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Sample records for rapidly growing discipline

  1. Management of Infections with Rapidly Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hwan Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM is not uncommon, andthe prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. Clinical diagnosis is difficult becausethere are no characteristic clinical features. There is also no standard antibiotic regimenfor treating RGM infection. A small series of patients with RGM infections was studied toexamine their treatments and outcomes.Methods A total of 5 patients who had developed postoperative infections from January2009 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially screened using amycobacteria rapid screening test (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-reverse blot hybridizationassay. To confirm mycobacterial infection, specimens were cultured for nontuberculousmycobacteria and analyzed by 16 S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene PCR.Results The patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization,and oral antibiotics were administered after discharge. The mean duration of follow-upwas 9 months, and all patients were completely cured of infection with a regimen of acombination of antibiotics plus surgical treatment. Although none of the patients developedrecurrence, there were complications at the site of infection, including hypertrophic scarring,pigmentation, and disfigurement.Conclusions Combination antibiotic therapy plus drainage of surgical abscesses appeared tobe effective for the RGM infections seen in our patients. Although neither the exact dosagenor a standardized regimen has been firmly established, we propose that our treatment canprovide an option for the management of rapidly growing mycobacterial infection.

  2. Neonatal airway obstruction caused by rapidly growing nasopharyngeal teratoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maartens, I.A.; Wassenberg, T.; Halbertsma, F.J.; Marres, H.A.M.; Andriessen, P.

    2009-01-01

    A case report is presented of a rapidly growing congenital nasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus) in a preterm infant, leading to severe upper airway obstruction. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography did not reveal the condition because the tumour masses were initially small and there was no

  3. Environmental and Social Programmes and Rapidly Growing Retailers

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    Peter JONES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks to provide an exploratory review of the extent to which the world’s fastest growing retailers are publicly reporting on their environmental and social commitments and programmes. The paper begins with an outline discussion of corporate environmental and social programmes and on public reporting processes. The paper draws its empirical material from the most recent information on environmental and social commitments and programmes posted on the world’s top twenty fastest growing retailers’ corporate web sites. While the majority of the world’s top twenty fastest growing retailers provide some public information on their commitment to environmental and social programmes there is marked variation in the extent, the nature and the detail of that information. The findings suggest that the integration of environmental and social programmes is not one of the hallmarks of rapidly growing retailers and in part this reflects the fact that many of the selected retailers are trading within emergent markets where price and availability are the principal factors driving consumer buying behaviour.

  4. Biomass accumulation in rapidly growing loblolly pine and sweetgum

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    Williams, Thomas M.; Gresham, Charles A. [Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, P.O. Box 596, Georgetown, SC 29442 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees, growing in International Paper Company's study of intensive management on marginal agricultural land near Bainbridge GA, were destructively sampled at the end of the sixth growing season. All trees were single family blocks of genetically superior trees planted 2.5m apart on sub-soiled rows 3.6m apart and grown with complete competition control. Management treatments were: control, irrigation, irrigation plus fertilization, and irrigation plus fertilization plus pest control. Tree measures were basal diameter, DBH, height of live crown, diameter at base of live crown, and total height. Twenty trees of each species were destructively sampled. Stems were sectioned at 1m intervals, stem diameter determined at each end and sections were weighed green. Branches were removed and height, basal diameter, and length were measured on each branch. Branches were separated into foliated and unfoliated segments and weighed green. A stem disk and branch from each meter were returned to the lab to determine dry weight: green weight ratio. Foliated limb: foliage ratios were also determined from sub-sampled branches. Intensive culture resulted in larger growth differences for sweetgum (most intensive treatment 9.5m tall, 13.1cm DBH; control trees 5.0m tall, 6.3cm DBH) than in pine (most intensive treatment 10.3m tall, 17.7cm DBH; control, 7.6m tall, 13.4cm DBH). The pipe model of tree development explained dimensions of the upper 5m of crown with leaf biomass highly correlated to branch basal area (r{sup 2} from 0.697 to 0.947). There was a constant ratio of leaf biomass to branch basal area (50gm/cm{sup 2} for pine, 30gm/cm{sup 2} for sweetgum). We also found a constant ratio of bole basal area to cumulative branch basal area throughout the crowns. Rapidly growing pines produced about 49Mgha{sup -1} of stem biomass, 11Mgha{sup -1} of dead branch biomass, and 17Mgha{sup -1} of unfoliated branch biomass at

  5. Rapidly Growing Esophageal Carcinosarcoma Reduced by Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Alone

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    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. It is generally treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to the protocols used for other esophageal cancers. However, the treatment of esophageal carcinosarcoma by radiotherapy alone before surgery has not been previously described. We report a patient with a rapidly growing esophageal carcinosarcoma that was efficiently reduced by neoadjuvant radiotherapy alone. A previously healthy 69-year-old man was admitted with dysphagia. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a small nodular polypoid lesion of about 10 mm in the middle esophagus. A second EGD 1 month later showed that the tumor had expanded into a huge mass. A biopsy specimen revealed that the tumor comprised squamous cell carcinoma with spindle cell components, and the tumor was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma which was diagnosed as stage I (T1bN0M0. Due to renal dysfunction, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy (40 Gy without chemotherapy. A third EGD 1 month later revealed remarkable tumor reduction. He then underwent total esophagectomy with regional lymph node dissection (pStage 0, pT1aN0M0. After surgical operation, the patient was followed up without adjuvant therapy. Whole body computed tomography revealed lung metastasis 14 months after surgery, and the patient died 2 months later. The neoadjuvant radiotherapy for esophageal carcinosarcoma was considered to have contributed to the subsequent surgery and his prolonged survival time. Thus, radiotherapy alone might be a suitable neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal carcinosarcomas.

  6. Intraoral tumor with rapid growing. Report of a case.

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    González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Cebrián-Carretero, Jose Luis; Gómez-García, Elena; del Castillo-Pardo de Vera, Jose Luis; del Val, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The appearance of an intraoral mass is common in our specialty. Most are benign lesions, but some are primary malignancies. Metastases account for less than 1% of all oral malignancies. An 86 year old woman was referred to our department with a large, asymptomatic, intraoral, fast-growing mass. She had no previous cancer history or other relevant physical findings. The radiology studies showed underlying bone erosion. The histological study showed a metastatic adenocarcinoma with a suspected origin in the abdomen. We were unable to identify it by non invasive diagnostic procedures. Given the patient's general status and despite the ominous prognosis of such lesions, we decided not to perform any aggressive therapy beyond removing the oral mass, in order to maintain her quality of life. There have been no local recurrences until this time.

  7. Frequency of rapid growing mycobacteria among tuberculosis suspected patients in Basra-Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sulami, Amin A. Al; Taee, Asaad Al; Hasan, Zainab A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of rapid growing mycobacteria among tuberculosis suspected patients in Basra governorate and study their resistance to drugs. Methods...

  8. Evaluation of Various Culture Media for Detection of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

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    Preece, Clair L; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Perry, Audrey; Jones, Amanda L; Cummings, Stephen P; Perry, John D; Hogardt, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to overgrowth by rapidly growing species that colonize the lungs of patients with CF. Extended incubation on Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as an expedient culture method for the isolation of rapidly growing NTM in this setting. The aim of this study was to assess five selective media designed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex, along with two media designed for the isolation of mycobacteria (rapidly growing mycobacteria [RGM] medium and Middlebrook 7H11 agar), for their abilities to isolate NTM. All seven media were challenged with 147 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria and 185 isolates belonging to other species. RGM medium was then compared with the most selective brand of BCSA for the isolation of NTM from 224 sputum samples from patients with CF. Different agars designed for the isolation of B. cepacia complex varied considerably in their inhibition of other bacteria and fungi. RGM medium supported the growth of all isolates of mycobacteria and was more selective than any other medium. NTM were recovered from 17 of 224 sputum samples using RGM medium, compared with only 7 samples using the most selective brand of BCSA (P = 0.023). RGM medium offers a superior option, compared to other selective agars, for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with CF. Furthermore, the convenience of using RGM medium enables routine screening for rapidly growing NTM in all submitted sputum samples from patients with CF. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mass measles immunisation campaign, with a target coverage rate of 85 - 90%, was launched in Khayelitsha, a rapidly growing urban township in the Cape Town area. Cross-sectional surveys of the measles immunisation status of resident 6 - 23-month-old infants were conducted immediately before, immediately after, ...

  10. Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov., a rapidly growing bacterium isolated from groundwater.

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    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2017-10-01

    A strain representing a rapidly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating and non-pigmented species of the genus Mycobacterium, designated strain S-I-6T, was isolated from groundwater at Daejeon in Korea. The strain grew at temperatures between 10 and 37 °C (optimal growth at 25 °C), between pH 4.0 and 9.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNAgene, hsp65, rpoB and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer indicated that strain S-I-6T belonged to the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium sphagni. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the bacterial strain was distinguished from its phylogenetic neighbours by chemotaxonomic properties and other biochemical characteristics. DNA-DNA relatedness among strain S-I-6T and the closest phylogenetic neighbour strongly support the proposal that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-I-6T (=KACC 17600T=NBRC 109805T=NCAIM B 02535T).

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria by microdilution - Experience of a tertiary care centre

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    Set R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.

  12. Clinical management of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections in patients after mesotherapy.

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    Regnier, Stéphanie; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Guihot, Amelie; Deforges, Lionel; Carbonne, Anne; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric

    2009-11-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are expressing an interest in mesotherapy as a method of reducing body fat. Cutaneous infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria are a common complication of such procedures. We followed up patients who had developed cutaneous infections after undergoing mesotherapy during the period October 2006-January 2007. Sixteen patients were infected after mesotherapy injections performed by the same physician. All patients presented with painful, erythematous, draining subcutaneous nodules at the injection sites. All patients were treated with surgical drainage. Microbiological examination was performed on specimens that were obtained before and during the surgical procedure. Direct examination of skin smears demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in 25% of the specimens that were obtained before the procedure and 37% of the specimens obtained during the procedure; culture results were positive in 75% of the patients. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 11 patients, and Mycobacterium frederiksbergense was identified in 2 patients. Fourteen patients were treated with antibiotics, 6 received triple therapy as first-line treatment (tigecycline, tobramycin, and clarithromycin), and 8 received dual therapy (clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin). The mean duration of treatment was 14 weeks (range, 1-24 weeks). All of the patients except 1 were fully recovered 2 years after the onset of infection, with the mean time to healing estimated at 6.2 months (range, 1-15 months). This series of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections highlights the difficulties in treating such infections and suggests that in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics does not accurately predict their clinical efficacy.

  13. Rapid urbanization and the growing threat of violence and conflict: a 21st century crisis.

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    Patel, Ronak B; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-04-01

    As the global population is concentrated into complex environments, rapid urbanization increases the threat of conflict and insecurity. Many fast-growing cities create conditions of significant disparities in standards of living, which set up a natural environment for conflict over resources. As urban slums become a haven for criminal elements, youth gangs, and the arms trade, they also create insecurity for much of the population. Specific populations, such as women, migrants, and refugees, bear the brunt of this lack of security, with significant impacts on their livelihoods, health, and access to basic services. This lack of security and violence also has great costs to the general population, both economic and social. Cities have increasingly become the battlefield of recent conflicts as they serve as the seats of power and gateways to resources. International agencies, non-governmental organizations, and policy-makers must act to stem this tide of growing urban insecurity. Protecting urban populations and preventing future conflict will require better urban planning, investment in livelihood programs for youth, cooperation with local communities, enhanced policing, and strengthening the capacity of judicial systems.

  14. Cancer survivors in Switzerland: a rapidly growing population to care for

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors are a heterogeneous group with complex health problems. Data concerning its total number and growing dynamics for Switzerland are scarce and outdated. Methods Population and mortality data were retrieved from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office (FSO). Incidence and relative survival for invasive cancers were computed using data from the cancer registries Geneva (1970–2009), St. Gallen - Appenzell (1980–2010), Grisons & Glarus (1989–2010), and Valais (1989–2010). We estimated prevalence for 1990–2010 using the Prevalence, Incidence Approach MODel (PIAMOD) method. We calculated trends in prevalence estimates by Joinpoint analysis. Projections were extrapolated using the above models and based on time trends of the period 2007–2010. Results The estimated number of cancer survivors increased from 139′717 in 1990 (2.08% of the population) to 289′797 persons in 2010 (3.70%). The growth rate shows an exponential shape and was 3.3% per year in the period 2008 to 2010. Almost half of the survivors have a history of breast, prostate or colorectal cancer. Among cancer survivors, 55% are women but the increases have been more marked in men (p Switzerland. Conclusions There is a rapidly growing population of cancer survivors in Switzerland whose needs and concerns are largely unknown. PMID:23764068

  15. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M

    2016-08-01

    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  16. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species.

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    Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W

    2012-06-26

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO(2) balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (± 30) kg · ha(-1) · y(-1), double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (± 176) kg · ha(-1), whereas net losses of soil N (0-100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (± 915) kg · ha(-1) (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ(13)C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg · ha(-1) · y(-1). All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32-54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass.

  17. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS

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    Martina Kyselková

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

  18. The spatial biology of transcription and translation in rapidly growing Escherichia coli

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    Somenath eBakshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP in live, rapidly growing E. coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0-3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20-30 min nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription

  19. An automated system for rapid non-destructive enumeration of growing microbes.

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    Roanna London

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The power and simplicity of visual colony counting have made it the mainstay of microbiological analysis for more than 130 years. A disadvantage of the method is the long time required to generate visible colonies from cells in a sample. New rapid testing technologies generally have failed to maintain one or more of the major advantages of culture-based methods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a new technology and platform that uses digital imaging of cellular autofluorescence to detect and enumerate growing microcolonies many generations before they become visible to the eye. The data presented demonstrate that the method preserves the viability of the microcolonies it detects, thus enabling generation of pure cultures for microbial identification. While visual colony counting detects Escherichia coli colonies containing about 5x10(6 cells, the new imaging method detects E. coli microcolonies when they contain about 120 cells and microcolonies of the yeast Candida albicans when they contain only about 12 cells. We demonstrate that digital imaging of microcolony autofluorescence detects a broad spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes and present a model for predicting the time to detection for individual strains. Results from the analysis of environmental samples from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants containing a mixture of unidentified microbes demonstrate the method's improved test turnaround times. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates a new technology and automated platform that substantially shortens test times while maintaining key advantages of the current methods.

  20. Mycobacterium celeriflavum sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic bacterium isolated from clinical specimens.

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    Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Çavuşoğlu, Cengiz; Borroni, Emanuele; Heidarieh, Parvin; Koksalan, Orhan Kaya; Cabibbe, Andrea Maurizio; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Mariottini, Alessandro; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Cittaro, Davide; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Lazarevic, Dejan; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Molinari, Gian Lorenzo; Camaggi, Anna; Tortoli, Enrico

    2015-02-01

    Six strains of a rapidly growing scotochromogenic mycobacterium were isolated from pulmonary specimens of independent patients. Biochemical and cultural tests were not suitable for their identification. The mycolic acid pattern analysed by HPLC was different from that of any other mycobacterium. Genotypic characterization, targeting seven housekeeping genes, revealed the presence of microheterogeneity in all of them. Different species were more closely related to the test strains in various regions: the type strain of Mycobacterium moriokaense showed 99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, and 91.5-96.5 % similarity for the remaining six regions. The whole genome sequences of the proposed type strain and that of M. moriokaense presented an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 82.9 %. Phylogenetic analysis produced poorly robust trees in most genes with the exception of rpoB and sodA where Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium novocastrense were the closest species. This phylogenetic relatedness was confirmed by the tree inferred from five concatenated genes, which was very robust. The polyphasic characterization of the test strains, supported by the ANI value, demonstrates that they belong to a previously unreported species, for which the name Mycobacterium celeriflavum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFPC-000207(T) ( = DSM 46765(T) = JCM 18439(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  1. Isolation of Rapidly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Wounds Following Combat-Related Injury.

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    Fiske, Lauren C; Homeyer, Diane C; Zapor, Michael; Hartzell, Joshua; Warkentien, Tyler; Weintrob, Amy C; Ganesan, Anuradha; Burgess, Timothy; Snesrud, Erik; Waterman, Paige; Nielsen, Lindsey; Ressner, Roseanne A

    2016-06-01

    Rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) have yet to be described in combat-related injuries. This study investigates the epidemiology, clinical findings, treatment, and outcomes of RGNTM infections among combat casualties wounded in Afghanistan from 2010 to 2012. Patients with RGNTM were identified from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry through the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study. Trauma history, surgical management, and clinical data were collected. Six isolates from patients requiring antimycobacterial therapy were sequenced. Seventeen cases were identified. Six cases, predominantly associated with Mycobacterium abscessus, required aggressive debridement and a median of 180 days of multidrug antimycobacterial therapy that included clofazimine. M. abscessus isolates expressed the erythromycin resistance methylase (erm(41)) gene for inducible macrolide resistance, yet there were no clinical treatment failures when macrolides were utilized in combination therapy. No clonal similarity between M. abscessus isolates was found. Eleven cases had positive wound cultures, but did not require antimycobacterial therapy. The median duration of time of injury to first detection of a RGNTM was 57 days. This represents the first report of RGNTM infections in war-wounded patients. RGNTM should be recognized as potential pathogens in grossly infected combat wounds. Surgical debridement and multidrug antimycobacterial therapy, when clinically indicated, was associated with satisfactory clinical outcomes. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpato, Richard [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Campi de Castro, Claudio [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Radiology, Cerqueira Cesar, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hadad, David Jamil [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Nucleo de Doencas Infecciosas, Department of Internal Medicine, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da [Laboratorio de Patologia PAT, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Filho, Ezequiel Leal [UNIMED Diagnostico, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Marcal, Leonardo P. [The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  3. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children.

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    Woller, Jessica L; Kim, Ki Beom; Behrents, Rolf G; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures) following rapid maxillary expansion in growing children. The CBCT scans of 25 consecutively treated RME patients (10 male, 15 female) with mean age of 12.3±2.6 years, were examined before expansion and immediately following the last activation of the expansion appliance. Statistically significant (Pmaxillary first molars due to RME was also statistically significant. There was no statistically significant displacement of the transpalatal suture. Rapid maxillary expansion results in significant displacement of the bones of circummaxillary sutures in growing children.

  4. Two novel species of rapidly growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium lehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacterium neumannii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Sangal, Vartul; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Jando, Marlen; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Sutcliffe, Iain; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Two rapidly growing mycobacteria with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences were the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strains formed a well-supported subclade in the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely associated with the type strain of Mycobacterium novocastrense. Single and multilocus sequence analyses based on hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SN 1900T and SN 1904T are phylogenetically distinct but share several chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features that are are consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium. The two strains were distinguished by their different fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles, and by a combination of phenotypic features. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values for strains SN 1900T and SN 1904T were 61.0 % and 94.7 %, respectively; in turn, the corresponding dDDH and ANI values with M. novocastrense DSM 44203T were 41.4 % and 42.8 % and 89.3 % and 89.5 %, respectively. These results show that strains SN1900T and SN 1904T form new centres of taxonomic variation within the genus Mycobacterium. Consequently, strains SN 1900T (40T=CECT 8763T=DSM 43219T) and SN 1904T (2409T=CECT 8766T=DSM 43532T) are considered to represent novel species, for which the names Mycobacteriumlehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacteriumneumannii sp. nov. are proposed. A strain designated as 'Mycobacteriumacapulsensis' was shown to be a bona fide member of the putative novel species, M. lehmannii.

  5. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children

    OpenAIRE

    Woller,Jessica L.; Ki Beom Kim; Behrents, Rolf G.; Buschang, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures) following rapid maxillary expansion in gro...

  6. Mycobacterium iranicum sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic species isolated from clinical specimens on three different continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shojaei, H.; Daley, C.; Gitti, Z.; Hashemi, A.; Heidarieh, P.; Moore, E.R.; Naser, A.D.; Russo, C.; Ingen, J. van; Tortoli, E.

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of a novel, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic mycobacterial species is reported. Eight independent strains were isolated from clinical specimens from six different countries of the world, two in Iran, two in Italy and one in each of following countries: Greece, The

  7. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lione

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. Methods This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1–CS2. The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1 and after 1 year (T2. A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. Results RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. Conclusions The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular

  8. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, Roberta; Brunelli, Valerio; Franchi, Lorenzo; Pavoni, Chiara; Quiroga Souki, Bernardo; Cozza, Paola

    2017-11-06

    The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1-CS2). The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm) until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1) and after 1 year (T2). A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular response to the maxillary expansion protocol in class-II-growing

  9. [The diagnosis and treatment of rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai-Jin; Cheng, Zheng-Ping; Yin, Li; Wu, Yu-Yu; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Jun-Fang; Shi, Hai-Hong

    2009-06-01

    To study the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis (NTMK). It was retrospective case series study. Twelve eyes in 12 patients with NTMK following corneal foreign body trauma in 2007 were studied retrospectively including the case histories, clinical findings, laboratory examinations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The main laboratory examination included corneal scrapings by culturing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), corneal lesions by histopathologic examinations and TEM. The patients received local and systemic antibiotics therapy, lesion cleaning followed by cauterization with tincture of iodine (5%) and (or) keratoplasty. All cases had a history of corneal trauma, there was corneal metallic foreign body removal at one hospital in 11 cases, corneal reed trauma in 1 case. The characteristic signs involved grayish-blue crystalloid keratopathy, multifocal infiltrates, satellites, radical form changes in the Descemet's membrane. The results of laboratory examinations of the scrapings of the cornea infection were as follows: all cultures (12/12) were positive for rapidly growing mycobacteria, and isolates from 5 patients were all diagnosed as mycobacterium chelonae subspecies abscess; acid-fast staining revealed positive bacilli in all the 4 patients; seven of 8 patients were positive for bacterium by PCR. Transmission electron microscopy in all the 3 specimens showed many slender rod-shaped or short coarse-shaped bacteria which were phagocytized by monocytes, and some necrotic tissue. Infections in 10 eyes were resolved by combined treatment regimen including a combination of antimicrobial agents (amikacin, rifampin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and/or ofloxacin, etc.) and local lesion cleaning followed by cauterization with 5% tincture of iodine within 2-5 months; two cases resolved by keratoplasty which poorly responded to antibiotic therapy for 6 months

  10. Multistate US Outbreak of Rapidly Growing Mycobacterial Infections Associated with Medical Tourism to the Dominican Republic, 2013-2014(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, David; Esposito, Douglas H; Gaines, Joanna; Ridpath, Alison; Barry, M Anita; Feldman, Katherine A; Mullins, Jocelyn; Burns, Rachel; Ahmad, Nina; Nyangoma, Edith N; Nguyen, Duc B; Perz, Joseph F; Moulton-Meissner, Heather A; Jensen, Bette J; Lin, Ying; Posivak-Khouly, Leah; Jani, Nisha; Morgan, Oliver W; Brunette, Gary W; Pritchard, P Scott; Greenbaum, Adena H; Rhee, Susan M; Blythe, David; Sotir, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During 2013, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in Baltimore, MD, USA, received report of 2 Maryland residents whose surgical sites were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria after cosmetic procedures at a clinic (clinic A) in the Dominican Republic. A multistate investigation was initiated; a probable case was defined as a surgical site infection unresponsive to therapy in a patient who had undergone cosmetic surgery in the Dominican Republic. We identified 21 case-patients in 6 states who had surgery in 1 of 5 Dominican Republic clinics; 13 (62%) had surgery at clinic A. Isolates from 12 (92%) of those patients were culture-positive for Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Of 9 clinic A case-patients with available data, all required therapeutic surgical intervention, 8 (92%) were hospitalized, and 7 (78%) required ≥3 months of antibacterial drug therapy. Healthcare providers should consider infection with rapidly growing mycobacteria in patients who have surgical site infections unresponsive to standard treatment.

  11. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas R. Cusumano; Vivy Tran; Aileen Tlamsa; Philip Chung; Robert Grossberg; Gregory Weston; Uzma N. Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors’ experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here. Methods: Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who pre...

  12. A novel culture medium for isolation of rapidly-growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Clair L; Perry, Audrey; Gray, Bethany; Kenna, Dervla T; Jones, Amanda L; Cummings, Stephen P; Robb, Ali; Thomas, Matthew F; Brodlie, Malcolm; O'Brien, Christopher J; Bourke, Stephen J; Perry, John D

    2016-03-01

    Isolation of mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to the overgrowth of cultures by other bacteria and fungi. In this setting, Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as a convenient and effective culture medium for the isolation of rapidly-growing, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). A novel selective culture medium (RGM medium) was evaluated for the isolation of rapidly-growing NTM from the sputum of children and adults with CF. A total of 118 isolates of rapidly-growing mycobacteria and 98 other bacteria and fungi were inoculated onto RGM medium. These were assessed for growth at 30°C over a seven day period. A total of 502 consecutive sputum samples were collected from 210 patients with CF. Each sample was homogenized and cultured onto RGM medium and also onto BCSA. Cultures were incubated for 10days at 30°C. Of 118 isolates of mycobacteria all but one grew well on RGM medium, whereas 94% of other bacteria and fungi were inhibited. A total of 55 sputum samples (from 33 distinct patients) yielded NTM using a combination of both RGM and BCSA (prevalence: 15.7%). NTM were recovered from 54 sputum samples using RGM medium compared with only 17 samples using BCSA (sensitivity 98% vs. 31%; P≤0.0001). A total of 419 isolates of non-mycobacteria were recovered from sputum samples on BCSA compared with 46 on RGM medium. RGM medium offers a simple and effective culture method for the isolation of rapidly-growing mycobacteria from sputum samples from patients with CF without decontamination of samples. RGM medium allows for the systematic screening of all sputum samples routinely referred for culture from patients with CF. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Woller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures following rapid maxillary expansion in growing children. METHODS: The CBCT scans of 25 consecutively treated RME patients (10 male, 15 female with mean age of 12.3 ± 2.6 years, were examined before expansion and immediately following the last activation of the expansion appliance. RESULTS: Statistically significant (P < 0.05 amounts of separation were found for the displacement of the bones of the frontonasal suture, the intermaxillary suture, the zygomaticomaxillary sutures, and the midpalatal suture. The change in angulation of the maxillary first molars due to RME was also statistically significant. There was no statistically significant displacement of the transpalatal suture. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid maxillary expansion results in significant displacement of the bones of circummaxillary sutures in growing children.

  14. The impact of entrepreneurial capital and rapidly growing firms: the Canadian example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    World-class competitiveness is no longer an option for firms seeking growth and survival in the increasingly competitive, dynamic and interconnected world. This paper expands on the concept of entrepreneurial capital and formalizes it as a catalyst that augments other productive factors. It provi...... hostile environments that also suffer from poor resources, this research offers significant lessons with implications for emerging firms, industries and associated regions that aspire to grow faster...

  15. Rapidly growing cystic vestibular schwannoma with sudden onset facial palsy, ten years after subtotal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandinarasaiah, Manjunath; Grinblat, Golda; Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Taibah, Abdelkader; Sanna, Mario

    2017-07-19

    An elderly male patient diagnosed with a right-sided cystic vestibular schwannoma (CVS) at our center underwent a translabyrinthine approach with a subtotal excision to preserve the facial nerve (FN). The tumor grew slowly for the first 9 years but in the subsequent 2 years grew rapidly, with the patient developing a FN paralysis. Using the previous approach, a second surgery was done and the tumor was excised, leaving behind a sheath of tumor on the facial and lower cranial nerves. This case demonstrates that CVSs show unpredictable growth patterns and need to be followed up for a longer period of time. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. In-vitro evaluation of the adhesion to polypropylene sutures of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, N; Esteban, J; Kinnari, T J; Celdrán, A; Granizo, J J; Zafra, C

    2007-09-01

    The ability of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria (NPRGM) to attach to polypropylene sutures was evaluated using an in-vitro assay. Thirty clinical isolates and five culture collection strains of NPRGM, together with Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35983, were tested. Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae showed the highest attachment ability, which differed significantly from the results obtained with Mycobacterium peregrinum. According to these results, NPRGM are able to attach to polypropylene sutures, and the species implicated most frequently in human infection showed increased levels of attachment in comparison with the other mycobacteria studied.

  17. A rapidly growing moraine-dammed glacial lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah S.; Benn, Douglas I.; Dennis, Kathryn; Luckman, Adrian

    2012-04-01

    Moraine-dammed glacial lakes are becoming increasingly common in the Himalaya as a result of glacier mass loss, causing concern about glacier lake outburst flood risk. In addition to extant lakes, the potential exists for many more to form, as more glaciers ablate down to the level of potential moraine dams. In this paper, we document the recent rapid growth of, a moraine-dammed lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. Using a combination of ground-based mapping and sonar surveys, aerial photographs (< 1 m resolution), and ASTER imagery (15 m resolution), processes and rates of lake expansion have been determined. The lake first formed between 1984 and 1992 when collapse of an englacial conduit allowed water to accumulate at the level of a gap in the lateral moraine, ~km from the glacier terminus. Lake growth was initially slow, but since 2001 it has undergone exponential growth at an average rate of 10% y-1. In 2009, the lake area was 300,000 m2, and its volume was at least 2.2 million m3. Calving, subaqueous melting, and melting of subaerial ice faces all contribute to the expansion of the lake; but large-scale, full-height slab calving is now the dominant contributor to growth. Comparison with other lakes in the region indicate that lake growth will likely continue unchecked whilst the spillway remains at its current level and may attain a volume of hundreds of millions of cubic metres within the next few decades.

  18. Neonatal sepsis in a rapidly growing, tertiary neonatal intensive care unit: Trends over 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Ju Sun; Shin, Seung Han; Jung, Young Hwa; Kim, Ee-Kyung; Choi, Eun Hwa; Kim, Han-Suk; Lee, Hoan Jong; Choi, Jung-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    We investigated changes in the admission patterns of neonatal intensive care units and the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis following the rapid expansion and improvements in neonatal intensive care. Data on the admission of neonates with culture-proven sepsis between 1996 and 2013 (period I, 1996-2005; period II, 2006-2013) were collected retrospectively. The admission of extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants increased between periods I and II (11.1 vs 28.7 infants per 1000 live births, P sepsis among all infants and ELBW infants increased (all infants, 5.9 vs 12.7 cases per 1000 live births; ELBW infants, 189.5 vs 290.1 cases per 1000 live births). In ELBW infants, the incidence of sepsis caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS), significantly increased during period II (8.8 vs 25.4%, P = 0.039). On multivariate analysis, central vascular catheters and prolonged hospitalization were independently associated with increased sepsis rate, particularly CONS in ELBW infants. The inborn admission rate for ELBW infants has increased significantly and is accompanied by improved survival and longer hospital stay. The incidence of neonatal sepsis, particularly in ELBW infants, has also increased, and CONS has emerged as a major pathogen. Central vascular catheters and prolonged hospitalization could be independent risk factors for the increased sepsis rate, particularly sepsis due to CONS. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Discipline Admonished

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2016-01-01

    the discipline. Today, most stocktakers argue, International Relations has moved beyond great debate — the very symbol of the discipline — and is undergoing fragmentation. For some scholars, fragmentation is caused by the lack of any great structuring debate and a proliferation of less-than-great theories......The International Relations discipline has recently witnessed a wave of stocktakings and they surprisingly often follow the narrative that the discipline once revolved around all-encompassing great debates, which, either neatly or claustrophobically depending on the stocktaker, organized....... To others, fragmentation is a result of the divisive great debates themselves. When stocktakers portray fragmentation as novelty, however, they neglect the prominent historical record of this fragmentation narrative. By rereading stocktaking exercises from the 1940s to today, this article argues...

  20. Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov., a rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species isolated from human clinical respiratory and blood culture specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto Enrique; Greninger, Alexander L; Ladutko, Lynn; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Jakubiec, Wesley; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Wallace, Richard J; Simmon, Keith E; Dunn, Bruce E; Jackoway, Gary; Vora, Surabhi B; Quinn, Kevin K; Qin, Xuan; Campbell, Sheldon

    2017-11-01

    A previously undescribed, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species of the genus Mycobacterium (represented by strains PB739 T and GK) was isolated from two clinical sources - the sputum of a 76-year-old patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of tuberculosis exposure and Mycobacterium avium complex isolated years prior; and the blood of a 15-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia status post bone marrow transplant. The isolates grew as dark orange colonies at 25-37 °C after 5 days, sharing features in common with other closely related species. Analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (1492 bp) of strain PB739 T demonstrated that the isolate shared 98.8 % relatedness with Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Partial 429 bp hsp65 and 744 bp rpoB region V sequence analyses revealed that the sequences of the novel isolate shared 94.8 and 92.1 % similarity with those of Mycobacterium neoaurum and Mycobacterium aurum, respectively. Biochemical profiling, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, HPLC/gas-liquid chromatography analyses and multilocus sequence typing support the taxonomic status of these isolates (PB739 T and GK) as representatives of a novel species. Both isolates were susceptible to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended antimicrobials for susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria including amikacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline/minocycline, imipenem, linezolid, clarithromycin and trimethropin/sulfamethoxazole. Both isolates PB739 T and GK showed intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin. We propose the name Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov. for this novel species and have deposited the type strain in the DSMZ and CIP culture collections. The type strain is PB739 T (=DSM 104744 T =CIP 111318 T ).

  1. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, Lucas R; Tran, Vivy; Tlamsa, Aileen; Chung, Philip; Grossberg, Robert; Weston, Gregory; Sarwar, Uzma N

    2017-10-01

    Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors' experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here. Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who presented at the Montefiore Medical Center (Bronx, New York, USA) between August 2015 and June 2016 were identified. A review of patient medical records was performed. Four patients who presented with culture-proven RGM infections at the sites of recent cosmetic procedures were identified. All patients were treated with a combination of antibiotics and aggressive surgical treatment. This case series of RGM infections following recent cosmetic surgeries abroad highlights the risks of medical tourism. Close monitoring of affected patients by surgical and infectious disease specialties is necessary, as aggressive surgical debridement combined with appropriate antibiotic regimens is needed to achieve cure. Given the increasing reports of post-surgical RGM infections, consultants should have a low threshold for suspecting RGM, as rapid diagnosis may accelerate the initiation of targeted treatment and minimize morbidity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov., a scotochromogenic, rapidly growing species is able to infect human macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Rizvi, A; Banerjee, S; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-11-01

    Gram-stain-positive, acid-fast-positive, rapidly growing, rod-shaped bacteria (designated as strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431) were isolated from paddy cultivated soils on the Western Ghats of India. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three strains among the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium tokaiense 47503T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Mycobacterium murale MA112/96T (98.8 %) and a few other Mycobacterium species. The level of DNA-DNA reassociation of the three strains with M. tokaiense DSM 44635T was 23.4±4 % (26.1±3 %, reciprocal analysis) and 21.4±2 % (22.1±4 %, reciprocal analysis). The three novel strains shared >99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA reassociation values >85 %. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences (3071 bp) of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) revealed that strain JC290T is clearly distinct from all other Mycobacteriumspecies. The three strains had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, unidentified phospholipids, unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified lipid as polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone for all three strains was MK-9(H2). Fatty acids were C17 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C19 : 1ω7c/C19 : 1ω6c for all the three strains. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431 are members of a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium and for which the name Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC290T (=KCTC 39560T=LMG 28809T).

  3. Miniaturized extinction culturing is the preferred strategy for rapid isolation of fast‐growing methane‐oxidizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefman, Sven; van der Ha, David; De Vos, Paul; Boon, Nico; Heylen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Summary Methane‐oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have a large potential as a microbial sink for the greenhouse gas methane as well as for biotechnological purposes. However, their application in biotechnology has so far been hampered, in part due to the relative slow growth rate of the available strains. To enable the availability of novel strains, this study compares the isolation of MOB by conventional dilution plating with miniaturized extinction culturing, both performed after an initial enrichment step. The extinction approach rendered 22 MOB isolates from four environmental samples, while no MOB could be isolated by plating. In most cases, extinction culturing immediately yielded MOB monocultures making laborious purification redundant. Both type I (Methylomonas spp.) and type II (Methylosinus sp.) MOB were isolated. The isolated methanotrophic diversity represented at least 11 different strains and several novel species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence dissimilarity. These strains possessed the particulate (100%) and soluble (64%) methane monooxygenase gene. Also, 73% of the strains could be linked to a highly active fast‐growing mixed MOB community. In conclusion, miniaturized extinction culturing was more efficient in rapidly isolating numerous MOB requiring little effort and fewer materials, compared with the more widely applied plating procedure. This miniaturized approach allowed straightforward isolation and could be very useful for subsequent screening of desired characteristics, in view of their future biotechnological potential. PMID:22070783

  4. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).

  5. Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov., a rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium chelonae, isolated from marine teleost fish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Hanako; Wada, Shinpei; Kurata, Osamu; Katayama, Kinya; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-01

    A previously undescribed rapidly growing, non-pigmented mycobacterium was identified based on biochemical and nucleic acid analyses, as well as growth characteristics. Seven isolates were cultured from samples collected from five thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) and two farmed black scraper (Thamnaconus modestus). Bacterial growth occurred at 15-35 °C on Middlebrook 7H11 agar. The bacteria were positive for catalase activity at 68 °C and urease activity, intermediate for iron uptake, and negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, semi-quantitative catalase activity and arylsulfatase activity at day 3. No growth was observed on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with picric acid, and very little growth was observed in the presence of 5 % NaCl. α- and α'-mycolates were identified in the cell walls, and a unique profile of the fatty acid methyl esters and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles of the protein and cell-wall lipids were acquired. Sequence analysis revealed that the seven isolates shared identical sequences for the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65, recA and sodA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the five gene sequences confirmed that the isolates were unique, but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clarithromycin against this novel species was Mycobacterium salmoniphilum. The hsp65 PCR restriction enzyme analysis pattern differed from those of M. chelonae and M. salmoniphilum. Based on these findings, the name Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain being NJB0901T (=JCM 31611T=KCTC 39843T).

  6. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae–Mycobacterium abscessus group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M.; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and, in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae–Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M. abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1–2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values >70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results, demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, but constitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM 10906T ( = CCUG 66554T = LMG 28586T = INCQS 0733T). PMID:26358475

  7. Dividing Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2012-01-01

    the periphery of the network—security studies and international political economy in particular—but communication is also divided along the lines of geography and policy/theory. The article concludes that divisions notwithstanding, IR communication remains centered around American, general, and theoretical IR...... than 20,000 articles published in 59 IR journals to construct a network among IR journals and finds a discipline with a center consisting of pedigreed IR journals, albeit closely related to political science. Divisions are identifiable as specialty areas that form clusters of specialized journals along...

  8. Regulation of the efflux of putrescine and cadaverine from rapidly growing cultured RAW 264 cells by extracellular putrescine.

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandrawinata, R R; Byus, C V

    1995-01-01

    Cultures of the macrophage-like RAW 264 cells were adapted to divide normally in a synthetic serum-supplemented culture medium lacking any polyamines and diamine oxidase activity. These rapidly dividing cells actively effluxed large amounts of putrescine and cadaverine, compared with the intracellular levels, into the culture medium. The efflux of putrescine was stimulated by the amino acid ornithine, whereas efflux of cadaverine was inhibited. Relatively low levels of spermidine and N1-acety...

  9. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. Cusumano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: This case series of RGM infections following recent cosmetic surgeries abroad highlights the risks of medical tourism. Close monitoring of affected patients by surgical and infectious disease specialties is necessary, as aggressive surgical debridement combined with appropriate antibiotic regimens is needed to achieve cure. Given the increasing reports of post-surgical RGM infections, consultants should have a low threshold for suspecting RGM, as rapid diagnosis may accelerate the initiation of targeted treatment and minimize morbidity.

  10. Do farmers rapidly adapt to past growing conditions by sowing different proportions of early and late maturing cereals and cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short growing season of the northernmost European growing conditions, farmers are increasingly interested in expanding cultivation of later maturing crops at the expense of early maturing ones with lower yields. In this study we aimed to assess how the switching between spring cereals that differ in earliness was associated with different external factors. This was tested using unique datasets for regional cropping areas and cultivar use for the last 15 years. Early maturing barley was favored at the expense of later maturing wheat when a high number of days to crop maturity was required in the preceding year. In contrast, farmers reduced the barley area when a high number of cumulated degree days was required for a crop to mature in the previous year. A shift was recorded from early to late maturing cultivars. This study indicated that despite limited opportunities for farmers to alter land use, they readily responded to past conditions and used the knowledge gained for decision-making to reduce risk. This is a valuable operative model for studying adaptation to opportunities and constraints induced by climate change.

  11. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  12. Growing City and Rapid Land Use Transition: Assessing Multiple Hazards and Risks in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagawat Rimal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pokhara is one of the most naturally beautiful cities in the world with a unique geological setting. This important tourist city is under intense pressure from rapid urbanization and population growth. Multiple hazards and risks are rapidly increasing in Pokhara due to unsustainable land use practices, particularly the increase in built-up areas. This study examines the relationship among urbanization, land use/land cover dynamics and multiple hazard and risk analysis of the Pokhara valley from 1990 to 2013. We investigate some of the active hazards, such as floods, landslides, fire, sinkholes, land subsidence and earthquakes, and prepare an integrated multiple hazard risk map indicating the highly vulnerable zones. Land use and land cover maps from 1990 and 2013 from Landsat images (30 m resolution have been prepared and analyzed for the spatial dynamics of urbanization and the transition of land use and land cover. In the 23-year period, the built-up area more than doubled from 24.03 km² to 54.20 km². Although the landscape in the urban, peri-urban and rural areas appears to be fragmented, different drivers play pivotal roles in landscape change in these areas. The results provide substantial information for establishing innovative action plans for disaster risk management in the valley. Recommendations are made for the most suitable places for future urban expansion in the valley. This study is important for raising awareness among policy makers and other public officials to include multiple hazard risk mitigation in land use policies and plans. Establishing connections between urban expansions, escalating population growth and multiple hazards and risk assessment will also improve in modelling the latent impact of future catastrophes and emergency preparedness.

  13. An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (southern Arizona): Major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Wonaschütz, Anna; Jarjour, Elias G; Hashimoto, Bryce I; Schichtel, Bret A; Betterton, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    This study reports a comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosol particle properties in relation to meteorological and back trajectory data in the southern Arizona region, which includes two of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States (Phoenix and Tucson). Multiple data sets (MODIS, AERONET, OMI/TOMS, MISR, GOCART, ground-based aerosol measurements) are used to examine monthly trends in aerosol composition, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and aerosol size. Fine soil, sulfate, and organics dominate PM2.5 mass in the region. Dust strongly influences the region between March and July owing to the dry and hot meteorological conditions and back trajectory patterns. Because monsoon precipitation begins typically in July, dust levels decrease, while AOD, sulfate, and organic aerosol reach their maximum levels because of summertime photochemistry and monsoon moisture. Evidence points to biogenic volatile organic compounds being a significant source of secondary organic aerosol in this region. Biomass burning also is shown to be a major contributor to the carbonaceous aerosol budget in the region, leading to enhanced organic and elemental carbon levels aloft at a sky-island site north of Tucson (Mt. Lemmon). Phoenix exhibits different monthly trends for aerosol components in comparison with the other sites owing to the strong influence of fossil carbon and anthropogenic dust. Trend analyses between 1988 and 2009 indicate that the strongest statistically significant trends are reductions in sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, and increases in fine soil during the spring (March-May) at select sites. These results can be explained by population growth, land-use changes, and improved source controls.

  14. Discipline in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B J

    1991-12-01

    As pediatricians we have an opportunity and a responsibility to guide parents in the structure of discipline they set up for their children. The major goals of this structure are to help children develop a sense of being both lovable and capable. To feel lovable a child needs an enduring responsive relationship that conveys positive regard. Attending to children promptly, giving individual time daily, acknowledging positive behaviors, and ignoring minor transgressions all help them feel valued. Active listening without judgment demonstrates acceptance of children's feelings. Talking to children without labels or generalizations but with specific feedback about their actions and with congruent emotional tone is respectful and promotes self-esteem. Children also deserve assistance with transitions, thanks, and apologies as appropriate. To feel (and become) capable, children need a consistent structure of routines, good models, respectful instruction, and progressive expectations so that they have an ongoing experience of success. To grow as individuals they need opportunities to make choices relevant to their interests and role-taking opportunities to gain perspective on social interaction. Praise and rewards motivate as well as instruct children, but they also need to experience consequences to their actions. Natural consequences are optimal but parents also need to design logical consequences that are graded, related, prompt, and reasonable for a child's misbehaviors. Consequences are most effective when given after only one request, exactly as clearly promised by the adult involved without interference by others. Time out is one of the most effective consequences for young children when used properly. Physical punishment has multiple negative effects on a child's development, especially if used noncontingently. Intrapersonal and family factors predispose parents to predictable problems in establishing healthy discipline. Pediatricians can play an important role in

  15. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    concept of our modeling approach and describe its strengths and weaknesses. We furthermore use empirical data for the states of North and South Carolina to demonstrate how the modeling framework can be applied to a large, heterogeneous study system with diverse decision-making agents. Grimm et al. (2005) Pattern-Oriented Modeling of Agent-Based Complex Systems: Lessons from Ecology. Science 310, 987-991. Liu et al. (2013) Framing Sustainability in a Telecoupled World. Ecology and Society 18(2), 26. Meentemeyer et al. (2013) FUTURES: Multilevel Simulations of Merging Urban-Rural Landscape Structure Using a Stochastic Patch-Growing Algorithm. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103(4), 785-807.

  16. Writing for the Discipline in the Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Olivier; Grimes, Susan; Rolls, Alistair

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the issue of students' writing skills in the discipline of Engineering and beyond. It is the result of a discussion between three academics from different discipline backgrounds: Teaching and Learning, the Humanities and Engineering. We start with a review of the strategies commonly used to address problems in students'…

  17. [Rapid growing liposarcoma in retroperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, L.E.; Mynster, T.

    2008-01-01

    inhomogeneous tumour adhesive to the right kidney capsule was removed in toto from retroperitoneum. Histological diagnosis: Sclerosing, low differentiated liposarcoma. Besides radical surgery only radiation therapy may have effect in treatment of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/29...

  18. Do teachers and students get the Ed-Tech products they need: The challenges of Ed-Tech procurement in a rapidly growing market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Morrison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ed-tech courseware products to support teaching and learning are being developed and made available for acquisition by school districts at a rapid rate. In this growing market, developers and providers face challenges with making their products visible to customers, while school district stakeholders must grapple with “discovering” which products of the many available best address their instructional needs. The present study presents the experiences with and perceptions about the procurement process from 47 superintendents representing diverse school districts in the U. S. Results indicate that, while improvements are desired in many aspects of the procurement process, the superintendents, overall, believe that, once desired products are identified, they are generally able to acquire them. Difficulties lie in tighter budgets, discovering products that are potentially the best choices, and evaluating the effectiveness of the products selected as options. These findings are presented and interpreted in relation to five major “Action Points” in the procurement process, and also with regard to implications for evaluating how educational technology impacts K-12 instruction.

  19. In Vitro Comparison of Ertapenem, Meropenem, and Imipenem against Isolates of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria and Nocardia by Use of Broth Microdilution and Etest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Killingley, Jessica; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Bridge, Linda; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    We compared the activities of the carbapenems ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem against 180 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and 170 isolates of Nocardia using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A subset of isolates was tested using the Etest. The rate of susceptibility to ertapenem and meropenem was limited and less than that to imipenem for the RGM. Analysis of major and minor discrepancies revealed that >90% of the isolates of Nocardia had higher MICs by the broth microdilution method than by Etest, in contrast to the lower broth microdilution MICs seen for >80% of the RGM. Imipenem remains the most active carbapenem against RGM, including Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus For Nocardia, imipenem was significantly more active only against Nocardia farcinica Although there may be utility in testing the activities of the newer carbapenems against Nocardia, their activities against the RGM should not be routinely tested. Testing by Etest is not recommended by the CLSI. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. DISCIPLINE OR CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bulent Tarman

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this literature review are twofold. Firstly, it explains discipline and causes of students’ misbehavior and classroom management. In this sense, this review focuses on discipline in the conflict of the educational platform elements; and related the philosophic literature. Secondly, this review draws a conclusion by summarizing the opinions and influencing of discipline upon school environment and students’ learning. In this regard, this study discusses two models for dealing w...

  1. Fostering Self-Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.; Duquette, Jeffrey F.

    2008-01-01

    From its inception, a primary goal of public education has been to develop self-discipline among students, best seen as them exhibiting socially and morally responsible behavior. This goal coincides with another important educational imperative, as well as an alternative meaning of the term "discipline": to correct misbehavior to create and…

  2. Evaluation of capillary and myofiber density in the pectoralis major muscles of rapidly growing, high-yield broiler chickens during increased heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, K S; Hamlin, G A; Lien, A R J; Bilgili, S F

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle development proceeds from early embryogenesis through marketing age in broiler chickens. While myofiber formation is essentially complete at hatching, myofiber hypertrophy can increase after hatch by assimilation of satellite cell nuclei into myofibers. As the diameter of the myofibers increases, capillary density peripheral to the myofiber is marginalized, limiting oxygen supply and subsequent diffusion into the myofiber, inducing microischemia. The superficial and deep pectoralis muscles constitute 25% of the total body weight in a market-age bird; thus compromise of those muscle groups can have profound economic impact on broiler production. We hypothesized that marginal capillary support relative to the hypertrophic myofibers increases the incidence of microischemia, especially in contemporary high-yield broilers under stressing conditions such as high environmental temperatures. We evaluated the following parameters in four different broiler strains at 39 and 53 days of age when reared under thermoneutral (20 to 25 C) versus hot (30 to 35 C) environmental conditions: capillary density, myofiber density and diameter, and degree of myodegeneration. Our data demonstrate that myofiber diameter significantly increased with age (P > or = 0.0001), while the absolute numbers of capillaries, blood vessels, and myofibers visible in five 400 x microscopic fields decreased (P > or = 0.0001). This is concomitant with marginalization of vascular support in rapidly growing myofibers. The myofiber diameter was significantly lower with hot environmental temperatures (P > or = 0.001); therefore, the absolute number of myofibers visible in five 400X microscopic fields was significantly higher. The incidence and subjective degree of myodegeneration characterized by loss of cross-striations, myocyte hyperrefractility, sarcoplasmic vacuolation, and nuclear pyknosis or loss also increased in hot conditions. Differences among strains were not observed.

  3. Point-of-use membrane filtration and hyperchlorination to prevent patient exposure to rapidly growing mycobacteria in the potable water supply of a skilled nursing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Chen, Tai-Ho; Keane, Tim; Toney, Nadege; Toney, Sean; Armbruster, Catherine R; Butler, W Ray; Arduino, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    Healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are frequently associated with contaminated tap water. A pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus in patients undergoing bronchoscopy was identified by 2 acute care hospitals. RGM was identified in bronchoscopy specimens of 28 patients, 25 of whom resided in the same skilled nursing facility (SNF). An investigation ruled out bronchoscopy procedures, specimen collection, and scope reprocessing at the hospitals as sources of transmission. To identify the reservoir for RGM within the SNF and evaluate 2 water system treatments, hyperchlorination and point-of-use (POU) membrane filters, to reduce RGM. A comparative in situ study of 2 water system treatments to prevent RGM transmission. An SNF specializing in care of patients requiring ventilator support. RGM and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria were examined in facility water before and after hyperchlorination and in a subsequent 24-week assessment of filtered water by colony enumeration on Middlebrook and R2A media. Mycobacterium chelonae was consistently isolated from the SNF water supply. Hyperchlorination reduced RGM by 1.5 log(10) initially, but the population returned to original levels within 90 days. Concentration of HPC bacteria also decreased temporarily. RGM were reduced below detection level in filtered water, a 3-log(10) reduction. HPC bacteria were not recovered from newly installed filters, although low quantities were found in water from 2-week-old filters. POU membrane filters may be a feasible prevention measure for healthcare facilities to limit exposure of sensitive individuals to RGM in potable water systems.

  4. DISCIPLINE OR CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Tarman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this literature review are twofold. Firstly, it explains discipline and causes of students’ misbehavior and classroom management. In this sense, this review focuses on discipline in the conflict of the educational platform elements; and related the philosophic literature. Secondly, this review draws a conclusion by summarizing the opinions and influencing of discipline upon school environment and students’ learning. In this regard, this study discusses two models for dealing with classroom discipline: psychoanalytic method and behavior modification. Although two models apply different methods for dealing with classroom discipline, this study suggests that, to create a successful classroom management, educators should use both of them instead of applying only the one.

  5. Behavioral toxicology: Stimulating challenges for a growing discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Edward E.

    1990-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, contaminants have been shown to affect virtually every aspect of behavior in terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Behavior inte- grates many cellular processes and is essential to the viability of the organism, the population and the community. Therefore, observations of behavior provide a unique toxicological perspective - one that links the biochemical and ecological conse- quences of environmental contamination.

  6. Can Theoretical Constructs in Science Be Generalised across Disciplines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    For many years there has been a growing concern, particularly among researchers in biology education, about the extent to which research findings from one discipline (most usually physics education) can be applied directly to other disciplines (particularly biology education). This paper explores the issue through the use of one particular…

  7. Rapid development in vitro and in vivo of resistance to ceftazidime in biofilm-growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, N; Ciofu, O; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the development of resistance of biofilm-growing P. aeruginosa during treatment with ceftazidime. Biofilms were established in vitro using a modified Robbins device (MRD) and in vivo in the rat model of chronic lung infection. Three P. aeruginosa strains...

  8. The Discipline Controversy Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1996-01-01

    Found that neither the authoritative model nor the liberal (permissive) model offers parents an efficacious model of childrearing. Each polarized model contains an element of truth, but each demonizes the other. Argues that within a responsive and supportive parent-child relationship, prudent use of punishment is a necessary tool in discipline.…

  9. Adopted Children and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Adopted Children & Discipline Page Content Article Body Some parents are ... Updated 11/21/2015 Source Caring for Your School-Age Child: Ages 5 to 12 (Copyright © 2004 American Academy ...

  10. Using Assertive Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Debra A.; And Others

    Assertive Discipline (AD) is a modified version of assertion training skills. It is a systematic combination of verbal assertiveness training combined with teachers using everyday rewards and punishments to positively influence relationships and students' behavior. When using the AD model, the teacher must: (1) clearly convey their rules and…

  11. Operational discipline and microenterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Rosales Gómez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the elements of the operational Discipline in the business of micro-enterprises in Coatzacoalcos, Mexico. For the analysis an instrument is designed and applied to 20 companies which fulfill the suggested recommendations in research such as caution in the use of hazardous materials, use of equipment with simple specifications and easily accessible to employees, monitoring of some standard to identify risks, good environmental management, among others. We conclude that despite the findings in the application of the methodology of Operational Discipline, it is generally suffers from many important practices, and can be considered as construction companies of the city of Coatzacoalcos no mandatory environmental care this activity.

  12. Transcending the discipline

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The international U&U seminar invites PhD work which addresses the discipline of urbanism, and encourages contributions that highlight its trans-disciplinary nature. Urbanism is grounded in various practices, discourses and realities with respect to the city. The seminar will focus on multiple approaches – from historic enquiry to project-led analysis – and cover a wide range of spaces and scales - from territories to neighborhoods, from landscapes to cityscapes. The seminar seeks contributio...

  13. Using Discipline Data to Enhance Equity in School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Ellwood, Kathleen; McCall, Lisa; Girvan, Erik J.

    2018-01-01

    There is a longstanding and pressing challenge regarding overuse of exclusionary discipline (e.g., office discipline referrals, suspensions) for students of color and students with disabilities. Moreover, many common efforts to address the problem have not been shown to enhance equity in school discipline. This article describes a promising…

  14. Disciplined care for disciplined patients: experience of hospitalized blind patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshiri, Mahmood; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Sadeghi, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Blindness is a permanent condition that alters daily life of blind people. Interpretive phenomenology was used to understand lived experiences of the hospitalized blind people. "Disciplined care for disciplined patients" was one of the themes that emerged from the data. Provision of disciplined care can help health care professionals provide a holistic and comprehensive competent care for blind patients.

  15. Administering Discipline Differently: A Foucauldian Lens on Restorative School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    Urban school leaders are under increasing pressure--in some cases, under threat of federal investigation (US Department of Education, 2014)--to use alternative models of non-punitive discipline, known generally as positive discipline practices such as restorative discipline (American Psychological Association, 2008; Anfinson, Autumn, Lehr,…

  16. Disciplining Global Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Evans

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the puzzles of the current era is the divide between optimists and pessimists on the question of human rights. The prominence of human rights on the international political agenda sustains the optimist’s hopes for the future, while pessimists point to continued and widespread reports of civil, political, economic, social and cultural violations. This article looks at the tensions and apparent contradictions between these two approaches. Following a discussion on the construction of global human rights discourse(s, the article concludes that the pretensions of law act to mask the socioeconomic normative framework that acts to discipline global society.

  17. Disciplining Global Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Evans

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the puzzles of the current era is the divide between optimists and pessimists on the question of human rights. The prominence of human rights on the international political agenda sustains the optimist’s hopes for the future, while pessimists point to continued and widespread reports of civil, political, economic, social and cultural violations. This article looks at the tensions and apparent contradictions between these two approaches. Following a discussion on the construction of global human rights discourse(s, the article concludes that the pretensions of law act to mask the socioeconomic normative framework that acts to discipline global society.

  18. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  19. Development of an in vitro Assay, Based on the BioFilm Ring Test®, for Rapid Profiling of Biofilm-Growing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Enea G; Toma, Luigi; Provot, Christian; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Sperduti, Isabella; Prignano, Grazia; Gallo, Maria T; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Bordignon, Valentina; Bernardi, Thierry; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biofilm represents a major virulence factor associated with chronic and recurrent infections. Pathogenic bacteria embedded in biofilms are highly resistant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics and therefore difficult to eradicate. Thus, reliable tests to assess biofilm formation by bacterial strains as well as the impact of chemicals or antibiotics on biofilm formation represent desirable tools for a most effective therapeutic management and microbiological risk control. Current methods to evaluate biofilm formation are usually time-consuming, costly, and hardly applicable in the clinical setting. The aim of the present study was to develop and assess a simple and reliable in vitro procedure for the characterization of biofilm-producing bacterial strains for future clinical applications based on the BioFilm Ring Test® (BRT) technology. The procedure developed for clinical testing (cBRT) can provide an accurate and timely (5 h) measurement of biofilm formation for the most common pathogenic bacteria seen in clinical practice. The results gathered by the cBRT assay were in agreement with the traditional crystal violet (CV) staining test, according to the κ coefficient test (κ = 0.623). However, the cBRT assay showed higher levels of specificity (92.2%) and accuracy (88.1%) as compared to CV. The results indicate that this procedure offers an easy, rapid and robust assay to test microbial biofilm and a promising tool for clinical microbiology.

  20. Disciplining anthropological demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Randall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study furthers the epistemological development of anthropological demography, and its role in understanding the demography of Europe. Firstly we situate anthropological demography against the context of an evolving world of research in which boundaries between academic disciplines have become much more permeable. This is achieved via an overview of recent theoretical debates about the role and nature of disciplinarity, including interdisciplinarity, multidisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity. Secondly, in order to understand the current state of the art, we sketch out the evolution of anthropological demography, paying particular attention to the different knowledge claims of anthropology and demography. Finally, we flesh out some of the epistemological and theoretical debates about anthropological demography by sketching out the formative research process of our own work on low fertility in the UK.

  1. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  2. Rapid Water Uptake and Limited Storage Capacity at Height of Growing Season in Four Temperate Tree Species in a Central Pennsylvania Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, K.; Meinzer, F. C.; Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    rapid water uptake and tree water storage limited to about a month in duration. These findings are necessary for modeling of hydrologic parameters that are influenced by tree water age. They also indicate that trees on shallow soil in this catchment may be at risk if droughts lasting over a month occur more frequently in future years.

  3. Interoperable Data Sharing for Diverse Scientific Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John S.; Crichton, Daniel; Martinez, Santa; Law, Emily; Hardman, Sean

    2016-04-01

    For diverse scientific disciplines to interoperate they must be able to exchange information based on a shared understanding. To capture this shared understanding, we have developed a knowledge representation framework using ontologies and ISO level archive and metadata registry reference models. This framework provides multi-level governance, evolves independent of implementation technologies, and promotes agile development, namely adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, continuous improvement, and rapid and flexible response to change. The knowledge representation framework is populated through knowledge acquisition from discipline experts. It is also extended to meet specific discipline requirements. The result is a formalized and rigorous knowledge base that addresses data representation, integrity, provenance, context, quantity, and their relationships within the community. The contents of the knowledge base is translated and written to files in appropriate formats to configure system software and services, provide user documentation, validate ingested data, and support data analytics. This presentation will provide an overview of the framework, present the Planetary Data System's PDS4 as a use case that has been adopted by the international planetary science community, describe how the framework is being applied to other disciplines, and share some important lessons learned.

  4. The discipline of innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, P F

    1998-01-01

    Some innovations spring from a flash of genius. But as Peter Drucker points out in this HBR Classic, most result from a conscious, purposeful search for opportunities. For managers seeking innovation, engaging in disciplined work is more important than having an entrepreneurial personality. Writing originally in the May-June 1985 issue, Drucker describes the major sources of opportunities for innovation. Within a company or industry, opportunities can be found in unexpected occurrences, incongruities of various kinds, process needs, or changes in an industry or market. Outside a company, opportunities arise from demographic changes, changes in perception, or new knowledge. These seven sources overlap, and the potential for innovation may well lie in more than one area at a time. Innovations based on new knowledge, of course, tend to have the greatest effect on the marketplace. But it often takes decades before the ideas are translated into actual products, processes, or services. The other sources of innovation are easier and simpler to handle, yet they still require managers to look beyond established practices. Drucker emphasizes that in seeking opportunities, innovators need to look for simple, focused solutions to real problems. The greatest praise an innovation can receive is for people to say, "This is obvious!" Grandiose ideas designed to revolutionize an industry rarely work. Innovation, like any other endeavor, takes talent, ingenuity, and knowledge. But Drucker cautions that if diligence, persistence, and commitment are lacking, companies are unlikely to succeed at the business of innovation.

  5. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  6. Neuroscience discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  7. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  8. Teacher Race and School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Constance A.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Does having a teacher of the same race make it more or less likely that students are subject to exclusionary school discipline? In this study, the authors analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at…

  9. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT.Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated.Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group.The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  10. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueling; Liu, Dongxu; Liu, Ju; Wu, Zizhong; Xie, Yongtao; Li, Liang; Liu, Hong; Guo, Tiantian; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE) treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30) was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated. Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A) of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI) of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn) of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR) ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group. The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  11. Identification of different subtypes of rapid growing Atypical Mycobacterium from water and soil sources: Using PCR-RFLP using hsp65 and rRNA 16s-23s genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varahram, Mohammad; Farnia, Parissa; Saif, Shima; Marashian, Mehran; Farnia, Poopak; Ghanavi, Jaladein; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2016-12-01

    Nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) are a diverse group of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans including skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal tract infection. Generally, NTM are classified into two categories: rapid (7days). In this study, we aimed to investigate NTM frequency and prevalence in environmental samples. Additionally, we tried to identify various subtypes of isolated rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM). Through a prospective descriptive cross-sectional study, water and soil samples were gathered from four neighboring towns around Tehran, the capital of Iran, at different geographic directions. Every 100m(2) of the studied areas gave one sample containing 6g of soil in 3-5cm depth deposited in 50mL sterile water as sampling media. After digestion and decontamination, DNA from culture-positive specimens (RGM) were extracted using phenol-chloroform methods. Then the molecular identification of species and subspecies were performed using 16s-23s rRNA and hsp65 gene. In total, 341 RGM were found, out of which 322 (94.4%) were identified and 20 (5.8%) could not be identified. The most frequent RGM was, Mycobacterium fortuitum (72; 22%), Mycobacterium senegalense (58; 17.7%), Mycobacterium parafortuitum (44; 13.4%) and Mycobacterium conceptionense type 1 (24; 7.2%), and Mycobacterium cheloni type 1 (20; 6.0%). As shown in Table 1, M. fortuitum had more subtypes (8), and the frequency of subtypes 1 (27.7%), 4 (16.6%), and 5 (13.8%) were higher. Among subtypes of M. senegalense, subtype 1 had a higher frequency (70.4%) in comparison to subtype 2 (29.5%). M. cheloni had just one subtype. Our results showed M. fortuitum as the most prominent strain isolated from environmental samples. The frequency was similar in different places, irrespective of climatic variations. Availability of various subtypes of M. fortuitum might indicate a large circulation of this RGM in soil and water of Iranian territory. This high prevalence of M. fortuitum might

  12. Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tell your child that she will lose her TV time today if she hits, be prepared to turn off the TV for the day. DO NOT make huge threats ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  13. Alternative Discipline Can Benefit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, Mary Schmid; Vargas, Karla M.; Caldwell, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Schools across the country are changing how they discipline students by implementing research- and evidence-based disciplinary practices that have yielded positive results for schools and students. These disciplinary practices--known as Restorative Justice, Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, and social and emotional learning--largely…

  14. Retail design : A new discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper has the aim to address Retail Design as a new research and education discipline that because of its multidisciplinarity asks for a holistic approach. Although retailing as commerce is timeless, Retail Design is one of the most challenging new fields of design, embracing both design

  15. Eliminating Disparities in School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in suspension rates for White, Black, Hispanic, and American Indian students are more often a result of inequitable disciplinary actions than differences in behavior. Exclusionary discipline undermines students' academic achievement by weakening their connection with school and removing them from the classroom. Students who experience…

  16. Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov., Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium arcueilense sp. nov., members of a novel group of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria recovered from a water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjek, Julie; Souded, Sabiha; Guerardel, Yann; Trivelli, Xavier; Bernut, Audrey; Kremer, Laurent; Welte, Benedicte; Joyeux, Michel; Dubrou, Sylvie; Euzeby, Jean-Paul; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Sapriel, Guillaume; Heym, Beate

    2016-09-01

    From our recent survey of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria in the Parisian water system, three groups of isolates (taxons 1-3) corresponding to possible novel species were selected for taxonomic study. The three taxa each formed creamy white, rough colonies, had an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C, hydrolyzed Tween 80, were catalase-positive at 22 °C and expressed arylsulfatase activity. All three were susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and tigecycline. The three taxa produced specific sets of mycolic acids, including one family that has never previously been described, as determined by thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The partial rpoB sequences (723 bp) showed 4-6 % divergence from each other and more than 5 % differences from the most similar species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 99 % identity within each species. The most similar sequences for 16S rRNA genes (98-99 % identity over 1444-1461 bp) were found in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, Mycobacterium septicum and Mycobacterium farcinogenes. The three taxa formed a new clade (bootstrap value, 99 %) on trees reconstructed from concatenated partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB sequences. The above results led us to propose three novel species for the three groups of isolates, namely Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov. [type strain 071T=ParisRGMnew_1T (CIP 110656T=DSM 46713T)], Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. [type strain 196T=ParisRGMnew_2T (CIP 110655T=DSM 46714T)] and Mycobacteriu marcueilense sp. nov. [type strain of 269T=ParisRGMnew_3T (CIP 110654T=DSM 46715T)].

  17. The problems of discipline at secondary education

    OpenAIRE

    NÁVORKOVÁ, Miluše

    2016-01-01

    The theme of this bachelor´s thesis is Problems of discipline at secondary education. The aim of this work is to map the problems of school discipline at the students of higher secondary education. The basic terms concerned the problems of discipline, the definitions and analysis of the lack of discipline are being described in the theoretical part. This thesis also tries to find out possible reasons, preventative arrangements and remedy possibilities of the lack of discipline at the students...

  18. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  19. The Dojang: School of Discipline and Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Ariel Millán

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Martial arts can be defined as history in motion. Few sport activities of international fame represent a complex symbolic and practical repertory of ethic morality and aesthetic sensuality so distinctive of a nation as the Korean martial disciplines do, especially taekwondo and gumdo. Similar to other combat sports the martial arts gym (dojang is the place where values are produced and reproduced and where the appropriation of skills, cognition and recognition – degrees, certificates, and so on – that legitimates the social and bodily devotion of an individual to a martial art takes place. This article aims to transmit the emotions generated in a neophyte by the practice of a martial art and the social and kinaesthetic strains that result from this action in modern Korean society. It also explores some of the historical factors linked to its development and rapid expansion, in barely half a century.

  20. Molecular pharmacognosy: a new borderline discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Cui, Guang-Hong; Dai, Zhu-Bo; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2009-11-01

    Pharmacognosy has developed rapidly in recent years and now represents a highly interdisciplinary science. At the boundary between pharmacognosy and molecular biology, molecular pharmacognosy has developed as a new borderline discipline. Using the method and technology of molecular biology, molecular pharmacognosy focuses on resolving a wide range of challenging problems, such as distinguishing herbal and animal drug populations by molecular marker assay, conserving and utilizing wild resources on the basis of knowledge of genetic diversity, investigating the mechanism of active compound accumulation and obtaining new resources with higher quality through genetic engineering. Recent research results show that molecular pharmacognosy has extended the scope of pharmacognostical science and plays an important role in the safe and efficient usage of crude drugs.

  1. Fiscal decentralization and fiscal discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Nida

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In this thesis, the effects of fiscal procedures, fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization, on fiscal discipline are analyzed in a theoretical framework. A model of two optimization problems is established: central government’s optimization problem and local government’s optimization problem representing the two fiscal procedures; fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization respectively. Comparative static analysis is per...

  2. Regulatory physiology discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the Regulatory Physiology discipline of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program is twofold. First, to determine and study how microgravity and associated factors of space flight affect the regulatory mechanisms by which humans adapt and achieve homeostasis and thereby regulate their ability to respond to internal and external signals; and, second, to study selected physiological systems that have been demonstrated to be influenced by gravity. The Regulatory Physiology discipline, as defined here, is composed of seven subdisciplines: (1) Circadian Rhythms, (2) Endocrinology, (3) Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation, (4) Hematology, (5) Immunology, (6) Metabolism and Nutrition, and (7) Temperature Regulation. The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the area of regulatory physiology. It covers the research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in regulatory physiology. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  3. Sociology's misfortune: disciplines, interdisciplinarity and the impact of audit culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmwood, John

    2010-12-01

    This paper is about tendencies to the subversion of sociology as a discipline. It connects external factors of the wider socio-political environment of higher education in the UK, especially those associated with the audit culture and new systems of governance, with the internal organization of the discipline. While the environment is similar for all social science subjects, the paper argues that there are specific consequences for sociology because of characteristics peculiar to the discipline. The paper discusses these consequences in terms of the changing relationship between sociology and the growing interdisciplinary area of applied social studies as a form of 'mode 2 knowledge'. It argues that while sociology 'exports' concepts, methodologies and personnel it lacks the internal disciplinary integrity of other 'exporter' disciplines, such as economics, political science and anthropology. The consequence is an increasingly blurred distinction between sociology as a discipline and the interdisciplinary area of applied social studies with a potential loss of disciplinary identity. The paper concludes with a discussion of how this loss of identity is associated with a reduced ability to reproduce a critical sensibility within sociology and absorption to the constraints of audit culture with its preferred form of mode 2 knowledge.

  4. The Scholarship of Practice in Applied Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyken-Segosebe, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines how the scholarship of practice is being used within applied disciplines and offers recommendations for colleges and universities regarding the implementation of the scholarship of practice for the discipline of higher education.

  5. Nanoclusters a bridge across disciplines

    CERN Document Server

    Jena, Purusottam

    2010-01-01

    This comprehensive book on Nanoclusters comprises sixteen authoritative chapters written by leading researchers in the field. It provides insight into topics that are currently at the cutting edge of cluster science, with the main focus on metal and metal compound systems that are of particular interest in materials science, and also on aspects related to biology and medicine. While there are numerous books on clusters, the focus on clusters as a bridge across disciplines sets this book apart from others. Delivers cutting edge coverage of cluster science Covers a broad range of topics in

  6. [At the limits of discipline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadi, Barbara U; Ruhs, August; Löffler-Stastka, Henriette

    2012-01-01

    According to Foucault, in medicine, the paradigm of discipline has outweighed the paradigm of sovereignty for over a hundred years now. It has become clear, however, that within the field of psychiatry, particularly in psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic research, an interchangeable corpus of knowledge is not sufficient for the treatment of patients. Moreover, it is often the changing relationship between doctor and patient which seems to be crucial to the process and outcome of the treatment. Every treatment-relationship must be understood as a zone of transference. Psychoanalytic research on transference, its potential and pitfalls, therefore, has to be more integrated into the research of psychic disorders.

  7. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  8. Perspectives on Parent Discipline and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusec, Joan E.; Danyliuk, Tanya; Kil, Hali; O'Neill, David

    2017-01-01

    Effective discipline involves the use of negative consequences, including reasoning as well as modest levels of power assertion, to discourage unacceptable behavior. A brief history of changing views of discipline is presented and recent positions outlined. Successful discipline requires the imposition of clear and consistent rules, autonomy…

  9. School Discipline, Educational Interest and Pupil Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the concept of school discipline will be explored in relation to that of educational interest. Initially, Clark's account of two different kinds of school order (discipline and control) will be explained. The interest-based theory of school discipline advanced by Pat Wilson will thereafter be analysed. It will be argued that both…

  10. Geriatric Cardiology: An Emerging Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John A.; Matlock, Daniel D.; Forman, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Given changing demographics, patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in developed countries are now older and more complex than even a decade ago. This trend is expected to continue into the foreseeable future; accordingly, cardiologists in practice are encountering patients with a greater number of comorbid illnesses as well as “geriatric conditions” such as cognitive impairment and frailty which complicate management and influence outcomes. Simultaneously, technological advances have widened the therapeutic options available for patients, including those with the most advanced CV disease. In the setting of these changes, geriatric cardiology has recently emerged as a discipline that aims to adapt principles from geriatric medicine into everyday cardiology practice. Accordingly, the tasks of a “geriatric cardiologist” may include both traditional evidence-based CV management plus comprehensive geriatric assessment, medication reduction, team-based coordination of care, and explicit incorporation of patient goals into management. Given that the field is still in its relative infancy, the training pathways and structure of clinical programs in geriatric cardiology are still being delineated. In this review we highlight the rationale behind geriatric cardiology as a discipline, several current approaches by geriatric cardiology programs, and future directions for the field. PMID:27476988

  11. Geriatric Cardiology: An Emerging Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John A; Matlock, Daniel D; Forman, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    Given changing demographics, patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in developed countries are now older and more complex than even a decade ago. This trend is expected to continue into the foreseeable future; accordingly, cardiologists are encountering patients with a greater number of comorbid illnesses as well as "geriatric conditions," such as cognitive impairment and frailty, which complicate management and influence outcomes. Simultaneously, technological advances have widened the therapeutic options available for patients, including those with the most advanced CV disease. In the setting of these changes, geriatric cardiology has recently emerged as a discipline that aims to adapt principles from geriatric medicine to everyday cardiology practice. Accordingly, the tasks of a "geriatric cardiologist" may include both traditional evidence-based CV management plus comprehensive geriatric assessment, medication reduction, team-based coordination of care, and explicit incorporation of patient goals into management. Given that the field is still in its relative infancy, the training pathways and structure of clinical programs in geriatric cardiology are still being delineated. In this review, we highlight the rationale behind geriatric cardiology as a discipline, several current approaches by geriatric cardiology programs, and future directions for the field. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Computational Physics Across the Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Vincent; Lammert, Paul; Engstrom, Tyler; Owen, Ben

    2011-03-01

    In this informal talk, I will present two case studies of the unexpected convergence of computational techniques across disciplines. First, the marriage of neutron star astrophysics and the materials theory of the mechanical and thermal response of crystalline solids. Although the lower reaches of a neutron star host exotic nuclear physics, the upper few meters of the crust exist in a regime that is surprisingly amenable to standard molecular dynamics simulation, albeit in a physical regime of density order of magnitude of orders of magnitude different from those familiar to most condensed matter folk. Computational results on shear strength, thermal conductivity, and other properties here are very relevant to possible gravitational wave signals from these sources. The second example connects not two disciplines of computational physics, but experimental and computational physics, and not from the traditional direction of computational progressively approaching experiment. Instead, experiment is approaching computation: regular lattices of single-domain magnetic islands whose magnetic microstates can be exhaustively enumerated by magnetic force microscopy. There resulting images of island magnetization patterns look essentially like the results of Monte Carlo simulations of Ising systems... statistical physics with the microstate revealed.

  13. TBCC Discipline Overview. Hypersonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Aeronautics Research and Development Policy" document, issued by the National Science and Technology Council in December 2006, stated that one (among several) of the guiding objectives of the federal aeronautics research and development endeavors shall be stable and long-term foundational research efforts. Nearly concurrently, the National Academies issued a more technically focused aeronautics blueprint, entitled: the "Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics - Foundations for the Future." Taken together these documents outline the principles of an aeronautics maturation plan. Thus, in response to these overarching inputs (and others), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) organized the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), a program within the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The FAP initiated foundational research and technology development tasks to enable the capability of future vehicles that operate across a broad range of Mach numbers, inclusive of the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flight regimes. The FAP Hypersonics Project concentrates on two hypersonic missions: (1) Air-breathing Access to Space (AAS) and (2) the (Planetary Atmospheric) Entry, Decent, and Landing (EDL). The AAS mission focuses on Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) systems using air-breathing combined-cycle-engine propulsion; whereas, the EDL mission focuses on the challenges associated with delivering large payloads to (and from) Mars. So, the FAP Hypersonic Project investments are aligned to achieve mastery and intellectual stewardship of the core competencies in the hypersonic-flight regime, which ultimately will be required for practical systems with highly integrated aerodynamic/vehicle and propulsion/engine technologies. Within the FAP Hypersonics, the technology management is further divided into disciplines including one targeting Turbine-Based Combine-Cycle (TBCC) propulsion. Additionally, to obtain expertise and support from outside

  14. Parametrically disciplined operation of a vibratory gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Parametrically disciplined operation of a symmetric nearly degenerate mode vibratory gyroscope is disclosed. A parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope having a natural oscillation frequency in the neighborhood of a sub-harmonic of an external stable clock reference is produced by driving an electrostatic bias electrode at approximately twice this sub-harmonic frequency to achieve disciplined frequency and phase operation of the resonator. A nearly symmetric parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope that can oscillate in any transverse direction and has more than one bias electrostatic electrode that can be independently driven at twice its oscillation frequency at an amplitude and phase that disciplines its damping to zero in any vibration direction. In addition, operation of a parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope is taught in which the precession rate of the driven vibration pattern is digitally disciplined to a prescribed non-zero reference value.

  15. Anglistics as a Dialogic Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Delanoy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In my article; dialogue is suggested as a basic direction for Anglistics. Such a perspective results from a normative notion of dialogue based on a set of particular criteria. In general terms; a case is made for (self-critical and respectful confrontation with other viewpoints within and beyond Anglistics to further develop existing positions and to create new forms of co-operation. While in the first two sections this concept is introduced and applied to the discipline of Anglistics; the final section is focussed on an area of major conflict in contemporary ELT debates. In fact; a dialogic approach will be suggested for dealing with two opposite tendencies; one aiming for standardization and the other for a humanistic form of education.

  16. Heliophysics as a Scientific Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, K.; Austin, M.; Guhathakurta, M.

    2016-12-01

    Heliophysics is a developing scientific discipline integrating studies of the Sun's variability, the surrounding heliosphere, and climate environments. Over the past few centuries our understanding of how the Sun drives space weather and climate on the Earth and other planets has advanced at an ever-increasing rate. NASA Living With a Star and the UCAR Visiting Scientist Progams sponsor the annual Heliophysics Summer Schools to build the next generation of scientists in this emerging field. The highly successful series of the summer schools (commencing 2007) trains a select group of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and university faculty to learn and develop the science of heliophysics as a broad, coherent discipline that reaches in space from the Earth's troposphere to the depths of the Sun, and in time from the formation of the solar system to the distant future. Now in its tenth year, the School has resulted in the publication of five Heliophysics textbooks now being used at universities worldwide. The books provide a foundational reference for researchers in space physics, solar physics, aeronomy, space weather, planetary science and climate science, astrophysics, plasma physics,. In parallel, the School also developed the complementary materials that support teaching of heliophysics at both graduate and undergraduate levels. The Jack Eddy Postdoctoral Fellowship Program matches newly graduated postdoctorates with hosting mentors for the purpose of training the next generation researchers needed in heliophysics. The fellowships are for two years, and any U.S. university or research lab may apply to host a fellow. Two major topics of focus for the program are the science of space weather and of the Sun-climate connection. Since the goal of this fellowship program is to train Sun-Earth system researchers, preference is also given to research projects that cross the traditional heliophysics subdomains of the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, and ionosphere

  17. Linking scientific disciplines: Hydrology and social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, R.; Barthel, R.

    2017-07-01

    The integration of interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasing role in sustainability science and more generally, in global change research. In the field of water resources, interdisciplinarity has long been recognized as crucial. Recently, new concepts and ideas about how to approach water resources management more holistically have been discussed. The emergence of concepts such as socio-hydrology indicates the growing relevance of connections between social and hydrological disciplines. In this paper, we determine how well social sciences are integrated with hydrological research by using two approaches. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey with a sample of hydrology researchers and professionals (N = 353) to explore current opinions and developments related to interdisciplinary collaboration between hydrologists and social scientists. Second, we analyzed the disciplinary composition of author teams and the reference lists of articles pertaining to the socio-hydrology concept. We conclude that interdisciplinarity in water resources research is on a promising track but may need to mature further in terms of its aims and methods of integration. We find that current literature pays little attention to the following questions: What kind of interdisciplinarity do different scholars want? What are social scientists' preferred roles and knowledge from a hydrology perspective?

  18. An Ambition to Grow

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Kemp; Hakkert, R.

    2006-01-01

    This report tries to gain insight in the willingness or ambition to grow of a small business owner. The main question of this report is therefore: Which factors influence the ambition to grow a business? To examine the ambition to grow an economic and a psychological perspective is given in this study.

  19. The science of computing shaping a discipline

    CERN Document Server

    Tedre, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The identity of computing has been fiercely debated throughout its short history. Why is it still so hard to define computing as an academic discipline? Is computing a scientific, mathematical, or engineering discipline? By describing the mathematical, engineering, and scientific traditions of computing, The Science of Computing: Shaping a Discipline presents a rich picture of computing from the viewpoints of the field's champions. The book helps readers understand the debates about computing as a discipline. It explains the context of computing's central debates and portrays a broad perspecti

  20. Biomedical informatics--a confluence of disciplines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasman, A.; Ammenwerth, E.; Dickhaus, H.; Knaup, P.; Lovis, C.; Mantas, J.; Maojo, V.; Martin-Sanchez, F. J.; Musen, M.; Patel, V. L.; Surjan, G.; Talmon, J. L.; Sarkar, I. N.

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical informatics is a broad discipline that borrows many methods and techniques from other disciplines. To reflect a) on the character of biomedical informatics and to determine whether it is multi-disciplinary or inter-disciplinary; b) on the question whether biomedical informatics is more

  1. Interrupting the Psy-Disciplines in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers critical explorations of how the psy-disciplines, Michel Foucault’s collective term for psychiatry, psychology and psycho-analysis, play out in contemporary educational spaces. With a strong focus on Foucault’s theories, it critically investigates how the psy-disciplines continue...

  2. Effective Discipline in the Home and School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Genevieve; Corsini, Raymond J.

    Based originally on the work of the Austrian psychiatrist, Alfred Adler, work which was further developed by Rudolph Dreikurs, this book Dreikurs, this book offers solutions to specific child discipline problems. Part I focuses on effective discipline in the home. These topics are covered: fundamentals of practical parenting; problems of routine…

  3. Perceived discipline, punishment and organizational performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study design was correlational design, and the instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire called Discipline, Punishment and Performance Opinion Questionnaire (DPPOQ). The independent variables of the study were discipline (classified into, persuasion, issuance of query, warning letters & withholding of ...

  4. The Law of Student Discipline in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hee, Tie Fatt

    2008-01-01

    Judicial review of decisions on student discipline is limited in Malaysia. This arises because of the general presumption that in the enforcement of school discipline, educators are able to act in the best interest of the student to maintain a safe learning environment. This article examines the range of disciplinary measures in Malaysian schools…

  5. How Can We Improve School Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osher, David; Bear, George G.; Sprague, Jeffrey R.; Doyle, Walter

    2010-01-01

    School discipline addresses schoolwide, classroom, and individual student needs through broad prevention, targeted intervention, and development of self-discipline. Schools often respond to disruptive students with exclusionary and punitive approaches that have limited value. This article surveys three approaches to improving school discipline…

  6. Disproportionality in School Discipline in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastic, Billie

    2017-01-01

    The racial discipline gap--the finding that Black and Latino students are more likely to be disciplined at school than White students, and often more harshly--has implications for students' academic success. This study concluded that differences in students' behavior do not fully explain the disproportionate likelihood that Black students are…

  7. School Discipline Inequities Become a Federal Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Federal officials are getting the word out that addressing racial disparities in school discipline is a high priority, and they plan to use "disparate-impact analysis" in enforcing school discipline cases--a legal course of action that some civil rights lawyers contend was neglected under the administration of President George W. Bush. In…

  8. School Discipline Feeds the "Pipeline to Prison"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Unsupported fears of youth violence in schools has led to an expansion of school-based policing and zero tolerance discipline. The historical reality is that America's public schools are very safe, even when located in high crime neighborhoods. Yet, school discipline is becoming increasingly punitive, moving from the schoolhouse to the courthouse.…

  9. Policies/Practices in Public School Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William E.; Payne, Tyrone

    1988-01-01

    A survey of 339 teachers (grades K-12) found lack of motivation and poor parental support to be the biggest discipline problems. Nearly 90 percent worked with a stated/written discipline policy. Approximately 75 percent believed that corporal punishment should continue. Verbal reprimands were the most common behavior change method used. (VW)

  10. School Discipline, School Uniforms and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Chris; Krskova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of school discipline in achieving academic performance. The study aims to clarify the role of permissive "vis-à-vis" authoritative teaching styles with an overarching hypothesis that better discipline leads to better academic performance. The authors also probe whether uniformed…

  11. State Legislative Recommendations to Promote Fair and Effective School Discipline. NEPC Discipline Resource Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the larger report "Discipline Policies, Successful Schools, and Racial Justice." State legislation is an important lever for improving the equity of student discipline policies. However, states vary tremendously, and only some provide accurate public reports on school discipline, support effective…

  12. Nurturing a growing field: Computers & Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Pebesma, Edzer

    2017-10-01

    Computational issues are becoming increasingly critical for virtually all fields of geoscience. This includes the development of improved algorithms and models, strategies for implementing high-performance computing, or the management and visualization of the large datasets provided by an ever-growing number of environmental sensors. Such issues are central to scientific fields as diverse as geological modeling, Earth observation, geophysics or climatology, to name just a few. Related computational advances, across a range of geoscience disciplines, are the core focus of Computers & Geosciences, which is thus a truly multidisciplinary journal.

  13. Growing Quality in Qualitative Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Macdonald PhD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methodologies are growing in popularity in health research; however, the integration of these methodologies into the clinical context is not always straightforward. In this article the author discusses some of the paradigmatic and methodological tensions that characterize the use of qualitative methodologies in clinical health research and showcase one solution to these tensions. The McGill Qualitative Health Research Group is a scholarly group of qualitative health researchers working together to advance a qualitative research agenda in clinical disciplines.

  14. Melting ice, growing trade?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sami Bensassi; Julienne C. Stroeve; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Andrew P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR...

  15. Growing into What? The (Un-)Disciplined Socialisation of Early Stage Researchers in Transdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Ulrike; Igelsbock, Judith; Schikowitz, Andrea; Volker, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Over past decades we have witnessed considerable debate questioning the capacity of contemporary research to address the challenges posed by complex societal developments. As a consequence the need for rethinking cultures and practices of knowledge production has moved high on the policy agenda. In this context transdisciplinarity has become one…

  16. Personal Experience in Positive Psychology May Offer a New Focus for a Growing Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This article presents comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham ("American Psychologist," v67 n2 p101-110 Feb-Mar 2012). The authors indicated the need to think beyond positive psychology. In particular, they argued that positive psychology needs "to move beyond labeling psychological traits and processes as positive." In general,…

  17. Research lacking on school discipline reforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    ...: 215-898-9642, katstein@gse.upenn.edu, Penn Graduate School of Education Research lacking on school discipline reforms Thin evidence on causes of and alternatives to suspensions, expulsions September 29, 2016--Since 2011, the Obama...

  18. The rod as an instrument of discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Luiz Torres; Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP

    2013-01-01

    Both in biblical literature as in ancient extrabiblical literature, the use of the rod appears primarily related to the capacity or to the authority of the one who holds it. It is, above all, an instrument of power. This article investigates the implications of using the rod as a tool of correction and discipline, taking into account the symbolism, culture and literary tradition associated with the use of that instrument of discipline for correction and transformation of those subjected to it...

  19. Altruism across disciplines: one word, multiple meanings

    OpenAIRE

    Clavien, C.; Chapuisat, M.

    2013-01-01

    Altruism is a deep and complex phenomenon that is analysed by scholars of various disciplines, including psychology, philosophy, biology, evolutionary anthropology and experimental economics. Much confusion arises in current literature because the term altruism covers variable concepts and processes across disciplines. Here we investigate the sense given to altruism when used in different fields and argumentative contexts. We argue that four distinct but related concepts need to be distinguis...

  20. Tourism - an academic discipline (discursive article)

    OpenAIRE

    Butowski, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the main methodological dilemmas connected with tourism as a field of academic research. The first part presents tourism as an area of interest in various academic disciplines. The second is a critical discussion on multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to the study of tourism. The third features an analysis of the methodological standpoints concerning possibilities for the autonomy of tourism as an academic discipline. The summary proposes a model of develo...

  1. Childhood discipline: challenges for clinicians and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, J Burton

    2002-10-15

    Although childhood discipline is an important issue for parents, this topic is seldom emphasized by family physicians during well-child examinations. Behavior problems are relatively common but frequently under-recognized by physicians. Opportunities to counsel parents about safe, effective methods of discipline are therefore missed. Discipline should be instructive and age-appropriate and should include positive reinforcement for good behavior. Punishment is only one aspect of discipline and, in order to be effective, it must be prompt, consistent, and fair. Time-out is frequently used to correct younger children, but because it is often enforced improperly, it loses its effectiveness. Corporal punishment is a controversial but common form of discipline that is less effective than some other types of punishment. Its use is linked to child and spouse abuse, as well as to future substance use, violent crime, poor self-esteem, and depression. Despite the possible negative effects of corporal punishment, it is still widely accepted in our society. Since discipline plays an important role in the social and emotional development of children, physicians should be trained to discuss this issue with parents during routine well-child examinations.

  2. The Core Competency Movement in Marriage and Family Therapy: Key Considerations from Other Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John K.; Todahl, Jeff L.; Platt, Jason J.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing movement to define competency within the field of marriage and family therapy (MFT), particularly with respect to the training of practitioners and the evaluation of clinical practice. Efforts to define competency, however, transcend the practice of MFT and much can be learned from the experiences of other disciplines.…

  3. A Discourse Analysis of Master's Theses across Disciplines with a Focus on Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samraj, Betty

    2008-01-01

    There have been a growing number of discourse studies in recent years on written academic genres produced by students. However, the master's thesis has not received as much attention as the PhD dissertation. This investigation of master's theses from three disciplines, biology, philosophy and linguistics, employs both discourse analysis and…

  4. Communicating about Communication: Fostering the Development of the Communication Discipline in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Yulia; Keyton, Joann

    Despite American domination of the social science study of communication, communication instruction is growing throughout the world. After the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, American scholars initiated activities to introduce Russian scholars to the communication discipline. This paper explores that journey by describing the history of the…

  5. Guiding Principles: A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Developing positive school climates and improving school discipline policies and practices are critical steps to raising academic achievement and supporting student success. However, there is no single formula for doing so. Rather, the growing body of research and best practices in the field should inform locally developed approaches to improving…

  6. Disciplined by the discipline: a social-epistemic fingerprint of the history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstraeten, Raf; Vandermoere, Frederic

    2015-06-01

    The scientific system is primarily differentiated into disciplines. While disciplines may be wide in scope and diverse in their research practices, they serve scientific communities that evaluate research and also grant recognition to what is published. The analysis of communication and publication practices within such a community hence allows us to shed light on the dynamics of this discipline. On the basis of an empirical analysis of Isis, we show how the process of discipline-building in history of science has led its practitioners to be socialized and sensitized in relatively strong intra-disciplinary terms--with minimal interdisciplinary openness.

  7. [Studies on the alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Meng-Hua; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yong-Gang; Yang, Cui-Ping; Su, Wei-Wei

    2011-05-01

    To study alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong. The rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MS/MS) was used to analyse alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong, and senkirkine was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography. Four alkaloids were identified as senkirkine, dehydrosenkirkine, monocrotaline and adonifoline, and senkirkine was firstly isolated from Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong. Senkirkine is the main component of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong.

  8. Reconstructing the paradigm: teaching across the disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Caroline; Pollack, Alexia

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Caroline Brown, a literature professor who focuses on American and African Diasporic writing, and Alexia Pollack, a biology professor with expertise in neuropharmacology, recount their experiences teaching across the disciplines in one another's respective classrooms, finding points of intersection and divergence, and creating classroom dialogues from the resultant encounters. Central to this process is permitting students to enter discipline-specific discourses from other disciplinary perspectives. In Caroline Brown's first year general education seminar, Examining Consciousness, a course constructed around the study of the representation of the brain through the reading of scientific writings, popular essays, personal narratives, fiction, and poetry, Alexia Pollack presented scientific lectures on neurotransmission, brain organization and structure, with an emphasis on how the brain is affected by drug addiction and organic disease. In Alexia Pollack's undergraduate and graduate courses, Neurobiology and Biology of Learning and Memory, Caroline Brown lectured on the intersection of artistry and science in American literature, tracing the depiction of learning and memory in Realistic, Modern, and Post-Modern novels, and how scientific developments influenced their representation. During these encounters the students were introduced to discipline-specific approaches, which were distinct from the perspectives of their respective classrooms. As a result, larger classroom discussions were created, allowing students to perceive intersecting dimensions of very different disciplines. This conceptual flexibility permitted students to "think outside the box" in order to develop a more complete appreciation of their particular discipline and to recognize its place in the world at large.

  9. Can Discipline Education be Culturally Sensitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley E; Hudnut-Beumler, Julia; Scholer, Seth J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Inappropriate discipline such as harsh physical punishment is a social determinant of health. The objective was to determine if a brief parent training intervention that teaches discipline strategies is culturally sensitive. Methods English or Spanish-speaking parents of 1-5 year old children viewed a multimedia program that teaches appropriate discipline strategies. The intervention, Play Nicely, was viewed in the exam room before the physician's visit. Parents viewed 4 of 20 discipline strategies of their choosing; the average viewing time was 7 min. Results Of 204 parents eligible to participate, 197 (96 %) completed the study; 41 % were Black, 31 % were White, and 21 % were Hispanic. At least 80 % of parents from each racial/ethnic group reported that the program built their confidence to care for their child, addressed their family needs, explained things in a way they could understand, respected their family values, and was sensitive to their personal beliefs. Overall, 80 % of parents reported that the program answered individual questions. One parent (0.5 %) reported that the program did not respect her family values. Conclusions for Practice Discipline education can be integrated into the pediatric primary care clinic in a way that is family-centered and culturally sensitive for the majority of parents. The results have implications for the development and implementation of population-based parenting programs and the primary prevention of child abuse and violence.

  10. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  11. Growing Up with "1984."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  12. Growing through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and…

  13. Growing Old in Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liversage, Anika; Mirdal, Gretty Mizrahi

    2017-01-01

    Some studies on immigrants and ageing focus on the question of return; others focus on how immigrants, who grow old in their countries of destination, ‘age in place’, including whether they turn to their children or to public host country provisions for care and support. However, the issues of re...

  14. [Nursing as discipline, profession, and labour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Denise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this essay is to articulate theoretical-conceptual aspects of nursing as a profession, a scientific discipline, and labour contributing to reflection concerning nursing knowledge and professional practice exercised in the context of collective work in health care. It reviews concepts from sociological theory and epistemology in order to analyze nursing in the context of scientific community, and the sociology of professions, and the work process theories in health care. This paper argues that nursing has the attributes of a profession as well as a scientific discipline, and that the limits of nursing practice need to be historically and socially contextualized. It concludes that as a social practice and discipline, nursing faces scientific and political challenges which demand a permanent process of construction.

  15. Zero Benefit: Estimating the Effect of Zero Tolerance Discipline Polices on Racial Disparities in School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of zero tolerance disciplinary policies on racial disparities in school discipline in an urban district. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, the abrupt expansion of zero tolerance discipline policies in a mid-sized urban school district, the study demonstrates that Black students in the district were…

  16. Authorizers Are Not Monolithic on School Discipline: How Charter School Authorizers Differ in School Discipline Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, M. K.; Conlan, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    In theory, authorizers play an important role in decisions regarding charter schools and student discipline, as they are the bodies responsible for protecting the public interest, while balancing school autonomy and accountability. Within public education, a rigorous debate is occurring about student discipline practices, particularly suspensions…

  17. Space civil engineering - A new discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1991-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  18. Vulnerable discipline: experiences of male competitive bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnestad, Jone; Kandal, Øyvind; Anderssen, Norman

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to understand experiences of male competitive bodybuilders from a non-pathologizing perspective. Six male Norwegian competitive bodybuilders were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using a meaning condensation procedure resulting in five themes: being proud of capacity for discipline, seeing a perfectionist attitude as a necessary evil, experiencing recognition within the bodybuilding community, being stigmatized outside the bodybuilding community and going on stage to display a capacity for willpower and discipline. We suggest that bodybuilders may be stigmatized for breaking social norms: by their distinctive appearance, by the way they handle suspected drug use and by challenging gender norms. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. A possible reconceptualization of food engineering discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-01-01

    Food industry is critical to any nation’s health and well-being; it is also critical to the economic health of a nation, since it can typically constitute over a fifth of the nation’s manufacturing GDP. Food Engineering is a discipline that ought to be at the heart of the food industry. Unfortunately, this discipline is not playing its rightful role today: engineering has been relegated to play the role of a service provider to the food industry, instead of it being a strategic driver for the...

  20. Educational Psychology as an Evolving Discipline: Trends and Synthesis in Asia Pacific Education Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-il; Koh, Hye-jung; Jo, Su-yeon; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Kim, Myeung-chan

    2014-01-01

    Educational psychology has seen rapid growth as an academic discipline in recent years. The current study reviewed research articles published in "Asia Pacific Education Review" ("APER"), a journal that has been gaining greater international recognition, to reveal recent trends in educational psychology research in Asia…

  1. Geothermal Grows Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  2. [How to approach the discipline of "nursing science" in France?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecordier, Didier; Rémy-Largeau, Isabelle; Jovic, Ljiljana

    2013-03-01

    The last four years have seen the development of supports toward research in nursing and other healthcare professionals' research, along with the fact that, nursing education has become part of university programs. Professional and scientific landscapes are changing and the opening perspectives let glimpse a growing professionalization of nurses' activities but also, raise the question of the nursing science construction in France. By considering interdisciplinary work, as an approach for complex situations of care, by specifying the purpose of the production of nursing scientific knowledge in order to meet the population needs of healthcare, by explaining the purpose of nursing research and theoretical elements that allow its construction, the following article offers an epistemological reflection on the evolution of the profession and on the construction of a nursing scientific discipline in France.

  3. The vulnerable, rapidly growing thoracic spine of the adolescent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at fault, refusing to allow a 'trivial complaint' to stand in the way of the success of the team in which their sons play a key role. Department of Orthopaedics, University .... hence the diagnosis of 'postural, non-structural, thoracic kyphosis'. In a small percentage of these cases, structural changes have been seen later, but with ...

  4. The vulnerable, rapidly growing thoracic spine of the adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolapse of disc tissue occurs into the verfebral body, causing a disturbance of growth but little if any pain. The vertebrae in the mid-thoracic region become wedge-shaped, and a kyphotic deformity results, the so-called Scheuermann's disease, or adolescent kyphosis. A plea is made for the screening of children exposed to ...

  5. Effects of photodynamic therapy on rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Min-Hsiu; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2011-01-05

    The authors investigated the antimicrobial effect of methylene blue (MB)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Mycobacterium fortuitum keratitis. In the in vitro study, the mycobacterial suspension and colonies were treated with the following: no MB, no light (normal control); MB and no light (dye control); light and no MB (light control); MB and light (PDT). Morphologic characteristics were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The bactericidal effects of combined PDT and antibiotic therapy (ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and amikacin) were determined using the broth microdilution technique. Twenty-one rabbits with Mycobacterium keratitis were randomly divided into three groups (no treatment, topical amikacin treatment, and PDT combined with amikacin treatment). The clinical features of keratitis were scored and graded before treatment and before euthanatization. The diseased corneas were trephined for quantitative bacteriologic analysis to determine the antibacterial efficacy of the treatment. In the in vitro tests, the bacterial count had a 2-log reduction immediately after PDT treatment at 100 J/cm(2) with 10(-3)% MB. After PDT at 100 J/cm(2) with 10(-2)% MB, almost no viable bacteria were detected. PDT had a synergistic antimicrobial effect in combination with antibiotics. The phototoxicity occurred in the cytoplasm first and then disrupted the mycobacterial cell walls by lysis. In the rabbit keratitis model, combined PDT resulted in significantly less bacterial burden (P PDT against Mycobacterium fortuitum. PDT could be a potential alternative treatment for nontuberculous mycobacterial corneal infections.

  6. Neuropsychology of music – a rapidly growing branch of psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Habe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between brain and music is of interest to musicians, psychologists and neuroscientists. In recent years no other area of psychology of music has seen as much advancement as neuropsychology of music. The aim of the article is to present some main issues in the neuropsychology of music abroad and in Slovenia, to classify research studies into larger categories and to predict the future development of this field.There are different levels of inquiry into the neuropsychology of music: (1 the analysis of normal and abnormal psychological and physiological functions to determine the principles and modes by which the human brain processes, codifies, stores, and produces music, and (2 a description of the clinical deficits in music perception or performance resulting from localized or diffuse damage to the nervous system. Main topics that occupy neuropsychology of music are neuropsychological models of musical processing, functional imaging of musical perception and cognition, and the use of music as a therapeutic and clinical tool. Although some important studies have already been conducted since the year 2003, in Slovenia we faced a "formal" turning point in acknowledging the importance of the connection between music, mind and brain with the Sinapsa's Week of the brain 2009 under the title Brain and music.

  7. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  8. Pervasive Healthcare as a Scientific Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2008-01-01

    . Methods: The paper presents the research questions, approach, technologies, and methods of pervasive healthcare and discusses these in comparison to those of other related scientific disciplines. Results: A set of central research themes are presented; monitoring and body sensor networks; pervasive...

  9. Childrearing Discipline and Violence in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated…

  10. School-Wide Discipline and Classroom Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Mary Beth; Audette, Bob; White, Richard; Ellis, Edward; Algozzine, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Shortages of teachers with specialized skills, coupled with increased difficulty accommodating students with problem behaviors in general education classrooms, create pressures for performance and accountability in schools. Describes improvements in classroom ecology after implementation of a school-wide discipline model. These outcomes were…

  11. Discipline Based Instruction in Business Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custin, Richard E.; Demas, John C.; Lampe, Marc; Custin, Colette L.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate business law courses typically utilize traditional textbooks organized by topic. Individual chapters, address the usual topics including contracts, torts, the court system and ethics. An innovative approach to facilitating a business law course involves segregating sections of the course into common business disciplines. Rather than…

  12. Discipline and Methodology in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…

  13. Dance: The Possibilities of a Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Dance has been a discipline in higher education in the UK for nearly 35 years; the first programme was introduced at the Laban Centre in 1975. The breadth of features that have come to characterise dance in the academy during this time have arguably been enriched by a permeability between the varied ideas that have come to be part of its maturing…

  14. The relationship between discipline and academic performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to show that quality teaching and learning are the bed rock of discipline and academic performance. The main aim is to show how the escalation of indiscipline has effect on the academic performance of the learners. Indiscipline has become strife in schools and which has plunged our learners ...

  15. Philosophy and the Disciplines: The Borderlines | Minimah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major difference is that while the practitioners of the disciplines are concerned with mere definitions or meaning of concepts, the philosopher from the stand point of Wittgenstein's reaction to the Cartesian conception of the mind and his ideas on language goes beyond mere definitions or meaning to the analysis of ...

  16. Restorative Justice for Discipline with Respect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmelynski, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Expulsion is commonly schools' last resort to maintain discipline and keep schools safe. But increasingly, educators are turning to "restorative justice"--an alternative method from the field of criminology--with promising results. According to Randall Comfort, assistant upper-school director, Mounds Park Academy, St. Paul, Minnesota, using this…

  17. Restorative Justice: Pedagogy, Praxis, and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Brenda E.; Vaandering, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    In the ongoing effort of designing school contexts in support of proactive discipline, a range of practices and theoretical frameworks have been advanced, from behaviorist approaches to social and emotional learning. This article describes the theory and practice of restorative justice with the aim of defining this distinctive paradigm, in…

  18. perceived discipline, punishment and organizational performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    suggest that scholars may misinterpret the incidence of discipline when they fail to account for the dynamic ways that organizations and management shape sanctioning patterns. Daft. (2009) suggests that managers should dispense punishment carefully to avoid employees giving up on attitudes of high performance. This,.

  19. Veterinary Medical Genetics: A Developing Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James E.; Templeton, Joe W.

    1978-01-01

    Areas that will influence the development of veterinary medical genetics as a clinical discipline are discussed, some critical research areas of immediate concern are suggested, and misconceptions held by many practicing veterinarians which must be corrected at the level of veterinary education are identified. (JMD)

  20. Agriculture Undergraduates Preference For Agriculture Disciplines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that they would have made a change in their fields of study if given the opportunity, which could result in glut of personnel in some departments of agriculture while leaving a surplus in others. Hypothesis testing shows a significant difference among students\\' perception of their discipline and agriculture as the ...

  1. Report: The Continuing Need to Rethink Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Schools should be safe, nurturing, and welcoming environments for all students. Frequently, exclusionary school discipline practices, which remove students from the classroom--even for minor infractions of school rules--through suspension or expulsion, prevent students from participating fully in their education. Suspensions, expulsions, and other…

  2. Collaborative Problem Solving Can Transform School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ross W.

    2011-01-01

    What we're thinking about behaviorally challenging students and what we're doing to them requires a fresh look. When schools believe that parental discipline explains a child's misbehavior, educators are less likely to consider different explanations for the misbehavior and the full range of interventions that could be implemented at school. And…

  3. Study in Depth: Sociology versus Other Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Theodore C.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of student perceptions concerning in-depth study of sociology compared with other disciplines in the social sciences and other liberal arts. Finds that sociology majors experience less study in depth than do other majors. Discusses the implications of the findings. (CFR)

  4. On General Education as a Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljens, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses general education as a foundational discipline within the educational sciences. Refers to the Nordic and German traditions of general education, or "Allgemeine Padogogik," which covers what the Anglo-American world refers to as educational theory and philosophy. Reports that today the interest towards the philosophy and theory…

  5. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  6. Positive discipline, harsh physical discipline, physical discipline and psychological aggression in five Caribbean countries: Associations with preschoolers' early literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede Yildirim, Elif; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L

    2017-11-02

    Physical punishment has received worldwide attention because of its negative impact on children's cognitive and social development and its implications for children's rights. Using UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 4 and 5 data, we assessed the associations between positive discipline, harsh physical punishment, physical punishment and psychological aggression and preschoolers' literacy skills in 5628 preschool-aged children and their caregivers in the developing nations of Belize, the Dominican Republic, Guyana, Jamaica and Suriname. Caregivers across countries used high levels of explanations and psychological aggression. There were significant country differences in the use of the four disciplinary practices. In the Dominican Republic and Guyana, physical punishment had negative associations with children's literacy skills, and in the Dominican Republic, positive discipline had a positive association with children's literacy skills. Findings are discussed with respect to the negative consequences of harsh disciplinary practices on preschoolers' early literacy skills in the developing world. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Growing unculturable bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric J

    2012-08-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field.

  8. Endangered species and a threatened discipline: behavioural ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Tim; Sherman, Paul W

    2011-03-01

    Behavioural ecologists often see little connection between the current conservation crisis and the future of their discipline. This view is myopic because our abilities to investigate and interpret the adaptive significance and evolutionary histories of behaviours are increasingly being compromised in human-dominated landscapes because of species extinctions, habitat destruction, invasive species, pollution, and climate change. In this review, we argue that many central issues in behavioural ecology will soon become prohibitively difficult to investigate and interpret, thus impeding the rapid progress that characterizes the field. To address these challenges, behavioural ecologists should design studies not only to answer basic scientific questions but also to provide ancillary information for protection and management of their study organisms and habitats, and then share their biological insights with the applied conservation community. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parents' experience of flooding in discipline encounters: Associations with discipline and interplay with related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Michael F; Mitnick, Danielle M; Slep, Amy M Smith

    2016-06-01

    In family psychology, the term flooding refers to the feeling of being overwhelmed by a family member's behavior in a manner that undermines an organized response. In the present investigation we first aimed to clarify the role of flooding in overreactive and lax discipline. The second study aim was to more fully establish the position of parental flooding in its nomological network given the relative paucity of research on parental flooding. Maternal discipline and physiological responses, as well as child behavior, were observed in laboratory discipline encounters with 97 mother-toddler dyads. Mothers then rated the extent to which they experienced flooding in response to their children's behavior and emotion displays during the immediately preceding discipline encounters. Mothers' experience of negative emotion was assessed via video-mediated recall. Flooding was positively associated with both overreactive and lax discipline; this association did not reflect confounding by mothers' experience of negative emotion. Flooding was further associated with mothers' experienced negative emotion and heart rate reactivity, as well as child misbehavior and negative emotion displays. The flooding-overreactive discipline association was concentrated in those mothers who exhibited greater increases in heart rate and greater vagal withdrawal, and whose children misbehaved more during the discipline encounter. The present results suggest the incremental validity of flooding in predicting discipline practices, as well as the strong fit of flooding in its nomological network. Parents' self-recognition of flooding may ultimately prove useful in parenting interventions as a signal to trigger compensatory techniques. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Participatory Games: Experiential learning to bridge disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, E.; Suarez, P.; Mendler de Suarez, J.; Bachofen, C.

    2014-12-01

    While the benefits of multi-disciplinary education have been extolled, there is more to success than producing students who are able to articulate the theorems of all pertinent disciplines. Here, we will describe case studies in which participatory scenario exercises and games can make the difference between memorizing information from an "outside" discipline, and actually internalizing the priorities and complications of the issue from an alien perspective. Case studies include teaching Red Cross community-based volunteers the Probability Distribution Function of seasonal rainfall forecasts, as well as requiring students of Columbia University's Master's Program in Climate and Society to study both natural and social aspects of climate. Games create a model system of the world, in which players assume a role and make decisions with consequences, facing complex feedback loops. Taking such roles catalyzes "AHA" moments that effectively bring home the intricacies of disciplinary paradigms outside of one's own.

  11. Seesaw Discipline: The Interactive Effect of Harsh and Lax Discipline on Youth Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Justin; McKee, Laura G; Forehand, Rex

    2016-02-01

    Although extant research documents the negative consequences of harsh and lax discipline for youth, little empirical attention has been devoted to understanding the impact when parents utilize both strategies. As such, the current study was designed to explore the interaction of harsh and lax discipline on youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms in three developmental periods (early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence). Participants were 615 parents (55 % female) and one of their 3-to-17 year old children (45 % female). Parents provided reports of their harsh and lax parenting tactics as well as offspring internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Multiple linear regression analyses were utilized to examine the relations between the interaction of harsh and lax parenting on youth symptoms. The interaction between harsh and lax discipline was significantly related to youth internalizing, but not externalizing, problems in the both the young and middle childhood samples and marginally significant in the adolescence sample: Seesaw discipline - a novel construct indicative of high levels of both harsh and lax discipline - was associated with the highest levels of youth internalizing problems. Parents who engage in seesaw parenting have children and adolescents who are more likely to evidence internalizing symptoms. Such findings may inform prevention and intervention efforts that target dysfunctional discipline.

  12. Dealing with uncertainties - communication between disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Bernadet; Bessembinder, Janette

    2013-04-01

    Climate adaptation research inevitably involves uncertainty issues - whether people are building a model, using climate scenarios, or evaluating policy processes. However, do they know which uncertainties are relevant in their field of work? And which uncertainties exist in the data from other disciplines that they use (e.g. climate data, land use, hydrological data) and how they propagate? From experiences in Dutch research programmes on climate change in the Netherlands we know that disciplines often deal differently with uncertainties. This complicates communication between disciplines and also with the various users of data and information on climate change and its impacts. In October 2012 an autumn school was organized within the Knowledge for Climate Research Programme in the Netherlands with as central theme dealing with and communicating about uncertainties, in climate- and socio-economic scenarios, in impact models and in the decision making process. The lectures and discussions contributed to the development of a common frame of reference (CFR) for dealing with uncertainties. The common frame contains the following: 1. Common definitions (typology of uncertainties, robustness); 2. Common understanding (why do we consider it important to take uncertainties into account) and aspects on which we disagree (how far should scientists go in communication?); 3. Documents that are considered important by all participants; 4. Do's and don'ts in dealing with uncertainties and communicating about uncertainties (e.g. know your audience, check how your figures are interpreted); 5. Recommendations for further actions (e.g. need for a platform to exchange experiences). The CFR is meant to help researchers in climate adaptation to work together and communicate together on climate change (better interaction between disciplines). It is also meant to help researchers to explain to others (e.g. decision makers) why and when researchers agree and when and why they disagree

  13. Teaching biomedical technology innovation as a discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yock, Paul G; Brinton, Todd J; Zenios, Stefanos A

    2011-07-20

    Recently, universities in the United States and abroad have developed dedicated educational programs in life science technology innovation. Here, we discuss the two major streams of educational theory and practice that have informed these programs: design thinking and entrepreneurship education. We make the case that the process of innovation for new medical technologies (medtech) is different from that for biopharmaceuticals and outline the challenges and opportunities associated with developing a discipline of medtech innovation.

  14. Enterprise Architecture Design as an Engineering Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Aier, Stephan; Kurpjuweit, Stephan; Saat, Jan; Winter, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Enterprise architecture can provide systematic support to organizational change, when requirements of respective stakeholders of business and IT are met. This article focuses on the design of enterprise architecture and proposes a business-to-IT approach that considers lessons from classical engineering disciplines. A framework for engineering driven enterprise architecture design is presented. Since such an approach creates specific requirements for tool support, an appropriate software impl...

  15. Genetic epidemiology: an expanding scientific discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyszynski Diego F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic epidemiology is a relatively new discipline that studies the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of human diseases. Taking advantage of genetic markers provided by molecular biological research, complex computerized algorithms, and large databases, the field of genetic epidemiology has undergone significant development over the past 10 years. Using concrete examples from recent scientific literature, this article describes the objectives and methodology of genetic epidemiology.

  16. Describing Creativity in Design Across Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Llew; Tekmen Araci, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is an essential aspect of design thinking. Being able to describe creativity and creative processes is important for developing future designers. While much research has been undertaken describing creativity in design, there is very little investigating how creativity and creative thinking varies across disciplines. A coding scheme involving six separate codes was developed initially from the literature, refined and then used to describe how creativity and creative thinking was app...

  17. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position. However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index, which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  18. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Borgi, Marta; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications) do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position). However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index), which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  19. Growing for different ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  1. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  2. Governing bodies and learner discipline: managing rural schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SGBs) should adopt and assist in the enforcement of a learner code of conduct to maintain discipline effectively. This study focuses on the perceptions and experiences of SGBs in managing discipline in rural secondary schools through the ...

  3. Entrepreneurship and the Discipline of External Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanda, Ramana

    I confirm the finding that the propensity to start a new firm rises sharply among those in the top five per­centiles of personal wealth. This pattern is more pronounced for entrants in less capital intensive sectors. Prior to entry, founders in this group earn about 6% less compared to those who ......, these findings suggest that the spike in entry at the top end of the wealth distribution is driven by low-ability individuals who can afford to start (and sometimes continue running) weaker firms because they do not face the discipline of external finance....

  4. Bridging disciplines through problem based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether a problem based approach to students’ learning may support interdisciplinary education at university level, where students are required to engage with the complexities inherent in constructing knowledge across disciplinary boundaries. These complexities include students...... of how a problem based approach to learning will be implemented in the programs to support students in their engagement with the complexities of amalgamating and transgressing the disciplines of technology and anthropology. The paper is concluded by a brief discussion of problem based learning...... as an approach to operationalising interdisciplinary education, and some challenges are identified....

  5. Examining classroom influences on student perceptions of school climate: the role of classroom management and exclusionary discipline strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary M; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2013-10-01

    There is growing emphasis on the use of positive behavior supports rather than exclusionary discipline strategies to promote a positive classroom environment. Yet, there has been limited research examining the association between these two different approaches to classroom management and students' perceptions of school climate. Data from 1902 students within 93 classrooms that were nested within 37 elementary schools were examined using multilevel structural equation modeling procedures to investigate the association between two different classroom management strategies (i.e., exclusionary discipline strategies and the use of positive behavior supports) and student ratings of school climate (i.e., fairness, order and discipline, student-teacher relationship, and academic motivation). The analyses indicated that greater use of exclusionary discipline strategies was associated with lower order and discipline scores, whereas greater use of classroom-based positive behavior supports was associated with higher scores on order and discipline, fairness, and student-teacher relationship. These findings suggest that pre-service training and professional development activities should promote teachers' use of positive behavior support strategies and encourage reduced reliance on exclusionary discipline strategies in order to enhance the school climate and conditions for learning. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How Do Academic Disciplines Use PowerPoint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    How do academic disciplines use PowerPoint? This project analyzed PowerPoint files created by an academic publisher to supplement textbooks. An automated analysis of 30,263 files revealed clear differences by disciplines. Single-paradigm "hard" disciplines used less complex writing but had more words than multi-paradigm "soft"…

  7. The Discipline Dilemma: Control, Management, Influence. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramon

    Noting that more democratic values have begun to replace authoritarian values in the classroom, this book offers teachers three different discipline styles and provides guidance in classroom management, discipline strategy, and flexible problem solving. Chapter 1 of the book addresses general discipline and provides debate on utilizing democratic…

  8. Integrating Proactive Discipline Practices into Codes of Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenning, Pamela; Theodos, Jennifer; Benner, Courtney; Bohanon-Edmonson, Hank

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to advocate for proactive content in discipline codes of conduct. Proactive discipline codes integrate Positive Behavior Support (PBS) strategies (Sugai & Horner, 2002) and attend to the academic needs of students (McEvoy & Welker, 2000). Proactive discipline codes of conduct have meaningful participation by key…

  9. english as an arts discipline in environmental education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subject English can be used as a discipline or as a medium. This paper describes the form of English as a discipline and questions the way it is used in environmental education. A call is made to involve in environmental education those who understand the form of English as a discipline in particular and of the arts in ...

  10. Discipline-based academic literacy in two contexts | Goodier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It argues that basing academic literacy courses in the disciplines that students are studying is essential in assisting students to acquire discipline-specific genres, and is likely to be far more effective than a generic course ... Keywords: discipline-based language learning, academic literacy, science writing, commerce writing

  11. Gendered Views of Managing Discipline in School and Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar; Atias, Miri

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored male and female principals' views of classroom and discipline management from a gender perspective. Based on semi-structured interviews with 16 primary school principals from Israel, the study points to gendered views of school discipline, in that certain perspectives to prevent or handle discipline problems in school…

  12. Dossier 'Cultural management, a new discipline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glòria Munilla

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, neither universities nor the other training centres have considered cultural management to be a free-standing area of knowledge, seeing it instead to be dependent on other areas classically accepted by the scientific and education community.In this dossier, three researchers and professionals bring us into closer contact with the world of cultural management in terms of their different areas of professional activity and their corresponding different perspectives: cultural management in public institutions and their approach to the university world; the impact that two institutions and their management model, Barcelona's Contemporary Art Museum (MACBA and Barcelona's Contemporary Culture Centre (CCCB, can have on a city and a neighbourhood, and how this new discipline is seen in terms of the day-to-day of managing events of international scope. All three, Alba Colombo, Joaquim Rius and Laura Solanilla, are united in their passion for this discipline; likewise, all three of them, show exactly the extent to which interdisciplinary training is vital for this 'new' (or not so new cultural profession.

  13. Ophthalmologic findings in contact sport disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrione, Paolo; Quaranta, Federico; DE Luca, Valeria; Sperandii, Fabio; Ciminelli, Emanuela; Cantera, Emilia; Fagnani, Federica; Pigozzi, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and the incidence of ocular complications in contact sport disciplines in a large population of professional and amateur athletes over a period of 3 years. We performed a retrospective review of 694 medical records from athletes examinated from 2008 to 2011. The following data were collected during the routine visit for agonistic sports eligibility: medical history, age, weight, years of sport practice, approximate number of matches, head and eyes injuries during and beyond of the match and a through ocular history. All athletes underwent a detailed ophthalmological evaluation. The follow-up of each athlete was carried out during the following routine visit for agonistic sports eligibility. Most common disorders observed were: peripheral retinal degeneration, blepharitis, conjunctival and corneal diseases with a prevalence of 7%, 4%, 7% and 4% respectively. It was observed a positive correlation between peripheral retinal degeneration and age in amateur male boxers. Moreover, we noticed an incidence of 6% of laser therapeutic treatments as a result of retinal holes or degenerations, during the follow-up. Contact sport disciplines did not result in higher prevalence of severe ocular lesion. Both conjuntival diseases and peripheral retinal degenerations represented the ophthalmologic disorders with the higher prevalence in our sample. In particular, peripheral retinal degeneration is remarkable because of the increased risk of retinal detachment. Dyschromatopsie, even if quite rare, should be considered when analysing the reception of shots, since gloves in most cases are either red or blue.

  14. Multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and transdisciplinarity in health research, services, education and policy: 3. Discipline, inter-discipline distance, and selection of discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K; Pak, Anita W P

    2008-01-01

    Multiple disciplinary efforts are increasingly encouraged in health research, services, education and policy. This paper is the third in a series. The first discussed the definitions, objectives, and evidence of effectiveness of multiple disciplinary teamwork. The second examined the promoters, barriers, and ways to enhance such teamwork. This paper addresses the questions of discipline, inter-discipline distance, and where to look for multiple disciplinary collaboration. This paper proposes a conceptual framework of the knowledge universe, based on a review of a number of key papers on the Global Brain. These key papers were identified during a literature review on multiple disciplinary teamwork, using Google and MEDLINE (1982-2007) searches. A discipline is held together by a shared epistemology. In general, disciplines that are more disparate from one another epistemologically are more likely to achieve new insight for a complex problem. The proposed conceptual framework of the knowledge universe consists of several knowledge subsystems, each containing a number of disciplines. The inter-discipline distance can guide us to select appropriate disciplines for a multiple disciplinary team. If multiple disciplinarity is called for, the proposed view of the knowledge universe as a series of knowledge subsystems and disciplines, and the place of health sciences in the knowledge universe, will help researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to identify disciplines for multiple disciplinary efforts.

  15. Vulnerable Decision Points for Disproportionate Office Discipline Referrals: Comparisons of Discipline for African American and White Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolkowski, Keith; Girvan, Erik J.; McIntosh, Kent; Nese, Rhonda N. T.; Horner, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in rates of exclusionary school discipline are well documented and seemingly intractable. However, emerging theories on implicit bias show promise in identifying effective interventions. In this study, we used school discipline data from 1,666 elementary schools and 483,686 office discipline referrals to identify specific…

  16. Attributions and Discipline History as Predictors of Child Abuse Potential and Future Discipline Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina, M.; Price, Brittany, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We attempted to identify factors that can be applied in primary and secondary prevention programs and expand the understanding of why those who were not abused may engage in abusive behavior. The purpose of this research was to explore how young adults' attributions of whether they deserved their childhood discipline, as well as their…

  17. Federal Policy Recommendations to Promote Fair and Effective School Discipline. NEPC Discipline Resource Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Federal legislation is an important lever for improving the equity and efficacy of school, district, and state discipline policies. Legislation should ensure that all students are treated fairly, regardless of race, gender, or class. This paper presents three recommendations for changing federal legislation to accomplish this goal. These…

  18. International variations in harsh child discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Desmond K; Shankar, Viswanathan; Hassan, Fatma; Hunter, Wanda M; Jain, Dipty; Paula, Cristiane S; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Ramiro, Laurie S; Muñoz, Sergio R; Vizcarra, Beatriz; Bordin, Isabel A

    2010-09-01

    Although the history of recognition of child abuse in Europe and North America extends over 40 years, recognition and data are lacking in other parts of the world. Cultural differences in child-rearing complicate cross-cultural studies of abuse. To ascertain rates of harsh and less-harsh parenting behavior in population-based samples. We used parallel surveys of parental discipline of children in samples of mothers in Brazil, Chile, Egypt, India, Philippines, and the United States. Data were collected between 1998 and 2003. The instrument used was a modification of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale, along with a study-developed survey of demographic characteristics and other parent and child variables. Women (N=14 239) from 19 communities in 6 countries were surveyed. We interviewed mothers aged 15 to 49 years (18-49 years in the United States) who had a child younger than 18 years in her home. Sample selection involved either random sampling or systematic sampling within randomly selected blocks or neighborhoods. Nearly all parents used nonviolent discipline and verbal or psychological punishment. Physical punishment was used in at least 55% of the families. Spanking rates (with open hand on buttocks) ranged from a low of 15% in an educated community in India to a high of 76% in a Philippine community. Similarly, there was a wide range in the rates of children who were hit with objects (9%-74% [median: 39%]) or beaten by their parents (0.1%-28.5%). Extremely harsh methods of physical punishment, such as burning or smothering, were rare in all countries. It is concerning that >or=20% of parents in 9 communities admitted shaking children younger than 2 years. Physical and verbal punishments of children are common in high-, middle-, and low-income communities around the world. The forms and rates of punishment vary among countries and among communities within countries. A median of 16% of children experienced harsh or potentially abusive physical discipline in

  19. The Assembly of Geophysics: Scientific Disciplines as Frameworks of Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Gregory A.

    What makes any investigative field a scientific discipline? This article argues that disciplines are ever-changing frameworks within which scientific activity is organised. Moreover, disciplinarity is not a yes or no proposition: scientific activities may achieve degrees of identity development. Degree of consensus is the key, and consensus on many questions (conceptual, methodological, institutional, and social) varies among sciences. Lastly, disciplinary development is non-teleological. Disciplines pass through no regular stages on their way from immature to mature status, designations articulated within the rhetoric of discipline formation. Scientists assemble disciplines using many elements: phenomena, methods, instruments, theories, analytical techniques, and institutional tools such as journals, government bureaus, and university positions. Scientists created geophysics during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries through such a combination. Whether geophysics became a discipline depends on how discipline is defined.

  20. A new discipline: Confined Areas Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Agostinis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Confined Areas Medicine is a new discipline devoted to a specific branch of the components of emergency services. In it convey the characteristics typical of behavioral intervention in hostile area peculiar of the National Fire Corps and the National Speleological and Alpine Corps. While not considering the natural events that cause the collapse of housing the Italian case reported in the last fifty years about two hundred structural collapses that are charged over a thousand deaths (source: ISTAT 2006. Analysis of the documents accessible to the public today we can say without fear of denials, that 25% of these deaths are due to relief late or ineffective treatment on the spot. In fact, the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association claims that 10% of victims trapped under the rubble can be saved with a location and an early recovery, which can significantly increase this percentage with the health care stabilization directly at the place of discovery.

  1. Synthetic biology: an emerging engineering discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.

  2. The reformative discipline of the landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Esposito

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We have been granted a new season that is much too long and devastating during which an indigestible amount has been built in a very brief period. Eventually, we will have to address this with actions of either reclamation or redevelopment and architecture will have to know how to propose itself as a guiding discipline that will reform the Italian landscape, especially the urban one. It will be necessary to conceive a critical point of view with respect to the usual logic used in redevelopment building that tends to overlook collective interests. Architecture is a collective art, in its contributions and results. Design on the other hand, is a personal art, which has become closely connected to architecture in recent years, a privileged vehicle that has allowed the designer and the products of design reach commercial gains.

  3. Data science as an academic discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Jack Smith

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available I recall being a proud young academic about 1970; I had just received a research grant to build and study a scientific database, and I had joined CODATA. I was looking forward to the future in this new exciting discipline when the head of my department, an internationally known professor, advised me that data was “a low level activity” not suitable for an academic. I recall my dismay. What can we do to ensure that this does not happen again and that data science is universally recognized as a worthwhile academic activity? Incidentally, I did not take that advice, or I would not be writing this essay, but moved into computer science. I will use my experience to draw comparisons between the problems computer science had to become academically recognized and those faced by data science.

  4. Charter Schools' Discipline Policies Face Scrutiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn; Cavanagh, Sean; McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    As the number of charter schools continues to grow, one facet of their autonomy--the ability to set and enforce independent disciplinary standards--has raised difficult questions about whether those schools are pushing out students who pose behavior or academic challenges and how their policies affect regular public schools. Research on the issue…

  5. Physical Discipline and Children's Adjustment: Cultural Normativeness as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Palmérus, Kerstin; Bacchini, Dario; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Zelli, Arnaldo; Tapanya, Sombat; Chaudhary, Nandita; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Manke, Beth; Quinn, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 336 mother – child dyads (children's ages ranged from 6 to 17 years; mothers' ages ranged from 20 to 59 years) in China, India, Italy, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand to examine whether normativeness of physical discipline moderates the link between mothers' use of physical discipline and children's adjustment. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that physical discipline was less strongly associated with adverse child outcomes in conditions of greater perceived normativeness, but physical discipline was also associated with more adverse outcomes regardless of its perceived normativeness. Countries with the lowest use of physical discipline showed the strongest association between mothers' use and children's behavior problems, but in all countries higher use of physical discipline was associated with more aggression and anxiety. PMID:16274437

  6. Scholarometer: a social framework for analyzing impact across disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasleen; Hoang, Diep Thi; Sun, Xiaoling; Possamai, Lino; Jafariasbagh, Mohsen; Patil, Snehal; Menczer, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    The use of quantitative metrics to gauge the impact of scholarly publications, authors, and disciplines is predicated on the availability of reliable usage and annotation data. Citation and download counts are widely available from digital libraries. However, current annotation systems rely on proprietary labels, refer to journals but not articles or authors, and are manually curated. To address these limitations, we propose a social framework based on crowdsourced annotations of scholars, designed to keep up with the rapidly evolving disciplinary and interdisciplinary landscape. We describe a system called Scholarometer, which provides a service to scholars by computing citation-based impact measures. This creates an incentive for users to provide disciplinary annotations of authors, which in turn can be used to compute disciplinary metrics. We first present the system architecture and several heuristics to deal with noisy bibliographic and annotation data. We report on data sharing and interactive visualization services enabled by Scholarometer. Usage statistics, illustrating the data collected and shared through the framework, suggest that the proposed crowdsourcing approach can be successful. Secondly, we illustrate how the disciplinary bibliometric indicators elicited by Scholarometer allow us to implement for the first time a universal impact measure proposed in the literature. Our evaluation suggests that this metric provides an effective means for comparing scholarly impact across disciplinary boundaries.

  7. Scholarometer: a social framework for analyzing impact across disciplines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasleen Kaur

    Full Text Available The use of quantitative metrics to gauge the impact of scholarly publications, authors, and disciplines is predicated on the availability of reliable usage and annotation data. Citation and download counts are widely available from digital libraries. However, current annotation systems rely on proprietary labels, refer to journals but not articles or authors, and are manually curated. To address these limitations, we propose a social framework based on crowdsourced annotations of scholars, designed to keep up with the rapidly evolving disciplinary and interdisciplinary landscape. We describe a system called Scholarometer, which provides a service to scholars by computing citation-based impact measures. This creates an incentive for users to provide disciplinary annotations of authors, which in turn can be used to compute disciplinary metrics. We first present the system architecture and several heuristics to deal with noisy bibliographic and annotation data. We report on data sharing and interactive visualization services enabled by Scholarometer. Usage statistics, illustrating the data collected and shared through the framework, suggest that the proposed crowdsourcing approach can be successful. Secondly, we illustrate how the disciplinary bibliometric indicators elicited by Scholarometer allow us to implement for the first time a universal impact measure proposed in the literature. Our evaluation suggests that this metric provides an effective means for comparing scholarly impact across disciplinary boundaries.

  8. Learner discipline at school: A comparative educational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    C.C. Wolhunter; S.C. Steyn

    2003-01-01

    Learner discipline constitutes an acute problem in South African schools, especially if it is approached within a Reformational frame of reference. The aim of the research underlying this article was to survey the available subject-related literature on school discipline abroad. The available published research results are largely limited to the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Australia. In these three countries learner discipline in schools constitutes a problem, although it...

  9. Occupational health: a discipline out of focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D

    1993-01-01

    This article first examines three areas of occupational health: the work of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the work on chemicals of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), and the International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention and Recommendation on Occupational Health Services. All three areas are criticized, using the notion of a "scientific strategy" which is the use of bodies of scientific knowledge and techniques in approaching occupational health. In the first two areas, it is contended that a misguided scientific strategy has been adopted which is a comment on the role of scientists in policy-making. In the third case, it is argued that the Convention and Recommendation emphasize the remedial aspects of occupational health to the detriment of the preventive side, a reflection of the undue influence of industrial medicine on occupational health. A proper approach to occupational health would make very different demands on science and would employ engineering techniques at the expense of the medical disciplines. As it is, occupational health is out of focus.

  10. NUTRIGENOMICS – A NEW BORDELINE BIOMEDICAL DISCIPLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Tudose

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrigenomics or nutritional genomics is a borderline discipline, a branch of ecogenomics which studies the role of individual genetic polymorphisms and the influence of diet as risk factors for the occurrence of chronic diseases. The interaction of genetic variation with dietary factors led to this new field of research, which relates the role of gene‐ tics to nutritional requirements and nutrition‐mediated susceptibility to chronic diseases. The present paper dis‐ cusses some general considerations on the objectives of nutrigenomics, such as: introducing a personalized nutri‐ tion based on individual genetic variations, identification of specific polymorphisms which, related to specific diets, increase the risk for chronic diseases, genetic testing of individuals and selection of diets appropriate to specific genetic constitutions, creation of new foods to improve consumers health (functional foods or even to heal some metabolic deficiencies (nutraceutics. Eventually, we are debating the most recent trends in nutrigenomics from the point of view of different actors: physicians, researchers, medical health and food authorities, politicians, food industry representatives etc.

  11. The emergent discipline of health web science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Joanne S; Cumming, Grant P; Wilkinson, Mark D; Kahana, Eva

    2013-08-22

    The transformative power of the Internet on all aspects of daily life, including health care, has been widely recognized both in the scientific literature and in public discourse. Viewed through the various lenses of diverse academic disciplines, these transformations reveal opportunities realized, the promise of future advances, and even potential problems created by the penetration of the World Wide Web for both individuals and for society at large. Discussions about the clinical and health research implications of the widespread adoption of information technologies, including the Internet, have been subsumed under the disciplinary label of Medicine 2.0. More recently, however, multi-disciplinary research has emerged that is focused on the achievement and promise of the Web itself, as it relates to healthcare issues. In this paper, we explore and interrogate the contributions of the burgeoning field of Web Science in relation to health maintenance, health care, and health policy. From this, we introduce Health Web Science as a subdiscipline of Web Science, distinct from but overlapping with Medicine 2.0. This paper builds on the presentations and subsequent interdisciplinary dialogue that developed among Web-oriented investigators present at the 2012 Medicine 2.0 Conference in Boston, Massachusetts.

  12. Geocognition Research: An International Discipline (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, J.

    2009-12-01

    Geocognition and geoscience education research have experienced a dramatic increase in research productivity and graduate student training in the past decade. At this writing, over twelve U.S. graduate programs dedicated to geocognition and geoscience education research exist within geoscience departments, with numerous other programs housed within education. International research programs are experiencing similar increases in these research domains. This insurgence of graduate training opportunities is due in large part to several factors, including: An increased awareness of the importance of Earth Systems Science to public understanding of science, particularly in light of global concern about climate change; new funding opportunities for science education, cognitive science, and geoscience education research; and, engagement of a significant part of the geosciences and education communities in writing new standards for Earth Systems literacy. Existing research programs blend geoscience content knowledge with research expertise in education, cognitive science, psychology, sociology and related disciplines. Research projects reflect the diversity of interests in geoscience teaching and learning, from investigations of pedagogical impact and professional development to studies of fundamental geocognitive processes.

  13. The Emergent Discipline of Health Web Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The transformative power of the Internet on all aspects of daily life, including health care, has been widely recognized both in the scientific literature and in public discourse. Viewed through the various lenses of diverse academic disciplines, these transformations reveal opportunities realized, the promise of future advances, and even potential problems created by the penetration of the World Wide Web for both individuals and for society at large. Discussions about the clinical and health research implications of the widespread adoption of information technologies, including the Internet, have been subsumed under the disciplinary label of Medicine 2.0. More recently, however, multi-disciplinary research has emerged that is focused on the achievement and promise of the Web itself, as it relates to healthcare issues. In this paper, we explore and interrogate the contributions of the burgeoning field of Web Science in relation to health maintenance, health care, and health policy. From this, we introduce Health Web Science as a subdiscipline of Web Science, distinct from but overlapping with Medicine 2.0. This paper builds on the presentations and subsequent interdisciplinary dialogue that developed among Web-oriented investigators present at the 2012 Medicine 2.0 Conference in Boston, Massachusetts. PMID:23968998

  14. Complexity of ambulatory care across disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David; Wood, Robert; Jaén, Carlos Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Complexity of care has implications for quality of care, health costs, medical errors, and patient and physician satisfaction. The objective was to compare complexity of ambulatory care across 14 medical specialties. This secondary analysis uses the 2010 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, which used a multistage probability design of primary sampling units throughout U.S. ambulatory practices across 14 specialties. Sampling weights enable results from 29,179 ambulatory visits to represent 878,653,561 visits. Data included symptoms, diagnoses, diagnostic procedures, and treatments provided. Measures of input, output and total encounter complexity and hourly complexity densities were computed. Internal Medicine leads in total input and total encounter complexity with Family Medicine second in total encounter complexity. When duration-of-visit is considered, Family Medicine is the most complex discipline while Internal Medicine is the second most complex. Pediatrics lacks the complexity of Family Medicine and General Internal Medicine, and OB/GYN bears little similarity to Family Medicine or General Internal Medicine. Family Medicine and Internal Medicine encounters are the most complex overall, especially when duration-of-visit is considered. Revaluing payments based on complexity could bring better balance to cognitive and procedural services, and better meet the needs of people receiving insurance under the ACA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Medical Geology: a globally emerging discipline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunnell, J.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Centeno, J.A.; Selinus, O. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Medical Geology, the study of the impacts of geologic materials and processes on animal and human health, is a dynamic emerging discipline bringing together the geoscience, biomedical, and public health communities to solve a wide range of environmental health problems. Among the Medical Geology described in this review are examples of both deficiency and toxicity of trace element exposure. Goiter is a widespread and potentially serious health problem caused by deficiency of iodine. In many locations the deficiency is attributable to low concentrations of iodine in the bedrock. Similarly, deficiency of selenium in the soil has been cited as the principal cause of juvenile cardiomyopathy and muscular abnormalities. Overexposure to arsenic is one of the most widespread Medical Geology problems affecting more than one hundred million people in Bangladesh, India, China, Europe, Africa and North and South America. The arsenic exposure is primarily due to naturally high levels in groundwater but combustion of mineralized coal has also caused arsenic poisoning. Dental and skeletal fluorosis also impacts the health of millions of people around the world and, like arsenic, is due to naturally high concentrations in drinking water and, to a lesser extent, coal combustion. Other Medical Geology issues described include geophagia, the deliberate ingestion of soil, exposure to radon, and ingestion of high concentrations of organic compounds in drinking water. Geoscience and biomedical/public health researchers are teaming to help mitigate these health problems as well as various non-traditional issues for geoscientists such as vector-borne diseases.

  16. Career-related correlates of self-discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBrin, A J

    2001-08-01

    An investigation was made of the relationship between scores on the Self-discipline Questionnaire and self-ratings on four career-related variables among a sample of 325 working adults. The Self-discipline Questionnaire was previously published in a trade book and is based on characteristics of self-disciplined people culled from the literature. Scores for self-discipline were significantly correlated with years of formal education, salary, and self-perceptions of career success and frequency of goal accomplishment.

  17. Korean immigrant discipline and children's social competence and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, and harsh discipline) and children's social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from 3 to 8 years. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, and reasoning were positively correlated with children's social competence. Paternal physical punishment (e.g., spanking, hitting, and raising arms) was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Immigrant fathers need to learn alternative ways of managing children's misbehaviors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Developmental biology, the stem cell of biological disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-12-01

    Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines." Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, developmental biology remains vigorous, pluripotent, and relatively undifferentiated. In many disciplines, especially in evolutionary biology and oncology, the developmental perspective is being reasserted as an important research program.

  19. Growing Concerns With Workplace Incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Natasha Renee; Rogers, Bonnie

    2017-11-01

    Workplace incivility (WPI) is a growing issue across all public and private sectors. Occupational and environmental health nurses can educate employees and management about WPI, its risk factors and characteristics, and ways to reduce incidents of WPI.

  20. The evolution of training in brain stereotactic radiosurgery: a growing part of intracranial neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gillian; Grandhi, Ramesh; Monaco, Edward A; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has evolved to become an established, well-studied treatment modality for intracranial pathologies traditionally treated with more invasive neurosurgical management. As the field expands, among neurosurgeons and across multiple disciplines, resident training will become increasingly crucial. In this review, we reflect on 25 years of SRS at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and the development of formal training in this area at our institution. We describe the formal resident rotation, fellowship opportunities, and training courses for multidisciplinary physician teams and allied health professionals. The number of SRS cases performed annually has significantly increased in recent years and indeed surpassed caseloads for certain more traditional surgeries. Residents report high rates of expectation for including SRS in future practice, yet participate in only a small fraction of annual cases. The formal postgraduate year 3 rotation established at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center provides a way to expose and educate residents in this growing subspecialty within the confines of duty hour regulations. In combination with extended clinical elective opportunities and postresidency fellowships, this rotation prepares residents at our institution for the use of SRS in future clinical practice. SRS is a rapidly expanding field that requires a unique skill set and current neurosurgical resident training often does not fully prepare trainees for its use in clinical practice. Focused resident training is necessary to ensure trainees are proficient in this specialty and well equipped to become leaders in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical caring science as a scientific discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehnsfeldt, Arne; Arman, Maria; Lindström, Unni Å

    2017-09-01

    Clinical caring science will be described from a theory of science perspective. The aim of this theoretical article to give a comprehensive overview of clinical caring science as a human science-based discipline grounded in a theory of science argumentation. Clinical caring science seeks idiographic or specific variations of the ontology, concepts and theories, formulated by caring science. The rationale is the insight that the research questions do not change when they are addressed in different contexts. The academic subject contains a concept order with ethos concepts, core and basic concepts and practice concepts that unites systematic caring science with clinical caring science. In accordance with a hermeneutic tradition, the idea of the caring act is based on the degree to which the theory base is hermeneutically appropriated by the caregiver. The better the ethos, essential concepts and theories are understood, the better the caring act can be understood. In order to understand the concept order related to clinical caring science, an example is given from an ongoing project in a disaster context. The concept order is an appropriate way of making sense of the essence of clinical caring science. The idea of the concept order is that concepts on all levels need to be united with each other. A research project in clinical caring science can start anywhere on the concept order, either in ethos, core concepts, basic concepts, practice concepts or in concrete clinical phenomena, as long as no parts are locked out of the concept order as an entity. If, for example, research on patient participation as a phenomenon is not related to core and basic concepts, there is a risqué that the research becomes meaningless. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. Strategic Security as a New Academic Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sheldon Greaves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of Henley-Putnam University was an effort to create an academic institution for the purpose of offering degree programs in intelligence management, counterterrorism, and personal protection; subjects that arguably did not exist as academic disciplines when the school was conceived. The experience of two of the co-founders of the school, Nirmalya Bhowmick and Dr. Michael Corcoran, indicated that the training of officers tasked with vital security and intelligence work was carried out by partnering young officers with a training officer to help the new officer learn on the job. The effectiveness of this training depended to a great extent on the competence or interest of the training officer, as well as the types of jobs the new officer was given. The resulting training often lacked consistency and proper coverage. When Bhowmick began comparing notes with colleagues in similar agencies from other countries, he discovered that their experiences mirrored his.By contrast, Corcoran's experience with the US Secret Service includedmonths of training at the Treasury School and additional training atQuantico, VA, that included training usually given to FBI and Green Beret personnel—training that did not map neatly to the needs of a Secret Service agent. But once the new agents finished this training, they were not a training officer or officers as they began their new assignments. This meant that they were often left to their own devices when it came to figuring out how to manage tasks, such as intelligence collection, that had not been fully covered by their training. The experiences of Bhowmick and Corcoran were key to conceiving and writing the curricula for the university. The curricular development was also informed by a reassessment of the needs of the intelligence, counterterrorism, and protection officer, which continues to this day.

  3. The Speech Discipline in Crisis - - A Cause for Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Richard L.

    Speech communication is a distinct discipline, but one in a healthy state of conflict between theory and practice. The crisis in the speech discipline (and in academic generally) exists because speech does not present itself as a consumable value; quality program decisions are not made; speech is often conceived as only one subject matter; general…

  4. Writing "In" and "Across" the Disciplines: The Historical Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkiewicz, John J.

    The forebears of writing "in" and "across" the disciplines are such historical figures as Aristotle and Cicero. They believed that rhetoric contained within itself all other disciplines. Renaissance rhetoricians also insisted upon assigning a moral cross-disciplinary dimension to rhetoric while at the same time the intellectual…

  5. Wetenschapsgeschiedenis op lange termijn: flexibiliteit en fragiliteit van disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan Wegener

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term history of science: on the flexibility and fragility of scientific disciplinesMost scientific disciplines, such as chemistry, biology and physics, are now about two centuries old. Using physics as a case study the present paper aims to account for this longevity. What kept the physics discipline together from the early nineteenth century onwards? Literature on the rise of physics suggests that the discipline was formed around energy, the ether, or other theoretical notions. Yet the twentieth-century revolutions in physics showed that the discipline could prosper without some of its most 'fundamental' concepts. Some scholars conclude that internal factors are therefore irrelevant and disciplinary identity and continuity are purely institutional. Drawing on the work of Thomas Kuhn, Peter Galison and Andrew Warwick, this paper defends a different point of view. Although there is no intellectual core of disciplines, the prolonged existence of disciplines cannot be explained without some degree of internal continuity. If there is a revolution of a theoretical level, there may still be continuity on the level of experimental practices (and vice versa. It is this flexibility that accounts for the fact that disciplines may adapt to different circumstances. In addition, an educational tradition is required to transmit knowledge from one generation to the next.

  6. Pursuing Discipline and Ethical Issues in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Kayode Ajayi – Department of Educational Management & Business. Education, Olabisi Onabanjo University, ... way, it is said to be negative in perspective. Similarly, when discipline is viewed as a way of ... of this group. In the process of conforming. Pursuing Discipline and Ethical Issues in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria ...

  7. Assessing Understanding of the Energy Concept in Different Science Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihwa; Liu, Xiufeng

    2016-01-01

    Energy is one of the most central and richly connected ideas across all science disciplines. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement instrument for assessing students' understanding of the energy concept within and across different science disciplines. To achieve this goal, the Inter-Disciplinary Energy concept Assessment (IDEA) was…

  8. Legal Accountability for Public School Discipline--Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Elda

    2011-01-01

    Educators, learners and parents/caregivers should be held accountable for instilling learner discipline through clear guidelines and limitations to achieve security at public schools. Two previously identified education challenges are sustaining well-disciplined education systems and ensuring that educators are attentive to legal parameters in…

  9. Building Better Discipline Strategies for Schools by Fuzzy Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Juan, Ya-Yun; Chou, Wen-Ching

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to realize better discipline strategies for applying in high schools. We invited 400 teachers to participate the survey and collected their perceptions on the discipline strategies in terms of the acceptance of strategies and their effectiveness in schools. Based on the idea of fuzzy statistics, this study transformed the fuzzy…

  10. Does Self-Discipline Impact Students' Knowledge and Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yue; Rai, Dovan; Beck, Joseph E.; Heffernan, Neil T.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we are interested to see the impact of self-discipline on students' knowledge and learning. Self-discipline can influence both learning rate as well as knowledge accumulation over time. We used a Knowledge Tracing (KT) model to make inferences about students' knowledge and learning. Based on a widely used questionnaire, we measured…

  11. Becoming Disciplined about Disciplinary Literacy through Guided Retelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenti, Melissa A.

    2018-01-01

    Becoming more disciplined about teaching disciplinary literacy in our classrooms can be a challenge. Encouraging student production of the academic language and the demands and styles of thinking associated with each discipline requires an additional push that was often overlooked in content area instruction of the past. As this new journey in…

  12. The New American School: Preparation for Post-Industrial Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchik, Aaron; Monahan, Torin

    2006-01-01

    In this article we consider how broad shifts in social relations over the past 30 years have given rise to new social control regimes in US public schools. We argue that the contemporary mechanisms of control engendered by mass incarceration and post-industrialization have re-shaped school discipline. To illustrate contemporary discipline in the…

  13. A Spiral And Discipline-Oriented Curriculum In Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Hanson, Lars G.; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge

    2011-01-01

    and Radiation Physics containing three disciplines: Imaging modalities, Radiation therapy and Image processing. The two imaging courses in the bachelor’s program and the first imaging course in the master’s program follow a spiral curriculum in which most disciplines are encountered in all courses...

  14. Breaking University Rules: Discipline and Indiscipline Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    University discipline is an important object of legislative and administrative action in the higher education sector. There have been two waves of concern with university discipline in the post-war period, especially in respect of students: first, in the period of post-war university expansion; second, in the period of commercialisation post-1988.…

  15. Becoming a Disciplined Learner. Make the Parent Connection! Leader Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moke, Susan, Ed.; Shermis, Michael, Ed.

    This manual is a resource book for organizers and leaders and parent groups who want to explore specific strategies to use in helping children become more disciplined learners. The guide contains material necessary to conduct a 1- or 1.5-hour session on how parents can encourage children's self-discipline. The guide includes: (1) a leader's guide…

  16. Charter Schools, Civil Rights and School Discipline: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Keith, Michael A., II; Hodson, Cheri L.; Martinez, Tia E.

    2016-01-01

    This report, along with the companion spreadsheet, provides the first comprehensive description ever compiled of charter school discipline. In 2011-12, every one of the nation's 95,000 public schools was required to report its school discipline data, including charter schools. This analysis, which includes more than 5,250 charter schools, focuses…

  17. Why Discipline Needs to Be Reclaimed as an "Educational" Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers different conceptualisations of school discipline within both UK education policy and wider educational and philosophical literature. Initially, it is noted that notions of "behaviour management" dominate discourses about school discipline. It is suggested that this is unhelpful as behaviour management skills are…

  18. School Discipline, Investment, Competitiveness and Mediating Educational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krskova, Hana; Baumann, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to combine seemingly unrelated factors to explain global competitiveness. The study argues that school discipline and education investment affect competitiveness with the association being mediated by educational performance. Crucially, diachronic effects of discipline on performance are tested to demonstrate…

  19. From Reaction to Prevention: Turning the Page on School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Russell J.; Losen, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors trace the course of school discipline over the past 20 years and examine the status of school discipline reform today. They begin with an examination of zero-tolerance, suspension, and expulsion policies, as well as their assumptions and effects. They discuss alternatives that have been proposed and the guidance that…

  20. 46 CFR 310.10 - Discipline and dismissal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discipline and dismissal. 310.10 Section 310.10 Shipping... Minimum Standards for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.10 Discipline and dismissal. (a) Each School shall establish and publish rules and regulations governing Cadet and...

  1. Eliminating Disparities in School Discipline: A Framework for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Anne; Skiba, Russell J.; Mediratta, Kavitha

    2017-01-01

    Race and gender disparities in school discipline and associated harms have been well documented for decades. Suspension from school can reduce instructional time and impede academic progress for students who may already be lagging in their achievement. This chapter offers a research-based framework for increasing equity in school discipline. The…

  2. Understanding Student Discipline Practices in Charter Schools: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denice, Patrick; Gross, Betheny; Rausch, Karega

    2015-01-01

    Fair use of exclusionary discipline is a rising concern in public schools. At issue is whether this type of discipline is disproportionately applied to certain groups of students and whether some charter schools use it more frequently. For the first time, data compiled by the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights capture discipline…

  3. Assessment of gender understanding of classroom discipline in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discipline plays a crucial role in education as it affords and facilitates effective teaching and learning. Since time immemorial, corporal punishment formed the greatest portion of school and classroom discipline. In 1995, the Department of Education abolished corporal punishment and motivated teachers to implement ...

  4. Teaching Transdisciplinarity in a Discipline-Centred World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, M. Elizabeth; Salmon, Amy; Young, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Health care researchers and practitioners are increasingly asked to work across disciplines (or, in keeping with the conference theme, "Between the Tides") to deal with complex health issues. But working with individuals from different fields is more challenging than it sounds. Working across disciplines can result in tension and…

  5. Why Should I Use University Library Website Resources? Discipline Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Mi

    2011-01-01

    Users across academic disciplines utilize different information sources based on the resource's usefulness and relevance. This study's findings show that users from arts and sciences disciplines are much more likely to utilize university library website resources and printed materials than business users who heavily rely on commercial websites.…

  6. Beyond Current Conception of Discipline-Based Art Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, F. Graeme

    1987-01-01

    Argues that social science areas of anthropology and sociology should be incorporated into theory of discipline-based art education (DBAE). Questions recent art-related theory that focuses only on DBAE. Urges sociology of art along with traditional disciplines of DBAE to become more diverse in order to enjoy art to its fullest. (BR)

  7. Terror into Triumph: Discipline in the Middle Grades Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristi

    2005-01-01

    Discipline is an integral part of the teaching profession, but there is little preparation for it in teaching programs. In this article, the author describes how she maintains effective discipline in a formerly unruly classroom by creating lessons that engage students and allow them to move around, praising students' efforts as often as possible,…

  8. [The 'national philologies' and the history of discipline formation in the humanities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Gert-Jan

    2011-01-01

    The start of discipline formation in the 'national philologies' (such as 'English language and literature', 'Germanistik', etc.) is often considered to have taken place around the middle of the nineteenth century. At that time, the German philological school of scholars such as Jacob Grimm gained influence at universities all over Europe. Meticulous analysis of the oldest (medieval) texts, as well as rigorous application of the methods of historical-comparative linguistics in editing these texts, became the norm and the nec plus ultra of philology. Other forms of academic and scholarly attention to national literature--e.g., the study of the history of literature in post-medieval and modern times--were from then on looked down upon as mere hobbies, made obsolete by the 'modern', 'truly scientific' methods of the German school. The case of the 'national philologies' thus seems to corroborate the common idea that discipline formation in science consists mainly of a process of specialization and differentiation. However, an overview of the history of 'Neerlandistiek' (the academic study of Dutch language and literature) over the course of the nineteenth century suggests that the success of German School's methods was in fact but a temporary episode. In the history of 'national philologies' such as the 'Neerlandistiek', episodes of specialization seem to alternate with episodes in which the main emphasis is not on specialization but on extension of the scope, on integration of elements from other disciplines, and on reinforcement of the ties with social institutions such as the education system. Interdisciplinarity is not a new phenomenon but can already be found in the days of the discipline's origin in Holland. Back then, the first professors of 'Dutch rhetorics' around 1800 rapidly expanded their specialist studies into the study of 'Dutch language and literature' in the broadest possible sense. Phenomena such as these seem to apply more generally to the process of

  9. Estimating the Effect of State Zero Tolerance Laws on Exclusionary Discipline, Racial Discipline Gaps, and Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, F. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Zero tolerance discipline policies have come under criticism as contributors to racial discipline gaps; however, few studies have explicitly examined such policies. This study utilizes data from two nationally representative data sources to examine the effect of state zero tolerance laws on suspension rates and principal perceptions of problem…

  10. Mothers' Knowledge of Their Children's Evaluations of Discipline: The Role of Type of Discipline and Misdeed, and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidov, Maayan; Grusec, Joan E.; Wolfe, Janis L.

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-nine 6- to 9-year-old children evaluated three discipline strategies (reasoning, verbal power assertion, acknowledgment of feelings), and mothers were asked to predict their children's evaluations. Maternal knowledge scores were derived. Mothers were less accurate at predicting their children's perceptions of discipline when the misdeed in…

  11. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  12. Teachers' stress intensifies violent disciplining in Tanzanian secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Goessmann, Katharina; Nkuba, Mabula; Hermenau, Katharin

    2017-11-04

    Violent forms of discipline in schools continue to be widespread across the globe despite their damaging effects. Since little is known about factors influencing the extent of violence applied by teachers, this study aimed to investigate the influence of teachers' stress, work satisfaction, and personal characteristics on their disciplining style. Using structural equation modeling, associations between violent discipline, burnout symptoms, and job perceptions (pressure and difficulties in class) reported by 222 teachers from 11 secondary schools in Tanzania in 2015 were analyzed. Results indicated a direct association between perceived stress and emotional violent discipline (β=.18, pstress also mediated the association between job perceptions and both forms of violent disciplining. The model showed good model fit (χ2 [44, n=222]=67.47 (p=.013), CFI=.94, TLI=.91, IFI=.94, RMSEA=.049 [90%-CI=.02-.07, PCLOSE=.50], SRMR=.06). Our findings suggest that teachers' personal perceptions of their work as well as their stress burden play a role in their disciplining styles. Our findings underline the importance of integrating topics, such as stress and coping as well as positive, nonviolent discipline measures into the regular teacher's training and in addition to develop and evaluate school-based preventative interventions for teachers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. First Generation Korean American Parents’ Perceptions of Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung; Hong, Seunghye

    2007-01-01

    Nurses not only need to be familiar with the professional guidelines of discipline and but also be aware of variances in styles of acceptable discipline across cultural groups. The goal of this study was to explore cultural influences in relation to (1) first generation Korean American parents’ perceptions of common discipline strategies in the United States and (2) discipline strategies commonly used among first generation Korean American parents. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze interview data from seven first generation Korean American parents. Derived themes indicated that parents considered spanking/hitting and less hugging/kissing as Korean style and time out, using a sticker chart, hugging/kissing, removing/adding privileges, and giving chores as American style. Recent immigrant parents were not familiar with common positive discipline strategies in the United States. As they adapted to the mainstream society, they discontinued what they perceived to be negative aspects of Korean style and adopted positive aspects of American style. They were sensitive to children’s views on discipline and they experienced communication difficulties with children. These findings indicated that Korean American parents’ perceptions on discipline strategies were shaped by living in two cultures and were different from the western viewpoints. PMID:17292135

  14. Toward a general ontology for digital forensic disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S

    2014-09-01

    Ontologies are widely used in different disciplines as a technique for representing and reasoning about domain knowledge. However, despite the widespread ontology-related research activities and applications in different disciplines, the development of ontologies and ontology research activities is still wanting in digital forensics. This paper therefore presents the case for establishing an ontology for digital forensic disciplines. Such an ontology would enable better categorization of the digital forensic disciplines, as well as assist in the development of methodologies and specifications that can offer direction in different areas of digital forensics. This includes such areas as professional specialization, certifications, development of digital forensic tools, curricula, and educational materials. In addition, the ontology presented in this paper can be used, for example, to better organize the digital forensic domain knowledge and explicitly describe the discipline's semantics in a common way. Finally, this paper is meant to spark discussions and further research on an internationally agreed ontological distinction of the digital forensic disciplines. Digital forensic disciplines ontology is a novel approach toward organizing the digital forensic domain knowledge and constitutes the main contribution of this paper. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Church discipline – semper reformanda in Reformation perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham A. Duncan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Church discipline – is semper reformanda in a time and space warp? Church discipline has become an anachronism in the life of the Christian faith community. In part, this results from a misunderstanding of the fundamental meaning of the term. Its early emphasis was on spiritual nurture, discipling people into the faith and into a relationship with one another and God. By the time of the Reformation, it took on a legalistic and rigid form that militated against its earlier approach. This resulted from a misunderstanding of key reformers from the Reforming tradition such as John Calvin and John Knox, who were concerned to build up individuals within the Christian community to become responsible members of society. In this way, discipline is transformative of individuals and society. The work of discipline was closely related both to pastoral care and Christian education and offered a corrective to Medieval discipline, where the concept of discipline was distorted when the use of punitive discipline as a last resort was elevated to become the norm. This situation was replicated in the post-Reformation period. Consequently, it now needs to be rehabilitated in the form of discipling or mentorship in order to restore its usefulness as an educative tool in the process of the pilgrimage towards the kingdom of God.

  16. First-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung; Hong, Seunghye

    2007-01-01

    Nurses not only need to be familiar with professional guidelines of discipline and but also need to be aware of variances in styles of acceptable discipline across cultural groups. The goal of this study was to explore cultural influences in relation to (1) first-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of common discipline strategies in the United States, and (2) discipline strategies commonly used among first-generation Korean-American parents. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze interview data from seven first-generation Korean-American parents. Derived themes indicated that parents considered spanking/hitting and less hugging/kissing as Korean style, and time-out, use of sticker charts, hugging/kissing, removing/adding privileges, and giving chores as American style. Recent immigrant parents were not familiar with common positive discipline strategies in the United States. As they adapted to mainstream society, they discontinued what they perceived to be negative aspects of Korean style and adopted positive aspects of American style. They were sensitive to children's views on discipline, and they experienced communication difficulties with children. These findings indicated that Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline strategies were shaped by living in two cultures and were different from western viewpoints.

  17. Parental harsh discipline in mainland China: prevalence, frequency, and coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meifang; Liu, Li

    2014-06-01

    The study examined the prevalence, frequency, and coexistence of psychological aggression (PA), corporal punishment (CP), and severe physical abuse (SPA) in mainland China. Using a sample of 2,518 father-mother dyads of 3-15-year-old children, the findings revealed that parental harsh discipline was prevalent in mainland China. The rates of harsh discipline in the current study fell in the middle of the ranges of rates found in other studies. Harsh discipline was most likely directed at boys or children aged 7 years and committed by mothers, young fathers, or high and low socioeconomic status (SES) parents. The prevalence of maternal and paternal PA and CP declined with the children's age. Maternal and paternal SPA first increased and then decreased with child age. The frequency of the three types of maternal and paternal harsh discipline fluctuated depending on the age of the children. In addition, approximately 50% of the mothers and fathers who reported using severe forms of disciplinary practices also engaged in less severe forms of harsh disciplinary practices against their children. SPA generally coexisted with CP and PA, and CP was usually accompanied by PA; however, PA was more likely to occur independently compared with CP and SPA. Moreover, maternal harsh discipline coexisted with paternal harsh discipline to some extent. The coexistence decreased with increasing severity of parental harsh discipline and differed according to child gender. These findings highlight the importance of studying these three types of parental harsh discipline simultaneously and intervening in harsh discipline by mothers and fathers within the same family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of asthma in the aquatic disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Margo; Fitch, Ken; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Bougault, Valerie; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2015-09-01

    Despite the health benefits of swimming as a form of exercise, evidence exists that both the swimming pool environment and endurance exercise are etiologic factors in the development of asthma. The prevalence of asthma in swimmers is high compared with that in participants in other Olympic sport disciplines. There are no publications comparing the prevalence of asthma in the 5 aquatic disciplines. The purpose of this study is to examine and compare the prevalence of asthma in the aquatic disciplines and in contrast with other Olympic sports. Therapeutic Use Exemptions containing objective evidence of athlete asthma/airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) were collected for all aquatic athletes participating in swimming, diving, synchronized swimming, water polo, and open water swimming for major events during the time period from 2004-2009. The prevalence of asthma/AHR in the aquatic disciplines was analyzed for statistical significance (with 95% CIs) and also compared with that in other Olympic sports. Swimming had the highest prevalence of asthma/AHR in comparison with the other aquatic disciplines. The endurance aquatic disciplines have a higher prevalence of asthma/AHR than the aquatic nonendurance disciplines. Asthma/AHR is more common in Oceania, Europe, and North America than in Asia, Africa, and South America. In comparison with other Olympic sports, swimming, synchronized swimming, and open water swimming were among the top 5 sports for asthma/AHR prevalence. Asthma/AHR in the endurance aquatic disciplines is common at the elite level and has a varied geographic distribution. Findings from this study demonstrate the need for development of aquatic discipline-specific prevention, screening, and treatment regimens. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  20. Growing Patterns: Seeing beyond Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, mathematical patterns have been acknowledged as important early components of children's development of algebraic reasoning (NCTM 2000). In particular, growing patterns have attracted significant attention as a context that helps students develop an understanding of functional relationships (Lee and Freiman 2006; Moss et…

  1. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  2. Power assertive discipline, maternal emotional involvement, and child adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Teti, Douglas M

    2008-08-01

    Despite long-standing research, the relations between power assertive discipline and child adjustment continue to be debated. Disentangling disciplinary practices from the parent-child emotional climate may aid understanding of how such parenting practices impact child adjustment. This study explored longitudinal relations between maternal emotional involvement, power assertive discipline, and child adjustment in a sample of 35 mothers of infant, toddler, and preschool-age children. Results indicate that power assertive discipline may differentially impact child adjustment, depending on levels of maternal emotional involvement.

  3. At the Head of Theoretical Disciplines, Rhetoric Besieges Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a field of human activity whose components are studied by numerous disciplines. There is a risk, then, to see the theoretical interest for this field crumble; in order to acquire a general view of it, we need – above researches conducted with the support of conceptual apparatuses of disciplines as sociology, mythology, psychology, ethology, visual communication, etc. – unifying points of view, offered by formal disciplines as rhetoric, semiotics, etc. The study of specific advertising messages will help us catch a glimpse of both proportions and stakes of the matter; leading the interdisciplinar approach, rhetoric can hope to “tame” the complexity of the advertising discourse.

  4. Architectural anthropology – potentials and pitfalls of mixing disciplines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    approaches to e.g. understand and involve users, clients and citizens. Several other disciplines currently also approach and embrace anthropological methods, and new sub-disciplines such as design anthropology, architectural anthropology, business anthropology and techno-anthropology have emerged...... these cross-disciplinary and applied settings, and how it may contribute to anthropology in general. Based on research and teaching in the field of architectural anthropology, the paper discuss the potentials and pitfalls of mixing approaches from the two disciplines using examples of architects’ approaches...

  5. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  6. Ecology as a Primary Discipline of the Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovbjerg, Richard V.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of ecology with other disciplines within the biological sciences. Points out the dangers of neglecting a holistic ecological viewpoint. Discusses the place of ecology in undergraduate programs. (EB)

  7. Evaluation of Sleep Discipline in Sustaining Unit Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bareis, Donna

    1999-01-01

    ... between different profiles of sleep discipline in terms of unit effectiveness. A sleep reservoir model was adopted and tailored from the methodology used within the Army Unit Resiliency Analysis (AURA...

  8. Self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisorrachatr Suwat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity has become an important public health problem in Thailand. This study aimed to determine the relationship between self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children. Methods A case control study was conducted. 140 cases (obese children and 140 controls (normal weight children were randomly chosen from grades 4-6 students in 4 Bangkok public schools. Questionnaire responses regarding general characteristics and child self-discipline were obtained from children and their parents. Results Self discipline in eating habits, money management and time management were reported at significantly lower levels among the obese group (p Conclusions It was recommended that parents and teachers participate in child self-discipline guidance, particularly with regard to eating habits, money management and time management in a supportive environment that both facilitates prevention of obesity and simultaneously develops a child's personal control.

  9. Discipline-specific versus generic academic literacy intervention for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Academic literacy, discipline-specific AL, generic AL, academic language support, academic language proficiency, English for Specific Purposes, English for Academic Purposes, academic writing, academic reading, Contentbased Instruction, Language Across the Curriculum, Writing Across the Curriculum, ...

  10. A Spiral And Discipline-Oriented Curriculum In Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Hanson, Lars G.; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge

    2011-01-01

    This contribution describes and evaluates an experimental combination of a spiral and discipline-oriented curriculum implemented in the bachelor’s and master’s program in Medicine and Technology. The implementation in the master’s program is in the form of a study line in Medical Imaging and Radi......This contribution describes and evaluates an experimental combination of a spiral and discipline-oriented curriculum implemented in the bachelor’s and master’s program in Medicine and Technology. The implementation in the master’s program is in the form of a study line in Medical Imaging...... and Radiation Physics containing three disciplines: Imaging modalities, Radiation therapy and Image processing. The two imaging courses in the bachelor’s program and the first imaging course in the master’s program follow a spiral curriculum in which most disciplines are encountered in all courses...

  11. Welding As Science: Applying Basic Engineering Principles to the Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum provides sample problems illustrating ways in which basic engineering science has been applied to the discipline of welding. Perhaps inferences may be drawn regarding optimal approaches to particular welding problems, as well as for the optimal education for welding engineers. Perhaps also some readers may be attracted to the science(s) of welding and may make worthwhile contributions to the discipline.

  12. Tourism as a theoretical discipline in the context of kinanthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Kotíková

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and Kinanthropology often intertwine in the area of Leisure studies. This article describes the relationship of both disciplines and emphasizes their fundamental concepts. Sports tourism can be interpreted as a part of socio-cultural kinanthropology but there is even greater potential for the blending of both disciplines. A significant part of the article focuses on research in sport tourism. The author confronts her own approach with foreign literature.

  13. Multidisciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity, and Bridging Disciplines: A Matter of Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dawn Youngblood

    2007-01-01

    Bridging disciplines have much to teach regarding how to combine analytical tools to tackle problems and questions that cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. This article explores interdisciplinary aspects of two long established bridging disciplines--geography and anthropology--in order to consider what the relatively young undertaking labeled “interdisciplinary studies” can learn from their long existence. It considers the fallacy of nomothetic claim as well as the fruitful production ...

  14. FACEBOOK AS A MEDIATION TOOL IN BIOCHEMISTRY DISCIPLINE

    OpenAIRE

    P. X. Gomes; Pinho, T. S.; G. G. Hornink

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The current students generation are daily connected to the Internet, wich encourages the use of mobile tools in education. Many of the students of Biochemistry feel apprehensive about the discipline and the use of facebook may contribute, among other factors, motivating them. Objectives: It was analyzed the use of facebook as a mediator and motivator in the discipline of Biochemistry, basing on socioconstrutivist interventions. Material and methods: This work was developed in th...

  15. A biochemistry discipline designed for the nutrition course

    OpenAIRE

    A.A.G. Bianco; B.B. Torres

    2004-01-01

    Biochemistry is widely considered an essential background in a Nutrition Course framework. At theFaculdade de Saude Publica, USP, it is a direct requirement to eight disciplines of the syllabus and anindirect requirement to another nine disciplines. Nevertheless, a previous interview study involvingNutrition students and Nutritionists revealed a contradictory image of Biochemistry. Although stu-dents and Nutritionists admitted the important role played by Biochemistry, most of the respondents...

  16. Growing random networks with fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Ergun, G.; Rodgers, GJ

    2001-01-01

    Three models of growing random networks with fitness dependent growth rates are analysed using the rate equations for the distribution of their connectivities. In the first model (A), a network is built by connecting incoming nodes to nodes of connectivity $k$ and random additive fitness $\\eta$, with rate $(k-1)+ \\eta $. For $\\eta >0$ we find the connectivity distribution is power law with exponent $\\gamma=+2$. In the second model (B), the network is built by connecting nodes to nodes of conn...

  17. An argument for dental hygiene to develop as a discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobban, S J; Edgington, E M; Compton, S M

    2007-02-01

    The practice of dental hygiene was developed to provide oral health education and preventive oral health care, originally for children. It has grown to provide oral health services valued by a broad spectrum of society, but has not attained the desired respect and status accorded to other professional groups. Professional disciplines link actions of practitioners with the science that is the foundation of practice. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether dental hygiene practice could benefit from pursuit of development as a discipline. Literature on professionalization and disciplines, related to dental hygiene in general and the North American context specifically, was retrieved from databases and grey sources, such as organizational reports. Dental hygiene's current characteristics relative to a discipline were examined. Dental hygiene has developed some characteristics of a discipline, such as identifying a metaparadigm that includes concepts of the client, the environment, health/oral health and dental hygiene actions, with a perspective that includes a focus on disease prevention and oral health promotion. However, research production by dental hygienists has been limited, and often not situated within theoretical or conceptual frameworks. Dental hygiene draws its knowledge for practice from a variety of sources. Dental hygiene could strengthen its value to society by prioritizing development of highly skilled researchers to study interventions leading to improved oral outcomes, and transferring that knowledge to practitioners, strengthening links between practice and science. Intentional pursuit of knowledge for practice would lead to dental hygiene's eventual emergence as a professional discipline.

  18. Psychiatric epidemiology, or the story of a divided discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demazeux, Steeves

    2014-08-01

    This article traces the historical decisions, concepts and key professional collaborations that laid the foundations for the formation of American psychiatric epidemiology during the 20th century, up to the discipline's institutional consolidation, circa 1980, when the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) was published. Thomas Kuhn's 'disciplinary matrix' is mobilized as a framework that allows the institutional and intellectual construction of a discipline to be analysed as separate but intertwined components, without assuming that the two evolve in tandem. The identification of the strengths as well as the frailties and internal divisions of the discipline as it developed reveals a paradoxical situation: a time lag between psychiatric epidemiology's institutionalization and public recognition, on the one hand; and the weak coherence of its intellectual components, on the other hand. We briefly trace the origins of split among the discipline's aetiological models of mental disorders and suggest that the lack of coherence among them has prevented psychiatric epidemiology from achieving the status of a normal scientific discipline, in the Kuhnian sense. Without a more explicit attention to the intellectual rationale of the discipline, psychiatric epidemiology will continue to maintain a strong institutional dimension and weak intellectual matrix. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  19. Self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Ratanopas, Wasoontara; Temcharoen, Paradee; Srisorrachatr, Suwat

    2011-03-10

    Childhood obesity has become an important public health problem in Thailand. This study aimed to determine the relationship between self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children. A case control study was conducted. 140 cases (obese children) and 140 controls (normal weight children) were randomly chosen from grades 4-6 students in 4 Bangkok public schools. Questionnaire responses regarding general characteristics and child self-discipline were obtained from children and their parents. Self discipline in eating habits, money management and time management were reported at significantly lower levels among the obese group (p discipline in managing expenses (3.1), poor home environment (3.0,), moderate self-discipline in time management (2.9), television viewing time ≥2 hours/day (2.6), an obese father (2.2), and an obese mother (1.9). It was recommended that parents and teachers participate in child self-discipline guidance, particularly with regard to eating habits, money management and time management in a supportive environment that both facilitates prevention of obesity and simultaneously develops a child's personal control.

  20. Neural-like growing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, Vitaliy A.

    2000-03-01

    On the basis of the analysis of scientific ideas reflecting the law in the structure and functioning the biological structures of a brain, and analysis and synthesis of knowledge, developed by various directions in Computer Science, also there were developed the bases of the theory of a new class neural-like growing networks, not having the analogue in world practice. In a base of neural-like growing networks the synthesis of knowledge developed by classical theories - semantic and neural of networks is. The first of them enable to form sense, as objects and connections between them in accordance with construction of the network. With thus each sense gets a separate a component of a network as top, connected to other tops. In common it quite corresponds to structure reflected in a brain, where each obvious concept is presented by certain structure and has designating symbol. Secondly, this network gets increased semantic clearness at the expense owing to formation not only connections between neural by elements, but also themselves of elements as such, i.e. here has a place not simply construction of a network by accommodation sense structures in environment neural of elements, and purely creation of most this environment, as of an equivalent of environment of memory. Thus neural-like growing networks are represented by the convenient apparatus for modeling of mechanisms of teleological thinking, as a fulfillment of certain psychophysiological of functions.

  1. Fiscal councils as a mechanism for establishing fiscal discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the impact of the global economic crisis, the contemporary budget systems have been subject to extensive reforms. There is a growing number of scholars advocating the establishment of fully independent fiscal institutions which would be in charge of administering a sustainable fiscal policy. The bodies available in hitherto practice are fiscal councils, parliament committees on budgetary control or fiscal 'watchdogs'. The institutionalization of fiscal councils should provide for improving the quality of the public debate on fiscal policy and make the governments more fiscally accountable. The existing fiscal councils generally have an advisory role and they are expected to contribute to strengthening the role of national parliaments in scrutinizing the national budget. In fact, the establishment of fiscal councils ensues only after introducing the fiscal rules which serve as statutory limitations on the activities of the executive branch in the budget-related matters. The current economic crisis has substantially hindered the efficient application of these fiscal restrictions. Some states see the solution in establishing independent fiscal institutions which would control the compliance with these rules. As one of the participants in the budgetary process, fiscal councils are in a position to provide better information to the voters on the current state of affairs in public finances and (thus increase the political costs of the government's fiscal unaccountability. In practice, there are several models for the organization of fiscal councils which primarily focus on ex ante or ex post review and assessment concerning whether the relevant institutions have observed the fiscal rules and accomplished the fiscal goals. Considering that their role is to eliminate the asymmetry of information in relations between the legislative and executive breach of government, fiscal councils should contribute to reinforcing the legitimacy of the budgetary

  2. [Myopia, a growing health problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, J.W.; Polling, J.R.; Schans, A. van der; Verhoeven, V.J.; Klaver, C.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    - Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood, with a peak incidence between the ages of 13 to 15 years. - Especially high myopia, i.e. a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during

  3. Learner discipline at school: A comparative educational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Wolhunter

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Learner discipline constitutes an acute problem in South African schools, especially if it is approached within a Reformational frame of reference. The aim of the research underlying this article was to survey the available subject-related literature on school discipline abroad. The available published research results are largely limited to the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Australia. In these three countries learner discipline in schools constitutes a problem, although it seems to be only relatively minor forms of misbehaviour that dominate. Serious forms of misbehaviour, such as criminal offences are rare. The causes/determinants/correlates of learner-discipline problems can be grouped into five categories: learner-related factors, teacher-related factors, school-related factors, parent-related factors and society-related factors. This discussion draws suggestions from available subject-related literature as to how the discipline issue in schools should be approached. The conclusion is, however, reached that, while worthwhile guidelines can indeed be drawn from available subject-related literature for the correction of deviant behaviour, reference is unfortunately never made to the need of learners to be guided and to be enabled to become followers (disciples of Jesus Christ in the profound sense of the word, especially in a world that does not adhere to Biblical values. True disciples tend to lead disciplined, well-behaved and intentional lives in His service and to His glory. In conclusion, the role of (Christian religion and of values based on religious conviction in the creation of healthy school discipline is explicated.

  4. The characteristics of psychiatrists disciplined by professional colleges in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Alam

    Full Text Available The identification of health care professionals who are incompetent, impaired, exploitative or have criminal intent is important for public safety. It is unclear whether psychiatrists are more likely to commit medical misconduct offences than non-psychiatrists, and if the nature of these offences is different.The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of psychiatrists disciplined in Canada and the nature of their offences and disciplinary sentences for the ten years from 2000 through 2009 to other physicians disciplined during that timeframe.Utilizing a retrospective cohort design, we constructed a database of all physicians disciplined by provincial licensing authorities in Canada for the ten years from 2000 through 2009. Demographic variables and information on type of misconduct violation and penalty imposed were also collected for each physician disciplined. We compared psychiatrists to non-psychiatrists for the various outcomes.There were 82 (14% psychiatrists of 606 physicians disciplined in Canada in the ten years from 2000 through 2009, double the national proportion of psychiatrists. Of those disciplined psychiatrists, 8 (9.6% were women compared to 29% in the national cohort. A total of 5 (6% psychiatrists committed at least two separate offenses, accounting for approximately 11% of the total violations. A higher proportion of psychiatrists were disciplined for sexual misconduct (OR 3.62 [95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.45-5.34], fraudulent behavior (OR 2.32 [95% CI 1.20-4.40] and unprofessional conduct (OR 3.1 [95% CI 1.95-4.95]. As a result, psychiatrists had between 1.85-4.35 greater risk of having disciplinary penalties in almost all categories in comparison to other physicians.Psychiatrists differ from non-psychiatrist physicians in the prevalence and nature of medical misconduct. Efforts to decrease medical misconduct by psychiatrists need to be conducted and systematically evaluated.

  5. Supporting Students with Disabilities Entering the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Field Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishauzi, Karen M.

    Extensive research exists on female, African American, and Hispanic students pursuing Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) field disciplines. However, little research evaluates students with disabilities and career decision-making relating to STEM field disciplines. This study explored the career decision-making experiences and self-efficacy for students with disabilities. The purpose of this research study was to document experiences and perceptions of students with disabilities who pursue, and may consider pursuing, careers in the STEM field disciplines by exploring the career decision-making self-efficacy of students with disabilities. This study documented the level of influence that the students with disabilities had or may not have had encountered from parents, friends, advisors, counselors, and instructors as they managed their decision-making choice relating to their academic major/career in the STEM or non-STEM field disciplines. A total of 85 respondents of approximately 340 students with disabilities at one Midwestern public university completed a quantitatively designed survey instrument. The Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form by Betz and Hackett was the instrument used, and additional questions were included in the survey. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Based upon the results, college students with disabilities are not currently being influenced by individuals and groups of individuals to pursue the STEM field disciplines. This is a cohort of individuals who can be marketed to increase enrollment in STEM programs at academic institutions. This research further found that gender differences at the institution under study did not affect the career decision-making self-efficacy scores. The men did not score any higher in confidence in career decision-making than the women. Disability type did not significantly affect the relationship between the Career Decision-Making Self

  6. Race, Exclusionary Discipline, and Connectedness to Adults in Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyon, Yolanda; Zhang, Duan; Hazel, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    This study examines racial differences in students' connectedness to school adults and considers the possibility that disparities in exclusionary discipline practices may reduce all students' sense of connection to educators, not just those who have been disciplined or are from racial groups overrepresented in out-of-school suspensions. Data sources include a self-report survey of secondary school students (n = 29,148) linked to administrative data (n = 107 schools) from a large urban district. Multilevel modeling techniques were used to estimate the relationships between students' racial background, youths' connection to school adults, and school-level racial discipline gaps. Controlling for school racial composition, gender, grade level and other covariates, students of color were significantly less likely to feel connected to school adults than their White peers. Additionally, the racial discipline gap was significantly and negatively associated with connectedness for all students. Results indicate that strategies to improve educational outcomes for youth of color need to attend to relational dynamics between students and school adults. Research findings also suggest that efforts to reduce discipline disparities may improve all students' connectedness. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  7. Dual use research: investigation across multiple science disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmann, Shannon

    2015-04-01

    Most recent studies of dual use research have focused on the life sciences, although some researchers have suggested that dual use research occurs across many disciplines. This research is an initial investigation into the prevalence of dual use research in other scientific disciplines by surveying senior editors of scientific journals, drawn from Journal Citation Reports. The survey was emailed to 7,500 journal editors with a response rate of 10.1 %. Approximately 4.8 % of life science editors reported they had to consider whether to publish dual use research and 38.9 % said they decided to not publish the research in question. In disciplines other than the life sciences, 7.2 % of editors from other science disciplines reported that they had to consider whether to publish dual use research, and 48.4 % declined to publish it. The survey investigated relationships between dual use and the journal's source of funding and place of publication, but no relationships were found. Further research is needed to better understand the occurrence of dual use research in other science disciplines.

  8. Stress-buffering effects of social support on maternal discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, P A

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether social support and stress influence maternal discipline of the six-month to three-year-old child with a developmental delay. Ninety-one mothers completed self-administered measures of support, stress, and discipline. Results of multiple regression analyses revealed that the stress and support interaction variable showed a strong trend (p less than .09) in predicting restrictive discipline. The failure of the independent variables, social support and stress, to have significant main effects appeared to be due, in part, to the multicollinearity (r = -.51, p less than .001) of these variables. For subsequent analyses, stress was used as a categorization variable. The total number of subjects was categorized first into two subgroups using a median split--high or low maternal stress--and into two other subgroups based on number of developmental delays. Pearson correlations indicated that social support was inversely related to restrictive discipline for high-stress mothers, but not for low-stress mothers. The positive influence of social support was also found for mothers of children with three to five delays but not for mothers of children with one to two delays. A negative response style of maternal discipline was reduced when the mother felt supported.

  9. Transport of Nutrients Determines Growth in Tissue Culture; Why apple shoots grow rapidly and tulip shoots grow slowly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tulip growth in vitro is seriously impaired by inferior transport in the shoots. As a result, tulip cannot be micropropagated commercially using conventional means. In contrast, apple shoots show high transport and are easily micropropagated.

  10. Tweets Speak: Indefinite Discipline in the Age of Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven James May

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explains how three North American police services have extended technologies of discipline via the monitoring and use of Twitter during and between mega-events such as the 2010 Toronto G20 Summit. Taking as case studies the 2009 Pittsburgh G20 Summit, Toronto's G20 Summit in 2010, and the 2011 Occupy Wall Street protests in New York City, the Twitter-related arrests of activists at these mega-events reveal the ongoing work of maintaining indefinite discipline in North America. Furthermore, this articles shows that any citizen's decision to share, or not to share, information on Twitter (information otherwise often publicly available at any time also falls within the scope of ongoing surveillance of Twitter, where users of the platform find themselves increasingly complicit in the work of their own discipline.

  11. A Spiral And Discipline-Oriented Curriculum In Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Hanson, Lars G.; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge

    2011-01-01

    on their intuitive understanding of the subject. The program was evaluated in terms of the progression in scientific demands in exam from course to course and in terms of the pattern of course selection by the students. The analysis was based on 96 students. The pattern of course selection was found to follow...... and Radiation Physics containing three disciplines: Imaging modalities, Radiation therapy and Image processing. The two imaging courses in the bachelor’s program and the first imaging course in the master’s program follow a spiral curriculum in which most disciplines are encountered in all courses......, but in a gradually more advanced manner. The remaining courses in the master’s program follow a discipline-oriented curriculum. From a practical point of view, the spiral course portfolio works well in an undergraduate environment, where the courses involved are to be taken by all students and in the order planned...

  12. Multidisciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity, and Bridging Disciplines: A Matter of Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Youngblood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridging disciplines have much to teach regarding how to combine analytical tools to tackle problems and questions that cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. This article explores interdisciplinary aspects of two long established bridging disciplines--geography and anthropology--in order to consider what the relatively young undertaking labeled “interdisciplinary studies” can learn from their long existence. It considers the fallacy of nomothetic claim as well as the fruitful production of solutions by viewing process (methodology, not domain (academic turf, as the key to interdisciplinary success. Staking claim to interdisciplinarity is shown to be unproductive while finding the need for interdisciplinary approaches and following the mandates of that need strengthens both the disciplines and interdisciplinary studies.

  13. Discipline in chaos: Foucault, dementia and aging in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijnath, Bianca; Manderson, Lenore

    2008-12-01

    In India, care work for people in late-stage dementia is primarily conducted in the home. Using source material from urban India and drawing on Foucauldian theory, we illustrate the significance of three power/knowledge scripts in this context: social and cultural notions of acceptable, public bodies; medicalized forms of care; and the cultural contexts of the individual caregivers. The caregiver is the embodiment of these discourses and is charged with the task of mapping discipline onto inherently undisciplinable bodies. A tension exists between the caregiver's struggle to contain the unruliness of the person with dementia and, simultaneously, to act as a broker between the world of the care-recipient and the social world. We conclude that although the caregiver is the starting point for the exercise of discipline, the three power/knowledge scripts that inform care work are as much about surveying, routinizing and mobilizing caregivers' bodies as they are about disciplining the bodies of people with dementia.

  14. Disciplining Disability under Danish Active Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stone, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how caseworkers are re-constructing disability in the Danish welfare system and disciplining themselves and clients according to the active labour policy paradigm. Combining Foucault’s ideas about discipline with Maynard-Moody and Musheno’s method of interpreting street...... caseworkers make sense of active labour policy and internalize the pressures of managerial reforms to discipline both citizens and each other.......-level bureaucrats’ stories (Foucault 1977; Maynard-Moody and Musheno 2003), we analyze caseworkers’ stories about their clients, fellow caseworkers and themselves to understand how they practice the ideology behind active labour policy. Our analysis uses Møller’s (2009) interviews with 24 Danish caseworkers who...

  15. Common and distinctive approaches to motivation in different disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strombach, T; Strang, S; Park, S Q; Kenning, P

    2016-01-01

    Over the last couple of decades, a body of theories has emerged that explains when and why people are motivated to act. Multiple disciplines have investigated the origins and consequences of motivated behavior, and have done so largely in parallel. Only recently have different disciplines, like psychology and economics, begun to consolidate their knowledge, attempting to integrate findings. The following chapter presents and discusses the most prominent approaches to motivation in the disciplines of biology, psychology, and economics. Particularly, we describe the specific role of incentives, both monetary and alternative, in various motivational theories. Though monetary incentives are pivotal in traditional economic theory, biological and psychological theories ascribe less significance to monetary incentives and suggest alternative drivers for motivation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Becoming Familiar with other Disciplines Through Hands-on Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Transitioning to a new discipline can be challenging because of the need to quickly assimilate new skills and knowledge that others brought up in the field took years to develop. While reading and taking classes help to add knowledge, hands-on experience is key to developing your new skill set. Fieldwork is one obvious way to gain experience. Fieldwork provides intimate knowledge of your new found discipline, which is one component of your skill set. However, fieldwork is normally for a short period of time and very focused, which does not quickly provide the second component of your skill set, that is, insight into how your discipline fits in the big picture of solving problems. Academic workshops and internships can help provide the additional experience to bring any young researcher into this higher level of understanding. As a specific example, I'll talk about a summer workshop I recently attended called CIDER (Cooperative Institute for Dynamic Earth Research), which is open for students to apply for every year. This workshop provided the opportunity to learn a working knowledge of other disciplines in geology, and helped to expand my view of geophysics' place in solving real problems. The workshop is a month long, the first two weeks of which were lectures and tutorials of every discipline represented. The second two weeks consisted of new research on projects that were proposed by the attendees. The attendees select which of those projects to participate in, and join a team to work vigorously for two weeks. Teams may continue work after the CIDER workshop for presentations at AGU (as in my case) and has potential for publication later. Why this workshop succeeds in advancing young researchers' understanding is that different disciplines work side by side on their research project. Students need to be made aware of this workshop, and other workshops and internships like it, to provide this added hands-on experience.

  17. Can an ethical work climate influence payment discipline?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, T.; Mesko, M.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: All European companies are faced with the lack of payment discipline, which often affects even their survival. One of the key reasons for the lack of payment discipline is poor business ethics, which is primarily introduced with the subject of ethical climate in the literature. For this reason, we wanted to determine whether a company’s ethical climate influences its payment discipline. Design/methodology/approach: In the research, we used Arnaud’s measurement instrument (2010) that helped us to identify six dimensions of ethical climate. The data about a company’s ethical climate were later compared with the data about its payment discipline, calculated using the Dun & Bradstreet rating agency methodology. We included in the sample 273 Slovenian companies, which represented 9.1% of all companies invited to take part in the survey (2978 Slovenian enterprises with 10 or more employees). Findings: We established that (among the six dimensions of the ethical climate) the dimension “moral sensitivity – the lack of norms of empathetic concern” had statistically significant influence on the average delay of payment, and the more significant for the company the lack of norms of empathetic concern was, the longer the delay of the payment to suppliers would be. Our conclusion is that the appropriate forms of the incorporation of training and education on ethical subjects into business studies may increase the payment discipline of companies. Originality/value: The present study represents an important contribution to understanding the causes of payment defaults. The study also includes non-financial antecedents of payment discipline, which represents a new, important contribution of the research. (Author)

  18. Can an ethical work climate influence payment discipline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Salamon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: All European companies are faced with the lack of payment discipline, which often affects even their survival. One of the key reasons for the lack of payment discipline is poor business ethics, which is primarily introduced with the subject of ethical climate in the literature. For this reason, we wanted to determine whether a company's ethical climate influences its payment discipline.Design/methodology/approach: In the research, we used Arnaud's measurement instrument (2010 that helped us to identify six dimensions of ethical climate. The data about a company’s ethical climate were later compared with the data about its payment discipline, calculated using the Dun & Bradstreet rating agency methodology. We included in the sample 273 Slovenian companies, which represented 9.1% of all companies invited to take part in the survey (2978 Slovenian enterprises with 10 or more employees.Findings: We established that (among the six dimensions of the ethical climate the dimension “moral sensitivity – the lack of norms of empathetic concern” had statistically significant influence on the average delay of payment, and the more significant for the company the lack of norms of empathetic concern was, the longer the delay of the payment to suppliers would be. Our conclusion is that the appropriate forms of the incorporation of training and education on ethical subjects into business studies may increase the payment discipline of companies.Originality/value: The present study represents an important contribution to understanding the causes of payment defaults. The study also includes non-financial antecedents of payment discipline, which represents a new, important contribution of the research.

  19. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  20. Growing Vertical in the Flatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua A

    2016-01-26

    The world of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures continues to expand at a rate much greater than anyone could have predicted 10 years ago, but if we are to make the leap from science to technology, many materials challenges must still be overcome. Recent advances, such as those by Liu et al. in this issue of ACS Nano, demonstrate that it is possible to grow rotationally commensurate 2D heterostructures, which could pave the way toward single crystal van der Waals solids. In this Perspective, I provide some insight into a few of the challenges associated with growth of heterostructures, and discuss some of the recent works that help us better understand synthetic realization of 2D heterostructures.

  1. Viking Disruptions or Growing Integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper...... demonstrates how formal network analysis can be combined with a contextual reading of evidence relating to a long-distance communication network in the past. A study of the combined distributions of ten vessel types in 152 settlement sites from the 10th century suggests the outline of the core structure...... of the network. The model implies that 10th century long-distance exchange in the North Sea region featured long-distance links equal to those of the Carolingian emporia trade, and represented a growth in terms of new axes of integration, above all the growing links between the Scandinavian Peninsula...

  2. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  3. Morphogenesis of Growing Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, Julien; Ben Amar, Martine

    2008-08-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to a noteworthy property of some soft tissues: their ability to grow. Many attempts have been made to model this behavior in biology, chemistry, and physics. Using the theory of finite elasticity, Rodriguez has postulated a multiplicative decomposition of the geometric deformation gradient into a growth-induced part and an elastic one needed to ensure compatibility of the body. In order to fully explore the consequences of this hypothesis, the equations describing thin elastic objects under finite growth are derived. Under appropriate scaling assumptions for the growth rates, the proposed model is of the Föppl von Kármán type. As an illustration, the circumferential growth of a free hyperelastic disk is studied.

  4. Realization of Interdisciplinary Communications of Fundamental Disciplines and Disciplines of Mathematical Cycle in the Preparation of Future Programmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miсhaеl Lvov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to interdisciplinary communication in the process of preparation of the future programmers and implementation of the basic principles of these relations in the study of disciplines of professional and practical training and math courses. The article deals with the role of interdisciplinary connections, as well as their function and significance for the formation of cognitive activity, independence and positive learning motivation. The focus is on methodological aspects of realization of interdisciplinary communications at studying basic disciplines of training future programmers and disciplines of mathematical cycle. In particular, the issues of realization of interdisciplinary communications during the study such disciplines as "Computer graphics, computational geometry," "Basics of algorithms and programming", "Programming Technologies" and the course "Analytical geometry and linear algebra", which included in to normative part of the training of programmers. This article describes the theoretical aspects of the implementation of interdisciplinary connections in the study of these disciplines, as well as examples of practical tasks with which these relationships can be implemented most effectively during training

  5. THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON THE CONSTRUCTION OFACCOUNTING DISCIPLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Triyuwono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to elaborate critically the construction of accounting discipline that is based on Islamic values, especially in the aspects of ontology and epistemology. The analysis of the study begins with discussing a debate of modernism and postmodernism. Under this discussion, it is argued that modern knowledge (for example, accounting which is constructed based on modern methodology has philosophical weaknesses and is now attacked by postmodernism. The discussion of post modernism leads us to Islamic perspective of knowledge that is the future orientation of how Shari'ate (Islamic accounting discipline should be constructed.

  6. Concept of teaching discipline Chemistry of an Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedenyapina Marina D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The educational space in a modern society is sharply expanded in comparison with the last centuries. Objectively occurs globalization in sphere of education. In this connection has ripened necessity more or less precise definition of frameworks of educational space at teaching discipline « Chemistry of an environment ». First of all, it is necessary to emphasize, that this discipline should give understanding about chemical compounds of all making natural the environments and about chemical reactions which proceed or can proceed in the ore.

  7. Mixed-Methods Research in the Discipline of Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Harrison, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we examined the prevalence and characteristics of 294 mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing. Creswell and Plano Clark's typology was most frequently used along with concurrent timing. Bivariate statistics was most often the highest level of statistics reported in the results. As for qualitative data analysis, content analysis was most frequently used. The majority of nurse researchers did not specifically address the purpose, paradigm, typology, priority, timing, interaction, or integration of their mixed-methods studies. Strategies are suggested for improving the design, conduct, and reporting of mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing.

  8. Impact of growing income inequality on sustainable development in China: a provincial-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.B.M.; Ma, J.

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of literature has documented the rapidly increasing income disparities that accompanied China's economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s, and the driving factors behind this. Growing income inequality in its turn may have important implications for the accumulation of physical capital,

  9. Two new discipline-independent indices to quantify individual's scientific research output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentinuzzi, M E [Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biologicas (INSIBIO), Universidad Nacional de Tucuman and CONICET, Tucuman (Argentina); Laciar, E [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de San Juan and CONICET, San Juan (Argentina); Atrio, J L [Gerencia de Evaluaciones, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Interest in quantitative measurement of scientific output has been steadily growing because of increasing needs in the evaluation of candidates for new positions and promotions in academic careers. Recently, a new index H was proposed; it is based on an hyperbolic relationship between the number of citations and the number of papers of a given investigator, which intersects with the equality straight line. The crossing point gives the number of papers that received at least H references in a predetermined period of time. Such index neglects the contribution of the less cited papers and depends strongly on the discipline. Herein, using Hirsch's crossing point idea, we propose two new normalized indices, selectivity S and amplitude A, that are independent on the discipline and that take into account the whole spectrum of published and cited papers. The proposed method was applied to 100 scientists using information obtained from SCOPUS. The potential function appeared as the best fit to the data. Correlation coefficients were always high (r = 0.79 {+-} 0.11). Most of the authors displayed a marked selectivity because a typical researcher concentrates only on a single subject or perhaps a few while a wide reach did not predominate. In conclusion, these parameters are proposed as a way to complement the scientific evaluation process of a candidate.

  10. Brief intervention to encourage empathic discipline cuts suspension rates in half among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonofua, Jason A.; Paunesku, David; Walton, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing suspension rates predict major negative life outcomes, including adult incarceration and unemployment. Experiment 1 tested whether teachers (n = 39) could be encouraged to adopt an empathic rather than punitive mindset about discipline—to value students’ perspectives and sustain positive relationships while encouraging better behavior. Experiment 2 tested whether an empathic response to misbehavior would sustain students’ (n = 302) respect for teachers and motivation to behave well in class. These hypotheses were confirmed. Finally, a randomized field experiment tested a brief, online intervention to encourage teachers to adopt an empathic mindset about discipline. Evaluated at five middle schools in three districts (Nteachers = 31; Nstudents = 1,682), this intervention halved year-long student suspension rates from 9.6% to 4.8%. It also bolstered respect the most at-risk students, previously suspended students, perceived from teachers. Teachers’ mindsets about discipline directly affect the quality of teacher–student relationships and student suspensions and, moreover, can be changed through scalable intervention. PMID:27114516

  11. Ancient discipline: Roman example in Iberian Military Treatises, c. 1560-1600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Martínez Bermejo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The military history and the imperial image of Rome offered an essential framework for conceiving the strategic role of the army in the early modern Portuguese and Spanish monarchies. “Disciplina” (discipline was a key element of the military thought of the epoch. The term referred not only to the growing professionalization and standardization of military practices (such as drill itself, but also to the development of a specific field of knowledge regarding war. This article analyses the works of several Portuguese and Spanish military authors of the period and the importance of Rome in their reflections and proposals. The article's objective is twofold: to identify and analyse a particular kind of "Roman" discourse and to contextualize the literary genre of martial arts as a cultural phenomenon whose significance goes considerably beyond the limits of military history.

  12. [Myopia, a growing health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tideman, J W L; Polling, J R; van der Schans, A; Verhoeven, V J M; Klaver, C C W

    2016-01-01

    - Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood, with a peak incidence between the ages of 13 to 15 years. - Especially high myopia, i.e. a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during adulthood due to structural abnormalities of the retina and optic nerve.- The cause of myopia is complex. Lifestyle factors in childhood, such as limited time spent outdoors and close work - such as reading and smartphone usage - are risk factors. Furthermore, genetic studies have revealed more than 100 factors associated with the development of myopia. - Pharmacological and optical interventions to inhibit myopia progression are increasingly applied. The use of atropine eye drops in children and has shown to be an effective treatment.

  13. Unpacking Exoplanet Detection Using Pedagogical Discipline Representations (PDRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Edward E.; Chambers, Timothy G.; Wallace, Colin Scott; Brissenden, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Successful educators know the importance of using multiple representations to teach the content of their disciplines. We have all seen the moments of epiphany that can be inspired when engaging with just the right representation of a difficult concept. The formal study of the cognitive impact of different representations on learners is now an active area of education research. The affordances of a particular representation are defined as the elements of disciplinary knowledge that students are able to access and reason about using that representation. Instructors with expert pedagogical content knowledge teach each topic using representations with complementary affordances, maximizing their students’ opportunity to develop fluency with all aspects of the topic. The work presented here examines how we have applied the theory of affordances to the development of pedagogical discipline representation (PDR) in an effort to provide access to, and help non-science-majors engage in expert-like reasoning about, general relativity as applied to detection of exoplanets. We define a pedagogical discipline representation (PDR) as a representation that has been uniquely tailored for the purpose of teaching a specific topic within a discipline. PDRs can be simplified versions of expert representations or can be highly contextualized with features that purposefully help unpack specific reasoning or concepts, and engage learners’ pre-existing mental models while promoting and enabling critical discourse. Examples of PDRs used for instruction and assessment will be provided along with preliminary results documenting the effectiveness of their use in the classroom.

  14. Efficacy and Limitations of Research Steering in Different Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Higher education reforms informed by the managerial paradigm aim at increasing the capability of the university leadership to steer research activity, with no substantial variation across the disciplines. However, literature points out the limitations of universities to act as strategic actors, as well as the differences between the disciplines…

  15. Unpacking Academic Requirements: International Students in Management and Education Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ly Thi

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a qualitative case study that explores how international students in different disciplines struggle to interpret their disciplinary requirements. The study shows the emergence of five main forms of unpacking academic expectations that individual students in the study employed. It will be argued that these…

  16. Stewarding the Discipline with Cross-Boundary Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2016-01-01

    Proposals to prepare disciplinary stewards and optimize the conditions for collective stewardship can be framed in two ways. The dominant frame emphasizes disciplinary caretaking and lends comparatively less attention to reform and transformation. A second frame is grounded in the social ecology of particular disciplines, their fast-changing…

  17. Higher Education as an Open-Access Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I draw mainly on an analysis of my research experiences in science and higher education. My aim is to construct a conceptual argument that will help explain some of the evident complexity of the higher education field and inform future developments. I propose that the study of higher education is an open-access discipline with the…

  18. Plenary Speeches: Is the Second Language Acquisition Discipline Disintegrating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    After characterizing the study of second language acquisition (SLA) from three viewpoints, I try to answer the question, raised by DeKeyser (2010), of whether the SLA field is disintegrating. In answering this question, I first propose a distinction between SLA as the relatively fundamental academic discipline and SLA as the relatively applied…

  19. Faculty Research Productivity in Hong Kong across Academic Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the research productivity of Hong Kong academics. Specifically, it explores the individual and institutional factors that contribute to their productivity while also comparing determinants across academic disciplines. We have conducted OLS regression analysis using the international survey data from "The Changing Academics…

  20. Surface Chemistry in Heterogeneous Catalysis: An Emerging Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. M.; Campbell, Charles T.

    1980-01-01

    Provides background data on surface chemistry as an emerging discipline. Highlights the important role which surfaces play in catalysis by focusing on the catalyzed oxidation of carbon monoxide. Provides a demonstration of how surfaces exert their influences in heterogeneous phenomena and illustrates how experimental problems in this field are…

  1. Monetary union without fiscal coordination may discipline policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    We show that, with benevolent policymakers and fiscal leadership, monetary unification reduces inflation, taxes and public spending. These disciplining effects of a monetary union, which rise with the number of fiscal players in the union, are likely to raise welfare. Joining an optimally designed

  2. The Underdog Disciplines: Comics Studies and Composition and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtley, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This report discusses the answer to the question: What might comic studies learn from the slightly older field of composition and rhetoric? The author asks the question as a member of both fields. It is clear that both disciplines struggle for legitimacy within the academy. While comics studies strives for respectability given the popular nature…

  3. Physical Education & Outdoor Education: Complementary but Discrete Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter; McCullagh, John

    2011-01-01

    The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical…

  4. Teaching Writing in the Disciplines: Student Perspectives on Learning Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Writing in the Disciplines curricula can both challenge and reinforce assumptions that writing is a general skill that students will already have learned prior to doing the specialized writing in their chosen field of study. Rhetorical genre studies, however, tends to emphasize the situated nature of writing expertise, and thus supports the…

  5. The role of a psychologist in management: discipline, practice and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychology as a profession has aided management discipline, practice and research in several ways. In the marketing sector, Consumers Psychologist has over the years maximize organizational profit by providing strategies for products and services branding, pricing, packaging, sales promotion and advertising. Industrial ...

  6. Is Communication a Humanities Discipline?: Struggles for Academic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronbeck, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    A 20th-century discipline in American universities, communication has struggled with questions of academic identity: generically, as to whether it is a "humanities" or a "social science", a "practice" or a "technology", and theoretically, as to what sorts of axioms, theorems, research methods or logics, and problems should form its core. This…

  7. Punishment or Self-Discipline? Early Roots of Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisle, Beate

    2010-01-01

    Pioneers in work with troubled children sought, with mixed results, to replace coercive discipline with democratic self-governance. In 1927, law student Clara Liepmann wrote her doctoral dissertation on the history of self-governance in correctional settings in Europe and the United States. Her father, Moritz Liepmann, was a law school professor…

  8. Awareness of family medicine discipline among clinical medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of family medicine discipline among clinical medical students of Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. ... Introduction: Undergraduate medical education requires the studying of a wide range of medical specialties to produce the future workforce of the healthcare system. Family medicine (FM), a relatively new ...

  9. Discipline-Based Philosophy of Education and Classroom Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    This article concentrates on the necessity for teachers in just one discipline area, namely, science, having philosophical competence and using it to inform their professional life--in their classroom teaching, assessing and institutional engagements--in other words, having a philosophy of science teaching. This group of questions and issues might…

  10. Rethinking "Harmonious Parenting" Using a Three-Factor Discipline Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Diana Baumrind's typology of parenting is based on a two-factor model of "control" and "warmth". Her recommended discipline style, labeled "authoritative parenting", was constructed by taking high scores on these two factors. A problem with authoritative parenting is that it does not allow for flexible and differentiated responses to discipline…

  11. Evolving Product Information in Aligning Product Development Decisions across Disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Luttikhuis, Ellen; de Lange, Jos; Lutters, Diederick; ten Klooster, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Today's product development is fragmented across various disciplines all with their own fields of expertise. Maintaining overview in consequences and implications of decisions is difficult, since many stakeholders are involved. To optimise the product development, many methods are developed based on

  12. Alignment of Student Discipline Design and Administration to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher Learning Institutions (HEIs) have an important role to play in the promotion of respect for fundamental human rights and other constitutional imperatives. This article will demonstrate that the design and administration of student discipline at HEIs qualifies to be administrative action. As such, the article will identify the ...

  13. Similarities and Dissimilarities of Ethical Issues in Applied Psychology Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Rodney L.

    Although all practicing psychologists share common ethical concerns, the industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologist has additional concerns which are unique to his discipline. The institutional setting of his practice both isolates him from role models and professional colleagues and threatens his identity as a psychologist. In the organization,…

  14. Learning Outcomes across Disciplines and Professions: Measurement and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Joakim; Frølich, Nicoline; Karlsen, Hilde; Aamodt, Per Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Learning outcomes of higher education are a quality tool in a changing higher education landscape but cannot be seen as neutral measures across professions and disciplines. Survey results from graduates and recent graduates indicate that prevailing measures of learning outcomes yield the same result within and across disciplinary and professional…

  15. Internationalizing the Curriculum in the Disciplines--Imagining New Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Internationalization of the curriculum provides challenges and opportunities for academic staff and institutions. This article reports on research undertaken in 2010-2011, which engaged academic staff in different disciplines and universities in the process of exploring and making explicit the meaning of internationalization of the curriculum in…

  16. Love, discipline, punishment or wife battering: A view from Ubuntu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I shall draw from the philosophy of Ubuntu and the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault. I shall tease out how the elderly perceive wife battering as love, discipline and punishment. Data used in this paper shall be drawn from structured interviews and focus groups that were conducted in 2015 under the auspices of ...

  17. The Discipline of Hope: A Conversation with Herb Kohl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Marge

    1998-01-01

    The author of "The Discipline of Hope" (1998) values environments that foster a sense of belonging and love of learning. Besides engaging students' imagination, teachers must convince students that they are people of worth who can accomplish something in a difficult world. Children must remain hopeful, and adults must not abandon public…

  18. Voor duurzaam teeltsysteem is kennis uit alle disciplines nodig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduyn, L.; Vermeulen, T.

    2010-01-01

    De leerschool was hard: verschillende onderzoeksprojecten kwamen er niet uit, een tuinder ging er zelfs aan failliet. Niemand had nog vertrouwen in chrysantenteelt los van de grond. Dat overkomt ons niet weer, dachten onderzoekers, we betrekken er nu vanaf het begin alle disciplines bij.

  19. Exploring Postsecondary Market and Discipline Influences on Faculty Role Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Wendiann R.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has shown that the type of institution, disciplines, and characteristics of the faculty influence the structure and character of academic work. Zemsky and Shaman (1997) and others have suggested that differentiation among institutions, which has historically been structured along level of degree offerings and size/complexity, is now…

  20. Assessment of Self-Archiving in Institutional Repositories: Across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingfeng

    2007-01-01

    This research examined self-archiving practices by four disciplines in seven institutional repositories. By checking each individual item for its metadata and deposition status, the research found that a disciplinary culture is not obviously presented. Rather, self-archiving is regulated by a liaison system and a mandate policy.

  1. Does Homeland Security Constitute an Emerging Academic Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    disciplines that make it easy for them to find a job and receive good pay. 7. Entrepreneurs will enter and firms will expand in sectors that promise to be...industry-government triad and the societal influences that impact that ecosystem . As the components of the framework are evaluated on their own respective

  2. Eliminating Racial Profiling in School Discipline: Cultures in Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bireda, Martha R.

    2002-01-01

    Referrals, suspensions, and expulsions of African American students, especially males, are at an all-time high. However, as this book shows, culturally determined assumptions and friction over communication have a role to play in this as well. "Eliminating Racial Profiling in School Discipline" is designed to make readers aware of how cultural…

  3. Communication in the Disciplines: Interpersonal Communication in Dietetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrchota, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes to expand the scope of oral communication across the curriculum research by exploring oral genres in a dietetics curriculum from the perspective of the dietetics faculty. The goals of this qualitative study, couched within the communication in the disciplines framework, are to identify the oral genres integral to the study and…

  4. Communication: An Emerging Discipline in a Changing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwik, Theodore J.

    This paper discusses ways that speech communication can respond to contemporary societal changes. Information activities now account for nearly half the United States' gross national product. At the same time, studies indicate that college enrollments are beginning to decline, a trend that will increase competition between college disciplines for…

  5. The Effects of Discipline Responses in Delaying Toddler Misbehavior Recurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Schneider, William N.; Larson, David B.; Pike, Patricia L.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the effectiveness of maternal punishment (time out, spanking), reasoning, and a combination of the two. Results based on mothers' (N=40) structured diaries of toddler fighting and disobedience indicate that mild punishment, combined with reasoning, is an effective discipline response to toddler misbehavior in terms of recurrence of…

  6. The Impact of Explicit Deposit Insurance on Market Discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannidou, V.; de Dreu, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of explicit deposit insurance on market discipline in a framework that resembles a natural experiment.We improve upon previous studies by exploiting a unique combination of country-specific circumstances, design features, and data availability that allows us to

  7. Cosmic Rays Astrophysics: The Discipline, Its Scope, and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the discipline surrounding cosmic ray astrophysics. It includes information on recent assertions surrounding cosmic rays, exposure levels, and a short history with specific information on the origin, acceleration, transport, and modulation of cosmic rays.

  8. Monetary union without fiscal coordination may discipline policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    With benevolent policymakers and fiscal leadership, monetary unification reduces inflation, taxes, and public spending. These disciplining effects of a monetary union, which become stronger if the number of participants in the union increases, are likely to raise welfare. Two types of arrangements

  9. Academic Identities and Communities of Practice in a Professional Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawitz, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics surrounding the formation of academic identities in a context where the nature of academic work is contested both as a result of tensions within the discipline and in response to pressure from both the institution and the field of higher education. It is based on a case study which investigated the process of…

  10. Ethics in International Business Education: Perspectives from Five Business Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, Debbie Thorne; Clark, Robert; Ferrell, Linda; Joseph, Gilbert; Leclair, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Examines international ethics issues and perspectives from the vantage points of five disciplines in business education: economics, management, finance, accounting, and marketing. Finds an underlying theme of management awareness, accountability, and control of ethical decision-making. Suggests some ethics-related curriculum projects. (DB)

  11. A Comparison of Student Academic Motivations across Three Course Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini; Sturges, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations of undergraduate students enrolled in human anatomy and physiology, physics, and nutrition courses were explored with course discipline-specific adapted versions of the Academic Motivation Scale. Information on students' study habits and efforts, and final course grades were also collected. Results revealed the…

  12. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  13. College Sports Fan Aggression: Implications for Residence Hall Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Christine Jansen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluated relationship between spectator aggression at football games and residence hall discipline. Results indicated that there is significant correlation, on five variables tested, between fan behavior and the increase of disciplinary cases during football weekends. Provides suggestions for interventions to reduce disciplinary actions. (JBJ)

  14. The Latent Values of the Discipline-Centered Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.

    1977-01-01

    Examines three curriculum projects in order to evaluate the organization of social studies curriculum around the social science disciplines. Concludes that curriculum often minimizes students' creative powers by stressing logical tidiness at the expense of the social, personal, and communal processes which characterize social science. (Author/DB)

  15. Analogy as a means of theoretical adoption of pedagogical disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solovcova Irina A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an application of analogy in the initial-teacher training as a tool of approaching pedagogical disciplines. The author proposes a classification of pedagogical analogies which provides choices of the most efficient model for a specific didactic situation. The article clarifies the model of the theoretical approach to pedagogical disciplines through active use of analogy, which contributes to a higher efficiency in a teacher and student interaction. The model consists of three stages: training (the stage of acquiring analogy model, the analytical stage (acquisition of pedagogical concepts, phenomena and systems through the application of analogy, and the stage of self-realization (the application of analogy method in students’ scientific-research activities considering external and internal didactic conditions which transform analogy from a teaching method into a tool for the acquisition of pedagogical disciplines. The author demonstrates that the application of analogy has a positive effect not only on the acquisition of pedagogical knowledge (especially methodic and the development of heuristic skills in students, but also on motivation for the study of pedagogical disciplines (cognitive aspect and professional pedagogical activity (formation of an individual-pedagogical attitude. .

  16. Discipline Identity in Economic History: Reflecting on an Interdisciplinary Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The article by Aileen Fyfe (this issue) raises a number of important issues about academic identity and the importance of the disciplinary community in the creation and maintenance of that identity. It also discusses some of the additional difficulties faced by interdisciplinary disciplines; lack of recognition (and thus institutional support),…

  17. Restorative Discipline: From Getting Even to Getting Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, Judy Hostetler

    2014-01-01

    As commonly understood, school discipline seeks to stop misbehavior, teach prosocial behavior, and motivate healthier decision making in the misbehaving student. In practice, the means to these ends often take a punitive path that fosters a self-protective posture, a sense of powerlessness, and a negative attitude that can contribute to an ongoing…

  18. The Disciplining Role of Leverage in Dutch Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of leverage in disciplining overinvestment problems.We measure the relationships between leverage, Tobin s q and corporate governance characteristics for Dutch listed firms.Besides, our empirical analysis tests for determinants of leverage from tax and

  19. Multi-Faceted Discipline Strategies of Chinese Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Heidi; Li, Jin; Lam, Chi Kwan

    2017-01-01

    Parental disciplining of their misbehaving children continues to draw much research attention. Baumrind's typology of parenting styles has been frequently used to classify Chinese parenting as more authoritarian. Although influential, research tends predominantly to focus on abstract characterization. Yet, parenting is a practice informed by…

  20. Generic versus discipline-specific writing interventions: Report on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Departing from a socio-constructivist perspective, the main purpose of the research on which this article reports was to indicate the effectiveness of both discipline-specific and generic approaches in teaching academic writing to undergraduate university students. A quasi-experimental design was followed, comparing the ...

  1. Legal accountability for public school discipline — fact or fiction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Educators, learners and parents/caregivers should be held accountable for instilling learner discipline through clear guidelines and limitations to achieve security at public schools. Two previously identified education challenges are sustaining welldisciplined education systems and ensuring that educators are attentive to ...

  2. Interdisciplinary Art Education: Building Bridges to Connect Disciplines and Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokrocki, Mary, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of discipline-based art education has been transformed into new avenues for teaching and learning that require an array of bridges to traverse creating new approaches and settings for art teaching and learning. The concept of interdisciplinary learning is one that should be scrutinized closely and research and practical applications…

  3. The Roles of Photography for Developing Literacy across the Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Marva; Lafferty, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers can capitalize on the overwhelmingly visual nature of contemporary society for learning and teaching through integrating photography in their classroom instruction. In offering an alternative pathway for acquiring and expressing knowledge, photography has the potential to strengthen instruction across disciplines by drawing on multiple…

  4. 399 Maintaining Discipline and Orderliness in Secondary Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... maintaining discipline and order and that neither principals nor teachers differ in their Mean Rating ... principals, teachers and parents should be worthy models for the students and that government should ... noted that 20% of the adolescents experience serious psychological conflicts, which may result in ...

  5. Principal leadership and its impact on student discipline in Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper attempts to establish the relationship between leadership approach and students' discipline in secondary schools. ... The study found that principals frequently or sometimes involve other stakeholders, particularly teachers, students and to some extent parents, in the management of their schools They ...

  6. School Climate & Discipline. California Children's Report Card, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The elements of school climate include the safety and overall well-being of students, as well as students' sense of connectedness and schools' discipline practices and physical environments. In 2012, 48% of suspensions in California were due to "willful defiance," an overly broad and subjective category defined as "disrupting school…

  7. The Social Structure of Criminalized and Medicalized School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, David M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author examines how school- and district-level racial/ethnic and socioeconomic compositions influence schools' use of different types of criminalized and medicalized school discipline. Using a large data set containing information on over 60,000 schools in over 6,000 districts, the authors uses multilevel modeling and a…

  8. Bringing Everyone to the Table to Eradicate School Discipline Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Allison; Mediratta, Kavitha

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Philanthropies funded the work of the Positive and Safe Schools Advancing Greater Equity (PASSAGE) initiative, which is a unique approach to ending discipline disparities focused on partnerships between districts and community organizations. Open Society Foundations is considering funding similar work. For this interview, "Voices…

  9. Social and Emotional Learning and Equity in School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Anne; Fergus, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Beginning as early as preschool, race and gender are intertwined with the way US schools mete out discipline. In particular, black students and male students are much more likely than others to be suspended or expelled--punishments that we know can hold them back academically. These disparities, and the damage they can cause, have driven recent…

  10. Music as an Academic Discipline: Breaking New Ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Dorothy A.

    1994-01-01

    Through participation in school music programs, students gain a sense of discipline, self-esteem, pride of accomplishment and learn to excel in teamwork, problem solving, leadership, creative thinking. Education Secretary Richard W. Riley and President Bill Clinton are strong advocates for enriched arts education for every child. Newly developed…

  11. Methods of Discipline: What Is Allowed? A Legal Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, M. Chester

    This publication briefly discusses the legal status of various methods of school discipline and related efforts to control the behavior of elementary and secondary school students. Specific topics examined include corporal punishment, suspension, expulsion, exclusion from extracurricular activities, detention, truancy, verbal correction, a variety…

  12. Toward Validation of the Genius Discipline-Specific Literacy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Edwin S.; Wills, Stephen; Deshler, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the rationale and theoretical foundations of the Genius Discipline-specific Literacy Model and its use of SMARTvisuals to cue information-processing skills and strategies and focus attention on essential informational elements in high-frequency topics in history and the English language arts are presented. Quantitative data…

  13. Bringing Students into a Discipline: Reflections on a Travel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernega, Jennifer Nargang; Osgood, Aurea K.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary describes a two-week domestic travel study course for undergraduate sociology students designed to introduce students to the practice of social research and to the larger discipline of sociology. We arranged activities, presentations, and experiences in Chicago and Washington, DC. In this article, we outline the relevant parts of…

  14. RCDA: Architecting as a Risk and Cost Management Discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, E.; van Vliet, H.

    2012-01-01

    We propose to view architecting as a risk- and cost management discipline. This point of view helps architects identify the key concerns to address in their decision making, by providing a simple, relatively objective way to assess architectural significance. It also helps business stakeholders to

  15. Intergenerational and partner influences on fathers' negative discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Deborah M; Pears, Katherine C; Kerr, David C R; Owen, Lee D

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies have found significant but relatively modest associations in parenting across generations, suggesting additional influences on parenting beyond experiences in the family of origin. The present prospective, cross-generational study of at-risk men (Oregon Youth Study) focuses on fathers' negative discipline practices with their 2- to 3-year-old children. The theoretical model is based on a dynamic developmental systems approach to problematic family functioning, which points to the importance of developmental systems, including family risk context and key influential social interactional systems, and emphasizes influence that is directly pertinent to the outcome of interest. Path modeling indicated that the men's poor and harsh discipline practices were predicted by partners' problem behavior (substance use and antisocial behavior) and negative discipline practices, as well as by poor discipline experienced in the family of origin; men's own problem behavior, ages at which they became fathers, and family socioeconomic status were controlled. Findings indicate the importance of focusing on influence dynamics across parents.

  16. Conversation: A Discipline for Studying and Teaching the Sunday Lectionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrien, Philip J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a method of teaching liturgical texts, related to the lectionary. Describes Bernard L. Lee's shared homily method based on Hans-Georg Gadamer's hermeneutical movements. Illustrates how Lee's homiletic method can be adapted into a disciplined conversation with the text for use in other religious instruction. (DB)

  17. Pursuing Discipline and Ethical Issues in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discipline and ethics are twin issues that tend to undermine the provision of quality education in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This is because the overall goals of tertiary institutions as enunciated in the National Policy of. Education can hardly be achieved by all the stakeholders without strict conformity and adherence to the ...

  18. Visualising Knowledge Structures in Biology: Discipline, Curriculum and Student Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    Concept mapping is discussed as a tool for the visualisation of knowledge structures that can be exploited within biological education. Application of this tool makes it possible to relate the structure of the curriculum to the structure of the discipline, in order to support the development of robust student knowledge structures in ways that…

  19. Research within the disciplines foundations for reference and library instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Keeran, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research within the Disciplines is designed to help reference librarians - and students studying to become librarians - gain that deeper understanding of disciplinary differences that allows them to comfortably solve information needs rather than merely responding to questions, and practical knowledge about how to work with researchers in a library setting.

  20. Conflict Resolution and Peace Education: Transformations across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Candice C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Peace education includes lessons about conflict sources, transformation and resolution. While featuring field-based examples in multiple disciplines, including political science, anthropology, communication, psychology, sociology, counseling, law and teacher training, this book presents real cases of conflict work. Explained are concepts…

  1. Self-efficacy and Its Relation to ESL Writing Proficiency and Academic Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Raoofi; Jalal Gharibi; Hassan Gharibi

    2017-01-01

    Writing is an essential skill for academic development within any disciplinary area. Despite the rapidly growing body of research on the various aspects of second language writing, research on writing self-efficacy remains scarce. This study investigated the relationship the between writing self-efficacy and writing proficiency in English as a second language. In this cross-sectional study, 304 Malaysian undergraduate students completed a writing self-efficacy questionnaire. The participants’...

  2. Infection Dynamics on Growing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Cheng; Liu, Zonghua; Ye, Nong

    We consider the entire spectrum of architectures for large, growing, and complex networks, ranging from being heterogeneous (scale-free) to homogeneous (random or small-world), and investigate the infection dynamics by using a realistic three-state epidemiological model. In this framework, a node can be in one of the three states: susceptible (S), infected (I), or refractory (R), and the populations in the three groups are approximately described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. Our heuristic analysis predicts that, (1) regardless of the network architecture, there exists a substantial fraction of nodes that can never be infected, and (2) heterogeneous networks are relatively more robust against spread of infection as compared with homogeneous networks. These are confirmed numerically. We have also considered the problem of deliberate immunization for preventing wide spread of infection, with the result that targeted immunization can be quite effective for heterogeneous networks. We believe these results are important for a host of problems in many areas of natural science and engineering, and in social sciences as well.

  3. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  4. Case grows for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hileman, B.

    1999-08-09

    In the four years since the IPCC stated that 'the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate', evidence for anomalous warming has become more compelling, and as a result scientists have become more concerned that human-induced climate change has already arrived. The article summarises recent extra evidence on global temperatures, carbon dioxide measurements, ice shelf breakup, coral bleaching, unstable climates and improved climate models. At the time of the Kyoto conference, the US became keen on the idea that enhancing forest and soil carbon sequestration was a good way to offset emissions reduction targets. Congress is however under the opinion on that the Kyoto protocol presents a threat to the US economy, and senate is very unlikely to ratify the protocol during the Clinton Administration. The debate as to whether the US government should mandate major emission reduction or wait for more scientific certainty may continue for a number of years, but, growing concern of scientists and the public for the harmful effects of climate change may cause a change. 4 figs., 8 photos.

  5. Growing and evolving soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed.

  6. Pediatric Ovarian Growing Teratoma Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Rentea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian immature teratoma is a germ cell tumor that comprises less than 1% of ovarian cancers and is treated with surgical debulking and chemotherapy depending on stage. Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS is the phenomenon of the growth of mature teratoma elements with normal tumor markers during or following chemotherapy for treatment of a malignant germ cell tumor. These tumors are associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to invasive and compressive growth as well as potential for malignant transformation. Current treatment modality is surgical resection. We discuss a 12-year-old female who presented following resection of a pure ovarian immature teratoma (grade 3, FIGO stage IIIC. Following chemotherapy and resection of a pelvic/liver recurrence demonstrating mature teratoma, she underwent molecular genetics based chemotherapeutic treatment. No standardized management protocol has been established for the treatment of GTS. The effect of chemotherapeutic agents for decreasing the volume of and prevention of expansion is unknown. We review in detail the history, diagnostic algorithm, and previous reported pediatric cases as well as treatment options for pediatric patients with GTS.

  7. [Growing old differently: Transdisciplinary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, H-P

    2015-04-01

    Growing old differently: the phrase is intended to call something other to mind than merely the fact that images and forms of old age and aging have multiplied and diversified to an enormous extent. The suggestion put forward here is that otherness (as opposed to mere differences) should be positively reinforced. In other words, it is not just a matter of noting different forms of old age and aging but more than this, of seeking out opportunities for aging differently. In order to explore this, the article follows an older strand of theory, which has recently come to be frequently quoted in gerontology: the phenomenology of difference as reasoned analytically by Lévinas and Sartre and applied to gerontology by Améry and de Beauvoir. Here, opportunities for aging crucially depend on the way we look at it, how we observe and describe it and not least, how gerontology frames it. A distinction is made between two perspectives and their associated consequences for old age: alienation and alterity. Alienation means looking at old age above all as a disconcerting "other", as a perplexing, problematic deviation from the norm of vitality. Alterity, by contrast, refers to different options for living life in old age: options to be explored and opened up in contradistinction to cultural or academic alienation. Not least, the article appeals for diversity in scholarly approaches and for cross-disciplinary perspectives.

  8. Persistently Disciplined Urban Students' Experiences of the Middle School Transition and "Getting in Trouble"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Lewis, Brianna L.

    2013-01-01

    Urban middle school students of color are disproportionately subjected to exclusionary discipline, reflecting a discipline gap between White students and students of color. The discipline gap results in negative outcomes similar to those caused by the academic achievement gap. Although the discipline gap occurs at all levels of schooling, it…

  9. Student Behavior in Art Classrooms: The Dynamics of Discipline. Teacher Resource Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Frank D.

    This handbook serves as a practical guide and reference manual for teachers on maintaining classroom discipline. Divided into three parts, part 1: "Understanding Discipline in Art Classrooms", the nature and complexity of discipline problems is examined. In part 2: "Preventing Discipline Problems," suggestions are given for management practices…

  10. Museology: an academic discipline or form of cultural activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ploşniţa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Museology is the science of museums. Most experts characterize it as an independent applied scientific discipline, which studies how museums develop and optimize their activities to meet the needs of society. The term "museology" was first mentioned in the work by P.L. Martin "Praxix der Naturgeschichte" published in 1869 in Germany. But the determination of the status of museology as a science was first given by J. G. Th. Von Graesse in the article "Museology as a Science" published in the magazine „Zeitschrift für Museologie und Antiquitätenkunde" in 1883. The author announced a new scientific discipline of museology and tried to highlight its research potential. Thus, museology as a science began in 1883. Since 1960s museology is introduced as a scientific discipline in many universities around the world; there were created first centers of museological research, published numerous papers on museums. However, so far, some experts deny the scientific character of museology considering it "a discipline that coordinates a specialized type of cultural activity". In his article, the author analyzes the path of museology in the process of its development as a scientific discipline, identifies the problems of its classification in the system of sciences, and highlights the contributions of some researchers (P. van Mensch, J. Neustupny, T. Šola, Z. Stransky, R. Florescu, etc. to the consolidation of its status of an independent science. In conclusion, the author believes that museology is an academic science, but a relatively young and developing.

  11. WHITE BLOOD CELLS IN POLISH ATHLETES OF VARIOUS SPORTS DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Orysiak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity of white blood cell (WBC counts and their subsets (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes among competitive athletes of different sports disciplines. The blood samples were collected from 608 healthy, medically examined athletes (181 females and 427 males aged 20.1 ± 5.1 years, who represented five sport disciplines: canoeing, judo, rowing, swimming and volleyball. All blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein in the morning, after overnight fasting, in a seated position. Haematological analyses were conducted using a haematology analyser (ADVIA 120, Siemens. Neutropenia (defined as neutrophil count <2.0 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup] was found in athletes of both sexes in each discipline. There was no incident of lymphopenia (defined as a lymphocyte count <1.0 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup]. Monocytopenia (defined as a monocyte count <0.2 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup] was seen only in male athletes, except judo athletes. Differences in WBC and their subset counts were related to sport disciplines: in volleyball players WBC counts were significantly higher than in athletes of canoeing and rowing (in females; neutrophil counts were the lowest in swimming athletes; lymphocyte counts were lower in athletes of canoeing than in volleyball and swimming, but only in females; monocyte counts were lower in athletes of canoeing than swimming (in females and judo (in males. In women, counts of neutrophils were greater and counts of monocytes were smaller than in men. It seems that prevalence of neutropenia and monocytopenia and differences in WBC counts and their subsets among disciplines could be related to the adaptive response to physical exercise.

  12. Socioeconomic Gaps in Parents' Discipline Strategies From 1988 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M; Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M; Padilla, Christina

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of corporal punishment is high in the United States despite a 1998 American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement urging against its use. The current study tests whether the socioeconomic difference in its use by parents has changed over the past quarter century. It goes on to test whether socioeconomic differences in the use of nonphysical discipline have also changed over time. Data are drawn from 4 national studies conducted between 1988 and 2011. Each asked how often a kindergarten-aged child was spanked in the past week and what the parents would do if the child misbehaved, with physical discipline, time-out, and talking to child as possible responses. We use regression models to estimate parents' responses to these questions at the 90th, 50th, and 10th percentiles of the income and education distributions and t tests to compare estimates across cohorts. The proportion of mothers at the 50th income-percentile who endorse physical discipline decreased from 46% to 21% over time. Gaps between the 90th and 10th income-percentiles were stable at 11 and 18 percentage points in 1988 and 2011. The percentage of mothers at the 10th income-percentile endorsing time-outs increased from 51% to 71%, and the 90/10 income gap decreased from 23 to 14 percentage points between 1998 and 2011. Decline in popular support for physical discipline reflects real changes in parents' discipline strategies. These changes have occurred at all socioeconomic levels, producing for some behaviors a significant reduction in socioeconomic differences. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. A biochemistry discipline designed for the nutrition course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.G. Bianco

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry is widely considered an essential background in a Nutrition Course framework. At theFaculdade de Saude Publica, USP, it is a direct requirement to eight disciplines of the syllabus and anindirect requirement to another nine disciplines. Nevertheless, a previous interview study involvingNutrition students and Nutritionists revealed a contradictory image of Biochemistry. Although stu-dents and Nutritionists admitted the important role played by Biochemistry, most of the respondentsdeclared that they could not foresee any application of Biochemical contents in their professional life.Aiming to change this situation, a deep intervention in the Biochemistry discipline was carried on.The discipline was planned in such a way that all the contents to be taught was directly derived fromsubjects or situations matching the interests of nutrition students. Instead of a classical lecture basedcourse, collaborative learning was the methodological choice, taking advantage of practical activitiesinvolving educational software and laboratory work as well. The course was carried on in 180 hoursand a variety of strategies were employed, especially small group discussion and problem solving. Thestudents were given a booklet containing all the exercises and problems, which acted as course guide.At the end of the course, an evaluation survey was carried out. It is noticeable that, according tostudents answers: 100% agreed that Biochemistry was intimately linked to Nutrition; 83% appreciatedthe didactical methodologies employed; 89% would like to continue studying Biochemistry in a furtherdiscipline; 96% declared that the discipline has raised their interest in Biochemistry. In respect tothe assessment of the students, these results are in accordance with the opinion of teachers and TAsengaged in restructuring Biochemistry courses.

  14. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  15. Bariatric amputee: A growing problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Jai; Hannett, Dominic P; Purcell, Steven

    2015-06-01

    This study reviewed prevalence of patients with lower limb amputations with above normal weight profile, with body mass index over 25, in seven disablement services centres managing their amputee rehabilitation in the United Kingdom. To review two clinical standards of practice in amputee rehabilitation. Ambulant lower limb amputees should have their body weight recorded on an electronic information system, with identification of cohort with body weight >100 kg. Lower limb amputees to be provided with suitable weight-rated prosthesis. Observational study of clinical practice. Data were collected from the Clinical Information Management Systems. Inclusion criteria--subjects were ambulant prosthetic users with some prosthetic intervention in the last 5 years and had at least one lower limb amputation. In 96% of patients, the weight record profile was maintained. In addition, 86% were under 100 kg, which is the most common weight limit of prosthetic componentry. Of 15,204 amputation levels, there were 1830 transfemoral and transtibial sites in users with body weight over 100 kg. In 60 cases, the prosthetic limb build was rated to be below the user body weight. In 96% of our patients, body weight was documented, and in 97%, the prosthetic limb builds were within stated body weight limits, but this may not be the case in all the other disablement services centres in the United Kingdom. Also, the incidence of obesity in the United Kingdom is a growing problem, and the health issues associated with obesity are further compounded in the amputee population. Prosthetic componentry has distinct weight limits which must be considered during prescription. As people with amputation approach the limits of specific components, clinicians are faced with the challenge of continued provision in a safe and suitable manner. This article reviews the amputee population and the current national profile to consider trends in provision and the incidence of these challenges. © The

  16. Physics Teaching in the Search for Its Self: From Physics as a Discipline to Physics as a Discipline-Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseitlin, Michael; Galili, Igal

    The crisis in physics education necessitates searching for new relevant meanings of physics knowledge. This paper advocates regarding physics as the dialogue among discipline-cultures, rather than as a cluster of disciplines to be an appropriate subject of science education. In a discipline-culture one can distinguish elements of knowledge as belonging to either (1) central principles and paradigms - nucleus, (2) normal disciplinary area - body of knowledge or (3) rival knowledge of the subject - periphery. It appears that Physics cannot be represented as a simple dynamic wholeness, that is, cannot be arranged in a single tripartite (triadic) structure (this result presents a deconstruction), but incorporates several discipline-cultures. Bound together by family similarity, they maintain a conceptual discourse. Teaching physics as a culture is performed in polyphonic space of different worldviews; in other words, it is performed in a Kontrapunkt. Implications of the tripartite code are suggested with regard to representation of scientific revolutions, individual conceptual change, physics curricula and the typology of students learning science.

  17. Disparate Use of Exclusionary Discipline: Evidence on Inequities in School Discipline from a U.S. State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kaitlin P.; Ritter, Gary W.

    2017-01-01

    There is much discussion in the United States about exclusionary discipline (suspensions and expulsions) in schools. According to a 2014 report from the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights, Black students represent 15% of students, but 44% of students suspended more than once and 36% of expelled students. This analysis uses…

  18. Disciplining the children – ways of doing it, standpoints and generational relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Poljak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents use different ways of disciplining the children in the family. The purpose of the research is to study ways, attitudes and intergenerational relations between disciplining the children in the family. One hundred and three parents appraised their ways of children disciplining, their attitudes towards the ways of disciplining, the context of experiencing, modes of implementing discipline and ways of disciplining of their mother and father when they were 10 years old. More than half of the parents describe the use of at least one of the ways of physical punishment respectively, at least one of the ways of psychical violence as a way of disciplining children in the family. Punishment ways of disciplining are connected with the experience of spousal conflict in the family, ineffectiveness, stress and the impulsive way of a response due to children disciplining. The acceptability of punishment and non-punishment ways of disciplining are positively connected with the frequency of use of this ways of disciplining. The research presented here shows a possibility that the use of a certain way of disciplining children in the family does not necessarily have a connection with a similar disciplining experience in the childhood. Corporal punishment is connected with the experience of other ways of punitive disciplining in the childhood, especially with the ways of disciplining used by mother.

  19. Elder Orphans Hiding in Plain Sight: A Growing Vulnerable Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Carney

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults are increasingly aging alone with multiple chronic diseases and are geographically distant from family or friends. It is challenging for clinicians to identify these individuals, often struggling with managing the growing difficulties and the complexities involved in delivering care to this population. Clinicians often may not recognize or know how to address the needs that these patients have in managing their own health. While many such patients function well at baseline, the slightest insult can initiate a cascade of avoidable negative events. We have resurrected the term elder orphan to describe individuals living alone with little to no support system. Using public data sets, including the US Census and University of Michigan’s Health and Retirement Study, we estimated the prevalence of adults 65 years and older to be around 22%. Thus, in this paper, we strive to describe and quantify this growing vulnerable population and offer practical approaches to identify and develop care plans that are consistent with each person’s goals of care. The complex medical and psychosocial issues for elder orphans significantly impact the individual person, communities, and health-care expenditures. We hope to encourage professionals across disciplines to work cooperatively to screen elders and implement policies to prevent elder orphans from hiding in plain sight.

  20. Infusing Sustainability Across Disciplines to Build Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, M. Z.; O'Connell, K.; McDaris, J. R.; Kirk, K. B.; Larsen, K.; Kent, M.; Manduca, C. A.; Egger, A. E.; Blockstein, D.; Mogk, D. W.; Taber, J.

    2014-12-01

    Establishing relevance and effective communication are key mechanisms for building student and community engagement in a topic and can be used to promote the importance of working across disciplines to solve problems. Sustainability, including the impacts of and responses to climate change, is an inherently interdisciplinary issue and can be infused across courses and curricula in a variety of ways. Key topics such as climate change, hazards, and food, water, and energy production and sustainability are relevant to a wide audience and can be used to build student engagement. Using real-world examples, service learning, and focusing on the local environment may further boost engagement by establishing relevance between sustainability issues and students' lives. Communication plays a key role in the exchange of information across disciplines and allows for a more holistic approach to tackling the complex climate and sustainability issues our society faces. It has the power to bridge gaps, break down disciplinary silos, and build connections among diverse audiences with a wide range of expertise, including scientists, policy-makers, stakeholders, and the general public. It also aids in planning and preparation for, response to, and mitigation of issues related to sustainability, including the impacts of climate change, to lessen the detrimental effects of unavoidable events such as sea level rise and extreme weather events. Several workshops from the InTeGrate and On the Cutting Edge projects brought together educators and practitioners from a range of disciplines including geoscience, engineering, social science, and more to encourage communication and collaboration across disciplines. They supported networking, community-building, and sharing of best practices for preparing our students for a sustainable future, both in and out of the workplace, and across disciplines. Interdisciplinary teams are also working together to author curricular materials that highlight

  1. Population proteomics: an emerging discipline to study metapopulation ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, David G; Loxdale, Hugh D; Ponton, Fleur; Moura, Hercules; Marché, Laurent; Brugidou, Christophe; Thomas, Frédéric

    2006-03-01

    Proteomics research has developed until recently in a relative isolation from other fast-moving disciplines such as ecology and evolution. This is unfortunate since applying proteomics to these disciplines has apparently the potential to open new perspectives. The huge majority of species indeed exhibit over their entire geographic range a metapopulation structure, occupying habitats that are fragmented and heterogeneous in space and/or through time. Traditionally, population genetics is the main tool used to studying metatopulations, as it describes the spatial structure of populations and the level of gene flow between them. In this Viewpoint, we present the reasons why we think that proteomics, because of the level of integration it promotes, has the potential to resolve interesting issues specific to metapopulation biology and adaptive processes.

  2. Development of Computer Science Disciplines - A Social Network Analysis Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pham, Manh Cuong; Jarke, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to many other scientific disciplines, computer science considers conference publications. Conferences have the advantage of providing fast publication of papers and of bringing researchers together to present and discuss the paper with peers. Previous work on knowledge mapping focused on the map of all sciences or a particular domain based on ISI published JCR (Journal Citation Report). Although this data covers most of important journals, it lacks computer science conference and workshop proceedings. That results in an imprecise and incomplete analysis of the computer science knowledge. This paper presents an analysis on the computer science knowledge network constructed from all types of publications, aiming at providing a complete view of computer science research. Based on the combination of two important digital libraries (DBLP and CiteSeerX), we study the knowledge network created at journal/conference level using citation linkage, to identify the development of sub-disciplines. We investiga...

  3. Dilemma of healthcare reform and invention of new discipline of health fiscalogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jitong; Miao, Jianchun; Zhang, Dongqi

    2016-01-01

    China's Reform and Open up Policy in 1980s has brought rapid economic development to Chinese society. With the deepening of economic reform, the withdrawal of the state in China has had visible and worrisome consequences for health and for the functioning of health services. The new round of healthcare reform after 2009 has made significant achievements on improving fundamental health and bringing back the nature of welfare of health. However, the financing mechanism of health system has not been established, and the underlying reason behind the healthcare reform dilemma and the theoretical solution need to be found. This study used the methods of literature review, theoretical research and comparative research to summarize and analyze the reasons and solutions of current dilemma in healthcare reform, and created the new discipline of health fiscalogy through theoretical analysis and vertical and horizontal comparison of healthcare system, especially health financing. Dilemma in healthcare system emerged from the circumstances of rapid process of industrialization, urbanization and population aging, including the profit-driven phenomena, tendency of excessive marketization in public hospitals, strained doctor-patient relationship, high disease burden on individuals and families, and so on. It can be concluded that the theoretical basis of healthcare system and the nature of health resources are crucial in solving the dilemma of healthcare reform. The theoretical basis of healthcare reform should be health fiscalogy focusing on government as the main body of health care responsibility rather than health economics focusing on anti-monopoly. There are two key differences between health economics and health fiscalogy: responsible person/department of disease and health welfare, and nature of resource. The new discipline of health fiscalogy has universal and important implications on both China's healthcare reform and the healthcare reform in the world. China

  4. PD0332991 (palbociclib) for treatment of pediatric intracranial growing teratoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kris Ann P; Petronio, Joseph; Bendel, Anne; Patterson, Richard; Vaughn, David J

    2015-06-01

    Growing teratoma syndrome is characterized by growth of mature teratoma elements of a mixed germ cell tumor despite resolution of immature/malignant elements with administration of chemotherapy. Surgical resection is the only known cure for growing teratoma syndrome but in the brain, complete resection may be impossible. In these instances, mature teratoma, although histologically benign, may be fatal. In this report, we present the case of a child with a large, rapidly growing, unresectable pineal region growing teratoma. PD0332991 was administered with stabilization of the solid, enhancing components of the mass. Minimal adverse effects were noted. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The rapid expansion of (mainstream) health psychology in France: Historical foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Delefosse, Marie; Del Rio Carral, Maria

    2017-06-01

    This article traces the historical evolution of ongoing theoretical debates in psychology in France from the 1940s until today. Its aim is to show how the conjunction of certain conditions was determinant for a rapid expansion of American-derived mainstream health psychology during the 1980s. The authors describe the French context in the post-World War II period that made possible the introduction of psychology courses at the university, which included the tensions between two epistemological orientations: experimental psychology and clinical psychology, the latter partly inspired by Politzer's concrete psychology. We also outline the process that led to the implementation of 'clinical psychology in health settings' in the 1950s, under the influence of Daniel Lagache. Furthermore, the strong critiques that were made to the new psychology profession in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s are examined against oppositions among psychologists, psychiatrists, philosophers and psychoanalysts. Moreover, we discuss how under turbulent conditions, a pragmatic-oriented psychology arriving from the United States was smoothly and rapidly introduced in France during the 1980s, promoting a socio-cognitive framework and offering new career perspectives. But the French dissension to this new sub-discipline will also be considered. Finally, our conclusion reflects upon future implications of ongoing rivalries between different approaches to psychology. It underlines a growing interest in critical perspectives developed in Anglo-Saxon cultures which are being applied, by French academics and practitioners who work in psychology in health settings.

  6. Inpatient treatment time across disciplines in spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteneck, Gale; Gassaway, Julie; Dijkers, Marcel; Backus, Deborah; Charlifue, Susan; Chen, David; Hammond, Flora; Hsieh, Ching-Hui; Smout, Randall J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective Length of stay (LOS) for rehabilitation treatment after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been documented extensively. However, there is almost no published research on the nature, extent, or intensity of the various treatments patients receive during their stay. This study aims at providing such information on a large sample of patients treated by specialty rehabilitation inpatient programs. Methods Six hundred patients with traumatic SCI admitted to six rehabilitation centers were enrolled. Time spent on various therapeutic activities was documented by each rehabilitation clinician after each patient encounter. Patients were grouped by neurologic level and completeness of injury. Total time spent by each rehabilitation discipline over a patient's stay and total minutes of treatment per week were calculated. Ordinary least squares stepwise regression models were used to identify patient and injury characteristics associated with time spent in rehabilitation treatment overall and within each discipline. Results Average LOS was 55 days (standard deviation 37), during which 180 (106) hours of treatment were received, or 24 (5) hours per week. Extensive variation was found in the amount of treatment received, between and within neurologic groups. Total hours of treatment provided throughout a patient's stay were primarily determined by LOS, which in turn was primarily predicted by medical acuity. Variation in minutes per week of treatment delivered by individual disciplines was predicted poorly by patient and injury characteristics. Conclusions Variations between and within SCI rehabilitation patient groups in LOS, minutes of treatment per week overall, and for each rehabilitation discipline are large. Variation in treatment intensity was not well explained by patient and injury characteristics. In accordance with practice-based evidence methodology, the next step in the SCIRehab study will be to determine which treatment interventions are related with

  7. Teaching Writing in the Disciplines: Student Perspectives on Learning Genre

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Goldschmidt

    2014-01-01

    Writing in the Disciplines curricula can both challenge and reinforce assumptions that writing is a general skill that students will already have learned prior to doing the specialized writing in their chosen field of study. Rhetorical genre studies, however, tends to emphasize the situated nature of writing expertise, and thus supports the exploration of more sustained and varied forms of writing instruction in higher education. This article reports on a qualitative study that gave priority ...

  8. Student’s opinion about adult nursing assistance administration discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão Chaves, Enaura Helena; Cristina Echer, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the student`s opinion about the discipline Administration of Adult Nursing Assistance, developed in the 7th term of nursing graduation course in UFRGS Nursing School. The aspects evaluated were: organization, objectives, theoretical framework, subjects relevance, teaching strategies, field of practice learning and supervision. It`s a qualitative study, the instrument used is a questionary with open questions, which allows the students write their points of view about th...

  9. Interagency collaboration challenges among homeland security disciplines in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Jerome D.

    2006-01-01

    CHDS State/Local First responders have struggled to incorporate strategic direction provided by the federal government into their existing plans. An urgent call for teamwork and cooperation has changed the landscape for America's first responders. They have been required to shoulder new responsibilities and become more networked and interactive with their peer disciplines to achieve higher levels of performance and response capability. This thesis examines interactions among four key homel...

  10. Reading Habits of the College Students across Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Loan, Fayaz Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    From last century, many researchers have devoted efforts to examine reading habits of students. The present study is a step forward in the process which aims to identify the reading preferences and tastes of the college students across disciplines. The scope of the study is limited to the degree college students of Kashmir covering the faculties of General Science, Business/ Commerce, Computer Science, Social Sciences and Humanities. The sample was selected through statistical sampling formul...

  11. Cinema and Media Studies: Snapshot of an "Emerging" Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Krin

    2006-01-01

    Cinema and media studies have been a prominent part of American academy since the 1960s and at a few universities since the 1910s, but it was only in the mid-1990s that the field was declared to be an emerging discipline. A discussion on the state of cinema and media studies is presented as they stand on the verge of being officially recognized as…

  12. NASA HRP Immunology Discipline - Use of Terrestrial Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Due to the cost and operational constraints, as well as technical implementation limitations, it is desirous to perform relevant space physiology investigations first in terrestrial 'space analogs'. This is particularly true for initial investigations, which may then provide appropriate focus for subsequent flight investigations, or for mechanistic investigations that simply cannot be performed during spaceflight. Appropriate analog choice is extremely important. There are a wide variety of terrestrial space analogs, each relevant to a particular physiological discipline (or disciplines) and each with a particular fidelity (or lack thereof) to spaceflight, and each with unique operational constraints. The HRP Immunology Discipline is tasked with managing the HRP Risk concerning clinical risk for Astronaut crews related to spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation. Such dysregulation has been documented to occur during spaceflight, and found to persist for the duration of a 6-month ISS mission. Studies continue to characterize the onorbit phenomenon, but it generally consists of diminished immunocyte function, dysregulated cytokine profiles, and persistent herpesvirus reactivation. Causes are thought to synergistically include microgravity, psychological or physiological stress, radiation, and/or circadian misalignment. An appropriate terrestrial analog for immune dysregulation would replicate as many of these influences as possible. Such analogs may include clinostat or bioreactor cell culture (microgravity), hindlimb suspension (stress, fluid shifts, hypokinesis), or human deployment to remote or extreme environments (isolation, stress, circadian). Also, the laboratory setting may be used as an analog, or to augment analogs, such as sleep deprivation/misalignment or human centrifugation to replicate gravitational stress. As an appropriate example of a NASA Disciplines use of Terrestrial space analogs, this talk will discuss spaceflight associated immune

  13. FACEBOOK AS A MEDIATION TOOL IN BIOCHEMISTRY DISCIPLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. X. Gomes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current students generation are daily connected to the Internet, wich encourages the use of mobile tools in education. Many of the students of Biochemistry feel apprehensive about the discipline and the use of facebook may contribute, among other factors, motivating them. Objectives: It was analyzed the use of facebook as a mediator and motivator in the discipline of Biochemistry, basing on socioconstrutivist interventions. Material and methods: This work was developed in the action-research perspective, using the quali-quantitative method. An investigative questionnaire was used, using Likert scale and open questions, to investigate the facebook use, as well as the preferences of students, focusing on Biochemistry group in the Biomedicine course.  The posts were analyzed identifying: frequency of the interaction`s types (post, comment, likes;  interaction's categories (question, answer, motivational; and the content itself of the post. Results: It was highlighted students' interest to search materials, answering questions, and especially seeking information about the discipline. It was emphasized that the group was motivating for learning Biochemistry, encouragement the group to study, with quick and easy access to the professor by chat. Conclusions: The results indicate a preference for students at facebook, with a great motivational potential, is at easy access to colleagues, professor and monitor, or even the ease of obtaining the materials and ask questions in real time, indicating that this tool as a possible way, still little explored, to enhance the teaching of Biochemistry.

  14. FUTURE SHIP ENGINEERS’ TRAINING BY MEANS OF PROFESSIONALLY ORIENTED DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Уляна Ляшенко

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the problem of future ship engineers’ training by means of professionally oriented disciplines. This paper focuses on the effectiveness of future specialists’ training in case of implementation the author’s methods in the educational process of teaching (based on competence, person-oriented, module-rating, technological, activity, communicative approaches in accordance with cognitive-enriching, reproductive-activity and professional-creative stages. Leading principles of teaching(scientific approach, systematic and sequence approach, accessibility, conscious approach and activity, connection with life, individual approach and corresponding pedagogical conditions (implementation of holistic integrated approach while teaching professionally oriented disciplines; positive motivation of cadets’ professional interest through the contents, forms and means of educational activity of marine engineers’ professional training are defined; functioning mechanisms of interdisciplinary integration in the process of studying professionally oriented disciplines are disclosed. The author of the article grounds the purposefulness of implementation of the mentioned author’s methods in educational process as it will make the process of ship engineers’ professional training more effective and will allow to use the acquired professional knowledge and in the future professional activity.

  15. Differences in Collaboration Patterns across Discipline, Career Stage, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duch, Jordi; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in promoting research productivity and impact. What remains unclear is whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines differ in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,980 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at select U.S. research universities. We find that female faculty have significantly fewer distinct co-authors over their careers than males, but that this difference can be fully accounted for by females’ lower publication rate and shorter career lengths. Next, we find that female scientists have a lower probability of repeating previous co-authors than males, an intriguing result because prior research shows that teams involving new collaborations produce work with higher impact. Finally, we find evidence for gender segregation in some sub-disciplines in molecular biology, in particular in genomics where we find female faculty to be clearly under-represented. PMID:27814355

  16. Differences in Collaboration Patterns across Discipline, Career Stage, and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Han T Zeng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in promoting research productivity and impact. What remains unclear is whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM disciplines differ in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,980 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at select U.S. research universities. We find that female faculty have significantly fewer distinct co-authors over their careers than males, but that this difference can be fully accounted for by females' lower publication rate and shorter career lengths. Next, we find that female scientists have a lower probability of repeating previous co-authors than males, an intriguing result because prior research shows that teams involving new collaborations produce work with higher impact. Finally, we find evidence for gender segregation in some sub-disciplines in molecular biology, in particular in genomics where we find female faculty to be clearly under-represented.

  17. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  18. Investigation on the Anthropometric and Physiological Features Of Alpine Discipline and Nordic Discipline Turkish National Ski Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdet Alaeddinoğlu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate of physical features, explosive power, and stamina and body fat percentage of youngster male skiers of Turkish National Ski Team. A total of 28 sportsmen -15 sportsmen on Nordic Discipline and 13 sportsmen on Alpine Discipline- volunteered for the study. Depending on training program of the volunteering sportsmen some physical and physiological parameters were mutually examined. The date of birth, height, weight, and the height seated and arm span also fat measurements, round measurements, length measurement, standing long jump, push-up, shuttle, and jump and grip strength values were examined. In the evaluation of the data SPSS for Windows 17 package program was used and significance degree was taken at the degree of a=0.05 and 0.01. This study showed significant differences between physical p<0.05, explosive power p<0.05, agility p<0.05, and body fat percentage.

  19. Comprehensive Cross-Training among STEM Disciplines in Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, J. A.; Dutrow, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    One of the foremost areas of sustainability is society's need for energy. The US uses more energy per capita than any other country in the world with most of this energy coming from fossil fuels. With its link to climate change coupled with declining resources, renewable alternatives are being pursued. Given the high demand for energy, it is not a question of if these alternatives will be utilized but when and where. One of the "greenest" of the green technologies is geothermal energy. It is a renewable resource with a small environmental footprint. To educate advanced undergraduate and graduate students from across STEM disciplines in geothermal energy, a series of three distinct but linked and related courses are being developed and taught. Courses are focused on one of the STEM disciplines to provide students with essential discipline-specific knowledge and taught by different faculty members in the departments of geology, petroleum engineering and mathematics. These courses provide the foundation necessary for interdisciplinary research projects. The first course on Geologic Properties and Processes of Geothermal Energy was developed and taught in 2012. The class had an enrollment of 27 students including: 5 undergraduates and 4 graduate students in Geology, 12 undergraduates and two graduate students in Petroleum Engineering, and 4 non-matriculated undergraduate students. The course began with the essentials of heat and mass transfer, a common deficiency for all students, then progressed to the geologic materials of these systems: minerals, rocks and fluids. To provide students with first hand experience, two short research projects were embedded into the course. The first project involved analyses of cuttings from a well-studied geothermal system (Salton Sea, CA). Students were in teams consisting of both engineers and geologists. The first assignment was to identify minerals in the cuttings. They were then provided with XRD patterns for their cuttings to

  20. Construction of Hypertexts in a Biochemistry Pos- Graduation Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Maia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality is an innovating manner of comprehending and acting on how the world is and, also, considered a new way of intellectual exercise.  This work took place in a  biochemistry masters discipline (Advanced Formation in ScientificEducation and had as its observation context the forum (on-line tool viability, intending the construction of hypertexts (active  collaborative writing by the 15 registered students in the  discipline in 2008. The discipline was available on the web, in  bioq.educacao.biz , where the students, teachers and monitors couldsubscribe. The virtual space was set with several environments (agenda,classroom, dictionary, email and forum; all of which were used during thediscipline. The forum, called orkuteducation, was destined to the hypertextelaboration, which was focused in three themes: 1º How to work with technology at school;   2º Teaching/learning methods and new information and communication technology; 3º Constructivism. The virtual learning environment had 2,275accesses to its content; being the forum the most visited one, with 1,026.   The built hypertext presented clear ideas about the approached themes, and realized the important role which a qualified teacher plays in the educational process. The new ways of create, organize and interact with information changes the relationship between the subject and the information itself. The hype rtext constitutes "high level computer tools", through which is possible to explore knowledge in a non -linear and interactive way. Hypertext remains a revolutionary concept oforganization and access to information and its generalization impact in society  is not known yet.

  1. Improving The Discipline of Cost Estimation and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piland, William M.; Pine, David J.; Wilson, Delano M.

    2000-01-01

    The need to improve the quality and accuracy of cost estimates of proposed new aerospace systems has been widely recognized. The industry has done the best job of maintaining related capability with improvements in estimation methods and giving appropriate priority to the hiring and training of qualified analysts. Some parts of Government, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in particular, continue to need major improvements in this area. Recently, NASA recognized that its cost estimation and analysis capabilities had eroded to the point that the ability to provide timely, reliable estimates was impacting the confidence in planning many program activities. As a result, this year the Agency established a lead role for cost estimation and analysis. The Independent Program Assessment Office located at the Langley Research Center was given this responsibility. This paper presents the plans for the newly established role. Described is how the Independent Program Assessment Office, working with all NASA Centers, NASA Headquarters, other Government agencies, and industry, is focused on creating cost estimation and analysis as a professional discipline that will be recognized equally with the technical disciplines needed to design new space and aeronautics activities. Investments in selected, new analysis tools, creating advanced training opportunities for analysts, and developing career paths for future analysts engaged in the discipline are all elements of the plan. Plans also include increasing the human resources available to conduct independent cost analysis of Agency programs during their formulation, to improve near-term capability to conduct economic cost-benefit assessments, to support NASA management's decision process, and to provide cost analysis results emphasizing "full-cost" and "full-life cycle" considerations. The Agency cost analysis improvement plan has been approved for implementation starting this calendar year. Adequate financial

  2. Between fiscal discipline and economic recovery. The solutions problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Maria GHERMAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we proposed a comparative analysis of the effect of the measures taken in seven European countries, which were aimed the fiscal consolidation, in correlation with monetary policy and economic recovery. The selected countries have been systematized into two groups: first group includes states that have signed agreements with international financial institutions (Romania, Ireland, Greece and Portugal and the second group contains countries which, even if not directly assisted in the international funding programs, have take a several adjustment measures (Italy, Spain and France. In the same time, we keep in mind during the analysis the trade-off between fiscal discipline and sustainable economic recovery.

  3. A taxonomy for differentiating entrepreneurship education across disciplines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan P.; Blenker, Per

    , 2010) are surfacing as major impeding issues as E-Ed establishes itself outside of the business school setting (Vesper & Gartner, 1997; Etzkowitz et al., 2000; Gibb, 2005; Heinonen & Hytti, 2010). With the movement toward broadening target groups for E-Ed, the diversity of stakeholders is increasing...... entrepreneurial graduates (Blenker et al., 2008; Johnson et al., 2006; Neck and Greene, 2011). The objective of this paper is to establish a taxonomy whereby the differences between university disciplines are identified and organized from an entrepreneurial perspective (Jones and Matlay, 2011; Jones et al., 2012...

  4. Artificial consciousness: a discipline between technological and theoretical obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzotti, Riccardo; Tagliasco, Vincenzo

    2008-10-01

    Artificial consciousness is still far from being an established discipline. We will try to outline some theoretical assumption that could help in dealing with phenomenal consciousness. What are the technological and theoretical obstacles that face the enthusiast scholars of artificial consciousness? After presenting an outline of the state of artificial consciousness, we will focus on the relevance of phenomenal consciousness. Artificial consciousness needs to tackle the issue of phenomenal consciousness in a physical world. Up to now, the only models that give some hope of succeeding are the various kinds of externalism.

  5. NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project - Structures and Materials Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Johnson, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The Structures & Materials Discipline within the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project is focused on developing rotorcraft technologies. The technologies being developed are within the task areas of: 5.1.1 Life Prediction Methods for Engine Structures & Components 5.1.2 Erosion Resistant Coatings for Improved Turbine Blade Life 5.2.1 Crashworthiness 5.2.2 Methods for Prediction of Fatigue Damage & Self Healing 5.3.1 Propulsion High Temperature Materials 5.3.2 Lightweight Structures and Noise Integration The presentation will discuss rotorcraft specific technical challenges and needs as well as details of the work being conducted in the six task areas.

  6. Magnetically controlled growing rods for scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metkar, Umesh; Kurra, Swamy; Quinzi, David; Albanese, Stephen; Lavelle, William F

    2017-02-01

    Early onset scoliosis can be both a disfiguring as well as a life threatening condition. When more conservative treatments fail, pediatric spinal surgeons are forced to consider operative interventions. Traditionally, these interventions have involved the insertion of a variety of implants into the patient with a limited number of anchor points controlling the spine. In the past, these pediatric patients have had multiple surgeries for elective lengthening of these devices to facilitate their growth while attempting to control the scoliosis. These patients often experience a physical and emotional toll from their multiple repeated surgeries. Growing spine techniques have also had a noted high complication rate due to implant dislodgement and infections. Recently, the development of non-invasively, self-lengthening growing rods has occurred. These devices have the potential to allow for the devices to be lengthened magnetically in a conscious patient in the surgeon's office. Areas covered: This review summarized previously published articles in the English literature using a key word search in PubMed for: 'magnetically controlled growing rods', 'Magec rods', 'magnetic growing rods' and 'growing rods'. Expert commentary: Magnetically controlled growing rods have an advantage over growing rods in lengthening the growing spine in the absence of repetitive surgeries.

  7. (GrOW) Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alejandra

    How many applications will be shortlisted at the end of the first stage? GrOW envisages that up to 4 selected teams will be asked to submit a full research proposal for review and funding consideration. How is the review process conducted? Upon receiving complete applications, a review process begins by the GrOW team, ...

  8. Mail: dorinavoci@yahoo. Com disciplines increases efficiency of teaching process in physical education

    OpenAIRE

    IKONOMI EDISON; BANO ELTON; VOCI DORINA

    2017-01-01

    Discipline is a necessary precondition to increase the effectiveness of teaching and educational work in general, as in the case of physical education in particular. Contemporary studies stress the idea that discipline may be imposed by external control exercised by teachers or by stimulating the self-control of students. Discipline is best accomplished external control through the use of incentives and not through incentives amplifier punishment. At the physical education discipline intended...

  9. Korean Immigrant Discipline and Children’s Social Competence and Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, harsh discipline) and children’s social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from three and eight. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children’s behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, an...

  10. Stability of maternal discipline practices and the quality of mother–child interaction during toddlerhood✩

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Keng-yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Lee, Li-Ching; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother–child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother–toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e., child sex, temperament) that might moderate the association between maternal discipline and quality of mother–child interactions were also examined...

  11. The Interplay of Externalizing Problems and Physical and Inductive Discipline during Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Olson, Sheryl L.; SAMEROFF, ARNOLD J.

    2013-01-01

    Children who are physically disciplined are at elevated risk for externalizing problems. Conversely, maternal reasoning and reminding of rules, or inductive discipline, is associated with fewer child externalizing problems. Few studies have simultaneously examined bidirectional associations between these forms of discipline and child adjustment using cross-informant, multi-method data. We hypothesized that less inductive and more physical discipline would predict more externalizing problems, ...

  12. Growing wealth and growing pains: child and adolescent psychiatry in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Susan; Fung, Daniel; Hung, Se-Fong; Rey, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Several Asian regions have undergone a dramatic transformation, some becoming very affluent. This paper aims to ascertain how countries that are becoming wealthy have dealt with child and adolescent mental health issues. Population health status, child and adolescent mental health services, child psychiatry training, the number of child psychiatrists and related matters were examined in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore are ethnically, religiously, socially and politically very different. In spite of considerable wealth and a growing recognition that mental health problems in the young are increasing, they face similar problems--lack of access to treatment due to a dearth of services and a lack of child psychiatrists (2.5, 0.5 and 2.8 per million people, respectively). Because the number of child psychiatrists is so small, their ability to provide services, advocate, train, maintain a professional identity, and deal with future crises is very limited. Other rapidly developing countries can learn from this experience and should take action early to prevent a similar outcome.

  13. Time to Look Anew: Critical Pedagogy and Disciplines within Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the attitudes of writers within the tradition of critical pedagogy towards disciplines in higher education. With particular focus on Henry Giroux's work, it contrasts his portrayal of disciplines as closed, limiting and elitist with an alternative one of disciplines as complex, permeable and contested spaces. Critical…

  14. Ethical Considerations in a Three-Tiered Approach to School Discipline Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayworm, Ashley M.; Sharkey, Jill D.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that school discipline policies and practices have a significant influence on both student and school functioning. The purpose of this article is to uncover how the ethical standards guiding the field of school psychology inform school decisions about discipline in a three-tiered approach. Various discipline approaches,…

  15. Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment…

  16. Contemporary Test Validity in Theory and Practice: A Primer for Discipline-Based Education Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Todd D.; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2016-01-01

    Most discipline-based education researchers (DBERs) were formally trained in the methods of scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, and physics, rather than social science disciplines such as psychology and education. As a result, DBERs may have never taken specific courses in the social science research methodology--either quantitative…

  17. Living with Ghosts: "Disciplines", Envy and the Future of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Viv

    2012-01-01

    The continuing instability of Education as a discipline is examined against renewed arguments for its "disciplinary" status. Teacher education in particular is seen as Marjorie Garber's concept of "discipline envy" to propose a more positive relationship between disciplines that might work for the good of teacher education.

  18. Stability of Maternal Discipline Practices and the Quality of Mother-Child Interaction during Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Lee, Li-Ching; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother-child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother-toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e.,…

  19. Maternal Sensitivity Moderates the Relation between Negative Discipline and Aggression in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Stolk, Mirjam N.; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    Three models regarding the relation between maternal (in)sensitivity, negative discipline, and child aggression were examined in a sample of 117 mother-child pairs with high scores on child externalizing behavior: (1) Sensitivity and discipline are uniquely related to child aggression (the additive model); (2) the relation between discipline and…

  20. The Interplay of Externalizing Problems and Physical and Inductive Discipline during Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2013-01-01

    Children who are physically disciplined are at elevated risk for externalizing problems. Conversely, maternal reasoning and reminding of rules, or inductive discipline, is associated with fewer child externalizing problems. Few studies have simultaneously examined bidirectional associations between these forms of discipline and child adjustment…

  1. Writing in the Discipline of Anthropology--Theoretical, Thematic and Geographical Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Writing in different academic disciplines is not only different in superficial ways but in deeper ways that are connected to the history and characteristics of each discipline. Although many writing theorists now understand writing in this way, little has been written about these connections in specific disciplines, and even less about student…

  2. A Discipline-Specific Approach to the History of U.S. Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Valerie K.; Meltzer, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Although much has been said and written about the value of using the history of science in teaching science, relatively little is available to guide educators in the various science disciplines through the educational history of their own discipline. Through a discipline-specific approach to a course on the history of science education in the…

  3. Pedagogies of Possibility within the Disciplines: Critical Information Literacy and Literatures in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Heidi L. M.

    2014-01-01

    While most disciplines have responded to the generic openness of the ACRL Standards by creating discipline-specific guidelines and competencies, there is a need for us to consider other ways to approach information literacy in the disciplines. Critical information literacy reminds us to engage ourselves and our students with what Freire described…

  4. Consistency Rules: A Critical Exploration of a Universal Principle of School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Decoteau; Clough, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores the principle of "consistency" and its relevance in the discipline cultures of three middle and two high schools in a Midwest US school district. We explore how educators (1) evoke consistency as a necessity for school discipline and (2) attempt to be consistent in practice to develop disciplined students,…

  5. What Do We Know about School Discipline Reform? Assessing the Alternatives to Suspensions and Expulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.; Lacoe, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    What evidence supports the call for discipline reform? How might alternative strategies affect students and schools? In this article, the authors describe the critiques of exclusionary discipline and then examine the research base on which discipline policy reform rests. They also describe the alternative approaches that are gaining traction in…

  6. "A mission-driven discipline": the growth of conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meine, Curt; Soulé, Michael; Noss, Reed E

    2006-06-01

    Conservation biology emerged in the mid-1980s, drawing on established disciplines and integrating them in pursuit of a coherent goal: the protection and perpetuation of the Earth's biological diversity. Opportunistic in its borrowing and application of knowledge, conservation biology had its roots within the established biological sciences and resource management disciplines but has continually incorporated insights from the empirical experience of resource managers, from the social sciences and humanities, and from diverse cultural sources. The Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) has represented the field's core constituency, while expanding that constituency in keeping with the field's integrative spirit. Conservation Biology has served as SCB's flagship publication, promoting research, dialog, debate, and application of the field's essential concepts. Over the last 20 years the field, SCB, and the journal have evolved to meet changing conservation needs, to explore gaps in our knowledge base, to incorporate new information from related fields, to build professional capacity, and to provide expanded opportunities for international participation. In turn, the field, SCB, and journal have prompted change in related fields, organizations, and publications. In its dedication to advancing the scientific foundations of biodiversity conservation and placing that science at the service of society in a world whose variety, wildness, and beauty we care for conservation biology represents both a continuation and radical reconfiguration of the traditional relationship between science and conservation.

  7. Academic leadership in nursing: legitimating the discipline in contested spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Martin S

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the potential of recent conceptual developments in the sociology of education for conceptualising academic leadership in nursing. During an investigation into the current status and future trajectory of academic nursing in Ireland, academic leadership emerged as a major concern for respondents. The languages of legitimation of academic leaders were elicited in in-depth interviews and analysed as expressions of underlying legitimation principles. The concept of legitimation principles provides a way of thinking about how academic nursing is positioned in the health and higher education sectors, how its leaders construct its identity, practices and purposes, and clarifies the proper focus and goals of academic leadership in nursing. Academic leadership is concerned with legitimating the discipline of nursing as an autonomous, coherent and distinctive professional and academic endeavour. This legitimacy must be secured in academic, clinical and wider contexts in which academic nursing is viewed with ambivalence; leaders must take account of the impact of nursing history on the current status and future trajectory of the discipline. The analytic tools facilitate a better understanding of the internal and external conditions under which academic nursing will flourish, or wither, in contemporary higher education.

  8. Human-Centered Design as an Integrating Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy André Boy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available What is research today? Good research has to be indexed within appropriate mechanisms to be visible, considered and finally useful. These mechanisms are based on quantitative research methods and codes that are often very academic. Consequently, they impose rigorous constraints on the way results should be obtained and presented. In addition, everything people learn in academia needs to be graded. This leads to standard packaging of what should be learned and results in making people executants and not creators nor inventors. In other words, this academic standardization precludes freedom for innovation. This paper proposes Human-Centered Design (HCD as a solution to override these limitations and roadblocks. HCD involves expertise, experience, participation, modeling and simulation, complexity analysis and qualitative research. What is education today? Education is organized in silos with little attempt to integrate individual academic disciplines. Large system integration is almost never learned in engineering schools, and Human- Systems Integration (HSI even less. Instead, real-life problemsolving requires integration skills. What is design research? We often hear that design has nothing to do with research, and conversely. Putting design and research together, as complementary disciplines, contributes to combine creativity, rigorous demonstration and validation. This is somehow what HCD is about.

  9. Capitalization of multiple intelligence types during the biology disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on a sample of children at the Lăpuş School with classes I-VIII, using the teaching/learning process of the biology disciplines. A key element in applying the theory of Multiple Intelligence in a classroom is knowing the intelligence profile of children. Differentiated teaching approach was designed based on the predominant types of intelligences. For this purpose we used various methods: questionnaire, observation of children as they are given various tasks, interview, development of projects, role play, the biographical method-personal history of child, analysis of activities' results (compositions, drawings, collages, portfolios, debates in pair-groups, and case studies. In child’s profile, (types of intelligences become qualities that we capitalize in training, designing different teaching approach depending on predominant types of intelligences. The results appeared without delay. After a school's year that we worked differently with the children, they have improved school performance and became more interested in the study of biological disciplines thus arousing their curiosity and respect towards life.

  10. A Descriptive Study of School Discipline Referrals in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C.; Taylor, Ted K.; Foster, E. Michael

    2006-01-01

    School discipline referrals (SDRs) may be useful in the early detection and monitoring of disruptive behavior problems to inform prevention efforts in the school setting, yet little is known about the nature and validity of SDRs in the early grades. For this descriptive study, SDR data were collected on a sample of first grade students who were at risk for developing disruptive behavior problems (n = 186) and a universal sample (n = 531) from 20 schools. Most SDRs were given for physical aggression and the predominant consequence was time out. As expected, boys and at-risk students were more likely to receive an SDR and to have more SDRs than were girls and the universal sample. A large difference between schools regarding the delivery of SDRs was found. A zero-inflated Poisson model clustered by school tested the prediction of school-level variables. Students in schools that had a systematic way of tracking SDRs were more likely to receive one. Also, schools with more low-income students and larger class sizes gave fewer SDRs. SDRs predicted teacher ratings, and to a lesser extent, parent ratings of disruptive behavior at the end of first grade. Practitioners and researchers must examine school-level influences whenever first grade discipline referrals are used to measure problem behavior for the purpose of planning and evaluating interventions. PMID:17372623

  11. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  12. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  13. Formalization of the engineering science discipline - knowledge engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao

    Knowledge is the most precious ingredient facilitating aerospace engineering research and product development activities. Currently, the most common knowledge retention methods are paper-based documents, such as reports, books and journals. However, those media have innate weaknesses. For example, four generations of flying wing aircraft (Horten, Northrop XB-35/YB-49, Boeing BWB and many others) were mostly developed in isolation. The subsequent engineers were not aware of the previous developments, because these projects were documented such which prevented the next generation of engineers to benefit from the previous lessons learned. In this manner, inefficient knowledge retention methods have become a primary obstacle for knowledge transfer from the experienced to the next generation of engineers. In addition, the quality of knowledge itself is a vital criterion; thus, an accurate measure of the quality of 'knowledge' is required. Although qualitative knowledge evaluation criteria have been researched in other disciplines, such as the AAA criterion by Ernest Sosa stemming from the field of philosophy, a quantitative knowledge evaluation criterion needs to be developed which is capable to numerically determine the qualities of knowledge for aerospace engineering research and product development activities. To provide engineers with a high-quality knowledge management tool, the engineering science discipline Knowledge Engineering has been formalized to systematically address knowledge retention issues. This research undertaking formalizes Knowledge Engineering as follows: 1. Categorize knowledge according to its formats and representations for the first time, which serves as the foundation for the subsequent knowledge management function development. 2. Develop an efficiency evaluation criterion for knowledge management by analyzing the characteristics of both knowledge and the parties involved in the knowledge management processes. 3. Propose and develop an

  14. Enabling Cross-Discipline Collaboration Via a Functional Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, D. M.; Wilson, A.; Baltzer, T.

    2016-12-01

    Many research disciplines have very specialized data models that are used to express the detailed semantics that are meaningful to that community and easily utilized by their data analysis tools. While invaluable to members of that community, such expressive data structures and metadata are of little value to potential collaborators from other scientific disciplines. Many data interoperability efforts focus on the difficult task of computationally mapping concepts from one domain to another to facilitate discovery and use of data. Although these efforts are important and promising, we have found that a great deal of discovery and dataset understanding still happens at the level of less formal, personal communication. However, a significant barrier to inter-disciplinary data sharing that remains is one of data access.Scientists and data analysts continue to spend inordinate amounts of time simply trying to get data into their analysis tools. Providing data in a standard file format is often not sufficient since data can be structured in many ways. Adhering to more explicit community standards for data structure and metadata does little to help those in other communities.The Functional Data Model specializes the Relational Data Model (used by many database systems)by defining relations as functions between independent (domain) and dependent (codomain) variables. Given that arrays of data in many scientific data formats generally represent functionally related parameters (e.g. temperature as a function of space and time), the Functional Data Model is quite relevant for these datasets as well. The LaTiS software framework implements the Functional Data Model and provides a mechanism to expose an existing data source as a LaTiS dataset. LaTiS datasets can be manipulated using a Functional Algebra and output in any number of formats.LASP has successfully used the Functional Data Model and its implementation in the LaTiS software framework to bridge the gap between

  15. Disciplined knowledge: Differentiating and binding the elementary science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael Thomas

    The purpose of this research was to investigate elementary science curriculum differentiation at two schools with widely divergent student demographics. Historically, elementary school students of ethnic-minority and low-socioeconomic backgrounds have not performed on traditional assessments of academic achievement and progress in science education at the same level as their White and more affluent peers. This inequality has long been of interest to the proponents of science education reform who are concerned with the ability of students to participate successfully in a democratic society and in the labor market. Differentiating the curriculum such that students, because of their socioeconomic, ethnic, or racial backgrounds, receive different knowledge, skills, and experiences is a key component of school activity that supports social inequality. Participants in the study included the teachers and students of four classrooms in two schools with student populations that differed in their socioeconomic and ethnic demographics. Qualitative research methods, including fieldnotes, audiorecordings, and interviews, were utilized to gather data. The collection and analysis of data were articulated in a developmental research process in which theories and interpretations were continuously constructed and tested for validity. The results of this research show that the science curricula at the two schools were different, with differences being understood in terms of the populations served. The particular form of differentiation observed in this study was closely correlated to elements of social discipline, knowledge segmentation and reconfiguration, time and pacing, control of bodies, and testing. The elementary science curriculum at the two schools differed in the formality and intensity with which the curriculum was constructed in adherence to these elements of discipline. Such differences cannot be understood in traditional terms as supporting White middle-class students

  16. Gender and discipline in 5-12-month-old infants: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, Richard Evan; Fausto-Sterling, Anne; García-Coll, Cynthia; Seifer, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    We examined the effects of infant age and gender on the behaviors of infants and mothers during discipline interactions using longitudinal, naturalistic, home-based, taped observations of 16 mother-infant dyads (eight males and eight females). These observations were conducted between the child ages of 5 and 12 months and used a devised Maternal Discipline Coding System to code for the occurrence of discipline events. During discipline interactions, mothers vocalized longer, used harsher tones, and used more explanations with older compared to younger infants. Male infants were more likely than female infants to cry or whine during discipline events. Mothers of male infants used longer vocalizations, more words, and more affectionate terms than mothers of female infants. Male infants were more difficult during discipline interactions than female infants, but it appeared that mothers of males responded to this difficulty by using milder discipline techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Growing America's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  18. Fifty years of Biochemical Pharmacology: the discipline and the journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enna, S J; Feuerstein, G Z; Piette, J; Williams, M

    2008-07-01

    The discipline of biochemical pharmacology emerged in the late 1940s as a result of an increasing emphasis on understanding drug mechanisms at the cellular level. This research approach has contributed significantly to the development of many new drug classes including antihypertensive, antifective, cholesterol lowering, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer agents, as well as antipsychotics, antidepressants and anxiolytics. Biochemical pharmacology remains a major tool in drug discovery, being employed in the search for novel therapeutics for the above and other conditions and clinical challenges, such as neurodegenerative disorders, for the treatment of pain, and for development of agents that do not induce, or can overcome, antibiotic/antiviral resistance. Together with chemical, molecular, genetic, physiological, and clinical sciences, biochemical pharmacology will in the coming decades continue to be a critical component of the drug discovery process.

  19. Digital Curation: The Emergence of a New Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Higgins

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the mid 1990s UK digital preservation activity concentrated on ensuring the survival of digital material – spurred on by the US report Preserving Digital Information (The Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information, 1996 and developed through JISC-funded activities. Technical developments and a maturing understanding of organisational activity and workflow saw the emphasis move to ensuring the access, use and reuse of digital materials throughout their lifecycle. Digital Curation emerged as a new discipline supported through the activities of the UK’s Digital Curation Centre and a number of EU 6th Framework Projects. Digital Curation is now embedded in both practice and research; with the development of tools, and the foundation of a number of support units and academic educators offering training and furthering research.

  20. Teaching Writing in the Disciplines: Student Perspectives on Learning Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Goldschmidt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the Disciplines curricula can both challenge and reinforce assumptions that writing is a general skill that students will already have learned prior to doing the specialized writing in their chosen field of study. Rhetorical genre studies, however, tends to emphasize the situated nature of writing expertise, and thus supports the exploration of more sustained and varied forms of writing instruction in higher education. This article reports on a qualitative study that gave priority to a rich source of pedagogical insight: student writers themselves. In-depth interviews and surveys were used to examine the pedagogical practices and curricular experiences identified by students as being most helpful in developing undergraduate expertise in their discipline’s research genre. These student-centered descriptions of successful genre learning point the way toward curricular and instructional models that emphasize the intellectual, affective, and relational nature of writing.

  1. Discipline-Based Remediation: Bridging the Mathematics Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Jennifer M.; Baer, Eric M.; Burn, Helen E.

    2013-10-01

    Geoscience relies on numbers, data, equations, graphical representations, and other quantitative skills; therefore, introductory geoscience courses need to accurately portray the science as quantitative [e.g., Wenner et al., 2009]. However, up to 57% of students arrive at college underprepared to perform mathematics at the level necessary to succeed in introductory courses [ACT, 2011]. Although some institutions have turned to prerequisites as a way to ensure appropriate preparation, these extra courses can place undue financial, temporal, and academic burdens on interested students, keeping them from enrolling in science courses that may interest them. As an alternative to mathematics prerequisites, geoscience faculty at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh and Highline Community College in Des Moines, Wash., funded by the National Science Foundation, developed a model of successful integration of discipline-based mathematics remediation into an introductory geoscience course: The Math You Need, When You Need It (TMYN; http://serc.carleton.edu/mathyouneed/).

  2. The limits of discipline: towards interdisciplinary food studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Richard

    2012-11-05

    While the number of scholars working on the broad topic of food has never been greater, the topic is still divided among numerous disciplines and specialists who do not often communicate with each other. This paper discusses some of the deep differences between disciplinary approaches, and concludes that food scientists differ in some of their basic assumptions about human nature. After outlining some of the institutional issues standing in the way of interdisciplinary work, the paper argues for a more synthetic and empirical approach, grounded in the study of everyday life. True interdisciplinary collaboration will have to go beyond assembling multidisciplinary teams. Instead we must accept the limitations of the classic disciplinary paradigms, and be willing to question and test our methods and assumptions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. TALKING LIKE THE RAIN TO THE EMPIRICAL DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Smallwood

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in computational power have been applied to Shakespearean studies in such a way as to demonstrate that unprecedented collation and insight into authorial work will occur. This will generate a renewed emphasis on authorial intention and reviewing the canon, two traditions which have been reduced to mere concepts by the regnant schools of reader-response criticism and pure aesthetics. A glance at Stanley Fish's new Milton book and the state of G. M. Hopkins' criticism confirms that the academy is still committed to predominantly deconstruction and discipline segregation for English study. The author uses several various issues arising and several poetical meter studies to sketch a possible means of re-uniting pure English studies and empirical sciences like linguistics in fruitful dialogue.

  4. How Many Disciplines Does It Take to Tackle Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Through my involvement in two multidisciplinary climate change education and outreach projects, the website 100 Views of Climate Change and Changing Climates @ Colorado State, I have come to understand that just as this problem is everybody's business, almost everybody has something to contribute to understanding and dealing with it. This is certainly true of the academic disciplines represented on college campuses, where faculty from nearly every department have relevant things to teach their students: speakers in a climate-change lecture series we organized came from 27 departments in 8 colleges, plus numerous other campus and local entities, and more could have been included. As one convener of this AGU session, I have worked to include a good sample of these varied and complementary disciplinary perspectives. Inevitably, though, this sample leaves significant gaps in what would constitute a robust cross-campus climate literacy, and I will talk about some of these missing disciplinary perspectives and why they are important.

  5. Droit International De L'éducation: Une Discipline Nouvelle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Agostinho Reis

    2008-03-01

    INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION LAW: A NEW DISCIPLINE? - Education is one of the most highly regarded "human rights" and one which has been developed most extensively within the International Human Rights Law, so that its normative corpus already forms a very International Education Law. The right to education means a new right to a new education that, in the Rule of Law, may be qualified as Rightful Education. Such an expression is an operating concept for a human rights-based approach to education; that is, for an education no longer envisaged as a right of man over man. It amounts to a new paradigm. It is therefore high time to systematize the International Education Law in order to promote its study and the introduction of a legal dimension into pedagogic culture.

  6. Disciplines, models, and computers: the path to computational quantum chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    Many disciplines and scientific fields have undergone a computational turn in the past several decades. This paper analyzes this sort of turn by investigating the case of computational quantum chemistry. The main claim is that the transformation from quantum to computational quantum chemistry involved changes in three dimensions. First, on the side of instrumentation, small computers and a networked infrastructure took over the lead from centralized mainframe architecture. Second, a new conception of computational modeling became feasible and assumed a crucial role. And third, the field of computa- tional quantum chemistry became organized in a market-like fashion and this market is much bigger than the number of quantum theory experts. These claims will be substantiated by an investigation of the so-called density functional theory (DFT), the arguably pivotal theory in the turn to computational quantum chemistry around 1990.

  7. The hysterical body. Madness and discipline in the contemporary dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giambrone

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Disappeared from the medical manuals and hospitals, hysteria has come on stage. That is a natural result for a phenomenon born between the end of the 19th and the beginning of 20th century and plainly marked by theatrical characteristics. As from the experiments carried out by Charcot at the Salpêtrière clinic – where the performances of the hysterical patients were shown to an audience made by doctors, intellectuals, artists and curious persons – to the German expressive dance, to Tanztheater and to the recent performances of the European dance-theatre, the hysterical gesture dominates the twentieth-century and contemporary theatre. At the bottom of this phenomenon, it is possible to find reasons and needs between art and life, and the search – never interrupted during the 20th century – for a theatrical discipline that rules the chaos of Dionysiac impulse.

  8. Training Engineering Disciplines and Skills through Robot Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    there is a growing interest to work with robots. Robotic skills are also highly requested in industrial companies. At the Technical University of Denmark, DTU Diplom, we have several projects involving building and programing robots in our bachelor programs in Electronics, Computer Science, IT and Mechanical...

  9. Policing Norwegian Welfare: Disciplining and Differentiating within the Bottom Rungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika K. Gubrium

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Policing is a disciplining means for using welfare services to govern welfare recipients towards a desired behaviour or goal. We apply Foucault’s (1977 definition of institutional discipline as a means for exploring how the distinctions made by state and local welfare authorities in Norway when policing recipients may take shape according to normative perceptions of ethnicity and deservingness. More particularly, we explore the regulating understandings and activities linked to the inclusion and exclusion of eligibility to welfare benefits and services and the form of the services offered. Our focus lies at the point of entry from the lowest tier of Norwegian welfare benefits (social assistance into two semi-parallel and higher tiers promising more (higher benefits, better services. The tiers are represented by programmes that share aims, yet differ in reach: the 2004 Introduction Programme and the 2007 Qualification Programme. The Introduction Programme is an activation programme targeted at immigrants and refugees newly arrived to Norway. Its aim is to strengthen opportunities to participate in society and labour market, as well as to promote economic independence. The Qualification Programme is an activation programme that was explicitly modelled after the Introduction Programme, yet whose target group reaches more broadly to include long-term recipients of social assistance and those whose work ability is severely lowered. While both programmes have been premised on the need to transform participants from a status of passive welfare benefit recipients to active participants in qualifying measures and society, the target groups vary and it is this contrast that is our point of focus. We contrast the two policies at two ‘moments’ in the policy cycle: (1 policy framing (public and policymaker understandings/assumptions concerning the target group, the location of accountability for the marginal position of the policy recipient and the

  10. Using SOA Patterns to promote understanding across disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, A.

    2012-04-01

    The NETMAR consortium is building an open service network for marine environmental data by combining expertise from Ireland, France, the UK and Norway in disciplines such as Semantics, Software Engineering, UI Programming and Service Orchestration. Through the International Coastal Atlas Network, it engages user groups from Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas. In doing so, it faces challenges in bringing these disciplines and groups together in a way that makes them greater than the sum of their parts. Service Oriented Architecture has been successfully applied in many cases to help build useful systems across organisational and geographic boundaries in order to expose diverse capabilities which can function together through a mutual exchange of value. This should make it ideally suited to a distributed decision making environment without centralised command and control. In theory, SOA should facilitate the building of global and complex infrastructures and the integration of information systems characterized by diverse protocols and interfaces,and with different data policies and security levels. The presentation will discuss a number of approaches used by NETMAR to bring the theory of SOA to bear in a useful way while maintaining the emphasis on keeping multi-disciplinary domain expertise as the primary driver of the project. It will discuss three approaches used: . Populating one or more standard reference models . Trade-off analysis based on business drivers and quality attributes . Documenting design reuse in the form of patterns. The three approaches will be compared in terms of how they succeed in bringing 'just enough' service architecture knowledge into the project. We discuss how the approaches can interact and complement each other. Finally, we present a number of SOA patterns identified as being relevant to NETMAR and explain why they are felt to be particularly effective in gaining consensus on how to build the NETMAR system of systems.

  11. Problematization methodology in the context of supervised therapeutic practice disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Gazabim Simões Ballarin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgent need to train professionals capable of working in teams from a humanist perspective, conceiving this action on the basis of comprehensiveness of care, has been widely debated. In this context, active methods of teaching and learning have proven to be relevant because they stimulate the critical capacity and autonomy of learners. In this experience report, we aimed to discuss the use of active methodology, in this case problem methodology, in the teaching-learning process of senior undergraduate students at the College of Occupational Therapy of the ‘Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas’ - PUC-Campinas, São Paulo state, particularly considering the isciplines related to field practice and/or supervised therapeutic practice (STP. To this end, the following instruments were used for data collection: records of meetings of the evaluation stages, evaluation reports of supervision, the educational project of the Occupational Therapy course, and the experience of the teachers who taught those discipline. The analysis of the collected material, together with the reflections relevant to the experience of teachers showed that the strategies and devices used in the educational isciplines, by relying on problem methodology, resulted in greater awareness and accountability of students, as well as greater autonomy and capacity to plan and develop intervention procedures required under different development scenarios of those disciplines. Moreover, we also observed the capacity of students to transform the situations experienced into knowledge, enabling the expansion of the decision-making perspective and the construction of a more reflective attitude. All these aspects have ensured the existence of a teaching-learning perspective that sought to encompass personal, social, cognitive, technical and ethical dimensions.

  12. Forensic anthropology: developments of a classical discipline in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-01-17

    The present brief review is a survey of the role of forensic anthropology (FA) in the new millennium. After an introduction which deals with the expanding definition of the discipline and the issue of professionality and training, the author approaches the role and novel developments of the field, with particular reference to the past 5 years. Such developments are discussed in a sectorial manner, distinguishing the role of research in the areas of forensic anthropology which deal with human remains and those that deal with the living. As regards the "human remains" domain, advances and stalls still present in the fields of species and postmortem interval determination, sexing, aging and attribution of ancestry are stressed. The need for standards in facial reconstruction and positive identification by bone morphology are underlined, as well as the growing role of the anthropologist in detecting signs of trauma. Finally, the relatively new role of the forensic anthropologist in the domain of identification of the living is described, although this area is still underrepresented as regards research activity: these studies concern the strive to devise methods for identifying faces (e.g. in the case of crimes registered by videosurveillance systems), aging living individuals or juveniles represented in pedopornographic material.

  13. Subject and discipline-specific publication trends in South African medical research, 1996�2011

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    Tahir S. Pillay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical and health sciences institutions and organisations are faced with challenges in resource allocation for research and publishing. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse South African publication trends in medicine to provide guidance for future strategic planning in academic medicine. We used the Scimago database spanning the years 1996–2011 to analyse South African publication outputs in a number of categories in medicine, as defined in the Scopus database. The data reveal a number of significant growth areas but also reveal areas that should potentially be growing but remain static. In some areas, growth has aligned with the expectations of health and disease trends, but other areas, in which growth would have been expected, have remained static. Interesting features are also revealed when the data are compared with those of other developed and developing countries. For 1996–2011, South African medical publication output ranked 33 in the world based on the number of publications, but 28 based on the h-index. Interestingly, whilst South Africa produced less than 25% of the output of India, the h-index for South Africa is 153 compared with 145 for India. South Africa’s medical publication output has steadily increased over the 14-year period but the number of citations per document has declined. This analysis provides a useful strategic overview for medical institutions and government funding organisations to guide the allocation of research budgets and resources in a discipline- or category-specific manner to influence research outputs.

  14. Decision-aid design factors in connection with HF communication and emitter location disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John M.

    1989-09-01

    The advance of microcomputer technology, the growing sophistication of specified propagation models, and the expanding ability to sense the medium and apply that knowledge in real time is leading to an improvement in the prediction of system performance for tactical users. The maturation of artificial intelligence disciplines should provide the user of advanced C3I decision aids an ability to manage the plethora of information more effectively. Critical aspects of the process of developing useful and cost-effective decision aids are identified with emphasis upon the HF medium which is strongly propagation-limited and controlled by variable and often unpredictable phenomena. A major factor in this field of activity is the evolution of self-adaptive system architecture incorporating imbedded Real Time Channel Evaluation (RTCE). In this context, the decision aid is a process which is operationally transparent to the the user but could be user-defined. A key to the development of an adaptive resource management capability is the integration of a set of tools or decision aids which direct the system to compensate for pathological effects by adjustment of system parameters. The approach is ultimately limited by the accuracy with which the ionosphere or the HF channel may be specified. The accepted specification accuracy will determine the design approaches to be followed.

  15. Rapidly- growing firms and their main characteristics: a longitudinal study from United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the topic of high-growth phenomenon and its agents. High-growth enterprises are primarily small and medium sized firms that attain very high-growth rates for at least five years. The paper presents a review of the pertinent literature to guide its formulation of hypotheses...... are relatively smaller enterprises and their high growth rates are not restricted to a particular location, industrial region, size or time period. The findings of this analysis point to a population of high-growth enterprises with diverse locations, sizes and times with important implications for scholarly...

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF LEGAL ORGANISATION OF RAPIDLY GROWING COMPANIES FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS

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    Riko Novak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of a company’s legal form for the process of internationalisation using a sample of 1577 Slovenian companies. We refer to previous studies and on the basis of additional statistical data evaluate whether the choice of corporate legal structure influences a company’s ability to compete internationally. In the domestic market, most companies operate as limited liability companies; this is also the most frequent legal form in which companies enter foreign markets. We conclude that the form by itself does not influence the decision to go international.

  17. [Case report: Rapidly growing abdominal wall giant desmoid tumour during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Zertuche, Jorge Tadeo; Cardona-Huerta, Servando; Juárez-García, María Luisa; Valdés-Flores, Everardo; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique

    Desmoid tumours are one of the rarest tumours worldwide, with an estimated yearly incidence of 2-4 new cases per million people. They are soft tissue monoclonal neoplasms that originate from mesenchymal stem cells. It seems that the hormonal and immunological changes occurring during pregnancy may play a role in the severity and course of the disease. The case is presented on 28-year-old female in her fifth week of gestation, in whom an abdominal wall tumour was found attached to left adnexa and uterus while performing a prenatal ultrasound. The patient was followed up under clinical and ultrasonographic surveillance. When she presented with abnormal uterine activity at 38.2 weeks of gestation, she was admitted and obstetrics decided to perform a caesarean section. Tumour biopsy was taken during the procedure. Histopathology reported a desmoid fibromatosis. A contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan was performed, showing a tumour of 26×20.5×18cm, with well-defined borders in contact with the uterus, left adnexa, bladder and abdominal wall, with no evidence of infiltration to adjacent structures. A laparotomy, with tumour resection, hysterectomy and left salpingo-oophorectomy, components separation techniques, polypropylene mesh insertion, and drainage was performed. The final histopathology report was desmoid fibromatosis. There is no evidence of recurrence after 6 months follow-up. Desmoid tumours are locally aggressive and surgical resection with clear margins is the basis for the treatment of this disease, using radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy as an adjunct in the treatment. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Water resources in a rapidly growing region-Oakland County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    Oakland County is a suburban county in southeast Michigan. Population and demand for water grew steadily in the county over the 20th century, and these trends are expected to continue in coming decades. Roughly 75 percent of current water demand is met by imported water from the Detroit Water and Sewerage Division (DWSD), but water use from ground-water sources within the county still exceeds 43 million gallons per day. Because much of the population growth is in areas beyond the DWSD system, an additional 20-25 million gallons per day of supply may be necessary to meet future demands. Managing the wastewater produced while also protecting human and ecosystem health also may present challenges.

  19. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... However, laboratory protocols that are commonly used to investigate the presence of mycobacteria in clinical specimens are insufficient for isolation of these organisms form soil and natural water samples (Chilima et al., 2006). In spite of large –scale BCG trial conducted in our country during past decades, ...

  20. Case series: Rapidly growing squamous cell carcinoma after cutaneous surgical intervention

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    Abdullah Ibrahim

    2017-12-01

    This case series explores the various mechanisms of de-novo squamous cell carcinoma development in areas of cutaneous surgical intervention, including graft harvest. It also provides recommendations regarding the necessary precautions to avoid implantation of squamous cell carcinoma into distant sites. Lastly it highlights the importance of surveillance for any suspicious lesions arising from areas of previous cutaneous surgical intervention.