inhibition with p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta-hydroxypropiophenone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, A.; Siddiqi, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of a rapid technique for the differentiation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from other mycobacteria, using p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta- hydroxypropiophenone (NAP) as a selective inhibitory agent. A total of 416 coded cultures, 234 cultures belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex and 182 cultures belonging to 35 other mycobacterial species, were tested in two laboratories for p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta- hydroxypropiophenone inhibition to concentrations of 5 and 10 micrograms of NAP per ml in Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Two testing modes were compared: the indirect, in which a large bacterial inoculum was used from an isolated culture on a solid medium, and the direct, which used a small inoculum from 7H12 medium. A decrease or no increase in daily 14 CO 2 output as measured by a BACTEC system was considered evidence of inhibition. The data presented show that a concentration of 5 micrograms of NAP per ml can effectively separate the M. tuberculosis complex from other mycobacterial species in 4 to 6 days. The direct test data show that, unlike other conventional biochemical tests, it does not require a heavy inoculum of mycobacteria and can therefore be performed soon after growth is detected by the radiometric method

  12. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  13. Mechanotransduction mechanisms in growing spherically structured tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohns, Euan; Dunlop, Carina M.

    2018-04-01

    There is increasing experimental interest in mechanotransduction in multi-cellular tissues as opposed to single cells. This is driven by a growing awareness of the importance of physiologically relevant three-dimensional culture and of cell–cell and cell–gel interactions in directing growth and development. The paradigm biophysical technique for investigating tissue level mechanobiology in this context is to grow model tissues in artificial gels with well-defined mechanical properties. These studies often indicate that the stiffness of the encapsulating gel can significantly alter cellular behaviours. We demonstrate here potential mechanisms linking tissue growth with stiffness-mediated mechanotransduction. We show how tissue growth in gel systems generates points at which there is a significant qualitative change in the cellular stress and strain experienced. We show analytically how these potential switching points depend on the mechanical properties of the constraining gel and predict when they will occur. Significantly, we identify distinct mechanisms that act separately in each of the stress and strain fields at different times. These observations suggest growth as a potential physical mechanism coupling gel stiffness with cellular mechanotransduction in three-dimensional tissues. We additionally show that non-proliferating areas, in the case that the constraining gel is soft compared with the tissue, will expand and contract passively as a result of growth. Central compartment size is thus seen to not be a reliable indicator on its own for growth initiation or active behaviour.

  14. Growing a green economy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qingqing; Xu, He; Ji, Yijun

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of economy, resource depletion and environmental degradation have become serious challenges for Chinese sustainable development. Green development is a mode of well environmental and high-quality economic development. It is necessary for China to implement green development. In this review, it discusses the green development problems in China, the international experience and connotation of green development are summarized and identified further. Based on the connotation and experience of green economy development, it puts forward several countermeasures and suggestions for Chinese green development finally.

  15. Popularity versus similarity in growing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Kitsak, Maksim; Serrano, Mariangeles; Boguna, Marian

    2012-02-01

    Preferential attachment is a powerful mechanism explaining the emergence of scaling in growing networks. If new connections are established preferentially to more popular nodes in a network, then the network is scale-free. Here we show that not only popularity but also similarity is a strong force shaping the network structure and dynamics. We develop a framework where new connections, instead of preferring popular nodes, optimize certain trade-offs between popularity and similarity. The framework admits a geometric interpretation, in which preferential attachment emerges from local optimization processes. As opposed to preferential attachment, the optimization framework accurately describes large-scale evolution of technological (Internet), social (web of trust), and biological (E.coli metabolic) networks, predicting the probability of new links in them with a remarkable precision. The developed framework can thus be used for predicting new links in evolving networks, and provides a different perspective on preferential attachment as an emergent phenomenon.

  16. THE FASTEST GROWING LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta NOWAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents trends in economic growth and development in twelve least developed countries from 2006 to 2015. The study is based on the data retrieved from the World Bank Database. During the analysed 10 years, seven Asian (Myanmar, Lao PDR, Bhutan, Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan and five African (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Angola, Sudan, and Mozambique LDCs had average annual GDP per capita growth rates higher than 4.0%. GDP has been largely generated through the services and industry sectors. A few LDCs sustained strong growth mainly because of foreign assistance and in other countries remittances were a significant source of development finance. Resource rich countries recorded high inflows of foreign direct investment. In a few fast growing LDCs the state has been heavily engaged in economy. The analysed LDCs substantially improved their development indicators.

  17. Growing hierarchical probabilistic self-organizing graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rubio, Ezequiel; Palomo, Esteban José

    2011-07-01

    Since the introduction of the growing hierarchical self-organizing map, much work has been done on self-organizing neural models with a dynamic structure. These models allow adjusting the layers of the model to the features of the input dataset. Here we propose a new self-organizing model which is based on a probabilistic mixture of multivariate Gaussian components. The learning rule is derived from the stochastic approximation framework, and a probabilistic criterion is used to control the growth of the model. Moreover, the model is able to adapt to the topology of each layer, so that a hierarchy of dynamic graphs is built. This overcomes the limitations of the self-organizing maps with a fixed topology, and gives rise to a faithful visualization method for high-dimensional data.

  18. Personal stories of growing up sexually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausang, C C

    2000-01-01

    Prevention of problems related to sexuality during adolescence continues to be a major public health challenge. Describing childhood perceptions of sexuality is an important step in understanding sexual issues during adolescence. However, there is a paucity of information about sexuality in early life. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe recurrent themes in personal stories of growing up sexually. A thematic analysis with a narrative perspective was applied using the method described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Four interrelated themes pervaded the stories: parents as teachers, sex is secret, learning by experience, and first intercourse as a turning point. These findings have major implications for sexual health education and counseling in addition to further research.

  19. Properties of acatalasic cells growing in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krooth, R S; Howell, R R; Hamilton, H B

    1961-07-19

    Acatalasia, a disease due to homozygosity for a Mendelian gene, is characterized by the absence of the enzyme catalase from the tissues of the human body. Red cells from heterozygotes have enzyme activities about one-half normal. In this report, the development of cell lines from skin biopsies of an affected homozygote, a heterozygote and eight control patients is described. The cell type is the euploid fibroblast. It was found that acatalasic cells lacked the enzyme, even after growing for many months in a medium rich in catalase. The control lines all had mean catalase activity double or more that of the heterozygous line. Selection experiments, measuring growth of cells exposed for 20 minutes to varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, did not provide a system for preferentially eliminating acatalastic cells. Certain other experiments were performed bearing on the enzymatic defect in this disease. 23 references, 7 figures, 6 tables.

  20. Ion Frequency Landscape in Growing Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Pietruszka

    Full Text Available It has been interesting that nearly all of the ion activities that have been analysed thus far have exhibited oscillations that are tightly coupled to growth. Here, we present discrete Fourier transform (DFT spectra with a finite sampling of tip-growing cells and organs that were obtained from voltage measurements of the elongating coleoptiles of maize in situ. The electromotive force (EMF oscillations (~ 0.1 μV were measured in a simple but highly sensitive resistor-inductor circuit (RL circuit, in which the solenoid was initially placed at the tip of the specimen and then was moved thus changing its position in relation to growth (EMF can be measured first at the tip, then at the sub-apical part and finally at the shank. The influx- and efflux-induced oscillations of Ca2+, along with H+, K+ and Cl- were densely sampled (preserving the Nyquist theorem in order to 'grasp the structure' of the pulse, the logarithmic amplitude of pulse spectrum was calculated, and the detected frequencies, which displayed a periodic sequence of pulses, were compared with the literature data. A band of life vital individual pulses was obtained in a single run of the experiment, which not only allowed the fundamental frequencies (and intensities of the processes to be determined but also permitted the phase relations of the various transport processes in the plasma membrane and tonoplast to be established. A discrete (quantised frequency spectrum was achieved for a growing plant for the first time, while all of the metabolic and enzymatic functions of the life cell cycle were preserved using this totally non-invasive treatment.

  1. The radiology of IRIS (immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome) in patients with mycobacterial tuberculosis and HIV co-infection: appearances in 11 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajeswaran, G.; Becker, J.L.; Michailidis, C.; Pozniak, A.L.; Padley, S.P.G.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To determine the radiological manifestations of IRIS (immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome) in patients with HIV and mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection, in the context of their demographic and clinical data. Materials and methods: The radiological imaging, demographic and clinical data of 11 patients diagnosed with IRIS associated with HIV and mycobacterial tuberculosis co-infection were studied retrospectively. Where available, follow-up imaging studies were also reviewed. Results: The most common radiological feature of IRIS was lymph node enlargement (73%), with central low attenuation centres, in keeping with necrosis, present in most of these cases (88%). Most commonly affected were intra-abdominal nodes (70%), followed by axillary (40%) and mediastinal lymph nodes (36%). Within the lung parenchyma, diffuse, bilateral pulmonary nodules were seen in 55% of cases. Unilateral small volume pleural effusions were seen in two cases with associated parenchymal changes seen in only one. Small volume ascites was seen in two cases. Thirty-six percent of cases presented with new or worsening abscesses despite treatment. In this context, image-guided radiological drainage proved a useful adjunct to the conventional medical therapy for IRIS. The most common clinical signs of IRIS included fever (64%), abdominal pain (36%) and cough (27%). Conclusion: We have described the radiological features that are characteristic in IRIS and the importance of putting these into context with the clinical and pathological findings as part of a multidisciplinary approach in making the diagnosis. The role of the radiologist is central in diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression and management of complications in patients with IRIS

  2. MicroRNA-20a inhibits autophagic process by targeting ATG7 and ATG16L1 and favors mycobacterial survival in macrophage cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy plays important roles in the host immune response against mycobacterial infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis can live in macrophages owing to its ability to evade attacks by regulating autophagic response. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding, endogenously encoded RNA which plays critical roles in precise regulation of macrophage functions. Whether miRNAs specifically influence the activation of macrophage autophagy during M. tuberculosis infection are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that BCG infection of macrophages resulted in enhanced expression of miRNA-20a, which inhibits autophagic process by targeting ATG7 and ATG16L1 and promotes BCG survival in macrophages. Forced overexpression of miR-20a decreased the expression levels of LC3-II and the number of LC3 puncta in macrophages, and promoted BCG survival in macrophages, while transfection with miR-20a inhibitor had the opposite effect. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of miR-20a on autophagy was further confimed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis. Quantification of autophagosomes per cellular cross-section revealed a significant reduction upon transfection with miR-20a mimic, but transfection with miR-20a inhibitor increased the number of autophagosomes per cellular cross-section. Moreover, silencing of ATG7 significantly inhibited autophagic response, and transfection with ATG7 siRNA plus miR-20a mimic could further decrease autophagic response. Collectively, our data reveal that miR-20a inhibits autophagic response and promotes BCG survival in macrophages by targeting ATG7 and ATG16L1, which may have implications for a better understanding of pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis infection.

  3. microRNA-20a Inhibits Autophagic Process by Targeting ATG7 and ATG16L1 and Favors Mycobacterial Survival in Macrophage Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Le; Zhao, Jin; Qu, Yuliang; Yin, Runting; Gao, Qian; Ding, Shuqin; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Jun; Xu, Guangxian

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy plays important roles in the host immune response against mycobacterial infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tuberculosis ) can live in macrophages owing to its ability to evade attacks by regulating autophagic response. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding, endogenously encoded RNA which plays critical roles in precise regulation of macrophage functions. Whether miRNAs specifically influence the activation of macrophage autophagy during M. tuberculosis infection are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that BCG infection of macrophages resulted in enhanced expression of miRNA-20a, which inhibits autophagic process by targeting ATG7 and ATG16L1 and promotes BCG survival in macrophages. Forced overexpression of miR-20a decreased the expression levels of LC3-II and the number of LC3 puncta in macrophages, and promoted BCG survival in macrophages, while transfection with miR-20a inhibitor had the opposite effect. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of miR-20a on autophagy was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Quantification of autophagosomes per cellular cross-section revealed a significant reduction upon transfection with miR-20a mimic, but transfection with miR-20a inhibitor increased the number of autophagosomes per cellular cross-section. Moreover, silencing of ATG7 significantly inhibited autophagic response, and transfection with ATG7 siRNA plus miR-20a mimic could further decrease autophagic response. Collectively, our data reveal that miR-20a inhibits autophagic response and promotes BCG survival in macrophages by targeting ATG7 and ATG16L1, which may have implications for a better understanding of pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis infection.

  4. In Vitro Evaluation of Linezolid and Meropenem Against Clinical Isolates of Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis By Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, I. A.; Satti, L.; Khan, F. A.; Khan, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro effectiveness of multiple breakpoint concentrations of newer antituberculosis agents (Linezolid and Meropenem) against Multi Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates. Study Design: Adescriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from September 2011 to August 2013. Methodology: Atotal of 100 MDR-TB isolates recovered during the study period were subjected to susceptibility testing against multiple breakpoint concentrations of Linezolid (LZD) and Meropenem (MER). The breakpoint concentration used for LZD were 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 micro g/ml, while for MER were 4.0, 8.0 and 16 micro g/ml. Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system was used to carry out drug susceptibility testing as per recommended protocol. Results: At break point concentration of 0.5 micro g/ml, 80 out of 100 (80%) MDR-TB isolates were susceptible to LZD while at breakpoint concentration of 1.0 micro g/ml and 2.0 micro g/ml, 96/100, (96%) of MDR-TB isolates were susceptible. For MER, at breakpoint concentrations of 4.0 micro g/ml no MDR-TB isolate was susceptible, while at 8.0 micro g/ml 3/100, (3%) and at 16.0 micro g/ml 11/100, (11%) of MDR-TB isolates were susceptible. Conclusion: LZD was found to have excellent in vitroefficacy as 96% of MDR-TB isolates were susceptible at breakpoint concentration of 1.0 micro g/ml or more. In case of MER it was found that in vitrosusceptibility improved as the break point concentrations were increased. (author)

  5. The Epidemiological Significance and Temporal Stability of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats-Based Method Applied to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to validate the epidemiological significance and temporal stability of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing in a genetically and geographically diverse set of clinical isolates from patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis in China. Between 2010 and 2013, a total of 982 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from four population-based investigations in China. Apart from the currently applied 24-locus MIRU-VNTR, six additional hypervariable loci were analyzed in order to validate the MIRU-VNTR combinations in terms of their epidemiological links, clustering time span, and paired geographic distance. In vitro temporal stability was analyzed for both individual MIRU-VNTR loci, and for several combinations of loci. In the present study, four MIRU-VNTR combinations, including the hypervariable loci 3820, 3232, 2163a, and 4120, were evaluated. All of these combinations obtained a Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI value over 0.9900 with a reduced clustering proportion (from 32.0% to 25.6%. By comparing epidemiological links, clustering time span, and paired geographic distance, we found that the performances of the four MIRU-VNTR combinations were comparable to the insertion sequence 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP, and significantly better than that of 24-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping alone. The proportion of temporally stable loci ranged from 90.5% to 92.5% within the combined MIRU-VNTR genotyping, which is higher than IS6110-RFLP (85.4%. By adding four hypervariable loci to the standard 24-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping, we obtained a high discriminatory power, stability and epidemiological significance. This algorithm could therefore be used to improve tuberculosis transmission surveillance and outbreak investigation in China.

  6. Non tuberculous mycobacterial lesion of the parotid gland and facial skin in a 4year old girl: A proposed treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovic, Juraj; Vanchiere, John A; Gungor, Anil

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a parotid-facial caseating granulomatous infection caused by atypical mycobacteria (Mycobacterium avium) in an immuno-competent child. The size and depth of the lesion and its proximity to the facial nerve present a challenge for a purely surgical treatment strategy. An alternative treatment strategy is developed to avoid severe disfigurement. Atypical mycobacterial infection of the parotid region in a 5 year old girl: timeline and definition of a planned combined treatment strategy with antibiotics and surgical excision. Cervicofacial infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may present surgical challenges due to the size and depth of the lesion and its proximity to the facial nerve and major vascular structures. Even minor scars are highly visible and poorly tolerated. Close clinical monitoring combined with judicious treatment strategies is necessary for successful treatment and good cosmesis. Recent literature provides insufficient guidance in formulating the best treatment strategy for the individual patient. Comparisons of antibiotic therapy with variations of surgical excision are abundant but poorly formulated. Our case presented with a lesion involving skin, superficial and deep lobe of the parotid gland. Lesion was in immediate proximity to the distribution of the facial nerve through the parotid gland. The risk of surgical damage to the facial nerve in the acute phase of the inflammation and the required extent of skin excision were significant. We decided to start treatment with combination antimycobacterial antibiotics in close cooperation with the pediatric infectious disease specialists. We observed and documented the regress and executed a delayed surgical excision when the lesion was reduced to skin only. In our opinion this was the best treatment strategy that helped us avoid extensive dissection in the vicinity of the facial nerve as well as a parotidectomy. Excision of the involved skin with the deep portion

  7. Mycobacterial r32-kDa antigen-specific T-cell responses correlate with successful treatment and a heightened anti-microbial response in human leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neela, Venkata Sanjeev Kumar; Devalraju, Kamakshi Prudhula; Pydi, Satya Sudheer; Sunder, Sharada Ramaseri; Adiraju, Kameswara Rao; Singh, Surya Satyanarayana; Anandaraj, M P J S; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi

    2016-09-01

    Immunological characterization of mycobacterial peptides may help not only in the preparation of a vaccine for leprosy but also in developing in vitro T-cell assays that could perhaps be used as an in vitro correlate for treatment outcome. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the use of Mycobacterium bovis recombinant 32-kDa protein (r32-kDa) antigen-stimulated T-cell assay as a surrogate marker for treatment outcome and monitor vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated anti-microbial responses during multidrug therapy (MDT) in leprosy. Newly diagnosed tuberculoid and lepromatous leprosy patients were enrolled and followed up during their course of MDT at 6 and 12 months. IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 levels in culture supernatants and expression of VDR, TLR2, LL37 and DEFB in r32-kDa-stimulated PBMCs were measured. Controls comprised household contacts (HHCs) and healthy endemic subjects (HCs). Significant differences were observed in the levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-23, VDR and anti-microbial peptides LL37 and DEFB after treatment and when compared with that of HHCs and HCs, respectively. These findings suggest that responses to r32-kDa antigen reflect an improved immunological and anti-microbial response in leprosy patients during therapy, thereby indicating its potential use as an immune correlate in the treatment of leprosy patients. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Dermatite micobacteriana atípica em gato: relato de caso Atypical mycobacterial dermatitis in cat: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Larsson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se, pela primeira vez no Brasil, um caso de dermatite decorrente de infecção por micobactéria atípica do complexo Mycobacterium fortuitum-peregrinum, em espécie felina, sem raça definida, fêmea, com cinco anos de idade. Há oito meses, evoluía com lesões maculares equimóticas, nodulares, erosadas, ulceradas, acompanhadas de fístulas exsudativas, com intenso prurido e algia. Evidenciou-se a presença de micobactéria do complexo Mycobacterium fortuitum-peregrinum (grupo IV de Runyon identificada após evidenciação histopatológica, cultivo bacteriano e por testes bioquímicos. Após dois meses de terapia sistêmica com enrofloxacina (5mg/kg/Bid/VO e tópica (triclosan e rifamicina houve involução das lesões, com efeitos colaterais discretos.A case of dermatitis caused by atypical mycobateria of Mycobacterium fortuitum peregrinum complex was observed for the first time in Brazil. A five-year-old female mixed breed cat had a dermatitis process which had started eight months before. Lesions were characterized by macules, nodules, erosions, ulcers and exsudative fistulas, with intensive pruritus and pain. It had failed to respond to clinical treatment and surgical excision. The diagnosis was based on history, physical and dermatologic examination and complementary tests (cytologic, bacterioscopic, bacterial culture, histopathological, hemathological, ultrasonographic, radiographic and electrocardiographic. The presence of mycobacteria of Mycobacterium fortuitum-peregrinum complex (group IV of Runyon was observed and identified after histopathological evidence, bacterial culture and biochemical tests. After two months of systemic therapy with enrofloxacin (5mg/kg, orally/twice a day and topic treatment with triclosan and rifamicin, rapid improvement of the clinical appearance of the lesions were observed with low incidence of side-effects.

  9. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  11. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  12. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  13. Unique features of the structure and interactions of mycobacterial uracil-DNA glycosylase: structure of a complex of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme in comparison with those from other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Prem Singh; Talawar, Ramappa K; Krishna, P D V; Varshney, Umesh; Vijayan, M

    2008-05-01

    Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG), a repair enzyme involved in the excision of uracil from DNA, from mycobacteria differs from UNGs from other sources, particularly in the sequence in the catalytically important loops. The structure of the enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtUng) in complex with a proteinaceous inhibitor (Ugi) has been determined by X-ray analysis of a crystal containing seven crystallographically independent copies of the complex. This structure provides the first geometric characterization of a mycobacterial UNG. A comparison of the structure with those of other UNG proteins of known structure shows that a central core region of the molecule is relatively invariant in structure and sequence, while the N- and C-terminal tails exhibit high variability. The tails are probably important in folding and stability. The mycobacterial enzyme exhibits differences in UNG-Ugi interactions compared with those involving UNG from other sources. The MtUng-DNA complex modelled on the basis of the known structure of the complex involving the human enzyme indicates a domain closure in the enzyme when binding to DNA. The binding involves a larger burial of surface area than is observed in binding by human UNG. The DNA-binding site of MtUng is characterized by the presence of a higher proportion of arginyl residues than is found in the binding site of any other UNG of known structure. In addition to the electrostatic effects produced by the arginyl residues, the hydrogen bonds in which they are involved compensate for the loss of some interactions arising from changes in amino-acid residues, particularly in the catalytic loops. The results arising from the present investigation represent unique features of the structure and interaction of mycobacterial Ungs.

  14. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  15. A travel clinic in your office: grow your practice and protect international travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Medical practices today face economic challenges from declining reimbursements and rising overhead costs. Physicians need to develop new income sources to invigorate their practices and remain viable. Travel medicine-advising and immunizing international travelers-is a rapidly growing specialty in the United States that generates substantial cash reimbursements and professional satisfaction. Travel Clinics of America, a physician-operated company, specializes in helping physicians to incorporate travel medicine into their existing practices.

  16. The Bright Lights Grow Fainter - livelihoods, migration and a small town in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Agnes

    2002-01-01

    The Aids pandemic and structural adjustment policies (SAP) have had effects on lower income households in Zimbabwe which have been devastating and people have been required to adapt their livelihood strategies. Small towns meahnwhile are growing rapidly in Zimbabwe and mobility towards these towns may be connected with the changes being forged by SAP on the economic landscape. This study seeks to establish how the individual migrant uses mobility tot negotiate this landscape. This involves mo...

  17. Growing Youth Growing Food: How Vegetable Gardening Influences Young People's Food Consciousness and Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Much attention is currently being paid to rising rates of obesity, especially among youth. In this context, garden-based education can have a role in improving public health. A qualitative study conducted at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) Children's Garden provides supporting evidence for the claim that growing vegetables can improve the…

  18. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing. The emphasis of this work is on the methodology of composite fabrication and the variety of materials used in these technologies.

  19. Metabolomic response of Calotropis procera growing in the desert to changes in water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Ahmed; Sabir, Jamal S M; Alakilli, Saleha Y M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Gadalla, Nour O; Edris, Sherif; Al-Kordy, Magdy A; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Bahieldin, Ahmed; Baker, Neil R; Willmitzer, Lothar; Irgang, Susann

    2014-01-01

    Water availability is a major limitation for agricultural productivity. Plants growing in severe arid climates such as deserts provide tools for studying plant growth and performance under extreme drought conditions. The perennial species Calotropis procera used in this study is a shrub growing in many arid areas which has an exceptional ability to adapt and be productive in severe arid conditions. We describe the results of studying the metabolomic response of wild C procera plants growing in the desert to a one time water supply. Leaves of C. procera plants were taken at three time points before and 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after watering and subjected to a metabolomics and lipidomics analysis. Analysis of the data reveals that within one hour after watering C. procera has already responded on the metabolic level to the sudden water availability as evidenced by major changes such as increased levels of most amino acids, a decrease in sucrose, raffinose and maltitol, a decrease in storage lipids (triacylglycerols) and an increase in membrane lipids including photosynthetic membranes. These changes still prevail at the 6 hour time point after watering however 12 hours after watering the metabolomics data are essentially indistinguishable from the prewatering state thus demonstrating not only a rapid response to water availability but also a rapid response to loss of water. Taken together these data suggest that the ability of C. procera to survive under the very harsh drought conditions prevailing in the desert might be associated with its rapid adjustments to water availability and losses.

  20. Relatively Inexpensive Rapid Prototyping of Small Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Parts with complex three-dimensional shapes and with dimensions up to 8 by 8 by 10 in. (20.3 by 20.3 by 25.4 cm) can be made as unitary pieces of a room-temperature-curing polymer, with relatively little investment in time and money, by a process now in use at Johnson Space Center. The process is one of a growing number of processes and techniques that are known collectively as the art of rapid prototyping. The main advantages of this process over other rapid-prototyping processes are greater speed and lower cost: There is no need to make paper drawings and take them to a shop for fabrication, and thus no need for the attendant paperwork and organizational delays. Instead, molds for desired parts are made automatically on a machine that is guided by data from a computer-aided design (CAD) system and can reside in an engineering office.

  1. Access to capital--a growing concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Donald A

    2004-01-01

    Access to capital over the next ten years will be one of the biggest challenges healthcare organizations will face as they strive to remain competitive and serve their communities. Meeting the growing needs for capital will require a disciplined and honest assessment of the capital sources that will be available and the best ways of positioning an organization to maximize their uses. It is incumbent on chief executive officers and other senior leaders to create a disciplined process for allocating capital and conveying how that process will be linked to the organization's strategic plan. All of the credit constituencies "buying" healthcare need to fully understand how the organization is positioning itself for future growth and success, and detailed bond marketing plans need to be implemented well before the actual sale of a new bond issue. Large and small healthcare providers will have sufficient access to capital in the future if investors believe that senior hospital executives have a credible plan and are disciplined enough to execute it.

  2. High-purity germanium crystal growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1982-10-01

    The germanium crystals used for the fabrication of nuclear radiation detectors are required to have a purity and crystalline perfection which is unsurpassed by any other solid material. These crystals should not have a net electrically active impurity concentration greater than 10 10 cm - 3 and be essentially free of charge trapping defects. Such perfect crystals of germanium can be grown only because of the highly favorable chemical and physical properties of this element. However, ten years of laboratory scale and commercial experience has still not made the production of such crystals routine. The origin and control of many impurities and electrically active defect complexes is now fairly well understood but regular production is often interrupted for long periods due to the difficulty of achieving the required high purity or to charge trapping in detectors made from crystals seemingly grown under the required conditions. The compromises involved in the selection of zone refining and crystal grower parts and ambients is discussed and the difficulty in controlling the purity of key elements in the process is emphasized. The consequences of growing in a hydrogen ambient are discussed in detail and it is shown how complexes of neutral defects produce electrically active centers

  3. Growing networks with mixed attachment mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Zhigang; Zou Xianwu; Tan Zhijie; Jin Zhunzhi

    2006-01-01

    Networks grow and evolve when new nodes and links are added in. There are two methods to add the links: uniform attachment and preferential attachment. We take account of the addition of links with mixed attachment between uniform attachment and preferential attachment in proportion. By using numerical simulations and analysis based on a continuum theory, we obtain that the degree distribution P(k) has an extended power-law form P(k) ∼ (k + k 0 ) -γ . When the number of edges k of a node is much larger than a certain value k 0 , the degree distribution reduces to the power-law form P(k) ∼ k -γ ; and when k is much smaller than k 0 , the degree distribution degenerates into the exponential form P(k)∼exp(-yk/k 0 ). It has been found that degree distribution possesses this extended power-law form for many real networks, such as the movie actor network, the citation network of scientific papers and diverse protein interaction networks

  4. Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, Kirill S; Müller, Melanie J I; Murray, Andrew W; Nelson, David R; Karahan, Nilay; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction–diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction–diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays. (paper)

  5. Growing markets to sustain oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of Alberta bitumen for the clean fuels market depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production in Western Canada. Several issues pose a challenge to the oil sands processing industry. The producers' market is affected by crude oil prices, market expansion options, diluent availability/cost, supply cost competitiveness, and regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. A brief review of markets for Canadian crude oil, including synthetic crude, was provided. The share of the Midwest market by Alberta must be retained and increased. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. To reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California, new pipeline capacity would be required. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. tabs., figs

  6. Popularity versus similarity in growing networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Kitsak, Maksim; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2012-09-27

    The principle that 'popularity is attractive' underlies preferential attachment, which is a common explanation for the emergence of scaling in growing networks. If new connections are made preferentially to more popular nodes, then the resulting distribution of the number of connections possessed by nodes follows power laws, as observed in many real networks. Preferential attachment has been directly validated for some real networks (including the Internet), and can be a consequence of different underlying processes based on node fitness, ranking, optimization, random walks or duplication. Here we show that popularity is just one dimension of attractiveness; another dimension is similarity. We develop a framework in which new connections optimize certain trade-offs between popularity and similarity, instead of simply preferring popular nodes. The framework has a geometric interpretation in which popularity preference emerges from local optimization. As opposed to preferential attachment, our optimization framework accurately describes the large-scale evolution of technological (the Internet), social (trust relationships between people) and biological (Escherichia coli metabolic) networks, predicting the probability of new links with high precision. The framework that we have developed can thus be used for predicting new links in evolving networks, and provides a different perspective on preferential attachment as an emergent phenomenon.

  7. Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Kirill S.; Müller, Melanie J. I.; Karahan, Nilay; Murray, Andrew W.; Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R.

    2012-04-01

    Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction-diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction-diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays.

  8. Growing Brazilian demand to spur gas network in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffarges, E.H.; Maurer, L.I.A.

    1993-01-01

    A recent combination in South America of economic and geopolitical factors is prompting development of a new integrated gas-pipeline network in the continent's Southern Cone. The crucial factors include privatization, regional integration, economic growth, and environmental concerns. The area, Latin America's largest regional entity, includes Brazil (population 150 million and a 1990 GNP of about $375 billion, 9th largest in the world), Argentina (population 32 million and the third largest Latin American economy after Brazil and Mexico), Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay are members of the MercoSur economic bloc whose objective is to develop free trade in the region. There are very few integrated pipeline networks in the world. Besides the giant North American system, with hundreds of producers and pipelines, there is only one other large integrated network. It connects continental European countries to their outside suppliers such as Norway, the C.I.S., and Algeria. The emergence of a new pipeline system is therefore important for the natural-gas industry worldwide and even more so if it occurs in a region now growing rapidly after a decade of economic difficulties

  9. Regional Advection Perturbations in an Irrigated Desert (RAPID) Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debruin, H.A.R.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Allen, R.G.; Kramer, J.W.J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The RAPID field experiment took place in August - September 1999 at a site 25km south of Twin Falls, Idaho, USA. The experiment concerned micrometeorological observations over extensive, well-irrigated fields covered with the fast-growing crop alfalfa. During daytime, on a number of days the

  10. A big data management platform for rapidly changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahedi, P.

    2014-01-01

    Big data is now a reality. Storing, managing, and analyzing very large amount of data is a common challenge in the world of technology where digital content is rapidly growing. In recent years, FEI advanced electron microscopes, with their unsurpassed magnification and resolving power brought an

  11. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  12. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  13. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  14. Carcass traits and meat quality of different slow growing and fast growing broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oblakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The experiment was conducted in the breeder farm of department Population genetics, reproduction and technologies of poultry and rabbits at the Agriculture Institute of Stara Zagora. Five lines from the National Gene Pool of Bulgaria: line Ss (Sussex, line E (Barred Plymouth Rock, line NG (New Hampshire, line F (NG x Red Rhode Island, line L (White Plymouth Rock were used as maternal forms in the crossing schedule and line M (Cornish as a paternal form for production of slow-growing broilers. The birds were grown to 84 days. Feeding was done with compound feeds according to the age: starter (1/14 days of age, grower (14/28 days of age, finisher (28/84 days of age. By the end of the experiment, slaughter analysis was performed with 3 female and 3 male broiler chickens per group with live weight corresponding to the average of each genotype. The live weight was determined, as well as the grill weight, the weights of cuts (breast, thighs, wings, edible offal (heart, liver, gizzard and abdominal fat. On the basis of these data, the slaughter yield and body parts ratios were calculated. The data for the live body weights of birds at slaughtering indicated the highest values for group V – 4040g, followed by groups ІV and ІІ – 3271.67g and 3186.67g, respectively (p<0.05. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes with superiority of male birds (p<0.001. In the other 3 groups, breast meat percentage ranged from 19.48 to 19.84%. The share of thighs from the grill was the greatest in slow-growing chickens from group II – 33.01%, followed by group І – 32.35%, group IV – 32.18%, and the lowest- in groups ІІІ and V (31.91% and 31.18%, respectively. The analysis of data exhibited a significant effect of the genotype on water content of breast meat (resp. Dry matter, with lower values in slow-growing birds from group III – 73.19% (p<0.05, whereas in the other groups it ranged between 73.44 and 73.62%. The

  15. Non-Selective Evolution of Growing Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Wienand

    Full Text Available Non-selective effects, like genetic drift, are an important factor in modern conceptions of evolution, and have been extensively studied for constant population sizes (Kimura, 1955; Otto and Whitlock, 1997. Here, we consider non-selective evolution in the case of growing populations that are of small size and have varying trait compositions (e.g. after a population bottleneck. We find that, in these conditions, populations never fixate to a trait, but tend to a random limit composition, and that the distribution of compositions "freezes" to a steady state. This final state is crucially influenced by the initial conditions. We obtain these findings from a combined theoretical and experimental approach, using multiple mixed subpopulations of two Pseudomonas putida strains in non-selective growth conditions (Matthijs et al, 2009 as model system. The experimental results for the population dynamics match the theoretical predictions based on the Pólya urn model (Eggenberger and Pólya, 1923 for all analyzed parameter regimes. In summary, we show that exponential growth stops genetic drift. This result contrasts with previous theoretical analyses of non-selective evolution (e.g. genetic drift, which investigated how traits spread and eventually take over populations (fixate (Kimura, 1955; Otto and Whitlock, 1997. Moreover, our work highlights how deeply growth influences non-selective evolution, and how it plays a key role in maintaining genetic variability. Consequently, it is of particular importance in life-cycles models (Melbinger et al, 2010; Cremer et al, 2011; Cremer et al, 2012 of periodically shrinking and expanding populations.

  16. The growing need for analytical quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suschny, O.; Richman, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    Technological development in a country is directly dependent upon its analytical chemistry or measurement capability, because it is impossible to achieve any level of technological sophistication without the ability to measure. Measurement capability is needed to determine both technological competence and technological consequence. But measurement itself is insufficient. There must be a standard or a reference for comparison. In the complicated world of chemistry the need for reference materials grows with successful technological development. The International Atomic Energy Agency has been distributing calibrated radioisotope solutions, standard reference materials and intercomparison materials since the early 1960's. The purpose of this activity has been to help laboratories in its Member States to assess and, if necessary, to improve the reliability of their analytical work. The value and continued need of this service has been demonstrated by the results of many intercomparisons which proved that without continuing analytical quality control activities, adequate reliability of analytical data could not be taken for granted. Analytical chemistry, lacking the glamour of other aspects of the physical sciences, has not attracted the attention it deserves, but in terms of practical importance, it warrants high priority in any developing technological scheme, because without it there is little chance to evaluate technological success or failure or opportunity to identify the reasons for success or failure. The scope and the size of the future programme of the IAEA in this field has been delineated by recommendations made by several Panels of Experts; all have agreed on the importance of this programme and made detailed recommendations in their areas of expertise. The Agency's resources are limited and it cannot on its own undertake the preparation and distribution of all the materials needed. It can, however, offer a focal point to bring together different

  17. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  18. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  19. Ultrastructural differences between wall apices of growing and non-growing hyphae of Schizophyllum commune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, C.A.; Wessels, J.G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Newly synthesized chitin at the hyphal apex of Schizophyllum commune was shown to be highly susceptible to chitinase degradiation and solubilization by dilute mineral acid. With time this chitin became gradually more resistant to these treatments. With a combination of the shadow-cast technique and electron microscopic autoradiography it could be shown that this process occurred as the newly synthesized chitin moved into subapical parts of growing hyphae but also in non-growing apices which had ceased growth after incorporation of the N-acetyl[6- 3 H]glucosamine. These results are in agreement with a model which explains apical morphogenesis by assuming that the newly synthesized wall material at the apex is plastic due to the presence of individual polymer chains but becomes rigidified because of subsequent physical and chemical changes involving these polymers. (Author)

  20. Growth performance, haematology and cost benefit of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growing rabbits on 24-h feed access time (control) recorded a higher (p0.05) across the feed access time and restriction duration. White blood cell was higher in growing rabbits on 2-h feed access ...

  1. A growing danger: the risks posed by marihuana grow-ops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    The proliferation of sophisticated illegal indoor multi-plant marihuana cultivation operations is discussed, focusing primarily on public health and safety issues. Public health issues arise from the high level of molds and pollens caused by high humidity, which can cause asthma, respiratory conditions and allergies, particularly among children, and the likelihood of deadly levels of carbon monoxide build-up resulting from faulty rerouting of the residence's ventilation system. Safety issues discussed are: fires and electrocutions associated with the use of electrical diversions or bipasses to circumvent utility meters, the chemical and electrical hazards involved in investigating and dismantling growing operations, the significant dangers to utility crews who must repair illegal electrical bypasses, injuries by the booby-traps planted to protect the operation from other criminals or law enforcement agents, and the physical danger from the violence, including homicide and assaults, carried out by operators to exert control over production and distribution. Although in general, there is a relaxed attitude towards marihuana use in Canada. there is growing evidence of increasing public concern over large-scale growing operations. Nevertheless, to date operators of grow-ops have been dealt with lightly by the justice system. For example, in British Columbia 11,733 cases have come to the attention of police during the 1997 to 2000 period. Of these about half were dealt with informally (i.e. 'no case' seizures) and 2,255 cases led to at least one offender being convicted. The majority of convictions did not result in custodial dispositions. Only 18 per cent of the cases resulted in prison sentences, the average term being only 4.5 months.

  2. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function.

  3. Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell lines derived after boosting BCG-vaccinated cattle with Ad5-85A possess both mycobacterial growth inhibition and anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Hannah J; Biffar, Lucia; Steinbach, Sabine; Guzman, Efrain; Connelley, Tim; Morrison, Ivan; Vordermeier, H Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo

    2018-05-11

    There is a need to improve the efficacy of the BCG vaccine against human and bovine tuberculosis. Previous data showed that boosting bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccinated cattle with a recombinant attenuated human type 5 adenovirally vectored subunit vaccine (Ad5-85A) increased BCG protection and was associated with increased frequency of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cells post-boosting. Here, the capacity of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cell lines - derived before and after viral boosting - to interact with BCG-infected macrophages was evaluated. No difference before and after boosting was found in the capacity of these Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cell lines to restrict mycobacterial growth, but the secretion of IL-10 in vitro post-boost increased significantly. Furthermore, cell lines derived post-boost had no statistically significant difference in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, IFNγ or TNFα) compared to pre-boost lines. In conclusion, the protection associated with the increased number of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cells restricting mycobacterial growth may be associated with anti-inflammatory properties to limit immune-pathology. Copyright © 2018 Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of albendazole in pregnancy on maternal responses to mycobacterial antigens and infant responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation [ISRCTN32849447

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nampijja Margaret

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal schistosomiasis and filariasis have been shown to influence infant responses to neonatal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation but the effects of maternal hookworm, and of de-worming in pregnancy, are unknown. Methods In Entebbe, Uganda, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 400 mg of albendazole in the second trimester of pregnancy. Neonates received BCG. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-5 responses to a mycobacterial antigen (crude culture filtrate proteins (CFP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured in a whole blood assay. We analysed results for binary variables using χ2 tests and logistic regression. We analysed continuous variables using Wilcoxon's tests. Results Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced maternal IFN-γ responses to CFP (adjusted odds ratio for IFN-γ > median response: 0.14 (95% confidence interval 0.02–0.83, p = 0.021. Conversely, maternal hookworm was associated with subsequent increased IFN-γ responses in their one-year-old infants (adjusted OR 17.65 (1.20–258.66; p = 0.013. Maternal albendazole tended to reduce these effects. Conclusion Untreated hookworm infection in pregnancy was associated with reduced maternal IFN-γ responses to mycobacterial antigens, but increased responses in their infants one year after BCG immunisation. The mechanisms of these effects, and their implications for protective immunity remain, to be determined.

  5. WSGB: A Web Service-Based Growing Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, C. R.; Huang, L. H.; Chen, K. H.; Chiu, J. C.; Lin, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Growing Book refers to an electronic textbook that is co-developed, and has the ability to be constantly maintained, by groups of independent authors, thus creating a rich and ever-growing learning environment that can be conveniently accessible from anywhere. This work designs and implements a Web Service-based Growing Book that has the merits of…

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on decays of excited strange mesons in the extended NJL model, production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48 Ca beam on a 208 Pb target, scaling behaviour of tensor analyzing power (A yy ) in the inelastic scattering or relativistic deuterons,two-photon collisions at very low Q 2 from LEP2: forthcoming results, high magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target, multichannel time-to-digital converter for drift detector and wavelet-analysis: application to Gaussian signals

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13 Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(90 0 ) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s (0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π 0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  9. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate reports on Monte Carlo simulation of silicon detectors for the ALICE experiment at LHC, a study of single tagged multihadronic γγ* events at an average Q 2 of 90 GeV 2 , epithermal neutron activation analysis of moss, lichen and pine needles in atmospheric deposition monitoring, the theory of neutrino oscillation, coupled quadrupole and monopole vibrations of large amplitude and test of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule using parametrization of the measured lepton-proton asymmetry. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  11. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  12. Rapid growth within India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Indian government has published (in Hydrocarbon Vision 2025) its ideas for a long term strategy for its oil industry which is currently growing at an unprecedented rate. Increasing domestic production and investment in oil exploration and production overseas figure strongly in the plan. At present, India has a refining surplus but with an annual growth of 8-10%, this will disappear in the next 2-3 years. The report recommends that India should maintain 90% self-sufficiency in refining. The report sees development of the domestic oil industry as globally competitive and helping safeguard India's assets. The capability of India's refineries, current upgrading, the newer refineries and plans for new projects are all mentioned

  13. Effects of floor cooling during high ambient temperatures on the lying behavior and productivity of growing finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    Given that exposing rapidly growing pigs to high ambient temperatures can induce heat stress, which reduces their welfare and production, this study looked at the influence of floor cooling on pigs¿ behavior and performance. Pens in room 1 had a solid floor (60%) and a metal slatted floor (40%). The

  14. VISION AND STRATEGIC THINKING IN THE ROMANIAN FAST GROWING FIRMS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae BIBU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary specific issues concerning the vision and the strategic thinking of the managers of Romanian fast growing firms in the years of rapid growth. This paper clarifies two research questions. (1 The first research question is what is the message of the manager's vision of the Romanian fast growing firms? Therefore, we must first verify if the managers of the Romanian fast growing firms have a concrete vision about the business they run and if so, what is the vision of the managers about the companies that they lead? (2 The second research question is what findings can be drawn about the role of strategic thinking of the managers in the management of the Romanian fast growing firms? The research that we have conducted is a qualitative research. The research method that we used is the interview. The interview is specific to qualitative research. Regarding the method of analysis that we used it is the content analysis. The research was conducted on a total of 17 Romanian fast growing firms that are located in Timiș County. The firms were identified based on a specific selection criteria set after a thorough review of the literature in the field. The 17 companies that we have analysed represent the foundation of 17 in-depth case studies, which we believe helped us to better understand what it means in the Romanian context to grow fast, through the entrepreneurs managers vision and strategic thinking. The results presented in this paper come to strengthen the results reached by other researchers in this field. The results present an image of the current Romanian context – about the role of strategic thinking of the entrepreneur manager in the management of Romanian fast growing firms. The paper presents a detailed analysis of managers' vision of the Romanian fast growing firms. The paper also presents findings about the role of strategic thinking in helping managers achieve rapid growth in the

  15. Food (In)Security in Rapidly Urbanising, Low-Income Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Tacoli

    2017-01-01

    Urbanisation in low and middle-income nations presents both opportunities and immense challenges. As urban centres grow rapidly, inadequate housing and the lack of basic infrastructure and services affect a large and growing proportion of their population. There is also a growing body of evidence on urban poverty and its links with environmental hazards. There is, however, limited knowledge of how these challenges affect the ways in which poor urban residents gain access to food and secure he...

  16. A Growing Anticline in Tainan City, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Lee, C.; Cheng, C.; Liao, C.; Wen, S.

    2001-12-01

    Tainan City has been known as an earthquake prone town since the early immigration of the ¡§Han¡" people from Mainland China about four hundred years ago. For the purpose of clarifying tectonic activity and paleo-earthquakes in the Tainan City area, we have finished the excavation of three trenches and the drilling of four holes at the so-called Houchiali Fault on the eastern margin of the Tainan tableland. We carefully observed the cores and exposures in the trenches, performed a detailed mapping, and took samples for C-14 dating and other types of analysis. The results show the trench sites are located at a flexure scarp without direct evidence of faulting. But, from the fact of tilting of Holocene sediments to about 50 degrees and the development of a fracture system in the sediments, one may realize that this is without doubt an active structure. We have tested many different models to interpret the observed geologic evidence in the trenches and outcrops, finally determined a growing fault-propagation fold model to be the best interpretation for the Tainan Anticline, while the Houchiali fault is a back-kink or a blind back-thrust type. A diapiric fold had been discussed as possible for a long time by many researchers, but a fault-propagation fold in origin does not contradict with a mud diapiric feature, which was formed during the folding. Field evidence shows that the main active phase of the Houchiali Fault and the Tainan Anticline would have been after the deposition of the Tainan Formation about two to three thousand years ago. During the active deformation phase, the Tawan Formation onlaped the Tainan Formation, as well as tilted during the folding, thus, beds on higher stratigraphic horizon show lower dip-angle. Estimated from a detailed geologic profile, the horizontal shortening of the anticline is estimated to be 30 meters. The vertical uplift of the Tainan Formation is also about 30 meters. This indicates that the deformation rate has been about 1

  17. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  18. Reasons for the Fast Growing Seawater Desalination Capacity in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2011-05-24

    Seawater/brackish water desalination has been widely adopted by the Algerian Government in the last few years to supply potable water to municipality for various purposes mainly for domestic and industrial uses especially in areas where demand is high due to shortage of fresh water resources, rapid population growth and development of industry and tourism. Ten years ago, desalination was confined to the industrial use only especially in oil and gas industry as the country was relying on rain water and other available sources to supply fresh water to municipalities. Due to chronic drought conditions, the Ministry of Water Resources reviewed the national water strategy and a strong option for desalination was adopted where an ambitious program was thus put into action. Sixteen mega-plants, with capacities ranging from 100,000 to 500,000 m3 per day, primarily based on Reverse Osmosis technology, were launched in the last few years making the Algerian desalination program one of the world\\'s fastest growing markets. Five desalination plants, including the Africa\\'s largest seawater reverse osmosis project with a total capacity of 200,000 m3 per day, are already in operation and the remaining projects are either under construction or in commissioning. An integrated water resources management was also adopted as additional option to cuter the increasing water demand as there is also a great potential for water reuse and conventional water treatment. An additional benefit of this would be reducing the volume of treated wastewater disposed into the environment. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. AIDS wanes in West, grows in Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, at least 22 million people have been infected with HIV. The overwhelming majority of these cases, however, are in sub-Saharan Africa, Thailand, and India; approximately 15-20 million people are infected with the total number rapidly increasing. Approximately two million people are infected in the West, and the rate and extent of HIV infection are either plateauing or decreasing. In the West, HIV is contracted primarily through homosexual contact and IV drug use. HIV1-B is the prevalent strain of HIV in such settings. HIV in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, however, is mainly transmitted through heterosexual contact and consists of HIV-1 strains A, C, and E. There are therefore two distinct HIV epidemics taking place. Professor Max Essex of the Harvard AIDS Institute noted in his address at a conference on infectious diseases in New Delhi, India, that most planned vaccines and therapy for AIDS were developed in the West and thus targeted to combat HIV1-B. It seems likely, however, that other HIV subtypes will also take hold in the West and that an heterosexual epidemic of considerable magnitude should be anticipated. The high rate of HIV genetic mutation is of concern for both AIDS prevention and treatment. Essex further pointed out that the growing cost of treating AIDS patients with increasingly long lives has prompted a shift in the core of AIDS research from therapy to prevention. That levels of awareness about HIV/AIDS and the extent of sex education among youth are higher in more developed countries compared to in developing countries may play a role in the relatively lower incidence of new HIV cases in the West.

  20. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  1. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12 C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F 2 γ in the reaction e + e - → e + e - + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  2. Rapid thermal pulse annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.G.; Koehn, B.W.; Chaplin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of recovery processes have been investigated for cases of heating a sample to successively higher temperatures by means of isochronal annealing or by using a rapid pulse annealing. A recovery spectra shows the same features independent of which annealing procedure is used. In order to determine which technique provides the best resolution, a study was made of how two independent first-order processes are separated for different heating rates and time increments of the annealing pulses. It is shown that the pulse anneal method offers definite advantages over isochronal annealing when annealing for short time increments. Experimental data by means of the pulse anneal techniques are given for the various substages of stage I of aluminium. (author)

  3. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28 O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48 Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  4. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d ↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θ p = 0 o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  5. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on Lorentz transformations with superluminal velocities, photo chromic effect in HTSC films, the investigation of hypernuclei in the Nuclotron accelerator, a new hadron jets finding algorithm in the four-dimensional velocity space, investigations of neutral particle production by relativistic nuclei on the LHE 90-channel γ-spectrometer (results and perspectives), coherent meson production in the dp → 3 HeX reaction, the relativistic projectile nuclei fragmentation and A-dependence of nucleon Fermi-momenta, energy spectra of γ-quanta from d-propane interactions at momentum P d = 1.25 GeV/c per nucleon. 86 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference Δσ L (np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40 Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on collective energy dissipation and fluctuations in elastoplastic systems, diagnostics system of the circulating beam of the NUCLOTRON based on microchannel plates, time-of-flight detector for WA98 CERN experiment, fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment, production of nuclei in 32,34,36 S-induced reactions in the energy range 6-75 MeV/A, rare-earth elements in soil and pine needle from northern terrestrial ecosystems, 'thermal' multifragmentation in p + Au collisions at relativistic energies, search for effects of the OZI rule violation in φ and ω mesons production in polarized deuteron beam interaction with polarized proton target (project DPHE3) and fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

  9. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on observation of transversal handedness in the diffractive production of pion triples, a possible experiment on the research of dibaryon states, Cherenkov beam counter system of the CERES/NA45 spectrometer for investigation with 160 GeV/n. lead ions, a profile-based gaseous detector with capacitive pad readout as the prototype of the shower maximum detector for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment, what DELPHI can get with an upgraded position for the very small angle tagger, estimation of the radiation environment and the shielding aspect for the point 2 area of the LHC and the orthopositronium decay puzzle

  10. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  11. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power A yy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2 > of 90 GeV 2 , cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  12. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π - , p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  13. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0 + (0 ++ 0)] meson at a mass of M π + π - = 750 ± 5 MeV/c 2 observed in π + π - combinations from the reaction np → npπ + π - at an incident momentum of P n (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π - mesons emitted in 4 HeC and 12 CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  14. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  15. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  16. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  17. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  18. Rapid prototyping framework for robot-assisted training of autistic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Mingyu; Barakova, E.I.; Lourens, T.

    2014-01-01

    Research in uptake and actual use of robots in socially assistive tasks is rapidly growing. However, practical applications lack behind due to the enormous effort to create meaningful behaviours. This paper describes a rapid prototyping framework for robot-assisted training of children with Autism

  19. Challenges of the growing African cement market – environmental issues, regulative framework, and quality infrastructure requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The African cement, concrete and construction business is growing at rapid pace. The cement sales are expected to grow rapidly until 2050. The number of newly built cement plants increases dramatically and in addition more cements are being imported from outside the continent, e.g. from Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia, and China, driven by overcapacities in the countries of origin. This causes a high number of potentials and challenges at the same time. Newly built cement plants can operate directly at best technological state of the art and thus incorporate more sustainable technologies as well as produce new and more sustainable products such as cements blended with sustainable supplementary cementitious materials such as calcined clays, and industrial or agricultural by products. At the same time the new variety of binding agent as well as the international imports, which are driven by price considerations, make the cement market prone to quality scatter. This puts pressure on the quality control regulations and institutions to ensure safety of construction, healthy application, and environmental safety for the population. The paper presents possible solutions to build up the rapidly increasing African cement production more sustainably than in the rest of the world as well as the related challenges and obstacles that need to be overcome. Based on experiences with a series of pan-African cement testing laboratory proficiency schemes conclusions are made on technical, regulative and political level.

  20. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  1. GrOW briefs: From research to policy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... ​For access to more GrOW findings and literature, visit the GrOW Research Series. Learn more about the GrOW program. What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox ...

  2. Cell wall integrity signaling in plants: "To grow or not to grow that's the question".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voxeur, Aline; Höfte, Herman

    2016-09-01

    Plants, like yeast, have the ability to monitor alterations in the cell wall architecture that occur during normal growth or in changing environments and to trigger compensatory changes in the cell wall. We discuss how recent advances in our understanding of the cell wall architecture provide new insights into the role of cell wall integrity sensing in growth control. Next we review the properties of membrane receptor-like kinases that have roles in pH control, mechano-sensing and reactive oxygen species accumulation in growing cells and which may be the plant equivalents of the yeast cell wall integrity (CWI) sensors. Finally, we discuss recent findings showing an increasing role for CWI signaling in plant immunity and the adaptation to changes in the ionic environment of plant cells. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Incorporating Edge Information into Best Merge Region-Growing Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.; Pasolli, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    We have previously developed a best merge region-growing approach that integrates nonadjacent region object aggregation with the neighboring region merge process usually employed in region growing segmentation approaches. This approach has been named HSeg, because it provides a hierarchical set of image segmentation results. Up to this point, HSeg considered only global region feature information in the region growing decision process. We present here three new versions of HSeg that include local edge information into the region growing decision process at different levels of rigor. We then compare the effectiveness and processing times of these new versions HSeg with each other and with the original version of HSeg.

  4. The end of surplus and a growing role in world markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklof, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Rapid economic growth in Asia in recent years has rekindled the region's appetite for energy. This surge in energy consumption since the oil price collapse in 1986 has brought into sharp focus critical challenges facing Asian governments and commercial organizations in the 1990's--challenges that must be met if the economic success of recent years is to continue. Yet supplying energy to fuel economic growth will be more difficult than in the past. Oil reserves in the region are inadequate to support the anticipated growth in demands, and new discoveries may be modest. Gas reserves are plentiful, but not well located to meet the energy needs of major markets. Added to difficulties associated with these resource-based limitations new challenges are emerging: growing consumer demands for transportation fuels and electricity, a growing concern for the environmental impact of energy production and consumption, and the need to rethink long-standing energy policies that were based on expectations of very high future oil prices. These new factors will complicate policy decisions and place new constraints on available energy options. This paper addresses the future development of Asian oil and gas markets in light of these challenges, and provides an assessment of the potential growth of gas markets, the need for growing oil imports into the region, and the need for new refining capacity to meet the growing demand for transportation fuels

  5. FAST-GROWING COMPANIES FROM TIMIS COUNTRY: DOES THE AGE MATTER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALB MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relation between the company’s age and its growth and analyses the influence of age on growth by studying a specific group of companies, namely fast-growing companies from the Timis County, Romania. We have studied the performance of the fast-growing companies in the period of 2010-2013 using the STATA IC 12 software application. A linear regression analysis model with two variables was used. The dependent variable used was the rapid growth of the company, measured by the growth rate of the turnover and the independent variable used was the age of the company, measured by the number of years. The model was tested using the number of employees as a control variable. This paper’s conclusion is in agreement with many other findings from the literature in this subject. The presented results show that the turnover growth rates in the Romanian fast-growing companies tend to drop from one year to another, as the companies grow older.

  6. Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Ros, V I D; De Beer, Z. W.

    2009-01-01

    of the ascomycete genus Xylaria appear and rapidly cover the fungus garden. This raises the question whether certain Xylaria species are specialised in occupying termite nests or whether they are just occasional visitors. We tested Xylaria specificity at four levels: (1) fungus-growing termites, (2) termite genera...... of the ITS region revealed 16 operational taxonomic units of Xylaria, indicating high levels of Xylaria species richness. Not much of this variation was explained by termite genus, species, or colony; thus, at level 2-4 the specificity is low. Analysis of the large subunit rDNA region, showed that all...... termite-associated Xylaria belong to a single clade, together with only three of the 26 non-termite-associated strains. Termite-associated Xylaria thus show specificity for fungus-growing termites (level 1). We did not find evidence for geographic or temporal structuring in these Xylaria phylogenies...

  7. Microbial transmutation of 137Cs and LENR in growing biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskii, V.I.; Kornilova, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of long-term investigations of stable and radioactive isotopes transmutation in growing microbiological cultures. It is shown that transmutation during growth of microbiological associations is 20 times more effective than the same process in the form of 'clean' microbiological culture. In this work, the process of controlled decontamination of highly active reactor isotopes (reactor waste) through the process of growing microbiological associations has been studied. The most rapidly increasing decay rate of 137 Cs isotope, which occurred with the 'effective' half life τ* ≈ 310 days (involving an increase in rate and decrease in half life by a factor of 35) was observed in the presence of Ca salt in closed flask with active water containing 137 Cs solution and optimal microbiological association. (author)

  8. Unusual fast-growing ovarian cystic teratoma during pregnancy presenting with intracystic fat "floating balls" appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnadieu, Anne Claire; Deffieux, Xavier; Le Ray, Camille; Mordefroid, Marie; Frydman, René; Fernandez, Hervé

    2006-12-01

    A large ovarian cyst was diagnosed at 22 weeks' of gestation in a 32-year-old woman. The ultrasonographic appearance of the ovarian cyst was unusual with multiple mobile, spherical echogenic structures floating in the cystic mass, called intracystic "fat balls." Right adnexectomy was performed by laparotomy at 28 weeks' of gestation, because of rapid growth and overall size exceeding 20 cm. Pathological examination confirmed ovarian cystic teratoma. Usually, dermoid cysts are slow-growing, even in premenopausal women. The exact mechanism related to the fast growth during pregnancy is unknown. It could be related to an unusual pattern of estrogen (E)/P receptors expression in the cystic teratoma. This case shows that a fast-growing, mature ovarian cystic teratoma may occur during pregnancy.

  9. Rapid flow imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelc, N.J.; Spritzer, C.E.; Lee, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid, phase-contrast, MR imaging method of imaging flow has been implemented. The method, called VIGRE (velocity imaging with gradient recalled echoes), consists of two interleaved, narrow flip angle, gradient-recalled acquisitions. One is flow compensated while the second has a specified flow encoding (both peak velocity and direction) that causes signals to contain additional phase in proportion to velocity in the specified direction. Complex image data from the first acquisition are used as a phase reference for the second, yielding immunity from phase accumulation due to causes other than motion. Images with pixel values equal to MΔΘ where M is the magnitude of the flow compensated image and ΔΘ is the phase difference at the pixel, are produced. The magnitude weighting provides additional vessel contrast, suppresses background noise, maintains the flow direction information, and still allows quantitative data to be retrieved. The method has been validated with phantoms and is undergoing initial clinical evaluation. Early results are extremely encouraging

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate reports on an estimation of the possibility of fusion reactions in water molecules, an analysis of pion spectra of the charge-exchange reaction Mg(t, 3 He), the results of simulation of e + e - pair production and detection in the ALICE experiment, the data on the edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, standard and nonstandard applications of wavelet analysis, the design and study of light readout system for scintillator shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, a study of multiparticle azimuthal correlations in high energy interactions, coherent multifragmentation of relativistic nuclei, superposition of neutrino eigenstates and neutrino oscillation, simulation results and suggestions for possible design of gaseous shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, determination of the sizes of the pion emission region in np-interactions at P n =(5.2±0.16)GeV/c using the interference correlation method for identical particles, inelasticity of nucleus-nucleus collisions in the CMS experiment. 65 figs., 19 tabs

  11. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  12. Evaluation of the microscopic observational drug susceptibility assay for rapid and efficient diagnosis of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Lazarus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Tuberculosis (TB is endemic in India and the burden of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is high. Early detection of MDR-TB is of primary importance in controlling the spread of TB. The microscopic observational drug susceptibility (MODS assay has been described as a cost-effective and rapid method by which mycobacterial culture and the drug susceptibility test (DST can be done at the same time. Materials and Methods: A total of 302 consecutive sputum samples that were received in an accredited mycobacteriology laboratory for conventional culture and DST were evaluated by the MODS assay. Results: In comparison with conventional culture on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ media, the MODS assay showed a sensitivity of 94.12% and a specificity of 89.39% and its concordance with the DST by the proportion method on LJ media to isoniazid and rifampicin was 90.8% and 91.5%, respectively. The turnaround time for results by MODS was 9 days compared to 21 days by culture on LJ media and an additional 42 days for DST by the 1% proportion method. The cost of performing a single MODS assay was Rs. 250/-, compared to Rs. 950/- for culture and 1st line DST on LJ. Conclusion: MODS was found to be a sensitive and rapid alternative method for performing culture and DST to identify MDR-TB in resource poor settings.

  13. Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Respiration to Nitrogen Fertilization: Varying Effects between Growing and Non-Growing Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingfang; Wang, Rui; Li, Rujian; Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization has a considerable effect on food production and carbon cycling in agro-ecosystems. However, the impacts of N fertilization rates on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) were controversial. Five N rates (N0, N45, N90, N135, and N180) were applied to a continuous winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop on the semi-arid Loess Plateau, and the in situ soil respiration was monitored during five consecutive years from 2008 to 2013. During the growing season, the mean soil respiration rates increased with increasing N fertilization rates, peaking at 1.53 μmol m−2s−1 in the N135 treatment. A similar dynamic pattern was observed during the non-growing season, yet on average with 7.3% greater soil respiration rates than the growing season. In general for all the N fertilization treatments, the mean Q10 value during the non-growing season was significantly greater than that during the growing season. As N fertilization rates increased, the Q10 values did not change significantly in the growing season but significantly decreased in the non-growing season. Overall, N fertilization markedly influenced soil respirations and Q10 values, in particular posing distinct effects on the Q10 values between the growing and non-growing seasons. PMID:27992576

  14. New techniques for growing anaerobic bacteria: experiments with Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, H.I.; Crow, W.D.; Hadden, C.T.; Hall, J.; Machanoff, R.

    1983-01-01

    Stable membrane fragments derived from Escherichia coli produce and maintain strict anaerobic conditions when added to liquid or solid bacteriological media. Techniques for growing Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum in membrane-containing media are described. Liquid cultures initiated by very small inocula can be grown in direct contact with air. In solid media, colonies develop rapidly from individual cells even without incubation in anaerobic jars or similar devices. Observations on growth rates, spontaneous mutations, radiation, and oxygen sensitivity of anaerobic bacteria have been made using these new techniques

  15. MiR-23a-5p modulates mycobacterial survival and autophagy during mycobacterium tuberculosis infection through TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB pathway by targeting TLR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xing; Gao, Yan; Mu, De-Guang; Fu, En-Qing

    2017-05-15

    Autophagy plays a pivotal role in activating the antimicrobial host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb.). The emerging roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating immune responses have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Appreciating the potential of host-directed therapies designed to control autophagy during mycobacterial infection, we focused on the influence of miR-23a-5p on the activation of macrophage autophagy during M.tb. infection in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and murine RAW264.7 cells. Here, we demonstrated that M.tb.-infection of macrophages lead to markedly enhanced expression of miR-23a-5p in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, forced expression of miR-23a-5p accelerated the survival rate of intracellular mycobacteria, while transfection with miR-23a-5p inhibitors attenuated mycobacterial survival. More importantly, overexpression of miR-23a-5p dramatically prevented M.tb.-induced activation of autophagy in macrophages, whereas inhibitors of miR-23a-5p remarkably accelerated M.tb.-induced autophagy. Mechanistically, miR-23a-5p is able to modulate TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB signaling activity by targeting TLR2 in RAW264.7 cells in response to M.tb.-infection. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that miR-23a-5p modulated the innate host defense by promoting mycobacteria survival and inhibiting the activation of autophagy against M.tb. through TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB pathway by targeting TLR2, which may provide a promising therapeutic target for tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance Of Growing Pigs And Finisher Broilers Housed Together

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and cost of feeding young growing pigs and finisher broilers under integrated broiler/pig production system were investigated. Four young growing pigs (the control) were housed in pen A and fed 4% of their body weight as commercial growers feed. Another 4 were housed in pen B with broilers in ...

  17. Evolution of Communicative Competence in Adolescents Growing up in Orphanages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribakova, Laysan A.; Parfilova, Gulfia G.; Karimova, Lilya Sh.; Karimova, Raushan B.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes features of the communicative competence evolution in adolescents growing up in orphanages. The specificity is revealed and definition is given to key concept of the research, namely "communicative competence". Authors emphasize and demonstrate the evaluation peculiarities of the adolescents, growing up in…

  18. Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) Frequently ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alejandra

    GrOW will take a broad perspective on the types of questions and evidence on ... question; (2) set the outcome in the broader context of the underlying programme theory, ... Communications from the GrOW team with applicants during the ... There are specific criteria and application processes for this call that should be.

  19. Temperature fields in a growing solar silicon crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondrik A. I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimal thermal terms for growing by Czochralski method Si single-crystals, suitable for making photoelectric energy converters, has been defined by the computer simulation method. Dependences of temperature fields character and crystallization front form on the diameter of the crystal, stage and speed of growing, and also on correlation between diameter and height of the crystal has been studied.

  20. Growing media alternatives for forest and native plant nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Nancy Morgan

    2009-01-01

    The choice of growing medium, along with container type, is one of the critical decisions that must be made when starting a nursery. The first growing medium was called "compost" and was developed in the 1930s at the John Innes Horticultural Institute in Great Britain. It consisted of a loam soil that was amended with peat moss, sand, and fertilizers (Bunt...

  1. The effect of lumbosacral manipulation on growing pains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid de Beer

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The results from this study, specifically the feedback from parent(s/guardians(s and the pain diaries, indicated that spinal manipulation is beneficial in the treatment of growing pains. The results also showed that other methods of treating growing pains, such as simple leg rubs, may also bring relief.

  2. An inquiry into prospects for the Dutch industry in the rapidly growing natural gas business in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naarding, C.J.

    1999-06-01

    The prospects for the production of natural gas in Egypt are very high. Expectations are that a fully developed national market can be served for many decades to come and that above that substantial exports will be possible. The Egyptian government puts much effort in further development of the home market. Gas usage for power generation and industrial applications like fertiliser plants, chemical industries and cement production is to be maximised. Six Public Distribution Companies have been founded, each serving a certain geographical area. Various export possibilities, markets and delivery modes are being studied, but decisions are not expected in a short time. The National Government is dominating the gas scene in Egypt trough the EGPC. The organisation is clearly defined and participation of private companies and investors is increasing. The Egyptian market is open for foreign equipment and services. Interested companies have to qualify for the excepted vendor list via a standardised procedure. The use of an agent is the sole decision of the vendor. Through the whole range of activities, from exploration to domestic gas utilisation, many opportunities for Dutch equipment manufacturers and vendors of services are specified. Large investments are expected for the development of the new offshore prospects and the infrastructure needed to bring the production to the end consumers. Especially the connection to natural gas of several million households is an opportunity for consulting firms and suppliers of equipment. Also new laws to preserve the environment bring niches for Dutch experience, skills and materials. Together with private investors participation in new projects is asked for. Doing business in Egypt has special angles and cultural aspects that are worthwhile learning and working along. Building a fruitful relationship is time consuming but inevitable. Patience is needed for working in Egypt but the results can be rewarding. Egypt offers many opportunities for Dutch suppliers in the oil and gas industry

  3. Scientific maturity of purchasing management research : a rapidly growing puppy that still has to learn some manners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, Govert

    The field of purchasing management (PM) is still young. In this paper we investigate the status of PM research by looking at the historical development of other research fields that have already matured. For this investigation we categorise scientific research as (1) either deductive (theoretical)

  4. Assessment of drought during corn growing season in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Hu, Zhenghua

    2018-04-01

    Northeast China has experienced extensive climate change during the past decades. Corn is the primary production crop in China and is sensitive to meteorological disasters, especially drought. Drought has thus greatly endangered crop production and the country's food security. The majority of previous studies has not highlighted farming adaptation activities undertaken within the changed climate, which should not be neglected. In this study, we assessed drought hazard in the corn vegetation growing period, the reproductive growing period, and the whole growing period based on data for yearly corn phenology, daily precipitation, and temperature gathered at 26 agro-meteorological stations across Northeast China from 1981 to 2009. The M-K trend test was used to detect trends in sowing date and drought. The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was used to describe drought. Drought frequency and intensity were used to assess the drought hazard in the region. We found that the sowing date was delayed in the southern part of the study area, coupled with a trend towards a shorter and more humid vegetation growing period. In the northern part of the study area, an earlier sowing date increased the length of the vegetation growing period and the reproductive growing period, while drying trends occurred within the two corn growing periods. We assessed the drought hazard during each growing period: the reproductive growing period faced a more severe drought hazard and was also the period where corn was most sensitive to water stress. Drought hazard during the total growing period was closely related to corn yield.

  5. Rapidly enlarging neck mass in a neonate causing airway compromise

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Kyra; Leal, Andres; McGill, Thomas; Jacob, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Up to 20% of all congenital pediatric head and neck masses are branchial cleft cysts. Second branchial cleft cysts account for 95% of branchial anomalies, and fourth branchial cleft cysts are the rarest type. Their typical presentations include non–life-threatening symptoms, such as drainage, skin irritations, minor swelling, and tenderness. We describe a 5-week-old neonate with increasing stridor secondary to a rapidly growing neck mass. Imaging and surgical excision confirmed the mass to be...

  6. A Practical Approach to Rapid Prototyping of SCA Waveforms

    OpenAIRE

    DePriest, Jacob Andrew

    2006-01-01

    With the growing interest in software defined radios (SDRs), cognitive radios, the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS), and the Software Communication Architecture (SCA) comes the need for a rapid prototyping approach to radio design. In the past, radios have traditionally been designed to have a static implementation with the express goal of implementing a specific type of communication, such as 802.11b, CDMA voice communication, or just a simple FM tuner. However, when designing an ...

  7. Africa: rapid population increase retards development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Organization of African Unity (OAU), the African Development Bank (ADB) and the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) have criticized African governments for not taking the problem of unchecked population growth seriously enough. "Until recently most African governments did not view rapid population growth as a matter for concern," said the OAU assistant secretary-general for political affairs, Machivenyika Mapuranga, at a seminar on 'population and development'. The OAU estimates that an annual average population increase of 3.1% far outstrips Africa's economic growth, which in 1992 was less than 1%. Mapuranga acknowledged that cutting the population increase is an uphill struggle, especially among rural communities. African agriculture is largely labor intensive, sustained by smallholders, which encourages farmers to have more children. Like other wage earners, African farmers look to support from their family when they grow old and, for that reason, the number of children also counts. But with agricultural production growing at an average annual rate of 2.5%, self-sufficiency in food remains an elusive goal. Cities in sub-Saharan Africa are growing much faster than the overall rate of population increase of 3.1% per year. Between 1980 and 1988 the region's urban population increased at the rate of 6.9% a year. Urban areas now account for nearly 30% of the sub-Saharan Africa population, currently put at 680 million. By 2025, approximately 700 million people are expected to live in urban areas. Despite migration to towns, the rural population is expected to rise more than 68%, reaching over 590 million. full text

  8. Growing Up Or Growing Old? Cellular Aging Linked With Testosterone Reactivity To Stress In Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Shachet, Andrew; Phan, Jenny; Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H.; Wren, Michael; Esteves, Kyle; Theall, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the established relation between testosterone and aging in older adults, we tested whether buccal telomere length (TL), an established cellular biomarker of aging, was associated with testosterone levels in youth. Methods Children, mean age 10.2 years, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area and salivary testosterone was measured during both an acute stressor and diurnally. Buccal TL was measured using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (MMQ-PCR). Testosterone and telomere length data was available on 77 individuals. The association between buccal TL and testosterone was tested using multivariate Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of children within families. Results Greater peak testosterone levels (β=-0.87, p < 0.01) and slower recovery (β=-0.56, p < 0.01) and reactivity (β = -1.22, p < 0.01) following a social stressor were significantly associated with shorter buccal TL after controlling for parental age at conception, child age, sex, sociodemographic factors and puberty. No association was initially present between diurnal measurements of testosterone or morning basal testosterone levels and buccal TL. Sex significantly moderated the relation between testosterone reactivity and buccal TL. Conclusions The association between testosterone and buccal TL supports gonadal maturation as a developmentally sensitive biomarker of aging within youth. As stress levels of testosterone were significantly associated with buccal TL, these findings are consistent with the growing literature linking stress exposure and accelerated maturation. The lack of association of diurnal testosterone or morning basal levels with buccal TL bolsters the notion of a shared stress-related maturational mechanism between cellular stress and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. These data provide novel evidence supporting the interaction of aging, physiologic stress and cellular processes as an underlying

  9. Organisational Factors of Rapid Growth of Slovenian Dynamic Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pšeničny Viljem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide key findings on the internal and external environmental factors of growth that affect the rapid growth of dynamic enterprises in relation to individual key organisational factors or functions. The key organisational relationships in a growing enterprise are upgraded with previous research findings and identified key factors of rapid growth through qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the analysis of 4,511 dynamic Slovenian enterprises exhibiting growth potential. More than 250 descriptive attributes of a sample of firms from 2011 were also used for further qualitative analysis and verification of key growth factors. On the basis of the sample (the study was conducted with 131 Slovenian dynamic enterprises, the authors verify whether these factors are the same as the factors that were studied in previous researches. They also provide empirical findings on rapid growth factors in relation to individual organisational functions: administration - management - implementation (entrepreneur - manager - employees. Through factor analysis they look for the correlation strength between individual variables (attributes that best describe each factor of rapid growth and that relate to the aforementioned organisational functions in dynamic enterprises. The research findings on rapid growth factors offer companies the opportunity to consider these factors during the planning and implementation phases of their business, to choose appropriate instruments for the transition from a small fast growing firm to a professionally managed growing company, to stimulate growth and to choose an appropriate growth strategy and organisational factors in order to remain, or become, dynamic enterprises that can further contribute to the preservation, growth and development of the Slovenian economy

  10. Morphoelastic rods. Part I: A single growing elastic rod

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.

    2013-02-01

    A theory for the dynamics and statics of growing elastic rods is presented. First, a single growing rod is considered and the formalism of three-dimensional multiplicative decomposition of morphoelasticity is used to describe the bulk growth of Kirchhoff elastic rods. Possible constitutive laws for growth are discussed and analysed. Second, a rod constrained or glued to a rigid substrate is considered, with the mismatch between the attachment site and the growing rod inducing stress. This stress can eventually lead to instability, bifurcation, and buckling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Growing older in the context of needing geriatric assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Hvitved, Ida; Andersen, Hanne Elkjær

    2016-01-01

    significant and (v) considerations about the end of life as a component of growing older. The essence was defined as: illness essential for the experience of growing older and pointed to the experience of growing older that highlighted that experiencing illnesses and limitations served as reminders...... methodology. RESULTS: The results led to an overall essence and five themes. The five themes were identified: (i) considerations to avoid weakness, (ii) compensation for the inability to perform certain activities, (iii) aides - a symbol of freedom or limitation, (iv) lifestyle considered being particularly...

  12. Morphoelastic rods. Part I: A single growing elastic rod

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.; Lessinnes, T.; Goriely, A.

    2013-01-01

    A theory for the dynamics and statics of growing elastic rods is presented. First, a single growing rod is considered and the formalism of three-dimensional multiplicative decomposition of morphoelasticity is used to describe the bulk growth of Kirchhoff elastic rods. Possible constitutive laws for growth are discussed and analysed. Second, a rod constrained or glued to a rigid substrate is considered, with the mismatch between the attachment site and the growing rod inducing stress. This stress can eventually lead to instability, bifurcation, and buckling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid prototyping: een veelbelovende methode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverman, T.M.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Prins, H.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization,

  14. Reduced trace element concentrations in fast-growing juvenile Atlantic salmon in natural streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Darren M; Nislow, Keith H; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L

    2010-05-01

    To assess the effect of rapid individual growth on trace element concentrations in fish, we measured concentrations of seven trace elements (As, Cd, Cs, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn) in stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from 15 sites encompassing a 10-fold range in salmon growth. All salmon were hatched under uniform conditions, released into streams, and sampled approximately 120 days later for trace element analysis. For most elements, element concentrations in salmon tracked those in their prey. Fast-growing salmon had lower concentrations of all elements than slow growers, after accounting for prey concentrations. This pattern held for essential and nonessential elements, as well as elements that accumulate from food and those that can accumulate from water. At the sites with the fastest salmon growth, trace element concentrations in salmon were 37% (Cs) to 86% (Pb) lower than at sites where growth was suppressed. Given that concentrations were generally below levels harmful to salmon and that the pattern was consistent across all elements, we suggest that dilution of elements in larger biomass led to lower concentrations in fast-growing fish. Streams that foster rapid, efficient fish growth may produce fish with lower concentrations of elements potentially toxic for human and wildlife consumers.

  15. China's Soft Power and Growing Influence in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hwang, Edward F

    2008-01-01

    .... By no means is China able to surpass the United States soft power capabilities. As China's economy and influence in the region continue to grow however, China as an alternative to the United States can become a reality...

  16. Climate Prediction Center Weekly Corn Growing Degree Days

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A corn growing degree day (GDD) is an index used to express crop maturity. The index is computed by subtracting a base temperature of 50?F from the average of the...

  17. Nursery growing of some apple varieties using different grafting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... conditions differences were been determinated according to rootstocks ... been grown since pre-historic times in Asia and Europe ... apple growing country after China and the USA. ... He also pointed out that high cost of work.

  18. Reasons for the Fast Growing Seawater Desalination Capacity in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Naceur, Mohamed Wahib; Mahmoudi, Hacè ne; Ouslimane, Tarik

    2011-01-01

    growing markets. Five desalination plants, including the Africa's largest seawater reverse osmosis project with a total capacity of 200,000 m3 per day, are already in operation and the remaining projects are either under construction or in commissioning

  19. Improving women and youth livelihoods through small and growing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Small and growing businesses (SGBs) play an important role in lifting people out ... to advance business objectives and development goals simultaneously, thus ... impact of SGBs through a catalyst fund for partnerships between researchers ...

  20. Leadership Makes a Difference Growing Federal Civilian Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muellerweiss, Alice

    2008-01-01

    .... Research indicates that currently our government does not grow effective leaders. Often those "rising to the top" are technical experts with minimal leadership experiences, mostly unacquainted with the fundamentals of leadership...