WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly growing economy

  1. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  2. Growing a green economy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qingqing; Xu, He; Ji, Yijun

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of economy, resource depletion and environmental degradation have become serious challenges for Chinese sustainable development. Green development is a mode of well environmental and high-quality economic development. It is necessary for China to implement green development. In this review, it discusses the green development problems in China, the international experience and connotation of green development are summarized and identified further. Based on the connotation and experience of green economy development, it puts forward several countermeasures and suggestions for Chinese green development finally.

  3. Capital income taxation in a growing open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1991-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic macroeconomic effects of various forms of capital income taxation in a model of a small open economy with perfect mobility of financial capital and intertemporal optimization on the part of households and firms. One of the noteworthy results is that the introduction...... of a (low) corporate income tax will not affect consumption in the long run, but will simply lead to a replacement of shares by foreign financial assets in household portfolios. It is also found that an anticipated investment tax credit can have and that an anticipated dividend tax will have contractionary...... effects on investment before they are introduced. Moreover, it is shown that while an unanticipated dividend tax is neutral with respect to investment, it will have real effects on consumption and net foreign assets in a growing economy...

  4. Growing the Idaho economy : moving into the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    A report on transportation and the possible future economy of the State of Idaho from 2010 to 2030, including : current assets to leverage, driving forces shaping the future, long-range economic opportunities for Idaho including : four future scenari...

  5. THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY: ACCESS TO THE GROWING TRAJECTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvanyan S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the problems and prospects of economic growth in Russia. Many factors of economic growth involved in the previous period have been exhausted by now. In these circumstances, the question that the authors of the article stress is really normal: namely due to what sources and through what mechanisms Russia will provide economic growth in the future. An important place is given to the analysis of the causes of the crisis in the real sector and in the financial sector, to the criticism of the government’s economic policy in the framework of anti-crisis measures. Particular attention is given to the consideration of such factors of economic growth as the restructuring of the economy, to the problem of single-industry towns, to regional priorities, and to the overcoming the destructive elements within the government’s economic policy.

  6. Testing the growth links of emerging economies: Croatia in a growing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziesemer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We estimate a dynamic simultaneous equation model for 16 variables of the Croatian economy in order to test the links of growth with education, R&D, trade, savings and FDI. In order to motivate the choice of variables we review the related theories of growth and look at the relevant data. Permanent

  7. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  8. Rapidly Growing Thyroid Mass in an Immunocompromised Young Male Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 20-year-old man diagnosed with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, admitted to our hospital due to pancytopenia and fever of undetermined origin after myelosuppression with chemotherapy. Disseminated aspergillosis (DIA was suspected when he developed skin and lung involvement. A rapidly growing mass was detected on the left neck area, during hospitalization. A thyroid ultrasound reported a 3.7×2.5×2.9 cm oval heterogeneous structure, suggestive of an abscess versus a hematoma. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid revealed invasion of aspergillosis. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence. Thyroid fungal infection is difficult to diagnose; for this reason it is rarely diagnosed antemortem. To our knowledge, this is the 10th case reported in the literature in an adult where the diagnosis of fungal invasion to the thyroid was able to be corroborated antemortem by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

  9. In vitro activity of flomoxef against rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Moan-Shane; Tang, Ya-Fen; Eng, Hock-Liew

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro sensitivity of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) to flomoxef in respiratory secretions collected from 61 consecutive inpatients and outpatients at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung medical center between July and December, 2005. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of flomoxef were determined by the broth dilution method for the 61 clinical isolates of RGMs. The MICs of flomoxef at which 90% of clinical isolates were inhibited was >128 microg/mL in 26 isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus and 4 microg/mL in 31 isolates of M. fortuitum. Three out of 4 clinical M. peregrinum isolates were inhibited by flomoxef at concentrations of 4 microg/mL or less. Although the numbers of the clinical isolates of RGMs were small, these preliminary in vitro results demonstrate the potential activity of flomoxef in the management of infections due to M. fortuitum, and probably M. peregrinum in humans.

  10. Rapidly growing mycobacteria in Singapore, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S S; Lye, D C; Jureen, R; Sng, L-H; Hsu, L Y

    2015-03-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria infection is a growing global concern, but data from Asia are limited. This study aimed to describe the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) isolates in Singapore. Clinical RGM isolates with antibiotic susceptibility tests performed between 2006 and 2011 were identified using microbiology laboratory databases and minimum inhibitory concentrations of amikacin, cefoxitin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, imipenem, linezolid, moxifloxacin, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline and tobramycin were recorded. Regression analysis was performed to detect changes in antibiotic susceptibility patterns over time. A total of 427 isolates were included. Of these, 277 (65%) were from respiratory specimens, 42 (10%) were related to skin and soft tissue infections and 36 (8%) were recovered from blood specimens. The two most common species identified were Mycobacterium abscessus (73%) and Mycobacterium fortuitum group (22%), with amikacin and clarithromycin being most active against the former, and quinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against the latter. Decreases in susceptibility of M. abscessus to linezolid by 8.8% per year (p 0.001), M. fortuitum group to imipenem by 9.5% per year (p 0.023) and clarithromycin by 4.7% per year (p 0.033) were observed. M. abscessus in respiratory specimens is the most common RGM identified in Singapore. Antibiotic options for treatment of RGM infections are increasingly limited. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transportation in megacities. Growing demand and emissions - a comparative analysis of sustainability in developed and developing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, R K [Tata Energy Research Inst. (India)

    1996-12-01

    The urban transport problem is fundamentally similar in all large cities. The basic causes are the same and so are many of the consequences, although there are some differences in degree between cities in developed and developing economies. Transport systems in large cities of the developing economies as compared to the developed economies are characterized by: (a) much lower level of motorization of transport and travel requirement, (b) more rapid rates of economic growth, population growth, and the growth in number of motor vehicles, (c) higher population densities, (d) much lower per capita energy consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide, (e) reduced access to capital and to advanced environmental technologies. Despite greater level of vehicle ownership, higher rate of trip generation and increased use of energy on a per capita basis in cities of developed countries, it is the large cities in the developing countries that, in general suffer most from growing traffic congestion, road accidents, energy use and emissions, overcrowding of public transport, and poor conditions for pedestrians and cyclists. (au) 20 refs.

  12. Rapidly Growing Esophageal Carcinosarcoma Reduced by Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. It is generally treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to the protocols used for other esophageal cancers. However, the treatment of esophageal carcinosarcoma by radiotherapy alone before surgery has not been previously described. We report a patient with a rapidly growing esophageal carcinosarcoma that was efficiently reduced by neoadjuvant radiotherapy alone. A previously healthy 69-year-old man was admitted with dysphagia. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a small nodular polypoid lesion of about 10 mm in the middle esophagus. A second EGD 1 month later showed that the tumor had expanded into a huge mass. A biopsy specimen revealed that the tumor comprised squamous cell carcinoma with spindle cell components, and the tumor was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma which was diagnosed as stage I (T1bN0M0. Due to renal dysfunction, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy (40 Gy without chemotherapy. A third EGD 1 month later revealed remarkable tumor reduction. He then underwent total esophagectomy with regional lymph node dissection (pStage 0, pT1aN0M0. After surgical operation, the patient was followed up without adjuvant therapy. Whole body computed tomography revealed lung metastasis 14 months after surgery, and the patient died 2 months later. The neoadjuvant radiotherapy for esophageal carcinosarcoma was considered to have contributed to the subsequent surgery and his prolonged survival time. Thus, radiotherapy alone might be a suitable neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal carcinosarcomas.

  13. China's growing methanol economy and its implications for energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chi-Jen; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a decade, Nobel laureate George Olah and coworkers have advocated the Methanol Economy – replacing petroleum-based fuels and chemicals with methanol and methanol-derivatives – as a path to sustainable development. A first step to this vision appears to be occurring in China. In the past five years, China has quickly built an industry of coal-based methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) that is competitive in price with petroleum-based fuels. Methanol fuels offer many advantages, including a high octane rating and cleaner-burning properties than gasoline. Methanol also has some disadvantages. A coal-based Methanol Economy could enhance water shortages in China, increase net carbon dioxide emissions, and add volatility to regional and global coal prices. China's rapidly expanding Methanol Economy provides an interesting experiment for what could happen elsewhere if methanol is widely adopted, as proposed by Olah and researchers before him. - Highlights: ► China is quickly building a coal-based chemical industry. ► Methanol has become a significant automotive fuel and chemical feedstock in China. ► Coal-based methanol could provide a domestic alternative to imported oil. ► It, however, increases greenhouse gas emissions, and can cause other problems.

  14. Market Economy under Rapid Globalization and Rising Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Konov, Joshua Ioji

    2012-01-01

    Market economy of enhancing business laws in contracting, bonding, insuring, legal corporate structures , e.g. will marginalize the economic agents and tools that make market competition unfair, empower small and medium businesses and investors, and boost business activities, fiscal strength, employment, and capital transmission. Keynesian capital infusion will extend its market effect in such higher security marketplace.

  15. E-cigarettes: a rapidly growing Internet phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Cyrus K; Bitton, Asaf; Bates, David W

    2010-11-02

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) aerosolize nicotine and produce a vapor that emulates that of cigarettes but purportedly has fewer traditional toxins than secondhand smoke. Although e-cigarettes are widely sold online and by retailers, new research suggests that they may contain unexpected toxins and may provide unreliable nicotine delivery. Many countries have already banned or strictly regulated e-cigarettes. Currently in the United States, e-cigarettes are exempt from regulation as drug-delivery devices. Meanwhile, the presence of e-cigarettes on the Internet, including in Web searches, virtual user communities, and online stores where people sell e-cigarettes on commission, is increasing rapidly. Physicians should be aware of the popularity, questionable efficacy claims, and safety concerns of e-cigarettes so that they may counsel patients against use and advocate for research to inform an evidence-based regulatory approach.

  16. Challenges for Improvement of Quality in Construction of a Growing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chan Loong

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the results of a questionnaire survey amongst contractors and contracting consultants in a growing economy. The survey was intended to explore the problems that the employees think might affect the quality of construction works. Thirteen factors known to have some bearing on the quality of construction have been identified through literature and were used as a basis for the survey. The findings of the survey revealed that there is a need to focus on the human factors in addressing the quality issue. The four most problematic factors indicated by the respondents are lack of information, time constraint, lack of teamwork and poor communication. The results indicated the importance of a unified force; an enhanced coordination flow and improved teamwork are required to achieve the project quality objectives. A quality system will not succeed unless both the technical and humanistic aspects are addressed. These are some of the challenges that construction-related organisations must address to continually improve their quality of products and services to be able to compete aggressively in an environment where the quality requirements are always rising.

  17. Does the Circular Economy Grow the Pie? The Case of Rebound Effects From Smartphone Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Makov

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental benefits of the circular economy (CE are often taken for granted. There are, however, reasons to believe that rebound effects may counteract such benefits by increasing overall consumption or “growing the pie.” In this study, we focus on two main rebound mechanisms: (1 imperfect substitution between “re-circulated” (recycled, reused, etc. and new products and (2 re-spending due to economic savings. We use the case study of smartphone reuse in the US to quantify, for the first time, rebound effects from reuse. Using a combination of life cycle assessment, sales statistics, consumer surveying, consumer demand modeling, and environmentally-extended input-output analysis, we quantify the magnitude of this rebound effect for life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. We find a rebound effect of 29% on average, with a range of 27–46% for specific smartphone models. Moreover, when exploring how rebound might play out in other regions and under different consumer behavior patterns, we find that rebound effects could be higher than 100% (backfire effect. In other words, we estimate that about one third, and potentially the entirety, of emission savings resulting from smartphone reuse could be lost due to the rebound effect. Our results thus suggest that there are grounds to challenge the premise that CE strategies, and reuse in particular, always reduce environmental burdens.

  18. Getting China and India right: Strategies for leveraging the world's fastest growing economies for global advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Ramamurti

    2010-01-01

    The re-emergence of the old world: MNEs and the emerging economies of China and IndiaAccording to projections of the National Intelligence Council, a US government think tank, by 2025 China and India will have the world's second- and fourth-largest economies, respectively. The world is changing before our eyes – within the memories of many readers of this journal, these economies were known for little other than abject poverty. Today they are the largest of the “emerging market economies.” Ye...

  19. Rapidly growing ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the vagina: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghun Na

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: Epithelial ovarian cancer may grow very rapidly. The frequent measurement of tumor size by ultrasonography may provide important information on detection in a subset of ovarian carcinomas that develop from preexisting, detectable lesions.

  20. Growing Old and Staying Young: Population Policy in an Ageing Closed Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groezen, Bas; Meijdam, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between public pensions, fertility and child care in a closed economy OLG-model with endogenous fertility. It it shown that it is optimal to introduce child allowances if the government redistributes income from the young to the old, and rises when longevity

  1. Growing out of the Crisis: Hidden Assets to Greece's Transition to an Innovation Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Benedikt; Kritikos, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    Greece's currently planned institutional reforms will help to get the country going with limited economic growth. With an economy based primarily on tourism, trade, and agriculture, Greece lacks an established competitive industry and an innovation-friendly environment, resulting in a low export ratio given the small size of the country and its long-time EU-membership. Instead, Greece exports only its nation's talent, with low returns. To become prosperous, the country must better capitalize ...

  2. Structural analysis of biofilm formation by rapidly and slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) such as M. abscessus, M. mucogenicum, M. chelonae and M. fortuitum, implicated in healthcare-associated infections, are often isolated from potable water supplies as part of the microbial flora. To understa...

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF CORRUPTION ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE STANDARDS: SHARED CHARACTERISTICS OF RAPIDLY DEVELOPING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle I. Caron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the relationship between the level of corruption in rapidly developing economies and corporate governance processes therein.  Previous literature illustrates a strong relationship between corporate governance and corruption and suggests that in countries with high levels of corruption, firms lack efficient corporate governance practices.  Similarly, countries with deficient corporate governance practices and low levels of compliance to these standards breed corruption leading to a wide range of transparency dilemmas.  This study delves deeper through careful examination regarding the level of compliance with corporate governance standards and the pervasive effects of corruption on the governance processes of firms with specific regard to rapidly developing economies as well as offering comparisons and similarities of shared characteristics among these countries.

  4. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  5. Clinical and Taxonomic Status of Pathogenic Nonpigmented or Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Wallace, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    The history, taxonomy, geographic distribution, clinical disease, and therapy of the pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are reviewed. Community-acquired disease and health care-associated disease are highlighted for each species. The latter grouping includes health care-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks as well as sporadic disease cases. Treatment recommendations for each species and type of disease are also described. Special emphasis is on ...

  6. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Richard; de Castro, Claudio Campi; Hadad, David Jamil; da Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya; Filho, Ezequiel Leal; Marcal, Leonardo P

    2015-09-01

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5%), small nodules (61.5%), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5%), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4%), and collections (26.9%). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5%), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8%), and collections (15.4%). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1%), small nodules (42.3%), nodules (15.4%), and collections (11.5%). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. • Rapidly growing mycobacterial infection may occur following laparoscopy. • Post-laparoscopy mycobacterial infection CT findings are densification, collection, and nodules. • Rapidly growing mycobacterial infection following laparoscopy may involve the peritoneal cavity. • Post-laparoscopy rapidly growing mycobacterial intraperitoneal infection is not associated with ascites or lymphadenopathy.

  7. Gas-export potential will grow until domestic economies hike local demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.; Stram, B.

    1993-01-01

    Prospects appear good for near-term growth of exportable natural-gas supplies for some member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.). These conclusions are a result of Enron Corp.'s recent investigations in the C.I.S. and other former Soviet republics. They are based on data obtained in cooperation with Vinigaz, the research arm of the Russian state gas concern Gazprom, and from various other research and consulting groups. These studies indicate that gas-export potential will grow as local demand for gas shrinks in the C.I.S. (as the energy needs of the individual republics decline during the period of economic transition) and while the C.I.S.-area countries continue to require foreign currency to help fund redevelopment and reduce debt. This concluding of two articles reviews the economic outlook for outside investment in the oil, gas, and gas-liquids infrastructure and the role of natural-gas supply and price in the development of domestic and export markets

  8. Possibility of steadily growing per capita consumption in an economy with a wasting and non-replenishable resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H

    1976-01-01

    The Solow--Stiglitz model is modified to determine if factors other than the outstanding stock of the resource are related to per capita consumption and if technical improvements in productivity depend on investment. In the first modification, production is made dependent on the outstanding stock of a wasting resource in an economy based on a single aggregate industry producing a single consumer product. Consumption is found to follow a constant path as long as the share of capital remains greater than the share of the resource. In the second modification, no technical improvements are permitted without a research and development commitment. A set of restrictions on the parameters of the production function and the rate of population growth ensures that steadily growing per-capita consumption is feasible. 4 references.

  9. Rapidly Growing Chondroid Syringoma of the External Auditory Canal: Report of a Rare Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiadis, Ioannis; Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Petousis, Aristotelis; Karakostas, Euthimios; Simantirakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Chondroid syrinoma of the external auditory canal is an extremely rare benign neoplasm representing the cutaneous counterpart of pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands. Less than 35 cases have been reported in the international literature. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 34-year-old male in whom a rapidly growing, well-circumscribed tumor arising from the external auditory canal was presented. Otoscopy revealed a smooth, nontender lesion covered by normal skin that almost obstructs the external auditory meatus. MRI was performed to define the extension of the lesion. It confirmed the presence of a 1.5 × 0.8 cm T2 high-signal intensity lesion in the superior and posterior wall of EAC without signs of bone erosion. The patient underwent complete resection of the tumor. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Conclusion. Although chondroid syringoma is extremely rare, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp. Chondroid syringomas are usually asymptomatic, slow-growing, single benign tumors in subcutaneous or intradermal location. In our case, the new information is that this benign tumor could present also as a rapidly growing lesion, arising the suspicion for malignancy. PMID:21941560

  10. Rapidly Growing Chondroid Syringoma of the External Auditory Canal: Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Vasileiadis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chondroid syrinoma of the external auditory canal is an extremely rare benign neoplasm representing the cutaneous counterpart of pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands. Less than 35 cases have been reported in the international literature. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 34-year-old male in whom a rapidly growing, well-circumscribed tumor arising from the external auditory canal was presented. Otoscopy revealed a smooth, nontender lesion covered by normal skin that almost obstructs the external auditory meatus. MRI was performed to define the extension of the lesion. It confirmed the presence of a 1.5×0.8 cm T2 high-signal intensity lesion in the superior and posterior wall of EAC without signs of bone erosion. The patient underwent complete resection of the tumor. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Conclusion. Although chondroid syringoma is extremely rare, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp. Chondroid syringomas are usually asymptomatic, slow-growing, single benign tumors in subcutaneous or intradermal location. In our case, the new information is that this benign tumor could present also as a rapidly growing lesion, arising the suspicion for malignancy.

  11. Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov., a rapidly growing bacterium isolated from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2017-10-01

    A strain representing a rapidly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating and non-pigmented species of the genus Mycobacterium, designated strain S-I-6 T , was isolated from groundwater at Daejeon in Korea. The strain grew at temperatures between 10 and 37 °C (optimal growth at 25 °C), between pH 4.0 and 9.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNAgene, hsp65, rpoB and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer indicated that strain S-I-6 T belonged to the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium sphagni. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the bacterial strain was distinguished from its phylogenetic neighbours by chemotaxonomic properties and other biochemical characteristics. DNA-DNA relatedness among strain S-I-6 T and the closest phylogenetic neighbour strongly support the proposal that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-I-6 T (=KACC 17600 T =NBRC 109805 T =NCAIM B 02535 T ).

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria by microdilution - Experience of a tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Set R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.

  13. The impact of entrepreneurial capital and rapidly growing firms: the Canadian example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    . It provides empirical evidence from small, young, high-growth enterprises that entrepreneurial capital contributes significantly to their growth through such augmentation. As emerging industries and regions face similar challenges as those of high and rapidly-growing smaller enterprises in increasingly more......World-class competitiveness is no longer an option for firms seeking growth and survival in the increasingly competitive, dynamic and interconnected world. This paper expands on the concept of entrepreneurial capital and formalizes it as a catalyst that augments other productive factors...

  14. Rapidly- growing firms and their main characteristics: a longitudinal study from United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    concerning the theoretical relations between high-growth and location, size and temporal characteristics of the high-growth enterprises. Using non parametric tests, we analyze a 21-year longitudinal database of privately held rapidly growing enterprises from the USA. This analysis indicates that these firms...... are relatively smaller enterprises and their high growth rates are not restricted to a particular location, industrial region, size or time period. The findings of this analysis point to a population of high-growth enterprises with diverse locations, sizes and times with important implications for scholarly...

  15. Clinical management of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections in patients after mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Stéphanie; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Guihot, Amelie; Deforges, Lionel; Carbonne, Anne; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric

    2009-11-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are expressing an interest in mesotherapy as a method of reducing body fat. Cutaneous infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria are a common complication of such procedures. We followed up patients who had developed cutaneous infections after undergoing mesotherapy during the period October 2006-January 2007. Sixteen patients were infected after mesotherapy injections performed by the same physician. All patients presented with painful, erythematous, draining subcutaneous nodules at the injection sites. All patients were treated with surgical drainage. Microbiological examination was performed on specimens that were obtained before and during the surgical procedure. Direct examination of skin smears demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in 25% of the specimens that were obtained before the procedure and 37% of the specimens obtained during the procedure; culture results were positive in 75% of the patients. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 11 patients, and Mycobacterium frederiksbergense was identified in 2 patients. Fourteen patients were treated with antibiotics, 6 received triple therapy as first-line treatment (tigecycline, tobramycin, and clarithromycin), and 8 received dual therapy (clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin). The mean duration of treatment was 14 weeks (range, 1-24 weeks). All of the patients except 1 were fully recovered 2 years after the onset of infection, with the mean time to healing estimated at 6.2 months (range, 1-15 months). This series of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections highlights the difficulties in treating such infections and suggests that in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics does not accurately predict their clinical efficacy.

  16. Rapidly growing ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the vagina: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sunghun; Hwang, Jongyun; Lee, Hyangah; Lee, Jiyeon; Lee, Dongheon

    2011-12-01

    We present a rare case of a very rapidly growing stage IV ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the uterine cervix and vagina without lymph node involvement. A 43-year-old woman visited the hospital with complaints of lower abdominal discomfort and vaginal bleeding over the previous 3 months. Serum levels of tumor marker CA 125 and SCC antigen (TA-4) were normal. On magnetic resonance imaging, a 7.9×9.7cm heterogeneous mass with intermediate signal intensity was observed in the posterior low body of the uterus. Two months ago, a computed tomography scan revealed an approximate 4.5×3.0cm heterogeneously enhanced subserosal mass with internal ill-defined hypodensities. A laparotomy, including a total abdominal hysterectomy with resection of the upper vagina, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection, appendectomy, total omentectomy, and biopsy of rectal serosa was performed. A histological examination revealed poorly differentiated endometrioid ovarian adenocarcinoma with vaginal involvement. The patient had an uncomplicated post-operative course. After discharge, she completed six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel (175mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (300mg/m(2)) and has remained clinically disease-free until June 2010. Epithelial ovarian cancer may grow very rapidly. The frequent measurement of tumor size by ultrasonography may provide important information on detection in a subset of ovarian carcinomas that develop from preexisting, detectable lesions. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Surgical site infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria in puducherry, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kavitha; Ragunathan, Latha; Sakthivel, Sulochana; Sasidar, A R; Muralidaran; Venkatachalam, G K

    2015-03-01

    Rapidly growing Mycobacteria are increasingly recognized, nowadays as an important pathogen that can cause wide range of clinical syndromes in humans. We herein describe unrelated cases of surgical site infection caused by Rapidly growing Mycobacteria (RGM), seen during a period of 12 months. Nineteen patients underwent operations by different surgical teams located in diverse sections of Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Karnataka, India. All patients presented with painful, draining subcutaneous nodules at the infection sites. Purulent material specimens were sent to the microbiology laboratory. Gram stain and Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used for direct examination. Culture media included blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey agar, Sabourauds agar and Lowenstein-Jensen medium for Mycobacteria. Isolated microorganisms were identified and further tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by standard microbiologic procedures. Mycobacterium fortuitum and M.chelonae were isolated from the purulent drainage obtained from wounds by routine microbiological techniques from all the specimens. All isolates analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were sensitive to clarithromycin, linezolid and amikacin but were variable to ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and tobramycin. Our case series highlights that a high level of clinical suspicion should be maintained for patients presenting with protracted soft tissue lesions with a history of trauma or surgery as these infections not only cause physical but also emotional distress that affects both the patients and the surgeon.

  18. Rapid urbanization and the growing threat of violence and conflict: a 21st century crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak B; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-04-01

    As the global population is concentrated into complex environments, rapid urbanization increases the threat of conflict and insecurity. Many fast-growing cities create conditions of significant disparities in standards of living, which set up a natural environment for conflict over resources. As urban slums become a haven for criminal elements, youth gangs, and the arms trade, they also create insecurity for much of the population. Specific populations, such as women, migrants, and refugees, bear the brunt of this lack of security, with significant impacts on their livelihoods, health, and access to basic services. This lack of security and violence also has great costs to the general population, both economic and social. Cities have increasingly become the battlefield of recent conflicts as they serve as the seats of power and gateways to resources. International agencies, non-governmental organizations, and policy-makers must act to stem this tide of growing urban insecurity. Protecting urban populations and preventing future conflict will require better urban planning, investment in livelihood programs for youth, cooperation with local communities, enhanced policing, and strengthening the capacity of judicial systems.

  19. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M

    2016-08-01

    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  20. Prehospital care training in a rapidly developing economy: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Dinesh; Hollis, Michael; Abraham, Rohit; Rustagi, Neeti; Chandra, Siddharth; Malhotra, Ajai; Rajpurohit, Vikas; Purohit, Harshada; Pal, Ranabir

    2016-06-01

    The trauma pandemic is one of the leading causes of death worldwide but especially in rapidly developing economies. Perhaps, a common cause of trauma-related mortality in these settings comes from the rapid expansion of motor vehicle ownership without the corresponding expansion of national prehospital training in developed countries. The resulting road traffic injuries often never make it to the hospital in time for effective treatment, resulting in preventable disability and death. The current article examines the development of a medical first responder training program that has the potential to reduce this unnecessary morbidity and mortality. An intensive training workshop has been differentiated into two progressive tiers: acute trauma training (ATT) and broad trauma training (BTT) protocols. These four-hour and two-day protocols, respectively, allow for the mass education of laypersons-such as police officials, fire brigade, and taxi and/or ambulance drivers-who are most likely to interact first with prehospital victims. Over 750 ATT participants and 168 BTT participants were trained across three Indian educational institutions at Jodhpur and Jaipur. Trainees were given didactic and hands-on education in a series of critical trauma topics, in addition to pretraining and post-training self-assessments to rate clinical confidence across curricular topics. Two-sample t-test statistical analyses were performed to compare pretraining and post-training confidence levels. Program development resulted in recruitment of a variety of career backgrounds for enrollment in both our ATT and BTT workshops. The workshops were run by local physicians from a wide spectrum of medical specialties and previously ATT-trained police officials. Statistically significant improvements in clinical confidence across all curricular topics for ATT and BTT protocols were identified (P developing settings. Program expansion can offer an exponential growth in the training rate of medical

  1. Familial cerebral cavernous haemangioma diagnosed in an infant with a rapidly growing cerebral lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, B.H.K.; Pereira, J.K.; Ghedia, S.; Pinner, J.; Mowat, D.; Vonau, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cavernous haemangiomas of the central nervous system are vascular malformations best imaged by MRI. They may present at any age, but to our knowledge only 39 cases in the first year of life have previously been reported. A familial form has been described and some of the underlying genetic mutations have recently been discovered. We present the clinical features and serial MRI findings of an 8-week-old boy who presented with subacute intracranial haemorrhage followed by rapid growth of a surgically proven cavernous haemangioma, mimicking a tumour. He also developed new lesions. A strong family history of neurological disease was elucidated. A familial form of cavernous haemangioma was confirmed by identification of a KRIT 1 gene mutation and cavernous haemangiomas in the patient and other family members. We stress the importance of considering cavernous haemangiomas in the context of intracerebral haemorrhage and in the differential diagnosis of rapidly growing lesions in this age group. The family history is also important in screening for familial disease

  2. [Rapidly-growing nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elıyatkin, Nuket; Karasu, Başak; Selek, Elif; Keçecı, Yavuz; Postaci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is a benign proliferative lesion of the mammary stroma that rarely presents as a localized mass. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is characterized by a dense, collagenous proliferation of the mammary stroma, associated with capillary-like spaces. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia can be mistaken with fibroadenoma on radiological examination or with low-grade angiosarcoma on histological examination. Its main importance is its distinction from angiosarcoma. The presented case was a 40-year-old woman who was admitted with a rapidly growing breast tumor. Physical examination revealed an elastic-firm, well-defined, mobile and painless mass in her right breast. Mammograms revealed a 6.7 x 3.7 cm, lobulated, well-circumscribed mass in her right breast but no calcification. Sonographic examination showed a well-defined and homogenous mass, not including any cyst. Based on these findings, a provisional diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made. Considering the rapid growth history of the mass, tumor excision was performed. The excised tumor was well demarcated and had a smooth external surface. Histological examination revealed the tumor to be composed of markedly increased fibrous stroma and scattered epithelial components (cystic dilatation of the ducts, blunt duct adenosis). The fibrous stroma contained numerous anastomosing slit-like spaces. Isolated spindle cells appeared intermittently at the margins of the spaces resembled endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the spindle cells were positive for CD34 and negative for Factor VIII-related antigen. The lesion was diagnosed as nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia.

  3. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  4. The economic case for low-carbon development in rapidly growing developing world cities: A case study of Palembang, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colenbrander, Sarah; Gouldson, Andy; Sudmant, Andrew Heshedahl; Papargyropoulou, Effie

    2015-01-01

    Where costs or risks are higher, evidence is lacking or supporting institutions are less developed, policymakers can struggle to make the case for low-carbon investment. This is especially the case in developing world cities where decision-makers struggle to keep up with the pace and scale of change. Focusing on Palembang in Indonesia, this paper considers the economic case for proactive investment in low-carbon development. We find that a rapidly growing industrial city in a developing country can reduce emissions by 24.1% in 2025, relative to business as usual levels, with investments of USD405.6 million that would reduce energy expenditure in the city by USD436.8 million. Emissions from the regional grid could be reduced by 12.2% in 2025, relative to business as usual trends, with investments of USD2.9 billion that would generate annual savings of USD175 million. These estimates understate the savings from reduced expenditure on energy subsidies and energy infrastructure. The compelling economic case for mainstreaming climate mitigation in this developing country city suggests that the constraints on climate action can be political and institutional rather than economic. There is therefore a need for more effective energy governance to drive the transition to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic case for low carbon investment in a developing world city. • Cost-effective measures could reduce emissions by 24.1% relative to BAU levels. • These pay for themselves in <1 year and generate savings throughout their lifetime. • Further savings come from reduced expenditure on energy infrastructure, subsidies. • Limitations on climate action seem to be political/institutional – not economic

  5. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kyselková

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

  6. The spatial biology of transcription and translation in rapidly growing Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath eBakshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP in live, rapidly growing E. coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0-3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20-30 min nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription

  7. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Li, Guilian; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Haican; Wan, Kanglin; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Clinical isolates (73) were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. M. abscessus (75.34%) and M. fortuitum (15.07%), the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  8. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpato, Richard; Campi de Castro, Claudio; Hadad, David Jamil; Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da; Filho, Ezequiel Leal; Marcal, Leonardo P.

    2015-01-01

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  9. Clinical and taxonomic status of pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J

    2002-10-01

    The history, taxonomy, geographic distribution, clinical disease, and therapy of the pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are reviewed. Community-acquired disease and health care-associated disease are highlighted for each species. The latter grouping includes health care-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks as well as sporadic disease cases. Treatment recommendations for each species and type of disease are also described. Special emphasis is on the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, including M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and the unnamed third biovariant complex with its recent taxonomic changes and newly recognized species (including M. septicum, M. mageritense, and proposed species M. houstonense and M. bonickei). The clinical and taxonomic status of M. chelonae, M. abscessus, and M. mucogenicum is also detailed, along with that of the closely related new species, M. immunogenum. Additionally, newly recognized species, M. wolinskyi and M. goodii, as well as M. smegmatis sensu stricto, are included in a discussion of the M. smegmatis group. Laboratory diagnosis of RGM using phenotypic methods such as biochemical testing and high-performance liquid chromatography and molecular methods of diagnosis are also discussed. The latter includes PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, hybridization, ribotyping, and sequence analysis. Susceptibility testing and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the RGM are also annotated, along with the current recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) for mycobacterial susceptibility testing.

  10. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Methods. Clinical isolates (73 were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. Results. M. abscessus (75.34% and M. fortuitum (15.07%, the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Conclusions. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  11. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpato, Richard [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Campi de Castro, Claudio [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Radiology, Cerqueira Cesar, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hadad, David Jamil [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Nucleo de Doencas Infecciosas, Department of Internal Medicine, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da [Laboratorio de Patologia PAT, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Filho, Ezequiel Leal [UNIMED Diagnostico, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Marcal, Leonardo P. [The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  12. Rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection of prosthetic knee joints: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Manyoung; Ha, Chul-Won; Jang, Jae Won; Park, Yong-Beom

    2017-08-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause prosthetic knee joint infections in rare cases. Infections with rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) are difficult to treat due to their aggressive clinical behavior and resistance to antibiotics. Infections of a prosthetic knee joint by RGNTM have rarely been reported. A standard of treatment has not yet been established because of the rarity of the condition. In previous reports, diagnoses of RGNTM infections in prosthetic knee joints took a long time to reach because the condition was not suspected, due to its rarity. In addition, it is difficult to identify RGNTM in the lab because special identification tests are needed. In previous reports, after treatment for RGNTM prosthetic infections, knee prostheses could not be re-implanted in all cases but one, resulting in arthrodesis or resection arthroplasty; this was most likely due to the aggressiveness of these organisms. In the present report, two cases of prosthetic knee joint infection caused by RGNTM (Mycobacterium abscessus) are described that were successfully treated, and in which prosthetic joints were finally reimplanted in two-stage revision surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapidly-growing mycobacterial infection: a recognized cause of early-onset prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitmuang, Anupop; Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Charoencholvanich, Keerati; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2017-12-28

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a major complication of total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA). Although mycobacteria are rarely the causative pathogens, it is important to recognize and treat them differently from non-mycobacterial infections. This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, associated factors and long-term outcomes of mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of patients aged ≥18 years who were diagnosed with PJI of the hip or knee at Siriraj Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. Patient characteristics, clinical data, treatments and outcomes were evaluated. A total of 178 patients were included, among whom 162 had non-mycobacterial PJI and 16 had mycobacterial PJI. Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) (11) and M. tuberculosis (MTB) (5) were the causative pathogens of mycobacterial PJI. PJI duration and time until onset were significantly different between mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. Infection within 90 days of arthroplasty was significantly associated with RGM infection (OR 21.86; 95% CI 4.25-112.30; p infection. RGM were the major pathogens of early onset PJI after THA and TKA. Both a high clinical index of suspicion and mycobacterial cultures are recommended when medically managing PJI with negative cultures or non-response to antibiotics. Removal of infected implants was associated with favorable outcomes.

  14. Rapid-Growing Mycobacteria Infections in Medical Tourists: Our Experience and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mansher; Dugdale, Caitlin M; Solomon, Isaac H; Huang, Anne; Montgomery, Mary W; Pomahac, Bohdan; Yawetz, Sigal; Maguire, James H; Talbot, Simon G

    2016-09-01

    "Medical tourism" has gained popularity over the past few decades. This is particularly common with patients seeking elective cosmetic surgery in the developing world. However, the risk of severe and unusual infectious complications appears to be higher than for patients undergoing similar procedures in the United States. The authors describe their experience with atypical mycobacterial infections in cosmetic surgical patients returning to the United States postoperatively. A review of patient medical records presenting with infectious complications after cosmetic surgery between January 2010 and July 2015 was performed. Patients presenting with mycobacterial infections following cosmetic surgery were reviewed in detail. An extensive literature review was performed for rapid-growing mycobacteria (RGM) related to cosmetic procedures. Between January 2010 and July 2015, three patients presented to our institution with culture-proven Mycobacterium abscessus at the sites of recent cosmetic surgery. All had surgery performed in the developing world. The mean age of these patients was 36 years (range, 29-44 years). There was a delay of up to 16 weeks between the initial presentation and correct diagnosis. All patients were treated with surgical drainage and combination antibiotics with complete resolution. We present series of patients with mycobacterial infections after cosmetic surgery in the developing world. This may be related to the endemic nature of these bacteria and/or inadequate sterilization or sterile technique. Due to low domestic incidence of these infections, diagnosis may be difficult and/or delayed. Consulting physicians should have a low threshold to consider atypical etiologies in such scenarios. 5 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Two novel species of rapidly growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium lehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacterium neumannii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Sangal, Vartul; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Jando, Marlen; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Sutcliffe, Iain; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Two rapidly growing mycobacteria with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences were the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strains formed a well-supported subclade in the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely associated with the type strain of Mycobacterium novocastrense. Single and multilocus sequence analyses based on hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SN 1900 T and SN 1904 T are phylogenetically distinct but share several chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features that are are consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium. The two strains were distinguished by their different fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles, and by a combination of phenotypic features. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values for strains SN 1900 T and SN 1904 T were 61.0 % and 94.7 %, respectively; in turn, the corresponding dDDH and ANI values with M. novocastrense DSM 44203 T were 41.4 % and 42.8 % and 89.3 % and 89.5 %, respectively. These results show that strains SN1900 T and SN 1904 T form new centres of taxonomic variation within the genus Mycobacterium. Consequently, strains SN 1900 T (40 T =CECT 8763 T =DSM 43219 T ) and SN 1904 T (2409 T =CECT 8766 T =DSM 43532 T ) are considered to represent novel species, for which the names Mycobacteriumlehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacteriumneumannii sp. nov. are proposed. A strain designated as 'Mycobacteriumacapulsensis' was shown to be a bona fide member of the putative novel species, M. lehmannii.

  16. Urban cyclist exposure to fine particle pollution in a rapidly growing city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, B. W.; Barrett, T. E.; Ponette-González, A.

    2017-12-01

    Urban cyclists are exposed to elevated atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter (particles vehicle exhaust, which is emitted directly into cyclists' "breathing zone." In cities, human exposure to PM2.5 is a concern because its small size allows it to be inhaled deeper into the lungs than most particles. The aim of this research is to determine "hotspots" (locations with high PM2.5 concentrations) within the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex, Texas, where urban cyclists are most exposed to fine particle pollution. Recent research indicates that common exposure hotspots include traffic signals, junctions, bus stations, parking lots, and inclined streets. To identify these and other hotspots, a bicycle equipped with a low-cost, portable, battery-powered particle counter (Dylos 1700) coupled with a Trimble Geo 5T handheld Global Positioning System (GPS; ≤1 m ± resolution) will be used to map and measure particle mass concentrations along predetermined routes. Measurements will be conducted during a consecutive four-month period (Sep-Dec) during morning and evening rush hours when PM2.5 levels are generally highest, as well as during non-rush hour times to determine background concentrations. PM2.5 concentrations will be calculated from particle counts using an equation developed by Steinle et al. (2015). In addition, traffic counts will be conducted along the routes coinciding with the mobile monitoring times. We will present results on identified "hotspots" of high fine particle concentrations and PM2.5 exposure in the City of Denton, where particle pollution puts urban commuters most at risk, as well as average traffic counts from monitoring times. These data can be used to determine pollution mitigation strategies in rapidly growing urban areas.

  17. Rare Rapidly Growing Thumb Lesion in a 12-Year-Old Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana J Arnold, MD, MBA

    2018-04-01

    t amenable to surgery.4 Surgery is the mainstay of care. The first medical treatment, denosumab, was approved by the FDA for use in adults and skeletally mature adolescents with surgically unresectable lesions.5 It is critical to obtain definitive imaging and biopsy of any rapidly growing lesions in patients presenting with masses and no history of trauma or constitutional symptoms. The best imaging study is MRI, to assess for bony and tissue involvement and surgical approach. Computed tomography may be used; however, it doesn’t delineate the soft tissue and bony connections as well. Standard oncology labs should be drawn as well, including: CBC with differential, LDH, uric acid, CMP, ESR. The growth of the tumor is insidious and therefore imaging should be done based on clinical concern. In the ED setting, if close follow up can be ensured, imaging can be done as an out-patient. Annual surveillance is recommended for at least 5 years in most patients, even after total resection, according to some studies.3 Our patient underwent GCTB resection with plastics surgery of the distal phalanx of thumb. He was seen in follow-up in the oncology clinic. Pathology of the tumor had negative margins, and he was told to follow-up in six months with plastics. Per hematology, no further follow-up was needed. Topics: Pediatrics, giant cell tumor, thumb lesion

  18. Renewing Oregon's Economy: Growing Jobs and Industries through Innovation. A Report from the Oregon Council for Knowledge and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The Oregon Council for Knowledge and Economic Development (OCKED), a collaborative effort among Oregon's higher education institutions, economic development department, and the private sector, is charged with developing strategies to enhance Oregon's economic competitiveness in a knowledge-based, global economy. This report describes the council's…

  19. Understanding rapid internationalization of new low-technology ventures from emerging economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2012-01-01

    This theory-building study makes an attempt to advance the field of international entrepreneurship that is (i) fragmented and suffers from theoretical paucity, as well as from coverage bias by focusing mostly on high-technology international new ventures from developed economies and (ii) that needs...

  20. Myofibroblastoma: An Unusual Rapidly Growing Benign Tumour in a Male Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, A.; Arshad, A.

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma is an unusual benign tumour of the breast predominantly seen in men in their sixth to seventh decade. The gross appearance is that of a well circumscribed nodule, characteristically small, seldom exceeding 3 cm. We present a case of an unusually large myofibroblastoma, which mimicked a malignant breast tumour. A 40 years old male, known case of tetralogy of Fallot, was operated in infancy in abroad, presented with a rapid enlargement of right breast over 5 - 6 weeks. Examination revealed a firm 10 cm hemispherical lump occupying the whole of the right breast with normal overlying skin. Since core biopsy was inconclusive, a subcutaneous mastectomy was performed to remove the tumour, which weighed 500 gms. Histopathology and immunocytochemistry revealed a mixed classical and collagenised type of myofibroblastoma. The patient is well with no evidence of recurrence. (author)

  1. NSERC's research and industrial community: a growing force of discovery, people and innovation shaping tomorrow's hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therrien, R.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': As Canada's largest university research-funding agency, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) supports the training of some 26,500 university students and postdoctoral fellows, funds the research efforts of more than 11,800 university and college professors and stimulates academic-industry research and development (R and D) partnerships involving over 1,400 companies each year. In the hydrogen and fuel cell arena, NSERC has sponsored cutting edge research for over two decades. During that time, the level of activity has intensified significantly - from a mere handful of projects in the early 1980s and 1990s, to more than 150 grants and scholarships in 2008. Since 2002, NSERC's annual support has tripled from about $2.9 million to over $9 million. More than half of that investment is earmarked for university-industry projects involving over 40 fuel cell and hydrogen business interests. NSERC supports hydrogen advances through its Discovery Grants for basic research, Research Partnerships Programs' grants for research and knowledge transfer involving companies, and scholarships and fellowships for skills development. All of these initiatives provide advanced training for students at the post-graduate level, resulting in job-ready professionals who will help shape tomorrow's hydrogen economy. In 2007, NSERC doubled its funding for strategic research partnerships in the area of sustainable energy systems, including hydrogen-related R and D. These public-private partnerships permit companies to capitalize, at minimal cost, on university innovations and training. In addition to supporting project-specific partnerships, the new funds enabled the creation of several national networks that unite industrial and research interests engaged in fuel cell advancement on the one hand, and in hydrogen technologies on the other. The partnership opportunities that exist at NSERC will be briefly described and examples of successful

  2. Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov., a rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species isolated from human clinical respiratory and blood culture specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto Enrique; Greninger, Alexander L; Ladutko, Lynn; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Jakubiec, Wesley; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Wallace, Richard J; Simmon, Keith E; Dunn, Bruce E; Jackoway, Gary; Vora, Surabhi B; Quinn, Kevin K; Qin, Xuan; Campbell, Sheldon

    2017-11-01

    A previously undescribed, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species of the genus Mycobacterium (represented by strains PB739 T and GK) was isolated from two clinical sources - the sputum of a 76-year-old patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of tuberculosis exposure and Mycobacterium avium complex isolated years prior; and the blood of a 15-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia status post bone marrow transplant. The isolates grew as dark orange colonies at 25-37 °C after 5 days, sharing features in common with other closely related species. Analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (1492 bp) of strain PB739 T demonstrated that the isolate shared 98.8 % relatedness with Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Partial 429 bp hsp65 and 744 bp rpoB region V sequence analyses revealed that the sequences of the novel isolate shared 94.8 and 92.1 % similarity with those of Mycobacterium neoaurum and Mycobacterium aurum, respectively. Biochemical profiling, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, HPLC/gas-liquid chromatography analyses and multilocus sequence typing support the taxonomic status of these isolates (PB739 T and GK) as representatives of a novel species. Both isolates were susceptible to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended antimicrobials for susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria including amikacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline/minocycline, imipenem, linezolid, clarithromycin and trimethropin/sulfamethoxazole. Both isolates PB739 T and GK showed intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin. We propose the name Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov. for this novel species and have deposited the type strain in the DSMZ and CIP culture collections. The type strain is PB739 T (=DSM 104744 T =CIP 111318 T ).

  3. Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Disease in the Rapidly Changing Economy of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangfeng; Benjamin, Emelia J; MacMahon, Stephen

    2016-06-14

    With one-fifth of the world's total population, China's prevention and control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may affect the success of worldwide efforts to achieve sustainable CVD reduction. Understanding China's current cardiovascular epidemic requires awareness of the economic development in the past decades. The rapid economic transformations (industrialization, marketization, urbanization, globalization, and informationalization) contributed to the aging demography, unhealthy lifestyles, and environmental changes. The latter have predisposed to increasing cardiovascular risk factors and the CVD pandemic. Rising CVD rates have had a major economic impact, which has challenged the healthcare system and the whole society. With recognition of the importance of health, initial political steps and national actions have been taken to address the CVD epidemic. Looking to the future, we recommend that 4 priorities should be taken: pursue multisectorial government and nongovernment strategies targeting the underlying causes of CVD (the whole-of-government and whole-of-society policy); give priority to prevention; reform the healthcare system to fit the nature of noncommunicable diseases; and conduct research for evidence-based, low-cost, simple, sustainable, and scalable interventions. By pursuing the 4 priorities, the pandemic of CVD and other major noncommunicable diseases in China will be reversed and the global sustainable development goal achieved. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov., a scotochromogenic, rapidly growing species is able to infect human macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Rizvi, A; Banerjee, S; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-11-01

    Gram-stain-positive, acid-fast-positive, rapidly growing, rod-shaped bacteria (designated as strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431) were isolated from paddy cultivated soils on the Western Ghats of India. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three strains among the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium tokaiense 47503T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Mycobacterium murale MA112/96T (98.8 %) and a few other Mycobacterium species. The level of DNA-DNA reassociation of the three strains with M. tokaiense DSM 44635T was 23.4±4 % (26.1±3 %, reciprocal analysis) and 21.4±2 % (22.1±4 %, reciprocal analysis). The three novel strains shared >99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA reassociation values >85 %. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences (3071 bp) of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) revealed that strain JC290T is clearly distinct from all other Mycobacteriumspecies. The three strains had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, unidentified phospholipids, unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified lipid as polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone for all three strains was MK-9(H2). Fatty acids were C17 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C19 : 1ω7c/C19 : 1ω6c for all the three strains. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431 are members of a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium and for which the name Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC290T (=KCTC 39560T=LMG 28809T).

  5. Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov., a rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium chelonae, isolated from marine teleost fish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Hanako; Wada, Shinpei; Kurata, Osamu; Katayama, Kinya; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-01

    A previously undescribed rapidly growing, non-pigmented mycobacterium was identified based on biochemical and nucleic acid analyses, as well as growth characteristics. Seven isolates were cultured from samples collected from five thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) and two farmed black scraper (Thamnaconus modestus). Bacterial growth occurred at 15-35 °C on Middlebrook 7H11 agar. The bacteria were positive for catalase activity at 68 °C and urease activity, intermediate for iron uptake, and negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, semi-quantitative catalase activity and arylsulfatase activity at day 3. No growth was observed on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with picric acid, and very little growth was observed in the presence of 5 % NaCl. α- and α'-mycolates were identified in the cell walls, and a unique profile of the fatty acid methyl esters and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles of the protein and cell-wall lipids were acquired. Sequence analysis revealed that the seven isolates shared identical sequences for the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65, recA and sodA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the five gene sequences confirmed that the isolates were unique, but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clarithromycin against this novel species was Mycobacterium salmoniphilum. The hsp65 PCR restriction enzyme analysis pattern differed from those of M. chelonae and M. salmoniphilum. Based on these findings, the name Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain being NJB0901 T (=JCM 31611 T =KCTC 39843 T ).

  6. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).

  7. Effects of landscape change on fish assemblage structure in a rapidly growing metropolitan area in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, J.G.; Chang, M.; Tracy, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated a comprehensive set of natural and land-use attributes that represent the major facets of urban development at fish monitoring sites in the rapidly growing Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area. We used principal component and correlation analysis to obtain a nonredundant subset of variables that extracted most variation in the complete set. With this subset of variables, we assessed the effect of urban growth on fish assemblage structure. We evaluated variation in fish assemblage structure with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). We used correlation analysis to identify the most important environmental and landscape variables associated with significant NMDS axes. The second NMDS axis is related to many indices of land-use/land-cover change and habitat. Significant correlations with proportion of largest forest patch to total patch size (r = -0.460, P < 0.01), diversity of patch types (r = 0.554, P < 0.001), and population density (r = 0.385, P < 0.05) helped identify NMDS axis 2 as a disturbance gradient. Positive and negative correlations between the abundance of redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus and bluehead chub Nocomis leptocephalus, respectively, and NMDS axis 2 also were evident. The North Carolina index of biotic integrity and many of its component metrics were highly correlated with urbanization. These results indicate that aquatic ecosystem integrity would be optimized by a comprehensive integrated management strategy that includes the preservation of landscape function by maximizing the conservation of contiguous tracts of forested lands and vegetative cover in watersheds. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  8. Tetracycline resistance and presence of tetracycline resistance determinants .i.tet./i.(V) and .i.tap./i. in rapidly growing mycobacteria from agricultural soils and clinical isolates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Chroňáková, Alica; Volná, Lucie; Němec, Jan; Ulmann, V.; Scharfen, J.; Elhottová, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2012), s. 413-422 ISSN 1342-6311 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : efflux pump * rapidly growing Mycobacterium * tetracycline resistance * tap * tet (V) Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2012

  9. Diversity, Community Composition, and Dynamics of Nonpigmented and Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria in an Urban Tap Water Production and Distribution System

    OpenAIRE

    Dubrou, S.; Konjek, J.; Macheras, E.; Welté, B.; Guidicelli, L.; Chignon, E.; Joyeux, M.; Gaillard, J. L.; Heym, B.; Tully, T.; Sapriel, G.

    2013-01-01

    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 w...

  10. Do farmers rapidly adapt to past growing conditions by sowing different proportions of early and late maturing cereals and cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short growing season of the northernmost European growing conditions, farmers are increasingly interested in expanding cultivation of later maturing crops at the expense of early maturing ones with lower yields. In this study we aimed to assess how the switching between spring cereals that differ in earliness was associated with different external factors. This was tested using unique datasets for regional cropping areas and cultivar use for the last 15 years. Early maturing barley was favored at the expense of later maturing wheat when a high number of days to crop maturity was required in the preceding year. In contrast, farmers reduced the barley area when a high number of cumulated degree days was required for a crop to mature in the previous year. A shift was recorded from early to late maturing cultivars. This study indicated that despite limited opportunities for farmers to alter land use, they readily responded to past conditions and used the knowledge gained for decision-making to reduce risk. This is a valuable operative model for studying adaptation to opportunities and constraints induced by climate change.

  11. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  12. Carbon nanotubes growing on rapid thermal annealed Ni and their application to a triode-type field emission device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uh, Hyung Soo; Park, Sang Sik

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new triode-type field emitter arrays using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as an electron emitter source. In the proposed structure, the gate electrode is located underneath the cathode electrode and the extractor electrode is surrounded by CNT emitters. CNTs were selectively grown on the patterned Ni catalyst layer by using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Vertically aligned CNTs were grown with gas mixture of acetylene and ammonia under external DC bias. Compared with a conventional under-gate structure, the proposed structure reduced the turn-on voltage by about 30%. In addition, with a view to controlling the density of CNTs, Ni catalyst thickness was varied and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment was optionally adopted before CNT growth. With controlled Ni thickness and RTA condition, field emission efficiency was greatly improved by reducing the density of CNTs, which is due to the reduction of the electric field screening effect caused by dense CNTs

  13. The Political Economy of Growing a Rural University in the USA Using Online Education: An Examination of Incentives for Educational Imperialism and Academic Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharakis, Jeff; Tolar, Mary; Collins, Royce Ann

    2014-01-01

    Rural colleges and universities in the USA struggle to recruit new students, as their geographic region is depopulating and costs to attend classes on campus are increasing. Online education using the Internet is rapidly expanding as an effective growth strategy to reach new groups of students. In this paper, we take the position that online…

  14. Compartmental analysis of roots in intact rapidly-growing Spergularia marina and Lactuca sativa: partial characterization of the symplasms functional in the radial transport of Na+ and K+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazof, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques of compartmental analysis were adapted to the study of intact roots of rapidly-growing Spergularia marine and Lactuca sativa. Using large numbers of plants short time-courses of uptake and chase, 42 K + and 22 Na + transport could be resolved, even during a chase following a brief 10 minute labeling period. The use of intact plant systems allowed distinction of that portion of the isotope flux into the root, associated with the ion-conducting symplasms. A small compartment, which rapidly (t/sub .5/ + , accounting for the observed obtention of linear translocation rates within minutes of transferring to labeled solution. The ion contents of this compartment varied in proportion to the external ion concentration. When K + was at a high external concentration, labeled K + exchanged into this same symplasm, but chasing a short pulse indicated that K + transport to the xylem was not through a rapidly-exchanging compartment. At physiological concentrations of K + the evidence indicated that transport of K + across the root proceeded through a compartment which was not exchanging rapidly with the external medium. The rise to a linear rate of isotope translocation was gradual and translocation during a chase, following a brief pulse,was prolonged, indicating that this compartment retained its specific activity for a considerable period

  15. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    concept of our modeling approach and describe its strengths and weaknesses. We furthermore use empirical data for the states of North and South Carolina to demonstrate how the modeling framework can be applied to a large, heterogeneous study system with diverse decision-making agents. Grimm et al. (2005) Pattern-Oriented Modeling of Agent-Based Complex Systems: Lessons from Ecology. Science 310, 987-991. Liu et al. (2013) Framing Sustainability in a Telecoupled World. Ecology and Society 18(2), 26. Meentemeyer et al. (2013) FUTURES: Multilevel Simulations of Merging Urban-Rural Landscape Structure Using a Stochastic Patch-Growing Algorithm. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103(4), 785-807.

  16. A Framework Predicting Water Availability in a Rapidly Growing, Semi-Arid Region under Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B.; Benner, S. G.; Glenn, N. F.; Lindquist, E.; Dahal, K. R.; Bolte, J.; Vache, K. B.; Flores, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can lead to dramatic variations in hydrologic regime, affecting both surface water and groundwater supply. This effect is most significant in populated semi-arid regions where water availability are highly sensitive to climate-induced outcomes. However, predicting water availability at regional scales, while resolving some of the key internal variability and structure in semi-arid regions is difficult due to the highly non-linearity relationship between rainfall and runoff. In this study, we describe the development of a modeling framework to evaluate future water availability that captures elements of the coupled response of the biophysical system to climate change and human systems. The framework is built under the Envision multi-agent simulation tool, characterizing the spatial patterns of water demand in the semi-arid Treasure Valley area of Southwest Idaho - a rapidly developing socio-ecological system where urban growth is displacing agricultural production. The semi-conceptual HBV model, a population growth and allocation model (Target), a vegetation state and transition model (SSTM), and a statistically based fire disturbance model (SpatialAllocator) are integrated to simulate hydrology, population and land use. Six alternative scenarios are composed by combining two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) with three population growth and allocation scenarios (Status Quo, Managed Growth, and Unconstrained Growth). Five-year calibration and validation performances are assessed with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Irrigation activities are simulated using local water rights. Results show that in all scenarios, annual mean stream flow decreases as the projected rainfall increases because the projected warmer climate also enhances water losses to evapotranspiration. Seasonal maximum stream flow tends to occur earlier than in current conditions due to the earlier peak of snow melting. The aridity index and water deficit generally increase in the

  17. Safety dose of three commercially used growth promoters: nuricell- aqua, hepaprotect-aqua and rapid-grow on growth and survival of Thai pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ariful Islam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To optimize the dose of 3 commonly used growth promoters, viz., Nuricell-Aqua (composition: glucomannan complex and mannose polymer, Hepaprotect-Aqua (composition: β-glucan, mannose polymer and essential oil and Rapid-Grow (composition: organic acid and their salt, β-glucan, mannose oligosaccharide and essential oil, using Thai pangas (Pangasiandon hypophthalmus as cultured species. Methods: Thai pangas fingerlings with an average length and weight of 11 cm and 10 g were reared under laboratory condition and growth promoters were fed after incorporating them with a test diet at a ratio of 10% of their body weight for a period of 28 d. Estimation of data on growth such as weight gain (g, specific growth rate, survivability (% test in each aquarium were conducted and data were analyzed using statistical software. Results: After 28 d of feeding with Nutricell-Aqua, 10 mg/(20 g feed·day, which was the dose recommended by the manufacturer, was found better. When Hepaprotect-Aqua and Rapid-Grow were employed, performance was found to be better with the dose of 60 mg/(20 g feed·day which was 1.5 times higher than the dose recommended by the corresponding manufacturer. Conclusions: These results suggest that chemicals and feed additives marketed in Bangladesh Fish Feed Market need further testing under Bangladesh climatic condition before being marketed.

  18. Role of nuclear energy in environment, economy, and energy issues of the 21st century. Growing energy demand in Asia and role of nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimo, Masanori; Matsui, Kazuaki

    2008-01-01

    The economic growth of recent Asia is rapid, and the GDP and the energy consumption growth rate are about 8-10% in China and India. The energy consumption forecast of Asia in this century was estimated based on the GDP growth rate by Goldman Sachs. As a result, about twice in India and Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and about 1.5 times in China of SRES B (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) are forecasted. The simulation was done by Grape Code to analyze the impact of energy increase in Asia. As for the nuclear plant in Asia, it is expected 1500 GWe in 2050 and 2000 GWe in 2100, in the case of the environmental constrain. To achieve this nuclear utilization, there are two important aspects, technically and institutionally. (author)

  19. Grow, Baby, Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybe you quit smoking during your pregnancy. Or maybe you struggled and weren’t able to stay quit. Now that your baby is here, trying to stay away from smoking is still important. That’s because the chemicals in smoke can make it harder for your baby to grow like he or she should.

  20. Policy and Regulatory Challenges in the Tourism Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    The choice of policy approach and regulatory framework in dealing with the collaborative economy rests on two fundamental factors—that government decisions should be based on good sound knowledge and that this knowledge should be above politics. In the newly emerging and rapidly growing collabora......The choice of policy approach and regulatory framework in dealing with the collaborative economy rests on two fundamental factors—that government decisions should be based on good sound knowledge and that this knowledge should be above politics. In the newly emerging and rapidly growing......-sectors of the collaborative economy. However, these solutions are often based on assumptions about government sovereignty and power relations that do not necessarily apply in the slippery global world of platform capitalism. This chapter seeks to undertake a critical exploration of the factors and values that permeate...

  1. Political Economy of Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure,

  2. Effect of Rapid Maxillary Expansion on Glenoid Fossa and Condyle-Fossa Relationship in Growing Patients (MEGP): Study Protocol for a Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoussoub, Mona Sayegh; Rifai, Khaldoun; Garcia, Robert; Sleilaty, Ghassan

    2018-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthodontic nonsurgical procedure aiming at increasing the width of the maxilla by opening mainly the intermaxillary suture in patients presenting a transverse maxillary skeletal deficiency. The objectives of the current prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study are to evaluate the hypothesis that RME in growing patients will result in radiographic changes at the level of interglenoid fossa distance, condyle-fossa relationship, and nasal cavity widths compared to the group who received no treatment initially and served as untreated control. Materials and Methods: In this prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study, forty healthy growing patients selected from a school-based population following a large screening campaign, ranging in age between 8 and 13 years, presenting a maxillary constriction with bilateral crossbite, and candidates for RME are being recruited. The first group will include participants willing to undergo treatment (n = 25) and the other group will include those inclined to postpone (n = 15). Results: The primary outcome is to compare radiologically the interglenoid fossa distance and the condyle-fossa relationship; nasal cavity width will be a secondary outcome. A multivariable analysis of Covariance model will be used, with the assessment of the time by group interaction, using age as covariate. The project protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Lebanese University, National Institute in Lebanon (CUEMB process number 31/04/2015). The study is funded by the Lebanese University and Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Lebanon (Number: 652 on 14/04/2016). Conclusion: This prospective controlled clinical trial will give information about the effect of RME on the glenoid fossa and condyle-fossa relationship and its impact on the nasal cavity width. Trial Registration: Retrospectively registered in BioMed Central (DOI10.1186/ISRCTN

  3. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  4. Do teachers and students get the Ed-Tech products they need: The challenges of Ed-Tech procurement in a rapidly growing market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Morrison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ed-tech courseware products to support teaching and learning are being developed and made available for acquisition by school districts at a rapid rate. In this growing market, developers and providers face challenges with making their products visible to customers, while school district stakeholders must grapple with “discovering” which products of the many available best address their instructional needs. The present study presents the experiences with and perceptions about the procurement process from 47 superintendents representing diverse school districts in the U. S. Results indicate that, while improvements are desired in many aspects of the procurement process, the superintendents, overall, believe that, once desired products are identified, they are generally able to acquire them. Difficulties lie in tighter budgets, discovering products that are potentially the best choices, and evaluating the effectiveness of the products selected as options. These findings are presented and interpreted in relation to five major “Action Points” in the procurement process, and also with regard to implications for evaluating how educational technology impacts K-12 instruction.

  5. In Vitro Comparison of Ertapenem, Meropenem, and Imipenem against Isolates of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria and Nocardia by Use of Broth Microdilution and Etest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Killingley, Jessica; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Bridge, Linda; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    We compared the activities of the carbapenems ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem against 180 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and 170 isolates of Nocardia using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A subset of isolates was tested using the Etest. The rate of susceptibility to ertapenem and meropenem was limited and less than that to imipenem for the RGM. Analysis of major and minor discrepancies revealed that >90% of the isolates of Nocardia had higher MICs by the broth microdilution method than by Etest, in contrast to the lower broth microdilution MICs seen for >80% of the RGM. Imipenem remains the most active carbapenem against RGM, including Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus For Nocardia, imipenem was significantly more active only against Nocardia farcinica Although there may be utility in testing the activities of the newer carbapenems against Nocardia, their activities against the RGM should not be routinely tested. Testing by Etest is not recommended by the CLSI. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's 4. annual oil sands supply and infrastructure conference : maximizing opportunity and mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference addressed the challenges facing oil sands development, with particular reference to supply and infrastructure issues. Updates on oil sands markets and opportunities were presented along with strategies for mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market. The best practices for supplying a demanding market through supply shortages and high prices were identified along with policies that should be implemented to help overcome labour shortages. Some presentations expressed how commodities pricing and trends can impact business. Others showed how markets in China and the United States are prepared for oilsands products. The views of other international companies on oil sands was also discussed along with proposed plans to eliminate the infrastructure congestion and risks caused by expanding oil sands development. The challenges and benefits of investing in Alberta's oil sands were reviewed along with strategies to enhance upgrading and refining capacity in the province. Economic drivers and the creation of new markets were examined, and various export opportunities were reviewed along with industry management challenges concerning human resources, labour supply, training and education. The conference featured 10 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...... localities of tourism Greg Richards 11.Collaborative economy and destination marketing organizations: A systems approach Jonathan Day 12.Working within the Collaborative Tourist Economy: The complex crafting of work and meaning Jane Widtfeldt Meged and Mathilde Dissing Christensen PART - III Encounters...

  8. Diversity, community composition, and dynamics of nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria in an urban tap water production and distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrou, S; Konjek, J; Macheras, E; Welté, B; Guidicelli, L; Chignon, E; Joyeux, M; Gaillard, J L; Heym, B; Tully, T; Sapriel, G

    2013-09-01

    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 water samples from 36 sites, covering all production units, water storage tanks, and distribution units; RGM isolates were identified by using rpoB gene sequencing. We detected 18 RGM species and putative new species, with most isolates being Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium llatzerense. Using hierarchical clustering and principal-component analysis, we found that RGM were organized into various communities correlating with water origin (groundwater or surface water) and location within the distribution network. Water treatment plants were more specifically associated with species of the Mycobacterium septicum group. On average, M. chelonae dominated network sites fed by surface water, and M. llatzerense dominated those fed by groundwater. Overall, the M. chelonae prevalence index increased along the distribution network and was associated with a correlative decrease in the prevalence index of M. llatzerense, suggesting competitive or niche exclusion between these two dominant species. Our data describe the great diversity and complexity of RGM species living in the interconnected environments that constitute the water production and distribution system of a large city and highlight the prevalence index of the potentially pathogenic species M. chelonae in the distribution network.

  9. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The...... collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  10. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... and similar phenomena are among these collective innovations in tourism that are shaking the very bedrock of an industrial system that has been traditionally sustained along commercial value chains. To date there has been very little investigation of these trends, which have been inspired by, amongst other...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  11. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  12. Contributing Knowledge and Knowledge Workers: The Role of Chinese Universities in the Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang-Ye

    2012-01-01

    As China has appeared only recently as an important knowledge producer with growing global economic significance, little is known internationally about how these processes develop and are managed within China. The rapidly expanding Chinese higher education system is playing an increasingly important role in China's knowledge economy and therefore…

  13. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  14. The transition from industrial (traditional to new (information economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 20th century a new economy and a new information society emerged, as a result of achieving the third and the transition to the fourth scientific and technological revolution. The basis of this new economy lies in the transition from the industrial production to the production based on information and technology. The new economy contributes to changing the character of the factors of production, the structure of the value produced the motives of production, the workers’ position (robots replacing slaves etc. Besides labor, capital, land and entrepreneurship, information appears to be the fifth and the most important factor of production. The Internet is becoming the foundation of the new economy and contributes to changing the way people learn and do research, as well as to reducing the burden of administration, changing the way of competition, reducing operating costs crossing national borders and leading to the process of globalization of the world economy into an integral entity. Some basic characteristics of this new economy are the following: the information basis of production, rapid changes of products, flexible production systems, network organization of production, integration, services backed by products, skills and knowledge generalization, education, knowledge and talent becoming the most important factor of the socio-economic growth and development, etc. The new economy leads to a number of advantages when compared to the traditional one. However, it also has a number of negative consequences: pollution indebtedness of underdeveloped countries, widening the gap between the development level of regions, countries and individuals, growing inflation unemployment etc. But the new economy is objectively conditioned and the task of each national economy is to determine the most favorable way of its incorporation into this new economy (globalization.

  15. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  16. Obesity reduces bone density through activation of PPAR gamma and suppression of Wnt/Beta-Catenin in rapidly growing male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between obesity and skeletal development remains largely ambiguous. In this report, total enteral nutrition (TEN) was used to feed growing male rats intragastrically, with a high 45% fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. We found that fat mass was increased (P<0.05) compared to rats fed...

  17. Population and the Colombian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  18. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  19. Linear Economy Versus Circular Economy: A Comparative and Analyzer Study for Optimization of Economy for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sariatli Furkan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon visiting the existing literature on the subject of linear vs. circular economy, this paper finds that, the blueprint of the current economy is hardly sustainable by using the comparative benchmarking method that drained from literature. The intrinsic mechanics of the linear economy, by relying on the wasteful take - make - dispose flow, is detrimental to the environment, cannot supply the growing populace of our planet with essential services and it naturally leads to strained profitability. Elements of a plausible solution to the challenges have been around for decades, although they have only recently been compiled in to the conceptual framework of circular economy. The core ideas of Circular Economy are elimination of waste by design, respect for the social, economic and natural environment and resource-conscious business conduct. Built on the backbone of these principles, the circular economy has demonstrated to deliver tangible benefits and viability to address the economic, environmental and social challenges of our days.

  20. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

  1. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  2. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  3. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  4. Mobile economy

    OpenAIRE

    Turowski, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Mobile economy : Transaktionen, Prozesse, Anwendungen und Dienste ; 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / K. Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - 189 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)

  5. Human trafficking: fighting the illicit economy with the legitimate economy

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Louise; Bain, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and lead...

  6. MARKETING IMPLICATION IN WINE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  7. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  8. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  9. Growing an Emerging Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birx, Donald L.; Anderson-Fletcher, Elizabeth; Whitney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The emerging research college or university is one of the most formidable resources a region has to reinvent and grow its economy. This paper is the first of two that outlines a process of building research universities that enhance regional technology development and facilitate flexible networks of collaboration and resource sharing. Although the…

  10. COFFEE GROWING AREAS OF ETHIOPIA"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accelerated economic growth, part of which is hoped to be achieved via increased ... at the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy held at the United ... Samuel and Ludi: Agricultural commercialisation in coffee growing areas. ... Ethiopia produces and exports one of the best fighland coffees in the world.

  11. Rapid development in vitro and in vivo of resistance to ceftazidime in biofilm-growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, N; Ciofu, O; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the development of resistance of biofilm-growing P. aeruginosa during treatment with ceftazidime. Biofilms were established in vitro using a modified Robbins device (MRD) and in vivo in the rat model of chronic lung infection. Three P. aeruginosa strains...... of ceftazidime to biofilms established in MDR, a statistically significant development of resistance to ceftazidime in PAO 579 or 19676A bacterial populations occurred. When ceftazidime was administered 4 h/day (200 mg/l) for 2 weeks, the frequency of resistant 19676A having MIC>25 mg/l was 4.4 10(-1) compared...... to 6.0-10(-5) in the control biofilm. The same trend was observed after continuous administration of ceftazidime. MICceftazidime of the more resistant variants was increased 500-fold for PAO 579 and 8-fold for 19676A, and the specific basal beta-lactamase activities from 19 to 1,400 units for PAO 579...

  12. Human economy and natural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same original flux, in an still usable state. In this way it will assume a function no more parasitic but symbiotic. It will be connected to natural cycles without destroying it, recovering the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, building an economic web suited to the ecological web; thus we will have a mosaic characterised by biodiversity, technological diversity, and cultural diversity, able to produce a durable prosperity.

  13. Development of an in vitro Assay, based on the BioFilm Ring Test®, for Rapid Profiling of Biofilm-Growing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Gino Di Domenico

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilm represents a major virulence factor associated with chronic and recurrent infections. Pathogenic bacteria embedded in biofilms are highly resistant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics and therefore difficult to eradicate. Thus, reliable tests to assess biofilm formation by bacterial strains as well as the impact of chemicals or antibiotics on biofilm formation represent desirable tools for a most effective therapeutic management and microbiological risk control. Current methods to evaluate biofilm formation are usually time-consuming, costly, and hardly applicable in the clinical setting.The aim of the present study was to develop and assess a simple and reliable in vitro procedure for the characterization of biofilm-producing bacterial strains for future clinical applications based on the BioFilm Ring Test® (BRT technology. The procedure developed for clinical testing (cBRT can provide an accurate and timely (5 hours measurement of biofilm formation for the most common pathogenic bacteria seen in clinical practice. The results gathered by the cBRT assay were in agreement with the traditional crystal violet (CV staining test, according to the kappa coefficient test (kappa = 0.623. However, the cBRT assay showed higher levels of specificity (92.2% and accuracy (88.1% as compared to CV. The results indicate that this procedure offers an easy, rapid and robust assay to test microbial biofilm and a promising tool for clinical microbiology.

  14. ICT Innovation in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; B. Califf, Christopher; Sarker, Saonee

    2013-01-01

    ICT innovation is known to significantly elevate a country’s growth and to enhance productivity. It is now well-acknowledged that emerging economies are beginning to innovate at a rapid rate despite some of the challenges they face. Given that these countries with such economies now comprise...... economies, what needs to be studied, and how they should be studied. We attempt to contribute in this area by: (1) providing a comprehensive framework of existing research on ICT innovation in emerging economies, (2) highlighting the gaps that have been left behind, and (3) providing specific guidelines...... to future researchers, including a research model summarizing the salient issues that need examination. We believe that our study makes an important contribution to research on ICT innovation in emerging economies, and can be a useful resource for future researchers interested in this topic....

  15. Radical and Incremental Innovation Preferences in Information Technology: An Empirical Study in an Emerging Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun K. Sen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Radical and Incremental Innovation Preferences in Information Technology: An Empirical Study in an Emerging Economy Abstract Innovation in information technology is a primary driver for growth in developed economies. Research indicates that countries go through three stages in the adoption of innovation strategies: buying innovation through global trade, incremental innovation from other countries by enhancing efficiency, and, at the most developed stage, radically innovating independently for competitive advantage. The first two stages of innovation maturity depend more on cross-border trade than the third stage. In this paper, we find that IT professionals in in an emerging economy such as India believe in radical innovation over incremental innovation (adaptation as a growth strategy, even though competitive advantage may rest in adaptation. The results of the study report the preference for innovation strategies among IT professionals in India and its implications for other rapidly growing emerging economies.

  16. EMERGING ECONOMIES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MIST AND IBSA COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Oguz Gok

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Post Second World War liberal economic order and its institutions have been challenged with the rapidly growing powerful economies of some Asian and Latin American countries in the last decade. Yet, there is ambiguity in international political economy field with regard to conceptualizing and categorizing these emerging economies. This study mainly aims to ravel out this obstacle by offering a new quantitative benchmarking framework. In other words, this study proposes a new evaluation criteria set for assessing emerging economies with combining testable domestic and systematic factors. Accordingly, this study presents the cross-country comparison by using quantitative benchmarking analysis between IBSA -India, Brazil and South Africa- and MIST -Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey- countries over the period 2008- 2012. We compare these countries based on the criteria of economic growth, human development index, foreign direct investment, and official development assistance. This study also aims to evaluate the group performance of these newly emerging economies- namely the rise of IBSA and MIST countries-in a comparative perspective. In conclusion, the performance of these countries -from both group-of-country and individual-country perspectives- are discussed in light of the results

  17. Recent development of methods of long-term planning in the power economy of the GDR and trends of their future application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathe, J.; Hedrich, P.

    1980-01-01

    Due to the rapid development of the power economy, the procedures of long-term planning and the necessary methods, calculation techniques and models need permanent scientific treatment. The prerequisites for the development and utilization of mathematical methods in long- and medium-term planning of power economy are characterized. The steps of development up to the establishment and utilization of a central optimization model that can be coupled and interlaced with the complex of optimization algorithms in partial fields of power economy are presented. Problems of further improvement and more effective utilization of mathematical means of planning are discussed, considering the growing interlacing of power economy decisions with those in other branches and fields of national economy. Hence, requirements of enhanced optimization of the power economy development in enlarged balance pools and for longer periods are derived. (author)

  18. Changing pattern of premature mortality burden over 6 years of rapid growth of the economy in suburban south-west China: 1998-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan

    2008-05-01

    This study was conducted in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan, a poor province in south-west China experiencing rapid economic growth. The study examined the short-term trend in premature mortality burden from common causes of death in a suburban region between 1998 and 2003. Years of life lost (YLL) per 1000 population and mortality rate per 100,000 population were calculated from medical death certificates, and broken down by cause of death, sex and year without age weighting but with a discounting rate of 3%. Non-communicable diseases contributed over 80% of all causes of YLL, with a slightly increasing trend. The combined rate for communicable, maternal, prenatal and nutritional deficiencies declined from 4.7 to 2.4 per 1000 population. Remarkably, declining trends in YLL were also seen for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, drug use and road traffic accidents, whereas increasing trends were seen for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and liver cancer (males). The YLL rate for stroke, self-inflicted injuries, lung cancer and stomach cancer fluctuated over time. The region should focus on further control of IHD and liver cancer.

  19. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  20. The Clean Air Act and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1970, cleaner air and a growing economy have gone hand in hand. The Act has created market opportunities that have helped to inspire innovation in cleaner technologies for which the United States has become a global market leader.

  1. Four Models of Sharing Economy Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Marton, Attila; Tuunainen, Virpi Kristiina

    2017-01-01

    the resulting four sharing economy models "Franchiser," "Principal," "Chaperone" and "Gardener." Each model focuses on a different value proposition and strategic intent, but they all exploit the growing fluidity of organizational boundaries. Understanding the sharing economy in these terms enables businesses...

  2. Gas industry construction expenditures to grow rapidly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarles, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, the natural gas industry will invest $28.297 billion to install additional facilities for natural gas production and storage, transmission, underground storage, gas distribution and for other general expenditures, estimates the American Gas Association as shown in the 1990 Gas Facts. This is a 38% investment increase from the forecasts in the 1989 Gas Facts. This issue forecasts investments of $13.303 billion for 1991 and $18.396 billion for 1992. This issue does not include investments for 1993. In 1989, (the last figures released) the gas industry invested $7,341 billion for new transmission lines, distribution mains, underground storage, production and storage and general facilities. Included in the 1989 expenditures are: $3.980 billion in distribution facilities; $2.081 billion in gas transmission systems and $159 million in underground storage facilities. Investment in new distribution facilities in 1991 and $4.550 billion in 1993. This is a steady increase for these three years. Investments in natural gas transmission facilities show a steady increase also. In 1991, pipe line operating companies will invest $9.391 billion for new facilities, $9.005 in 1992 and $9.901 billion in 1993

  3. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.) [de

  4. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT.Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated.Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group.The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  5. Making sense of the green economy

    OpenAIRE

    Caprotti, F; Bailey, I

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography. This special issue editorial explores potential research interfaces between human geography and the rapidly unfolding concept and practices of the "green economy". The article outlines a range of critical issues about the green economy that are particularly pertinent and suited to geographical analysis. The first concerns questions around the construction of the green economy concept and critical questioning of current, largely hegemonic ...

  6. The real new economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments.

  7. Antimatter Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  8. EMERGING CITIES ON THE ARABIAN PENINSULA: URBAN SPACE IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Thierstein

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Networks of the growing knowledge economy significantly influence spatial development on different scales. This paper proposes a framework for analyzing the impact of global knowledge economy networks on the rapidly developing urban space of emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula, and vice versa. Two aspects of the described research are innovative: First, a global relational geography-perspective builds the basis for approaching the analysis of urban space development in emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula. Second, the empirical methodology of the research project is a newly defined method triangulation, setting an example for systematic analysis of local urban development in a global context. The method triangulation combines three different research angles: A knowledge economy firm perspective, an on-site observation perspective and a planner perspective. The method triangulation defines the procedure for the research application in selected case study cities on the Arabian Peninsula. Initial results from applying the research methodology in the city of Dubai give a first indication, that emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula play a significant role in the global and regional knowledge economy networks. Locally developed urban spaces reflect and influence the significance of cities in the global knowledge economy context. Especially the global visibility of urban spaces on a city district scale, which specifically address the needs of knowledge economy players, contributes significantly to the attractiveness of emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula.

  9. An Economy of Grace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Tan Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is adapted from a plenary talk the author gave at the “Growing Apart: The Implications of Economic Inequality” interdisciplinary conference at Boston College on 9 April 2016, as well as portions of his book Cut Loose: Jobless and Hopeless in an Unfair Economy, a sociological ethnography based on interviews and observations of unemployed autoworkers in Detroit, Michigan, and Windsor, Canada, during and after the Great Recession. The essay discusses four themes from this research. First, it provides a sociological understanding of how long-term unemployment and economic inequality are experienced by today’s less advantaged workers. Second, it illustrates how social policy can improve their circumstances. Third, it examines the limits of policy, and how dealing with inequality also requires changing the broader culture. Fourth, it makes the case for one possible approach to bring about that cultural change: a morality of grace.

  10. Metal and engineering industry in the Finnish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeenpaeae, I.; Viitanen, M.; Juutinen, A.

    1996-01-01

    The study analyses quantitatively the position, internal structures and environmental aspects of the metal sector (basic metal industry, mechanical engineering, electronics and electrotechnics) in the recent past of the Finnish economy. The changes in the sector by the year 2005 are assessed by means of a macroeconomic simulation model as well. The future development of the metal sector by the year 2005 was assessed by the FMS model system, for which a detailed metal sector sub-model was constructed. The scenario of the general development of the Finnish economy was tuned so that it corresponds as closely as possible to the recent basic projections of the economy made by the government authorities. Three scenarios for the metal sector were constructed: base scenario, rapid and slow growth scenarios. In the base scenario the production volume of the metal sector grows by 6 per cent annually between 1994-2005 while the annual growth rate of the whole industry is 4 per cent and that of the GDP 3 per cent. In the rapid growth scenario, the growth rate of the metal sector goes up to 10 per cent and in the slow growth scenario down to 3 per cent. In the assessment of environmental effects of the metal sector are included energy consumption, emissions into the air, use on natural resources, waste formation and recycling of metals. Although the production volume of the metal sector almost doubles between 1990 - 2000, the consumption of primary energy grows only about one fourth and that of the electricity by 50 per cent

  11. Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov., Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium arcueilense sp. nov., members of a novel group of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria recovered from a water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjek, Julie; Souded, Sabiha; Guerardel, Yann; Trivelli, Xavier; Bernut, Audrey; Kremer, Laurent; Welte, Benedicte; Joyeux, Michel; Dubrou, Sylvie; Euzeby, Jean-Paul; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Sapriel, Guillaume; Heym, Beate

    2016-09-01

    From our recent survey of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria in the Parisian water system, three groups of isolates (taxons 1-3) corresponding to possible novel species were selected for taxonomic study. The three taxa each formed creamy white, rough colonies, had an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C, hydrolyzed Tween 80, were catalase-positive at 22 °C and expressed arylsulfatase activity. All three were susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and tigecycline. The three taxa produced specific sets of mycolic acids, including one family that has never previously been described, as determined by thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The partial rpoB sequences (723 bp) showed 4-6 % divergence from each other and more than 5 % differences from the most similar species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 99 % identity within each species. The most similar sequences for 16S rRNA genes (98-99 % identity over 1444-1461 bp) were found in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, Mycobacterium septicum and Mycobacterium farcinogenes. The three taxa formed a new clade (bootstrap value, 99 %) on trees reconstructed from concatenated partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB sequences. The above results led us to propose three novel species for the three groups of isolates, namely Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov. [type strain 071T=ParisRGMnew_1T (CIP 110656T=DSM 46713T)], Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. [type strain 196T=ParisRGMnew_2T (CIP 110655T=DSM 46714T)] and Mycobacteriu marcueilense sp. nov. [type strain of 269T=ParisRGMnew_3T (CIP 110654T=DSM 46715T)].

  12. Massive public investment needed to grow green economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The President of the Communications Workers of America, Larry Cohen, urges large-scale investments in research and technology in response to economic turmoil and climate change. He envisions one million made-in-America hybrid cars running on U.S. roadways by 2015 and use of alternative energy doubling within three years.

  13. Growing like mushrooms? Sectoral evidence from four large European economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, C.; Sapio, S.

    This paper follows a stream of literature on the empirics of sectoral growth rates, originated by Castaldi and Dosi (Income levels and income growth. Some new cross-country evidence and some interpretative puzzles. LEM Working Paper 2004-18, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy, 2004)

  14. Growing like mushrooms? Sectoral evidence from four large European economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, C.; Sapio, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper follows a stream of literature on the empirics of sectoral growth rates, originated by Castaldi and Dosi (Income levels and income growth. Some new cross-country evidence and some interpretative puzzles. LEM Working Paper 2004-18, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy, 2004)

  15. Foreword. The Knowledge Economy: The Present Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Bratianu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available All the statistics and evaluations show that the Knowledge Economy is our future. However, a close look at the developed economies demonstrates that the Knowledge Economy is already here, shaping our present time. Although there are many definitions of this new economic framework, their core content stresses the importance of data, information, and knowledge in the production of goods and delivering services in creating value for society. For instance, Powell and Snellman (2004, p.1999 define the knowledge economy as “production and services based on knowledge-intensive activities that contribute to an accelerated pace of technical and scientific advance, as well as a rapid obsolescence. The key component of the knowledge economy is a greater reliance on intellectual capabilities than on physical inputs or natural resources”. In the knowledge economy, knowledge becomes a strategic resource (Davenport & Prusak, 2000; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995 and knowledge strategies contribute directly to the competitive advantage (Bratianu & Bolisani, 2015. In this new economy, data, information, and knowledge are the driving forces of development and the knowledge economy is the engine of the global economy growth...

  16. THE NEW ECONOMY AND THE ECONOMY OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MAZILU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the Internet, e-business and the new economy era, in general, fundamental transformation of the social and economic structure take place. In parallel, the assaults on the standard economic science amplify, in the sense of some conceptual reformulations and of some reinterpretations of the economic phenomena and laws. Besides the classical factors of production, work and capital, information is added, either as a distinct factor or as a detached one of the two mentioned. Also, the empiric findings regarding the so-called tertiarisation of the economy or the increase of the share of the services sector in the total of the national economy, as well as the so-called intangible investments in the total of the investment funds, have lead to numerous attempts of redefining what we call today a "modern economy". Other factors with major influence, regarding the adjustment of the economic science to the new trends from the real economy, refer to the following: the liberalisation of the international exchanges and the globalisation; the growth of the importance of the so-called free time (including here the household activities and the ones unfolded in the interest of the community, entertainment, but also the time destined to the development of the degree of culture and education on one's own and the fluidisation of the limits of differentiation between this and the work activity in the formal sector as well as the informal one; the more rapid dynamic of the financial and banking markets than the so-called classic productive sector of the economy; the extension of the use of computers and of the means and techniques of communication, in the activity of the companies as well as in the households, and the impact on the structure of the time and the financial budget of the population etc. All these have an impact on the tourism unfolding.

  17. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  18. Human Trafficking: Fighting the Illicit Economy with the Legitimate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Shelley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and leadership initiatives; codes of conduct; supply chain management; and financial analysis. This paper will examine the latest in these strategies and approaches by businesses in the global war against human trafficking, in addition to a discussion of a new initiative engaging the private sector co-led by Dr. Louise Shelley and Christina Bain through the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council Network.

  19. China's Soft Power and Growing Influence in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hwang, Edward F

    2008-01-01

    .... By no means is China able to surpass the United States soft power capabilities. As China's economy and influence in the region continue to grow however, China as an alternative to the United States can become a reality...

  20. International entrepreneurship research in emerging economies : A critical review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.N.; Danis, W.D.; Cavusgil, S.T.

    This article systematically reviews and critically examines international entrepreneurship research in emerging economies (IEEE research), and articulates its importance, timeliness and relevance in consideration of the growing influence of emerging markets in the global economy. A systematic

  1. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  2. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century is evident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. The authors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the exist...

  3. Obesity : a growing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or more, is common in many parts of the world, especially in the established market economies, the former socialist economies of Europe, Latin America, the Caribbean and the Middle Eastern Crescent. As many as 250 million people worldwide may

  4. The Sharing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer accommodation networks in general, and Airbnb in specific, are frequently referred to as part of the sharing economy. This chapter provides an overview of key characteristics of the sharing economy, discusses how these characteristics relate to peer-to-peer accommodation, and positions peer-to-peer accommodation networks within the sharing economy.

  5. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  6. Modeling of similar economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Kuznetsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to obtain dimensionless criteria ndash economic indices characterizing the national economy and not depending on its size. Methods mathematical modeling theory of dimensions processing statistical data. Results basing on differential equations describing the national economy with the account of economical environment resistance two dimensionless criteria are obtained which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes. With the theory of dimensions we show that the obtained indices are not accidental. We demonstrate the implementation of the obtained dimensionless criteria for the analysis of behavior of certain countriesrsquo economies. Scientific novelty the dimensionless criteria are obtained ndash economic indices which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes and to analyze the dynamic changes in the economies with time. nbsp Practical significance the obtained results can be used for dynamic and comparative analysis of different countriesrsquo economies regardless of their sizes.

  7. How do normal faults grow?

    OpenAIRE

    Blækkan, Ingvild; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher; Tvedt, Anette

    2018-01-01

    Faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length (isolated fault model), or by rapid length establishment and subsequent displacement accrual (constant-length fault model). To test the significance and applicability of these two models, we use time-series displacement (D) and length (L) data extracted for faults from nature and experiments. We document a range of fault behaviours, from sympathetic D-L fault growth (isolated growth) to sub-vertical D-L growth trajectorie...

  8. Economies Evolve by Energy Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Salthe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic activity can be regarded as an evolutionary process governed by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The universal law, when formulated locally as an equation of motion, reveals that a growing economy develops functional machinery and organizes hierarchically in such a way as to tend to equalize energy density differences within the economy and in respect to the surroundings it is open to. Diverse economic activities result in flows of energy that will preferentially channel along the most steeply descending paths, leveling a non-Euclidean free energy landscape. This principle of 'maximal energy dispersal‘, equivalent to the maximal rate of entropy production, gives rise to economic laws and regularities. The law of diminishing returns follows from the diminishing free energy while the relation between supply and demand displays a quest for a balance among interdependent energy densities. Economic evolution is dissipative motion where the driving forces and energy flows are inseparable from each other. When there are multiple degrees of freedom, economic growth and decline are inherently impossible to forecast in detail. Namely, trajectories of an evolving economy are non-integrable, i.e. unpredictable in detail because a decision by a player will affect also future decisions of other players. We propose that decision making is ultimately about choosing from various actions those that would reduce most effectively subjectively perceived energy gradients.

  9. The Uncontrolled Economic Engine of the Developing Economies, Speeding up the Climate Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K. M.; Khan, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    As we progress into the 21st century, the world faces challenges of truly global nature bearing implications on the whole world in one way or another. The global economic engine has shifted from the western world (Developed Economies) to the eastern world (Developing Economies) which has brought about tremendous change in the climate related variables in this part of the world. As uncontrolled carbon emissions grow in the developing economies, the phenomenon of global warming and climate shifts become more and more prevalent. While this economic activity provides income for millions of households, it is contributing generously to the rapid degradation of the environment. Developing economies as it has been seen do not employ or abide by stringent regulations regarding emissions which result in uncontrolled emissions. In this particular scenario, it is a tedious task to convince governments in the developing economies to implement regulations regarding emissions because businesses in these economies deem such regulations to be economically unviable. The other side of the problem is that these uncontrolled emission are causing evident climate shifts which has had adverse impacts on the agricultural societies where shifting climates are leading to reduced agricultural output and productivity. Consequently the lives of millions associated directly or indirectly with agriculture are affected and on a more global level, the agricultural produce is decreasing which increases the chances of famine in parts of the world. The situation could have devastating impacts on the global economy and environmental standards and therefore needs to be addressed on emergency basis. The first step towards betterment could be the introduction of the carbon trading economy in the developing economies which would incentivize emission reduction and become more attractive and in the process sustaining minimum possible damage to the environment. Though carbon trading is a formidable first step

  10. Economy and Grace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2015-01-01

    Luther develops his idea the grace of God in tandem with his idea of economy, and a society characterized by ethical and social values such as love of neighbour and caring for the poor. Hence, the reformer's search for a gracious God is developed along with his criticism of the current indulgence...... doctrine and the emerging 'oeconomia moderna'. Thus, building on a simul gratia et oeconomia, grace and economy simultaneously, Luther's reformation theology can be perceived as te intersection of an economy of grace and a horizontal social economy (works of love) in quotidian life that together constitute...

  11. Real economy versus virtual economy - New challenges for nowadays society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Associates Professon Dr. Veronica Adriana Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper Real Economy versus Virtual Economy – New Challenges for Nowadays Society our goal is to present the importance of both real economy and virtual economy.At the begging of our research, we have presented the main views of some specialists concerning both virtual and real economy. After that we have compared the two types of economies and we have stressed the most important aspects connected to them. The main reason why we have decided to approach this complex subject is due to the increasing interest in the virtual economy matters and the relation that this particular type of economy develops with the real economy.

  12. Policy Reforms in Indonesia: A Political Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Abu N. M. Wahid; Mohamad Ikhsan

    1996-01-01

    During the 1970s the Indonesian economy grew at a rapid rate. This growth was primarily attributable to the government’s oil revenue and massive expansion of public sector in Indonesia. However, the decline in oil price of the 1980s adversely affected the growth and stability of the economy. The government clearly recognized the fact that a restructuring of the economy was imperative. The present paper is a critical analysis of this restructuring effort. The paper argues that the restructurin...

  13. Does the New Economy Create Higher Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilling-Hansen, Mogens; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    2002-01-01

    The rapid and continuous growth in the US in the 1990s and the simultaneous boom in the IT industry created the concept "The New Economy". What connects the two phenomena is that the IT industry alone is considered productive, and increased productivity in other industries, as a result of increased...

  14. Economy Profile of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Argentina. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Arge...

  15. Economy Profile of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Estonia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Estonia ...

  16. Economy Profile of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...

  17. Economy Profile of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Bolivia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Bolivia ...

  18. Free variable economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    Several authors have recently argued that semantic interpretation is subject to economy constraints. In particular, Fox (1999) argued that the interpretation of pronouns is subject to BINDING ECONOMY, which favors local binding over non-local binding. The present paper points out a problem for

  19. Car buyers and fuel economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrentine, Thomas S.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    This research is designed to help researchers and policy makers ground their work in the reality of how US consumers are thinking and behaving with respect to automotive fuel economy. Our data are from semi-structured interviews with 57 households across nine lifestyle 'sectors.' We found no household that analyzed their fuel costs in a systematic way in their automobile or gasoline purchases. Almost none of these households track gasoline costs over time or consider them explicitly in household budgets. These households may know the cost of their last tank of gasoline and the unit price of gasoline on that day, but this accurate information is rapidly forgotten and replaced by typical information. One effect of this lack of knowledge and information is that when consumers buy a vehicle, they do not have the basic building blocks of knowledge assumed by the model of economically rational decision-making, and they make large errors estimating gasoline costs and savings over time. Moreover, we find that consumer value for fuel economy is not only about private cost savings. Fuel economy can be a symbolic value as well, for example among drivers who view resource conservation or thrift as important values to communicate. Consumers also assign non-monetary meaning to fuel prices, for example seeing rising prices as evidence of conspiracy. This research suggests that consumer responses to fuel economy technology and changes in fuel prices are more complex than economic assumptions suggest. The US Department of Energy and the Energy Foundation supported this research. The authors are solely responsible for the content and conclusions presented

  20. The North Korean Economy: Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-26

    rapid growth and trade liberalization to China, Thailand, Malaysia and other Asian nations. The “Stalinist” North Korean economy can be...2006. processing done under contract) by North Koreans.119 The companies included Daewoo (jackets, bags), Samsung Electronics (communications

  1. The Care Economy, Women's Economic Empowerment, and China's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the past three decades, China's economy has grown rapidly, creating ... of care work on women's labour market outcomes and economic empowerment; ... Socially equitable climate action is essential to strengthen the resilience of all ...

  2. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  3. Signs of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lamizet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any political system, economy is a system of signs and representations. The Semiotics of economy elaborates its analytical methods to interpret such signs, which give meaning to the economy by representing its performances in public debate and in the media. Four major features distinguish the Semiotics of political economy from other semiotic forms or other systems of information and political representation. First of all, the relationship between the signification of the economy and the real or the imaginary phenomena to which they refer always pertains to the order of values. The second characteristic of economic signs is the significance of the state of lack they express. The third characteristic of signs of the economy is the form of sign production, which can be designated by the concept of emission of signs and their diffusion. Finally, as all signs, the economic sign is arbitrary. In the field of Economics, such arbitrariness does not imply that the Subject is free to superimpose whatever value to the signs themselves, but refers to the rupture between the world and its possible transformation. The very meaning of the word economy is here at stake. Oikos, in Greek (the term from which the word economy is derived refers to a known, familiar space. Economy transforms the real, natural world into a symbolic social world, into a world of relations with others whom we recognise and whose actions are relatively predictable. It might be useful to consider the contemporary issue of debt, its implications and its multiple meanings, which includes both the ethical and moral dimension of the condemnation of debt as well as the imaginary political dimension based on the expression of an idea of independence.

  4. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  5. Globalization and the financialization of the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The defining with profound implications on the economy and society is represented the globalization. In this context, we have noticed the increasing influence of the financial markets on the economy, the tendency to remove the finances from the real economy requirements, the growing role of external financing using more volatile capital goods, increased competition regarding the access to financing, the significant increase of power of the international capital markets whose characteristic is represented by the increased instability, the implications of the investors’ obsession with an excessive profitableness of their own funds and the expansion of using sophisticated financial products. Realities of today’s financial markets, which are the subject of numerous studies and analysis, have contributed to the association of the arguments that are contesting the thesis on the virtues of self-regulation markets and promoting a new paradigm, within which finances should subordinate the requirements of a balanced and sustained economic growth.

  6. Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    The term biofuel is referred to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, vegetable oils, biodiesel, biogas, bio-synthetic gas (bio-syngas), bio-oil, bio-char, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and biohydrogen. Most traditional biofuels, such as ethanol from corn, wheat, or sugar beets, and biodiesel from oil seeds, are produced from classic agricultural food crops that require high-quality agricultural land for growth. Bioethanol is a petrol additive/substitute. Biomethanol can be produced from biomass using bio-syngas obtained from steam reforming process of biomass. Biomethanol is considerably easier to recover than the bioethanol from biomass. Ethanol forms an azeotrope with water so it is expensive to purify the ethanol during recovery. Methanol recycles easier because it does not form an azeotrope. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative liquid fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. There has been renewed interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel due to its less polluting and renewable nature as against the conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Due to its environmental merits, the share of biofuel in the automotive fuel market will grow fast in the next decade. There are several reasons for biofuels to be considered as relevant technologies by both developing and industrialized countries. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The biofuel economy will grow rapidly during the 21st century. Its economy development is based on agricultural production and most people live in the rural areas. In the most biomass-intensive scenario, modernized biomass energy contributes by 2050 about one half of total energy

  7. Research Award: Networked Economies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    2015-08-06

    year, paid, ... the areas of democracy, human rights and economic growth. ... Networked Economies is seeking a Research Award Recipient to explore research questions ... such as engineering or computer/information science;.

  8. Livelihoods and the economy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    better lives. IDRC's support for economic research has helped governments steer national eco-nomies toward growth, level the playing field for busi- ... special treatment and accounting stan- dards were ... part alongside men in all activities,.

  9. Collaborative Economy and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2017-01-01

    The digital collaborative economy is one of the most fascinating developments to have claimed our attention in the last decade. Not only does it defy clear definition, but its historical links back to non-monetised sharing and gift economies and its contemporary foundations in monetising idling...... or spare capacity make it difficult to theorise. In this chapter, we lay the foundation for a social science approach to the exploration of the collaborative economy and its relationship with tourism. We argue that “collaborative” and “economy” should be conceptualised in a broad and inclusive manner...... in order to avoid narrow theorisations and blinkered accounts that focus only on digitally-mediated, monetised transactions. A balance between individual and collective dimensions of the collaborative economy is also necessary if we are to understand its societal implications....

  10. The Effects: Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. economy, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.

  11. The Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Andersson, Magnus; Nickerson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An economy based on the exchange of capital, assets and services between individuals has grown significantly, spurred by proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to share underutilized resources and trade with reasonably low transaction costs. The movement toward this economy...... of “sharing” translates into market efficiencies that bear new products, reframe established services, have positive environmental effects, and may generate overall economic growth. This emerging paradigm, entitled the collaborative economy, is disruptive to the conventional company-driven economic paradigm...... as evidenced by the large number of peer-to-peer based services that have captured impressive market shares sectors ranging from transportation and hospitality to banking and risk capital. The panel explores economic, social, and technological implications of the collaborative economy, how digital technologies...

  12. Shadow Economy and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Nikopour, Hesam; Shah Habibullah, Muzafar

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the relationship between shadow economy and poverty by explaining the mechanism through which shadow economy affects poverty via its impact on government size and economic growth, and using the human poverty index (HPI) for developing and developed countries. In order to achieve this objective, the three-way interaction model is utilized using data of 139 developing and 23 developed countries separately during 1999-2007. For developing countries the dynamic ...

  13. Observing the economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Stan

    2009-07-01

    In "The (unfortunate) complexity of the economy" (April pp28-32) Jean-Philippe Bouchaud presents clear evidence that traditional assumptions of rational markets have to be abandoned. The old investor slogan "buy on promise, sell on rumour" quickly magnifies a downturn into a crisis, which triggers two questions. If physics-based models are applied (beyond understanding and prediction) to actual market decisions, does this make the economy more or less stable? And, is this cause for stronger regulation?

  14. Corruption and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports o...

  15. The Placenta Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte; Dickinson, Elizabeth; Foss, Karen A.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the human placenta not only as a scientific, medical and biological entity but as a consumer bio-product. In the emergent placenta economy, the human placenta is exchanged and gains potentiality as food, medicine and cosmetics. Drawing on empirical research from the United......, in the emergent bio-economy, the dichotomy between the inner and the outer body is deconstructed, while the placenta gains clinical and industrial as well as affective value....

  16. The Dutch Economy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    In the series 'The Dutch Economy' the Dutch Statistical Office describes and analyzes annual developments in enterprises, households and governments, and with respect to employment and the environment. One of the subjects is 'Economy and Environment' with the sub-topics 'Resources and Energy', 'Emissions' and 'Environmental Taxes'. Furthermore, in articles on specific themes current economic issues are discussed. One of those themes has the title 'Share of renewable energy in the Netherlands is still small'. [nl

  17. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMonagle, T

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal.

  18. Regulating the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kristofer; Sorensen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian) and economic (allocative, profit-seeking) aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions). This definition of the sharing economy distinguishe...

  19. GLOBALIZATION AND ITS IMPACT ON INDIAN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Raghunath

    2017-01-01

    Globalization means different things to different people. It can be defined simply as an expansion of economic activities across political boundaries of nation states. More importantly it refers to a process of deepening economic integration, increasing economic openness and growing economic interdependence between countries in the world economy. It is associated not only with a phenomenal spread and volume of cross-border economic transactions but also with an organization of economic activi...

  20. The food industry and provincial economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Greg; Li, Duo

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the food industry for the Zhejiang provincial economy and for provincial economies generally. It is suggested that the strong ties between the food industry and provincial economies in China means that the food industry can be a key influence in the economic development of regional China. Moreover, the geographically diffuse nature of the food industry in China gives the industry a strategic significance in countering regional inequality within and between provinces, a by-product of China's rapid growth over the past 25 years. For these reasons, change in the food industry, whether it has its origins in the introduction of western fast foods, or in environmental, technological or economic trends, not only assumes significance for the health of the Chinese people (as other papers presented to the International Cuisine and Health Workshop at Hangzhou have pointed out), but also for the wealth of the nation and the way that wealth is distributed.

  1. Growing Safflower in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, M. G.; Israelsen, C. E.; Creech, E.; Allen, N.

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information on growing safflower in Utah. It has become popular on dryland farms in rotation with winter wheat. Safflower seed provides three products, oil, meal, and birdseed.

  2. Obesity and cardiovascular disease in developing countries: a growing problem and an economic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Susan U; Leeder, Stephen; Greenberg, Henry M

    2006-03-01

    This review examines the rise of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, especially obesity, in developing countries and the implications for both health and economics. In the majority of developing countries fertility and infant and child mortality have fallen markedly, and life expectancies have increased. Rapid urbanization, falling food prices, and globalization of economies have contributed to an increase in risk factors for chronic disease. Recent work indicates that the prevalence of these risk factors, including obesity, is rising faster than the historical experience of the West. The transition is affecting women in particular, and increases in risk factors are more marked among lower incomes in growing economies than among the wealthy. Rather than the stereotypical problem of the rich, chronic disease is now a problem for the poor. Significant research in this area of global health has only been undertaken in the last decade. Additional field research is needed in every dimension of the transition, both to document the problem itself and to determine its economic and societal impact and cost effective responses. Two critical factors are virtually absent from existing work and should be emphasized. First, the impact of rising risk factors for, and mortality from, cardiovascular disease in the work force may imply a growing threat to continued economic progress. Second, because risk factor reduction requires society-wide strategies, broad public-private coalitions will be needed to mobilize sectors beyond healthcare.

  3. Regulating the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian and economic (allocative, profit-seeking aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions. This definition of the sharing economy distinguishes it from other related peer-to-peer and collaborative forms of production. Understanding the social and economic motivations for and implications of participating in the sharing economy is important to its regulation. Each of the papers in this special issue contributes to knowledge by linking the social and economic aspects of sharing economy practices to regulatory norms and mechanisms. We conclude this essay by suggesting future research to further clarify and render intelligible the sharing economy, not as a contradiction in terms but as an empirically observable realm of socio-economic activity.

  4. Circular economy practices among Chinese manufacturers varying in environmental-oriented supply chain cooperation and the performance implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qinghua; Geng, Yong; Lai, Kee-hung

    2010-06-01

    The rapidly growing industrial activities in emerging economies such as China have been causing resource depletion and pollution problems. This reality requires China to adopt an integrated management approach to resolve the conflict between industrial development and environmental protection, and the concept of circular economy (CE) serves this purpose. In this paper, we examine if different types of manufacturing enterprises on environmental-oriented supply chain cooperation (ESCC) exist. We also determine if the Chinese manufacturer types varying in ESCC differ in their implementation of the CE practices towards achieving the CE-targeted goals on improving both environmental and economic performance. Our cluster analytic results with multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) among the four identified types of Chinese manufacturers varying in environmental-oriented supply chain cooperation highlight the importance to intensify the cooperation with upstream and downstream supply chain partners for a CE initiative to succeed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Case grows for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hileman, B.

    1999-08-09

    In the four years since the IPCC stated that 'the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate', evidence for anomalous warming has become more compelling, and as a result scientists have become more concerned that human-induced climate change has already arrived. The article summarises recent extra evidence on global temperatures, carbon dioxide measurements, ice shelf breakup, coral bleaching, unstable climates and improved climate models. At the time of the Kyoto conference, the US became keen on the idea that enhancing forest and soil carbon sequestration was a good way to offset emissions reduction targets. Congress is however under the opinion on that the Kyoto protocol presents a threat to the US economy, and senate is very unlikely to ratify the protocol during the Clinton Administration. The debate as to whether the US government should mandate major emission reduction or wait for more scientific certainty may continue for a number of years, but, growing concern of scientists and the public for the harmful effects of climate change may cause a change. 4 figs., 8 photos.

  6. Digital Economy for Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyong Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have seen a rapid digital transformation resulting in important and sometimes even crucial changes in business, society and the global economy. After the global crisis of 2008–2009, digital industries have been among the most dynamic and promising in the global economy. Nevertheless, the world lacks equilibrium between benefits and risks in the digital economy, which explains the need for global governance in this sphere. This article analyzes the role and characteristics of the G20 in the introduction of global governance in the digital economy. The authors review what’s meant by the digital economy and define the key characteristics of this sector, as well as highlight the challenges to international cooperation, analyze the digital strategies of G20 countries, study the G20’s participation in the global governance of the digital economy, analyze the potential for the leaders of China and Russia, and make recommendations concerning the participation of the G20 in the global governance of the digital economy. The authors arrive at the following conclusions. First, society has to govern the digital economy properly in order to eliminate disparities between developed and developing countries, as well as address cyber security and other threats, and promote a higher quality of life for all. Second, the G20 has very limited experience in the governing of the digital economy, but as a leader in terms of soft power, and as an organization with limited membership that includes both countries with a developed digital sector and countries that lag behind, it may play a great role in the digital economy’s global governance. Third, the US has historically been a leader in the IT sector and the digital economy. In recent years, China has sufficiently improved its positions, which allows it to aspire to a higher role in global governance. Russia may also play a greater (though not a leading role, taking into account its experience and

  7. Petroleum and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In re-examining the effect of energy price shocks on the economy, this article applies several tests to show that the apparent coincidence between price shocks and poor economic performance may be misleading. For example, whereas macroeconomic analysis graphs of employment and GNP clearly indicate an apparent correlation between the 1979 petroleum price hike and economic downturn in the USA, Great Britain and Germany, Japan's performance stayed fairly constant during that period. Additional sectoral analyses of the performances of the western economies show that the impacts of the '74 and '79 oil price shocks were not equally distributed across the different industrial sectors of the various nations. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the energy-economy relationship is required to reduce these ambiguities

  8. Corruption, shadow economy and income inequality: evidence from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Saibal; Saha, Shrabani

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent studies for Latin America show that as the size of the informal economy grows, corruption is less harmful to inequality. We investigate if this relationship is equally compelling for developing countries in Asia where corruption, inequality and shadow economies are considerably large. We use Panel Least Square and Fixed Effects Models for Asia to find that both 'Corruption Perception Index' and 'ICRG' index are sensitive to a number of important macroeconomic variables. We ...

  9. Influence of the economy crisis on project cost management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simankina, Tatyana; Ćetković, Jasmina; Verstina, Natalia; Evseev, Evgeny

    2017-10-01

    Economy crisis significantly affects primarily the project cost management. The article considers the problems of project management in the field of housing under conditions of economy crisis. Project budgets are reduced, their mutual interference grows and framework of risks changes. Apparently, specific approaches are required to be developed to optimize the expenses and guarantee the project implementation within the approved budget. There is considered domestic and foreign experience in terms of project cost management with involvement of BIM technologies.

  10. Service Recovery in Transition Economies: Russia and China

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy K. T. Gubler; Matthew W. McCarter; Kristie K. W. Seawright; Yuli Zhang

    2008-01-01

    While processes for transition from planned to market economy vary, there is one common outcome from the transition process – more discriminating customers. Growing customer expectations increase the possibility of failing to meet those expectations. In competitive market economies service failures are accompanied by new consequences of lost customer loyalty. These potential losses to service providers that can result from service failures necessitate the implementation of service recov...

  11. Experimenting with alternative economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longhurst, Noel; Avelino, Flor; Wittmayer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberalism is a powerful narrative that has shaped processes of urban economic development across the globe. This paper reports on four nascent ‘new economic’ narratives which represent fundamentally different imaginaries of the urban economy. Experiments informed by these narratives challenge...... the dominant neoliberal logic in four key dimensions: What is the purpose of economic development? What are the preferred distributive mechanisms? Who governs the economy? What is the preferred form of economic organisation? The emergence of these experiments illustrates that cities are spaces where counter...

  12. SOCIAL ECONOMY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The social economy combines profitability with social inclusion. Social innovation is the first step in the creation of a social enterprise. Social economy development is a process underway, innovative in terms of relating the individual to the production processes, the concept of citizenship, production areas and modalities. The concern for sustainable development, analysis of economic and financial crisis, the issue of the relationship between the individual and the production process open up many opportunities for development that can influence public policies on employment and social cohesion.

  13. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  14. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  15. The political economy of state failure

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Collier

    2009-01-01

    Rapid decolonization created many arbitrary countries. In contrast to those states which had emerged through a quasi-Darwinian process of selection, some of these new countries had structural characteristics which gravely impeded the provision of public goods. Their lack of a unifying sense of shared identity made cooperation difficult, and their tiny economic size left them unable to reap scale economies. Two public goods, security and accountability, are particularly important for developme...

  16. R&D in Poland: Is the Country Close to a Knowledge-Driven Economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybowska, Dorota; Chybowski, Leszek; Souchkov, Valeri

    2018-06-01

    Poland has a strong ambition to evolve rapidly into a knowledge-driven economy. Since 2004, it has been the largest beneficiary of European Union cohesion policy funds among all member states. Between 2007 and 2013, Poland was allocated approximately EUR 67 billion, whereas for 2014-2020 the EU budget earmarked EUR 82.5 billion for Polish cohesion policy. This means that in the coming years, Poland's R&D intensity will grow. But the question remains: is 27 years of free market economy enough to enable a country's economy to become knowledge-based ? This paper offers an analysis of Polish R&D expenditures and investments in terms of their sources (business, government or higher education sectors), types (European Union or state aid) and areas of support (infrastructure, education or innovation). It also characterises the Polish R&D market with its strengths and weaknesses. Then, it examines the process of technology transfer in Poland, comparing it to best practice. Finally, the paper lays out the barriers to effective commercialisation that need to be overcome, and attempts to answer the question raised in its title.

  17. Ecology and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, M.; Bischoff, J.

    1980-01-01

    The green movement challenges workers' unions and socialists. Who are the 'Greens', and what do they want. Where do their theoretical fundamentals come from. Will an ecological economy be able to function. Are the 'Greens' leftists or dreamers fighting against progress. Arguments for trade unionists and socialists in the ecological controversy. (orig.) [de

  18. The Danish Negotiated Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2012-01-01

    Denmark is characterised by a number of distinct traits: a small and open economy, a stable democratic political system, a high proportion of organised wage earners covered by collective agreements, a political culture marked by social partnership, and a long tradition of institutionalised class...

  19. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  20. Japan's plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Japan's plutonium economy is based on the most efficient use of nuclear energy, as envisioned under the Atoms for Peace program of the 1950s and 1960s. The nuclear pioneers assumed that all nations would want to take full advantage of atomic energy, recycling waste into new fuel to derive as much energy as possible from this resource

  1. Airline Safety and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  2. Radical Circular Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Mohammadi, S.; Slob, N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently the Circular Economy (CE) concept has gained momentum in the Netherlands, propounding that environmental impact reduction can provide a significant positive economical impulse. The government, larger parts of the industry as a whole, as well as the construction industry, has warmly received

  3. The Hidden STEM Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Workers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields play a direct role in driving economic growth. Yet, because of how the STEM economy has been defined, policymakers have mainly focused on supporting workers with at least a bachelor's (BA) degree, overlooking a strong potential workforce of those with less than a BA. This report…

  4. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  5. Growing Backyard Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall

    1975-01-01

    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  6. Growing Brazilian demand to spur gas network in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffarges, E.H.; Maurer, L.I.A.

    1993-01-01

    A recent combination in South America of economic and geopolitical factors is prompting development of a new integrated gas-pipeline network in the continent's Southern Cone. The crucial factors include privatization, regional integration, economic growth, and environmental concerns. The area, Latin America's largest regional entity, includes Brazil (population 150 million and a 1990 GNP of about $375 billion, 9th largest in the world), Argentina (population 32 million and the third largest Latin American economy after Brazil and Mexico), Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay are members of the MercoSur economic bloc whose objective is to develop free trade in the region. There are very few integrated pipeline networks in the world. Besides the giant North American system, with hundreds of producers and pipelines, there is only one other large integrated network. It connects continental European countries to their outside suppliers such as Norway, the C.I.S., and Algeria. The emergence of a new pipeline system is therefore important for the natural-gas industry worldwide and even more so if it occurs in a region now growing rapidly after a decade of economic difficulties

  7. Math and Science Gateways to California's Fastest Growing Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Some students--and parents--think math and science are not too important for their future. As everyday life becomes more dependent on technology, most people will need a better background in math and science to succeed in today's global economy. To get high-paying jobs in some of California's fastest-growing occupations, a strong background in…

  8. Petroleum demand continues to grow but slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    While it is always entertaining and intellectually stimulating to look at all the marvelous technological alternatives just around the corner for transport, the transport task in Australia continues to grow and so does petroleum consumption. Australia presently consumes more than 750,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Latest figures are given for petroleum consumption up to the end of August 1998. They indicate that total demand for petrol has continued to grow, but very slowly. Growth in 1997-1998 compared with 1996-1997 was only 0.3%. This trend for very low growth has been continued into July and August, perhaps indicative of a slow down in the economy

  9. Millennials and the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Newlands, Gemma; Anselmi, Guido

    Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy......Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy...

  10. The collaborative Economy and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting and similar innovations epitomize the collaborative economy. The rise of the collaborative economy, also known as collaborative consumption, the sharing economy and peer-to-peer consumption, has been fuelled by a range of soc...... for a balanced assessment of such claims. Highlighting these claims allows us to pursue a more reflective research agenda and leads to a more informed, evidence-based assessment of the collaborative economy and tourism.......House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting and similar innovations epitomize the collaborative economy. The rise of the collaborative economy, also known as collaborative consumption, the sharing economy and peer-to-peer consumption, has been fuelled by a range...... experiences; and higher levels of consumer risk-taking balanced against mechanisms such as peer-to-peer feedback designed to engender trust between producers and consumers. This paper explores and critically assesses the collaborative economy and its implications for tourism industrial systems. It achieves...

  11. How to Grow Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bertrand Russell

    2008-01-01

    <正>1. In spite of the title, this article will really be on how not to grow old, which, at my time of life, is a much more important subject. My first advice would be to choose your ancestors carefully. Although both my parents died young, I have done well in this respect as regards my other ancestors. My maternal grandfather, it is true, was cut off in the flower of his youth at the age of sixty-seven,

  12. Geothermal Grows Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  13. Privatization Framework: Political Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Indra

    2009-01-01

    Privatization has been recognized as a worldwide phenomenon. In this pa-per, a political economy approach is developed to analyze privatization. The ap-proach assumes that political economy and privatization overlap in people’s need. So, the framework of political economy in privatization is based on the ‘need’ phi-losophy. Government and private sectors are contrasted in this respect, leading to a conclusion on privatization as a method to manage the economy. Keywords: privatization, politic...

  14. Are transition economy workers underpaid?

    OpenAIRE

    Adamchik, Vera A.; Brada, Josef C.; King, Arthur E.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the extent to which workers in transition and developed market economies are able to obtain wages that fully reflect their skills and labor force characteristics. We find that workers in two transition economies, the Czech Republic and Poland, are able to better attain the maximum wage available than are workers in a sample of developed market economies. This greater wage-setting efficiency in the transition economies ap-pears to be more the result of social and demographic charact...

  15. Introduction Of Techno-Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Hui

    2001-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of science, technology and techno-economy, invention and science and technology in the Twenty-First century, theory and model of technological innovation, technology and economy technology and industry, technology and business, spread and transfer of technique, technology and international economy, science, technique and culture, science, technology and government, development of technology in Korea and developing countries, and conclusion on the past and the future of techno-economy.

  16. Impacts of biodiesel production on Croatian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulisic, Biljana; Loizou, Efstratios; Rozakis, Stelios; Segon, Velimir

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the direct and indirect impacts on a national economy from biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester (RME)) production using input-output (I-O) analysis. Biodiesel development in Croatia is used as a case study. For Croatia, as for many other countries in Europe, biodiesel is a new activity not included in the existing I-O sectoral accounts. For this reason the I-O table has to be modified accordingly before being able to quantify the effect of an exogenous demand for biodiesel. Impacts in terms of output, income and employment lead to the conclusion that biodiesel production could have significant positive net impact on the Croatian economy despite the high level of subsidies for rapeseed growing

  17. The University in the Learning Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    In all parts of the world, universities are exposed to a growing pressure to change. This is caused by the emergence of new relationship between the economic dynamics and the production of knowledge as well as by policy and administrative initiatives finding their rationale in interpretations...... of these changes. In this paper an attempt is made to specify some of the new challenges, and suggest appropriate responses. Under the heading 'the learning economy' changes in the context of universities are identified. One important conclusion is that traditional modes of organisation, characterised by sharp......' most significant contribution to society and the economy will remain well-educated graduates with critical minds and good learning skills....

  18. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  19. Corruption and the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports on some actions that have been taken by countries in their attempt to reduce corruption stressing that the fight against corruption cannot rely on a magic bullet but has to be fought on many fronts.

  20. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  1. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  2. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  3. A green hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W.W. II [Clark Communications, Beverly Hills, CA (United States). Green Hydrogen Scientific Advisory Committee; Rifkin, J. [The Foundation on Economic Trends (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand. (author)

  4. A green hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Woodrow W.; Rifkin, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand

  5. Organisational Factors of Rapid Growth of Slovenian Dynamic Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pšeničny Viljem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide key findings on the internal and external environmental factors of growth that affect the rapid growth of dynamic enterprises in relation to individual key organisational factors or functions. The key organisational relationships in a growing enterprise are upgraded with previous research findings and identified key factors of rapid growth through qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the analysis of 4,511 dynamic Slovenian enterprises exhibiting growth potential. More than 250 descriptive attributes of a sample of firms from 2011 were also used for further qualitative analysis and verification of key growth factors. On the basis of the sample (the study was conducted with 131 Slovenian dynamic enterprises, the authors verify whether these factors are the same as the factors that were studied in previous researches. They also provide empirical findings on rapid growth factors in relation to individual organisational functions: administration - management - implementation (entrepreneur - manager - employees. Through factor analysis they look for the correlation strength between individual variables (attributes that best describe each factor of rapid growth and that relate to the aforementioned organisational functions in dynamic enterprises. The research findings on rapid growth factors offer companies the opportunity to consider these factors during the planning and implementation phases of their business, to choose appropriate instruments for the transition from a small fast growing firm to a professionally managed growing company, to stimulate growth and to choose an appropriate growth strategy and organisational factors in order to remain, or become, dynamic enterprises that can further contribute to the preservation, growth and development of the Slovenian economy

  6. The impact of oil on the Scottish economy with particular reference to the Aberdeen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, M.G.; Newlands, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The establishment of the North Sea oil industry over the last 20 years has had far reaching and dramatic effects upon the whole Scottish economy but especially upon those areas where oil related activity is geographically concentrated. This chapter discusses the impact of oil on the Scottish economy with particular reference to developments in the Aberdeen area. It is comprised of five main sections. The first outlines the way in which the oil industry has developed in Britain, noting that, despite rapid growth, there have been many lost opportunities. The impact of oil related developments in Scotland is discussed next before the focus narrows to the Aberdeen economy. The third section describes the familiar benefits of oil developments in Aberdeen while the fourth section analyses some of the less familiar costs. Finally, there is some discussion of the way in which the gains and losses of oil developments in Aberdeen have been distributed. (author)

  7. Social Economy and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of entrepreneurial activities as an engine of economic growth and poverty alleviation, the issue of business development and entrepreneurial activities, has received increasing attention from a number of interested parties worldwide and also in the Czech Republic. The focus of this paper is on a social economy, a social responsibility and social enterprises. The development of the social economy framework will be introduced in the European context and specifically in the Czech Republic. A case study of a Czech social entrepreneur will be introduced based on qualitative research, namely the biographical narrative method.Social enterprises can support activities of various target groups, such as economic activities of mentally and physically handicapped people, which often operate in economically and socially marginalized situations, including stereotyped images. They give them a chance to become active members of society. In this way they can help to reduce the poverty on a local level. The aim of this paper is to introduce a social entrepreneurship as important part of social economy development in the Czech Republic.

  8. Pressure on Yukos growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2006-01-01

    The fate of the Russian oil concern Yukos seems to be sealed. The former rising star of the Russian energy firmament seems to be dying under the pressure of local state administration. Tax arrears, the fact that the owner Mikhail Khodorkovsky was jailed and the company placed under forced administration reflects the conflict between business and political interests in Russia. And the conflict also has an impact on Slovakia. In the portfolio of Yukos Finance, the Dutch subsidiary of Yukos, are assets that are very attractive for Russian oil concerns. One of them is the Slovak operator of the Druzba pipeline, Transpetrol. Yukos Finance owns 49% of the company's shares. Last year, the company signed a contract with the Russian oil company Russneft on the sale of the stake for 103 mil. USD. According to a contract signed in 2002 that stipulated the conditions under which the Slovak state sold the Transpetrol shares to Yukos for the next 5 years such a step has to be approved by the Ministry of Economy. The Dutch company can also sell the shares without such an approval but then it has to pay a penalty fine. In such a case Slovakia would get 50% of the original amount, i.e. 37 mil. USD. (author)

  9. The Practices of Happiness : Political Economy, Religion and Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Steedmand , Ian; Atherton, John R.; Graham, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that rising levels of prosperity in Western economies since 1945 have not been matched by greater incidences of reported well-being and happiness. Indeed, material affluence is often accompanied instead by greater social and individual distress. A growing literature within the humanities and social sciences is increasingly concerned to chart not only the underlying trends in recorded levels of happiness, but to consider what factors, if any, contribute to positive an...

  10. Low-fertility rate, market economy, and population control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Mu, G

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the increasingly market-oriented economy in China and the implications for family planning and population control. Modern China has experienced in a few decades a dramatic decline in fertility. Some new issues include whether faster population increase is harmless with a rapidly growing economy, and about whether a large population size offers greater opportunity to attract investment. China adopted its population policies against a specific historical context, and future policies will pertain to new issues. The baby boom of the mid-1970s led to population increase and the impossibility of limiting total population by 2000 to under 1.6 billion. China's huge population size has a significant adverse effect on the survival and development of the nation. Land and natural resources limit the nation's ability to accommodate greater numbers of people. 22% of land is hilly and habitable, but 78.9% is largely uninhabitable basins, mountains, and plateaus. 53% of lands are arid or semi-arid. 20.3% of China's population live under harsh natural conditions, and many are impoverished. 95% of China's population live in the eastern part of the country. Population pressure depletes resources and creates environmental problems. There is pressure on consumption of grain, and labor surpluses threaten modernization and create conflicts between egalitarianism and efficiency. Unemployment insurance and social security are not yet in place to cushion a shift to a competitive market system. Success in rural economic reform is tied to absorbing surplus rural labor. Family planning is critical to improving individual lives, a planned economy, and world responsibility. A market economy in China is likely to modernize attitudes toward reproduction and smooth the transition to a low, stable fertility, but government population control will still be needed. The unanswered question is through what means population will be controlled.

  11. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  12. Governance of information technology in a complex economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Prince

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the energy sector is fast nearing a tipping point of no return, transitioning from fossil fuel to renewable energy. Business is turning to the IT department to leverage technology that will reduce organisational wide production and operational cost in a fast changing economy. The business expects the IT department to be innovative and build new IT competencies for a rapid response to the transition towards renewable energy. This study contributes new knowledge regarding the impact of management theory and approaches on the successful implementation of IT in the African Oil and Gas industry. The research shows that capabilities such as innovation and people competencies are growing in importance while IT leadership is becoming a critical role in supporting and delivering on the business objectives as enabler and transformational agent of business. Capabilities such as systems thinking, business acumen and interpersonal skills are key IT management competencies for transformation innovation leadership. Knowing the business needs, the IT department can provide integrated solutions that support the complete business value chain without exposing the business to a rigid IT structure. Remaining competitive, business-driven IT innovation is a vehicle for business to meet new realities. The research followed a multistage mixed-model design using the African Oil and Gas industry as case study.

  13. Information communication technology and electricity consumption in emerging economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of information communication technology (ICT) on electricity consumption in emerging economies. The empirical results, obtained from dynamic panel demand models, show a positive and statistically significant relationship between ICT and electricity consumption when ICT is measured using internet connections, mobile phones or the number of PCs. Long-run ICT elasticities are smaller than income elasticities but because ICT growth rates are so much higher than income growth rates, the impact of ICT on electricity demand is greater than the impact of income on electricity demand. One implication of these results is that policies designed to close the “digital divide” between developed and developing economics by increasing the adoption of ICT in developing countries are put at odds with energy policies to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► ICT usage is growing rapidly in developing countries. ► ICT usage affects electricity consumption. ► Three different measures of ICT are examined. ► Short-run and long-run ICT elasticities are calculated. ► Implications for energy policy are discussed.

  14. Evaluating energy efficiency policies with energy-economy models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mundaca, L.; Neij, L.; Worrell, E.; McNeil, M.

    2010-01-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems, and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically

  15. Domesticizing Financial Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deville, Joe; Lazarus, Jeanne; Luzzi, Mariana

    show. Third, the “domestication of financial economies”: financial literacy programs developed by governmental bodies, international organizations, and banks have become a ubiquitous layer attached to the assemblage of financial economies in many countries. And last but not least, “domesticizing social...... practices as well as the precise way financial providers are evaluating, sorting and targeting their consumers. We believe these diverse trends are starting to converge, and the ambitions of this paper are both to organize scattered literature and to reflect upon the consequences of the new field...

  16. Economy and energy politic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  17. The Methanol Economy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, George [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prakash, G. K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  18. Information model of economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.Gonchar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new stochastic model of economy is developed that takes into account the choice of consumers are the dependent random fields. Axioms of such a model are formulated. The existence of random fields of consumer's choice and decision making by firms are proved. New notions of conditionally independent random fields and random fields of evaluation of information by consumers are introduced. Using the above mentioned random fields the random fields of consumer choice and decision making by firms are constructed. The theory of economic equilibrium is developed.

  19. The growing fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Linda M; Sara, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Fibroadenomas (FAs) are the most common tumors of the breast clinically and pathologically in adolescent and young women but may be discovered at any age. With increasing use of core biopsy rather than excision for diagnosis, it is now commonplace to follow these lesions with imaging. To assess the incidence of epithelial abnormalities (atypia, in situ or invasive, ductal or lobular malignancies) in FAs diagnosed by core biopsy and to re-evaluate the management paradigm for any growing FA. A retrospective review of the senior author’s pathology results over 19 years identified 2062 nodular FAs (biopsied by ultrasound or stereotactic guidance). Eighty-three core biopsied FAs were identified which subsequently enlarged. Twelve of 2062 of core biopsied nodules demonstrated atypia, in situ, or invasive malignancy (ductal or lobular) within or adjacent to the FA (0.58%). Eighty-three FAs enlarged and underwent either surgical excision (n = 65), repeat core biopsy (n = 9), or imaging follow-up (n = 9). The incidence of atypia, in situ or invasive malignancy was 0/83 (0%). Two enlarging FAs were subsequently surgically diagnosed as benign phyllodes tumors (PT). Malignancy in or adjacent to a core biopsied FA is rare. The risk of cancer in a growing FA is even rarer; none were present in our series. FAs with abnormal epithelial abnormalities require excision. Otherwise, FAs without epithelial abnormality diagnosed by core biopsy need no specific follow-up considering the negligible incidence of conversion to malignancy. The breast interventionalist must know how to manage discordant pathology results

  20. Abraham Lincoln and the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormats, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    Abraham Lincoln would have well understood the challenges facing many modern emerging nations. In Lincoln's America, as in many developing nations today, sweeping economic change threatened older industries, traditional ways of living, and social and national cohesion by exposing economies and societies to new and powerful competitive forces. Yet even in the midst of the brutal and expensive American Civil war--and in part because of it--Lincoln and the Republican Congress enacted bold legislation that helped create a huge national market, a strong and unified economy governed by national institutions, and a rising middle class of businessmen and property owners. Figuring out how to maximize the benefits of globalization while minimizing its disruptions is a formidable challenge for policy makers. How do you expand opportunities for the talented and the lucky while making sure the rest of society doesn't fall behind? It may be helpful to look at the principles that informed the policies that Lincoln and the Republican Congress instituted after they came to power in 1861: Facilitate the upward mobility of low- and middle-income groups to give them a significant stake in the country. Emphasize the good of the national economy over regional interests. Affirm the need for sound government institutions to temper the dynamics of the free enterprise system. Tailor policies to the national situation. Realize that a period of turmoil may present a unique opportunity for reform. These principles drove the reforms that helped Americans cope with and benefit from rapid technological advances and the fast integration of the American economy in the nineteenth century. They may be instructive to today's policy makers who are struggling to help their own citizens integrate into the fast-changing global economy of the twenty-first century.

  1. Sharing for people, planet or profit? Analysing motivations for intended sharing economy participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böcker, L.; Meelen, A.A.H.

    2016-01-01

    The sharing economy is a fast-growing and heavily debated phenomenon. This study provides an overview of motivations of people willing to participate in different forms of the sharing economy. A survey was held amongst 1,330 respondents from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Using stated preference data,

  2. Fission gas pressure build-up and fast-breeder economy; Accumulation de la pression des gaz de fission et economie des reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides; Nakoplenie davleniya gazov produktov deleniya i ehkonomika reaktorov-razmnozhitelej na bystrykh nejtronakh; Aumento de la presion de los gases de fision y economia de los reactores reproductores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, P [Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1962-03-15

    Fuel-cycle costs and doubling time of fast-breeder reactors are strongly affected by the fuel-burn-up obtainable. Use of oxide or carbide fuel offers the possibility of reaching a burn-up of 100 000 MWd/t. In fuel-clad elements, a limiting factor is the fission-gas-pressure build-up. At the high burn-up considered, an appreciable fraction of the fission gases gets into the pores and thus contributes to the pressure on the can. Starting from the known fission-product yields and decay chains, gas production and pressure build-up have been calculated. Three physical models have been employed in calculating the pressure acting upon the can : the gas is contained either in interconnected pores, in separate pores, or in a central hole. The pressure-dependence upon free volume (fuel density) and temperature will be discussed. Cans made of high-strength materials as Ineonel-X and molybdenum could stand the fission-gas pressure at operating temperatures. Unfortunately, these materials have higher absorption cross-sections than stainless steel. Results of a multi-group calculation are given, showing the effect of using these can materials and of decreasing the fuel density on critical mass and breeding ratio in small and medium-size breeders. (author) [French] Le cout du cycle de combustible et la periode de doublement des reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides dependent etroitement du taux de combustion. En utilisant pour combustible un oxyde ou un carbure, on peut atteindre un taux de combustion de 100 000 MW j/t. Avec des combustibles gaines, l'accumulation de la pression des gaz de fission est un facteur limitatif. Pour le fort taux de combustion envisage, une fraction non negligeable des gaz de fission penetre dans les interstices et contribue ainsi a la pression sur la gaine. A partir des rendements en produits de fission et des chaines de desintegration connus, l'auteur a calcule la production de gaz et l'accumulation de pression. Pour calculer la pression

  3. The energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, Sophie; Vaujour, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to the economy of energy applies the main economic concepts to the energy sector (nature of the good, supply, demand), proposes an overview of existing actors, and analyses challenges and tools of economic policy like network regulation, competition policy, independence and energy transition. By using recent examples, statistics and international comparisons, it gives elements to highlight issues like the relationship between shale gas exploitation and economic recovery in the USA, the choice between monopole and competition for electricity or gas supply, reaching greenhouse gas emissions of the energy sector by incentives or taxes, secure energy supplies in a changing international environment, ways to supply energy to everyone at prices guaranteeing economy competitiveness, or ways to evolve towards energy systems which would be more environment- and climate-friendly. The successive chapters address fundamentals issues (nature of the good, historical and technical overview), the State intervention (definition of an energy policy, steering the energy mix, ensuring secure supply), the reorganisation of industries and the protection of consumers, the relationship between energy and climate (worrying perspectives, progressive emergence of solutions). The last chapter addresses the future challenges like innovation, and disruptive innovations (smart grids, big data, batteries, CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear waste processing and management, development of nuclear fusion), and the issue of energy poverty

  4. Network Transformations in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of ever-increasing market competition, networked interactions play a special role in the economy. The network form of entrepreneurship is increasingly viewed as an effective organizational structure to create a market value embedded in innovative business solutions. The authors study the characteristics of a network as an economic category and emphasize certain similarities between Rus sian and international approaches to identifying interactions of economic systems based on the network principle. The paper focuses on the types of networks widely used in the economy. The authors analyze the transformation of business networks along two lines: from an intra- to an inter-firm network and from an inter-firm to an inter-organizational network. The possible forms of network formation are described depending on the strength of connections and the type of integration. The drivers and reasons behind process of transition from a hierarchical model of the organizational structure to a network type are identified. The authors analyze the advantages of creating inter-firm networks and discuss the features of inter-organizational networks as compares to inter-firm ones. The article summarizes the reasons for and advantages of participation in inter-rganizational networks and identifies the main barriers to the formation of inter-organizational network.

  5. A green economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Simons

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth has become a fetish, as it is believed to yield many benefits to society. It has its origins in the Enlightenment ideal of progress through science, technology and a free market economy. J.W. Goethe anticipated the problems of such progress in his poem Faust, especially its second part. Binswanger interprets Goethe’s view on the modern economy as a form of alchemy, an attempt to master time through the invention of monetary capital. Keynes’s views on progress and liquidity are compatible with this analysis. The problems, evoked by the uncritical application of scientific technology so as to increase material welfare, have given rise to a dialectic between business seeking growth and those concerned about its effects, especially on ecology. Sustainable development is an outcome of this dialectic, without abandoning it. Others, particularly those advocating décroissance [de-growth], reject the concepts underlying growth. The ideology underlying this is a combination of technicism and economism. A spiritual revolution is called for to break the hold of this ideology on society, with a change from the metaphor of the world as a machine to that of a garden-city. It is suggested that working groups should analyse the various proposals for change from the perspective of the garden-city metaphor.

  6. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  7. The environmental economy accounts for 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, Benoit; Kurtek, Olivier; Margontier, Sophie; Auzanneau, Muriel; Caudron, Cedric; Diel, Olivier; Ghewy, Xavier; Guilhen, Jean-Michel; Pasquier, Isabelle; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Carriere, Celine

    2017-03-01

    The environment related sector of the economy has been growing since the early 2000's. Between 2004 and 2014, employment in environmental activities grew by 33 %, a growth rate greater than that of the economy as a whole (+ 3 %). Spending on environmental protection reached euro 47.6 billion, increasing annually on average at 3.5 %, while average annual growth in GDP was 2.6 % over the same period. However, the importance of the sector remained relatively low: it represented 1.7 % of total employment and 1.4 % of GDP. Moreover, the net impact on the economy is not measurable, as jobs created have compensated for jobs lost in other sectors. Similarly, while environmental taxation in relation to GDP had grown since 2008 with the TICPE and the CSPE - respectively a tax on domestic consumption of energy products and a levy in support of the public electricity provider - it remained at a lower level than in the rest of Europe. (authors)

  8. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  9. Barter Economies and Centralized Merchants

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Noguera

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of this essay is to analyze the emergence of a barter economy, and the rise of centralized merchants and a barter redistribution system out of a primitive barter system. The environment is a spatial general equilibrium model where exchange is costly. Since exchange becomes more complicated as the scope of the economy increases, we prove that, after the economy reaches a critical size, the cost of trade expansion surpasses its benefits. This imposes limitations on the scope of th...

  10. Macroeconomics in an open economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R N

    1986-09-12

    The customary treatment of national economies as closed and self-contained must be substantially modified to allow for those economies that typically trade goods, services, and securities with other countries in increasing volume. Open economy macroeconomics is essential to understanding the major events of the U.S. economy over the past half dozen years. Both the sharp rise in the dollar and the unprecedentedly large U.S. trade deficit are linked to the U.S. budget deficit, as is the drop in the rate of inflation.

  11. Social economy and social enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    2011-01-01

    practice will be put under increasing pressure. There is a difference between a social economy approach to the third sector and an approach based upon the notion of a non-profit constraint. Social economy is well positioned as a third sector to play a core role in meeting this urgency. But how does...... the social economy fit with current strategies in the areas of welfare policies and social service? Is it as a certain type of social entrepreneurship an integral part of a social innovation of the mainstream market economy or is it part of an emerging counter discourse in the sense of a participatory non...

  12. Fostering and sustaining innovation in a Fast Growing Agile Company

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, NilsBrede; Barney, Sebastian; Aurum, Aybüe; Khurum, Mahvish; Wohlin, Claes; Barney, Hamish; Gorschek, Tony; Winata, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Sustaining innovation in a fast growing software development company is difficult. As organisations grow, peoples' focus often changes from the big picture of the product being developed to the specific role they fill. This paper presents two complementary approaches that were successfully used to support continued developer-driven innovation in a rapidly growing Australian agile software development company. The method "FedEx TM Day" gives developers one day to showcase a proof of concept th...

  13. Editorial: Dilemmas of Modern Economy and Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankevičienė

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Various dilemmas concerning modern economy and business have been in the focus of scientific discussion in recent years (Klich, 2013; Renko & Knezevic, 2013; Szarucki, 2013; Agrawal & Gugnani, 2014; Pardhasaradhi & Grace, 2015. In modern economy, not only researches but corporations face complex economic and business dilemmas in their daily routine. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission addresses key economic challenges by stimulating innovations, sustainability policies, social and environmental responsibilities. These challenges require the mobilization of significant resources by science, innovation and regional policy makers and scientific communities across Europe (EUA, 2014. Broader scientific discussions are crucial for the success of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. According to the Global Risks Report 2015, the biggest threat to world stability in the next 10 years arise from the four most serious economic risks. These are high structural unemployment or underemployment, energy price shock, critical information infrastructure breakdown and fiscal crises. We continuously agree that innovation is critical to global prosperity (WEF, 2015. Currently, the internationalisation of family businesses is an increasingly important research area. Substantial numbers of FBs are forced to expand into foreign markets in order to survive and grow in the competitive environment (Daszkiewicz & Wach, 2014. The roles of business angels are especially important taken both decreasing the levels of formal venture capital investment and growing average amount of individual deals. Angel investors are the key players in generating high-growth companies, essential to regional economic development. As a result, they have attracted the attention of policy makers (Rostamzadeh et. al., 2014. Consequently, this issue of EBER concentrates on the current dilemmas of modern economy and business, particularly dealing

  14. Rethinking the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Leixnering, Stephan; Meyer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Our paper focuses on a non-standard sharing example that harbors the potential to disrupt received wisdom on the sharing economy. While originally entering the field to analyze, broadly from a governance perspective, how the 2015 refugee crisis was handled in Vienna, Austria, we found that the no...... of sharing: economic and moral. Our paper contributes to this Special Issue of the Academy of Management Discoveries by highlighting and explaining the two-fold economic and moral nature of sharing and the organization of sharing between movement and platform....... sharing of resources (i.e., the economic dimension): the sharing of a distinct concern (i.e., the moral dimension of sharing). Our discovery exemplifies such a moral dimension that is rather different from the status quo materialistic treatments focusing on economic transactions and property rights...

  15. Securing the Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin P. MĂZĂREANU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Digital economy has naturally led to thereconfiguration of communication and information processes.These processes are depending on the computer, starting fromthe personal one and reaching to computer networks, whetherlocal, metropolitan or global. These led to the development ofsuch information systems able to communicate information,systems that must also ensure the security of communicationsbetween computers within the company, but also betweencomputers of different parties, outside the company. As thecommunication between computers in the network has evolvedto electronic funds transfer (EFT, digital money andcommunication of personal data, internet banking, etc., theimportance of security issues of data transmitted over thenetwork also has increased. Even more as the network hasevolved into a “wireless” one.

  16. Fuel economy handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W [ed.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the UK's energy situation from 1950 to 2020 is presented. Problems are discussed and recommendations are made. A strong argument is presented for energy conservation, greater use of nuclear energy, and restrained production of North Sea oil. Specific recommendations are made for financial and operational considerations of (1) new or replacement boiler plants; (2) space heating of factories, offices and similar buildings; and (3) possible use of various fuels including duel-fuel economics and use of wastes. Tariffs and charges are discussed as well as services (e.g. compressed air, cooling water, sources of waste, etc.). Standby considerations (peak load lopping, turbines-engines, parallel or sectioned operation, etc.) and heat distribution (steam, condensate return and uses) are discussed. Throughout, the emphasis is on fuel economy. Savings in process such as recovering waste heat and the storage of heat are considered. For small industrial furnaces, intermittent heating, heat recovery, and the importance of furnace loading are discussed. (MJJ)

  17. [Economy class syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    Economy class syndrome is venous thromboembolism following air travel. This syndrome was firstly reported in 1946, and many cases have been reported since 1990s. Low air pressure and low humidity in the aircraft cabin may contribute to the mechanism of this syndrome. Risk factors for venous thrombosis in the plane were old age, small height, obesity, hormonal therapy, malignancy, smoking, pregnancy or recent parturition, recent trauma or operation, chronic disease and history of venous thrombosis. In Japan, the feminine gender is also risk factor though reason was not well known. For prophylaxis, adequate fluid intake and leg exercise are recommended to all passengers. For passengers with high risk, prophylactic measures such as compression stockings, aspirin or low molecular weight heparin should be considered.

  18. From war economies to peace economies in Africa | Broodryk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One reason for the persistence and protracted nature of conflict on the. African continent is the phenomenon of war economies. These have transformed the nature of war itself where the object is not at neutralizing an enemy but to institutionalize violence at a profitable level of intensity. Transforming war economies into ...

  19. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253

    2017-01-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their

  20. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  1. Tourism's intimate economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Maurer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] What’s Love Got To Do with It? Transnational Desires and Sex Tourism in the Dominican Republic. Denise Brennan. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2004. ix + 280 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 Behind the Smile: The Working Lives of Caribbean Tourism. George Gmelch. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003. x + 212 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 New research on Caribbean tourism solidly locates it within the regional shift from “incentive-induced exports” like bananas to “service-based exports” like data processing, offshore finance, and novel forms of mass tourism (Mullings 2004:294; Duval 2004. Earlier studies may have made mention of the similarities between plantation economies and tourism development, but new models like the all-inclusive resort demonstrate a near identity of form and structure with plantation systems: foreign dominance over ownership and profit leaves little multiplier effect for the Caribbean islands playing host to enclaved resorts. Agricultural exports have been in free fall since the end of preferential trade protocols, and export manufacturing after the North American Free Trade Agreement is in steep decline. If new service economies seemed to offer a solution to economic and social disorder, the reaction to the events of September 11, 2001 demonstrated the fragility of service-based exports and, in particular, of new kinds of tourism. It took four years for international tourism to rebound to pre-9/11 levels;1 with the perceived threat of SARS and avian flu, as well as the Iraq war and the weak U.S. dollar, official projections of the industry’s near future are “cautiously optimistic.”2

  2. THE FASTEST GROWING LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta NOWAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents trends in economic growth and development in twelve least developed countries from 2006 to 2015. The study is based on the data retrieved from the World Bank Database. During the analysed 10 years, seven Asian (Myanmar, Lao PDR, Bhutan, Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan and five African (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Angola, Sudan, and Mozambique LDCs had average annual GDP per capita growth rates higher than 4.0%. GDP has been largely generated through the services and industry sectors. A few LDCs sustained strong growth mainly because of foreign assistance and in other countries remittances were a significant source of development finance. Resource rich countries recorded high inflows of foreign direct investment. In a few fast growing LDCs the state has been heavily engaged in economy. The analysed LDCs substantially improved their development indicators.

  3. Growing ‘Smart’? Urbanization Processes in the Pune Urban Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Butsch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indian city of Pune witnessed rapid growth and deep transformation processes in the last three decades. This paper assesses past developments and recent structures and processes against the concept of urban sustainability. Following an overview of the historical development, the dimensions of sustainability are discussed separately, based on empirical findings. Urban growth puts enormous pressure on Pune’s land and water resources, changing the ecology of the area. The increasing water demand of Pune’s growing population competes with growing energy and water demands. An assessment of future climate change impacts indicates that the storage capacity of the reservoirs is more frequently not met during the rainy season. In addition, extreme dry years can aggravate the effects of land use change on water resources in the future. The city’s growth and especially the large in-migration has also changed Pune’s social fabric significantly. Wealth is distributed unevenly in the city and social disparities can be observed along two fault lines, namely along classes and caste groups. The population development and the increasing socioeconomic polarization are linked to the economic development of the city. Pune’s formal economy has a robust base. However, as in many cities of the Global South, the informal economy is the most relevant source of income for large parts of the population. Pune’s development is challenged by informality, poor infrastructure and inadequate planning and governance. Recently new approaches towards urban renewal and smart city development were launched. These new approaches aim at overcoming blockades in the traditional planning. A special challenge for urban planning is the transformation of urban fringe areas of the city, as this process is currently taking place in an unsustainable manner. The paper concludes that urban development has to become holistic, integrative and participative and should abandon the

  4. A Comparative Study of Projection Models on China's Food Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades, China's food supply and demand has been a hot topic for both politicians and academics given China's rapid economic development and its sheer market size. Accordingly, researchers are trying to project the future development of China's food economy. This article reviews

  5. A comparative study of projection models on China's food economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong

    2003-01-01

    During the last two decades, China's food supply and demand has been a hot topic for both politicians and academics given China's rapid economic development and its sheer market size. Accordingly, researchers are trying to project the future development of China's food economy. This article reviews

  6. Value Creation in the Knowledge-Based Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Effective investment strategies help companies form dynamic core organizational capabilities allowing them to adapt and survive in today's rapidly changing knowledge-based economy. This dissertation investigates three valuation issues that challenge managers with respect to developing business-critical investment strategies that can have…

  7. Interorganisational Management in Entrepreneurial Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Piihl, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    In this article relationship management is defined and discussed in the context of an entrepreneurial society. Important aspects of trends in entrepreneurial economies to aspects of managerial economies. Based on a review of established management theories, it is concluded that there is a need...

  8. Entrepreneurship in the network economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuijsen, Hugo; de Graaf, Frank Jan; Zhang, Henry; Zhao, Ruimei

    2009-01-01

    The network economy typically signifies a notion from the information society where new products and services are developed by collaborating individuals and/or businesses organised in virtual networks. The network economy has important characteristics in common with Northern European governance

  9. Experience economy brimming with potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Sundbo, Jon

    2014-01-01

    In these days of economic uncertainty, businesses ought to make better use of recent research into the experience economy. Perhaps co-creation and individualisation can save us from the crisis, argue the editors of a new book about the latest research into the experience economy....

  10. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard

  11. Fuel Economy Testing and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Fuel Economy pages provide information on current standards and how federal agencies work to enforce those laws, testing for national Corporate Average Fuel Economy or CAFE standards, and what you can do to reduce your own vehicle emissions.

  12. Water for greening the economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ] for such an overview). The focus here falls on a discussion aimed to improve alignment between water resource management and the principles of a green economy. Previous chapters have made it clear that a green economy requires a holistic approach towards policy...

  13. The importance of the oil sector in the national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro Santiago

    2001-01-01

    The paper is about the oil sector in Colombia as for their growing importance in the economy of the country in the last years, leaving of the base that this strategic sector for the economy for its high participation in the gross internal product, generates a very high percentage of the total exports and because it is also a very important source of fiscal resources for the national government as for the sectional governments. This writing is centered fundamentally in the analysis related with the production and export of raw petroleum

  14. Long-run evolution of the global economy - Part 2: Hindcasts of innovation and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2015-10-01

    Long-range climate forecasts use integrated assessment models to link the global economy to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper evaluates an alternative economic framework outlined in part 1 of this study (Garrett, 2014) that approaches the global economy using purely physical principles rather than explicitly resolved societal dynamics. If this model is initialized with economic data from the 1950s, it yields hindcasts for how fast global economic production and energy consumption grew between 2000 and 2010 with skill scores > 90 % relative to a model of persistence in trends. The model appears to attain high skill partly because there was a strong impulse of discovery of fossil fuel energy reserves in the mid-twentieth century that helped civilization to grow rapidly as a deterministic physical response. Forecasting the coming century may prove more of a challenge because the effect of the energy impulse appears to have nearly run its course. Nonetheless, an understanding of the external forces that drive civilization may help development of constrained futures for the coupled evolution of civilization and climate during the Anthropocene.

  15. The underground economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica LITRA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at covering issues related to the underground economy, activities that compound this phenomenon, its magnitude in Romania and reported to the European average. Underground economy in Romania consists of undeclared work (2/3 from the total and unreported income; it decreased from 33.6% of GDP in 2003 to 28% in 2014, but remained over EU-28 average with about 10 p.p. Among EU-28 countries, only Bulgaria exceeds the size of the underground economy of Romania. The underground economy is a challenge for the leadership of the state which must act simultaneously to stop illegal activities, and to discourage non-declaration of the legal activities. Corruption favours maintaining the underground economy, delays economic development, obstructs democratic processes and affects justice and the law state.

  16. The changing strategic roles for warehousing in an emerging economy: case study in Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.J.; Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing globalisation of the world economy is having a profound impact on logistics. Emerging economies are experiencing rapid developments that affect their warehousing facilities. The purpose of this study is to explore the strategic roles that warehousing plays and the changes therein.

  17. Fertility and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when

  18. Trust within Brazilian New Economy Organizations: an Empirical Investigation of Gender Effects Benchmarked on Brazilian Old Economy Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tulio Zanini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that one of the negative aspects of the New Economy has been growing organizational survival-risk both at the firm and the sector levels. This precarious positioning of the firm has profoundly changed the work environment resulting in the dissolution of job-definition-boundaries, thereby raising the intensity of work and finally affecting the level and nature of trust in the workplace. This is the starting point for our study. Using a questionnaire developed by Gillespie, we investigated gender profiles concerning trust in Supervisors, Peers, and Team in the New and the Old Economies for Brazilian managers. The results show that, for the New Economy, Brazilian women are more willing to give trust to Supervisors whereas Brazilian men expressed higher levels of trust when dealing with Team members. The Peer results are mixed. For the Old Economy, men uniformly express higher levels of trust compared to women over all three reference groups. Finally, for gender matched comparisons, those working in the Brazilian Old Economy firms express higher levels of trust compared to their counterparts in the New Economy independent of gender or time worked. We conclude by discussing the control implications of the above results.

  19. Informal economy as an expression of the state failure

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Kubiczek

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the phenomenon of second economy, underground or subterranean economy, unofficial economy, unrecorded economy, informal economy, cash economy etc., which has been assessed here as a function of a given mix of economic policies.

  20. The new economy is stronger than you think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, W A

    1999-01-01

    Many policy makers at the Fed contend that the new economy is a fragile bubble--and that with the "irrational exuberance" of the capital markets, the sky is going to fall on the U.S. economy. That couldn't be further from the truth, according to William Sahlman. As long as the government doesn't interfere, he argues, the economy is sturdy, resilient, and raring to grow. The new economy is strong for several reasons. First, it is based on a business model that works. Any business system that relentlessly drives out inefficiency, forces intelligent business-process reengineering, and gives customers more of what they want will be sustainable. Second, it is built on America's admiration for entrepreneurs and its tolerance for failure, not to mention its easy access to capital. Third, the new economy is attracting the best and brightest minds in the country. And finally, says Sahlman, the new economy is strong because it is spreading. It may be primarily an American phenomenon now, but in a few short years it will start to show its effects everywhere, making the whole world a more productive place. Still, Sahlman believes, the road ahead is not without potholes and sharp curves. But that is what the new economy is all about, he maintains--companies attacking the status quo and entrenched players, companies experimenting to find new technologies that improve or replace earlier ones. Such activity presents no cause for alarm. The economic, social, and cultural factors undergirding the new economy are rock solid. It's simply a matter of letting them stand.

  1. Green Energy for Green Economy: The Case Study of Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sekreter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Green economy is an overarching purpose for sustainable growth and friendly environment. Renewable energy focuses on clean energy and sustainable development targets a continuous growth. Green economy includes both of them. Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI struggles serious problems in terms of economics after showing a remarkable economic growth until mid-2014. The increasing gap between demand and supply is seen another serious problem for KRI. Green energy is one of the essential stage towards to the green economy and it is one of the vital issue to succeed on the way of green economy. Solar energy is one of the fastest growing renewable energy source around the world and KRI has a great potential for solar energy. This study aims to stimulate KRI to invest green energy and encourage it to establish green economy to make its economy robust for the shocks and enable to show a sustainable development.

  2. Developing Economies and Global Governance: Will IMF Rethink Its Orthodox View?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been constantly viewed that the developed economies unevenly ruled the governance structures in the international organizations such as International Monetary Fund (MF. The continuous development in Emerging and Developing Economies (EDEs over the last 20 years witnessed their growing importance in the world economy, but at the same time little increase in their voice in the IMF. There are reasons for the discontent of the EDEs in the present structure such as the increase of regional monetary arrangements, uneven distribution of quota shares, IMF quota reforms, and IMF voting structure. The world economy is witnessing a tremendous growth of these EDEs and is now at the verge where Asian economies are capable of leading, rather than the North Atlantic economies. This issue should be acknowledged properly and must be responded adequately. This paper makes an attempt to understand the prime issues that should be fixed in the current quotas system and voting structure in the IMF.

  3. Future Economy and Touristic Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Jelev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Specialists claim that Eco-Bio-economy or social economy is the economy of future, in the service of human life by the rational use of environmental resources. The concept brings together in an integrated manner, according to the researchers, economy, ecology, biodiversity, biotechnologies and focuses on integrated sustainable development of the world. The new social economy, together with the corporate social responsibility joins a new multipolar world to a healthy environment by creative and innovative concepts that will ensure the sustainability of living in a sustainable manner. Doctors have added to thisEco-Bio-Economy concept a new one called One Health - a new integrated approach for human, animals and environment health state to that they should emphasize the importance of human behavior upon the planet biodiversity. Economer agents have mostly understood the importance of alarm signals drawn up by researchers on the destruction of the resources of the planet and adapted their business sites to the requirements of the green economy. A responsible business is also ecotourism that promotes a favourable travel for the surrounding environment. It requires accommodation on farms, in peasant houses, small rural hotels. The educational environment contributes to the trend planetary tourism, with the formation of new specialists with new knowledge, behaviors and consumers use formation of new characters, sensitive to environmental issues. This educational model is also promoted by Spiru Haret University, by creating the Master degree in tourism but also in environmental protection.

  4. FROM WAR ECONOMIES TO PEACE ECONOMIES IN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    temporary 'interruption' to an ongoing process of development”.4 The second ... indication of the changing nature of world political and economic trends .... (FDI), where war economies cannot, at least not in a positive or legal fashion.24 The.

  5. Perspectives on Eco Economics. Circular Economy and Smart Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Balaceanu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of sustainable development principles in contemporary economic thinking has generated the conceptual remodeling that expresses the new mechanisms of the economy. Thus, the concept of circular economy meet the theoretical representation of an economic system oriented towards the re-use of waste as raw materials and limiting the production of waste that cannot come back into the economic circuit. Circular economy is one that involves even its concept of operation, recovery and regeneration, as much as possible of resources, aiming to preserve, at the highest level, the value and usefulness of products, components and raw materials, distinguishing between technical and biological cycles. In this way, we can find solutions for two major issues affecting today's economy: the limited nature of resources and the pollution generated by the waste resulting from economic activities.

  6. Why the New Economy is a Learning Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    In this paper it is shown that the intense focus on the new economy reflected real change as well as 'hype?. The basic reason why new economy-growth could not be seen as sustainable is that introducing advanced technologies can only take place successfully when it is accompanied by organizational...... change and competence-building among employees. Any strategy that gives technology an independent role as problem-solver is doomed to fail. Danish data of a unique character are used to demonstrate that the key to economic performance is to promote learning at different levels of the economy....... In the conclusion it is argued that there is a need for a new type of knowledge and learning oriented Keynesianism in order to get close to the kind of growth rates characterizing the high days of the new economy adventure in the US....

  7. Fuel demand on UK roads and dieselisation of fuel economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David

    2009-01-01

    Because of high oil prices, and climate change policy, governments are now seeking ways to improve new car fuel economy thus contributing to air quality and energy security. One strategy is to increase dieselisation rates of the vehicle fleet. Recent trends in fuel economy show improvement since 1995, however, efforts need to go further if the EU Voluntary Agreement targets on CO 2 (a greenhouse gas emission standard) are to be achieved. Trends show diesel car sales have accelerated rapidly and that the advantage of new car fuel economy of diesel cars over gasoline ones is narrowing posing a new challenge. We estimate the demand for new car fuel economy in the UK. In the long-run consumers buy fuel economy, but not in the short-run. We found that long-term income and price changes were the main drivers to achieve improvements particularly for diesel cars and that there is no break in the trend of fuel economy induced by the agreement adopted in the 1990s. Policy should target more closely both consumer choice of, and use of, diesel cars.

  8. Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms investigates the different elements of the experiences of emerging economy firms and sheds essential light on a large variety of aspects associated with their functioning in both home and host contexts. For example, firms must be able to overcome the liability...... of foreign and emerging issues when they expand their activities in various contexts, enter, exit, and re-enter overseas markets; they have to overcome institutional barriers, adapt the cultural challenges in foreign markets, undergo the impact of large multinational firms from developed economies...

  9. Digitalizing the Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-12-01

    Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular economy (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process

  10. Rapid energy modeling for existing buildings: Testing the business and environmental potential through an experiment at Autodesk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deodhar, Aniruddha; Stewart, Emma; Young, Rahul; Khan, Haider

    2010-09-15

    Retrofits of existing buildings represent a huge, growing market and an opportunity to achieve some of the most sizable and cost-effective carbon reductions in any sector of the economy. More 'zero energy' and 'carbon neutral' buildings are being conceived daily by combining energy efficiency measures with renewable energy technologies. However, for all the progress, the building industry faces technical and cost challenges in identifying the highest potential retrofit candidates. This presentation investigates one potential solution, a technology driven workflow called rapid energy modeling, to accelerate and scale the process of analyzing performance for existing buildings in prioritizing improvements.

  11. Implementing logistics strategies in a developing economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available management visibility, demand management, supplier portals, network optimisation, transportation management systems, strategic/global sourcing, “wireless” in the warehouse, and yard management systems and dock door scheduling. These are mainly operational... sustainable solution. Occurrences such as natural disasters and terrorist actions are not the only cause of supply chain disruptions. In industries that grow rapidly, capacity can be tight because of the time it takes to build new plants and bring...

  12. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Ionel HRETCANU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss various aspects of the current economy known as the knowledge economy. Also we will review two indicators of this new economy, because these indicators presents a general plan on access, use and degree of diffusion of knowledge. Then, based on these indicators and taking into account other aspects, we outline the structure relations between "new economy" and "digital economy". Finally we present the main types of business existing in the digital economy.

  13. Towards a solidarity economy zakat Decrease poverty vs economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mébarek BOUBLAL

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Historically, inequalities in the distribution of goods between men existed. Different economic policies have been developed in order to solve not only the problem of inequality, but also that of unemployment. The statistics speak for themselves; despite efforts provided, no solution has been able to solve this twofold problem. Indeed, we must understand that today's economy is primarily responsible for capital growth; support social policy is the responsibility of the welfare state. Policies such as the single tax , or flat tax and the social economy, or non profit sector, have emerged but not able to reconcile the dilemma posed by the management of the social side with economic growth and to help grow the capital. Consideration of zakat as a social economic system, or zakat solidarity economy, provides an opening to a third way. This pathway is ale to support the reduction of inequalities in redistribution and unemployment, without jeopardizing economic growth.

  14. Safe and Sustainable: Optimizing Material Flows in a Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter

    (unsustainable). When maximizing resource use efficiency and reducing carbon and other emissions through recycling (sustainable), direct consumer exposure is often increased through cross-contamination of recycled materials (unsafe). Hence, circular economy currently fails to unite the required expertise...... to imultaneously increase sustainability and reduce exposure to chemicals in materials reused across life cycles of different products. For a way out of this dilemma, a paradigm shift is needed towards a comprehensive and quantitative assessment framework.......Increasing the sustainability of a globally connected economy is gaining wide attention in a world with limited natural resources and growing chemical pollution. The circular economy has emerged as away to reduce carbon and other emissions, while increasing resource efficiency over several product...

  15. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  16. Political Economy, the Internet and FL/OSS Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Robin; Berdou, Evangelia

    Despite the growing amount of research on Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FL/OSS) development, there is little insight into how structural factors associated with institutions influence the patterns of software developer activity in this area. This article examines some of the dynamics of the development of this type of software and the extent to which these dynamics are associated with features of the gift economy as is frequently suggested in the literature. Drawing on an empirical analysis of contributors to the GNOME FL/OSS project, we suggest that greater attention should be given to the emergence of a mixed economy in which features of the exchange economy come to the fore with implications for the power relationships among those contributing to FL/OSS.

  17. Foundries and environmental economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caglioti, V

    1974-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on the recycling of natural resources. For example, the reprocessing of scrap iron involves an average saving of 74% of the energy used in ore reduction and an 84% decrease in pollution output. This calls for an approach to manufacturing that will favor the recycling of raw materials used. A publication of the American Foundrymen's Society lists 450 substances for which there are maximum permissible limits in the foundry work environment. It has been estimated that in Italy, on the average, about 20% of the cost of a manufacturing plant must now be allocated to pollution abatement equipment. Interdisciplinary communication where engineers can converse with physicists, chemists and environmentalists, and vice versa is discussed. Environmentalism also cannot be considered an isolation from the need to regulate the standard of living and to understand and influence human behavior.

  18. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel Economy Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel economy compliance information for light duty...

  19. Imperatives for an agricultural green economy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constansia Musvoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, there are social, economic and environmental challenges related to sustainable development; these challenges include climate change, the need to feed a rapidly increasing population, high rates of poverty and environmental degradation. These challenges have forced us to rethink the way in which development takes place, resulting in the emergence of the concept of a �green economy�. A green economy results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing risks to the environment. It is based on principles which integrate social, economic and environmental considerations. South Africa has adopted the principle of green economic growth, and agriculture is one of the sectors that will drive this growth. Agriculture could address some of the sustainable development problems, but there are challenges related to resource availability, environmental impacts of agriculture and climate change. For agriculture to support a green economy it has to be productive, contribute to economic growth and not undermine the environment, social and cultural systems. The information base and policies required to support a green economy in general, and/or an agriculture-supported green economy have not yet been developed, as the green economy is an emerging concept in South Africa as well as globally. The generation of such information requires analysis and synthesis of green economy principles and agricultural imperatives into generic principles and practices for facilitating agriculture�s contribution to the green economy. In this paper, we conduct this analysis and synthesis and highlight the defining aspects of an agricultural green economy.

  20. The Phenomena Implied by the New Economy from Statistics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani GRADINARU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidity of the informational society to transform into an information and knowledge society determines a perspective on the New Economy which would consider the Internet market and the effect of the Internet information on all economic agents, and the effect of knowledge as economic factor, which imposes the recognition of intangible goods, in general, in the making of economic value as well as the requirements for achieving a lasting society, which cannot be possible but inside the knowledge society, and which would impose in the society economy new technologies, and most important, changes in orientation according to the classic economic thinking.

  1. Handbook on the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This illuminating Handbook presents the state-of-the-art in the scientific field of experience economy studies. It offers a rich and varied collection of contributions that discuss different issues of crucial importance for our understanding of the experience economy. Each chapter reflects diverse...... an insight into how receivers react to experiential elements of experience economy studies. An innovative presentation of experience economics, this is a remarkable collection of new theory and analyses. This book will prove an invaluable resource to researchers and students in management, marketing...... scientific viewpoints from disciplines including management, mainstream economics and sociology to provide a comprehensive overview. The Handbook is divided into three subsections to explore progression in the scientific field of experience economy studies. The first section focuses on fundamental debates...

  2. Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanford, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    .... Iraq's industrial sector was created, in large part, as a result of government efforts to diversify the economy through economic development projects using the proceeds from Iraq's oil wealth and borrowed funds...

  3. Networked Economies | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Search. Two schoolgirls work on a computer at school in Colombia ... artificial intelligence, and digital technologies like sensors are increasingly automating economies. ... Similarly while innovations such as open government data could make ...

  4. Inefficient equilibria in transition economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Guriev

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a general equilibrium in an economy where all market participants face a bid-ask spread. The spread may be caused by indirect business taxes, middlemen rent-seeking, delays in payments or liquidity constraints or price uncertainty. Wherever it comes from the spread causes inefficiency of the market equilibrium. We discuss some institutions that can decrease the inefficiency. One is second currency (barter exchange in the inter-firm transactions. It is shown that the general equilibrium in an economy with second currency is effective though is still different from Arrow–Debreu equilibrium. Another solution can be introduction of mutual trade credit. In the economy with trade credit there are multiple equilibria that are more efficient than original bid-ask spread but still not as efficient as Arrow–Debreu one, too. The implications for firms' integration and applicability to Russian economy are discussed.

  5. Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanford, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    .... This pattern was most pronounced during the recent regime of Saddam Hussein, which was at root a centrally-directed command economy with some trappings of market economics and crony capitalism...

  6. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  7. Growing container seedlings: Three considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2015-01-01

    The science of growing reforestation and conservation plants in containers has continually evolved, and three simple observations may greatly improve seedling quality. First, retaining stock in its original container for more than one growing season should be avoided. Second, strongly taprooted species now being grown as bareroot stock may be good candidates...

  8. Social Economy: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan HOSU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses a topic of interest for both the public sector and the nonprofit sector, namely that of the innovative practices of social economy. Diverse practices and models of social economy are increasingly present in the Romanian community, this being the reason why it is important to study the major coordinates of social economy and social entrepreneurship identified by means of an empirical research done in Romania. Social economy is considered one of the most important innovative strategy approaches as this sector may contribute to some efforts done for the elimination of poverty and the re-launching of local economies. The integration of the identified elements in regional programs and public policies is the starting point of the strategic approaches regarding reform in public administration. Social economy can be an example of joint action for public and private organizations and institutions interested in carrying out community projects based on inclusive, participative and innovative forms of community development.

  9. Reducing SMEs informal economy through institutionalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Lopez Lira Arjona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The informal sector has been growing throughout the last century in emerging economies. Particularly in Latin America, both a long-term instability in economic and political environments, and a continuous migration from rural to urban areas; have triggered the appearance of unregulated businesses and employments. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs operate informally in one or more business processes, in order to reduce costs and maximize profits. Leaving aside tax evasion and illegal labor, such SMEs often have low technology and an unskilled work force; which threatens its survival in highly competitive environments. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact of the Multi National Corporation (MNC and the Academia in the formalization of SMEs. This is aimed through a collaborative model for the institutionalization of operational and managerial knowledge within SMEs. Qualitative results indicate that improvements are triggered by a self-conscious awareness of the value derived from institutionalizing best business practices.

  10. Oil and the political economy of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutinovic, Igor [GfK-Center for Market Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-11-15

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model. (author)

  11. Editorial: Globalisation of Economies and Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Rybkowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At  the  beginning  of  the  21st  century  we  also  experience  some  drawbacks  of globalisation. Yes, it “promotes economic and social advancement”, but the progress is not evenly distributes and not “all peoples” enjoy the benefits of globalisation. Growing interdependency has also brought greater competition,  this time reaching much further that  just  neighbouring  countries. Therefore,  we  decided  to  focus  this  issue  of our  journal  on  exploring  the Globalisation of Economies and Industries. We do hope that the articles presented in this issue  will inspire further research.

  12. Oil and the political economy of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutinovic, Igor

    2009-01-01

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model.

  13. Nuclear legacy. Democracy in a plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, F.

    1997-01-01

    There have already been a few hundred known incidents of nuclear smuggling, mostly of small quantities not close to weapons grade material - but one gram of plutonium is more than sufficient to cause significant harm and to pose a substantial threat. The potential for further thefts is growing as the world produces ever more quantities of plutonium, not only from the dismantling of nuclear weapons but also from the separation out of plutonium from spent uranium nuclear reactor fuel elements. Trying to prevent the theft of gram quantities of plutonium would require levels of protection and surveillance unacceptably high in a democratic society. It is unlikely, therefore, that democracy could survive in a plutonium economy

  14. Oil price fluctuations and the Nigerian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayadi, O.F.

    2005-01-01

    The single most important issue confronting a growing number of world economies today is the price of oil and its attendant consequences on economic output. Several studies have taken the approach of Hamilton (1983) in investigating the effect of oil price shocks on levels of gross domestic product. The focus of this paper is primarily on the relationship between oil price changes and economic development via industrial production. A vector auto regression model is employed on some macroeconomic variables from 1980 through 2004. The results indicate that oil price changes affect real exchange rates, which, in turn, affect industrial production. However, this indirect effect of oil prices on industrial production is not statistically significant. Therefore, the implication of the results presented in this paper is that an increase in oil prices does not lead to an increase in industrial production in Nigeria. (author)

  15. The Challenges of New Product Development in a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    M. O. Oduola; A. M. Yakubu

    2017-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) involves creating a new product from concept to the market. The product could be entirely new or rebranding. It is a critical focus of any production firm. The increase in volume of new competitive products is an indicator of any fast growing production concern. However the challenges that could affect development of a new product in a developing economy include, but not limited to the following: Inadequate infrastructural facilities, lack of funding, low technol...

  16. Measuring the Contribution of Modern Biotechnology to the Canadian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo de Avillez

    2011-01-01

    The role of modern biotechnology in agriculture, medicine, and industry has increased dramatically since the 1970s. Despite its growing importance, few efforts have been made so far to estimate the economic contribution of modern biotechnology to the Canadian economy. This report provides an overview of biotechnology activities in Canada, and, using an income-based approach, estimates that biotechnology activities accounted for approximately $15 billion in 2005, equivalent to 1.19 per cent of...

  17. Sectoral Economies, Economic Contexts, and Attitudes toward Immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancygier, Rafaela M; Donnelly, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Do economic considerations shape attitudes toward immigration? In this article, we consider the relationship between economic interests and immigration preferences by examining how developments in individuals' sectors of employment affect these views. Using survey data across European countries from 2002 to 2009 and employing new measures of industry-level exposure to immigration, we find that sectoral economies shape opinions about immigration. Individuals employed in growing sectors are more likely to support immigration than are those employed in shrinking sectors. Moreover, the economic context matters: Making use of the exogenous shock to national economies represented by the 2008 financial crisis, we show that sector-level inflows of immigrant workers have little effect on preferences when economies are expanding, but that they dampen support for immigration when economic conditions deteriorate and confidence in the economy declines. These sectoral effects remain even when controlling for natives' views about the impact of immigration on the national economy and culture. When evaluating immigration policy, individuals thus appear to take into account whether their sector of employment benefits economically from immigration.

  18. Sectoral Economies, Economic Contexts, and Attitudes toward Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Do economic considerations shape attitudes toward immigration? In this article, we consider the relationship between economic interests and immigration preferences by examining how developments in individuals' sectors of employment affect these views. Using survey data across European countries from 2002 to 2009 and employing new measures of industry-level exposure to immigration, we find that sectoral economies shape opinions about immigration. Individuals employed in growing sectors are more likely to support immigration than are those employed in shrinking sectors. Moreover, the economic context matters: Making use of the exogenous shock to national economies represented by the 2008 financial crisis, we show that sector-level inflows of immigrant workers have little effect on preferences when economies are expanding, but that they dampen support for immigration when economic conditions deteriorate and confidence in the economy declines. These sectoral effects remain even when controlling for natives' views about the impact of immigration on the national economy and culture. When evaluating immigration policy, individuals thus appear to take into account whether their sector of employment benefits economically from immigration. PMID:24363457

  19. Emerging new services for the gas and electricity economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matas, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This article reports on a postgraduate study at the Swiss Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland, addressing the prospects for new energy technologies and their development, according to bankers, industry managers and international organisations. The study merges macro-economic, financial and technological views and focusses especially on electricity and natural gas including cogeneration and decentralised, small and middle-size energy production units. The world energy market is changing pace, moving from various monopolies to a dynamic system, with growing decentralisation and networking. The study reveals that constraints are changing due to the economy globalization as well as to the growing internet-based economy, and that new prospects for the development of promising energy technologies are emerging. The demand for more specific energy products like for example uninterruptible power supplies will stimulate new sectors in the energy economy. Growing environmental concern will also be an important factor for the energy market remodelling. For the gas and electricity markets, a considerable rise in sales is expected

  20. Capacity glut grows despite cancellations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, Fereidoon P.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in the US electricity sector have created a challenging business environment for many players. The factors contributing to the current crisis include excess capacity in many regions amidst a sluggish economy, resulting in low wholesale prices. The situation has been aggravated by lack of investor confidence in the sector following the fall of Enron and subsequent disclosures about accounting and reporting irregularities in major trading companies. (Author)

  1. Doing Business Economy Profile 2017 : Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2017 is the 14th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing...

  2. Competitiveness of chinese socialist market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ernesto Turner Barragán

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the dynamics held by the Chinese economy becomes, since it happened to be a communist to a capitalist economy and social market economy. Being in the latter, in which the country achieved high rates of economic growth, and improve their competitiveness pillars, generating higher growth prospects in the economy and the income of the society.

  3. Doing Business Economy Profile 2017 : Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Uruguay. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2017 is the 14th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing b...

  4. Sustainable degrowth through more amateur economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    (back) from the prof. economy to the amateur economy will be less productive than the prof. economy in terms of output per man hour, but often more 'productive' in generating satisfaction and happiness in the process. Such a shift can create more ultimate benefit (happiness), but less product output......By a simple descriptive model is illustrated how the role of labor input tothe economy will have to revised in a degrowth economy. A destinction is made btween the Professional (GDP) economy, driven by money, and the Amateur economy (voluntary) driven by love. Shifting some economic activities...

  5. Economy or chrematistics: Serbian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Petar M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nations are worth as much as it is worth their economies. In today's global world, people gain or lose independence primarily by how successful their economy is . Of course, freedom and independence of a people is defended in all fields, but the economic success is the key to success to all the rest. A society that is for us and the former socialist countries, termed transition, represents a return to predatory capitalism and the way in hypocritical, orchestrated democracy; it is now the world of lasting evil and bigger injustice that undermine the state and relentlessly pushing them into ,,peripheral capitalism' (Ljubisa Mitrovic. The word 'economy' is of Greek origin and translated into our language it means' skill of housekeeping (economy'. What we habitually continue to call economy in the world today and in Serbia, we can not call the skill of keeping. The term 'economy' has long been superseded, in his place is the term 'chrematistics' also a word of Greek origin that means inserted enrichment. This term in use is introduced by Aristotle. This ancient philosopher emphasized that the economy and chrematistics are antipodes and that chrematistics destructive to society. By its nature, it leads to the destruction of the economy. Practically, it can be called 'destroyers skill of keeping the economy.' Today in the world and Serbia do not have the economy, we have chrematistics (speculation on commodity markets , pyramid schemes, the development of the securities market , games on the stock market ... . Chrematistics the trick word, and that's why we can replace it with the term 'casino-economy.' A new form of monarchy, which is expressed as a new imperialism, is not based on ' cunning mind' (Hegel and the 'spirit of the law' ( Montesquieu , but the 'cunning of the economy', which is dominated by raw (Hobbes laws of the market and where the economy becomes policies. Figure of societies of Eastern Europe, where the neoliberal social

  6. Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  7. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  8. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  9. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  10. Model Year 2018 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-12-07

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  11. Organization of growing random networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-01-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A k . When A k grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N k (t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A k growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A k is asymptotically linear, N k (t)∼tk -ν , with ν dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2 -2 power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network

  12. Working in the informal economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, T

    2000-07-01

    Informal ways of working are widespread and central to the economy and markets. This paper explores what informal economy is and how it could be more valuable for men and women. The informal economy is a mix of the following activities: 1) subsistence work which includes agriculture, marginal economic projects, and unpaid work in the home; 2) informal work which includes unregistered businesses, and illegal or criminal activities; 3) casual production, a sub-contracted or ¿off-the-books¿ work which deprives workers of the benefits tied to recognized employment; and 4) community work and barter. It is shown that more women, when compared to men, work and live on the border between the household and the market economy. Usually men do more technical or mechanized production while women tend to do activities within traditional women's roles. Men and women often have different understanding of what work is. Men consistently underestimate the women's contribution to the household income. To improve this critical issue of gender differences, rules, norms, and laws that cause problems must be identified, and then work can begin with both men and women to change laws and policies, as well as ideas and beliefs about women's contribution to the economy.

  13. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.

  14. China's nuclear technology for economy growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yanxiao

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of nuclear technology to practical applications in energy, agriculture, food, industries and others has made important contributions to the prosperity of the national economy and the improvement of living standard of Chinese people in the past 40 years. Facing the great challenges in upcoming years, sustained efforts are needed to promote industrialization, commercialization and internationalization of nuclear technology. Rapid economic growth is providing the golden opportunities for the development of nuclear technology in China. With the trends to globalization of economic development, civilian applications of nuclear technology will have to be involved in international co-operation and competitive world markets to narrow the gap between China and other developed countries in the world in the next century. (author)

  15. Hazardous waste management in a developing economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladiran, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    Many developing countries are characterised by steady increase in population, low GNP and usually a single-source economy. These countries are principally situated in the 40degN/40degS window. In order to generate more wealth, there is a great desire for rapid industrialisation in these countries. However, modern technologies and processes are often associated with by-products and wastes which can be bulky, toxic, chemically unstable, corrosive, radio active and sometimes, at elevated temperatures. In this paper, a critical survey of the deleterious effects of hazardous wastes on man and environment is presented. Current disposal techniques and management principles are discussed Non-objectionable procedures and regulatory control mechanisms for dealing with these wastes are presented. Finally, the importance of research and development in handling these wastes are also highlighted. (author)

  16. Simulation and Prediction of Decarbonated Development in Tourist Attractions Associated with Low-carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan Luo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of tourism, the development of tourist attractions is gradually playing a crucial role in tourism economy, regional economy and national economy. While tourism economy is stimulated by growing demand, tourist attractions have been facing the situation that ecological environment is becoming fragile and environmental protection is increasingly difficult in China. As low-carbon economy is highlighted more than ever before, how to develop green economy, how to apply theories and technologies, which are related to low-carbon economy, to push forward decarbonation, to protect the ecological environment, and to boost the development of tourism economy have become the core problems for the sustainable development of tourist attractions system. In addition, this system has drawn the attention of scholars and practitioners in recent years. On the basis of low-carbon economy, this paper tries to define the decarbonated development goals and the connotation of tourist attractions system. In addition, it also discusses system structure associated with system dynamics and system engineering, and constructs system simulation model. In the end, a case study is conducted, that is, to predict the development trend of Jiuzhai Valley by adopting the constructed system so as to extend the previous research on low-carbon tourism and to guide the decarbonated development in tourist attractions.

  17. Radiation processing and market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1998-01-01

    In the system of totalitarian economy, regulated by bureaucracy, the real value of equipment, materials and services is almost completely unknown, what makes impossible the comparison of different technologies, eliminates competition, disturbs research and development. With introduction of market economy in Central and Eastern Europe, the radiation processing has lost doubtful support, becoming an independent business, subject to laws of free market economy. Only the most valuable objects of processing have survived that test. At the top of the list are: radiation sterilization of medical equipment and radiation induced crosslinking of polymers, polyethylene in particular. New elements of competition has entered the scene, as well as questions of international regulations and standards have appeared

  18. Optimization in a Networked Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sekreter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An age of network has been living for the last decades. The information technologies have been used by hundreds of millions of users. These technologies are enabling to connect businesses and economic activities. One of the characteristics of the networked economy is the amount of data that produced due to the interlinking of firms, individuals, processes by businesses, and economic activities. Another issue with the networked economy is the complexity of the data. Extraction of the knowledge from the networked economy has challenges by the traditional approach since data is large scale, second decentralized, and third they connect many heterogeneous agents. The challenges can be overcome by the new optimization methods including human element or the social interactions with technological infrastructure.

  19. Overjustification effects in token economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E B

    1979-01-01

    This study tested the relevance to clinical token economies of the overjustification hypothesis that tangible reward interferes with intrinsic interest in target behaviors and causes such behaviors to be less probable following a period of reinforcement than preceding such a period. The study was carried out in an ongoing token economy for chronic psychiatric patients. Alternated over an 8-week period were weeks of token and no-token reward for one of the program's target behaviors, toothbrushing. Two different amounts of token reward were employed in order to examine whether reward magnitude might influence the presence or extent of overjustification effects. Little evidence was found for the presence of overjustification effects in token economies. However, maintenance of toothbrushing was greater in no-token weeks following weeks of low amounts of token reward than in no-token weeks following weeks of higher amounts of reward. The importance of such complex functional relationships is discussed. PMID:511808

  20. Leadership and the Nigerian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E. Dike

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian economy is largely oil-based. Some people would rather say it is a mono-product economy. The economy has been in dire straits over the years, because of a combination of the neglect of education, especially technical and vocational education and science-based technology education, poor leadership and governance, corruption, as well as poor monetary and fiscal policies. All these have made a review of the poor investment in human capital development and infrastructure and institutions that drive the Nigerian economy and national development rather compelling. The political leaders have always raised the people’s hope by painting glowing pictures of their development plans and how they would stimulate the economy and improve the people’s living conditions. Thus, they swore that they would give priority attention to human capital development and national development, and empower the citizens, particularly the poorly educated, unskilled, and unemployed youths, with relevant human skills capital and entrepreneurial skills to enable them to contribute profoundly to national development. Yet the political leaders have, over the years, failed to adequately fund education and strengthen the infrastructure and institutions that would drive the economy and create employment for the teeming population. Both the new-breed politicians, like the old politicians before them, are promising to transform the nation into an industrialized society and the people cannot hold their expectations. The reality though is that Nigeria cannot become an industrialized society without investing abundantly in human capital development (education and health, leadership, and technological capabilities, which means investing in the future development of the nation.

  1. Unlacing the entrepreneurial potential : exploring factors influencing entrepreneurial intention and entrepreneurship education in emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Ian Keith

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that there is a strong correlation between entrepreneurship and economic development and a global movement to promote entrepreneurial action is quickly gaining momentum. In emerging economies entrepreneurship may be of crucial importance. It is believed that “entrepreneurship is the engine that will push the emerging economies forward as the states of the developing world quickly grow to be major economic forces” (Bruton et al., 2008, p. 2), so it is quite surprising that ...

  2. The Transatlantic Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Potofsky

    2006-03-01

    1798, the American debt played a growing role in the disillusionment of the French revolutionaries toward the « Atlantic Revolution. »

  3. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Material demand reduction’. PMID:28461431

  4. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Koen

    2017-06-13

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Koen

    2017-05-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their under-utilized physical assets. Using this definition, the rise of the sharing economy can be understood as occurring at the intersection of three salient economic trends: peer-to-peer exchange, access over ownership and circular business models. I shortly discuss some of the environmental impacts of online sharing platforms and then articulate three possible futures of the sharing economy: a capitalist future cumulating in monopolistic super-platforms allowing for seamless services, a state-led future that shifts taxation from labour to capital and redistributes the gains of sharing from winners to losers, and a citizen-led future based on cooperatively owned platforms under democratic control. The nature and size of the social and environmental impacts are expected to differ greatly in each of the three scenarios. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  6. Product Innovations in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Sarker, Saonee; Rai, Sudhanshu

    2011-01-01

    , such as countries that are not considered “developed.” This study aims at examining how firms innovate in emerging economies. Specifically, we focus on the role of collaborative capacity in product innovations. Primary data collected from an ICT project in India has been used to test the relevant hypotheses......Studies on enterprise innovations have established the relationships between a number of determinants and enterprise innovativeness. However, such studies in general have been conducted in developed economies. Recent literature has called for broadening innovation-related research to other contexts...

  7. The (APolitical Economy of Bitcoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Kostakis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The still raging financial crisis of 2007–2008 has enabled the emergence of several alternative practices concerning the production, circulation and use of money. This essay explores the political economy of the Bitcoin ecosystem. Specifically, we examine the context in which this digital currency is emerging as well as its nature, dynamics, advantages, and disadvantages. We conclude that Bitcoin, a truly interesting experiment, exemplifies "distributed capitalism" and should be mostly seen as a technological innovation. Rather than providing pragmatic answers and solutions to the current views on the financial crisis, Bitcoin provides some useful and timely questions about the principles and bases of the dominant political economy.

  8. Examining the Efforts of a Small, Open Economy to Reduce Carbon Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.; Saaby Pedersen, Morten; Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    emissions by relatively small, open economies. Although, these economies are small players in international markets, international trade has an important influence on their economies. Investigating the outcome of efforts to curb emissions by these small, open economies provides insights into the situation...... faced by a large set of the world's economies. This paper has three objectives: (1) investigate the outcome of Denmark's efforts to reduce its carbon emissions by characterizing the relationship between Denmark's macroeconomic activity and carbon emissions; (2) determine the carbon content of Danish...... trade and document the important effects that growing trade with China has had on Danish consumption emissions; and (3), investigate the robustness of measures of consumption emissions under varying information requirements. Our analysis of the outcomes of Danish efforts to reduce carbon emissions...

  9. Japan’s Growing Technological Capability: Implications for the U.S. Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    lineup of people who understood the problem and were eager to solve it. They included the following: Lionel Olmer, Clyde Pre- stowitz, and William... sequential process steps (of per- haps two dozen or so different but repeated types) to produce the finished device. It might well be thought that in this zase

  10. Is the Scandinavian Way of Organizing Challenged by the Growing Chinese Economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The institutional order of organizing in working life is very different in Scandinavia and China. When Scandinavian and Chinese managers and employees meet in concrete work relations they not only work together on a product they also become engaged in institutional work dealing with the inconsist......The institutional order of organizing in working life is very different in Scandinavia and China. When Scandinavian and Chinese managers and employees meet in concrete work relations they not only work together on a product they also become engaged in institutional work dealing...

  11. Growing apart : the comparative political economy of income inequality and social policy development in affluent countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thewissen, Stefan Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, most OECD countries witnessed a widening of the income distribution. This doctoral thesis collects five studies that provide insight into determinants and political and economic consequences of income inequality and social policy development in affluent countries. The

  12. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Fast-Growing Economies: A Study of BRICS and MINT

    OpenAIRE

    Uduak, Akpan; Salisu, Isihak; Asongu, Simplice A.

    2014-01-01

    This study employs panel analysis to examine the determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Turkey (MINT) using data for eleven years i.e. 2001 – 2011. First, it uses pooled time-series cross sectional analysis to estimate the model on determinants of FDI for three samples: BRICS only, MINT only, and BRICS and MINT combined; then, random effects model is also employed to estimate the model for B...

  13. Balancing natural gas policy : Fueling the demands of a growing economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, R.

    2003-01-01

    In March 2002 a request was made to the National Petroleum Council by the United States Secretary of Energy to examine the potential implications of new supplies, technologies, perceptions of risk on natural gas demand, supplies, and delivery through 2025. In addition, the Secretary was looking for insight on energy market dynamics and an outlook on the longer-term sustainability of natural gas supplies. Ideas on ways to improve the productivity and efficiency of North American natural gas markets while ensuring adequate and reliable supplies of energy for consumers were also requested. Two options were examined by the National Petroleum Council (NPC). The reactive path involves public policies which remain in conflict, while the balanced future involves aligned public policies. It was discovered that 75 per cent of long-term American gas needs will be met by traditional North American producing areas which will be unable to meet projected demand. Production growth is desirable in the Rockies and deepwater Gulf of Mexico, as well as non conventional production. After careful examination, it was determined that demand flexibility and efficiency must be improved, along with an increase in supply diversity. Infrastructure must be enhanced and sustained, and efficient markets must be promoted. All these measures would result in higher economic growth, higher employment, and stronger industrial activity. figs

  14. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  15. Substantial Improvements of Fuel Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper evaluates the scope for improving the energy and environmental impacts of road transport by means of electrical and hybrid propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy compared to equivalent vehicles mas well as beneficial effects for the energy...... and traffic systems. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulation....

  16. Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...

  17. Metal footprint linked to economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Paul J.

    2018-04-01

    The annual quantity of metal being used by humans has been on the rise. A new analysis of 43 major economies reveals the extent to which year-to-year fluctuations in metal footprints have been in lockstep with countries' economic growth and changes in investment spending.

  18. Beacons of the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delica, Kristian Nagel

    2014-01-01

    This essay outlines the boundaries among various interests in the library sector; among positions that prioritize libraries as aesthetically appealing junctions of the experience economy versus positions that prioritize the library as a community forum. The main emphasis is placed on developments...

  19. The political economy of finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2014-01-01

    This survey reviews how recent political economy literature helps to explain variation in governance, competition, funding composition, and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and, unlike time-invariant legal institutions or cultural traits, is

  20. Economy of the depletable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotelling, Harold Traductores Alvarez H Carlos Guillermo; Diaz Serna, F Javier; Olaya A, Alfredo

    2001-01-01

    Classic economic theory is analyzed with respect to the exploitation of renewable natural resources renewable as mining and oil exploitation. The principles of the mining economy and the good path of exploitation are presented under the assumptions of monopoly, duopoly and free competition. Advanced mathematical tools are used for the optimization and the effects of the taxes and the compensatory rates are included

  1. "1968" and the German Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindlar, Ludger

    1997-01-01

    The turning point in the postwar economic development of West Germany was 1973, not 1968. But the massive increase of the world prices for energy in 1973 did not hit an economy with bright prospects for stable growth rates and low inflation. Contrary, the pattern of economic growth of the 1960s was

  2. Transition economies: performance and challenges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švejnar, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2002), s. 3-28 ISSN 0895-3309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : transition economies Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.058, year: 2002 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2696574

  3. Social economy of quality food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to examine the implications of the efforts to promote a quality-oriented economy that incorporates a vision of environmental sustainability and equitable social development. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis builds on a case study of food procurement in Brazil,

  4. Monetary regimes in open economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpos, A.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-country open economy framework for the analysis of strategic interactions among monetary authorities and wage bargaining institutions. From this perspective, the thesis investigates the economic consequences of replacing flexible and fixed exchange rate regimes with a

  5. The Social Economy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the social economy in Europe. Drawing on the most recent statistical data, the paper examines the social economy’s size in different European countries, and current trends and challenges in Europe; it also reviews its status and political context at the EU level. T...

  6. Rebalancing the Eurozone Troubled Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziółkowski Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess how much rebalancing of the six eurozone troubled economies (Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Cyprus was achieved since the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2007/2008, to what extent migrations were a mitigating factor on their labor markets and how much the troubled countries were assisted in their adjustment by other countries. The first part of the article shows an overall macroeconomic picture of the troubled economies' rebalancing together with a presentation of the etiology of the problem (i.e. accumulation of imbalances. The second part presents the role of migrations and the third part the role of the Eurosystem and international financial assistance in the rebalancing process. The research is based on comparing developments in selected indicators across countries. The conclusions are that the rebalancing in the troubled countries was either at most limited or actually their economies continued to fall out of balance (various indicators showing various developments make the situation ambiguous, migrations were either not much supportive for rebalancing of the troubled economies or they did not provide any dent to unemployment at all and that the troubled countries were provided with significant international assistance mainly in the form of the ECB policies causing the rise in the Target balances.

  7. Cheap heat grows in fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2006-01-01

    Slovak farmers resemble the peasants from the film T he Magnificent Seven . They keep complaining about their fate but consider any innovation as an interference. And that is why they still have not started growing fast-growing wood although the number of heating plants processing bio-mass from forests and fields is growing. Natural gas is expensive and coal creates pollution. Energy from biomass is becoming a good business and also creates new business opportunities - growing the raw material it needs. Such heating plants usually use waste from wood processing companies and Slovak Forests (Lesy SR) has also started deliveries of chip wood from old forests. There are plantations of fast growing wood suitable for heat production of over 500-thousand hectares throughout the EU. This is about 10% of Slovakian's area where the first plantations are also already being set up. The first promising plantation project was launched this spring. And this is not a project launched and backed by a big company but a starting up businessman, Miroslav Forgac from Kosice. He founded his company, Forgim, last winter. Without big money involved and thank to a new business idea he managed to persuade farmers to set up the first plantations. He supplied the seedlings and the business has started with 75 ha of plantations around Trnava, Sala, Komarno, Lucenec, Poprad and Kosice. He is gradually signing contracts with other landowners and next year the area of plantations is set to grow by 1500 ha. Plantations of fast growing trees such as willow, poplar and acacia regenerate by new trees growing out of the roots of the old and from cut trees so from one seedling and one investment there can be several harvests. Swedish willows from Forgim regenerate 20 to 25 years after the first planting. And only then new seedlings have to be purchased. Using special machines that even cut the wood to wood chips the plantations can be 'harvested' every three years. Unlike crops, the fields do not

  8. An analysis of social consequences of rapid fertility decline in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Liu, L

    1988-12-01

    Rapid fertility decline in China has brought about 2 direct effects: 1) the natural increase of the population has slowed down, and 2) the age structure has changed from the young to the adult type. These 2 effects have caused a series of economic and social consequences. Rapid fertility decline increases the gross national product per capita and accelerates the improvement of people's lives. Rapid fertility decline slows population growth and speeds up the accumulation of capital and the development of the economy. Since 1981, accumulation growth has exceeded consumption growth. Fertility decline alleviates the enrollment pressure on primary and secondary schools, raises the efficiency of education funds, and promotes the popularization of education. The family planning program strengthens the maternal and child health care and the medical care systems. As the result of economic development, the people's nutritional levels are improving. The physical quality of teenagers has improved steadily. The change in the age structure will alleviate the tension of rapid population growth and benefit population control in the next century. Fertility decline forces the traditional attitude toward childbearing from "more children, more happiness" to improved quality of children. The rapid fertility decline has caused a great deal of concern both inside and outside China about the aging of the population. The labor force, however, will continue to grow for the next 60 years. At present, China's population problems are still those of population growth.

  9. Combine To Create Size or Growing From Small To Big?

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Thian Han

    2013-01-01

    Many companies seek to acquire or merge to grow. Size has always been the underlying rationale for mergers and acquisitions (“M&A”) as the creation of larger entities will purportedly increase the capacity of the entities hence allowing them to take advantage of economies of scale and scope. Another reason for M&A is to create a “portfolio of core competences” by combining and exploiting the core competences of the two entities to create synergy and to enhance the competitive edge for the enl...

  10. Overview of Low-carbon Economy Research

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The paper has a detailed literature review in low-carbon economy research of academy circle in our country from three aspects that are conception and connotation of low-carbon economy, necessity and urgency of developing low-carbon economy and path choice of realizing low-carbon economy in our country. Low-carbon economy is the “green economy†that obtains the maximum output by discharging minimum greenhouse gases with the main characteristics of “three low and three high†that are low ...

  11. The Political Economy of Extraterritoriality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Stephan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Near the end of the 2009 Term the Supreme Court decided Morrison v. Australia National Bank, Ltd., the strongest anti-extraterritoriality opinion it has produced in modern times. Not only is Congress presumed generally to prefer only territorial regulation, but lower courts that had carved out exceptions from this principle over a long period of time must now revisit their positions. Again this year in Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Shell Co. the Court relied on an aggressive use of the presumption against extraterritoriality to cut back on an important field of private litigation. The Court appears to have embraced two related stances: The imposition of barriers to extraterritorial regulation generally advances welfare, and the lower courts cannot be trusted to determine those instances where an exception to this rule might be justified. Implicit in the Court's position are intuitions about the political economy of both legislation and litigation. I want to use the occasion of the Morrison and Kiobel decisions to consider the political economy of extraterritorial regulation by the United States. International lawyers for the most part have analyzed state decisions to exercise prescriptive jurisdiction over extraterritorial transactions in terms of a welfare calculus that determines the likely costs and benefits to the state as a whole. Fewer studies have considered the political economy of the decision whether to regulate foreign transactions. No work of which I am aware has considered the political economy of deciding the extraterritorial question through litigation. This paper seeks to fill these gaps by sketching out what political economy suggests both about extraterritoriality and the role of courts as arbiters of extraterritoriality.

  12. Regional Priorities of Green Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to transforming the economy of Russian regions to a green economy, which is an essential factor for the sustainable development. This is important not only for Russia but the whole world because our country has the great natural capital and provides important environmental services that support the planet biosphere. Based on the analysis of economic, social and ecological statistical data and Human Development Index (HDI we have shown that the development of Russian Federal Districts is very unbalanced and each Russian region has its own way to new economic model. For instance, it is necessary to increase the well-being in the North Caucasus Federal District, it is important to reach higher life expectancy at birth in the Siberian and the Far Eastern Districts. It is necessary to move from the «brown» economy to a green one by using the human capital (building a knowledge economy, by applying Best Available Technologies (Techniques, by investing in efficiency of use of natural resources and by increasing energy efficiency. The transition to a green economy will help to achieve social equity and the development of human potential; it helps to move from the exploitation of non-renewable natural capital to renewable human capital. All these socio-economic measures should give decoupling effect, make risks lower, reduce the exploitation of natural capital, stop the environmental degradation and prevent the ecological crisis. Transition to the green economic model has to be accompanied by new economic development indicators, which take into account social and environmental factors.

  13. Development of a Compendium of Local, Wild-Harvested Species Used in the Informal Economy Trade, Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Petersen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild harvesting has taken place over millennia in Africa. However urbanization and cash economies have effectively altered harvesting from being cultural, traditional, and subsistence activities that are part of a rural norm, to being a subculture of commonly illicit activities located primarily within the urban, cash-based, informal economy. This paper focuses on Cape Town, South Africa where high levels of poverty and extensive population growth have led to a rapidly growing informal industry based on the cultural, subsistence, and entrepreneurial harvesting and consumption of products obtained from the local natural environment. Through a process of literature reviews, database analysis, and key informant interviews, a compendium of harvested species was developed, illustrating the breadth of illicit harvesting of products from nature reserves, public open space, and other commonage within the City. The compendium records 448 locally occurring species (198 animals and 250 plants that are extracted for medicinal, energy, ornamental, sustenance, nursery, and other uses. The sustainability of harvesting is questionable; nearly 70% of all harvested flora and 100% of all collected fauna are either killed or reproductively harmed through the harvesting processes. Furthermore, for the 183 indigenous flora species currently recorded on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List, 28% (51 hold assessments ranging from Declining through to Critically Endangered. With respect to the more poorly assessed fauna (46 spp., approximately 24% (11 have Declining or Threatened status.

  14. Studies and Investigation about the Attitude towards Sustainable Production, Consumption and Waste Generation in Line with Circular Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Simina Lakatos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With a rapidly growing world population and the need to address the issue of consumption of global resource and its associated environmental impacts and other social and economic issues, the demand for a responsible consumption, production and prevention of waste generation become increasingly crucial. With this broad characterization of Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP, businesses based on circular economy should become the norm. With this goal in mind, an online questionnaire survey was performed on a nationwide scale, to explore consumers’ behaviors and attitudes. It was distributed in all four of Romania’s macro-regions and reached 642 respondents. The purpose of the study has been to better understand consumers’ behavior regarding sustainable consumption and production and examine whether generations play a role in responsible consumer attitudes toward the products. Three generations (X, Y, and Z have been examined and compared. The results show that what extent those three generation agree with the environment and the benefits of reducing resource consumption, also waste generation, selective collection, recycling and reuse. However, most of them have not adopted and do not intend to adopt consumer patterns based on the circular economy. The findings provide empirical evidence and directions that could help marketers identify their consumer’s characteristics and market segments and develop consumer empowerment strategies on the Romanian market.

  15. Role for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in the Digital Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, Thomas S [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2007-11-01

    A large, and growing, part of the Nation's economy either serves or depends upon the information technology industry. These high-tech or "digital" enterprises are characterized by a dependence on electronic devices, need for completely reliable power supply, and intolerance to any power quality problems. In some cases these enterprises are densely populated with electronic loads and have very high energy usage per square foot. Serving these enterprises presents both electric power and equipment cooling challenges. Traditional electric utilities are often hard-pressed to deliver power that meets the stringent requirements of digital customers, and the economic and social consequences of a service quality or reliability problem can be large. New energy delivery and control options must be developed to effectively serve a digital economy. This report explores how distributed energy resources, partnerships between utility and customer to share the responsibility for service quality, innovative facility designs, higher energy efficiencies and waste-heat utilization can be coupled to meet the needs of a growing digital economy.

  16. Soil and land management in a circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, A M; Lijzen, J P A; Maring, L

    2018-05-15

    This article elaborates the role of soil and land management in a circular economy. The circular economy is highly dependent on the functioning of soils and land for the production of food and other biomass; the storage, filtration and transformation of many substances including water, carbon, and nitrogen; the provision of fresh mineral resources and fossil fuels; and the use of their functions as the platform for nature and human activities. Resource demand is increasing as a result of the growing human population. In addition to the shrinking availability of resources resulting from their unsustainable use in the past, our planet's diminishing potential for resource production, due to a range of reasons, is leading to resource scarcity, especially in the case of depletable resources. As an economic system that focuses on maximizing the reuse of resources and products and minimizing their depreciation, the circular economy greatly influences, and depends on, soil and land management. The concise management of the resources, land and soil is thus necessary, to make a circular economy successful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  18. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  19. Growing Crystals on the Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method of studying growing crystals in a classroom utilizing a carrousel projector standing vertically. A saturated salt solution is placed on a slide on the lens of the projector and the heat from the projector causes the water to evaporate and salt to crystalize. (Author/DS)

  20. Agglomerative clustering of growing squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castermans, Thom; Speckmann, Bettina; Staals, Frank; Verbeek, Kevin; Bender, M.A.; Farach-Colton, M.; Mosteiro, M.A.

    2018-01-01

    We study an agglomerative clustering problem motivated by interactive glyphs in geo-visualization. Consider a set of disjoint square glyphs on an interactive map. When the user zooms out, the glyphs grow in size relative to the map, possibly with different speeds. When two glyphs intersect, we wish

  1. Inferences from growing trees backwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate how longitudinal stress wave techniques can be useful in tracking the future quality of a growing tree. Monitoring the quality of selected trees in a plantation forest could provide early input to decisions on the effectiveness of management practices, or future utilization options, for trees in a plantation. There will...

  2. The Political Economy of Crisis and the Crisis of Political Economy: The Challenge of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Murdock

    2015-10-01

    Recent developments in the organisation of capitalism have given renewed urgency to critical political economy’s core concern with the shifting relations between capital, state and civil society and placed issues around communications and culture at the centre of debate. Successive responses to the crisis of capitalism in the 1970s and the 2008 financial crisis have extended marketization, consolidated corporate control over public culture, displaced and casualised labour, escalated product promotion, placed consumption fuelled by personal debt at the centre of models of growth, and generated rapidly widening inequalities in access and agency. At the same time, the political instabilities following the end of the Cold War have licenced a move from selective to saturation surveillance that has given the major capitalist states unprecedented entry into intimate life. The critical political economy culture and communications has seized the moment and produced powerful accounts and critiques of these shifts and their implications for democratic life. The first part of the paper offers a critical overview of this work. With some notable exceptions however, critical political economies of communications have not fully incorporated the climate crisis into their analyses. Yet communication systems, particularly digital systems, are central to the unfolding climate crisis, not simply as central spaces of public information (and misinformation and debate, but as arrays of infrastructures and machines that consume resources and power and foster patterns of use and disposal that exacerbate problems of waste and pollution and reinforce patterns of inequality, with those least able to cope likely to be the most affected. The second part of the paper expands on this argument The third and final part follows the implications of this analysis through arguing that critical communications policy not only needs to address the problem of curbing corporate and state abuses of control

  3. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  4. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  5. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  6. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  7. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  8. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  9. [The influence of the economy in the fight to save TCM in Republic of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Tang, Qiao-Ling; Zhang, Hui-Min

    2011-09-01

    Influenced by national nihilism in modern times, many people do not recognize Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Its economic value and social economic support played an important role in the victory of the fight for TCM in the period of the Republic of China. Meanwhile, the education, clinical practice and administration of TCM during the period of Republic of China were all under the constraint of economy. Analysis of the economy's impact on the development of TCM is of practical value. Related to the national economy and the people's livelihood, TCM could be considered both as an important component of national economy and as a state investment. Only when the relationship between TCM and social economy is emphasized and handled well, could the national health industry be rapidly developed.

  10. The economy of the soviet Tuva: achievements, challenges and lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Begzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Soviet period (1944-1991, the economy of Tuva was rapidly developing. Massive state investment helped create enterprises and whole branches of industry, which in turn outlined the areas of economy Tuva could specialize in. Indicators of regional economic development were higher than the national average. The industrial infrastructure created over the period, including transport, power engineering and technologies, has been since used for several decades without major renovations. However, the smooth function of the regional economy could be guaranteed only under directive planning and stringent control over prices, flows of resources, goods and other assets of planned Socialist economy. Together with other specific features of its economy, this made the economy of the region highly volatile. A breakdown of both economic achievements of the Soviet Tuva and the problems it faced will help us learn the lessons to be accounted for while developing new long-term development programs. Although the programmatic documents adopted in early 2000s (such as the Strategy of social and economic development of the Republic of Tuva to the year 2020, passed in 2007 have not yet expired, the economic situation and the configuration of the main economic actors have seriously changed, which calls for a radical overhaul of the long-term strategy of social and economic development. Some problems which have been around since the Soviet times have grown more acute, while others were replaced by their opposites. The revenue section of the region’s consolidated budget, just as it was in the Soviet period, cannot fully provide the required social expenditures. At the same time, the majority of Soviet mechanisms of economic development are now totally dysfunctional, which calls for the use of new organizational and financial instruments. The article was based on the data from official statistical collections of the Republic of Tuva, and the information found in

  11. Revamping Nigerian Economy through Cassava Production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    2017-04-28

    The main kernel of this paper is on revamping Nigerian economy through cassava .... in his book Action Oriented Process of Indigenous Participatory Network (2000) .... https://www.reference.com/worldnew/national-economy on April 28, 2017.

  12. Competition Policies in Emerging Economies: Lessons and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    30 juil. 2008 ... Do small developing economies, or SDEs, need a specific competition policy to ... to promote competition and business creation, yet the economic and ... in Emerging Economies features in-depth analysis of two strategic ...

  13. Labor reallocation and firm growth: Benchmarking transition countries against mature market economies

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Pradeep; Muravyev, Alexander; Schaffer, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses firm-level survey data to study labor reallocation and firm growth in the transition countries over 1996 - 2005, including benchmarking against developed market economies. The data shows rapid growth of the new private sector and of the micro- and small-firm sectors, with the size distribution of firms moving towards the pattern observed in comparable surveys of developed market economies. Throughout, the regional patterns suggest greater convergence in the transition countrie...

  14. Corruption, public finances, and the unofficial economy

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Simon; Kaufmann, Daniel; Zoido-Lobaton, Pablo

    1999-01-01

    The authors found that, in post-communist economies, the unofficial economy's share of GDP is determined by the extent of control rights held by bureaucrats and politicians. Exploring in detail the role of taxation and bribery, and using data from an expanded data set of 49 Latin American, OECD, and transition economies, the authors find that the unofficial economy accounts for a larger share of GDP where there is great bureaucratic inefficiency and discretion, and where firms experience a gr...

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL IMPERATIVE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Кozlova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the factors influencing agricultural production towards global market. The study consists basic fundamental imperatives of globalization on the agricultural sector in international economic relations. The article analyzes the strategic priorities of the international agricultural sector, which includes financial and credit support, legal aspects, processes and integration of organizational structures. Technological imperatives require a large structural and institutional turn in the Ukrainian economy on the basis of current trends in the global economy, scientific and technical potential. There is a growing importance of organizing and conducting international level in the field of technological forecasting. This type of prediction is considered as backbone component in strategic forecasting and economic development programming.

  16. LABOUR RELATIONS IN POSTINDUSTRIAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Rostislavovitch Chistyakov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with inadequacy of present-day labour relations in economy. Out of date form of labour relations makes workforce dependable, causes social inequality, prevents economical development. The article gives results of theoretical and empiric research. The mechanism of guaranteed reproduction of labour to be realized as social partnership is offered.Purpose: the purpose is to give critical estimation of present-day labour relations in postindustrial economy.Method of studies: monographic, general theoretic economic analysis, correlation statistic analysisResults: a new modern adequate alternative form of labour relations guarantying the reproduction of labour is introducedField of application: industrial regulation both in economics in general and concrete businesses; motivation of workers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-29

  17. From Enclave to Linkage Economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.

    as the enclave economy par excellence, moving in with fully integrated value chains, extracting resources and exporting them as commodities having virtually no linkages to the local economy. However, new opportunities for promoting linkages are offered by changing business strategies of local African enterprises...... as well as foreign multinational corporations (MNCs). MNCs in extractives are increasingly seeking local linkages as part of their efficiency, risk, and asset-seeking strategies, and linkage programmes are becoming integral elements in many MNCs’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities....... At the same time, local African enterprises are eager to, and increasingly capable of, linking up to the foreign investors in order to expand their activities and acquire technology, skills and market access. The changing strategies of MNCs and the improving capabilities of African enterprises offer new...

  18. Business cycles in oil economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and 'structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon

  19. Availability Cascades & the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    attention. This conceptual paper attempts to explain the emergent focus on the sharing economy and associated business and consumption models by applying cascade theory. Risks associated with this behavior will be especially examined with regard to the sustainability claim of collaborative consumption......In search of a new concept that will provide answers to as to how modern societies should not only make sense but also resolve the social and environmental problems linked with our modes of production and consumption, collaborative consumption and the sharing economy are increasingly attracting....... With academics, practitioners, and civil society alike having a shared history in being rather fast in accepting new concepts that will not only provide business opportunities but also a good conscience, this study proposes a critical study of the implications of collaborative consumption, before engaging...

  20. Dismantling the Cold War economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markusen, A.; Yudkin, J.

    1992-01-01

    End-of-the-Cold-War economic realities include political jockeying over the future of weapons systems, a paucity of meaningful conversion efforts, and a suspicion that a weak economy will be unable to compensate for the loss of jobs and purchasing power as defense budgets are reduced. The authors of this book present three interrelated hypotheses: The first is that the existence of a large military production sector has depleted the civilian economy of key resources and has preempted creation of the kind of broad-base civilian-oriented industrial policies needed for economic revitalization. The second is that a large military production sector creates barriers to the movement of resources. The third is that economic depletion and the barriers to moving resources to civilian production make conversion planning essential. This book explains why conversion is difficult, but offers only a few pages of specific conversion proposals

  1. Privacy in the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Etter, Michael; Lutz, Christoph

    ’s digital services through providing recommendations to Europe’s institutions. The initial stage of this research project involves a set of three literature reviews of the state of research on three core topics in relation to the sharing economy: participation (1), privacy (2), and power (3). This piece...... is a literature review on the topic of privacy. It addresses key privacy challenges for different stakeholders in the sharing economy. Throughout, we use the term "consumers" to refer to users on the receiving end (e.g., Airbnb guests, Uber passengers), "providers" to refer to users on the providing end (e.......g., Airbnb hosts, Uber drivers) and "platforms" to refer to the mediating sites, apps and infrastructures matching consumers and providers (e.g., Airbnb, Uber)....

  2. Circular economy and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article first recalls what circular economy is, and its main principles (sustainable supply, eco-design, industrial and territorial ecology, economy of function rather than of possession, extension of product lifetime, recycling). It outlines its different benefits: improved resilience, inclusion of all actors of the territory, creation of local jobs, a global vision. In the next part, the nuclear industry is presented as a pioneer in this respect through various trends and developments: closure of the fuel cycle and saving of uranium and energy in the upstream part, reduction of wastes in the downstream part, exploitation of plants on a longer term, management of the production of conventional wastes, reduction of energy consumption, evolution of the doctrine in terms of management of very low level radioactive wastes

  3. Heroes of the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    they themselves envisage their futures. The thesis looks behind the mirror cabinet of policy making and aims to better grasp the work and personal investments of Indian youth in creating the imaginaries we rely on globally, when we envision the global knowledge economy. The thesis is as such an account......The Indian engineering student has both nationally and globally come to symbolize the advent of a global knowledge economy. Indian engineering students are depicted in policy documents and popular media as important protagonists that will take India into the this promising future. This thesis...... is a study of these Indian ‘heroes’. It is based on ethnographic fieldwork in an iconic site for their production, the top Indian engineering university, the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, and it aims to understand how students engage in the creation of both their own and national – even global...

  4. On-Road Validation of a Simplified Model for Estimating Real-World Fuel Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeff; Jehlik, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    On-road fuel economy is known to vary significantly between individual trips in real-world driving conditions. This work introduces a methodology for rapidly simulating a specific vehicle's fuel economy over the wide range of real-world conditions experienced across the country. On-road test data collected using a highly instrumented vehicle is used to refine and validate this modeling approach. Model accuracy relative to on-road data collection is relevant to the estimation of 'off-cycle credits' that compensate for real-world fuel economy benefits that are not observed during certification testing on a chassis dynamometer.

  5. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Honduras. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  6. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Singapore. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it....

  7. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Venezuela, RB

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Venezuela RB. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain ...

  8. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Iceland. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. E...

  9. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Grenada

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Grenada. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. E...

  10. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Ethiopia. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  11. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Slovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Slovak Republic. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constra...

  12. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 thro...

  13. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Croatia. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 throug...

  14. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Chile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Chile In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through M...

  15. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016 : Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Australia. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it....

  16. Corporate Communication in the Network Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Kristensen, Tore; Wilke, Ricky

    This paper draws on ideas in economics and game theory to develop a new theory of marketing and corporate communication in the emerging network economy. We argue that in a network economy, firms and consumers will confront `coordination problems.' With the emerging network economy all this become...

  17. Doing Business Economy Profile 2016 : Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Afghanistan. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain i...

  18. Unraveling the Shift to the Entrepreneurial Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Audretsch (David); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA recent literature has emerged providing compelling evidence that a major shift in the organization of the developed economies has been taking place: away from what has been characterized as the managed economy towards the entrepreneurial economy. In particular, the empirical evidence

  19. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Taiwan, China

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Taiwan. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through...

  20. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Marshall Islands. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 20...

  1. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel Economy Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel economy compliance information for light duty vehicles. Data is collected by EPA to certify compliance with the applicable fuel economy provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) and The Energy Independent Security Act of 2007

  2. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  3. Closing small open economy models

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt-Grohe, Stephanie; Uribe, Martín

    2001-01-01

    The small open economy model with incomplete asset markets features a steady state that depends on initial conditions and equilibrium dynamics that possess a random walk component. A number of modifications to the standard model have been proposed to induce stationarity. This paper presents a quantitative comparison of these alternative approaches. Five different specifications are considered: (1) A model with an endogenous discount factor (Uzawa-type preferences); (2) A model with a debt-ela...

  4. Latinos in the Credit Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    Access to consumer credit as a means of building wealth is one of the least examined forms of social inequality. The recent economic crisis in the United States has brought attention to the significance of consumer credit in our nation's economy; however, less understood are the specific obstacles and barriers that prevent low-income individuals from reaching the "American Dream." In an exploratory manner, this study compared credit access, credit literacy, and credit experience of low-income...

  5. Fusion power economy of scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    In the next 50 yr, the world will need to develop hundreds of gigawatts of non-fossil-fuel energy sources for production of electricity and fuels. Nuclear fusion can probably provide much of the required energy economically, if large single-unit power plants are acceptable. Large power plants are more common than most people realize: There are already many multiple-unit power plants producing 2 to 5 GW(electric) at a single site. The cost of electricity (COE) from fusion energy is predicted to scale as COE ∼ COE 0 (P/P 0 ) -n , where P is the electrical power, the subscript zero denotes reference values, and the exponent n ∼ 0.36 to 0.7 in various designs. The validity ranges of these scalings are limited and need to be extended by future work. The fusion power economy of scale derives from four interrelated effects: improved operations and maintenance costs; scaling of equipment unit costs; a geometric effect that increases the mass power density; and reduction of the recirculating power fraction. Increased plasma size also relaxes the required confinement parameters: For the same neutron wall loading, larger tokamaks can use lower magnetic fields. Fossil-fuel power plants have a weaker economy of scale than fusion because the fuel costs constitute much of their COE. Solar and wind power plants consist of many small units, so they have little economy of scale. Fission power plants have a strong economy of scale but are unable to exploit it because the maximum unit size is limited by safety concerns. Large, steady-state fusion reactors generating 3 to 6 GW(electric) may be able to produce electricity for 4 to 5 cents/kW·h, which would be competitive with other future energy sources. 38 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Tax incentives in emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Brodzka, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Emerging economies have introduced tax incentives for various reasons. In some countries in transition, such instruments may be seen as a counterweight to the investment disincentives inherent in the general tax system. In other countries, the incentives are intended to offset other disadvantages that investors may face, such as a lack of infrastructure, complicated and antiquated laws, bureaucratic complexities and weak administration. The article brings closer the issue of tax incentives of...

  7. Tourist product in experience economy

    OpenAIRE

    Stasiak Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The turn of the 20th and 21st c. was marked by the development of experience economy, in which the basic commodities are not specific products, but the customers’ emotions, impressions and experiences. Tourism has always been a particular “holiday experience industry”. In recent years, however, the importance of the conscious creation of emotional tourism products has become even greater; we may observe continuous efforts to multiply and intensify tourism experience. The key activities to ach...

  8. Gig economy, rating, labour relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Pacella

    2017-01-01

    In the era of gig economy, the job performance is now influenced by the customer rating system. A new London’s Employment Tribunal judgment approaches the Uber London issue focusing also on customer feedback. Since drivers are qualified as workers, not self-employed, as the English Court ruled on, this article tooks a position about on-line feedback incidence on job relationship. Referring to customer’s opinion, the employer exercises control on services performed by each worker, whereas Ital...

  9. NAFTA and the Mexican Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-04

    its loans. Then President Miguel de la Madrid took steps to open and liberalize the Mexican economy and initiated procedures to replace import...capita income in countries. 24 Lessons from NAFTA, 2005. 25 Economia , “NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time...Easterly, Norbert Fiess, and Daniel Lederman, Economia , “NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little Time,” Fall 2003. The

  10. Millennium bim managing growing demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Francisca Barbosa Malpique de Paiva

    2014-01-01

    Millennium bim, the Mozambican operation of Millennium bcp group, was the Company selected to serve as background for the development of a teaching case in Marketing. This case is followed by a teaching note, and is intended to be used as a pedagogical tool in undergraduate and/or graduate programs. Even though Mozambique is still characterized by high financial exclusion, the number of people entering within the banking industry has been growing at a fast pace. Actually, the demand for fi...

  11. Political Economy: Success or Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Frey

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Political Economy and Public Choice approaches have promoted the study of interactions between the economy and the polity for over 60 years now. The present paper endeavours to provide a critical discussion of this literature and its achievements. In particular, it begins with the different approaches based on empirically tested or politometric models and it then proceeds to discuss different studies of the effects that particular rules of the game have on politico-economic outcomes. The third section of the paper will address studies that take institutions to be endogenous and aims to explain why particular institutions emerge. Finally, the question of whether Political Economy has been a success or a failure will be tackled. While the success in terms of the position it has gained in economic research and teaching is undeniable, a look at one of the most thriving recent areas of economics, happiness research, will reveal that some of its fundamental lessons are all too often disregarded.

  12. Political economy of population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

    1987-01-01

    Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates.

  13. Light-duty vehicle fuel economy improvements, 1979--1998: A consumer purchase model of corporate average fuel economy, fuel price, and income effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, David Michael

    2000-10-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, which created fuel economy standards for automobiles and light trucks, was passed by Congress in response to the rapid rise in world oil prices as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. The standards were first implemented in 1978 for automobiles and 1979 for light trucks, and began with initial standards of 18 MPG for automobiles and 17.2 MPG for light trucks. The current fuel economy standards for 1998 have been held constant at 27.5 MPG for automobiles and 20.5 MPG for light trucks since 1990--1991. While actual new automobile fuel economy has almost doubled from 14 MPG in 1974 to 27.2 MPG in 1994, it is reasonable to ask if the CAFE standards are still needed. Each year Congress attempts to pass another increase in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard and fails. Many have called for the abolition of CAFE standards citing the ineffectiveness of the standards in the past. In order to determine whether CAFE standards should be increased, held constant, or repealed, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the CAFE standards to date must be established. Because fuel prices were rising concurrently with the CAFE standards, many authors have attributed the rapid rise in new car fuel economy solely to fuel prices. The purpose of this dissertation is to re-examine the determinants of new car fuel economy via three effects: CAFE regulations, fuel price, and income effects. By measuring the marginal effects of the three fuel economy determinants upon consumers and manufacturers choices, for fuel economy, an estimate was made of the influence of each upon new fuel economy. The conclusions of this dissertation present some clear signals to policymakers: CAFE standards have been very effective in increasing fuel economy from 1979 to 1998. Furthermore, they have been the main cause of fuel economy improvement, with income being a much smaller component. Furthermore, this dissertation has suggested that fuel prices have

  14. On sustainable development of population and national economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X

    1995-01-01

    This article offers a strategy for achieving sustainable development of population and the national economy in China. It is argued that economic growth and population growth must be in balance and coordinated. In 1993 it was estimated that a national economic growth rate of 4.03-4.60% was needed in order to balance the natural population growth rate of 1.15% at the existing standard of living. When the national economy grows faster than population in the life expectancy time period, overpopulation can be checked. Population must be balanced with sufficient means for subsistence. The key measure of sustainable development is the ratio between the size of the working-age population and the means of production. The number of people in the labor force is positively related to fixed assets and negatively related to the labor force's technical equipment. China's problems include weak industrial fixed assets, a surplus labor force, and slow growth in industrial and agricultural productivity. Potential solutions are to shift employment from a cultivation-oriented rural economy to a diversified rural economy, to increase the pace of change to an industrial and commercial economy, and to increase the pace of change to nonmaterial production and to raising employment efficiency. Solutions are dependent upon improvement in the quality of population, which means increased levels of education. China still has 181,610,00 people who are illiterate or semi-illiterate among the working-age population. Sustainable development also relies on active promotion of social support for the elderly by a pension system, family support, and reemployment of the elderly. Surplus labor should be absorbed by the service industry. Population structure and economic development are more advanced in coastal areas that have 41% of total population. Inland areas should develop labor-intensive, technology-intensive, and investment-intensive industries. Northwest areas need an educated population

  15. FDI from Emerging Economies in EU27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, Björn

    This paper scrutinizes FDI from a wide range of emerging economies (including newly industrializing Asian countries, Latin American countries and East European transition economies) that adopted different growth models in the past. The overarching research question of this paper is to which...... the integration of firms from different emerging economies via FDI into the global economy is linked to technological upgrading. We assume that technology seeking in advanced economies should be reflected in the relevance of particular location factors such as knowledge spillover. We analyses a large firm level...

  16. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  17. Wind in the future hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, P.

    2006-01-01

    Converting to a hydrogen economy will only be sustainable and have a positive impact on the environment if the fuel source for the hydrogen production is from a renewable or GHG free fuel source. Wind energy is of particular interest as a potential energy source for hydrogen production. It is modular, abundant and competitive and is far from fully exploited around the globe. Transmission constraints are however the current bottle neck to fully exploiting this resource. Producing electrolytic hydrogen from wind energy in transmission constraint areas will allow for better utilization of the available wind energy and transmission resources. The type of hydrogen storage and transportation option chosen and the size of the facilities will be the crucial factors in determining the relative cost competitiveness of a wind / hydrogen facility verses traditional hydrogen production from fossil fuels. With fossil fuel prices at record highs and the traditional demand for hydrogen growing (oil refining, ammonia production) and the fact that the world has entered a GHG constraint era the need to explore large scale wind / hydrogen production facilities has never been more urgent. (author)

  18. The Challenges for the Multilateral Trading System Raised by the Ongoing Structural Transformations in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, international trade has been growing faster than global production, steadily increasing interdependence among nations. Sustained trade growth has been accompanied by profound changes in the patterns of trade flows, reflecting new production structures emerging under the impact of rapid progress in the development of transport, communications and information technologies, major shifts in the patterns of demand, rapid expansion of global production networks, and increasing integration of developing countries into the world economy. While global trade relations experienced a dramatic transformation during the last decade, the multilateral trading system and the WTO – the venue for international trade cooperation – failed to keep pace with the rapidly changing trade environment. Consequently, the world trade rule-book that is currently guiding international trade relations as a result of the Uruguay Round (1986-1994 and the creation of the WTO (in 1995 is stuck in the requirements of 20st century trade. Improving and adjusting multilateral trade rules and disciplines ranked among the main objectives of the Doha Round launched in 2001. However, trade negotiations have been stalled since 2008. And with this impasse, the legislative function of the WTO responsible for the elaboration of new rules has been also blocked, hindering thus the process of adjustment. This paper addresses the main challenges confrunting the multilateral trading system both in the long and short-term in its endeavour to adjust to the new realities of 21st century trade. More specifically, it takes a look at the key problems arising for international cooperation in trade from: (1 the continually shifting weight of economic power and influence within the world economy; (2 the dynamic spread of global production networks operated by TNCs; and (3 the explosion of regionalism and preferential trade agreements. Finally, the paper highlights the vital

  19. Measuring the informal economy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saunders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the size of the South African informal economy has received inadequate attention, making it difficult for policy-makers to assess the impact of policy measures to stimulate informal economic activity. This article aims to estimate the size of the informal economy by using the Currency Demand Approach.  The empirical results reveal that the informal economy as a percentage of GDP decreased from 1967 to 1993, before levelling off.  The growth in the informal econmy has also underperformed in comparison to formal economic growth. There appears to be a causal relationship running from the informal to the formal economy. Macro-economic policies aimed at the formal economy will not necessarily 'trickle down' to the informal, while these polcies aimed at the informal economy may have a profound effect on the formal economy.

  20. Dental implants in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of teeth by implants is usually restricted to patients with completed craniofacial growth. The aim of this literature review is to discuss the use of dental implants in normal growing patients and in patients with ectodermal dysplasia and the influence of maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental growth on the stability of those implants. It is recommended that while deciding the optimal individual time point of implant insertion, the status of skeletal growth, the degree of hypodontia, and extension of related psychological stress should be taken into account, in addition to the status of existing dentition and dental compliance of a pediatric patient.

  1. Torsion of a growing shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Manzhirov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The torsion of a shaft by rigid disks is considered. The shaft has the form of circular cylinder. Two rigid disks are attached to its end faces. The process of continuous growth of such shaft under the influence of twisting torques applied to the disks is studied. Dual series equations which reflect the mathematical content of the problem at the different stages of the growing process are derived and solved. Results of the numerical analysis and singularities of the qualitative mechanical behaviour of the fundamental characteristics are discussed.

  2. Growing energy demand - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Often they can help the public and its representatives to understand the likely causes of events (such as natural and technological disasters) and to estimate the possible effects of projected policies. Often they can testify to what is not possible. Even so, scientists can seldom bring definitive answers to matters of public debate. Some issues are too complex to fit within the current scope of science, or there may be little reliable information available, or the values involved may lie outside of science. Scientists and technologists strive to find an answer to the growing energy demand

  3. Transition towards Circular Economy in the Food System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Jurgilevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing population and increased demand for food, inefficient resource use and food distribution, environmental impacts, and high rates of food wasted at all stages of the food system are all calling for transition towards more sustainable practices. In this article we apply the concept of circular economy to the case of a sustainable food system. Furthermore, we explore the transition towards a circular food system through the lens of socio-technical transition theory towards sustainability. We discuss challenges and potential solutions for the production stage (focusing on nutrient flow, the consumption stage (focusing on meat consumption, and food waste and surplus management and prevention.

  4. Historical Improvement in Speed Skating Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhof, Dionne A; van Tok, Elmy; Joosten, Florentine S J G M; Hettinga, Florentina J; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Foster, Carl; de Koning, Jos J

    2017-02-01

    Half the improvement in 1500-m speed-skating world records can be explained by technological innovations and the other half by athletic improvement. It is hypothesized that improved skating economy is accountable for much of the athletic improvement. To determine skating economy in contemporary athletes and to evaluate the change in economy over the years. Contemporary skaters of the Dutch national junior team (n = 8) skated 3 bouts of 6 laps at submaximal velocity, from which skating economy was calculated (in mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 ). A literature search provided historic data on skating velocity and submaximal V̇O 2 (in mL ・ kg -1 ・ min -1 ), from which skating economy was determined. The association between year and skating economy was determined using linear-regression analysis. Correcting the change in economy for technological innovations resulted in an estimate of the association between year and economy due to athletic improvement. A mean (± SD) skating economy of 73.4 ± 6.4 mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 was found in contemporary athletes. Skating economy improved significantly over the historical time frame (-0.57 mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 ・ y -1 , 95% confidence interval [-0.84, -0.31]). In the final regression model for the klapskate era, with altitude as confounder, skating economy improved with a nonsignificant -0.58 mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 ・ y -1 ([-1.19, 0.035]). Skating economy was 73.4 ± 6.4 mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 in contemporary athletes and improved over the past ~50 y. The association between year and skating economy due to athletic improvement, for the klapskate era, approached significance, suggesting a possible improvement in economy over these years.

  5. POWER-SHIFTS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY. TRANSITION TOWARDS A MULTIPOLAR WORLD ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IGNAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the new realities and trends related to the new polarity of the global economy, and thus the reconfiguration of global power centers, a process characterized by two simultaneous trends: the rise of new powers and the relative decline of traditional powers. At the beginning of 21st century, global power is suffering two major changes: on the one hand it manifests a transition from West to East, from Atlantic to the Asia-Pacific, and on the other hand, a diffusion from state to non-state actors. Current global economic power has a multipolar distribution, shared between the United States, European Union, Japan and BRICs, with no balance of power between these poles, opposed by the strong ambition of rising countries, China especially, China that rivals the traditional powers represented by the developed countries. The evolution of the main macroeconomic indicators given by the most important global organizations, shows a gradual transition towards a multipolar world. Therefore, the United States is and will remain for a long period of time the global economic leader. However, as China, India and Brazil are growing rapidly, and Russia is looking for lost status, the world is becoming multipolar.

  6. Emission policies and the Nigerian economy. Simulations from a dynamic applied general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwaobi, Godwin Chukwudum

    2004-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing concern that human activities may be affecting the global climate through growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG). Such warming could have major impacts on economic activity and society. For the Nigerian case, the study uses multisector dynamic applied general equilibrium model to quantify the economy-wide, distributional and environmental costs of policies to curb GHG emissions. The simulation results indicate effectiveness of carbon tax, tradable permit and backstop technology policies in curbing GHG emissions but with distorted economy-wide income distributional effects. However, the model was found to be sensitive to three key exogenous variable and parameters tested: lower GDP growth rate, changed interfuel substitution elasticity and autonomous energy efficiency factor. Unlike the first test, the last two tests only had improved environmental effect but stable economy wide effect. This then suggest that domestic energy conservation measures could be a second best alternative

  7. The European Economy: From a Linear to a Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Bonciu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For quite some time a profound preoccupation for many economists, politicians, environmentalists, sociologists or philosophers looking towards the coming decades consisted in searching for a new paradigm of development and growth that is feasible within the given limits of planet Earth. There are already widely accepted concepts like “sustainable development” or “low-carbon economy” that seem right but not enough. Such concepts seem to address the effects and not the causes. In this paper we analyze a broader approach that places human activity into a long term historical perspective, namely the circular economy. This new development paradigm, supported by the European Union, is, in fact, an “old” one moved upwards on a dialectical spiral so that it connects and resonates with the spirit and realities of our times. The conclusions reflect optimism concerning the success in large scale implementation of the circular economy concept in the European Union and worldwide and thus in taking advantage of opportunities rather than wasting resources by opposing the ineluctable changes.

  8. The Net Contribution of Nuclear Power to the National Economy in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Manki; Kim, Seung-su; Lee, Jong Hee; Kim, Soo-eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The objective of the study is to quantify the net contribution of nuclear power to the national economy in Korea focusing on the operating phase of nuclear power. This study is to see what would have happened to the Korean national economy, if all the nuclear power had been completely replaced with its substitute, coal power, providing a mechanism addressing a possible feedback between price and output on a national economy, triggered by the structural change in power sector. The role of nuclear power is estimated to be significant in terms of total output, GDP, price level, and labor employment in Korean economy. The net contribution of nuclear power estimated in this study can be recognized as positive externalities of nuclear power, which can be used to balance between positive externalities and negative externalities in the estimation of social cost of nuclear power, on which public concerns are substantially growing in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear power accident in Japan.

  9. The Net Contribution of Nuclear Power to the National Economy in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Manki; Kim, Seung-su; Lee, Jong Hee; Kim, Soo-eun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to quantify the net contribution of nuclear power to the national economy in Korea focusing on the operating phase of nuclear power. This study is to see what would have happened to the Korean national economy, if all the nuclear power had been completely replaced with its substitute, coal power, providing a mechanism addressing a possible feedback between price and output on a national economy, triggered by the structural change in power sector. The role of nuclear power is estimated to be significant in terms of total output, GDP, price level, and labor employment in Korean economy. The net contribution of nuclear power estimated in this study can be recognized as positive externalities of nuclear power, which can be used to balance between positive externalities and negative externalities in the estimation of social cost of nuclear power, on which public concerns are substantially growing in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear power accident in Japan

  10. Widening the Gap: Pre-University Gap Years and the "Economy of Experience"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Embarking upon a pre-university gap year is an increasingly popular option among British students. Drawing on Brown et al.'s work on positional conflict theory and the increased importance of the "economy of experience", this paper seeks to explore this growing popularity and argues that the gap year's enhanced profile raises important…

  11. FX and derivatives markets in emerging economies and the internationalisation of their currencies

    OpenAIRE

    Torsten Ehlers; Frank Packer

    2013-01-01

    Derivatives markets in emerging economies have continued to grow since 2010, driven mostly by very strong growth in the OTC market. Emerging market currencies have become more international as offshore markets are a major contributor to FX turnover. The Chinese renminbi is actively traded within emerging Asia. Trading of emerging market currencies is positively related to the size of cross-border financial flows.

  12. How fast do eels grow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Not so very much about the growth pattern of the eel is known yet. Eels move about nearly all the time. They are thus very difficult to follow and we do not, for examble, yet know how long it actually takes for them to grow to maturity in the wild. So far, a macroscopic analysis of the number of bright and dark areas (growth rings) in the 'earstones' has been used to determine eel age, but this method was recently challenged. Use of radioisotopes has been suggested previously for this purpose. For this present study the rare earth elements, europium-152 and europium-155 are used. When incubated in artificial sea water, a satisfactory final radioactive label was achieved. Two experiments were planned in collaboration with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. 2000 Elvers were set out in 1982, in the cooling water outlet of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant, each marked with europium-155. In 1984 another 10 000 elvers labelled with europium-152 were set out under similar conditions. The idea was mainly to see how fast the eels would grow, and to compare their known age with that determined by examining the earstones. Results showed that there was no clear-cut correlation between actual eel age and the biological age determination used so far. During four years, only 10 of the original 1300 eels were recaptured. It is thus hard to say anything definite from our results on the viability of setting out elvers in the environment

  13. Relationship marketing in digital economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship marketing in digital economy represents a new phase of marketing development in the XXI century. Key features lie in the development of closer relationship and cooperation between companies and their Internet consumers and partners. It was the problem of nonestablished e-relationships that was the main reason for failure of those companies that first started their new, digital environment business. Challenge for companies in the future will be introducing the CRM concept, with the main goal of bringing the high satisfaction and loyalty to their consumers in the e-market. .

  14. STATE INTERVENTION IN THE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Elena, BURDUF (MIERLARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the deffinition of protectionism, an economic policy of restraining trade between states through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow, according to proponents fair competition between imports and goods and service produced domestically, I am compelled to find Manoilescu's vision of economy. Was this system of political and economic measures of protection of national products from similar foreign products Manoilescu's vision? In the spirit of clasical protectionist doctrine, Manoilescu thought that the focal point of economy was the national economy, the sum of production assets and a conglomerate of individual traders. Amongst national production assets the foremost is the labour, capital and the others having only secondary importance in direct comparison. After the great depression of 1929, his book, The theory of protectionism and international exchanges , was the basis for justifying protectionism in Brazil while in Romania he had to face hostility from authorities, making it impossible for him, even if for several months in 1931 he was the Governor of the National Bank, to apply his vision to end the economic crisis in Romania. M. Manoilescu analyzed the state's economic role and how this is reflected in modern economic science. He saw the state as having the role of setting certain convergent common goals for the whole society and to set rules that removes free will in economic decisions, thus creating the premises for a regulated economic space, based on the transition from little rationale of firms to big rationale of national economy. He demonstrated the necessity of state intervetionism, he has shared the conviction that through the alignment of the Romanian economic strategy to the one from the developed countries the lagging behind of Romania could be surpassed. M. Manoilescu took the occidental type economic policies of the time

  15. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarolla, Maria B., E-mail: maria.chiarolla@uniroma1.it [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Metodi e Modelli per l' Economia, il Territorio e la Finanza, Facolta di Economia (Italy); Haussmann, Ulrich G., E-mail: uhaus@math.ubc.ca [University of British Columbia, Department of Mathematics (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  16. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  17. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarolla, Maria B.; Haussmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-01-01

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  18. Analysis of the holistic impact of the Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Shannon Perry

    As gas prices soar and energy demand continues to grow amidst increasingly stringent environmental regulations and an assortment of global pressures, implementing alternative energy sources while considering their linked economic, environmental and societal impacts becomes a more pressing matter. The Hydrogen Economy has been proposed as an answer to meeting the increasing energy demand for electric power generation and transportation in an environmentally benign way. Based on current hydrogen technology development, the most practical feedstock to fuel the Hydrogen Economy may prove to be coal via hydrogen production at FutureGen plants. The planned growth of the currently conceived Hydrogen Economy will cause dramatic impacts, some good and some bad, on the economy, the environment, and society, which are interlinked. The goal of this research is to provide tools to inform public policy makers in sorting out policy options related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy. This study examines the impact of a transition to a Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry by creating FutureGen penetration models, forecasting coal MFA's which clearly provide the impact on coal production and associated environmental impacts, and finally formulating a goal programming model that seeks the maximum benefit to society while analyzing the trade-offs between environmental, social, and economical concerns related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy.

  19. Baumol's disease and dematerialization of the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kander, Astrid [Department of Economic History, Box 7083, 220 07 Lund (Sweden)

    2005-10-05

    This paper argues that there is reason to be skeptical about the idea that the transition to a service economy will bring about dematerialization of production and consequent environmental improvement. This is because the shift to a service economy is an illusion in terms of real production, but is instead generated by the fall in the price of manufacturing goods relative to services, which is in turn caused by more rapid productivity growth in manufacturing than in services. This argument relies on the insights Baumol provided on the nature of the service economy and uses Swedish long-term data on relative sectoral development as an empirical illustration. On the other hand, the paper argues that there is reason to be cautiously optimistic that structural change may bring about a greening of growth, namely the changes in growth patterns sometimes labeled the third industrial revolution, which is connected to the emergence of microelectronics. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions show a decline after 1970, which is mainly explained by a politically driven change in the mix of energy carriers, but is also related to the stabilization of energy consumption. This energy stabilization was caused by slow growth of the economy in conjunction with substantial declines in energy intensity within industrial sectors and an absence of relative growth of the heavy sectors, a growth that had marked the economy between 1870 and 1970. Microelectronics have contributed to permanently transforming the Swedish industrial sector in a lighter direction, reducing energy losses in heavy industries and stabilizing household energy consumption. So it appears as if there may be some environmental gains from this development that was initiated in the 1970s, but not from relatively more production in the service sector.

  20. Potential of forestry biomass for energy in economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apalovic, R.

    1995-01-01

    A rapid increase in the world's population, the gradual exhaustion of fossil fuels and serious ecological problems are making developed countries more attentive to the utilization of renewable energy sources, mainly biomass, which should form part of the global energy mix during the twenty-first century. The economies in transition have been experiencing a transformation of their political, economic and social systems and a modernization of their industry, including the energy industry. Energy supply in the transition economies is based on coal, oil, gas and nuclear power. Of the renewable sources, only hydroelectric power is utilized to any significant extent. The forest biomass resources of these economies are quantified in this paper. The economies in transition have a big potential for biomass from forestry and timber industry wastes and agricultural wastes that are not being utilized and could become a source of energy. So far, biomass is used as a source of energy in only small amounts in the wood and pulp industries and as fuelwood in forestry. The governments of some countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia) have energy plans through the year 2010 that aim to develop renewable energy sources. Economic, institutional, technical and other barriers to the development of renewable sources and their utilization are analysed in this paper and some remedies are proposed. In cooperation with countries such as Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, the United States of America and others, which have achieved remarkable results in the utilization of biomass for energy, it would be possible for the transition economies to quickly develop the technological know-how needed to satisfy the demand for energy of approximately 350 million inhabitants. (author)

  1. Potential of forestry biomass for energy in economies in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apalovic, R [State Forest Products Research Institute and Slovak Biomass Association, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1995-12-01

    A rapid increase in the world`s population, the gradual exhaustion of fossil fuels and serious ecological problems are making developed countries more attentive to the utilization of renewable energy sources, mainly biomass, which should form part of the global energy mix during the twenty-first century. The economies in transition have been experiencing a transformation of their political, economic and social systems and a modernization of their industry, including the energy industry. Energy supply in the transition economies is based on coal, oil, gas and nuclear power. Of the renewable sources, only hydroelectric power is utilized to any significant extent. The forest biomass resources of these economies are quantified in this paper. The economies in transition have a big potential for biomass from forestry and timber industry wastes and agricultural wastes that are not being utilized and could become a source of energy. So far, biomass is used as a source of energy in only small amounts in the wood and pulp industries and as fuelwood in forestry. The governments of some countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia) have energy plans through the year 2010 that aim to develop renewable energy sources. Economic, institutional, technical and other barriers to the development of renewable sources and their utilization are analysed in this paper and some remedies are proposed. In cooperation with countries such as Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, the United States of America and others, which have achieved remarkable results in the utilization of biomass for energy, it would be possible for the transition economies to quickly develop the technological know-how needed to satisfy the demand for energy of approximately 350 million inhabitants. (author) 6 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Strategic Islands in Economic Games: Isolating Economies From Better Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Harré

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many of the issues we face as a society are made more problematic by the rapidly changing context in which important decisions are made. For example buying a petrol powered car is most advantageous when there are many petrol pumps providing cheap petrol whereas buying an electric car is most advantageous when there are many electrical recharge points or high capacity batteries available. Such collective decision-making is often studied using economic game theory where the focus is on how individuals might reach an agreement regarding the supply and demand for the different energy types. But even if the two parties find a mutually agreeable strategy, as technology and costs change over time, for example through cheaper and more efficient batteries and a more accurate pricing of the total cost of oil consumption, so too do the incentives for the choices buyers and sellers make, the result of which can be the stranding of an industry or even a whole economy on an island of inefficient outcomes. In this article we consider the issue of how changes in the underlying incentives can move us from an optimal economy to a sub-optimal economy while at the same time making it impossible to collectively navigate our way to a better strategy without forcing us to pass through a socially undesirable “tipping point”. We show that different perturbations to underlying incentives results in the creation or destruction of “strategic islands” isolated by disruptive transitions between strategies. The significant result in this work is the illustration that an economy that remains strategically stationary can over time become stranded in a suboptimal outcome from which there is no easy way to put the economy on a path to better outcomes without going through an economic tipping point.

  3. Exploring the connections between green economy and informal economy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Smit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of an inclusive green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication requires an approach that engages with the informal economy. However, the informal economy is generally ignored or undervalued in discussions on the green economy. This paper set out to bolster this argument by identifying the ways in which the green economy and the informal economy may be connected by establishing the extent to which policies and plans relating to green economy connect with the informal economy, and recognising several informal green activities. The barriers and opportunities for connecting the two spheres were also explored as well as possible ways in which such activities may be supported at different levels of organisation. In the case of South Africa, many informal green activities that contribute to sustainable livelihoods are recognised. However, issues pertaining to procedure, process and participation hinder the transition to a truly inclusive green economy.

  4. The NNP and Sustainability in Open Economy: Highlights on Recent World Economy and on Open Economy of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the theory of the net national product and, emphasizes on social welfare and sustainable accounting in open economy. It is observed that the world economy following an egalitarian path, the aggregate capital gains being positive is equivalent to the interest rate tending to decrease. This is important for the concept of net national product in open economies. Martin Weitzman gives a foundation for net national product as the stationary equivalent of a wealth maximizing pa...

  5. Health Information Economy: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-04-19

    Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science.

  6. Plutonium economy. Plutonium-Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traube, K

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved.

  7. Europe - the first hydrogen economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.

    1999-01-01

    An examination of the state of research relating to hydrogen production and utilization indicates that interest in hydrogen from major companies in Europe has increased by several orders of magnitude in recent years. Of the three major areas where a hydrogen economy could be expected to start, namely, Japan, the United States and Europe, the latter may have advantages in diversity of resources, attitudes towards environmental issues and specific fiscal and regulatory structures. Examples of ongoing research and development projects in Europe include Norway's hydrogen combustion turbine to run on hydrogen from decarbonised natural gas, a project in the Netherlands involving mixing hydrogen and methane in the natural gas grid and a variety of projects involving liquid hydrogen refuelling, hydrogen aircraft, hydrogen fuelling stations and fuel cell vehicle development. There are also ongoing projects in carbon sequestration and hydrogen production for power generation and vehicle use. The author's main contention is that the combination of natural surroundings, environmental problems and attitudes, and business and government frameworks strongly suggest that Europe may be the first to have a hydrogen-based economy. 8 refs

  8. Health Information Economy: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. Methods: This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Results: Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. Conclusion: According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science. PMID:26153182

  9. Youth entrepreneurship and new economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Pavić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts with a theoretical analysis of changes, which are usually designated as the new economy. These changes are characterized by globalization, more intensive use of information technology and other important structural changes. Multidimensional character of the entrepreneurship phenomenon and its role in economic development and social integration are emphasized. The youth represent a social group, which is, due to its transitional attributes and developments in the labour market, in particularly vulnerable position in the new economy. This position could be improved through activation of the entrepreneurial potential of the youth. In order to estimate entrepreneurial potential and its determinants an empirical research is carried out on a cluster sample of 200 high-school students and 200 university students in Osijek. The results of the research show relatively high entrepreneurial aspiration of the youth, but they also show the negative impact of the lack of financial means and the unfavourable sociocultural conditions. The results also confirmed the importance of the entrepreneurial family background and sex as the significant determinants of entrepreneurial aspirations.

  10. Viking Disruptions or Growing Integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper...... demonstrates how formal network analysis can be combined with a contextual reading of evidence relating to a long-distance communication network in the past. A study of the combined distributions of ten vessel types in 152 settlement sites from the 10th century suggests the outline of the core structure...... of the network. The model implies that 10th century long-distance exchange in the North Sea region featured long-distance links equal to those of the Carolingian emporia trade, and represented a growth in terms of new axes of integration, above all the growing links between the Scandinavian Peninsula...

  11. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  12. Supplies should match growing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmusen, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The natural gas industry is currently enjoying healthy growth prospects. Not only is the demand for natural gas steadily growing; the outlook for increasing gas reserves is promising as well. The success of natural gas in the marketplace reflects, on one hand, continuous attention paid to public and customer requirements and, on the other hand, the ability of the gas industry to direct technological developments toward the increasing public demand for gas at competitive market prices supplied in a reliable, safe and environmentally friendly manner. In the past, the gas industry has been involved in the development of technologies for everything from gas production to the end user and from borehole to burner tip, and the author believes that the industry must continue or even increase its emphasis on technology in the future in order to capture new market opportunities. He explains this by looking at the supply side, the demand side and the structural side of the business

  13. How to grow great leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Douglas A

    2004-12-01

    Few leaders excel at both the unit and enterprise levels. More than ever, though, corporations need people capable of running business units, functions, or regions and focusing on broader company goals. It's up to organizations to develop leaders who can manage the inherent tensions between unit and enterprise priorities. Take the example of RBC Financial Group, one of the largest, most profitable companies in Canada. In the mid-1990's, RBC revamped its competitive strategy in a couple of ways. After the government announced that the Big Six banks in Canada could neither merge with nor acquire one another, RBC decided to grow through cross-border acquisitions. Additionally, because customers were starting to seek bundled products and services, RBC reached across its traditional stand-alone businesses to offer integrated solutions. These changes in strategy didn't elicit immediate companywide support. Instinctively, employees reacted against what would amount to a delicate balancing act: They would have to lift their focus out of their silos while continuing to meet unit goals. However, by communicating extensively with staff members, cross-fertilizing talent across unit boundaries, and targeting rewards to shape performance, RBC was able to cultivate rising leaders with the unit expertise and the enterprise vision to help the company fulfill its new aims. Growing such well-rounded leaders takes sustained effort because unit-enterprise tensions are quite real. Three common conditions reinforce these tensions. First, most organizational structures foster silo thinking and unimaginative career paths. Second, most companies lack venues for airing and resolving conflicts that arise when there are competing priorities. Third, many have misguided reward systems that pit unit performance against enterprise considerations. Such long-established patterns of organizational behavior are tough to break. Fortunately, as RBC discovered, people can be trained to think and work

  14. Rapid reconnection of flux lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.

    1982-01-01

    The rapid reconnection of flux lines in an incompressible fluid through a singular layer of the current density is discussed. It is shown that the liberated magnetic energy must partially appear in the form of plasma kinetic energy. A laminar structure of the flow is possible, but Alfven velocity must be achieved in eddies of growing size at the ends of the layer. The gross structure of the flow and the magnetic configuration may be obtained from variational principles. (author)

  15. The impact of virtual world economy in real world economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Constantin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet technology is transforming the way we define nation-states. It has created “virtualstates” in which parallel communities are formed and political agendas are executed. Due to the emergenceof Internet technology, visions of “techno-imperialism” and “electronic warfare” are causing nation-statesto enact regulatory measures to preserve political, economic and cultural integrity. While the informationinfrastructure is the heart of the economic stability for most nations, the possibility of “viruses” or “electronicbombs” bringing ruin to an economy is real indeed. This means that architects of the “nation-state”will have the gargantuan task of re-examining existing politico-economic paradigms and fully integratetechnological initiatives in its apparatus to prevent imminent marginalization

  16. Political Economies Come Home: On the Political Economies of Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Catherine; Bruun, Maja Hojer; Koch, Insa

    2018-01-01

    The concept of moral economies of housing centres and links the Introduction and contributions to the Special issue. A number of themes emerge. First, a variety of moral communities exist, sometimes rivalrous, sometimes internally riven, sometimes with expectations of reciprocal obligations. We...... obligations at multiple levels. Second, several actors appear, or are invoked as authorities to be appealed or performed to for satisfaction of rights, from state bodies and individuals to banks, third sector and collective organisations and social movements. Third there is often lack of clarity over how...... to assert rights or engage with authorities. Two final characteristics are the loss of a perceived moral right to a secure home and a sense of betrayal. In some places, housing conflicts lead to protests and resistance as people perform this sense that political and economic elites have violated or reneged...

  17. KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY – THE ECONOMY OF THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil Muscalu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In these times with strong changes, a so called “knowledge revolution” is on the way andthis designates the evolution from the primarily physical labor based economy to a predominantly knowledgeeconomy.The entire world is dealing, în the dawn of this new century, the 21st one, with a series of majorchanges: social, economic and technological. Consequently, if the 2nd industrial revolution was initiated în theindustry based on intensive production labor “by the pioneers of automobiles such as Ford, it is clear that the3rd revolution will take place în the economic sector of the knowledge based services.”

  18. Outlook of Japan's economy and energy demand for FY2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoshima, Momoko; Yorita, Y.; Tsunoda, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper disclosed the prospects of Japan's economy and energy demand as the standard scenario, with the following major preconditions in mind: (1) world economy grows moderately, (2) supply and demand of crude oil are gently balanced, (3) exchange rate is Yen110/$, (4) nuclear power generation gradually moves back to operation, and the number of cumulative reopening units until the end of FY2017 reaches 14, and (5) supply and demand of electric power can secure 3% supply reserve ratio necessary for stable supply of electricity nationwide. In addition, this paper carried out evaluation analyses on the following various influences: macro economy, production activity, primary energy domestic supply, final energy consumption, electricity sales volume and power source composition (electric power companies), city gas sales volume (gas companies), fuel oil and LPG sales volume and crude oil throughput, renewable energy power generation, impact of nuclear power plant restart base, income/expenditure for on renewable energy generation, and impact of realization of large scale coal thermal power plant plan. (A.O.)

  19. Sustainable Development Strategy for Russian Mineral Resources Extracting Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, Elena; Ezdina, Natalya; Prilepskaya, Angelina; Pivnyk, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    The immaturity of strategic and conceptual documents in the sphere of sustainable development of the Russian economy had a negative impact on long-term strategic forecasting of its neo-industrialization. At the present stage, the problems of overcoming the mineral and raw material dependence, the negative structural shift of the Russian economy, the acceleration of the rates of economic growth, the reduction of technological gap from the developed countries become strategically in demand. The modern structure of the Russian economy, developed within the framework of the proposed market model, does not generate a sustainable type of development. It became obvious that in conditions of the market processes' entropy, without neo-industrial changes, the reconstruction of industry on a new convergence-technological basis and without increasing the share of high technology production the instability of macroeconomic system, the risks of environmental and economic security of Russia are growing. Therefore, today we need a transition from forming one industry development strategy to the national one that will take into account both the social and economic and environmental challenges facing Russia as a mineral resources extracting country.

  20. ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AND THE ECONOMY VICIOUS CIRCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN ION

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Education for sustainable development, involves training honest, active, social and creative persons for ensuring the link between environment, society, economy and politics. Trained entrepreneurs in sustainable development, are the engine system which can bring an economic prosperity. Lack of entrepreneurial education in the last 25 years has led accentuated conditions to avoiding economic development in all reference fields where added value can be achieved. Running away from excessive taxation led to the establishment of vicious circles in the economy. Vicious circles of the economy can be found in saving, tax policy, productive investment and the informal economy. Through this study will present the importance of entrepreneurship education in the real economy and some specifications to exit entrepreneurs from vicious circles of the economy.

  1. Social Economy in Romania - Challenges and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina CACE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the term of social economy is rather new and almost unknown for the public at large, and the legal framework contains only regulations specific for different types of entities which perform activities or which generate effects that may be considered as partial forms of social economy. This paper reviews the recent literature which approached mostly the problems of conceptualization and definition of the social economy, both at the national and European level. The paper also proposes an evaluation of the social economy sector in Romania in terms of its development capacity on medium-term. The paper reviews scientific contributions from Romania and abroad, reports of public or private institutions, and development policies. All these documents are used to develop a theoretical framework of the social economy and to describe the social economy as a sector of activity within the European Union and Romania, taking into consideration several criteria.

  2. Protein synthesis in the growing rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.; Chrin, L.

    1986-01-01

    Developmental control of protein synthesis in the postnatal growth of the lung has not been systematically studied. In male Fischer 344 rats, lung growth continues linearly as a function of body weight (from 75 to 450 g body weight). To study total protein synthesis in lungs of growing rats, we used the technique of constant intravenous infusion of tritiated leucine, an essential amino acid. Lungs of sacrificed animals were used to determine the leucine incorporation rate into newly synthesized protein. The specific radioactivity of the leucine associated with tRNA extracted from the same lungs served as an absolute index of the precursor leucine pool used for lung protein synthesis. On the basis of these measurements, we were able to calculate the fractional synthesis rate (the proportion of total protein destroyed and replaced each day) of pulmonary proteins for each rat. Under the conditions of isotope infusion, leucyl-tRNA very rapidly equilibrates with free leucine of the plasma and of the extracellular space of the lung. Infusions lasting 30 minutes or less yielded linear rates of protein synthesis without evidence of contamination of lung proteins by newly labeled intravascular albumin. The fractional synthesis rate is considerably higher in juvenile animals (55% per day) than in adult rats (20% per day). After approximately 12 weeks of age, the fractional synthesis rate remains extremely constant in spite of continued slow growth of the lung. It is apparent from these data that in both young and adult rats the bulk of total protein synthesis is devoted to rapidly turning over proteins and that less than 4 percent of newly made protein is committed to tissue growth

  3. Globalization of the world economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, M.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Global trade has been growing for some 400 years. Comparing the present with 1914, there are several major changes: speed of communication and travel, the ease of moving financial assets, the growth in the Asian countries and the end of colonialism. The impact of this economic-political change in forces has a market effect on the energy industry and examples are explained. (UK)

  4. Declining Efficiency in the Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    with a high material standard of living. Examples are presented as are suggestions for how to improve the efficiency. These improvements, however, have a tendency to reduce the gross domestic product and hence are conflicting with the conventional political goals of growing GDP....

  5. Can Tourism Revive the Croatian Economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormick Janice

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has one of its weakest economies in European Union. The most powerful engine driving a nation’s economy is its businesses. But Croatian business is not faring well. The Croatian government is hoping tourism will help revive the economy. This is a realistic hope but one that will be realized only through concerted action by business, government, and the education sector.

  6. Introduction: popular economies in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Hull; Deborah James

    2012-01-01

    African economies have long been a matter of concern to anthropologists, not least in the pages of Africa. These economies are situated, somewhat contradictorily, between global settings of financialized capitalism on the one hand and impoverished local arenas where cash-based economic transfers predominate on the other. The more such economies appear to be tied to wider global arenas and operations that place them beyond the reach of ordinary people, the more necessary it is to explore the l...

  7. Resource Complementarity and IT Economies of Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woudstra, Ulco; Berghout, Egon; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explore economies of scale for IT infrastructure and application services. An in-depth appreciation of economies of scale is imperative for an adequate understanding of the impact of IT investments. Our findings indicate that even low IT spending organizations can make...... a difference by devoting at least 60% of their total IT budget on IT infrastructure in order to foster economies of scale and extract strategic benefits....

  8. The shadow economy in industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik H. Enste

    2015-01-01

    The shadow (underground) economy plays a major role in many countries. People evade taxes and regulations by working in the shadow economy or by employing people illegally. On the one hand, this unregulated economic activity can result in reduced tax revenue and public goods and services, lower tax morale and less tax compliance, higher control costs, and lower economic growth rates. But on the other hand, the shadow economy can be a powerful force for advancing institutional change and can b...

  9. Geo-economy of the Caspian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raballand, G.

    2003-05-01

    The Caspian area is essential for the development of the central Asia countries and Caucasus. Excepted the Iran and the Russia, these areas economy is poor. The hydrocarbons exploitation should reinforce the economic weight of these States. The author analyzes the Caspian area economies and shows that the basin economies are confronted with three handicaps, and that even with different economic ways, the soviet economic system is still present in the basin. (A.L.B.)

  10. Foreword. The Knowledge Economy: The Present Future

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Bratianu

    2017-01-01

    All the statistics and evaluations show that the Knowledge Economy is our future. However, a close look at the developed economies demonstrates that the Knowledge Economy is already here, shaping our present time. Although there are many definitions of this new economic framework, their core content stresses the importance of data, information, and knowledge in the production of goods and delivering services in creating value for society. For instance, Powell and Snellman (2004, p.1999) defin...

  11. Unleashing the Power of the Circular Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, L.; Wurpel, G.; Ten Wolde, A. [IMSA Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of circular economy is an economic and industrial system that focuses on the reusability of products and raw materials, reduces value destruction in the overall system and aims at value creation within each tier of the system. This report for Circle Economy (CE) outlines the general direction and concrete steps that must be taken to accomplish a breakthrough to a circular economy. It also provides a knowledge base behind the concept, connecting it to sustainability.

  12. An economic review of the collaborative economy

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulos, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    The collaborative economy matches people online who want to share assets and services. This Policy Contribution - i) discusses how the collaborative economy can be defined; ii) provides an overview of evidence about its potential benefits for European economies and the impact of specific platforms in the sectors of their operation; iii) illustrates the criteria that enable professional and non-professional services offered through collaborative platforms to be distinguished; iv) recommends pr...

  13. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  14. How Cloud Computing can help SMEs to grow faster?

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ahmed Anwar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Cloud computing has successfully created hype and lots of people think that cloud computing might be the next big thing. The cloud platform is growing rapidly and lots of cloud service provider companies are coming up with huge number of innovative ideas where they are addressing specific needs of different organisations. The cloud computing is based on a service model architecture which is highly customisable and can fit into a specific or unique business process. Cloud comp...

  15. Czochralski method of growing single crystals. State-of-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukowski, A.; Zabierowski, P.

    1999-01-01

    Modern Czochralski method of single crystal growing has been described. The example of Czochralski process is given. The advantages that caused the rapid progress of the method have been presented. The method limitations that motivated the further research and new solutions are also presented. As the example two different ways of the technique development has been described: silicon single crystals growth in the magnetic field; continuous liquid feed of silicon crystals growth. (author)

  16. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, GDP AND STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caus Vasile Aurel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth is affected by the size and dynamics of underground economy. Determining this size is a subject of research for many authors. In this paper we present the relationship between underground economy dynamics and the dynamics of stock markets. The observations are based on regression used by Tanzi (1983 and the relationship between GDP and stock market presented in Tudor (2008. The conclusion of this paper is that the dynamics of underground economy is influenced by dynamic of financial markets. Thus, using specific stock market mathematical tools analysis, one can analyze the dynamic of underground economy

  17. Entry and Growth Strategies for Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Yen Thi Thu

    2004-01-01

    to adapt their strategies, most notably their marketing and acquisition strategies, to the local context. In this paper, we outline why globalisation drives MNEs into emerging economies, and we provide conceptual frameworks that may aid investors to adapt their strategies to emerging economy contexts. MNEs...... requires the acquisition of complementary local resources controlled by local firms. However, acquisitions in emerging economies are inhibited by institutional obstacles and weak local firms. Thus, foreign investors may pursue staged, multiple, indirect, or Brownfield acquisitions to build their projected...... operation. We illustrate our proposed strategies by analysing how one multination enterprise - Carlsberg Breweries - has developed its operations in three very different emerging economies: Poland, Lithuania and Vietnam....

  18. Economy Home Improvement, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economy Home Improvement, Inc. (the Company) is located in Lexington, Kentucky. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Lexington, Kentucky.

  19. Informed Questions Concerning the Vietnamese Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cabot , Jr, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    .... By 1989 liberalization of the economy began in earnest, including privatization of agriculture, abolishment of subsidies and price controls for state run enterprises, reformation of the banking...

  20. Thinking on the development of nuclear science and technology information in knowledge economy time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yue

    2010-01-01

    The arrival of knowledge-based economy has brought the opportunities and challenges for the development of nuclear science and technology information. In the knowledge economy environment, knowledge becomes the new driving force for economic development, and people's demand for nuclear science and technology expertise will significantly increase. So the role of nuclear science and technology intelligence services will become even more and more prominent. Meanwhile, with the rapid development of modem information technology, the informatization of human society is towards the development of digital and intelligent. This also will raise new demands for nuclear science and technology information work. Discusses the status of nuclear science and technology information work of own units under the knowledge-based economy condition, and puts forward some thought and suggestions on development of nuclear science and technology information work under the knowledge economy environment. (author)