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Sample records for rapidly growing brain

  1. Management of Infections with Rapidly Growing

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    Jong Hwan Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM is not uncommon, andthe prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. Clinical diagnosis is difficult becausethere are no characteristic clinical features. There is also no standard antibiotic regimenfor treating RGM infection. A small series of patients with RGM infections was studied toexamine their treatments and outcomes.Methods A total of 5 patients who had developed postoperative infections from January2009 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially screened using amycobacteria rapid screening test (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-reverse blot hybridizationassay. To confirm mycobacterial infection, specimens were cultured for nontuberculousmycobacteria and analyzed by 16 S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene PCR.Results The patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization,and oral antibiotics were administered after discharge. The mean duration of follow-upwas 9 months, and all patients were completely cured of infection with a regimen of acombination of antibiotics plus surgical treatment. Although none of the patients developedrecurrence, there were complications at the site of infection, including hypertrophic scarring,pigmentation, and disfigurement.Conclusions Combination antibiotic therapy plus drainage of surgical abscesses appeared tobe effective for the RGM infections seen in our patients. Although neither the exact dosagenor a standardized regimen has been firmly established, we propose that our treatment canprovide an option for the management of rapidly growing mycobacterial infection.

  2. Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for rapid brain tumor histology

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    Yifan Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid histology of brain tissues with sufficient diagnostic information has the great potential to aid neurosurgeons during operations. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS microscopy is an emerging label-free imaging technique, with the intrinsic chemical resolutions to delineate brain tumors from normal tissues without the need of time-consuming tissue processing. Growing number of studies have shown SRS as a “virtual histology” tool for rapid diagnosis of various types of brain tumors. In this review, we focus on the basic principles and current developments of SRS microscopy, as well as its applications for brain tumor imaging.

  3. Neonatal airway obstruction caused by rapidly growing nasopharyngeal teratoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maartens, I.A.; Wassenberg, T.; Halbertsma, F.J.; Marres, H.A.M.; Andriessen, P.

    2009-01-01

    A case report is presented of a rapidly growing congenital nasopharyngeal teratoma (epignathus) in a preterm infant, leading to severe upper airway obstruction. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography did not reveal the condition because the tumour masses were initially small and there was no

  4. Environmental and Social Programmes and Rapidly Growing Retailers

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    Peter JONES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks to provide an exploratory review of the extent to which the world’s fastest growing retailers are publicly reporting on their environmental and social commitments and programmes. The paper begins with an outline discussion of corporate environmental and social programmes and on public reporting processes. The paper draws its empirical material from the most recent information on environmental and social commitments and programmes posted on the world’s top twenty fastest growing retailers’ corporate web sites. While the majority of the world’s top twenty fastest growing retailers provide some public information on their commitment to environmental and social programmes there is marked variation in the extent, the nature and the detail of that information. The findings suggest that the integration of environmental and social programmes is not one of the hallmarks of rapidly growing retailers and in part this reflects the fact that many of the selected retailers are trading within emergent markets where price and availability are the principal factors driving consumer buying behaviour.

  5. Biomass accumulation in rapidly growing loblolly pine and sweetgum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Thomas M.; Gresham, Charles A. [Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, P.O. Box 596, Georgetown, SC 29442 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees, growing in International Paper Company's study of intensive management on marginal agricultural land near Bainbridge GA, were destructively sampled at the end of the sixth growing season. All trees were single family blocks of genetically superior trees planted 2.5m apart on sub-soiled rows 3.6m apart and grown with complete competition control. Management treatments were: control, irrigation, irrigation plus fertilization, and irrigation plus fertilization plus pest control. Tree measures were basal diameter, DBH, height of live crown, diameter at base of live crown, and total height. Twenty trees of each species were destructively sampled. Stems were sectioned at 1m intervals, stem diameter determined at each end and sections were weighed green. Branches were removed and height, basal diameter, and length were measured on each branch. Branches were separated into foliated and unfoliated segments and weighed green. A stem disk and branch from each meter were returned to the lab to determine dry weight: green weight ratio. Foliated limb: foliage ratios were also determined from sub-sampled branches. Intensive culture resulted in larger growth differences for sweetgum (most intensive treatment 9.5m tall, 13.1cm DBH; control trees 5.0m tall, 6.3cm DBH) than in pine (most intensive treatment 10.3m tall, 17.7cm DBH; control, 7.6m tall, 13.4cm DBH). The pipe model of tree development explained dimensions of the upper 5m of crown with leaf biomass highly correlated to branch basal area (r{sup 2} from 0.697 to 0.947). There was a constant ratio of leaf biomass to branch basal area (50gm/cm{sup 2} for pine, 30gm/cm{sup 2} for sweetgum). We also found a constant ratio of bole basal area to cumulative branch basal area throughout the crowns. Rapidly growing pines produced about 49Mgha{sup -1} of stem biomass, 11Mgha{sup -1} of dead branch biomass, and 17Mgha{sup -1} of unfoliated branch biomass at

  6. Rapidly Growing Esophageal Carcinosarcoma Reduced by Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Alone

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    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. It is generally treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to the protocols used for other esophageal cancers. However, the treatment of esophageal carcinosarcoma by radiotherapy alone before surgery has not been previously described. We report a patient with a rapidly growing esophageal carcinosarcoma that was efficiently reduced by neoadjuvant radiotherapy alone. A previously healthy 69-year-old man was admitted with dysphagia. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a small nodular polypoid lesion of about 10 mm in the middle esophagus. A second EGD 1 month later showed that the tumor had expanded into a huge mass. A biopsy specimen revealed that the tumor comprised squamous cell carcinoma with spindle cell components, and the tumor was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma which was diagnosed as stage I (T1bN0M0. Due to renal dysfunction, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy (40 Gy without chemotherapy. A third EGD 1 month later revealed remarkable tumor reduction. He then underwent total esophagectomy with regional lymph node dissection (pStage 0, pT1aN0M0. After surgical operation, the patient was followed up without adjuvant therapy. Whole body computed tomography revealed lung metastasis 14 months after surgery, and the patient died 2 months later. The neoadjuvant radiotherapy for esophageal carcinosarcoma was considered to have contributed to the subsequent surgery and his prolonged survival time. Thus, radiotherapy alone might be a suitable neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal carcinosarcomas.

  7. Neuropsychology of music – a rapidly growing branch of psychology

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    Katarina Habe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between brain and music is of interest to musicians, psychologists and neuroscientists. In recent years no other area of psychology of music has seen as much advancement as neuropsychology of music. The aim of the article is to present some main issues in the neuropsychology of music abroad and in Slovenia, to classify research studies into larger categories and to predict the future development of this field.There are different levels of inquiry into the neuropsychology of music: (1 the analysis of normal and abnormal psychological and physiological functions to determine the principles and modes by which the human brain processes, codifies, stores, and produces music, and (2 a description of the clinical deficits in music perception or performance resulting from localized or diffuse damage to the nervous system. Main topics that occupy neuropsychology of music are neuropsychological models of musical processing, functional imaging of musical perception and cognition, and the use of music as a therapeutic and clinical tool. Although some important studies have already been conducted since the year 2003, in Slovenia we faced a "formal" turning point in acknowledging the importance of the connection between music, mind and brain with the Sinapsa's Week of the brain 2009 under the title Brain and music.

  8. Intraoral tumor with rapid growing. Report of a case.

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    González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Cebrián-Carretero, Jose Luis; Gómez-García, Elena; del Castillo-Pardo de Vera, Jose Luis; del Val, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The appearance of an intraoral mass is common in our specialty. Most are benign lesions, but some are primary malignancies. Metastases account for less than 1% of all oral malignancies. An 86 year old woman was referred to our department with a large, asymptomatic, intraoral, fast-growing mass. She had no previous cancer history or other relevant physical findings. The radiology studies showed underlying bone erosion. The histological study showed a metastatic adenocarcinoma with a suspected origin in the abdomen. We were unable to identify it by non invasive diagnostic procedures. Given the patient's general status and despite the ominous prognosis of such lesions, we decided not to perform any aggressive therapy beyond removing the oral mass, in order to maintain her quality of life. There have been no local recurrences until this time.

  9. Frequency of rapid growing mycobacteria among tuberculosis suspected patients in Basra-Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sulami, Amin A. Al; Taee, Asaad Al; Hasan, Zainab A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of rapid growing mycobacteria among tuberculosis suspected patients in Basra governorate and study their resistance to drugs. Methods...

  10. How Early Events Affect Growing Brains. An Interview with Neuroscientist Pat Levitt

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    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience show clearly how experience can change brain neurochemicals, and how this in turn affects the way the brain functions. As a result, early negative events actually get built into the growing brain's neurochemistry, altering the brain's architecture. Research is continuing to investigate how children with genetic…

  11. Evaluation of Various Culture Media for Detection of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

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    Preece, Clair L; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Perry, Audrey; Jones, Amanda L; Cummings, Stephen P; Perry, John D; Hogardt, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to overgrowth by rapidly growing species that colonize the lungs of patients with CF. Extended incubation on Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as an expedient culture method for the isolation of rapidly growing NTM in this setting. The aim of this study was to assess five selective media designed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex, along with two media designed for the isolation of mycobacteria (rapidly growing mycobacteria [RGM] medium and Middlebrook 7H11 agar), for their abilities to isolate NTM. All seven media were challenged with 147 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria and 185 isolates belonging to other species. RGM medium was then compared with the most selective brand of BCSA for the isolation of NTM from 224 sputum samples from patients with CF. Different agars designed for the isolation of B. cepacia complex varied considerably in their inhibition of other bacteria and fungi. RGM medium supported the growth of all isolates of mycobacteria and was more selective than any other medium. NTM were recovered from 17 of 224 sputum samples using RGM medium, compared with only 7 samples using the most selective brand of BCSA (P = 0.023). RGM medium offers a superior option, compared to other selective agars, for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with CF. Furthermore, the convenience of using RGM medium enables routine screening for rapidly growing NTM in all submitted sputum samples from patients with CF. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Are rapid changes in brain elasticity possible?

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    Parker, K. J.

    2017-09-01

    Elastography of the brain is a topic of clinical and preclinical research, motivated by the potential for viscoelastic measures of the brain to provide sensitive indicators of pathological processes, and to assist in early diagnosis. To date, studies of the normal brain and of those with confirmed neurological disorders have reported a wide range of shear stiffness and shear wave speeds, even within similar categories. A range of factors including the shear wave frequency, and the age of the individual are thought to have a possible influence. However, it may be that short term dynamics within the brain may have an influence on the measured stiffness. This hypothesis is addressed quantitatively using the framework of the microchannel flow model, which derives the tissue stiffness, complex modulus, and shear wave speed as a function of the vascular and fluid network in combination with the elastic matrix that comprise the brain. Transformation rules are applied so that any changes in the fluid channels or the elastic matrix can be mapped to changes in observed elastic properties on a macroscopic scale. The results are preliminary but demonstrate that measureable, time varying changes in brain stiffness are possible simply by accounting for vasodynamic or electrochemical changes in the state of any region of the brain. The value of this preliminary exploration is to identify possible mechanisms and order-of-magnitude changes that may be testable in vivo by specialized protocols.

  13. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mass measles immunisation campaign, with a target coverage rate of 85 - 90%, was launched in Khayelitsha, a rapidly growing urban township in the Cape Town area. Cross-sectional surveys of the measles immunisation status of resident 6 - 23-month-old infants were conducted immediately before, immediately after, ...

  14. Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov., a rapidly growing bacterium isolated from groundwater.

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    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2017-10-01

    A strain representing a rapidly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating and non-pigmented species of the genus Mycobacterium, designated strain S-I-6T, was isolated from groundwater at Daejeon in Korea. The strain grew at temperatures between 10 and 37 °C (optimal growth at 25 °C), between pH 4.0 and 9.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNAgene, hsp65, rpoB and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer indicated that strain S-I-6T belonged to the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium sphagni. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the bacterial strain was distinguished from its phylogenetic neighbours by chemotaxonomic properties and other biochemical characteristics. DNA-DNA relatedness among strain S-I-6T and the closest phylogenetic neighbour strongly support the proposal that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-I-6T (=KACC 17600T=NBRC 109805T=NCAIM B 02535T).

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria by microdilution - Experience of a tertiary care centre

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    Set R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.

  16. Clinical management of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections in patients after mesotherapy.

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    Regnier, Stéphanie; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Guihot, Amelie; Deforges, Lionel; Carbonne, Anne; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric

    2009-11-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are expressing an interest in mesotherapy as a method of reducing body fat. Cutaneous infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria are a common complication of such procedures. We followed up patients who had developed cutaneous infections after undergoing mesotherapy during the period October 2006-January 2007. Sixteen patients were infected after mesotherapy injections performed by the same physician. All patients presented with painful, erythematous, draining subcutaneous nodules at the injection sites. All patients were treated with surgical drainage. Microbiological examination was performed on specimens that were obtained before and during the surgical procedure. Direct examination of skin smears demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in 25% of the specimens that were obtained before the procedure and 37% of the specimens obtained during the procedure; culture results were positive in 75% of the patients. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 11 patients, and Mycobacterium frederiksbergense was identified in 2 patients. Fourteen patients were treated with antibiotics, 6 received triple therapy as first-line treatment (tigecycline, tobramycin, and clarithromycin), and 8 received dual therapy (clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin). The mean duration of treatment was 14 weeks (range, 1-24 weeks). All of the patients except 1 were fully recovered 2 years after the onset of infection, with the mean time to healing estimated at 6.2 months (range, 1-15 months). This series of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections highlights the difficulties in treating such infections and suggests that in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics does not accurately predict their clinical efficacy.

  17. In situ deformations in the immature brain during rapid rotations.

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    Ibrahim, Nicole G; Natesh, Rahul; Szczesny, Spencer E; Ryall, Karen; Eucker, Stephanie A; Coats, Brittany; Margulies, Susan S

    2010-04-01

    Head trauma is the leading cause of death and debilitating injury in children. Computational models are important tools used to understand head injury mechanisms but they must be validated with experimental data. In this communication we present in situ measurements of brain deformation during rapid, nonimpact head rotation in juvenile pigs of different ages. These data will be used to validate computational models identifying age-dependent thresholds of axonal injury. Fresh 5 days (n=3) and 4 weeks (n=2) old piglet heads were transected horizontally and secured in a container. The cut surface of each brain was marked and covered with a transparent, lubricated plate that allowed the brain to move freely in the plane of rotation. For each brain, a rapid (20-28 ms) 65 deg rotation was applied sequentially at 50 rad/s, 75 rad/s, and 75 rad/s. Each rotation was digitally captured at 2500 frames/s (480x320 pixels) and mark locations were tracked and used to compute strain using an in-house program in MATLAB. Peak values of principal strain (E(peak)) were significantly larger during deceleration than during acceleration of the head rotation (p<0.05), and doubled with a 50% increase in velocity. E(peak) was also significantly higher during the second 75 rad/s rotation than during the first 75 rad/s rotation (p<0.0001), suggesting structural alteration at 75 rad/s and the possibility that similar changes may have occurred at 50 rad/s. Analyzing only lower velocity (50 rad/s) rotations, E(peak) significantly increased with age (16.5% versus 12.4%, p<0.003), which was likely due to the larger brain mass and smaller viscoelastic modulus of the 4 weeks old pig brain compared with those of the 5 days old. Strain measurement error for the overall methodology was estimated to be 1%. Brain tissue strain during rapid, nonimpact head rotation in the juvenile pig varies significantly with age. The empirical data presented will be used to validate computational model predictions of

  18. Social Studies Worksheets Don't Grow Dendrites: 20 Instructional Strategies that Engage the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Marcia L.

    2012-01-01

    Best-selling author Marcia L. Tate brings her trademark "dendrite-growing" teaching strategies to this practitioner-friendly collection of brain-compatible methods for engaging K-12 students in social studies. Included are 20 proven strategies and more than 200 grade-leveled activities for applying them. Teachers will find concrete ways to…

  19. Rapid urbanization and the growing threat of violence and conflict: a 21st century crisis.

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    Patel, Ronak B; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-04-01

    As the global population is concentrated into complex environments, rapid urbanization increases the threat of conflict and insecurity. Many fast-growing cities create conditions of significant disparities in standards of living, which set up a natural environment for conflict over resources. As urban slums become a haven for criminal elements, youth gangs, and the arms trade, they also create insecurity for much of the population. Specific populations, such as women, migrants, and refugees, bear the brunt of this lack of security, with significant impacts on their livelihoods, health, and access to basic services. This lack of security and violence also has great costs to the general population, both economic and social. Cities have increasingly become the battlefield of recent conflicts as they serve as the seats of power and gateways to resources. International agencies, non-governmental organizations, and policy-makers must act to stem this tide of growing urban insecurity. Protecting urban populations and preventing future conflict will require better urban planning, investment in livelihood programs for youth, cooperation with local communities, enhanced policing, and strengthening the capacity of judicial systems.

  20. Cancer survivors in Switzerland: a rapidly growing population to care for

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors are a heterogeneous group with complex health problems. Data concerning its total number and growing dynamics for Switzerland are scarce and outdated. Methods Population and mortality data were retrieved from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office (FSO). Incidence and relative survival for invasive cancers were computed using data from the cancer registries Geneva (1970–2009), St. Gallen - Appenzell (1980–2010), Grisons & Glarus (1989–2010), and Valais (1989–2010). We estimated prevalence for 1990–2010 using the Prevalence, Incidence Approach MODel (PIAMOD) method. We calculated trends in prevalence estimates by Joinpoint analysis. Projections were extrapolated using the above models and based on time trends of the period 2007–2010. Results The estimated number of cancer survivors increased from 139′717 in 1990 (2.08% of the population) to 289′797 persons in 2010 (3.70%). The growth rate shows an exponential shape and was 3.3% per year in the period 2008 to 2010. Almost half of the survivors have a history of breast, prostate or colorectal cancer. Among cancer survivors, 55% are women but the increases have been more marked in men (p Switzerland. Conclusions There is a rapidly growing population of cancer survivors in Switzerland whose needs and concerns are largely unknown. PMID:23764068

  1. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M

    2016-08-01

    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  2. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W

    2012-06-26

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO(2) balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (± 30) kg · ha(-1) · y(-1), double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (± 176) kg · ha(-1), whereas net losses of soil N (0-100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (± 915) kg · ha(-1) (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ(13)C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg · ha(-1) · y(-1). All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32-54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass.

  3. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS

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    Martina Kyselková

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

  4. The spatial biology of transcription and translation in rapidly growing Escherichia coli

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    Somenath eBakshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP in live, rapidly growing E. coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0-3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20-30 min nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription

  5. An automated system for rapid non-destructive enumeration of growing microbes.

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    Roanna London

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The power and simplicity of visual colony counting have made it the mainstay of microbiological analysis for more than 130 years. A disadvantage of the method is the long time required to generate visible colonies from cells in a sample. New rapid testing technologies generally have failed to maintain one or more of the major advantages of culture-based methods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a new technology and platform that uses digital imaging of cellular autofluorescence to detect and enumerate growing microcolonies many generations before they become visible to the eye. The data presented demonstrate that the method preserves the viability of the microcolonies it detects, thus enabling generation of pure cultures for microbial identification. While visual colony counting detects Escherichia coli colonies containing about 5x10(6 cells, the new imaging method detects E. coli microcolonies when they contain about 120 cells and microcolonies of the yeast Candida albicans when they contain only about 12 cells. We demonstrate that digital imaging of microcolony autofluorescence detects a broad spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes and present a model for predicting the time to detection for individual strains. Results from the analysis of environmental samples from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants containing a mixture of unidentified microbes demonstrate the method's improved test turnaround times. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates a new technology and automated platform that substantially shortens test times while maintaining key advantages of the current methods.

  6. Mycobacterium celeriflavum sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic bacterium isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Çavuşoğlu, Cengiz; Borroni, Emanuele; Heidarieh, Parvin; Koksalan, Orhan Kaya; Cabibbe, Andrea Maurizio; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Mariottini, Alessandro; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Cittaro, Davide; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Lazarevic, Dejan; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Molinari, Gian Lorenzo; Camaggi, Anna; Tortoli, Enrico

    2015-02-01

    Six strains of a rapidly growing scotochromogenic mycobacterium were isolated from pulmonary specimens of independent patients. Biochemical and cultural tests were not suitable for their identification. The mycolic acid pattern analysed by HPLC was different from that of any other mycobacterium. Genotypic characterization, targeting seven housekeeping genes, revealed the presence of microheterogeneity in all of them. Different species were more closely related to the test strains in various regions: the type strain of Mycobacterium moriokaense showed 99.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, and 91.5-96.5 % similarity for the remaining six regions. The whole genome sequences of the proposed type strain and that of M. moriokaense presented an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 82.9 %. Phylogenetic analysis produced poorly robust trees in most genes with the exception of rpoB and sodA where Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium novocastrense were the closest species. This phylogenetic relatedness was confirmed by the tree inferred from five concatenated genes, which was very robust. The polyphasic characterization of the test strains, supported by the ANI value, demonstrates that they belong to a previously unreported species, for which the name Mycobacterium celeriflavum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AFPC-000207(T) ( = DSM 46765(T) = JCM 18439(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  7. Isolation of Rapidly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Wounds Following Combat-Related Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Lauren C; Homeyer, Diane C; Zapor, Michael; Hartzell, Joshua; Warkentien, Tyler; Weintrob, Amy C; Ganesan, Anuradha; Burgess, Timothy; Snesrud, Erik; Waterman, Paige; Nielsen, Lindsey; Ressner, Roseanne A

    2016-06-01

    Rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) have yet to be described in combat-related injuries. This study investigates the epidemiology, clinical findings, treatment, and outcomes of RGNTM infections among combat casualties wounded in Afghanistan from 2010 to 2012. Patients with RGNTM were identified from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry through the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study. Trauma history, surgical management, and clinical data were collected. Six isolates from patients requiring antimycobacterial therapy were sequenced. Seventeen cases were identified. Six cases, predominantly associated with Mycobacterium abscessus, required aggressive debridement and a median of 180 days of multidrug antimycobacterial therapy that included clofazimine. M. abscessus isolates expressed the erythromycin resistance methylase (erm(41)) gene for inducible macrolide resistance, yet there were no clinical treatment failures when macrolides were utilized in combination therapy. No clonal similarity between M. abscessus isolates was found. Eleven cases had positive wound cultures, but did not require antimycobacterial therapy. The median duration of time of injury to first detection of a RGNTM was 57 days. This represents the first report of RGNTM infections in war-wounded patients. RGNTM should be recognized as potential pathogens in grossly infected combat wounds. Surgical debridement and multidrug antimycobacterial therapy, when clinically indicated, was associated with satisfactory clinical outcomes. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpato, Richard [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Campi de Castro, Claudio [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Radiology, Cerqueira Cesar, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hadad, David Jamil [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Nucleo de Doencas Infecciosas, Department of Internal Medicine, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da [Laboratorio de Patologia PAT, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Filho, Ezequiel Leal [UNIMED Diagnostico, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Marcal, Leonardo P. [The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  9. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woller, Jessica L; Kim, Ki Beom; Behrents, Rolf G; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures) following rapid maxillary expansion in growing children. The CBCT scans of 25 consecutively treated RME patients (10 male, 15 female) with mean age of 12.3±2.6 years, were examined before expansion and immediately following the last activation of the expansion appliance. Statistically significant (Pmaxillary first molars due to RME was also statistically significant. There was no statistically significant displacement of the transpalatal suture. Rapid maxillary expansion results in significant displacement of the bones of circummaxillary sutures in growing children.

  10. Two novel species of rapidly growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium lehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacterium neumannii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Sangal, Vartul; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Jando, Marlen; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Sutcliffe, Iain; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Two rapidly growing mycobacteria with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences were the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strains formed a well-supported subclade in the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely associated with the type strain of Mycobacterium novocastrense. Single and multilocus sequence analyses based on hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SN 1900T and SN 1904T are phylogenetically distinct but share several chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features that are are consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium. The two strains were distinguished by their different fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles, and by a combination of phenotypic features. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values for strains SN 1900T and SN 1904T were 61.0 % and 94.7 %, respectively; in turn, the corresponding dDDH and ANI values with M. novocastrense DSM 44203T were 41.4 % and 42.8 % and 89.3 % and 89.5 %, respectively. These results show that strains SN1900T and SN 1904T form new centres of taxonomic variation within the genus Mycobacterium. Consequently, strains SN 1900T (40T=CECT 8763T=DSM 43219T) and SN 1904T (2409T=CECT 8766T=DSM 43532T) are considered to represent novel species, for which the names Mycobacteriumlehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacteriumneumannii sp. nov. are proposed. A strain designated as 'Mycobacteriumacapulsensis' was shown to be a bona fide member of the putative novel species, M. lehmannii.

  11. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children

    OpenAIRE

    Woller,Jessica L.; Ki Beom Kim; Behrents, Rolf G.; Buschang, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures) following rapid maxillary expansion in gro...

  12. Mycobacterium iranicum sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic species isolated from clinical specimens on three different continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shojaei, H.; Daley, C.; Gitti, Z.; Hashemi, A.; Heidarieh, P.; Moore, E.R.; Naser, A.D.; Russo, C.; Ingen, J. van; Tortoli, E.

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of a novel, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic mycobacterial species is reported. Eight independent strains were isolated from clinical specimens from six different countries of the world, two in Iran, two in Italy and one in each of following countries: Greece, The

  13. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lione

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. Methods This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1–CS2. The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1 and after 1 year (T2. A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. Results RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. Conclusions The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular

  14. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, Roberta; Brunelli, Valerio; Franchi, Lorenzo; Pavoni, Chiara; Quiroga Souki, Bernardo; Cozza, Paola

    2017-11-06

    The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1-CS2). The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm) until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1) and after 1 year (T2). A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular response to the maxillary expansion protocol in class-II-growing

  15. [The diagnosis and treatment of rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai-Jin; Cheng, Zheng-Ping; Yin, Li; Wu, Yu-Yu; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Jun-Fang; Shi, Hai-Hong

    2009-06-01

    To study the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis (NTMK). It was retrospective case series study. Twelve eyes in 12 patients with NTMK following corneal foreign body trauma in 2007 were studied retrospectively including the case histories, clinical findings, laboratory examinations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The main laboratory examination included corneal scrapings by culturing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), corneal lesions by histopathologic examinations and TEM. The patients received local and systemic antibiotics therapy, lesion cleaning followed by cauterization with tincture of iodine (5%) and (or) keratoplasty. All cases had a history of corneal trauma, there was corneal metallic foreign body removal at one hospital in 11 cases, corneal reed trauma in 1 case. The characteristic signs involved grayish-blue crystalloid keratopathy, multifocal infiltrates, satellites, radical form changes in the Descemet's membrane. The results of laboratory examinations of the scrapings of the cornea infection were as follows: all cultures (12/12) were positive for rapidly growing mycobacteria, and isolates from 5 patients were all diagnosed as mycobacterium chelonae subspecies abscess; acid-fast staining revealed positive bacilli in all the 4 patients; seven of 8 patients were positive for bacterium by PCR. Transmission electron microscopy in all the 3 specimens showed many slender rod-shaped or short coarse-shaped bacteria which were phagocytized by monocytes, and some necrotic tissue. Infections in 10 eyes were resolved by combined treatment regimen including a combination of antimicrobial agents (amikacin, rifampin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and/or ofloxacin, etc.) and local lesion cleaning followed by cauterization with 5% tincture of iodine within 2-5 months; two cases resolved by keratoplasty which poorly responded to antibiotic therapy for 6 months

  16. Rapidly profiling blood-brain barrier penetration with liposome EKC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjun; Sun, Jin; Liu, Hongzhuo; He, Zhonggui

    2007-07-01

    This report intended to study the potential of liposome EKC (LEKC) as a convenient and high-throughput screening tool to assess drug penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The retention factors (k) of 24 structurally diverse compounds were determined with LEKC and vesicle EKC (VEKC), respectively. Principal component analysis of the steady-state concentrations ratio of compounds in the brain and in the blood expressed as log BB, log k(LEKC), log k(VEKC), and other lipophilic descriptors including octanol/water partition coefficient (Clog P), octanol/water distribution coefficients (log D(7.4)), and polar surface area (PSA), showed the maximum similarity of partitioning processes in LEKC to drug penetration across the BBB. Furthermore, the log BB were correlated with the above five lipophilic descriptors, and the results showed that log k(LEKC) gave the better correlation coefficient (r(2) = 0.811, p <0.0001) than those of log D(7.4), Clog P, PSA, and log k(VEKC) (r(2) = 0.730, 0.672, 0.627, and 0.620, p <0.0001). This is the first report of the use of LEKC as a promising rapid tool to profile drug penetration across the BBB.

  17. Rapid discrimination of visual scene content in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Andrey P; Golosheykin, Simon; Sirevaag, Erik; Kristjansson, Sean; Rohrbaugh, John W; Heath, Andrew C

    2006-06-06

    The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neuroelectric responses elicited by complex pictures discriminate between specific, biologically relevant contents of the visual scene and to determine how early in the picture processing this discrimination occurs. Subjects (n = 264) viewed 55 color slides differing in both scene content and emotional significance. No categorical judgments or responses were required. Consistent with previous studies, we found that emotionally arousing pictures, regardless of their content, produce a larger late positive wave than neutral pictures. However, when pictures were further categorized by content, anterior ERP components in a time window between 200 and 600 ms following stimulus onset showed a high selectivity for pictures with erotic content compared to other pictures regardless of their emotional valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) or emotional arousal. The divergence of ERPs elicited by erotic and non-erotic contents started at 185 ms post-stimulus in the fronto-central midline region, with a later onset in parietal regions. This rapid, selective, and content-specific processing of erotic materials and its dissociation from other pictures (including emotionally positive pictures) suggests the existence of a specialized neural network for prioritized processing of a distinct category of biologically relevant stimuli with high adaptive and evolutionary significance.

  18. Automatic segmentation of meningioma from non-contrasted brain MRI integrating fuzzy clustering and region growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Chun-Chih

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become important in brain tumor diagnosis. Using this modality, physicians can locate specific pathologies by analyzing differences in tissue character presented in different types of MR images. This paper uses an algorithm integrating fuzzy-c-mean (FCM and region growing techniques for automated tumor image segmentation from patients with menigioma. Only non-contrasted T1 and T2 -weighted MR images are included in the analysis. The study's aims are to correctly locate tumors in the images, and to detect those situated in the midline position of the brain. Methods The study used non-contrasted T1- and T2-weighted MR images from 29 patients with menigioma. After FCM clustering, 32 groups of images from each patient group were put through the region-growing procedure for pixels aggregation. Later, using knowledge-based information, the system selected tumor-containing images from these groups and merged them into one tumor image. An alternative semi-supervised method was added at this stage for comparison with the automatic method. Finally, the tumor image was optimized by a morphology operator. Results from automatic segmentation were compared to the "ground truth" (GT on a pixel level. Overall data were then evaluated using a quantified system. Results The quantified parameters, including the "percent match" (PM and "correlation ratio" (CR, suggested a high match between GT and the present study's system, as well as a fair level of correspondence. The results were compatible with those from other related studies. The system successfully detected all of the tumors situated at the midline of brain. Six cases failed in the automatic group. One also failed in the semi-supervised alternative. The remaining five cases presented noticeable edema inside the brain. In the 23 successful cases, the PM and CR values in the two groups were highly related. Conclusions Results indicated

  19. Multistate US Outbreak of Rapidly Growing Mycobacterial Infections Associated with Medical Tourism to the Dominican Republic, 2013-2014(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, David; Esposito, Douglas H; Gaines, Joanna; Ridpath, Alison; Barry, M Anita; Feldman, Katherine A; Mullins, Jocelyn; Burns, Rachel; Ahmad, Nina; Nyangoma, Edith N; Nguyen, Duc B; Perz, Joseph F; Moulton-Meissner, Heather A; Jensen, Bette J; Lin, Ying; Posivak-Khouly, Leah; Jani, Nisha; Morgan, Oliver W; Brunette, Gary W; Pritchard, P Scott; Greenbaum, Adena H; Rhee, Susan M; Blythe, David; Sotir, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During 2013, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in Baltimore, MD, USA, received report of 2 Maryland residents whose surgical sites were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria after cosmetic procedures at a clinic (clinic A) in the Dominican Republic. A multistate investigation was initiated; a probable case was defined as a surgical site infection unresponsive to therapy in a patient who had undergone cosmetic surgery in the Dominican Republic. We identified 21 case-patients in 6 states who had surgery in 1 of 5 Dominican Republic clinics; 13 (62%) had surgery at clinic A. Isolates from 12 (92%) of those patients were culture-positive for Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Of 9 clinic A case-patients with available data, all required therapeutic surgical intervention, 8 (92%) were hospitalized, and 7 (78%) required ≥3 months of antibacterial drug therapy. Healthcare providers should consider infection with rapidly growing mycobacteria in patients who have surgical site infections unresponsive to standard treatment.

  20. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas R. Cusumano; Vivy Tran; Aileen Tlamsa; Philip Chung; Robert Grossberg; Gregory Weston; Uzma N. Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors’ experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here. Methods: Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who pre...

  1. A novel culture medium for isolation of rapidly-growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Clair L; Perry, Audrey; Gray, Bethany; Kenna, Dervla T; Jones, Amanda L; Cummings, Stephen P; Robb, Ali; Thomas, Matthew F; Brodlie, Malcolm; O'Brien, Christopher J; Bourke, Stephen J; Perry, John D

    2016-03-01

    Isolation of mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to the overgrowth of cultures by other bacteria and fungi. In this setting, Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as a convenient and effective culture medium for the isolation of rapidly-growing, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). A novel selective culture medium (RGM medium) was evaluated for the isolation of rapidly-growing NTM from the sputum of children and adults with CF. A total of 118 isolates of rapidly-growing mycobacteria and 98 other bacteria and fungi were inoculated onto RGM medium. These were assessed for growth at 30°C over a seven day period. A total of 502 consecutive sputum samples were collected from 210 patients with CF. Each sample was homogenized and cultured onto RGM medium and also onto BCSA. Cultures were incubated for 10days at 30°C. Of 118 isolates of mycobacteria all but one grew well on RGM medium, whereas 94% of other bacteria and fungi were inhibited. A total of 55 sputum samples (from 33 distinct patients) yielded NTM using a combination of both RGM and BCSA (prevalence: 15.7%). NTM were recovered from 54 sputum samples using RGM medium compared with only 17 samples using BCSA (sensitivity 98% vs. 31%; P≤0.0001). A total of 419 isolates of non-mycobacteria were recovered from sputum samples on BCSA compared with 46 on RGM medium. RGM medium offers a simple and effective culture method for the isolation of rapidly-growing mycobacteria from sputum samples from patients with CF without decontamination of samples. RGM medium allows for the systematic screening of all sputum samples routinely referred for culture from patients with CF. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An assessment of the maxilla after rapid maxillary expansion using cone beam computed tomography in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Woller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal, zygomaticomaxillary, intermaxillary, midpalatal, and transpalatal sutures following rapid maxillary expansion in growing children. METHODS: The CBCT scans of 25 consecutively treated RME patients (10 male, 15 female with mean age of 12.3 ± 2.6 years, were examined before expansion and immediately following the last activation of the expansion appliance. RESULTS: Statistically significant (P < 0.05 amounts of separation were found for the displacement of the bones of the frontonasal suture, the intermaxillary suture, the zygomaticomaxillary sutures, and the midpalatal suture. The change in angulation of the maxillary first molars due to RME was also statistically significant. There was no statistically significant displacement of the transpalatal suture. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid maxillary expansion results in significant displacement of the bones of circummaxillary sutures in growing children.

  3. Rapid treatment-induced brain changes in pediatric CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Simons, Laura; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Pielech, Melissa; Prabhu, Sanjay; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-03-01

    To date, brain structure and function changes in children with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as a result of disease and treatment remain unknown. Here, we investigated (a) gray matter (GM) differences between patients with CRPS and healthy controls and (b) GM and functional connectivity (FC) changes in patients following intensive interdisciplinary psychophysical pain treatment. Twenty-three patients (13 females, 9 males; average age ± SD = 13.3 ± 2.5 years) and 21 healthy sex- and age-matched controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to controls, patients had reduced GM in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, midcingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Following treatment, patients had increased GM in the dlPFC, thalamus, basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus, and enhanced FC between the dlPFC and the periaqueductal gray, two regions involved in descending pain modulation. Accordingly, our results provide novel evidence for GM abnormalities in sensory, motor, emotional, cognitive, and pain modulatory regions in children with CRPS. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate rapid treatment-induced GM and FC changes in areas implicated in sensation, emotion, cognition, and pain modulation.

  4. Rapid Treatment-Induced Brain Changes in Pediatric CRPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Simons, Laura; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Pielech, Melissa; Prabhu, Sanjay; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    To date, brain structure and function changes in children with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as a result of disease and treatment remain unknown. Here, we investigated (a) gray matter (GM) differences between patients with CRPS and healthy controls and (b) GM and functional connectivity (FC) changes in patients following intensive interdisciplinary psychophysical pain treatment. Twenty-three patients (13 females, 9 males; average age ± SD = 13.3 ± 2.5 years) and 21 healthy sex-and age-matched controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to controls, patients had reduced GM in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, midcingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Following treatment, patients had increased GM in the dlPFC, thalamus, basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus, and enhanced FC between the dlPFC and the periaqueductal gray (PAG), two regions involved in descending pain modulation. Accordingly, our results provide novel evidence for GM abnormalities in sensory, motor, emotional, cognitive, and pain modulatory regions in children with CRPS. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate rapid treatment-induced GM and FC changes in areas implicated in sensation, emotion, cognition, and pain modulation. PMID:25515312

  5. The impact of entrepreneurial capital and rapidly growing firms: the Canadian example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    World-class competitiveness is no longer an option for firms seeking growth and survival in the increasingly competitive, dynamic and interconnected world. This paper expands on the concept of entrepreneurial capital and formalizes it as a catalyst that augments other productive factors. It provi...... hostile environments that also suffer from poor resources, this research offers significant lessons with implications for emerging firms, industries and associated regions that aspire to grow faster...

  6. Rapidly growing cystic vestibular schwannoma with sudden onset facial palsy, ten years after subtotal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandinarasaiah, Manjunath; Grinblat, Golda; Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Taibah, Abdelkader; Sanna, Mario

    2017-07-19

    An elderly male patient diagnosed with a right-sided cystic vestibular schwannoma (CVS) at our center underwent a translabyrinthine approach with a subtotal excision to preserve the facial nerve (FN). The tumor grew slowly for the first 9 years but in the subsequent 2 years grew rapidly, with the patient developing a FN paralysis. Using the previous approach, a second surgery was done and the tumor was excised, leaving behind a sheath of tumor on the facial and lower cranial nerves. This case demonstrates that CVSs show unpredictable growth patterns and need to be followed up for a longer period of time. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. In-vitro evaluation of the adhesion to polypropylene sutures of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, N; Esteban, J; Kinnari, T J; Celdrán, A; Granizo, J J; Zafra, C

    2007-09-01

    The ability of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria (NPRGM) to attach to polypropylene sutures was evaluated using an in-vitro assay. Thirty clinical isolates and five culture collection strains of NPRGM, together with Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35983, were tested. Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae showed the highest attachment ability, which differed significantly from the results obtained with Mycobacterium peregrinum. According to these results, NPRGM are able to attach to polypropylene sutures, and the species implicated most frequently in human infection showed increased levels of attachment in comparison with the other mycobacteria studied.

  8. A rapidly growing moraine-dammed glacial lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah S.; Benn, Douglas I.; Dennis, Kathryn; Luckman, Adrian

    2012-04-01

    Moraine-dammed glacial lakes are becoming increasingly common in the Himalaya as a result of glacier mass loss, causing concern about glacier lake outburst flood risk. In addition to extant lakes, the potential exists for many more to form, as more glaciers ablate down to the level of potential moraine dams. In this paper, we document the recent rapid growth of, a moraine-dammed lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. Using a combination of ground-based mapping and sonar surveys, aerial photographs (< 1 m resolution), and ASTER imagery (15 m resolution), processes and rates of lake expansion have been determined. The lake first formed between 1984 and 1992 when collapse of an englacial conduit allowed water to accumulate at the level of a gap in the lateral moraine, ~km from the glacier terminus. Lake growth was initially slow, but since 2001 it has undergone exponential growth at an average rate of 10% y-1. In 2009, the lake area was 300,000 m2, and its volume was at least 2.2 million m3. Calving, subaqueous melting, and melting of subaerial ice faces all contribute to the expansion of the lake; but large-scale, full-height slab calving is now the dominant contributor to growth. Comparison with other lakes in the region indicate that lake growth will likely continue unchecked whilst the spillway remains at its current level and may attain a volume of hundreds of millions of cubic metres within the next few decades.

  9. Neonatal sepsis in a rapidly growing, tertiary neonatal intensive care unit: Trends over 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Ju Sun; Shin, Seung Han; Jung, Young Hwa; Kim, Ee-Kyung; Choi, Eun Hwa; Kim, Han-Suk; Lee, Hoan Jong; Choi, Jung-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    We investigated changes in the admission patterns of neonatal intensive care units and the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis following the rapid expansion and improvements in neonatal intensive care. Data on the admission of neonates with culture-proven sepsis between 1996 and 2013 (period I, 1996-2005; period II, 2006-2013) were collected retrospectively. The admission of extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants increased between periods I and II (11.1 vs 28.7 infants per 1000 live births, P sepsis among all infants and ELBW infants increased (all infants, 5.9 vs 12.7 cases per 1000 live births; ELBW infants, 189.5 vs 290.1 cases per 1000 live births). In ELBW infants, the incidence of sepsis caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS), significantly increased during period II (8.8 vs 25.4%, P = 0.039). On multivariate analysis, central vascular catheters and prolonged hospitalization were independently associated with increased sepsis rate, particularly CONS in ELBW infants. The inborn admission rate for ELBW infants has increased significantly and is accompanied by improved survival and longer hospital stay. The incidence of neonatal sepsis, particularly in ELBW infants, has also increased, and CONS has emerged as a major pathogen. Central vascular catheters and prolonged hospitalization could be independent risk factors for the increased sepsis rate, particularly sepsis due to CONS. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. The evolution of training in brain stereotactic radiosurgery: a growing part of intracranial neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gillian; Grandhi, Ramesh; Monaco, Edward A; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has evolved to become an established, well-studied treatment modality for intracranial pathologies traditionally treated with more invasive neurosurgical management. As the field expands, among neurosurgeons and across multiple disciplines, resident training will become increasingly crucial. In this review, we reflect on 25 years of SRS at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and the development of formal training in this area at our institution. We describe the formal resident rotation, fellowship opportunities, and training courses for multidisciplinary physician teams and allied health professionals. The number of SRS cases performed annually has significantly increased in recent years and indeed surpassed caseloads for certain more traditional surgeries. Residents report high rates of expectation for including SRS in future practice, yet participate in only a small fraction of annual cases. The formal postgraduate year 3 rotation established at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center provides a way to expose and educate residents in this growing subspecialty within the confines of duty hour regulations. In combination with extended clinical elective opportunities and postresidency fellowships, this rotation prepares residents at our institution for the use of SRS in future clinical practice. SRS is a rapidly expanding field that requires a unique skill set and current neurosurgical resident training often does not fully prepare trainees for its use in clinical practice. Focused resident training is necessary to ensure trainees are proficient in this specialty and well equipped to become leaders in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Status of the brain antioxidant system at different growing periods after prenatal stress and N -acetyl cysteine administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liegelin Kavitha Bernhardt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress-induced neurobehavioral deficits observed in offspring are multifactorial, including oxidative stress in the developing brain. The time by which the developing brain acquires self-defense against oxidative stress is not clear. Hence in the present study we aimed to evaluate the brain antioxidant status during different developing periods. Further the study also evaluates the role of the glutathione precursor, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC on the brain antioxidant status. Pregnant rats were subjected to restraint stress during an early or late gestational period. Another set of rats received NAC during the entire gestational period along with early or late gestational stress. The study parameters included several antioxidant studies directly from rat brain homogenate on postnatal day 24 or 48. Early or late gestational stress has caused severe oxidative stress in the developing brain on postnatal day 24 in all the parameters studied. However, brain reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and total antioxidant activity (TAO were not affected by either early or late gestational stress on postnatal day 48, but the brain malondialdehyde (MDA level remained high and brain glutathione reductase (GSS-Rd level remained low on postnatal day 48. Prenatal NAC treatment has reversed the oxidative damage in all the parameters on postnatal day 24 and also the brain MDA level and GSS-Rd level on postnatal day 48. This study confirms that the growing brain acquires antioxidant capacity over time but during early postnatal development it is vulnerable to oxidative stress and related neurological consequences. N-acetyl cysteine treatment during the prenatal period as an antioxidant supplement exerted a beneficiary effect in this study. Hence glutathione supplement in the nutritional source would be an idealistic approach to prenatal stress-induced neurological comorbidities in children.

  12. Status of the brain antioxidant system at different growing periods after prenatal stress and N -acetyl cysteine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Liegelin Kavitha; Madhyastha, Sampath; Bairy, Lakshminarayana; Kishore, Anoop

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal stress-induced neurobehavioral deficits observed in offspring are multifactorial, including oxidative stress in the developing brain. The time by which the developing brain acquires self-defense against oxidative stress is not clear. Hence in the present study we aimed to evaluate the brain antioxidant status during different developing periods. Further the study also evaluates the role of the glutathione precursor, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on the brain antioxidant status. Pregnant rats were subjected to restraint stress during an early or late gestational period. Another set of rats received NAC during the entire gestational period along with early or late gestational stress. The study parameters included several antioxidant studies directly from rat brain homogenate on postnatal day 24 or 48. Early or late gestational stress has caused severe oxidative stress in the developing brain on postnatal day 24 in all the parameters studied. However, brain reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant activity (TAO) were not affected by either early or late gestational stress on postnatal day 48, but the brain malondialdehyde (MDA) level remained high and brain glutathione reductase (GSS-Rd) level remained low on postnatal day 48. Prenatal NAC treatment has reversed the oxidative damage in all the parameters on postnatal day 24 and also the brain MDA level and GSS-Rd level on postnatal day 48. This study confirms that the growing brain acquires antioxidant capacity over time but during early postnatal development it is vulnerable to oxidative stress and related neurological consequences. N-acetyl cysteine treatment during the prenatal period as an antioxidant supplement exerted a beneficiary effect in this study. Hence glutathione supplement in the nutritional source would be an idealistic approach to prenatal stress-induced neurological comorbidities in children..

  13. Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov., a rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species isolated from human clinical respiratory and blood culture specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto Enrique; Greninger, Alexander L; Ladutko, Lynn; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Jakubiec, Wesley; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Wallace, Richard J; Simmon, Keith E; Dunn, Bruce E; Jackoway, Gary; Vora, Surabhi B; Quinn, Kevin K; Qin, Xuan; Campbell, Sheldon

    2017-11-01

    A previously undescribed, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species of the genus Mycobacterium (represented by strains PB739 T and GK) was isolated from two clinical sources - the sputum of a 76-year-old patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of tuberculosis exposure and Mycobacterium avium complex isolated years prior; and the blood of a 15-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia status post bone marrow transplant. The isolates grew as dark orange colonies at 25-37 °C after 5 days, sharing features in common with other closely related species. Analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (1492 bp) of strain PB739 T demonstrated that the isolate shared 98.8 % relatedness with Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Partial 429 bp hsp65 and 744 bp rpoB region V sequence analyses revealed that the sequences of the novel isolate shared 94.8 and 92.1 % similarity with those of Mycobacterium neoaurum and Mycobacterium aurum, respectively. Biochemical profiling, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, HPLC/gas-liquid chromatography analyses and multilocus sequence typing support the taxonomic status of these isolates (PB739 T and GK) as representatives of a novel species. Both isolates were susceptible to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended antimicrobials for susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria including amikacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline/minocycline, imipenem, linezolid, clarithromycin and trimethropin/sulfamethoxazole. Both isolates PB739 T and GK showed intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin. We propose the name Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov. for this novel species and have deposited the type strain in the DSMZ and CIP culture collections. The type strain is PB739 T (=DSM 104744 T =CIP 111318 T ).

  14. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, Lucas R; Tran, Vivy; Tlamsa, Aileen; Chung, Philip; Grossberg, Robert; Weston, Gregory; Sarwar, Uzma N

    2017-10-01

    Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors' experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here. Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who presented at the Montefiore Medical Center (Bronx, New York, USA) between August 2015 and June 2016 were identified. A review of patient medical records was performed. Four patients who presented with culture-proven RGM infections at the sites of recent cosmetic procedures were identified. All patients were treated with a combination of antibiotics and aggressive surgical treatment. This case series of RGM infections following recent cosmetic surgeries abroad highlights the risks of medical tourism. Close monitoring of affected patients by surgical and infectious disease specialties is necessary, as aggressive surgical debridement combined with appropriate antibiotic regimens is needed to achieve cure. Given the increasing reports of post-surgical RGM infections, consultants should have a low threshold for suspecting RGM, as rapid diagnosis may accelerate the initiation of targeted treatment and minimize morbidity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Contrasting Acute and Slow-Growing Lesions: A New Door to Brain Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmurget, Michel; Bonnetblanc, FranCois; Duffau, Hugues

    2007-01-01

    The concept of plasticity describes the mechanisms that rearrange cerebral organization following a brain injury. During the last century, plasticity has been mainly investigated in humans with acute strokes. It was then shown: (i) that the brain is organized into highly specialized functional areas, often designated "eloquent" areas and (ii) that…

  16. Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov., a scotochromogenic, rapidly growing species is able to infect human macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Rizvi, A; Banerjee, S; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-11-01

    Gram-stain-positive, acid-fast-positive, rapidly growing, rod-shaped bacteria (designated as strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431) were isolated from paddy cultivated soils on the Western Ghats of India. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three strains among the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium tokaiense 47503T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Mycobacterium murale MA112/96T (98.8 %) and a few other Mycobacterium species. The level of DNA-DNA reassociation of the three strains with M. tokaiense DSM 44635T was 23.4±4 % (26.1±3 %, reciprocal analysis) and 21.4±2 % (22.1±4 %, reciprocal analysis). The three novel strains shared >99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA reassociation values >85 %. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences (3071 bp) of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) revealed that strain JC290T is clearly distinct from all other Mycobacteriumspecies. The three strains had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, unidentified phospholipids, unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified lipid as polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone for all three strains was MK-9(H2). Fatty acids were C17 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C19 : 1ω7c/C19 : 1ω6c for all the three strains. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431 are members of a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium and for which the name Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC290T (=KCTC 39560T=LMG 28809T).

  17. Rapid Analytical Methods for On-Site Triage for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Stella H.; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Taitt, Chris R.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2012-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from an event that causes rapid acceleration and deceleration of the brain or penetration of the skull with an object. Responses to stimuli and questions, loss of consciousness, and altered behavior are symptoms currently used to justify brain imaging for diagnosis and therapeutic guidance. Tests based on such symptoms are susceptible to false-positive and false-negative results due to stress, fatigue, and medications. Biochemical markers of neuronal damage and the physiological response to that damage are being identified. Biosensors capable of rapid measurement of such markers in the circulation offer a solution for on-site triage, as long as three criteria are met: (a) Recognition reagents can be identified that are sufficiently sensitive and specific, (b) the biosensor can provide quantitative assessment of multiple markers rapidly and simultaneously, and (c) both the sensor and reagents are designed for use outside the laboratory.

  18. Miniaturized extinction culturing is the preferred strategy for rapid isolation of fast‐growing methane‐oxidizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefman, Sven; van der Ha, David; De Vos, Paul; Boon, Nico; Heylen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Summary Methane‐oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have a large potential as a microbial sink for the greenhouse gas methane as well as for biotechnological purposes. However, their application in biotechnology has so far been hampered, in part due to the relative slow growth rate of the available strains. To enable the availability of novel strains, this study compares the isolation of MOB by conventional dilution plating with miniaturized extinction culturing, both performed after an initial enrichment step. The extinction approach rendered 22 MOB isolates from four environmental samples, while no MOB could be isolated by plating. In most cases, extinction culturing immediately yielded MOB monocultures making laborious purification redundant. Both type I (Methylomonas spp.) and type II (Methylosinus sp.) MOB were isolated. The isolated methanotrophic diversity represented at least 11 different strains and several novel species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence dissimilarity. These strains possessed the particulate (100%) and soluble (64%) methane monooxygenase gene. Also, 73% of the strains could be linked to a highly active fast‐growing mixed MOB community. In conclusion, miniaturized extinction culturing was more efficient in rapidly isolating numerous MOB requiring little effort and fewer materials, compared with the more widely applied plating procedure. This miniaturized approach allowed straightforward isolation and could be very useful for subsequent screening of desired characteristics, in view of their future biotechnological potential. PMID:22070783

  19. Soluble Aβ oligomers are rapidly sequestered from brain ISF in vivo and bind GM1 ganglioside on cellular membranes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Soyon; Ostaszewski, Beth L; Yang, Ting; O'Malley, Tiernan T; Jin, Ming; Yanagisawa, Katsuhiko; Li, Shaomin; Bartels, Tim; Selkoe, Dennis J

    2014-01-01

    .... Here, we found that soluble Aβ oligomers were sequestered from brain interstitial fluid onto brain membranes much more rapidly than nontoxic monomers and were recovered in part as bound to GM1 ganglioside on membranes. Aβ...

  20. A Study on the Application of Fuzzy Information Seeded Region Growing in Brain MRI Tissue Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuin-Mu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After long-term clinical trials, MRI has been proven to be used in humans harmlessly, and it is popularly used in medical diagnosis. Although MR is highly sensitive, it provides abundant organization information. Therefore, how to transform the multi-spectral images which is easier to be used for doctor’s clinical diagnosis. In this thesis, the fuzzy bidirectional edge detection method is used to solve conventional SRG problem of growing order in the initial seed stages. In order to overcome the problems of the different regions, although it is the same Euclidean distance for region growing and merging process stages, we present the peak detection method to improve them. The standard deviation target generation process (SDTGP is applied to guarantee the regions merging process does not cause over- or undersegmentation. Experimental results reveal that FISRG segments a multispectral MR image much more effectively than FAST and K-means.

  1. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).

  2. Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov., a rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium chelonae, isolated from marine teleost fish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Hanako; Wada, Shinpei; Kurata, Osamu; Katayama, Kinya; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-01

    A previously undescribed rapidly growing, non-pigmented mycobacterium was identified based on biochemical and nucleic acid analyses, as well as growth characteristics. Seven isolates were cultured from samples collected from five thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) and two farmed black scraper (Thamnaconus modestus). Bacterial growth occurred at 15-35 °C on Middlebrook 7H11 agar. The bacteria were positive for catalase activity at 68 °C and urease activity, intermediate for iron uptake, and negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, semi-quantitative catalase activity and arylsulfatase activity at day 3. No growth was observed on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with picric acid, and very little growth was observed in the presence of 5 % NaCl. α- and α'-mycolates were identified in the cell walls, and a unique profile of the fatty acid methyl esters and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles of the protein and cell-wall lipids were acquired. Sequence analysis revealed that the seven isolates shared identical sequences for the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65, recA and sodA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the five gene sequences confirmed that the isolates were unique, but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clarithromycin against this novel species was Mycobacterium salmoniphilum. The hsp65 PCR restriction enzyme analysis pattern differed from those of M. chelonae and M. salmoniphilum. Based on these findings, the name Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain being NJB0901T (=JCM 31611T=KCTC 39843T).

  3. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae–Mycobacterium abscessus group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M.; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and, in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae–Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M. abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1–2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values >70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results, demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, but constitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM 10906T ( = CCUG 66554T = LMG 28586T = INCQS 0733T). PMID:26358475

  4. Functional Brain Activation Differences in Stuttering Identified with a Rapid fMRI Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Torrey; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech…

  5. Rapid control of male typical behaviors by brain-derived estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornil, Charlotte A.; Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Beside their genomic mode of action, estrogens also activate a variety of cellular signaling pathways through non-genomic mechanisms. Until recently, little was known regarding the functional significance of such actions in males and the mechanism that control local estrogen concentration with a spatial and time resolution compatible with these non-genomic actions had rarely been examined. Here, we review evidence that estrogens rapidly modulate a variety of behaviors in male vertebrates. Then, we present in vitro work supporting the existence of a control mechanism of local brain estrogen synthesis by aromatase along with in vivo evidence that rapid changes in aromatase activity also occur in a region-specific manner in response to changes in the social or environmental context. Finally, we suggest that the brain estrogen provision may also play a significant role in females. Together these data bolster the hypothesis that brain-derived estrogens should be considered as neuromodulators. PMID:22983088

  6. Rapid changes in brain structure predict improvements induced by perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Muggleton, Neil G; Rees, Geraint; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    Practice-dependent changes in brain structure can occur in task relevant brain regions as a result of extensive training in complex motor tasks and long-term cognitive training but little is known about the impact of visual perceptual learning on brain structure. Here we studied the effect of five days of visual perceptual learning in a motion-color conjunction search task using anatomical MRI. We found rapid changes in gray matter volume in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, an area sensitive to coherently moving stimuli, that predicted the degree to which an individual's performance improved with training. Furthermore, behavioral improvements were also predicted by volumetric changes in an extended white matter region underlying the visual cortex. These findings point towards quick and efficient plastic neural mechanisms that enable the visual brain to deal effectively with changing environmental demands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mapping metals in Parkinson's and normal brain using rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Bogdan F. Gh; George, Martin J.; Bergmann, Uwe; Garachtchenko, Alex V.; Kelly, Michael E.; McCrea, Richard P. E.; Lüning, Katharina; Devon, Richard M.; George, Graham N.; Hanson, Akela D.; Harder, Sheri M.; Chapman, L. Dean; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Nichol, Helen

    2009-02-01

    Rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence (RS-XRF) is a synchrotron technology that maps multiple metals in tissues by employing unique hardware and software to increase scanning speed. RS-XRF was validated by mapping and quantifying iron, zinc and copper in brain slices from Parkinson's disease (PD) and unaffected subjects. Regions and structures in the brain were readily identified by their metal complement and each metal had a unique distribution. Many zinc-rich brain regions were low in iron and vice versa. The location and amount of iron in brain regions known to be affected in PD agreed with analyses using other methods. Sample preparation is simple and standard formalin-fixed autopsy slices are suitable. RS-XRF can simultaneously and non-destructively map and quantify multiple metals and holds great promise to reveal metal pathologies associated with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases as well as diseases of metal metabolism.

  8. Functional brain activation differences in stuttering identified with a rapid fMRI sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech motor and auditory brain activity in children who stutter closer to the age at which recovery from stuttering is documented. Rapid sequences may be preferred for individuals or populations who do not tolerate long scanning sessions. In this report, we document the application of a picture naming and phoneme monitoring task in three minute fMRI sequences with adults who stutter (AWS). If relevant brain differences are found in AWS with these approaches that conform to previous reports, then these approaches can be extended to younger populations. Pairwise contrasts of brain BOLD activity between AWS and normally fluent adults indicated the AWS showed higher BOLD activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right temporal lobe and sensorimotor cortices during picture naming and and higher activity in the right IFG during phoneme monitoring. The right lateralized pattern of BOLD activity together with higher activity in sensorimotor cortices is consistent with previous reports, which indicates rapid fMRI sequences can be considered for investigating stuttering in younger participants. PMID:22133409

  9. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Regens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  10. Survival in Out-of-hospital Rapid Sequence Intubation of Non-Traumatic Brain Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Pieter Francsois; Jennings, Paul Andrew; Smith, Karen; Boyle, Malcolm; Blecher, Gabriel; Knott, Jonathan; Raji, Mani; Rosengarten, Pamela; Augello, Michael Roberto; Bernard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is not only used in traumatic brain injuries in the out-of-hospital setting, but also for non-traumatic brain pathologies (NTBP) such as brain tumors, meningitis, encephalitis, hypoxic/anoxic brain injury, stroke, arteriovenous malformations, tumors, aneurysms, brain hemorrhage, as well as brain injury due to diabetes, seizures and toxicity, metabolic conditions, and alcohol and drug overdose. Previous research suggests that RSI is common in non-traumatic coma, but with an unknown prevalence of NTBP in those that receive RSI. If NTBP is common and if brain trauma RSI evidence is not valid for NTBP then a sizable proportion of NTBP receive this treatment without evidence of benefit. This study calculated the out-of-hospital NTBP prevalence in patients that had received RSI and explored factors that predicted survival. A retrospective cohort study based on data collected from an ambulance service and seven hospitals based in Melbourne, Australia. Non-traumatic brain pathologies were defined using ICD10-AM codes for the calculation of NTBP prevalence. Logistic regression modelled out-of-hospital predictors of survival to hospital discharge after adjustment for comorbidities. The seven participating hospitals treated 2,277 patients that received paramedic RSI for all illnesses and indications from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2015, with survival data available for 1,940 (85%). Of the 1,940, 1,125 (58%) patients had at least one hospital-diagnosed NTBP. Sixty-nine percent all of NTBP survived to hospital discharge, compared to 65% for traumatic intracranial injury. Strokes were the most common and had poor survival to discharge (37%) compared to the second most common NTBP toxicity/toxic encephalopathy that had very high survival (98%). No out-of-hospital clinical intervention or prehospital time interval predicted survival. Factors that did predict survival include Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), duration of mechanical ventilation, age, ICU

  11. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  13. Rapid modulation of TRH and TRH-like peptide release in rat brain and peripheral tissues by leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekary, A E; Sattin, Albert; Blood, James

    2010-07-23

    Leptin is not only a feedback modulator of feeding and energy expenditure but also regulates reproductive functions, CNS development and mood. Obesity and major depression are growing public health concerns which may derive, in part, from disregulation of leptin feedback at the level of the hypothalamic feeding centers and mood regulators within the limbic system. Identifying downstream mediators of leptin action may provide therapeutic opportunities. We and others have previously reported that thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, pGlu-His-Pro-NH(2)) and TRH-like peptides (pGlu-X-Pro-NH(2), where "X" can be any amino acid residue) have neuroprotective, antidepressant, anti-epileptic, analeptic, anti-ataxic, and anorectic properties. For this reason, young, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected ip with 1mg/kg rat leptin and peptide and protein levels were measured in brain and peripheral tissues at 0, 0.5, 1 and 2h later. Eleven brain regions: pyriform cortex (PYR), entorhinal cortex (ENT), cerebellum (CBL), nucleus accumbens (NA), frontal cortex (FCX), amygdala (AY), posterior cingulate (PCNG), striatum (STR), hippocampus (HC), medulla oblongata (MED) and anterior cingulate (ACNG) and five peripheral tissues (adrenals, testes, epididymis, pancreas and prostate) were analyzed. TRH and six TRH-like peptide levels in STR fell by 0.5h consistent with leptin-induced release of these peptides: STR (7 downward arrow). Significant changes in TRH and TRH-like peptide levels for other brain regions were: CBL (5 downward arrow), ENT (5 downward arrow), HC (4 downward arrow), AY (4 downward arrow), FCX (3 downward arrow), and ACNG (1 downward arrow). The rapid modulation of TRH and TRH-like peptide release combined with their similarity in behavioral, neuroendocrine, immunomodulatory, metabolic and steroidogenic effects to that of leptin is consistent with these peptides participating in downstream signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Yueju Pill Rapidly Induces Antidepressant-Like Effects and Acutely Enhances BDNF Expression in Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenda Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional antidepressants have a major disadvantage in delayed onset of efficacy, and the emerging fast-acting antidepressant ketamine has adverse behavioral and neurotoxic effects. Yueju pill, an herb medicine formulated eight hundred years ago by Doctor Zhu Danxi, has been popularly prescribed in China for alleviation of depression-like symptoms. Although several clinical outcome studies reported the relative short onset of antidepressant effects of Yueju, this has not been scientifically investigated. We, therefore, examined the rapid antidepressant effect of Yueju in mice and tested the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that acute administration of ethanol extract of Yueju rapidly attenuated depressive-like symptoms in learned helpless paradigm, and the antidepressant-like effects were sustained for at least 24 hours in tail suspension test in ICR mice. Additionally, Yueju, like ketamine, rapidly increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus, whereas the BDNF mRNA expression remained unaltered. Yueju rapidly reduced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2, leading to desuppression of BDNF synthesis. Unlike ketamine, both the BDNF expression and eEF2 phosphorylation were revered at 24 hours after Yueju administration. This study is the first to demonstrate the rapid antidepressant effects of an herb medicine, offering an opportunity to improve therapy of depression.

  15. Regulation of the efflux of putrescine and cadaverine from rapidly growing cultured RAW 264 cells by extracellular putrescine.

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandrawinata, R R; Byus, C V

    1995-01-01

    Cultures of the macrophage-like RAW 264 cells were adapted to divide normally in a synthetic serum-supplemented culture medium lacking any polyamines and diamine oxidase activity. These rapidly dividing cells actively effluxed large amounts of putrescine and cadaverine, compared with the intracellular levels, into the culture medium. The efflux of putrescine was stimulated by the amino acid ornithine, whereas efflux of cadaverine was inhibited. Relatively low levels of spermidine and N1-acety...

  16. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. Cusumano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: This case series of RGM infections following recent cosmetic surgeries abroad highlights the risks of medical tourism. Close monitoring of affected patients by surgical and infectious disease specialties is necessary, as aggressive surgical debridement combined with appropriate antibiotic regimens is needed to achieve cure. Given the increasing reports of post-surgical RGM infections, consultants should have a low threshold for suspecting RGM, as rapid diagnosis may accelerate the initiation of targeted treatment and minimize morbidity.

  17. Do farmers rapidly adapt to past growing conditions by sowing different proportions of early and late maturing cereals and cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short growing season of the northernmost European growing conditions, farmers are increasingly interested in expanding cultivation of later maturing crops at the expense of early maturing ones with lower yields. In this study we aimed to assess how the switching between spring cereals that differ in earliness was associated with different external factors. This was tested using unique datasets for regional cropping areas and cultivar use for the last 15 years. Early maturing barley was favored at the expense of later maturing wheat when a high number of days to crop maturity was required in the preceding year. In contrast, farmers reduced the barley area when a high number of cumulated degree days was required for a crop to mature in the previous year. A shift was recorded from early to late maturing cultivars. This study indicated that despite limited opportunities for farmers to alter land use, they readily responded to past conditions and used the knowledge gained for decision-making to reduce risk. This is a valuable operative model for studying adaptation to opportunities and constraints induced by climate change.

  18. Coupled Proliferation and Apoptosis Maintain the Rapid Turnover of Microglia in the Adult Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Askew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia play key roles in brain development, homeostasis, and function, and it is widely assumed that the adult population is long lived and maintained by self-renewal. However, the precise temporal and spatial dynamics of the microglial population are unknown. We show in mice and humans that the turnover of microglia is remarkably fast, allowing the whole population to be renewed several times during a lifetime. The number of microglial cells remains steady from late postnatal stages until aging and is maintained by the spatial and temporal coupling of proliferation and apoptosis, as shown by pulse-chase studies, chronic in vivo imaging of microglia, and the use of mouse models of dysregulated apoptosis. Our results reveal that the microglial population is constantly and rapidly remodeled, expanding our understanding of its role in the maintenance of brain homeostasis.

  19. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control desi......Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case...... were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder...

  20. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  1. A novel brain-computer interface based on the rapid serial visual presentation paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acqualagna, Laura; Treder, Matthias Sebastian; Schreuder, Martijn; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Most present-day visual brain computer interfaces (BCIs) suffer from the fact that they rely on eye movements, are slow-paced, or feature a small vocabulary. As a potential remedy, we explored a novel BCI paradigm consisting of a central rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of the stimuli. It has a large vocabulary and realizes a BCI system based on covert non-spatial selective visual attention. In an offline study, eight participants were presented sequences of rapid bursts of symbols. Two different speeds and two different color conditions were investigated. Robust early visual and P300 components were elicited time-locked to the presentation of the target. Offline classification revealed a mean accuracy of up to 90% for selecting the correct symbol out of 30 possibilities. The results suggest that RSVP-BCI is a promising new paradigm, also for patients with oculomotor impairments.

  2. Growing City and Rapid Land Use Transition: Assessing Multiple Hazards and Risks in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagawat Rimal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pokhara is one of the most naturally beautiful cities in the world with a unique geological setting. This important tourist city is under intense pressure from rapid urbanization and population growth. Multiple hazards and risks are rapidly increasing in Pokhara due to unsustainable land use practices, particularly the increase in built-up areas. This study examines the relationship among urbanization, land use/land cover dynamics and multiple hazard and risk analysis of the Pokhara valley from 1990 to 2013. We investigate some of the active hazards, such as floods, landslides, fire, sinkholes, land subsidence and earthquakes, and prepare an integrated multiple hazard risk map indicating the highly vulnerable zones. Land use and land cover maps from 1990 and 2013 from Landsat images (30 m resolution have been prepared and analyzed for the spatial dynamics of urbanization and the transition of land use and land cover. In the 23-year period, the built-up area more than doubled from 24.03 km² to 54.20 km². Although the landscape in the urban, peri-urban and rural areas appears to be fragmented, different drivers play pivotal roles in landscape change in these areas. The results provide substantial information for establishing innovative action plans for disaster risk management in the valley. Recommendations are made for the most suitable places for future urban expansion in the valley. This study is important for raising awareness among policy makers and other public officials to include multiple hazard risk mitigation in land use policies and plans. Establishing connections between urban expansions, escalating population growth and multiple hazards and risk assessment will also improve in modelling the latent impact of future catastrophes and emergency preparedness.

  3. Rapid prototyping of an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guger, C; Schlögl, A; Neuper, C; Walterspacher, D; Strein, T; Pfurtscheller, G

    2001-03-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is modified by motor imagery and can be used by patients with severe motor impairments (e.g., late stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) to communicate with their environment. Such a direct connection between the brain and the computer is known as an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI). This paper describes a new type of BCI system that uses rapid prototyping to enable a fast transition of various types of parameter estimation and classification algorithms to real-time implementation and testing. Rapid prototyping is possible by using Matlab, Simulink, and the Real-Time Workshop. It is shown how to automate real-time experiments and perform the interplay between on-line experiments and offline analysis. The system is able to process multiple EEG channels on-line and operates under Windows 95 in real-time on a standard PC without an additional digital signal processor (DSP) board. The BCI can be controlled over the Internet, LAN or modem. This BCI was tested on 3 subjects whose task it was to imagine either left or right hand movement. A classification accuracy between 70% and 95% could be achieved with two EEG channels after some sessions with feedback using an adaptive autoregressive (AAR) model and linear discriminant analysis (LDA).

  4. An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (southern Arizona): Major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Wonaschütz, Anna; Jarjour, Elias G; Hashimoto, Bryce I; Schichtel, Bret A; Betterton, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    This study reports a comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosol particle properties in relation to meteorological and back trajectory data in the southern Arizona region, which includes two of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States (Phoenix and Tucson). Multiple data sets (MODIS, AERONET, OMI/TOMS, MISR, GOCART, ground-based aerosol measurements) are used to examine monthly trends in aerosol composition, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and aerosol size. Fine soil, sulfate, and organics dominate PM2.5 mass in the region. Dust strongly influences the region between March and July owing to the dry and hot meteorological conditions and back trajectory patterns. Because monsoon precipitation begins typically in July, dust levels decrease, while AOD, sulfate, and organic aerosol reach their maximum levels because of summertime photochemistry and monsoon moisture. Evidence points to biogenic volatile organic compounds being a significant source of secondary organic aerosol in this region. Biomass burning also is shown to be a major contributor to the carbonaceous aerosol budget in the region, leading to enhanced organic and elemental carbon levels aloft at a sky-island site north of Tucson (Mt. Lemmon). Phoenix exhibits different monthly trends for aerosol components in comparison with the other sites owing to the strong influence of fossil carbon and anthropogenic dust. Trend analyses between 1988 and 2009 indicate that the strongest statistically significant trends are reductions in sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, and increases in fine soil during the spring (March-May) at select sites. These results can be explained by population growth, land-use changes, and improved source controls.

  5. Status of the brain antioxidant system at different growing periods after prenatal stress and N -acetyl cysteine administration

    OpenAIRE

    Liegelin Kavitha Bernhardt; Sampath Madhyastha; Lakshminarayana Bairy; Anoop Kishore

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal stress-induced neurobehavioral deficits observed in offspring are multifactorial, including oxidative stress in the developing brain. The time by which the developing brain acquires self-defense against oxidative stress is not clear. Hence in the present study we aimed to evaluate the brain antioxidant status during different developing periods. Further the study also evaluates the role of the glutathione precursor, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on the brain antioxidant status. Pregnant ra...

  6. Estrogen activates rapid signaling in the brain: role of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta in neurons and glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhyre, A J; Dorsa, D M

    2006-01-01

    The aging process is known to coincide with a decline in circulating sex hormone levels in both men and women. Due to an increase in the average lifespan, a growing number of post-menopausal women are now receiving hormone therapy for extended periods of time. Recent findings of the Women's Health Initiative, however, have called into question the benefits of long-term hormone therapy for treating symptoms of menopause. The results of this study are still being evaluated, but it is clear that a better understanding of the molecular effects of estradiol is needed in order to develop new estrogenic compounds that activate specific mechanisms but lack adverse side effects. Traditionally, the effects of estradiol treatment have been ascribed to changes in gene expression, namely transcription at estrogen response elements. This review focuses on emerging information that estradiol can also activate a repertoire of membrane-initiated signaling pathways and that these rapid signaling events lead to functional changes at the cellular level. The various types of cells in the brain can respond differently to estradiol treatment based on the signaling properties of the cell, as well as which receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and/or estrogen receptor beta, is expressed. Taken together, these findings suggest that the estradiol-induced activation of membrane-initiated signaling pathways occurs in a cell-type specific manner and can differentially influence how the cells respond to various insults.

  7. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    concept of our modeling approach and describe its strengths and weaknesses. We furthermore use empirical data for the states of North and South Carolina to demonstrate how the modeling framework can be applied to a large, heterogeneous study system with diverse decision-making agents. Grimm et al. (2005) Pattern-Oriented Modeling of Agent-Based Complex Systems: Lessons from Ecology. Science 310, 987-991. Liu et al. (2013) Framing Sustainability in a Telecoupled World. Ecology and Society 18(2), 26. Meentemeyer et al. (2013) FUTURES: Multilevel Simulations of Merging Urban-Rural Landscape Structure Using a Stochastic Patch-Growing Algorithm. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103(4), 785-807.

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain ... called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life— ...

  9. Selective and rapid uptake of adeno-associated virus type 2 in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J S; Samulski, R J; McCown, T J

    1998-05-20

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors effectively transfer and express foreign genes in the brain. The transferred genes, however, are selectively expressed in neurons, and the cause of this specificity is not understood. To address this question, wild-type AAV-2 capsids were covalently labeled with the fluorophore, Cy3, and infused into the inferior colliculus or the hippocampus. Using antibodies to identify neurons (NeuN), astrocytes (GFAP), or oligodendrocytes (OX-42), clear neuron-specific uptake of the virus was observed as early as 6 min after the start of the infusion. By 30 min postinfusion, AAV particles were present in the nucleus of neurons, yet in both the inferior colliculus and hippocampus, a subset of neurons did not take up the virus particles. No AAV particles were found in astrocytes 1.5 min or 24 hr after virus infusion. Interestingly, 1 hr postinfusion, no AAV particles were found in microglia, yet by 24 hr postinfusion, a punctate pattern of AAV particles was found in microglia. To test whether virus uptake correlated with vector-transduced cells, an rAAV-CMV-GFP virus was infused. By 3 days postinfusion, GFP was localized to neuronal populations with no expression in astrocytes or microglia, similar to that of fluorescent virus uptake. These findings demonstrate that in brain, AAV particles rapidly bind and enter primarily neurons with a pattern similar to that of in vivo vector transduction. In addition, these studies indicate that viral binding and uptake, independent of promoter tropism, can explain the specificity of AAV brain transduction. Thus, this first description of AAV kinetic disposition in vivo should facilitate targeted application of this vector for human brain gene therapy.

  10. Clinical application of RapidArc volumetric modulated arc therapy as a component in whole brain radiation therapy for poor prognostic, four or more multiple brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Heon; Lee, Kyu Chan; Choi, Jin Ho; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Seok Ho; Sung, Ki Hoon; Kim, Yun Mi [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To determine feasibility of RapidArc in sequential or simultaneous integrated tumor boost in whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for poor prognostic patients with four or more brain metastases. Nine patients with multiple ({>=}4) brain metastases were analyzed. Three patients were classified as class II in recursive partitioning analysis and 6 were class III. The class III patients presented with hemiparesis, cognitive deficit, or apraxia. The ratio of tumor to whole brain volume was 0.8-7.9%. Six patients received 2-dimensional bilateral WBRT, (30 Gy/10- 12 fractions), followed by sequential RapidArc tumor boost (15-30 Gy/4-10 fractions). Three patients received RapidArc WBRT with simultaneous integrated boost to tumors (48-50 Gy) in 10-20 fractions. The median biologically effective dose to metastatic tumors was 68.1 Gy10 and 67.2 Gy10 and the median brain volume irradiated more than 100 Gy3 were 1.9% (24 cm3) and 0.8% (13 cm3) for each group. With less than 3 minutes of treatment time, RapidArc was easily applied to the patients with poor performance status. The follow-up period was 0.3-16.5 months. Tumor responses among the 6 patients who underwent follow-up magnetic resonance imaging were partial and stable in 3 and 3, respectively. Overall survival at 6 and 12 months were 66.7% and 41.7%, respectively. The local progression-free survival at 6 and 12 months were 100% and 62.5%, respectively. RapidArc as a component in whole brain radiation therapy for poor prognostic, multiple brain metastases is an effective and safe modality with easy application.

  11. Rapid modulation of TRH and TRH-like peptide release in rat brain and peripheral tissues by ghrelin and 3-TRP-ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekary, A Eugene; Sattin, Albert

    2012-08-01

    Ghrelin is not only a modulator of feeding and energy expenditure but also regulates reproductive functions, CNS development and mood. Obesity and major depression are growing public health concerns which may derive, in part, from dysregulation of ghrelin feedback at brain regions regulating feeding and mood. We and others have previously reported that thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, pGlu-His-Pro-NH(2)) and TRH-like peptides (pGlu-X-Pro-NH(2), where "X" can be any amino acid residue) have neuroprotective, antidepressant, anti-epileptic, analeptic, anti-ataxic, and anorectic properties. For this reason male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected ip with 0.1mg/kg rat ghrelin or 0.9mg/kg 3-Trp-rat ghrelin. Twelve brain regions: cerebellum, medulla oblongata, anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, piriform cortex and 5 peripheral tissues (adrenals, testes, epididymis, pancreas and prostate) were analyzed. Rapid and profound decreases in TRH and TRH-like peptide levels (increased release) occurred throughout brain and peripheral tissues following ip ghrelin. Because ghrelin is rapidly deacylated in vivo we also studied 3-Trp-ghrelin which cannot be deacylated. Significant increases in TRH and TRH-like peptide levels following 3-Trp-ghrelin, relative to those after ghrelin were observed in all brain regions except posterior cingulate and all peripheral tissues except prostate and testis. The rapid stimulation of TRH and TRH-like peptide release by ghrelin in contrast with the inhibition of such release by 3-Trp-TRH is consistent with TRH and TRH-like peptides modulating the downstream effects of both ghrelin and unacylated ghrelin. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Brain activity-based image classification from rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Vankov, Andrey; Ramirez, Rey R; Makeig, Scott

    2008-10-01

    We report the design and performance of a brain-computer interface (BCI) system for real-time single-trial binary classification of viewed images based on participant-specific dynamic brain response signatures in high-density (128-channel) electroencephalographic (EEG) data acquired during a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Image clips were selected from a broad area image and presented in rapid succession (12/s) in 4.1-s bursts. Participants indicated by subsequent button press whether or not each burst of images included a target airplane feature. Image clip creation and search path selection were designed to maximize user comfort and maintain user awareness of spatial context. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to extract a set of independent source time-courses and their minimally-redundant low-dimensional informative features in the time and time-frequency amplitude domains from 128-channel EEG data recorded during clip burst presentations in a training session. The naive Bayes fusion of two Fisher discriminant classifiers, computed from the 100 most discriminative time and time-frequency features, respectively, was used to estimate the likelihood that each clip contained a target feature. This estimator was applied online in a subsequent test session. Across eight training/test session pairs from seven participants, median area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, by tenfold cross validation, was 0.97 for within-session and 0.87 for between-session estimates, and was nearly as high (0.83) for targets presented in bursts that participants mistakenly reported to include no target features.

  13. Anesthetics rapidly promote synaptogenesis during a critical period of brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias De Roo

    Full Text Available Experience-driven activity plays an essential role in the development of brain circuitry during critical periods of early postnatal life, a process that depends upon a dynamic balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Since general anesthetics are powerful pharmacological modulators of neuronal activity, an important question is whether and how these drugs can affect the development of synaptic networks. To address this issue, we examined here the impact of anesthetics on synapse growth and dynamics. We show that exposure of young rodents to anesthetics that either enhance GABAergic inhibition or block NMDA receptors rapidly induce a significant increase in dendritic spine density in the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus. This effect is developmentally regulated; it is transient but lasts for several days and is also reproduced by selective antagonists of excitatory receptors. Analyses of spine dynamics in hippocampal slice cultures reveals that this effect is mediated through an increased rate of protrusions formation, a better stabilization of newly formed spines, and leads to the formation of functional synapses. Altogether, these findings point to anesthesia as an important modulator of spine dynamics in the developing brain and suggest the existence of a homeostatic process regulating spine formation as a function of neural activity. Importantly, they also raise concern about the potential impact of these drugs on human practice, when applied during critical periods of development in infants.

  14. Rapid and Accurate MRI Segmentation of Peritumoral Brain Edema in Meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, F; Larsson, E-M; Ryttlefors, M

    2017-06-01

    The extent of peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) in meningiomas commonly affects the clinical outcome. Despite its importance, edema volume is usually highly inaccurately approximated to a spheroid shape. We tested the accuracy and the reproducibility of semiautomatic lesion management software for the analysis of PTBE in a homogeneous case series of surgically confirmed intracranial meningiomas. PTBE volume was calculated on magnetic resonance images in 50 patients with intracranial meningiomas using commercial lesion management software (Vue PACS Livewire, Carestream, Rochester, NY, USA). Inter and intraobserver agreement evaluation and a comparison between manual volume calculation, the semiautomatic software and spheroid approximation were performed in 22 randomly selected patients. The calculation of edema volume was possible in all cases irrespective of the extent of the signal changes. The median time for each calculation was 3 min. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement confirmed the reproducibility of the method. Comparison with standard (fully manual) calculation confirmed the accuracy of this software. Our study showed a high level of reproducibility of this semiautomatic computational method for peritumoral brain edema. It is rapid and easy to use after relatively short training and is suitable for implementation in clinical practice.

  15. Acute Lesioning and Rapid Repair of Hypothalamic Neurons outside the Blood-Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernie Yulyaningsih

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurons expressing agouti-related protein (AgRP are essential for feeding. The majority of these neurons are located outside the blood-brain barrier (BBB, allowing them to directly sense circulating metabolic factors. Here, we show that, in adult mice, AgRP neurons outside the BBB (AgRPOBBB were rapidly ablated by peripheral administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG, whereas AgRP neurons inside the BBB and most proopiomelanocortin (POMC neurons were spared. MSG treatment induced proliferation of tanycytes, the putative hypothalamic neural progenitor cells, but the newly proliferated tanycytes did not become neurons. Intriguingly, AgRPOBBB neuronal number increased within a week after MSG treatment, and newly emerging AgRP neurons were derived from post-mitotic cells, including some from the Pomc-expressing cell lineage. Our study reveals that the lack of protection by the BBB renders AgRPOBBB vulnerable to lesioning by circulating toxins but that the rapid re-emergence of AgRPOBBB is part of a reparative process to maintain energy balance.

  16. [Rapid growing liposarcoma in retroperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, L.E.; Mynster, T.

    2008-01-01

    inhomogeneous tumour adhesive to the right kidney capsule was removed in toto from retroperitoneum. Histological diagnosis: Sclerosing, low differentiated liposarcoma. Besides radical surgery only radiation therapy may have effect in treatment of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/29...

  17. Rapid acquisition strategy for functional T1ρ mapping of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Casey P; Heo, Hye-Young; Thedens, Daniel R; Wemmie, John A; Magnotta, Vincent A

    2014-11-01

    Functional T1ρ mapping has been proposed as a method to assess pH and metabolism dynamics in the brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. The purpose of this work is to describe and evaluate a variant of the spin-locked echo-planar imaging sequence for functional T1ρ mapping at 3T. The proposed sequence rapidly acquires a time series of T1ρ maps with 4.0second temporal resolution and 10 slices of volumetric coverage. Simulation, phantom, and in vivo experiments are used to evaluate many aspects of the sequence and its implementation including fidelity of measured T1ρ dynamics, potential confounds to the T1ρ response, imaging parameter tradeoffs, time series analysis approaches, and differences compared to blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. It is shown that the high temporal resolution and volumetric coverage of the sequence are obtained with some expense including underestimation of the T1ρ response, sensitivity to T1 dynamics, and reduced signal-to-noise ratio. In vivo studies using a flashing checkerboard functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm suggest differences between T1ρ and blood oxygen level dependent activation patterns. Possible sources of the functional T1ρ response and potential sequence improvements are discussed. The capability of T1ρ to map whole-brain pH and metabolism dynamics with high temporal and spatial resolution is potentially unique and warrants further investigation and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  19. Phencyclidine rapidly decreases neuronal mRNA of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanuma, Yusuke; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Adachi, Naoki; Yamamoto, Noriko; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Odaka, Haruki; Inoue, Takafumi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin family, has been implicated in psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia. However, detailed mechanisms of its reduction in patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. Here, using cultured cortical neurons, we monitored BDNF mRNA levels following acute application of phencyclidine [PCP; an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker], which is known to produce schizophrenia-like symptoms. We found that PCP rapidly caused a reduction in total amount of BDNF transcripts without effect on cell viability, while mRNA levels of nerve growth factor was intact. Actinomycin-D (ActD), an RNA synthesis inhibitor, decreased total BDNF mRNA levels similar to PCP, and coapplication of ActD with PCP did not show further reduction in BDNF mRNA compared with solo application of each drug. Among BDNF exons I, IV, and VI, the exon IV, which is positively regulated by neuronal activity, was highly sensitive to PCP. Furthermore, PCP inactivated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB; a regulator of transcriptional activity of exon IV). The inactivation of CREB was also achieved by an inhibitor for Ca(2+) /calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), although coapplication with PCP induced no further inhibition on the CREB activity. It is possible that PCP decreases BDNF transcription via blocking the NMDA receptor/CaMKII/CREB signaling. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Regional distribution of methionine adenosyltransferase in rat brain as measured by a rapid radiochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiemke, C.; Ghraf, R.

    1981-09-01

    The distribution of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) in the CNS of the rat was studied by use of a rapid, sensitive and specific radiochemical method. The S-adenosyl-(methyl-/sup 14/C)L-methionine ((/sup 14/C)SAM) generated by adenosyl transfer from ATP to (methyl-/sup 14/C)L-methionine is quantitated by use of a SAM-consuming transmethylation reaction. Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), prepared from rat liver, transfers the methyl-/sup 14/C group of SAM to 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The /sup 14/C-labelled methylation products, vanillic acid and isovanillic acid, are separated from unreacted methionine by solvent extraction and quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. Compared to other methods of MAT determination, which include separation of generated SAM from methionine by ion-exchange chromatography, the assay described exhibited the same high degree of specificity and sensitivity but proved to be less time consuming. MAT activity was found to be uniformly distributed between various brain regions and the pituitary gland of adult male rats. In the pineal gland the enzyme activity is about tenfold higher.

  1. Do teachers and students get the Ed-Tech products they need: The challenges of Ed-Tech procurement in a rapidly growing market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Morrison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ed-tech courseware products to support teaching and learning are being developed and made available for acquisition by school districts at a rapid rate. In this growing market, developers and providers face challenges with making their products visible to customers, while school district stakeholders must grapple with “discovering” which products of the many available best address their instructional needs. The present study presents the experiences with and perceptions about the procurement process from 47 superintendents representing diverse school districts in the U. S. Results indicate that, while improvements are desired in many aspects of the procurement process, the superintendents, overall, believe that, once desired products are identified, they are generally able to acquire them. Difficulties lie in tighter budgets, discovering products that are potentially the best choices, and evaluating the effectiveness of the products selected as options. These findings are presented and interpreted in relation to five major “Action Points” in the procurement process, and also with regard to implications for evaluating how educational technology impacts K-12 instruction.

  2. In Vitro Comparison of Ertapenem, Meropenem, and Imipenem against Isolates of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria and Nocardia by Use of Broth Microdilution and Etest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Killingley, Jessica; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Bridge, Linda; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    We compared the activities of the carbapenems ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem against 180 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and 170 isolates of Nocardia using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A subset of isolates was tested using the Etest. The rate of susceptibility to ertapenem and meropenem was limited and less than that to imipenem for the RGM. Analysis of major and minor discrepancies revealed that >90% of the isolates of Nocardia had higher MICs by the broth microdilution method than by Etest, in contrast to the lower broth microdilution MICs seen for >80% of the RGM. Imipenem remains the most active carbapenem against RGM, including Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus For Nocardia, imipenem was significantly more active only against Nocardia farcinica Although there may be utility in testing the activities of the newer carbapenems against Nocardia, their activities against the RGM should not be routinely tested. Testing by Etest is not recommended by the CLSI. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor rapidly enhances phosphorylation of the postsynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1

    OpenAIRE

    Suen, Piin-Chau; Wu, Kuo; Levine, Eric S; Mount, Howard T. J.; Xu, Jia-Ling; LIN, SIANG-YO; Black, Ira B.

    1997-01-01

    Although neurotrophins have traditionally been regarded as neuronal survival factors, recent work has suggested a role for these factors in synaptic plasticity. In particular, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rapidly enhances synaptic transmission in hippocampal neurons through trkB receptor stimulation and postsynaptic phosphorylation mechanisms. Activation of trkB also modulates hippocampal long-term potentiation, in which postsynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors play a...

  4. THE RAPID PRODUCTION OF ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS IN RHESUS MONKEYS BY INJECTION OF HETEROLOGOUS AND HOMOLOGOUS BRAIN TISSUE WITH ADJUVANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Elvin A.; Wolf, Abner; Bezer, Ada E.

    1947-01-01

    1. A picture resembling acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in the human being has been regularly and rapidly produced in rhesus monkeys by injection of emulsions of adult rabbit and monkey brain administered with adjuvants. 2. No lesions of the central nervous system resulted from injection of similar emulsions of fetal rabbit brain or adult rabbit lung. 3. A description of the gross and histological findings in the central nervous system is given and compared with features of human demyelinating disease. 4. The experimental findings are in accord with the hypothesis that antibody to the injected brain emulsion reacts with the tissues of the nervous system of the animal to produce the pathological changes. PMID:19871595

  5. Evaluation of capillary and myofiber density in the pectoralis major muscles of rapidly growing, high-yield broiler chickens during increased heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, K S; Hamlin, G A; Lien, A R J; Bilgili, S F

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle development proceeds from early embryogenesis through marketing age in broiler chickens. While myofiber formation is essentially complete at hatching, myofiber hypertrophy can increase after hatch by assimilation of satellite cell nuclei into myofibers. As the diameter of the myofibers increases, capillary density peripheral to the myofiber is marginalized, limiting oxygen supply and subsequent diffusion into the myofiber, inducing microischemia. The superficial and deep pectoralis muscles constitute 25% of the total body weight in a market-age bird; thus compromise of those muscle groups can have profound economic impact on broiler production. We hypothesized that marginal capillary support relative to the hypertrophic myofibers increases the incidence of microischemia, especially in contemporary high-yield broilers under stressing conditions such as high environmental temperatures. We evaluated the following parameters in four different broiler strains at 39 and 53 days of age when reared under thermoneutral (20 to 25 C) versus hot (30 to 35 C) environmental conditions: capillary density, myofiber density and diameter, and degree of myodegeneration. Our data demonstrate that myofiber diameter significantly increased with age (P > or = 0.0001), while the absolute numbers of capillaries, blood vessels, and myofibers visible in five 400 x microscopic fields decreased (P > or = 0.0001). This is concomitant with marginalization of vascular support in rapidly growing myofibers. The myofiber diameter was significantly lower with hot environmental temperatures (P > or = 0.001); therefore, the absolute number of myofibers visible in five 400X microscopic fields was significantly higher. The incidence and subjective degree of myodegeneration characterized by loss of cross-striations, myocyte hyperrefractility, sarcoplasmic vacuolation, and nuclear pyknosis or loss also increased in hot conditions. Differences among strains were not observed.

  6. Point-of-use membrane filtration and hyperchlorination to prevent patient exposure to rapidly growing mycobacteria in the potable water supply of a skilled nursing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Chen, Tai-Ho; Keane, Tim; Toney, Nadege; Toney, Sean; Armbruster, Catherine R; Butler, W Ray; Arduino, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    Healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are frequently associated with contaminated tap water. A pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus in patients undergoing bronchoscopy was identified by 2 acute care hospitals. RGM was identified in bronchoscopy specimens of 28 patients, 25 of whom resided in the same skilled nursing facility (SNF). An investigation ruled out bronchoscopy procedures, specimen collection, and scope reprocessing at the hospitals as sources of transmission. To identify the reservoir for RGM within the SNF and evaluate 2 water system treatments, hyperchlorination and point-of-use (POU) membrane filters, to reduce RGM. A comparative in situ study of 2 water system treatments to prevent RGM transmission. An SNF specializing in care of patients requiring ventilator support. RGM and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria were examined in facility water before and after hyperchlorination and in a subsequent 24-week assessment of filtered water by colony enumeration on Middlebrook and R2A media. Mycobacterium chelonae was consistently isolated from the SNF water supply. Hyperchlorination reduced RGM by 1.5 log(10) initially, but the population returned to original levels within 90 days. Concentration of HPC bacteria also decreased temporarily. RGM were reduced below detection level in filtered water, a 3-log(10) reduction. HPC bacteria were not recovered from newly installed filters, although low quantities were found in water from 2-week-old filters. POU membrane filters may be a feasible prevention measure for healthcare facilities to limit exposure of sensitive individuals to RGM in potable water systems.

  7. Growing up in a Bubble: Using Germ-Free Animals to Assess the Influence of the Gut Microbiota on Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynski, Pauline; McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Oriach, Clara Seira; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of the commensal intestinal microbiota in the development and later function of the central nervous system. Research using germ-free mice (mice raised without any exposure to microorganisms) has provided some of the most persuasive evidence for a role of these bacteria in gut-brain signalling. Key findings show that the microbiota is necessary for normal stress responsivity, anxiety-like behaviors, sociability, and cognition. Furthermore, the microbiota maintains central nervous system homeostasis by regulating immune function and blood brain barrier integrity. Studies have also found that the gut microbiota influences neurotransmitter, synaptic, and neurotrophic signalling systems and neurogenesis. The principle advantage of the germ-free mouse model is in proof-of-principle studies and that a complete microbiota or defined consortiums of bacteria can be introduced at various developmental time points. However, a germ-free upbringing can induce permanent neurodevelopmental deficits that may deem the model unsuitable for specific scientific queries that do not involve early-life microbial deficiency. As such, alternatives and complementary strategies to the germ-free model are warranted and include antibiotic treatment to create microbiota-deficient animals at distinct time points across the lifespan. Increasing our understanding of the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behavior has the potential to inform novel management strategies for stress-related gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26912607

  8. Rapid P300 brain-computer interface communication with a head-mounted display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo eKäthner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual ERP (P300 based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs allow for fast and reliable spelling and are intended as a muscle-independent communication channel for people with severe paralysis. However, they require the presentation of visual stimuli in the field of view of the user. A head mounted display could allow convenient presentation of visual stimuli in situations, where mounting a conventional monitor might be difficult or not feasible (e.g. at a patient’s bedside. To explore if similar accuracies can be achieved with a virtual reality (VR headset compared to a conventional flat screen monitor, we conducted an experiment with 18 healthy participants. We also evaluated it with a person in the locked-in state (LIS to verify that usage of the headset is possible for a severely paralyzed person. Healthy participants performed online spelling with three different display methods. In one condition a 5x5 letter matrix was presented on a conventional 22 inch TFT monitor. Two configurations of the VR headset were tested. In the first (glasses A, the same 5x5 matrix filled the field of view of the user. In the second (glasses B, single letters of the matrix filled the field of view of the user. The participant in the LIS tested the VR headset on 3 different occasions (glasses A condition only. For healthy participants, average online spelling accuracies were 94% (15.5 bits/min using three flash sequences for spelling with the monitor and glasses A and 96% (16.2 bits/min with glasses B. In one session, the participant in the LIS reached an online spelling accuracy of 100% (10 bits/min using the glasses A condition. We also demonstrated that spelling with one flash sequence is possible with the VR headset for healthy users (mean: 32.1 bits/min, maximum reached by one user: 71.89 bits/min at 100% accuracy. We conclude that the VR headset allows for rapid P300 BCI communication in healthy users and may be a suitable display option for severely

  9. Burkholderia pseudomallei Rapidly Infects the Brain Stem and Spinal Cord via the Trigeminal Nerve after Intranasal Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, James A; Walkden, Heidi; Nazareth, Lynn; Beagley, Kenneth W; Ulett, Glen C; Batzloff, Michael R; Beacham, Ifor R; Ekberg, Jenny A K

    2016-09-01

    Infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a disease with a high mortality rate (20% in Australia and 40% in Southeast Asia). Neurological melioidosis is particularly prevalent in northern Australian patients and involves brain stem infection, which can progress to the spinal cord; however, the route by which the bacteria invade the central nervous system (CNS) is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that B. pseudomallei can infect the olfactory and trigeminal nerves within the nasal cavity following intranasal inoculation. As the trigeminal nerve projects into the brain stem, we investigated whether the bacteria could continue along this nerve to penetrate the CNS. After intranasal inoculation of mice, B. pseudomallei caused low-level localized infection within the nasal cavity epithelium, prior to invasion of the trigeminal nerve in small numbers. B. pseudomallei rapidly invaded the trigeminal nerve and crossed the astrocytic barrier to enter the brain stem within 24 h and then rapidly progressed over 2,000 μm into the spinal cord. To rule out that the bacteria used a hematogenous route, we used a capsule-deficient mutant of B. pseudomallei that does not survive in the blood and found that it also entered the CNS via the trigeminal nerve. This suggests that the primary route of entry is via the nerves that innervate the nasal cavity. We found that actin-mediated motility could facilitate initial infection of the olfactory epithelium. Thus, we have demonstrated that B. pseudomallei can rapidly infect the brain and spinal cord via the trigeminal nerve branches that innervate the nasal cavity. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Plan Quality and Treatment Efficiency for Radiosurgery to Multiple Brain Metastases: Non-Coplanar RapidArc vs Gamma Knife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisong eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study compares the dosimetry and efficiency of two modern radiosurgery (SRS modalities for multiple brain metastases (Gamma Knife and LINAC-based RapidArc/volumetric modulated arc therapy, with a special focus on the comparison of low dose spread.Methods: Six patients with three or four small brain metastases were used in this study. The size of targets varied from 0.1 ~ 10.5 cc. SRS doses were prescribed according to size of lesions. SRS plans were made using both Gamma Knife® Perfexion and a single-isocenter, multiple non-coplanar RapidArc®. Dosimetric parameters analyzed included RTOG conformity index (CI, gradient index (GI, 12 Gy isodose volume (V12Gy for each target, and the dose spread (Dspread for each plan. Dspread reflects SRS plan’s capability of confining radiation to within the local vicinity of the lesion and to not spread out to the surrounding normal brain tissues. Each plan has a dose (Dspread, such that once dose decreases below Dspread (on total tissue DVH, isodose volume starts increasing dramatically. Dspread is defined as that dose when volume increase first exceeds 20 cc per 0.1 Gy dose decrease. Results: RapidArc SRS has smaller CI (1.19 ±0.14 vs. 1.50 ± 0.16, p<0.001 and larger GI (4.77 ± 1.49 vs. 3.65 ± 0.98, p <0.01. V12Gy results were comparable (2.73 ± 1.38 cc vs. 3.06 ± 2.20 cc, p = 0.58. Moderate to lower dose spread, V6, V4.5, and V3, were also equivalent. Gamma Knife plans achieved better very low dose spread (≤3 Gy and also had slightly smaller Dspread, 1.9 Gy vs 2.5 Gy. Total treatment time for Gamma Knife is estimated between 60~100 min. Gamma Knife treatments are between 3~5 times longer compared to RapidArc treatment techniques.Conclusion: Dosimetric parameters reflecting prescription dose conformality (CI, dose fall off (GI, radiation necrosis indicator (V12Gy, and dose spread (Dspread were compared between Gamma Knife SRS and RapidArc SRS for multi-mets. RapidArc plans have

  11. Rapid and Quantitative Assay of Amyloid-Seeding Activity in Human Brains Affected with Prion Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Takatsuki

    Full Text Available The infectious agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are composed of amyloidogenic prion protein, PrPSc. Real-time quaking-induced conversion can amplify very small amounts of PrPSc seeds in tissues/body fluids of patients or animals. Using this in vitro PrP-amyloid amplification assay, we quantitated the seeding activity of affected human brains. End-point assay using serially diluted brain homogenates of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients demonstrated that 50% seeding dose (SD50 is reached approximately 10(10/g brain (values varies 10(8.79-10.63/g. A genetic case (GSS-P102L yielded a similar level of seeding activity in an autopsy brain sample. The range of PrPSc concentrations in the samples, determined by dot-blot assay, was 0.6-5.4 μg/g brain; therefore, we estimated that 1 SD50 unit was equivalent to 0.06-0.27 fg of PrPSc. The SD50 values of the affected brains dropped more than three orders of magnitude after autoclaving at 121°C. This new method for quantitation of human prion activity provides a new way to reduce the risk of iatrogenic prion transmission.

  12. Rapid and reversible enhancement of blood–brain barrier permeability using lysophosphatidic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Ngoc H; Savant, Sanjot; Toews, Myron; Miller, Donald W

    2013-01-01

    The present study characterizes the effects of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) on blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability focusing specifically on the time of onset, duration, and magnitude of LPA-induced changes in cerebrovascular permeability in the mouse using both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIFR). Furthermore, potential application of LPA for enhanced drug delivery to the brain was also examined by measuring the brain accumulation of radiolabeled methotrexate. Exposure of primary cultured brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs) to LPA produced concentration-dependent increases in permeability that were completely abolished by clostridium toxin B. Administration of LPA disrupted BBB integrity and enhanced the permeability of small molecular weight marker gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) contrast agent, the large molecular weight permeability marker, IRdye800cwPEG, and the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter probe, Rhodamine 800 (R800). The increase in BBB permeability occurred within 3 minutes after LPA injection and barrier integrity was restored within 20 minutes. A decreased response to LPA on large macromolecule BBB permeability was observed after repeated administration. The administration of LPA also resulted in 20-fold enhancement of radiolabeled methotrexate in the brain. These studies indicate that administration of LPA in combination with therapeutic agents may increase drug delivery to the brain. PMID:24045401

  13. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, manifesting as rapidly progressive dementia without any mass or enhancing brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatani, Yoshimitsu; Nakano, Yuta; Tsuyama, Naoko; Murayama, Shigeo; Oki, Ryosuke; Miyamoto, Ryosuke; Murakami, Nagahisa; Fujita, Koji; Watanabe, Syunsuke; Uehara, Hisanori; Abe, Takashi; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

    2016-10-01

    Among the many potential etiologies for rapidly progressive dementia (RPD), primary central nervous system extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (ENKL) is a rare entity. We present the first reported case of autopsy-proven RPD due to ENKL without any mass or enhancing lesion of the brain. A 54-year-old immunocompetent man presented with RPD, myoclonus and ataxia. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score was 22/30. His brain MRI revealed progressive brain atrophy without gadolinium enhancement or mass lesion. Five months after the initial evaluation, cognitive impairment further worsened with an MMSE score of 3/30. At the advanced stage, lumbar MRI showed swollen cauda equina with gadolinium enhancement. The number of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid had gradually increased. Twelve months after onset, the patient died of respiratory failure. Pathological findings revealed that lymphoma cells had diffusely invaded the meninges, parenchyma of the brain, spinal cord and cauda equina. Cells were positive for CD3, CD56 and EBV-encoded small RNAs and negative for CD20. No evidence of malignancy was identified in the visceral organs. This report indicates that ENKL should be recognized as one of the rare causes of RPD. Early testing for EBV-DNA in cerebrospinal fluid and imaging of cauda equina would be useful diagnostic tools. © 2016 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  14. Rapid effects of deep brain stimulation reactivation on symptoms and neuroendocrine parameters in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, P P; Figee, M; Endert, E; van den Munckhof, P; Schuurman, P R; Storosum, J G; Denys, D; Fliers, E

    2016-01-26

    Improvement of obsessions and compulsions by deep brain stimulation (DBS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often preceded by a rapid and transient mood elevation (hypomania). In a previous study we showed that improvement of mood by DBS for OCD is associated with a decreased activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal axis. The aim of our present study was to evaluate the time course of rapid clinical changes following DBS reactivation in more detail and to assess their association with additional neuroendocrine parameters. We included therapy-refractory OCD patients treated with DBS (>1 year) and performed a baseline assessment of symptoms, as well as plasma concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin, growth hormone, copeptin and homovanillic acid. This was repeated after a 1-week DBS OFF condition. Next, we assessed the rapid effects of DBS reactivation by measuring psychiatric symptom changes using visual analog scales as well as repeated neuroendocrine measures after 30 min, 2 h and 6 h. OCD, anxiety and depressive symptoms markedly increased during the 1-week OFF condition and decreased again to a similar extent already 2 h after DBS reactivation. We found lower plasma prolactin (41% decrease, P=0.003) and TSH (39% decrease, P=0.003) levels during DBS OFF, which increased significantly already 30 min after DBS reactivation. The rapid and simultaneous increase in TSH and prolactin is likely to result from stimulation of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which may underlie the commonly observed transient mood elevation following DBS.

  15. An in vitro transport model for rapid screening and predicting the permeability of candidate compounds at blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Xiao; Mei, Chao; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Qi

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to design and develop a simple in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation model for elementarily and rapidly predicting the permeability of candidate compounds at BBB and further evaluating whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affects them across BBB. The model was mainly composed of cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMECs), glass contraption, and micropore membrane. First, we evaluated the model by morphological observation. Second, the restriction effects of paracellular transport were verified by measuring marker probes transport, and monitoring transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and leakage. Finally, protein expression and activity of P-gp were confirmed by carrying out Western blot analysis and polarized transport of rhodamine-123 (Rho123) in rBMECs. The rBMECs retained both endothelial cells and BBB features. The rBMECs model reproducibly attained approximately 130 Ω cm² on the steady-state TEER value, and displayed a barrier function to marker probes transport by decreasing the permeability. Protein band of 170 kDa manifested the existence of P-gp in the rBMECs, and the findings of cyclosporin A-sensitive decrease of Rho123 efflux confirmed the presence of P-gp activity. A simple, rapid, and convenient in vitro BBB permeation model was successfully established and applied to evaluate the BBB transport profiles of three natural flavonoids: quercetin, naringenin, and rutin.

  16. Glycoblotting method allows for rapid and efficient glycome profiling of human Alzheimer's disease brain, serum and cerebrospinal fluid towards potential biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, Solomon T; Ohashi, Tetsu; Tanaka, Masakazu; Hinou, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    Understanding of the significance of posttranslational glycosylation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of growing importance for the investigation of the pathogenesis of AD as well as discovery research of the disease-specific serum biomarkers. We designed a standard protocol for the glycoblotting combined with MALDI-TOFMS to perform rapid and quantitative profiling of the glycan parts of glycoproteins (N-glycans) and glycosphingolipids (GSLs) using human AD's post-mortem samples such as brain tissues (dissected cerebral cortices such as frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal domains), serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The structural profiles of the major N-glycans released from glycoproteins and the total expression levels of the glycans were found to be mostly similar between the brain tissues of the AD patients and those of the normal control group. In contrast, the expression levels of the serum and CSF protein N-glycans such as bisect-type and multiply branched glycoforms were increased significantly in AD patient group. In addition, the levels of some gangliosides such as GM1, GM2 and GM3 appeared to alter in the AD patient brain and serum samples when compared with the normal control groups. Alteration of the expression levels of major N- and GSL-glycans in human brain tissues, serum and CSF of AD patients can be monitored quantitatively by means of the glycoblotting-based standard protocols. The changes in the expression levels of the glycans derived from the human post-mortem samples uncovered by the standardized glycoblotting method provides potential serum biomarkers in central nervous system disorders and can contribute to the insight into the molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and future drug discovery. Most importantly, the present preliminary trials using human post-mortem samples of AD patients suggest that large-scale serum glycomics cohort by means of various-types of human AD patients as well as the normal

  17. Rapid development in vitro and in vivo of resistance to ceftazidime in biofilm-growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, N; Ciofu, O; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the development of resistance of biofilm-growing P. aeruginosa during treatment with ceftazidime. Biofilms were established in vitro using a modified Robbins device (MRD) and in vivo in the rat model of chronic lung infection. Three P. aeruginosa strains...

  18. Rapid and minimum invasive functional brain mapping by real-time visualization of high gamma activity during awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kamada, Kyousuke; Kapeller, Christoph; Hiroshima, Satoru; Prueckl, Robert; Guger, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Electrocortical stimulation (ECS) is the gold standard for functional brain mapping during an awake craniotomy. The critical issue is to set aside enough time to identify eloquent cortices by ECS. High gamma activity (HGA) ranging between 80 and 120 Hz on electrocorticogram is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing. In this report, we used real-time HGA mapping and functional neuronavigation integrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for rapid and reliable identification of motor and language functions. Four patients with intra-axial tumors in their dominant hemisphere underwent preoperative fMRI and lesion resection with an awake craniotomy. All patients showed significant fMRI activation evoked by motor and language tasks. During the craniotomy, we recorded electrocorticogram activity by placing subdural grids directly on the exposed brain surface. Each patient performed motor and language tasks and demonstrated real-time HGA dynamics in hand motor areas and parts of the inferior frontal gyrus. Sensitivity and specificity of HGA mapping were 100% compared with ECS mapping in the frontal lobe, which suggested HGA mapping precisely indicated eloquent cortices. We found different HGA dynamics of language tasks in frontal and temporal regions. Specificities of the motor and language-fMRI did not reach 85%. The results of HGA mapping was mostly consistent with those of ECS mapping, although fMRI tended to overestimate functional areas. This novel technique enables rapid and accurate identification of motor and frontal language areas. Furthermore, real-time HGA mapping sheds light on underlying physiological mechanisms related to human brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News & Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) ...

  20. Frightening music triggers rapid changes in brain monoamine receptors: a pilot PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Qiaozhen; Du, Fenglei; Hu, Yanni; Chao, Fangfang; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Frightening music can rapidly arouse emotions in listeners that mimic those from actual life-threatening experiences. However, studies of the underlying mechanism for perceiving danger created by music are limited. We investigated monoamine receptor changes induced by frightening music using (11)C-N-methyl-spiperone ((11)C-NMSP) PET. Ten healthy male volunteers were included, and their psychophysiologic changes were evaluated. Compared with the baseline condition, listening to frightening music caused a significant decrease in (11)C-NMSP in the right and left caudate nuclei, right limbic region, and right paralimbic region; a particularly significant decrease in the right anterior cingulate cortex; but an increase in the right frontal occipital and left temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Transient fright triggers rapid changes in monoamine receptors, which decrease in the limbic and paralimbic regions but increase in the cerebral cortex.

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ... grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function ... chart how the brain develops over time in healthy people and are working to compare that with ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... can lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits ... tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on ...

  7. From Rapid to Delayed and Remote Postconditioning: the Evolving Concept of Ischemic Postconditioning in Brain Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heng; Ren, Chuancheng; Chen, Xingmiao; Shen, Jiangang

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic postconditioning is a concept originally defined to contrast with that of ischemic preconditioning. While both preconditioning and postconditioning confer a neuroprotective effect on brain ischemia, preconditioning is a sublethal insult performed in advance of brain ischemia, and postconditioning, which conventionally refers to a series of brief occlusions and reperfusions of the blood vessels, is conducted after ischemia/reperfusion. In this article, we first briefly review the history of preconditioning, including the experimentation that initially uncovered its neuroprotective effects and later revealed its underlying mechanisms-of-action. We then discuss how preconditioning research evolved into that of postconditioning – a concept that now represents a broad range of stimuli or triggers, including delayed postconditioning, pharmacological postconditioning, remote postconditioning – and its underlying protective mechanisms involving the Akt, MAPK, PKC and KATP channel cell-signaling pathways. Because the concept of postconditioning is so closely associated with that of preconditioning, and both share some common protective mechanisms, we also discuss whether a combination of preconditioning and postconditioning offers greater protection than preconditioning or postconditioning alone. PMID:22204317

  8. A novel and rapid method for obtaining high titre intact prion strains from mammalian brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenborn, Adam; Terry, Cassandra; Gros, Nathalie; Joiner, Susan; D’Castro, Laura; Panico, Silvia; Sells, Jessica; Cronier, Sabrina; Linehan, Jacqueline M.; Brandner, Sebastian; Saibil, Helen R.; Collinge, John; Wadsworth, Jonathan D. F.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions exist as multiple strains which produce characteristic and highly reproducible phenotypes in defined hosts. How this strain diversity is encoded by a protein-only agent remains one of the most interesting and challenging questions in biology with wide relevance to understanding other diseases involving the aggregation or polymerisation of misfolded host proteins. Progress in understanding mammalian prion strains has however been severely limited by the complexity and variability of the methods used for their isolation from infected tissue and no high resolution structures have yet been reported. Using high-throughput cell-based prion bioassay to re-examine prion purification from first principles we now report the isolation of prion strains to exceptional levels of purity from small quantities of infected brain and demonstrate faithful retention of biological and biochemical strain properties. The method’s effectiveness and simplicity should facilitate its wide application and expedite structural studies of prions. PMID:25950908

  9. Brain activity during bilateral rapid alternate finger tapping measured with magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Odagaki, Masato; Hiwaki, Osamu; Kodabashi, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), brain regions involved in an alternate bimanual tapping task by index fingers triggered with spontaneous timing were investigated. The tapping mode in which both index fingers moved simultaneously was interlaced during the task. The groups of the alternate tapping (AL mode) and the simultaneous tapping (SI mode) were extracted from the successive alternating taps with a histogram of intervals between the right and left index fingers. MEG signals in each mode were averaged separately before and after the tapping initiation of the dominant index finger. The activities of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex before and after the tapping initiation in the AL mode were larger than that in the SI mode. The result indicates that the activity of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex depends on the degree of achievement in the difficult motor task such as the voluntary alternate tapping movements.

  10. Rapid fluctuations in extracellular brain glucose levels induced by natural arousing stimuli and intravenous cocaine: fueling the brain during neural activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie

    2012-01-01

    Glucose, a primary energetic substrate for neural activity, is continuously influenced by two opposing forces that tend to either decrease its extracellular levels due to enhanced utilization in neural cells or increase its levels due to entry from peripheral circulation via enhanced cerebral blood flow. How this balance is maintained under physiological conditions and changed during neural activation remains unclear. To clarify this issue, enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry were used in freely moving rats to evaluate fluctuations in extracellular glucose levels induced by brief audio stimulus, tail pinch (TP), social interaction with another rat (SI), and intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg). Measurements were performed in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), which drastically differ in neuronal activity. In NAcc, where most cells are powerfully excited after salient stimulation, glucose levels rapidly (latency 2–6 s) increased (30–70 μM or 6–14% over baseline) by all stimuli; the increase differed in magnitude and duration for each stimulus. In SNr, where most cells are transiently inhibited by salient stimuli, TP, SI, and cocaine induced a biphasic glucose response, with the initial decrease (−20–40 μM or 5–10% below baseline) followed by a reboundlike increase. The critical role of neuronal activity in mediating the initial glucose response was confirmed by monitoring glucose currents after local microinjections of glutamate (GLU) or procaine (PRO). While intra-NAcc injection of GLU transiently increased glucose levels in this structure, intra-SNr PRO injection resulted in rapid, transient decreases in SNr glucose. Therefore, extracellular glucose levels in the brain change very rapidly after physiological and pharmacological stimulation, the response is structure specific, and the pattern of neuronal activity appears to be a critical factor determining direction and magnitude of physiological

  11. Rapid fluctuations in extracellular brain glucose levels induced by natural arousing stimuli and intravenous cocaine: fueling the brain during neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Lenoir, Magalie

    2012-09-01

    Glucose, a primary energetic substrate for neural activity, is continuously influenced by two opposing forces that tend to either decrease its extracellular levels due to enhanced utilization in neural cells or increase its levels due to entry from peripheral circulation via enhanced cerebral blood flow. How this balance is maintained under physiological conditions and changed during neural activation remains unclear. To clarify this issue, enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry were used in freely moving rats to evaluate fluctuations in extracellular glucose levels induced by brief audio stimulus, tail pinch (TP), social interaction with another rat (SI), and intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg). Measurements were performed in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), which drastically differ in neuronal activity. In NAcc, where most cells are powerfully excited after salient stimulation, glucose levels rapidly (latency 2-6 s) increased (30-70 μM or 6-14% over baseline) by all stimuli; the increase differed in magnitude and duration for each stimulus. In SNr, where most cells are transiently inhibited by salient stimuli, TP, SI, and cocaine induced a biphasic glucose response, with the initial decrease (-20-40 μM or 5-10% below baseline) followed by a reboundlike increase. The critical role of neuronal activity in mediating the initial glucose response was confirmed by monitoring glucose currents after local microinjections of glutamate (GLU) or procaine (PRO). While intra-NAcc injection of GLU transiently increased glucose levels in this structure, intra-SNr PRO injection resulted in rapid, transient decreases in SNr glucose. Therefore, extracellular glucose levels in the brain change very rapidly after physiological and pharmacological stimulation, the response is structure specific, and the pattern of neuronal activity appears to be a critical factor determining direction and magnitude of physiological

  12. Rapid Changes in Cortical and Subcortical Brain Regions after Early Bilateral Enucleation in the Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga O Kozanian

    Full Text Available Functional sensory and motor areas in the developing mammalian neocortex are formed through a complex interaction of cortically intrinsic mechanisms, such as gene expression, and cortically extrinsic mechanisms such as those mediated by thalamic input from the senses. Both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms are believed to be involved in cortical patterning and the establishment of areal boundaries in early development; however, the nature of the interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic processes is not well understood. In a previous study, we used a perinatal bilateral enucleation mouse model to test some aspects of this interaction by reweighting sensory input to the developing cortex. Visual deprivation at birth resulted in a shift of intraneocortical connections (INCs that aligned with ectopic ephrin A5 expression in the same location ten days later at postnatal day (P 10. A prevailing question remained: Does visual deprivation first induce a change in gene expression, followed by a shift in INCs, or vice versa? In the present study, we address this question by investigating the neuroanatomy and patterns of gene expression in post-natal day (P 1 and 4 mice following bilateral enucleation at birth. Our results demonstrate a rapid reduction in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN size and ephrin A5 gene expression 24-hours post-enucleation, with more profound effects apparent at P4. The reduced nuclear size and diminished gene expression mirrors subtle changes in ephrin A5 expression evident in P1 and P4 enucleated neocortex, 11 and 8 days prior to natural eye opening, respectively. Somatosensory and visual INCs were indistinguishable between P1 and P4 mice bilaterally enucleated at birth, indicating that perinatal bilateral enucleation initiates a rapid change in gene expression (within one day followed by an alteration of sensory INCs later on (second postnatal week. With these results, we gain a deeper understanding of how gene

  13. Focal adhesion kinase as a mechanotransducer during rapid brain growth of the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Mary E; Knepper, Janice E; DiBenedetto, Angela J; Malaugh, Elizabeth; Callejo, Sagrario; Carretero, Raquel; Alonso, Maria-Isabel; Gato, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Expansion of the hollow fluid-filled embryonic brain occurs by an increase in intraluminal pressure created by accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between cavity pressure and cell proliferation within the neuroepithelium. These findings lead us to ask how mechanistically this might come about. Are there perhaps molecules on the luminal surface of the embryonic neuroepithelium, such as focal adhesion kinases (FAKs) known to respond to tension in other epithelial cells? Immunodetection using antibodies to total FAK and p-FAK was performed with subsequent confocal analysis of the pattern of their activation under normal intraluminal pressure and induced chronic pressure. Western analysis was also done to look at the amount of FAK expression, as well as its activation under these same conditions. Using immunolocalization, we have shown that FAK is present and activated on both apical and basolateral surfaces and within the cytoplasm of the neuroepithelial cells. This pattern changed profoundly when the neuroepithelium was under pressure. By Western blot, we have shown that FAK was upregulated and activated in the neuroepithelium of the embryos just after the neural tube becomes a closed pressurized system, with phosphorylation detected on the luminal instead of the basal surface, along with an increase in cell proliferation. Chronic hyper-pressure does not induce an increase in phosphorylation of FAK. In conclusion, here we show that neuroepithelial cells respond to intraluminal pressure via FAK phosphorylation on the luminal surface.

  14. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  15. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: ... of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  17. Development of an in vitro Assay, Based on the BioFilm Ring Test®, for Rapid Profiling of Biofilm-Growing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Enea G; Toma, Luigi; Provot, Christian; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Sperduti, Isabella; Prignano, Grazia; Gallo, Maria T; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Bordignon, Valentina; Bernardi, Thierry; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biofilm represents a major virulence factor associated with chronic and recurrent infections. Pathogenic bacteria embedded in biofilms are highly resistant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics and therefore difficult to eradicate. Thus, reliable tests to assess biofilm formation by bacterial strains as well as the impact of chemicals or antibiotics on biofilm formation represent desirable tools for a most effective therapeutic management and microbiological risk control. Current methods to evaluate biofilm formation are usually time-consuming, costly, and hardly applicable in the clinical setting. The aim of the present study was to develop and assess a simple and reliable in vitro procedure for the characterization of biofilm-producing bacterial strains for future clinical applications based on the BioFilm Ring Test® (BRT) technology. The procedure developed for clinical testing (cBRT) can provide an accurate and timely (5 h) measurement of biofilm formation for the most common pathogenic bacteria seen in clinical practice. The results gathered by the cBRT assay were in agreement with the traditional crystal violet (CV) staining test, according to the κ coefficient test (κ = 0.623). However, the cBRT assay showed higher levels of specificity (92.2%) and accuracy (88.1%) as compared to CV. The results indicate that this procedure offers an easy, rapid and robust assay to test microbial biofilm and a promising tool for clinical microbiology.

  18. A rapid lateral fluid percussion injury rodent model of traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Mustafa Q; Goodrich, Grant S; Dhamne, Sameer C; Amandusson, Asa; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Mou, Danlei; Wang, Yingpeng; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2014-05-07

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of acquired epilepsy. Initially described in 1989, lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI) has since become the most extensively used and well-characterized rodent traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic epilepsy model. Universal findings, particularly seizures that reliably develop after an initial latent period, are evident across studies from multiple laboratories. However, the LFPI procedure is a two-stage process, requiring initial surgical attachment of a skull fluid cannula and then reanesthesia for delivery of the epidural fluid pressure wave. We now describe a modification of the original technique, termed 'rapid lateral fluid percussion injury' (rLFPI), which allows for a one-stage procedure and thus shorter operating time and reduced anesthesia exposure. Anesthetized male Long-Evans rats were subjected to rLFPI through a length of plastic tubing fitted with a pipette tip cannula with a 4-mm aperture. The cannula opening was positioned over a craniectomy of slightly smaller diameter and exposed dura such that the edges of the cannula fit tightly when pressed to the skull with a micromanipulator. Fluid percussion was then delivered immediately thereafter, in the same surgery session. rLFPI resulted in nonlethal focal cortical injury in all animals. We previously demonstrated that the rLFPI procedure resulted in post-traumatic seizures and regional gliosis, but had not examined other histopathologic elements. Now, we show apoptotic cell death confined to the perilesional cortex and chronic pathologic changes such as ipsilesional ventriculomegaly that are seen in the classic model. We conclude that the rLFPI method is a viable alternative to classic LFPI, and--being a one-stage procedure--has the advantage of shorter experiment turnaround and reduced exposure to anesthetics.

  19. Rapid Water Uptake and Limited Storage Capacity at Height of Growing Season in Four Temperate Tree Species in a Central Pennsylvania Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, K.; Meinzer, F. C.; Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    rapid water uptake and tree water storage limited to about a month in duration. These findings are necessary for modeling of hydrologic parameters that are influenced by tree water age. They also indicate that trees on shallow soil in this catchment may be at risk if droughts lasting over a month occur more frequently in future years.

  20. Linoleic and a-linolenic acid as precursor and inhibitor for the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver and brain of growing pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Gloaguen, M.; Ruiter, A.; Baal, van J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggested that in human adults, linoleic acid (LA) inhibits the biosynthesis of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but their effects in growing subjects are largely unknown. We used growing pigs as a model to investigate whether high LA intake affects the conversion of n-3

  1. PD0332991 (palbociclib) for treatment of pediatric intracranial growing teratoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kris Ann P; Petronio, Joseph; Bendel, Anne; Patterson, Richard; Vaughn, David J

    2015-06-01

    Growing teratoma syndrome is characterized by growth of mature teratoma elements of a mixed germ cell tumor despite resolution of immature/malignant elements with administration of chemotherapy. Surgical resection is the only known cure for growing teratoma syndrome but in the brain, complete resection may be impossible. In these instances, mature teratoma, although histologically benign, may be fatal. In this report, we present the case of a child with a large, rapidly growing, unresectable pineal region growing teratoma. PD0332991 was administered with stabilization of the solid, enhancing components of the mass. Minimal adverse effects were noted. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Towards the automated localisation of targets in rapid image-sifting by collaborative brain-computer interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Matran-Fernandez

    Full Text Available The N2pc is a lateralised Event-Related Potential (ERP that signals a shift of attention towards the location of a potential object of interest. We propose a single-trial target-localisation collaborative Brain-Computer Interface (cBCI that exploits this ERP to automatically approximate the horizontal position of targets in aerial images. Images were presented by means of the rapid serial visual presentation technique at rates of 5, 6 and 10 Hz. We created three different cBCIs and tested a participant selection method in which groups are formed according to the similarity of participants' performance. The N2pc that is elicited in our experiments contains information about the position of the target along the horizontal axis. Moreover, combining information from multiple participants provides absolute median improvements in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of up to 21% (for groups of size 3 with respect to single-user BCIs. These improvements are bigger when groups are formed by participants with similar individual performance, and much of this effect can be explained using simple theoretical models. Our results suggest that BCIs for automated triaging can be improved by integrating two classification systems: one devoted to target detection and another to detect the attentional shifts associated with lateral targets.

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain ... studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... disorder and to tailor the treatment for a person's specific conditions. Such brain research help increase the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... treatment for a person's specific conditions. Such brain research help increase the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... of contact for receiving impulses on a neuron, branching off from the cell body. dopamine —A neurotransmitter ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News & Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

  10. Rapid Effects of an Aggressive Interaction on Dehydroepiandrosterone, Testosterone and Oestradiol Levels in the Male Song Sparrow Brain: a Seasonal Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimovics, S A; Prior, N H; Ma, C; Soma, K K

    2016-02-01

    Across vertebrates, aggression is robustly expressed during the breeding season when circulating testosterone is elevated, and testosterone activates aggression either directly or after aromatisation into 17β-oestradiol (E2 ) in the brain. In some species, such as the song sparrow, aggressive behaviour is also expressed at high levels during the nonbreeding season, when circulating testosterone is non-detectable. At this time, the androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is metabolised within the brain into testosterone and/or E2 to promote aggression. In the present study, we used captive male song sparrows to test the hypothesis that an acute agonistic interaction during the nonbreeding season, but not during the breeding season, would alter steroid levels in the brain. Nonbreeding and breeding subjects were exposed to either a laboratory simulated territorial intrusion (L-STI) or an empty cage for only 5 min. Immediately afterwards, the brain was rapidly collected and flash frozen. The Palkovits punch technique was used to microdissect specific brain regions implicated in aggressive behaviour. Solid phase extraction followed by radioimmunoassay was used to quantify DHEA, testosterone and E2 in punches. Overall, levels of DHEA, testosterone and E2 were higher in brain tissue than in plasma. Local testosterone and E2 levels in the preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus and nucleus taeniae of the amygdala were significantly higher in the breeding season than the nonbreeding season and were not affected by the L-STI. Unexpectedly, subjects that were dominant in the L-STI had lower levels of DHEA in the anterior hypothalamus and medial striatum in both seasons and lower levels of DHEA in the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala in the breeding season only. Taken together, these data suggest that local levels of DHEA in the brain are very rapidly modulated by social interactions in a context and region-specific pattern. © 2015 British Society for

  11. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading ... the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain ...

  13. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT.Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated.Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group.The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  14. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueling; Liu, Dongxu; Liu, Ju; Wu, Zizhong; Xie, Yongtao; Li, Liang; Liu, Hong; Guo, Tiantian; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE) treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30) was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated. Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A) of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI) of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn) of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR) ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group. The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  15. Enhancing Student Learning with Brain-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, Ted R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses brain-based learning and its relation to classroom instruction. A rapidly growing quantity of research currently exists regarding how the brain perceives, processes, and ultimately learns new information. In order to maximize their teaching efficacy, educators should have a basic understanding of key memory functions in the…

  16. Case report of a 28-year-old male with the rapid progression of steroid-resistant central nervous system vasculitis diagnosed by a brain biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keigo; Sato, Hideki; Hattori, Hidenori; Takao, Masaki; Takahashi, Shinichi; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2017-09-30

    A 28-year-old Japanese male without a significant past medical history presented with new-onset generalized clonic seizure and headache. A brain MRI revealed multiple enhanced lesions on both cerebral hemispheres. Laboratory exams showed no evidence of systemic inflammation or auto-immune antibodies such as ANCAs. Despite four courses of high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy and five treatments with plasmapheresis, his symptoms worsened and the MRI lesions progressed rapidly. During these treatments, we performed a targeted brain biopsy, that revealed histological findings consistent with a predominant angiitis of parenchymal and subdural small vessels. He was provided with diagnosis of central nervous system vasculitis (CNSV). Subsequent cyclophosphamide pulse therapy enabled a progressive successful improvement of his symptoms. While diagnostic methods for CNSV remain controversial, histological findings are thought to be more useful in obtaining a more definitive diagnosis than findings in image studies, such as MRI and angiography. We suggest that a brain biopsy should be considered during the early period of cases with suspected CNSV and rapid clinical deterioration. We also detected human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) using PCR technology in brain biopsy specimens, however the relationship between CNSV and HHV-7 infection is unknow.

  17. New rapid, accurate T2 quantification detects pathology in normal-appearing brain regions of relapsing-remitting MS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Shepherd

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The EMC algorithm precisely characterizes T2 values, and is able to detect subtle T2 changes in normal-appearing brain regions of RRMS patients. These presumably capture both axon and myelin changes from inflammation and neurodegeneration. Further, T2 variations between different brain regions of healthy controls may correlate with distinct nervous tissue environments that differ from one another at a mesoscopic length-scale.

  18. In normal rat, intraventricularly administered insulin-like growth factor-1 is rapidly cleared from CSF with limited distribution into brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorevic Peter D

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Putatively active drugs are often intraventricularly administered to gain direct access to brain and circumvent the blood-brain barrier. A few studies on the normal central nervous system (CNS have shown, however, that the distribution of materials after intraventricular injections is much more limited than presumed and their exit from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is more rapid than generally believed. In this study, we report the intracranial distribution and the clearance from CSF and adjacent CNS tissue of radiolabeled insulin-like growth factor-1 after injection into one lateral ventricle of the normal rat brain. Methods Under barbiturate anesthesia, 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 was injected into one lateral ventricle of normal Sprague-Dawley rats. The subsequent distribution of IGF-1 through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF system and into brain, cerebral blood vessels, and systemic blood was measured over time by gamma counting and quantitative autoradiography (QAR. Results Within 5 min of infusion, IGF-1 had spread from the infused lateral ventricle into and through the third and fourth ventricles. At this time, 25% of the infused IGF-1 had disappeared from the CSF-brain-meningeal system; the half time of this loss was 12 min. The plasma concentration of cleared IGF-1 was, however, very low from 2 to 9 min and only began to rise markedly after 20 min. This delay between loss and gain plus the lack of radiotracer in the cortical subarachnoid space suggested that much of the IGF-1 was cleared into blood via the cranial and/or spinal nerve roots and their associated lymphatic systems rather than periventricular tissue and arachnoid villi. Less than 10% of the injected radioactivity remained in the CSF-brain system after 180 min. The CSF and arteries and arterioles within the subarachnoid cisterns were labeled with IGF-1 within 10 min. Between 60 and 180 min, most of the radioactivity within the cranium was

  19. Methodology for Rapid Measures of Glutamate Release in Rat Brain Slices Using Ceramic-Based Microelectrode Arrays: Basic Characterization and Drug Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Jorge E.; Pomerleau, François; Huettl, Peter; Johnson, Kirk W.; Offord, James; Gerhardt, Greg A.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive excitability or hyperexcitability of glutamate-containing neurons in the brain has been proposed as a possible explanation for anxiety, stress-induced disorders, epilepsy, and some neurodegenerative diseases. However, direct measurement of glutamate on a rapid time scale has proven to be difficult. Here we adapted enzyme-based microelectrode arrays (MEA) capable of detecting glutamate in vivo, to assess the effectiveness of hyperexcitability modulators on glutamate release in brain slices of the rat neocortex. Using glutamate oxidase coated ceramic MEAs coupled with constant voltage amperometry, we measured resting glutamate levels and synaptic overflow of glutamate after K+ stimulation in brain slices. MEAs reproducibly detected glutamate on a second-by-second time scale in the brain slice preparation after depolarization with high K+ to evoke glutamate release. This stimulus-evoked glutamate release was robust, reproducible, and calcium dependent. The K+-evoked glutamate release was modulated by ligands to the a2δ subunit of voltage sensitive calcium channels (PD-0332334 and PD-0200390). Meanwhile, agonists to Group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors (LY379268 and LY354740), which are known to alter hyperexcitability of glutamate neurons, attenuated K+-evoked glutamate release but did not alter resting glutamate levels. This new MEA technology provides a means of directly measuring the chemical messengers involved in glutamate neurotransmission and thereby helping to reveal the role multiple glutamatergic system components have on glutamate signaling. PMID:21664606

  20. EEG Bands of Wakeful Rest, Slow-Wave and Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep at Different Brain Areas in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidences have revealed that neuronal oscillations with various frequency bands in the brain have different physiological functions. However, the frequency band divisions in rats were typically based on empirical spectral distribution from limited channels information. In the present study, functionally relevant frequency bands across vigilance states and brain regions were identified using factor analysis based on 9 channels EEG signals recorded from multiple brain areas in rats. We found that frequency band divisions varied both across vigilance states and brain regions. In particular, theta oscillations during REM sleep were subdivided into two bands, 5-7 and 8-11 Hz corresponding to the tonic and phasic stages, respectively. The spindle activities of SWS are different along the anterior-posterior axis, lower oscillations (~16 Hz in frontal regions and higher in parietal (~21 Hz. The delta and theta activities were co-varied in the visual and auditory cortex during wakeful rest. In addition, power spectra of beta oscillations were significantly decreased in association cortex. These results provide us some new insights into understand the brain oscillations across vigilance states, and also indicate that the spatial factor should not be ignored when considering the frequency band divisions in rats.

  1. Rapid high-resolution three-dimensional mapping of T1 and age-dependent variations in the non-human primate brain using magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjie V.; Bock, Nicholas A.; Silva, Afonso C.

    2011-01-01

    The use of quantitative T1 mapping in neuroscience and neurology has raised strong interest in the development of T1-mapping techniques that can measure T1 in the whole brain, with high accuracy and precision and within short imaging and computation times. Here, we present a new inversion-recovery (IR) based T1-mapping method using a standard 3D magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequence. By varying only the inversion time (TI), but keeping other parameters constant, MPRAGE image signals become linear to exp(−TI/T1), allowing for accurate T1 estimation without flip angle correction. We also show that acquiring data at just 3 TIs, with the three different TI values optimized, gives maximum T1 precision per unit time, allowing for new efficient approaches to measure and compute T1. We demonstrate the use of our method at 7 Tesla to obtain 3D T1 maps of the whole brain in common marmosets at 0.60 mm resolution and within 11 minutes. T1 maps from the same individuals were highly reproducible across different days. Across subjects, the peak of cerebral gray matter T1 distribution was 1735±52 ms, and the lower edge of cerebral white matter T1 distribution was 1270±43 ms. We found a significant decrease of T1 in both gray and white matter of the marmoset brain with age over a span of 14 years, in agreement with previous human studies. This application illustrates that MPRAGE-based 3D T1 mapping is rapid, accurate and precise, and can facilitate high-resolution anatomical studies in neuroscience and neurological diseases. PMID:21376814

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain involved in creating and filing new memories. hypothalmic- ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow there are differences in ...

  4. The impact of peripheral serotonin on leptin-brain serotonin axis, bone metabolism and strength in growing rats with experimental chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Dariusz; Domaniewski, Tomasz; Znorko, Beata; Oksztulska-Kolanek, Ewa; Lipowicz, Paweł; Doroszko, Michał; Karbowska, Malgorzata; Pawlak, Krystyna

    2017-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in decreased bone strength. Serotonin (5-HT) is one of the critical regulators of bone health, fulfilling distinct functions depending on its synthesis site: brain-derived serotonin (BDS) favors osteoblast proliferation, whereas gut-derived serotonin (GDS) inhibits it. We assessed the role of BDS and peripheral leptin in the regulation of bone metabolism and strength in young rats with 5/6 nephrectomy. BDS synthesis was accelerated during CKD progression. Decreased peripheral leptin in CKD rats was inversely related to BDS content in the hypothalamus, brainstem and frontal cortex. Serotonin in these brain regions affected bone strength and metabolism in the studied animals. The direct effect of circulating leptin on bone was not shown in uremia. At the molecular level, there was an inverse association between elevated GDS and the expression of cAMP responsive element-binding protein (Creb) gene in bone of CKD animals. In contrast, increased expression of activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4) was shown, which was associated with GDS-dependent transcription factor 1 (Foxo1), clock gene - Cry-1, cell cycle genes: c-Myc, cyclins, and osteoblast differentiation genes. These results identified a previously unknown molecular pathway, by which elevated GDS can shift in Foxo1 target genes from Creb to Atf4-dependent response, disrupting the leptin-BDS - dependent gene pathway in the bone of uremic rats. Thus, in the condition of CKD the effect of BDS and GDS on bone metabolism and strength can't be distinguished. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Origins of Word Learning: Brain Responses of 3-Month-Olds Indicate Their Rapid Association of Objects and Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Manuela; Friederici, Angela D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored the origins of word learning in early infancy. Using event-related potentials (ERP) we monitored the brain activity of 3-month-old infants when they were repeatedly exposed to several initially novel words paired consistently with each the same initially novel objects or inconsistently with different objects. Our results…

  6. A Novel Procedure for Rapid Imaging of Adult Mouse Brains with MicroCT Using Iodine-Based Contrast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Anderson

    Full Text Available High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has been the primary modality for obtaining 3D cross-sectional anatomical information in animals for soft tissue, particularly brain. However, costs associated with MRI can be considerably high for large phenotypic screens for gross differences in the structure of the brain due to pathology and/or experimental manipulations. MicroCT (mCT, especially benchtop mCT, is becoming a common laboratory equipment with throughput rates equal or faster than any form of high-resolution MRI at lower costs. Here we explore adapting previously developed contrast based mCT to image adult mouse brains in-situ. We show that 2% weight per volume (w/v iodine-potassium iodide solution can be successfully used to image adult mouse brains within 48 hours post-mortem when a structural support matrix is used. We demonstrate that hydrogel can be effectively used as a perfusant which limits the tissue shrinkage due to iodine.

  7. New rapid, accurate T2 quantification detects pathology in normal-appearing brain regions of relapsing-remitting MS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Timothy M; Kirov, Ivan I; Charlson, Erik; Bruno, Mary; Babb, James; Sodickson, Daniel K; Ben-Eliezer, Noam

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative T2 mapping may provide an objective biomarker for occult nervous tissue pathology in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). We applied a novel echo modulation curve (EMC) algorithm to identify T2 changes in normal-appearing brain regions of subjects with RRMS (N = 27) compared to age-matched controls (N = 38). The EMC algorithm uses Bloch simulations to model T2 decay curves in multi-spin-echo MRI sequences, independent of scanner, and scan-settings. T2 values were extracted from normal-appearing white and gray matter brain regions using both expert manual regions-of-interest and user-independent FreeSurfer segmentation. Compared to conventional exponential T2 modeling, EMC fitting provided more accurate estimations of T2 with less variance across scans, MRI systems, and healthy individuals. Thalamic T2 was increased 8.5% in RRMS subjects (p brain regions of RRMS patients. These presumably capture both axon and myelin changes from inflammation and neurodegeneration. Further, T2 variations between different brain regions of healthy controls may correlate with distinct nervous tissue environments that differ from one another at a mesoscopic length-scale.

  8. Identification of different subtypes of rapid growing Atypical Mycobacterium from water and soil sources: Using PCR-RFLP using hsp65 and rRNA 16s-23s genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varahram, Mohammad; Farnia, Parissa; Saif, Shima; Marashian, Mehran; Farnia, Poopak; Ghanavi, Jaladein; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2016-12-01

    Nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) are a diverse group of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans including skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal tract infection. Generally, NTM are classified into two categories: rapid (7days). In this study, we aimed to investigate NTM frequency and prevalence in environmental samples. Additionally, we tried to identify various subtypes of isolated rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM). Through a prospective descriptive cross-sectional study, water and soil samples were gathered from four neighboring towns around Tehran, the capital of Iran, at different geographic directions. Every 100m(2) of the studied areas gave one sample containing 6g of soil in 3-5cm depth deposited in 50mL sterile water as sampling media. After digestion and decontamination, DNA from culture-positive specimens (RGM) were extracted using phenol-chloroform methods. Then the molecular identification of species and subspecies were performed using 16s-23s rRNA and hsp65 gene. In total, 341 RGM were found, out of which 322 (94.4%) were identified and 20 (5.8%) could not be identified. The most frequent RGM was, Mycobacterium fortuitum (72; 22%), Mycobacterium senegalense (58; 17.7%), Mycobacterium parafortuitum (44; 13.4%) and Mycobacterium conceptionense type 1 (24; 7.2%), and Mycobacterium cheloni type 1 (20; 6.0%). As shown in Table 1, M. fortuitum had more subtypes (8), and the frequency of subtypes 1 (27.7%), 4 (16.6%), and 5 (13.8%) were higher. Among subtypes of M. senegalense, subtype 1 had a higher frequency (70.4%) in comparison to subtype 2 (29.5%). M. cheloni had just one subtype. Our results showed M. fortuitum as the most prominent strain isolated from environmental samples. The frequency was similar in different places, irrespective of climatic variations. Availability of various subtypes of M. fortuitum might indicate a large circulation of this RGM in soil and water of Iranian territory. This high prevalence of M. fortuitum might

  9. Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov., Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium arcueilense sp. nov., members of a novel group of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria recovered from a water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjek, Julie; Souded, Sabiha; Guerardel, Yann; Trivelli, Xavier; Bernut, Audrey; Kremer, Laurent; Welte, Benedicte; Joyeux, Michel; Dubrou, Sylvie; Euzeby, Jean-Paul; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Sapriel, Guillaume; Heym, Beate

    2016-09-01

    From our recent survey of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria in the Parisian water system, three groups of isolates (taxons 1-3) corresponding to possible novel species were selected for taxonomic study. The three taxa each formed creamy white, rough colonies, had an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C, hydrolyzed Tween 80, were catalase-positive at 22 °C and expressed arylsulfatase activity. All three were susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and tigecycline. The three taxa produced specific sets of mycolic acids, including one family that has never previously been described, as determined by thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The partial rpoB sequences (723 bp) showed 4-6 % divergence from each other and more than 5 % differences from the most similar species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 99 % identity within each species. The most similar sequences for 16S rRNA genes (98-99 % identity over 1444-1461 bp) were found in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, Mycobacterium septicum and Mycobacterium farcinogenes. The three taxa formed a new clade (bootstrap value, 99 %) on trees reconstructed from concatenated partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB sequences. The above results led us to propose three novel species for the three groups of isolates, namely Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov. [type strain 071T=ParisRGMnew_1T (CIP 110656T=DSM 46713T)], Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. [type strain 196T=ParisRGMnew_2T (CIP 110655T=DSM 46714T)] and Mycobacteriu marcueilense sp. nov. [type strain of 269T=ParisRGMnew_3T (CIP 110654T=DSM 46715T)].

  10. Rapid modulation of TRH and TRH-like peptide release in rat brain and peripheral tissues by prazosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, Albert; Pekary, Albert Eugene; Blood, James

    2011-08-01

    Hyperresponsiveness to norepinephrine contributes to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prazosin, a brain-active blocker of α(1)-adrenoceptors, originally used for the treatment of hypertension, has been reported to alleviate trauma nightmares, sleep disturbance and improve global clinical status in war veterans with PTSD. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, pGlu-His-Pro-NH(2)) may play a role in the pathophysiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression, and PTSD (an anxiety disorder). To investigate whether TRH or TRH-like peptides (pGlu-X-Pro-NH(2), where "X" can be any amino acid residue) participate in the therapeutic effects of prazosin, male rats were injected with prazosin and these peptides then measured in brain and endocrine tissues. Prazosin stimulated TRH and TRH-like peptide release in those tissues with high α(1)-adrenoceptor levels suggesting that these peptides may play a role in the therapeutic effects of prazosin. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Criteria (RDoC) Funding Funding Home Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... each other How changes in the brain can lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing ... understanding of genes and epigenetics may one day lead to genetic testing for people at risk for ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... doctor that she had experienced long periods of deep sadness throughout her teenage years, but had never ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... heart rate to responding when we sense a mistake, helping us feel motivated and stay focused on ... peak early. And as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... News & Events News & Events Home Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ...

  18. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  19. Induced unilateral vocal fold paralysis and recovery rapidly modulate brain areas related to phonatory behavior: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashwini; Jiang, Yang; Stemple, Joseph C; Archer, Sanford M; Andreatta, Richard D

    2011-03-01

    Peripheral and behavioral effects of voice disorders are well documented in the literature; yet, there is little information regarding the central neural biomarkers and mechanisms underlying these disorders. Understanding the details of brain function changes in disordered voice production is a critical factor for developing better treatment strategies that result in more robust patient outcomes. To examine a model of induced unilateral vocal fold paralysis (iUVFP) to demonstrate and characterize the form of activity changes within central mappings of the larynx to the induced paralysis. The induced paralysis model allowed the participant to serve as his or her own control when comparing baseline results of normal voice with results during the paralysis and subsequent recovery. Prospective, case-study design. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine central laryngeal representations during three time points: pre-iUVFP, during iUVFP, and postrecovery from iUVFP. iUVFP was induced using a lidocaine with epinephrine nerve block unilaterally. Percent changes in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity served as the dependent variable. Results indicated an overall reduced activity level in sensorimotor, subcortical, and cerebellar regions during paralysis. Recovery from paralysis led to augmented responses, particularly in sensory, association, and cerebellar zones. The decrease in activity during iUVFP and the significantly increased activity during the recovery phase likely represent immediate neuroplastic events occurring within minutes of nerve blockade. Recovery-related changes in the BOLD response are hypothesized to be associated with a recalibration of the system after return of normal laryngeal function. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... And as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where ...

  2. Rapid eye movement sleep loss induces neuronal apoptosis in the rat brain by noradrenaline acting on alpha 1-adrenoceptor and by triggering mitochondrial intrinsic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu I Somarajan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative disorders are associated with rapid eye movement sleep (REMS-loss, however the mechanism was unknown. As REMS-loss elevates noradrenaline (NA level in the brain as well as induces neuronal apoptosis and degeneration, in this study we have delineated the intracellular molecular pathway involved in REMS deprivation (REMSD associated NA-induced neuronal apoptosis. Rats were REMS deprived for 6 days by the classical flower-pot method, suitable controls were conducted and the effects on apoptosis markers evaluated. Further, the role of NA was studied by one, intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of NA-ergic alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (PRZ and two, by down-regulation of NA synthesis in locus coeruleus (LC neurons by local microinjection of tyrosine hydroxylase siRNA (TH-siRNA. Immunoblot estimates showed that the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl2-associated death promoter (BAD protein, apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1, cytochrome c, caspase9, caspase3 were elevated in the REMS-deprived rat brains, while caspase8 level remained unaffected; PRZ treatment did not allow elevation of these pro-apoptotic factors. Further, REMSD increased cytochrome c expression, which was prevented if the NA synthesis from the LC neurons was blocked by microinjection of TH-siRNA in vivo into the LC during REMSD in freely moving normal rats. Mitochondrial damage was re-confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, which showed distinctly swollen mitochondria with disintegrated cristae, chromosomal condensation and clumping along the nuclear membrane and all these changes were prevented in PRZ treated rats. Combining findings of this study along with earlier reports we propose that upon REMSD NA level increases in the brain as the LC NA-ergic REM-OFF neurons do not cease firing and TH is up-regulated in those neurons. This elevated NA acting on alpha1-adrenoceptors damages mitochondria causing release of

  3. Neural-like growing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, Vitaliy A.

    2000-03-01

    On the basis of the analysis of scientific ideas reflecting the law in the structure and functioning the biological structures of a brain, and analysis and synthesis of knowledge, developed by various directions in Computer Science, also there were developed the bases of the theory of a new class neural-like growing networks, not having the analogue in world practice. In a base of neural-like growing networks the synthesis of knowledge developed by classical theories - semantic and neural of networks is. The first of them enable to form sense, as objects and connections between them in accordance with construction of the network. With thus each sense gets a separate a component of a network as top, connected to other tops. In common it quite corresponds to structure reflected in a brain, where each obvious concept is presented by certain structure and has designating symbol. Secondly, this network gets increased semantic clearness at the expense owing to formation not only connections between neural by elements, but also themselves of elements as such, i.e. here has a place not simply construction of a network by accommodation sense structures in environment neural of elements, and purely creation of most this environment, as of an equivalent of environment of memory. Thus neural-like growing networks are represented by the convenient apparatus for modeling of mechanisms of teleological thinking, as a fulfillment of certain psychophysiological of functions.

  4. Tc-99m-bicisate (ECD)-brain-SPECT in rapidly progressive dementia; Hirn-SPECT mit Tc-99m-Bicisat (ECD) bei rasch progredientem dementiellen Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marienhagen, J.; Eilles, C. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Weingaertner, U.; Blaha, L. [Bezirkskrankenhaus Mainkofen (Germany). Psychiatrische Klinik; Zerr, I.; Poser, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie

    1999-07-01

    We present a 61-year-old male patient with progressive dementia. A brain SPECT with Tc-99m-bicisate was performed for confirmation of clinically suspected Alzheimer-dementia. At the time of the SPECT-investigation marked apraxia and aphasia besides severe dementia were present. Electrophysiological as well as anatomical neuroimaging findings showed non-diagnostic alterations. SPECT revealed distinct perfusion defects, which made Alzheimer Dementia unlikely. The further course of the patient was determined by rapidly progressive deterioration with development of akinetic mutism. Thereafter, increased levels of neuron-specific enolase as well as 14-3-3 proteins were found in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF). The patient finally died with signs of cerebral decortication. Due to the clinical course and the CSF-findings the patient's final diagnosis was Creutzfeld-Jakob-disease, nevertheless no autopsy was performed. The presented case report underscores the clinical utility of perfusion brain SPECT in the differential diagnosis of dementias. (orig.) [German] Wir berichten ueber einen 61jaehrigen Patienten mit progredientem dementiellen Syndrom, der unter der Verdachtsdiagnose einer Demenz vom Alzheimer-Typ (DAT) zur Hirn-SPECT-Untersuchung mit TC-99m-Bicisat (ECD) vorgestellt wurde. Zum Untersuchungszeitpunkt bestanden neben dem Vollbild einer Demenz eine ausgepraegte Apraxie und Aphasie bei unspezifischen Veraenderungen im EEG sowie der neuroradiologischen Bildgebung. In der Hirn-SPECT-Untersuchung fanden sich fuer eine DAT untypische ausgedehnte, vorwiegend rechtshemisphaerische Perfusionsstoerungen. Im weiteren Verlauf rasche Progredienz des Krankheitsbildes mit Entwicklung eines akinetischen Mutismus sowie Nachweis erhoehter Werte der neuronspezifischen Enolase und des 14-3-3-Proteins im Liquor. Der Patient verstarb schliesslich unter dem Bild einer Decortication. Aufgrund des klinischen Verlaufs sowie der Liquorbefunde wurde, da eine autoptische Befundsicherung

  5. An Ambition to Grow

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Kemp; Hakkert, R.

    2006-01-01

    This report tries to gain insight in the willingness or ambition to grow of a small business owner. The main question of this report is therefore: Which factors influence the ambition to grow a business? To examine the ambition to grow an economic and a psychological perspective is given in this study.

  6. Rapid and long-term induction of effector immediate early genes (BDNF, Neuritin and Arc) in peri-infarct cortex and dentate gyrus after ischemic injury in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Teilum, Maria; Wieloch, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    The genomic response following brain ischemia is very complex and involves activation of both protective and detrimental signaling pathways. Immediate early genes (IEGs) represent the first wave of gene expression following ischemia and are induced in extensive regions of the ischemic brain...... including cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Neuritin and Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) belong to a subgroup of immediate early genes implicated in synaptic plasticity known as effector immediate early genes. Here, we investigated...... at 0-6 h of reperfusion for Neuritin and 0-12 h of reperfusion for Arc while BDNF was induced 0-9 h of reperfusion. Our study demonstrates a rapid and long-term activation of effector immediate early genes in distinct brain areas following ischemic injury in rat. Effector gene activation may be part...

  7. Rapid evolution and copy number variation of primate RHOXF2, an X-linked homeobox gene involved in male reproduction and possibly brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Rui

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeobox genes are the key regulators during development, and they are in general highly conserved with only a few reported cases of rapid evolution. RHOXF2 is an X-linked homeobox gene in primates. It is highly expressed in the testicle and may play an important role in spermatogenesis. As male reproductive system is often the target of natural and/or sexual selection during evolution, in this study, we aim to dissect the pattern of molecular evolution of RHOXF2 in primates and its potential functional consequence. Results We studied sequences and copy number variation of RHOXF2 in humans and 16 nonhuman primate species as well as the expression patterns in human, chimpanzee, white-browed gibbon and rhesus macaque. The gene copy number analysis showed that there had been parallel gene duplications/losses in multiple primate lineages. Our evidence suggests that 11 nonhuman primate species have one RHOXF2 copy, and two copies are present in humans and four Old World monkey species, and at least 6 copies in chimpanzees. Further analysis indicated that the gene duplications in primates had likely been mediated by endogenous retrovirus (ERV sequences flanking the gene regions. In striking contrast to non-human primates, humans appear to have homogenized their two RHOXF2 copies by the ERV-mediated non-allelic recombination mechanism. Coding sequence and phylogenetic analysis suggested multi-lineage strong positive selection on RHOXF2 during primate evolution, especially during the origins of humans and chimpanzees. All the 8 coding region polymorphic sites in human populations are non-synonymous, implying on-going selection. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that besides the preferential expression in the reproductive system, RHOXF2 is also expressed in the brain. The quantitative data suggests expression pattern divergence among primate species. Conclusions RHOXF2 is a fast-evolving homeobox gene in primates. The rapid

  8. Rapid evolution and copy number variation of primate RHOXF2, an X-linked homeobox gene involved in male reproduction and possibly brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ao-lei; Wang, Yin-qiu; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Cheng-hong; Wang, Jin-kai; Zhang, Rui; Che, Jun; Su, Bing

    2011-10-12

    Homeobox genes are the key regulators during development, and they are in general highly conserved with only a few reported cases of rapid evolution. RHOXF2 is an X-linked homeobox gene in primates. It is highly expressed in the testicle and may play an important role in spermatogenesis. As male reproductive system is often the target of natural and/or sexual selection during evolution, in this study, we aim to dissect the pattern of molecular evolution of RHOXF2 in primates and its potential functional consequence. We studied sequences and copy number variation of RHOXF2 in humans and 16 nonhuman primate species as well as the expression patterns in human, chimpanzee, white-browed gibbon and rhesus macaque. The gene copy number analysis showed that there had been parallel gene duplications/losses in multiple primate lineages. Our evidence suggests that 11 nonhuman primate species have one RHOXF2 copy, and two copies are present in humans and four Old World monkey species, and at least 6 copies in chimpanzees. Further analysis indicated that the gene duplications in primates had likely been mediated by endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences flanking the gene regions. In striking contrast to non-human primates, humans appear to have homogenized their two RHOXF2 copies by the ERV-mediated non-allelic recombination mechanism. Coding sequence and phylogenetic analysis suggested multi-lineage strong positive selection on RHOXF2 during primate evolution, especially during the origins of humans and chimpanzees. All the 8 coding region polymorphic sites in human populations are non-synonymous, implying on-going selection. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that besides the preferential expression in the reproductive system, RHOXF2 is also expressed in the brain. The quantitative data suggests expression pattern divergence among primate species. RHOXF2 is a fast-evolving homeobox gene in primates. The rapid evolution and copy number changes of RHOXF2 had been driven by

  9. The inflammatory molecules IL-1β and HMGB1 can rapidly enhance focal seizure generation in a brain slice model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eChiavegato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by a hyperexcitable brain tissue and unpredictable seizures, i.e., aberrant firing discharges in large neuronal populations. It is well established that proinflammatory cytokines, in addition to their canonical involvement in the immune response, have a crucial role in the mechanism of seizure generation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of interleukin-1β (IL-1β and high mobility group B1 (HMGB1 in the generation of seizure-like discharges using two models of focal epilepsy in a rat entorhinal cortex slice preparation. Seizure like-discharges were evoked by either slice perfusion with low Mg2+ and picrotoxin or with a double NMDA local stimulation in the presence of the proconvulsant 4-amino-pyridine. The effects of IL-1β or HMGB1 were evaluated by monitoring seizure discharge generation through laser scanning microscope imaging of Ca2+ signals from neurons and astrocytes. In the picrotoxin model, we revealed that both cytokines increased the mean frequency of spontaneous ictal-like discharges, whereas only IL-1β reduced the latency and prolonged the duration of the first ictal-like event. In the second model, a single NMDA pulse, per se ineffective, became successful when it was performed after IL-β or HMGB1 local applications. These findings demonstrate that both IL-1β and HMGB1 can rapidly lower focal ictal event threshold and strengthen the possibility that targeting these inflammatory pathways may represent an effective therapeutic strategy to prevent seizures.

  10. Study on the relation of brain functional connectivity to movement disorders and cognitive impairment in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-ju ZHANG

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relation between abnormal functional connectivity of substantia nigra and impairment of movement and cognition in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD. Methods A total of 22 subjects, including 14 patients with RBD and 8 sex, age, education-matched healthy controls, were enrolled in this study according to international diagnostic criteria. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Ⅲ (UPDRS Ⅲ and Hoehn-Yahr Stage were used to evaluate motor function. Digit Ordering Test - Attention (DOT - A, Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT, Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT, Trail Making Test (TMT, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT, Clock Drawing Test (CDT, Boston Naming Test (BNT and Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT were used to evaluate cognitive function. The functional connectivity from left and right substantia nigra to brain region were examined. Results There were no statistical differences of UPDRSⅢ and Hoehn?Yahr Stage between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all. In comparison with control group, SDMT (P = 0.001, ROCFT-copy (P = 0.013 and AVLT-N2 (P = 0.032 were significantly lower, while TMT-B test was significantly higher (P =0.005 in RBD group. Compared with control group, the functional connectivity of right substantia nigra to left precentral gyrus (P < 0.005 and right angular gyrus (P < 0.005 were all decreased in RBD group. Conclusions The results suggest that cognitive impairment occurs earlier than movement disorders in RBD, and there are abnormal functional connectivity from right substantia nigra to left precentral gyrus and right angular gyrus, proving that abnormal functional connectivity is the base of behavior disorders in RBD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.09.005

  11. Melting ice, growing trade?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sami Bensassi; Julienne C. Stroeve; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Andrew P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such ... for growing, staying alive, and making new neurons. prefrontal cortex —A highly developed area at the front of ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a cell that contains DNA and information the cell needs for growing, staying alive, and making new neurons. prefrontal cortex —A highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists to make important ... that regulates many functions, including mood, appetite, and sleep. synapse —The tiny gap between neurons, where nerve impulses are sent ... More General Health Information from NIH MEDLINEPlus : Authoritative information from government ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the understanding of how the brain grows and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists ... inside contents of a cell from its surrounding environment. cytoplasm ... the cell to work properly. dendrite —The point of contact for receiving ...

  16. [Studies on the alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Meng-Hua; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yong-Gang; Yang, Cui-Ping; Su, Wei-Wei

    2011-05-01

    To study alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong. The rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MS/MS) was used to analyse alkaloids of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong, and senkirkine was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography. Four alkaloids were identified as senkirkine, dehydrosenkirkine, monocrotaline and adonifoline, and senkirkine was firstly isolated from Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong. Senkirkine is the main component of Senecio scandens growing in Guangdong.

  17. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  18. Growing Up with "1984."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  19. Growing through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and…

  20. Growing Old in Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liversage, Anika; Mirdal, Gretty Mizrahi

    2017-01-01

    Some studies on immigrants and ageing focus on the question of return; others focus on how immigrants, who grow old in their countries of destination, ‘age in place’, including whether they turn to their children or to public host country provisions for care and support. However, the issues of re...

  1. Actin filament-associated protein 1 (AFAP-1) is a key mediator in inflammatory signaling-induced rapid attenuation of intrinsic P-gp function in human brain capillary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Yutaro; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify regulatory molecule(s) involved in the inflammatory signaling-induced decrease in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that may occur in brain diseases. We confirmed that in vivo P-gp efflux activity at the BBB was decreased without any change in P-gp protein expression level in a mouse model of acute inflammation induced by 3 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide. In a human BBB model cell line (human brain capillary endothelial cells; hCMEC/D3), 1-h treatment with 10 ng/mL tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; an inflammatory mediator) rapidly reduced P-gp efflux activity, but had no effect on P-gp protein expression level. To clarify the non-transcriptional mechanism that causes the decrease in intrinsic efflux activity of P-gp in acute inflammation, we applied comprehensive quantitative phosphoproteomics to compare hCMEC/D3 cells treated with TNF-α and vehicle (control). Actin filament-associated protein-1 (AFAP-1), MAPK1, and transcription factor AP-1 (AP-1) were significantly phosphorylated in TNF-α-treated cells, and were selected as candidate proteins. In validation experiments, knockdown of AFAP-1 expression blocked the reduction in P-gp efflux activity by TNF-α treatment, whereas inhibition of MAPK function or knockdown of AP-1 expression did not. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomics revealed that the reduction in P-gp activity by TNF-α did not require any change in P-gp protein expression levels in the plasma membrane. Our results demonstrate that AFAP-1 is a key mediator in the inflammatory signaling-induced, translocation-independent rapid attenuation of P-gp efflux activity in human brain capillary endothelial cells. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Geothermal Grows Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  3. The vulnerable, rapidly growing thoracic spine of the adolescent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at fault, refusing to allow a 'trivial complaint' to stand in the way of the success of the team in which their sons play a key role. Department of Orthopaedics, University .... hence the diagnosis of 'postural, non-structural, thoracic kyphosis'. In a small percentage of these cases, structural changes have been seen later, but with ...

  4. The vulnerable, rapidly growing thoracic spine of the adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolapse of disc tissue occurs into the verfebral body, causing a disturbance of growth but little if any pain. The vertebrae in the mid-thoracic region become wedge-shaped, and a kyphotic deformity results, the so-called Scheuermann's disease, or adolescent kyphosis. A plea is made for the screening of children exposed to ...

  5. Effects of photodynamic therapy on rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Min-Hsiu; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2011-01-05

    The authors investigated the antimicrobial effect of methylene blue (MB)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Mycobacterium fortuitum keratitis. In the in vitro study, the mycobacterial suspension and colonies were treated with the following: no MB, no light (normal control); MB and no light (dye control); light and no MB (light control); MB and light (PDT). Morphologic characteristics were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The bactericidal effects of combined PDT and antibiotic therapy (ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and amikacin) were determined using the broth microdilution technique. Twenty-one rabbits with Mycobacterium keratitis were randomly divided into three groups (no treatment, topical amikacin treatment, and PDT combined with amikacin treatment). The clinical features of keratitis were scored and graded before treatment and before euthanatization. The diseased corneas were trephined for quantitative bacteriologic analysis to determine the antibacterial efficacy of the treatment. In the in vitro tests, the bacterial count had a 2-log reduction immediately after PDT treatment at 100 J/cm(2) with 10(-3)% MB. After PDT at 100 J/cm(2) with 10(-2)% MB, almost no viable bacteria were detected. PDT had a synergistic antimicrobial effect in combination with antibiotics. The phototoxicity occurred in the cytoplasm first and then disrupted the mycobacterial cell walls by lysis. In the rabbit keratitis model, combined PDT resulted in significantly less bacterial burden (P PDT against Mycobacterium fortuitum. PDT could be a potential alternative treatment for nontuberculous mycobacterial corneal infections.

  6. Who among patients with acquired brain injury returned to work after occupational rehabilitation? : The rapid-return-to-work-cohort-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aas, R.W.; Haveraaen, L.A.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Skarpaas, L.S.

    2017-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) is known to be severely disabling. On average, 40% of employeesreturn to work (RTW) within two years after injury. There is, however, limited research on what might con-tribute to successful RTW. To examine factors that might impact the time-to first RTW for patients with

  7. Growing unculturable bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric J

    2012-08-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field.

  8. Growing and evolving soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed.

  9. Large-scale brain functional modularity is reflected in slow electroencephalographic rhythms across the human non-rapid eye movement sleep cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; von Wegner, Frederic; Morzelewski, Astrid; Brodbeck, Verena; Borisov, Sergey; Jahnke, Kolja; Laufs, Helmut

    2013-04-15

    Large-scale brain functional networks (measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) are organized into separated but interacting modules, an architecture supporting the integration of distinct dynamical processes. In this work we study how the aforementioned modular architecture changes with the progressive loss of vigilance occurring in the descent to deep sleep and we examine the relationship between the ensuing slow electroencephalographic rhythms and large-scale network modularity as measured with fMRI. Graph theoretical methods are used to analyze functional connectivity graphs obtained from fifty-five participants at wakefulness, light and deep sleep. Network modularity (a measure of functional segregation) was found to increase during deeper sleep stages but not in light sleep. By endowing functional networks with dynamical properties, we found a direct link between increased electroencephalographic (EEG) delta power (1-4 Hz) and a breakdown of inter-modular connectivity. Both EEG slowing and increased network modularity were found to quickly decrease during awakenings from deep sleep to wakefulness, in a highly coordinated fashion. Studying the modular structure itself by means of a permutation test, we revealed different module memberships when deep sleep was compared to wakefulness. Analysis of node roles in the modular structure revealed an increase in the number of locally well-connected nodes and a decrease in the number of globally well-connected hubs, which hinders interactions between separated functional modules. Our results reveal a well-defined sequence of changes in brain modular organization occurring during the descent to sleep and establish a close parallel between modularity alterations in large-scale functional networks (accessible through whole brain fMRI recordings) and the slowing of scalp oscillations (visible on EEG). The observed re-arrangement of connectivity might play an important role in the processes underlying loss

  10. Who among patients with acquired brain injury returned to work after occupational rehabilitation? The rapid-return-to-work-cohort-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Randi Wågø; Haveraaen, Lise Aasen; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Skarpaas, Lisebet Skeie

    2017-07-20

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) is known to be severely disabling. On average, 40% of employees return to work (RTW) within two years after injury. There is, however, limited research on what might contribute to successful RTW. To examine factors that might impact the time-to first RTW for patients with ABI, participating in a RTW-program. The study was designed as a cohort study of patients on sick leave due to mild or moderate ABI (n = 137). The mean age of the patients was 51 years, and 58% were men. The most common diagnoses were stroke (75%) and traumatic brain injury (12%). Data were collected through questionnaires, and combined with register data on sickness absence. Survival analyses were used to analyse the effect of different variables on time to first RTW (full or partial), at one- and two-year follow-up. Generally, women (HR = 0.447; CI: 0.239-0.283) had higher RTW-rates than men, and patients with non-comorbid impairments returned to work earlier than patients with multiple impairments. Although not statistically significant, receiving individual consultations and participating in group-sessions were generally associated with a delayed RTW at both follow-up-times. The only service-related factor significantly associated with delayed RTW was meetings with the social insurance office (HR = 0.522; CI: 0.282-0.965), and only at one-year follow-up. Women and patients with non-comorbid impairments returned to work earlier than men and patients with multiple impairments. There seems to be an association between intense and long-lasting participation in the RTW program and prolonged time-to first-RTW, even after controlling for level of cognitive impairments and comorbidity. Implications for Rehabilitation Acquired brain injury (ABI) is known to be severely disabling, and persons with ABI often experience difficulties in regard to returning to work. This study provides information on prognostic factors that might contribute to return to work (RTW

  11. Rapid modulation of TRH and TRH-like peptide release in rat brain, pancreas, and testis by a GSK-3beta inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekary, Albert Eugene; Stevens, Schetema A; Blood, James D; Sattin, Albert

    2010-06-01

    Antidepressants have been shown to be neuroprotective and able to reverse damage to glia and neurons. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is an endogenous antidepressant-like neuropeptide that reduces the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), an enzyme that hyperphosphorylates tau and is implicated in bipolar disorder, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. In order to understand the potential role of GSK-3beta in the modulation of depression by TRH and TRH-like peptides and the therapeutic potential of GSK-3beta inhibitors for neuropsychiatric and metabolic diseases, young adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were (a) injected ip with 1.8mg/kg of GSK-3beta inhibitor VIII (GSKI) and sacrificed 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8h later or (b) injected with 0, 0.018, 0.18 or 1.8mg/kg GSKI and bled 4h later. Levels of TRH and TRH-like peptides were measured in various brain regions involved in mood regulation, pancreas and reproductive tissues. Large, 3-15-fold, increases of TRH and TRH-like peptide levels in cerebellum, for example, as well as other brain regions were noted at 2 and 4h. In contrast, a nearly complete loss of TRH and TRH-like peptides from testis within 2h and pancreas by 4h following GSKI injection was observed. We have previously reported similar acute effects of corticosterone in brain and peripheral tissues. Incubation of a decapsulated rat testis with either GSKI or corticosterone accelerated release of TRH, and TRH-like peptides. Glucocorticoids, via inhibition of GSK3-beta activity, may thus be involved in the inhibition of TRH and TRH-like peptide release in brain, thereby contributing to the depressogenic effect of this class of steroids. Corticosterone-induced acceleration of release of these peptides from testis may contribute to the decline in reproductive function and redirection of energy needed during life-threatening emergencies. These contrasting effects of glucocorticoid on peptide release appear to be mediated by GSK-3beta. Published

  12. Growing for different ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  14. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  15. BRAIN ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADEYINKA

    Brain Arteriovenous Malformation (BAVM) is a form of congenital vascular malformation that are present at birth, and may be evident clinically, and usually will grow commensurately with the child. We report an adult ,a 40-year-old woman with brain arteriovenous malformation presenting with headache and epileptic.

  16. Imaging brain development: the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2012-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen a rapid expansion in the number of studies using neuroimaging techniques to investigate maturational changes in the human brain. In this paper, I review MRI studies on structural changes in the developing brain, and fMRI studies on functional changes in the social brain during adolescence. Both MRI and fMRI studies point to adolescence as a period of continued neural development. In the final section, I discuss a number of areas of research that are just beginning and may be the subject of developmental neuroimaging in the next twenty years. Future studies might focus on complex questions including the development of functional connectivity; how gender and puberty influence adolescent brain development; the effects of genes, environment and culture on the adolescent brain; development of the atypical adolescent brain; and implications for policy of the study of the adolescent brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The First Six Years of Building and Implementing a Return-to-Work Service for Patients with Acquired Brain Injury. The Rapid-Return-to-Work-Cohort-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveraaen, L; Brouwers, E P M; Sveen, U; Skarpaas, L S; Sagvaag, H; Aas, R W

    2017-12-01

    Background and objective Despite large activity worldwide in building and implementing new return-to-work (RTW) services, few studies have focused on how such implementation processes develop. The aim of this study was to examine the development in patient and service characteristics the first six years of implementing a RTW service for persons with acquired brain injury (ABI). Methods The study was designed as a cohort study (n=189). Data were collected by questionnaires, filled out by the service providers. The material was divided into, and analyzed with, two implementation phases. Non-parametrical statistical methods and hierarchical regression analyses were applied on the material. Results The number of patients increased significantly, and the patient group became more homogeneous. Both the duration of the service, and the number of consultations and group session days were significantly reduced. Conclusion The patient group became more homogenous, but also significantly larger during the first six years of building the RTW service. At the same time, the duration of the service decreased. This study therefore questions if there is a lack of consensus on the intensity of work rehabilitation for this group.

  18. The New Learning Theory: Brain Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, William K.

    1984-01-01

    Argues that, as scientists learn more about the chemistry and physiology of the human brain, it is incumbent upon educators and educational psychologists to begin to build models of brain function that reflect growing scientific knowledge. (FL)

  19. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jane Hindle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many blood-brain barrier mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the blood-brain barrier can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of blood-brain barrier gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of blood-brain barrier secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate blood-brain barrier anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.

  20. Brain-Computer Interfaces in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jerry J.; Krusienski, Dean J.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) acquire brain signals, analyze them, and translate them into commands that are relayed to output devices that carry out desired actions. BCIs do not use normal neuromuscular output pathways. The main goal of BCI is to replace or restore useful function to people disabled by neuromuscular disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, or spinal cord injury. From initial demonstrations of electroencephalography-based spelling and single-neuron-based device control, researchers have gone on to use electroencephalographic, intracortical, electrocorticographic, and other brain signals for increasingly complex control of cursors, robotic arms, prostheses, wheelchairs, and other devices. Brain-computer interfaces may also prove useful for rehabilitation after stroke and for other disorders. In the future, they might augment the performance of surgeons or other medical professionals. Brain-computer interface technology is the focus of a rapidly growing research and development enterprise that is greatly exciting scientists, engineers, clinicians, and the public in general. Its future achievements will depend on advances in 3 crucial areas. Brain-computer interfaces need signal-acquisition hardware that is convenient, portable, safe, and able to function in all environments. Brain-computer interface systems need to be validated in long-term studies of real-world use by people with severe disabilities, and effective and viable models for their widespread dissemination must be implemented. Finally, the day-to-day and moment-to-moment reliability of BCI performance must be improved so that it approaches the reliability of natural muscle-based function. PMID:22325364

  1. Brain-computer interfaces in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jerry J; Krusienski, Dean J; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2012-03-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) acquire brain signals, analyze them, and translate them into commands that are relayed to output devices that carry out desired actions. BCIs do not use normal neuromuscular output pathways. The main goal of BCI is to replace or restore useful function to people disabled by neuromuscular disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, or spinal cord injury. From initial demonstrations of electroencephalography-based spelling and single-neuron-based device control, researchers have gone on to use electroencephalographic, intracortical, electrocorticographic, and other brain signals for increasingly complex control of cursors, robotic arms, prostheses, wheelchairs, and other devices. Brain-computer interfaces may also prove useful for rehabilitation after stroke and for other disorders. In the future, they might augment the performance of surgeons or other medical professionals. Brain-computer interface technology is the focus of a rapidly growing research and development enterprise that is greatly exciting scientists, engineers, clinicians, and the public in general. Its future achievements will depend on advances in 3 crucial areas. Brain-computer interfaces need signal-acquisition hardware that is convenient, portable, safe, and able to function in all environments. Brain-computer interface systems need to be validated in long-term studies of real-world use by people with severe disabilities, and effective and viable models for their widespread dissemination must be implemented. Finally, the day-to-day and moment-to-moment reliability of BCI performance must be improved so that it approaches the reliability of natural muscle-based function. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Growing Concerns With Workplace Incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Natasha Renee; Rogers, Bonnie

    2017-11-01

    Workplace incivility (WPI) is a growing issue across all public and private sectors. Occupational and environmental health nurses can educate employees and management about WPI, its risk factors and characteristics, and ways to reduce incidents of WPI.

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses ...

  4. Severe symptomatic acute hyponatremia in traumatic brain injury responded very rapidly to a single 15 mg dose of oral tolvaptan; a Mayo Clinic Health System hospital experience - need for caution with tolvaptan in younger patients with preserved renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuigbo, Macaulay Amechi Chukwukadibia; Agbasi, Nneoma

    2017-01-01

    Tolvaptan is now well established as a potent pharmaceutical agent for symptomatic hyponatremia from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), congestive heart failure and liver cirrhosis. Previous studies had recruited older (63-65 years) patients with mild renal impairment (serum creatinine, 1.3-1.4 mg/dl). A 2012 report in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry described tolvaptan as a "lifesaving drug". A major outcome concern in the treatment of chronic hyponatremia is potentially fatal pontine demyelination from over-rapid correction of serum sodium >0.5 mEq/dL/h. The maximum reported correction of serum sodium within 24 hours was 13 mEq/L in a case of SIADH. We recently experienced the dramatic correction of hyponatremia at 1 mEq/dL/h over 18 hours, following 15 mg of oral tolvaptan in a 32-year old male patient with normal kidney function (serum creatinine 0.76 mg/dL), following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Tolvaptan is indeed an effective and life-saving drug for post-TBI hyponatremia. However, we strongly recommend the use of lower doses of tolvaptan (≤15 mg/d) in younger patients with more preserved renal function to avoid the development of life-threatening pontine demyelination.

  5. New Antioxidant Drugs for Neonatal Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Tataranno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain injury concept covers a lot of heterogeneity in terms of aetiology involving multiple factors, genetic, hemodynamic, metabolic, nutritional, endocrinological, toxic, and infectious mechanisms, acting in antenatal or postnatal period. Increased vulnerability of the immature brain to oxidative stress is documented because of the limited capacity of antioxidant enzymes and the high free radicals (FRs generation in rapidly growing tissue. FRs impair transmembrane enzyme Na+/K+-ATPase activity resulting in persistent membrane depolarization and excessive release of FR and excitatory aminoacid glutamate. Besides being neurotoxic, glutamate is also toxic to oligodendroglia, via FR effects. Neuronal cells die of oxidative stress. Excess of free iron and deficient iron/binding metabolising capacity are additional features favouring oxidative stress in newborn. Each step in the oxidative injury cascade has become a potential target for neuroprotective intervention. The administration of antioxidants for suspected or proven brain injury is still not accepted for clinical use due to uncertain beneficial effects when treatments are started after resuscitation of an asphyxiated newborn. The challenge for the future is the early identification of high-risk babies to target a safe and not toxic antioxidant therapy in combination with standard therapies to prevent brain injury and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment.

  6. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... most humans that have lived and died have never read. And so, we’ve been able to ... digital natives… the children that have grow up never not knowing the multimedia devices… whether their brains ...

  7. Evaluation of Short and Long Term Cold Stress Challenge of Nerve Grow Factor, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Osteocalcin and Oxytocin mRNA Expression in BAT, Brain, Bone and Reproductive Tissue of Male Mice Using Real-Time PCR and Linear Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Claudia; Conte, Elena; Caloiero, Roberta; Fonzino, Adriano; Carratù, Mariarosaria; Lograno, Marcello D; Tricarico, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    The correlation between the Ngf/p75ntr-Ntrk1 and Bdnf, Osteocalcin-Ost/Gprc6a and Oxytocin-Oxt/Oxtr genes, was challenged investigating their mRNA levels in 3 months-old mice after cold-stress (CS). Uncoupling protein-1 (Ucp-1) was used as positive control. Control mice were maintained at room temperature T = 25°C, CS mice were maintained at T = 4°C for 6 h and 5-days (N = 15 mice). RT-PCR experiments showed that Ucp-1 and Ngf genes were up-regulated after 6 h CS in brown adipose tissues (BAT), respectively, by 2 and 1.5-folds; Ucp-1 was upregulated also after 5-days, while Ngfr (p75ntr) and Ntrk1 genes were downregulated after 6 h and 5-days CS in BAT. NGF and P75NTR were upregulated in bone and testis following 5-days, and P75NTR in testis after 6 h CS. Bdnf was instead up-regulated in bone following 5-days CS and down-regulated in testis. OST was upregulated by 16 and 3-fold in bone and BAT, respectively, following 5-days CS. Gprc6a was upregulated after 6 h in brain, while Bglap (Ost) gene was downregulated. Oxt gene was upregulated by 5-fold following 5-days CS in bone. Oxtr was upregulated by 0.5 and 0.3-fold, respectively, following 6 h and 5-days CS in brain. Oxtr and Oxt were downregulated in testis and in BAT. The changes in the expression levels of control genes vs. genes following 6 h and 5-days CS were correlated in all tissues, but not in BAT. Correlation in BAT was improved eliminating Ngfr (p75ntr) data. The correlation in brain was lost eliminating Oxtr data. In sum, Ucp-1 potentiation in BAT after cold stress is associated with early Ngf-response in the same tissue and trophic action in bone and testis. In contrast, BDNF exerts bone and neuroprotective effects. Similarly to Ucp-1, Bglap (Ost) signaling is enhanced in bone and BAT while it may exert local neuroprotective effects thought its receptor. Ngfr (p75ntr) regulates the adaptation to CS through a feed-back loop in BAT. Oxtr regulates the gene-response to CS through a feed-forward loop in

  8. Tuning Up the Old Brain with New Tricks: Attention Training via Neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Abiri, Reza; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2017-01-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) is a form of biofeedback that uses real-time (RT) modulation of brain activity to enhance brain function and behavioral performance. Recent advances in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) and cognitive training (CT) have provided new tools and evidence that NF improves cognitive functions, such as attention and working memory (WM), beyond what is provided by traditional CT. More published studies have demonstrated the efficacy of NF, particularly for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. In contrast, there have been fewer studies done in older adults with or without cognitive impairment, with some notable exceptions. The focus of this review is to summarize current success in RT NF training of older brains aiming to match those of younger brains during attention/WM tasks. We also outline potential future advances in RT brainwave-based NF for improving attention training in older populations. The rapid growth in wireless recording of brain activity, machine learning classification and brain network analysis provides new tools for combating cognitive decline and brain aging in older adults. We optimistically conclude that NF, combined with new neuro-markers (event-related potentials and connectivity) and traditional features, promises to provide new hope for brain and CT in the growing older population.

  9. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  10. Neurophotonics: optical methods to study and control the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Fedotov, I. V.; Fedotov, A. B.; Anokhin, K. V.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    Methods of optical physics offer unique opportunities for the investigation of brain and higher nervous activity. The integration of cutting-edge laser technologies and advanced neurobiology opens a new cross-disciplinary area of natural sciences - neurophotonics - focusing on the development of a vast arsenal of tools for functional brain diagnostics, stimulation of individual neurons and neural networks, and the molecular engineering of brain cells aimed at the diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative and psychic diseases. Optical fibers help to confront the most challenging problems in brain research, including the analysis of molecular-cellular mechanisms of the formation of memory and behavior. New generation optical fibers provide new solutions for the development of fundamentally new, unique tools for neurophotonics and laser neuroengineering - fiber-optic neuroendoscopes and neurointerfaces. These instruments broaden research horizons when investigating the most complex brain functions, enabling a long-term multiplex detection of fluorescent protein markers, as well as photostimulation of neuronal activity in deep brain areas in living, freely moving animals with an unprecedented spatial resolution and minimal invasiveness. This emerging technology opens new horizons for understanding learning and long-term memory through experiments with living, freely moving mammals. Here, we present a brief review of this rapidly growing field of research.

  11. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  12. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  13. Growing Patterns: Seeing beyond Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, mathematical patterns have been acknowledged as important early components of children's development of algebraic reasoning (NCTM 2000). In particular, growing patterns have attracted significant attention as a context that helps students develop an understanding of functional relationships (Lee and Freiman 2006; Moss et…

  14. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  15. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, and ongoing research that helps ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies ... medication. This information may someday make it possible to predict who ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... fear hub," which activates our natural "fight-or-flight" response to confront or escape from a dangerous ...

  19. Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Brain lesions By Mayo Clinic Staff A brain lesion is an abnormality seen on a brain-imaging test, such as ... tomography (CT). On CT or MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don' ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  1. Multiple growing fractures and cerebral venous anomaly after penetrating injuries: delayed diagnosis in a battered child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkat, S.; Vandevenne, J.E.; Parizel, P.M.; Schepper, A.M. de [Dept. of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, Edegem (Belgium)

    2001-05-01

    A growing fracture usually results from a skull fracture with dural tear after blunt head trauma during infancy. We present a case of child abuse with multiple growing fractures resulting from penetrating head trauma by scissors. MR imaging confirmed the presence of growing fractures and revealed a presumably post-traumatic venous anomaly (occluded left cavernous sinus and aberrant posterior venous drainage via the internal cerebral veins). Diagnosis of the growing fractures and venous anomaly was delayed until the age of 15 years. Medical expertise should be more readily available to battered children, and MR imaging is advocated in growing skull fracture to exclude associated post-traumatic brain lesions. (orig.)

  2. Growing random networks with fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Ergun, G.; Rodgers, GJ

    2001-01-01

    Three models of growing random networks with fitness dependent growth rates are analysed using the rate equations for the distribution of their connectivities. In the first model (A), a network is built by connecting incoming nodes to nodes of connectivity $k$ and random additive fitness $\\eta$, with rate $(k-1)+ \\eta $. For $\\eta >0$ we find the connectivity distribution is power law with exponent $\\gamma=+2$. In the second model (B), the network is built by connecting nodes to nodes of conn...

  3. [Myopia, a growing health problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, J.W.; Polling, J.R.; Schans, A. van der; Verhoeven, V.J.; Klaver, C.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    - Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood, with a peak incidence between the ages of 13 to 15 years. - Especially high myopia, i.e. a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during

  4. Assessment of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesire, David J.; Buckley, Valerie A.; Canto, Angela I.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of brain injuries, as well as their impact on individuals who sustain them, has received growing attention from American media in recent years. This attention is likely the result of high profile individuals suffering brain injuries. Greater public awareness of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) has also been promoted by sources such as…

  5. Dynamics of the brain: Mathematical models and non-invasive experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toronov, V.; Myllylä, T.; Kiviniemi, V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2013-10-01

    Dynamics is an essential aspect of the brain function. In this article we review theoretical models of neural and haemodynamic processes in the human brain and experimental non-invasive techniques developed to study brain functions and to measure dynamic characteristics, such as neurodynamics, neurovascular coupling, haemodynamic changes due to brain activity and autoregulation, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. We focus on emerging theoretical biophysical models and experimental functional neuroimaging results, obtained mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We also included our current results on the effects of blood pressure variations on cerebral haemodynamics and simultaneous measurements of fast processes in the brain by near-infrared spectroscopy and a very novel functional MRI technique called magnetic resonance encephalography. Based on a rapid progress in theoretical and experimental techniques and due to the growing computational capacities and combined use of rapidly improving and emerging neuroimaging techniques we anticipate during next decade great achievements in the overall knowledge of the human brain.

  6. Small-world human brain networks: Perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xuhong; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; He, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Modelling the human brain as a complex network has provided a powerful mathematical framework to characterize the structural and functional architectures of the brain. In the past decade, the combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches enable us to map human structural and functional connectivity patterns (i.e., connectome) at the macroscopic level. One of the most influential findings is that human brain networks exhibit prominent small-world organization. Such a network architecture in the human brain facilitates efficient information segregation and integration at low wiring and energy costs, which presumably results from natural selection under the pressure of a cost-efficiency balance. Moreover, the small-world organization undergoes continuous changes during normal development and ageing and exhibits dramatic alterations in neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this review, we survey recent advances regarding the small-world architecture in human brain networks and highlight the potential implications and applications in multidisciplinary fields, including cognitive neuroscience, medicine and engineering. Finally, we highlight several challenging issues and areas for future research in this rapidly growing field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics ... basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by neurons that carries ...

  8. Transport of Nutrients Determines Growth in Tissue Culture; Why apple shoots grow rapidly and tulip shoots grow slowly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tulip growth in vitro is seriously impaired by inferior transport in the shoots. As a result, tulip cannot be micropropagated commercially using conventional means. In contrast, apple shoots show high transport and are easily micropropagated.

  9. The Leadership Brain for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sprenger, Marilee B

    2010-01-01

    Discover how scientific knowledge of the brain can make you a better leader. Based upon the latest breakthroughs in neuroscience and advances in brain-based education, Leadership Brain For Dummies gives you the edge to influence, lead, and transform any team or organization. Drawing concrete connections between the growing scientific knowledge of the brain and leadership, this book gives you the skills to assess your strengths and weaknesses as a leader, adopt a style of leadership that suits your characteristics, determine the learning styles of individual employees, and conduct training sess

  10. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  11. Growing Vertical in the Flatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua A

    2016-01-26

    The world of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures continues to expand at a rate much greater than anyone could have predicted 10 years ago, but if we are to make the leap from science to technology, many materials challenges must still be overcome. Recent advances, such as those by Liu et al. in this issue of ACS Nano, demonstrate that it is possible to grow rotationally commensurate 2D heterostructures, which could pave the way toward single crystal van der Waals solids. In this Perspective, I provide some insight into a few of the challenges associated with growth of heterostructures, and discuss some of the recent works that help us better understand synthetic realization of 2D heterostructures.

  12. Viking Disruptions or Growing Integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper...... demonstrates how formal network analysis can be combined with a contextual reading of evidence relating to a long-distance communication network in the past. A study of the combined distributions of ten vessel types in 152 settlement sites from the 10th century suggests the outline of the core structure...... of the network. The model implies that 10th century long-distance exchange in the North Sea region featured long-distance links equal to those of the Carolingian emporia trade, and represented a growth in terms of new axes of integration, above all the growing links between the Scandinavian Peninsula...

  13. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  14. Morphogenesis of Growing Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, Julien; Ben Amar, Martine

    2008-08-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to a noteworthy property of some soft tissues: their ability to grow. Many attempts have been made to model this behavior in biology, chemistry, and physics. Using the theory of finite elasticity, Rodriguez has postulated a multiplicative decomposition of the geometric deformation gradient into a growth-induced part and an elastic one needed to ensure compatibility of the body. In order to fully explore the consequences of this hypothesis, the equations describing thin elastic objects under finite growth are derived. Under appropriate scaling assumptions for the growth rates, the proposed model is of the Föppl von Kármán type. As an illustration, the circumferential growth of a free hyperelastic disk is studied.

  15. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  16. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain ... imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure. mutation —A change in ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ...

  4. The polyphonic brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Irene; Treder, Matthias S.; Dähne, Sven

    Rapid changes in the stimulus envelope (indicating tone onsets) elicit an N1-P2 ERP response, as has been shown for clicks and sine waves, musical tones and for speech. Canonical Correlation Analysis with temporal embedding (tkCCA), a multivariate correlation-based method, allows to extract brain...

  5. Impact of growing income inequality on sustainable development in China: a provincial-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.B.M.; Ma, J.

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of literature has documented the rapidly increasing income disparities that accompanied China's economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s, and the driving factors behind this. Growing income inequality in its turn may have important implications for the accumulation of physical capital,

  6. [Myopia, a growing health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tideman, J W L; Polling, J R; van der Schans, A; Verhoeven, V J M; Klaver, C C W

    2016-01-01

    - Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood, with a peak incidence between the ages of 13 to 15 years. - Especially high myopia, i.e. a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during adulthood due to structural abnormalities of the retina and optic nerve.- The cause of myopia is complex. Lifestyle factors in childhood, such as limited time spent outdoors and close work - such as reading and smartphone usage - are risk factors. Furthermore, genetic studies have revealed more than 100 factors associated with the development of myopia. - Pharmacological and optical interventions to inhibit myopia progression are increasingly applied. The use of atropine eye drops in children and has shown to be an effective treatment.

  7. Infection Dynamics on Growing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Cheng; Liu, Zonghua; Ye, Nong

    We consider the entire spectrum of architectures for large, growing, and complex networks, ranging from being heterogeneous (scale-free) to homogeneous (random or small-world), and investigate the infection dynamics by using a realistic three-state epidemiological model. In this framework, a node can be in one of the three states: susceptible (S), infected (I), or refractory (R), and the populations in the three groups are approximately described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. Our heuristic analysis predicts that, (1) regardless of the network architecture, there exists a substantial fraction of nodes that can never be infected, and (2) heterogeneous networks are relatively more robust against spread of infection as compared with homogeneous networks. These are confirmed numerically. We have also considered the problem of deliberate immunization for preventing wide spread of infection, with the result that targeted immunization can be quite effective for heterogeneous networks. We believe these results are important for a host of problems in many areas of natural science and engineering, and in social sciences as well.

  8. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  9. Case grows for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hileman, B.

    1999-08-09

    In the four years since the IPCC stated that 'the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate', evidence for anomalous warming has become more compelling, and as a result scientists have become more concerned that human-induced climate change has already arrived. The article summarises recent extra evidence on global temperatures, carbon dioxide measurements, ice shelf breakup, coral bleaching, unstable climates and improved climate models. At the time of the Kyoto conference, the US became keen on the idea that enhancing forest and soil carbon sequestration was a good way to offset emissions reduction targets. Congress is however under the opinion on that the Kyoto protocol presents a threat to the US economy, and senate is very unlikely to ratify the protocol during the Clinton Administration. The debate as to whether the US government should mandate major emission reduction or wait for more scientific certainty may continue for a number of years, but, growing concern of scientists and the public for the harmful effects of climate change may cause a change. 4 figs., 8 photos.

  10. Pediatric Ovarian Growing Teratoma Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Rentea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian immature teratoma is a germ cell tumor that comprises less than 1% of ovarian cancers and is treated with surgical debulking and chemotherapy depending on stage. Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS is the phenomenon of the growth of mature teratoma elements with normal tumor markers during or following chemotherapy for treatment of a malignant germ cell tumor. These tumors are associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to invasive and compressive growth as well as potential for malignant transformation. Current treatment modality is surgical resection. We discuss a 12-year-old female who presented following resection of a pure ovarian immature teratoma (grade 3, FIGO stage IIIC. Following chemotherapy and resection of a pelvic/liver recurrence demonstrating mature teratoma, she underwent molecular genetics based chemotherapeutic treatment. No standardized management protocol has been established for the treatment of GTS. The effect of chemotherapeutic agents for decreasing the volume of and prevention of expansion is unknown. We review in detail the history, diagnostic algorithm, and previous reported pediatric cases as well as treatment options for pediatric patients with GTS.

  11. [Growing old differently: Transdisciplinary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, H-P

    2015-04-01

    Growing old differently: the phrase is intended to call something other to mind than merely the fact that images and forms of old age and aging have multiplied and diversified to an enormous extent. The suggestion put forward here is that otherness (as opposed to mere differences) should be positively reinforced. In other words, it is not just a matter of noting different forms of old age and aging but more than this, of seeking out opportunities for aging differently. In order to explore this, the article follows an older strand of theory, which has recently come to be frequently quoted in gerontology: the phenomenology of difference as reasoned analytically by Lévinas and Sartre and applied to gerontology by Améry and de Beauvoir. Here, opportunities for aging crucially depend on the way we look at it, how we observe and describe it and not least, how gerontology frames it. A distinction is made between two perspectives and their associated consequences for old age: alienation and alterity. Alienation means looking at old age above all as a disconcerting "other", as a perplexing, problematic deviation from the norm of vitality. Alterity, by contrast, refers to different options for living life in old age: options to be explored and opened up in contradistinction to cultural or academic alienation. Not least, the article appeals for diversity in scholarly approaches and for cross-disciplinary perspectives.

  12. Intracavitary moderator balloon combined with (252)Cf brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy, improving dosimetry in brain tumour and infiltrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, S F; Campos, T P R

    2015-07-01

    This article proposes a combination of californium-252 ((252)Cf) brachytherapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and an intracavitary moderator balloon catheter applied to brain tumour and infiltrations. Dosimetric evaluations were performed on three protocol set-ups: (252)Cf brachytherapy combined with BNCT (Cf-BNCT); Cf-BNCT with a balloon catheter filled with light water (LWB) and the same set-up with heavy water (HWB). Cf-BNCT-HWB has presented dosimetric advantages to Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT in infiltrations at 2.0-5.0 cm from the balloon surface. However, Cf-BNCT-LWB has shown superior dosimetry up to 2.0 cm from the balloon surface. Cf-BNCT-HWB and Cf-BNCT-LWB protocols provide a selective dose distribution for brain tumour and infiltrations, mainly further from the (252)Cf source, sparing the normal brain tissue. Malignant brain tumours grow rapidly and often spread to adjacent brain tissues, leading to death. Improvements in brain radiation protocols have been continuously achieved; however, brain tumour recurrence is observed in most cases. Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT-HWB represent new modalities for selectively combating brain tumour infiltrations and metastasis.

  13. Intracavitary moderator balloon combined with 252Cf brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy, improving dosimetry in brain tumour and infiltrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, S F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This article proposes a combination of californium-252 (252Cf) brachytherapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and an intracavitary moderator balloon catheter applied to brain tumour and infiltrations. Methods: Dosimetric evaluations were performed on three protocol set-ups: 252Cf brachytherapy combined with BNCT (Cf-BNCT); Cf-BNCT with a balloon catheter filled with light water (LWB) and the same set-up with heavy water (HWB). Results: Cf-BNCT-HWB has presented dosimetric advantages to Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT in infiltrations at 2.0–5.0 cm from the balloon surface. However, Cf-BNCT-LWB has shown superior dosimetry up to 2.0 cm from the balloon surface. Conclusion: Cf-BNCT-HWB and Cf-BNCT-LWB protocols provide a selective dose distribution for brain tumour and infiltrations, mainly further from the 252Cf source, sparing the normal brain tissue. Advances in knowledge: Malignant brain tumours grow rapidly and often spread to adjacent brain tissues, leading to death. Improvements in brain radiation protocols have been continuously achieved; however, brain tumour recurrence is observed in most cases. Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT-HWB represent new modalities for selectively combating brain tumour infiltrations and metastasis. PMID:25927876

  14. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... axis —A brain-body circuit which plays a critical role in the body's response to stress. impulse — ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... time in healthy people and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental ... the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting messages. ... specialized brain systems. We have many specialized brain systems that work ... research are listed below. Amygdala —The brain's "fear hub," which ...

  18. Bariatric amputee: A growing problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Jai; Hannett, Dominic P; Purcell, Steven

    2015-06-01

    This study reviewed prevalence of patients with lower limb amputations with above normal weight profile, with body mass index over 25, in seven disablement services centres managing their amputee rehabilitation in the United Kingdom. To review two clinical standards of practice in amputee rehabilitation. Ambulant lower limb amputees should have their body weight recorded on an electronic information system, with identification of cohort with body weight >100 kg. Lower limb amputees to be provided with suitable weight-rated prosthesis. Observational study of clinical practice. Data were collected from the Clinical Information Management Systems. Inclusion criteria--subjects were ambulant prosthetic users with some prosthetic intervention in the last 5 years and had at least one lower limb amputation. In 96% of patients, the weight record profile was maintained. In addition, 86% were under 100 kg, which is the most common weight limit of prosthetic componentry. Of 15,204 amputation levels, there were 1830 transfemoral and transtibial sites in users with body weight over 100 kg. In 60 cases, the prosthetic limb build was rated to be below the user body weight. In 96% of our patients, body weight was documented, and in 97%, the prosthetic limb builds were within stated body weight limits, but this may not be the case in all the other disablement services centres in the United Kingdom. Also, the incidence of obesity in the United Kingdom is a growing problem, and the health issues associated with obesity are further compounded in the amputee population. Prosthetic componentry has distinct weight limits which must be considered during prescription. As people with amputation approach the limits of specific components, clinicians are faced with the challenge of continued provision in a safe and suitable manner. This article reviews the amputee population and the current national profile to consider trends in provision and the incidence of these challenges. © The

  19. On the mechanics of thin films and growing surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Holland, M. A.

    2013-05-24

    Many living structures are coated by thin films, which have distinct mechanical properties from the bulk. In particular, these thin layers may grow faster or slower than the inner core. Differential growth creates a balanced interplay between tension and compression and plays a critical role in enhancing structural rigidity. Typical examples with a compressive outer surface and a tensile inner core are the petioles of celery, caladium, or rhubarb. While plant physiologists have studied the impact of tissue tension on plant rigidity for more than a century, the fundamental theory of growing surfaces remains poorly understood. Here, we establish a theoretical and computational framework for continua with growing surfaces and demonstrate its application to classical phenomena in plant growth. To allow the surface to grow independently of the bulk, we equip it with its own potential energy and its own surface stress. We derive the governing equations for growing surfaces of zero thickness and obtain their spatial discretization using the finite-element method. To illustrate the features of our new surface growth model we simulate the effects of growth-induced longitudinal tissue tension in a stalk of rhubarb. Our results demonstrate that different growth rates create a mechanical environment of axial tissue tension and residual stress, which can be released by peeling off the outer layer. Our novel framework for continua with growing surfaces has immediate biomedical applications beyond these classical model problems in botany: it can be easily extended to model and predict surface growth in asthma, gastritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, brain development, and tumor invasion. Beyond biology and medicine, surface growth models are valuable tools for material scientists when designing functionalized surfaces with distinct user-defined properties. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Designing a Growing Functional Modules “Artificial Brain”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Leboeuf-Pasquier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The present paper illustrates the design process for the Growing Functional Modules (GFM learning based controller. GFM controllers are elaborated interconnecting four kinds of components: Global Goals, Acting Modules, Sensations and Sensing Modules. Global Goals trigger intrinsic motivations, Acting and Sensing Modules develop specific functionalities and Sensations provide the controlled system's feedback. GFM controllers learn to satisfy some predefined goals while interacting with the environment and thus should be considered as artificial brains. An example of the design process of a simple controller is provided herein to explain the inherent methodology, to exhibit the components' interconnections and to demonstrate the control process.

  1. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  2. Rapid geodesic mapping of brain functional connectivity: implementation of a dedicated co-processor in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and application to resting state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Cercignani, Mara; Chan, Dennis

    2013-10-01

    Graph theory-based analyses of brain network topology can be used to model the spatiotemporal correlations in neural activity detected through fMRI, and such approaches have wide-ranging potential, from detection of alterations in preclinical Alzheimer's disease through to command identification in brain-machine interfaces. However, due to prohibitive computational costs, graph-based analyses to date have principally focused on measuring connection density rather than mapping the topological architecture in full by exhaustive shortest-path determination. This paper outlines a solution to this problem through parallel implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm in programmable logic. The processor design is optimized for large, sparse graphs and provided in full as synthesizable VHDL code. An acceleration factor between 15 and 18 is obtained on a representative resting-state fMRI dataset, and maps of Euclidean path length reveal the anticipated heterogeneous cortical involvement in long-range integrative processing. These results enable high-resolution geodesic connectivity mapping for resting-state fMRI in patient populations and real-time geodesic mapping to support identification of imagined actions for fMRI-based brain-machine interfaces. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid doubling of Alzheimer’s amyloid-β40 and 42 levels in brains of mice exposed to a nickel nanoparticle model of air pollution [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/T5Rxeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soong Ho Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over 20 genetic risk factors have been confirmed to associate with elevated risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but the identification of environmental and/or acquired risk factors has been more elusive. At present, recognized acquired risks for AD include traumatic brain injury, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Methods: Based on reports associating various inhalants with AD pathology, we investigated the possibility that air pollution might contribute to AD risk by exposing wild-type mice to a standard air pollution modeling system employing nickel nanoparticle-enriched atmosphere for 3 hr. Results: Mice exposed to air pollution showed 72-129% increases in brain levels of both amyloid-β peptides Aβ40 and Aβ42, as well as Aβ42/40 (p <0.01. Conclusions: These effects on elevation of brain Aβ exceed those associated with trisomy 21, a known risk for early onset AD pathology, raising the possibility that clinical importance might be attached. Further work is required to establish the molecular and physiological basis for these phenomena. The rapid, dramatic effect, if verified, would suggest that inhalant exposures should be evaluated for their possible roles in contributing to the environmental risk for common forms of AD.

  4. Poverty, Stress, and Brain Development: New Directions for Prevention and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2018-01-01

    We review some of the growing evidence of the costs of poverty to children’s neuroendocrine function, early brain development, and cognitive ability. We underscore the importance of addressing the negative consequences of poverty-related adversity early in children’s lives, given evidence supporting the plasticity of executive functions and associated physiologic processes in response to early intervention and the importance of higher order cognitive functions for success in school and in life. Finally, we highlight some new directions for prevention and intervention that are rapidly emerging at the intersection of developmental science, pediatrics, child psychology and psychiatry, and public policy. PMID:27044699

  5. Poverty, Stress, and Brain Development: New Directions for Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele

    2016-04-01

    We review some of the growing evidence of the costs of poverty to children's neuroendocrine function, early brain development, and cognitive ability. We underscore the importance of addressing the negative consequences of poverty-related adversity early in children's lives, given evidence supporting the plasticity of executive functions and associated physiologic processes in response to early intervention and the importance of higher order cognitive functions for success in school and in life. Finally, we highlight some new directions for prevention and intervention that are rapidly emerging at the intersection of developmental science, pediatrics, child psychology and psychiatry, and public policy. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... are sent from one neuron to another. Share Science News New BRAIN Grants BRAIN Cell Census Launched ... human volunteers PubMed Central: An archive of life sciences journals NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Careers at NIMH Staff Directories Getting to NIMH Transforming the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses. Search ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

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    Full Text Available ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain involved in creating and filing new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) ...

  10. Brain Diseases

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    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... brain. Using MEG, some scientists have found a specific pattern of brain activity that may help predict ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, and ongoing research that helps us better understand and treat disorders. Mental disorders are common. You may have a ...

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    Full Text Available ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

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    Full Text Available ... Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding how the brain functions. Another type of brain scan called magnetoencephalography, or MEG, can ...

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    Full Text Available ... front of the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ...

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle- ... symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early-life experiences may have made it ...

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    Full Text Available ... Evidence shows that they can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the ... brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain can lead to mental disorders, ...

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    Full Text Available ... The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each ... of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, cytoplasm, and ...

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    Full Text Available ... Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Labs at NIMH Labs ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ...

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    Full Text Available ... Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells ... A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes ...

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  15. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BRAIN STRUCTURE AND CONNECTIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, LM

    2016-01-01

    The human brain undergoes profound structural changes with development. It does not mature by simply growing, rather the transition to adulthood is a dynamic process with regionally specific patterns. However, there is no consensus on the timing and shape of growth trajectories of brain structures.

  16. Do you believe in brain training? A questionnaire about expectations of computerised cognitive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabipour, Sheida; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2015-12-15

    "Brain training" (i.e., enhancing, rehabilitating, or simply maintaining cognitive function through deliberate cognitive exercise) is growing rapidly in popularity, yet remains highly controversial. Among the greatest problems in current research is the lack of a measure of participants' expectations, which can influence the degree to which they improve over training (i.e., the placebo effect). Here we created a questionnaire to measure the perceived effectiveness of brain-training software. Given the growth in advertising of these programmes, we sought to determine whether even a brief positive (or negative) message about brain training would increase (or decrease) the reported optimism of participants. We measured participants' expectations at baseline, and then following exposure to separate, brief messages that such programmes have either high or low effectiveness. Based on the knowledge they have gleaned from advertising and other real-world sources, people are relatively optimistic about brain training. However, brief messages can influence reported expectations about brain-training results: Reading a brief positive message can increase reported optimism, whereas reading a brief negative message can decrease it. Older adults appear more optimistic about brain training than young adults, especially when they report being knowledgeable about brain training and computers. These data indicate that perceptions of brain training are malleable to at least some extent, and may vary depending on age and other factors. Our questionnaire can serve as a simple, easily-incorporated tool to assess the face validity of brain training interventions and to create a covariate to account for expectations in statistical analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Why the embryo still matters: CSF and the neuroepithelium as interdependent regulators of embryonic brain growth, morphogenesis and histiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, Angel; Desmond, Mary E

    2009-03-15

    The key focus of this review is that both the neuroepithelium and embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) work in an integrated way to promote embryonic brain growth, morphogenesis and histiogenesis. The CSF generates pressure and also contains many biologically powerful trophic factors; both play key roles in early brain development. Accumulation of fluid via an osmotic gradient creates pressure that promotes rapid expansion of the early brain in a developmental regulated way, since the rates of growth differ between the vesicles and for different species. The neuroepithelium and ventricles both contribute to this growth but by different and coordinated mechanisms. The neuroepithelium grows primarily by cell proliferation and at the same time the ventricle expands via hydrostatic pressure generated by active transport of Na(+) and transport or secretion of proteins and proteoglycans that create an osmotic gradient which contribute to the accumulation of fluid inside the sealed brain cavity. Recent evidence shows that the CSF regulates relevant aspects of neuroepithelial behavior such as cell survival, replication and neurogenesis by means of growth factors and morphogens. Here we try to highlight that early brain development requires the coordinated interplay of the CSF contained in the brain cavity with the surrounding neuroepithelium. The information presented is essential in order to understand the earliest phases of brain development and also how neuronal precursor behavior is regulated.

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a major mood circuit called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain ... in creating and filing new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A brain-body circuit which plays ...

  19. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate have been ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain involved in ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons working together form ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. ... that regulates many functions, including mood, appetite, and sleep. synapse —The tiny gap between neurons, where nerve impulses are sent from one neuron to ... of Deep Brain Stimulation Brain’s Alertness Circuitry Revealed New BRAIN Grants ...

  4. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inside of the brain (ventricles) or surrounding your brain and spinal cord to drain the excess fluid into an external bag. Sometimes it may then be necessary to introduce a shunt system — which consists of a ... brain and ending in your abdominal cavity. Rehabilitative therapy. ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... another important research tool in understanding how the brain functions. Another type of brain scan called magnetoencephalography, or ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  6. Effect of dietary iron loading on recognition memory in growing rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murui Han

    Full Text Available While nutritional and neurobehavioral problems are associated with both iron deficiency during growth and overload in the elderly, the effect of iron loading in growing ages on neurobehavioral performance has not been fully explored. To characterize the role of dietary iron loading in memory function in the young, weanling rats were fed iron-loading diet (10,000 mg iron/kg diet or iron-adequate control diet (50 mg/kg for one month, during which a battery of behavioral tests were conducted. Iron-loaded rats displayed elevated non-heme iron levels in serum and liver, indicating a condition of systemic iron overload. In the brain, non-heme iron was elevated in the prefrontal cortex of iron-loaded rats compared with controls, whereas there was no difference in iron content in other brain regions between the two diet groups. While iron loading did not alter motor coordination or anxiety-like behavior, iron-loaded rats exhibited a better recognition memory, as represented by an increased novel object recognition index (22% increase from the reference value than control rats (12% increase; P=0.047. Western blot analysis showed an up-regulation of dopamine receptor 1 in the prefrontal cortex from iron-loaded rats (142% increase; P=0.002. Furthermore, levels of glutamate receptors (both NMDA and AMPA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR were significantly elevated in the prefrontal cortex of iron-loaded rats (62% increase in NR1; 70% increase in Glu1A; 115% increase in nAChR. Dietary iron loading also increased the expression of NMDA receptors and nAChR in the hippocampus. These results support the idea that iron is essential for learning and memory and further reveal that iron supplementation during developmental and rapidly growing periods of life improves memory performance. Our investigation also demonstrates that both cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission pathways are regulated by dietary iron and provides a molecular basis for the

  7. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  8. Microbial genes, brain & behaviour - epigenetic regulation of the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilling, R M; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2014-01-01

    To date, there is rapidly increasing evidence for host-microbe interaction at virtually all levels of complexity, ranging from direct cell-to-cell communication to extensive systemic signalling, and involving various organs and organ systems, including the central nervous system. As such, the discovery that differential microbial composition is associated with alterations in behaviour and cognition has significantly contributed to establishing the microbiota-gut-brain axis as an extension of the well-accepted gut-brain axis concept. Many efforts have been focused on delineating a role for this axis in health and disease, ranging from stress-related disorders such as depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. There is also a growing appreciation of the role of epigenetic mechanisms in shaping brain and behaviour. However, the role of epigenetics in informing host-microbe interactions has received little attention to date. This is despite the fact that there are many plausible routes of interaction between epigenetic mechanisms and the host-microbiota dialogue. From this new perspective we put forward novel, yet testable, hypotheses. Firstly, we suggest that gut-microbial products can affect chromatin plasticity within their host's brain that in turn leads to changes in neuronal transcription and eventually alters host behaviour. Secondly, we argue that the microbiota is an important mediator of gene-environment interactions. Finally, we reason that the microbiota itself may be viewed as an epigenetic entity. In conclusion, the fields of (neuro)epigenetics and microbiology are converging at many levels and more interdisciplinary studies are necessary to unravel the full range of this interaction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  9. Epidemiological features of brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2. 2 of all tumors, and from all cancer­related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of brain tumors for benign and malignant tumors combined is 18.71 per 100,000 persons/year. The most common benign brain tumor in adults is meningioma, which is most present in women, and the most common malignant tumor is glioblastoma, which is most present in adult men. Due to high mortality, especially in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and significant brain tumor morbidity, there is a constant interest in understanding its etiology in order to possibly prevent tumor occurrence in future and enable more efficient treatment strategies for this fatal brain disease. Despite the continuously growing number of epidemiological studies on possible factors of tumor incidence, the etiology remains unclear. The only established environmental risk factor of gliomas is ionizing radiation exposure. Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields via cell phone use has gained a lot of attention as a potential risk factor of brain tumor development. However, studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive, so more definite results are still expected.

  10. Oxytocin and Maternal Brain Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Although dramatic postnatal changes in maternal behavior have long been noted, we are only now beginning to understand the neurobiological mechanisms that support this transition. The present paper synthesizes growing insights from both animal and human research to provide an overview of the plasticity of the mother's brain, with a particular…

  11. Magnetically controlled growing rods for scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metkar, Umesh; Kurra, Swamy; Quinzi, David; Albanese, Stephen; Lavelle, William F

    2017-02-01

    Early onset scoliosis can be both a disfiguring as well as a life threatening condition. When more conservative treatments fail, pediatric spinal surgeons are forced to consider operative interventions. Traditionally, these interventions have involved the insertion of a variety of implants into the patient with a limited number of anchor points controlling the spine. In the past, these pediatric patients have had multiple surgeries for elective lengthening of these devices to facilitate their growth while attempting to control the scoliosis. These patients often experience a physical and emotional toll from their multiple repeated surgeries. Growing spine techniques have also had a noted high complication rate due to implant dislodgement and infections. Recently, the development of non-invasively, self-lengthening growing rods has occurred. These devices have the potential to allow for the devices to be lengthened magnetically in a conscious patient in the surgeon's office. Areas covered: This review summarized previously published articles in the English literature using a key word search in PubMed for: 'magnetically controlled growing rods', 'Magec rods', 'magnetic growing rods' and 'growing rods'. Expert commentary: Magnetically controlled growing rods have an advantage over growing rods in lengthening the growing spine in the absence of repetitive surgeries.

  12. (GrOW) Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alejandra

    How many applications will be shortlisted at the end of the first stage? GrOW envisages that up to 4 selected teams will be asked to submit a full research proposal for review and funding consideration. How is the review process conducted? Upon receiving complete applications, a review process begins by the GrOW team, ...

  13. Growing wealth and growing pains: child and adolescent psychiatry in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Susan; Fung, Daniel; Hung, Se-Fong; Rey, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Several Asian regions have undergone a dramatic transformation, some becoming very affluent. This paper aims to ascertain how countries that are becoming wealthy have dealt with child and adolescent mental health issues. Population health status, child and adolescent mental health services, child psychiatry training, the number of child psychiatrists and related matters were examined in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore are ethnically, religiously, socially and politically very different. In spite of considerable wealth and a growing recognition that mental health problems in the young are increasing, they face similar problems--lack of access to treatment due to a dearth of services and a lack of child psychiatrists (2.5, 0.5 and 2.8 per million people, respectively). Because the number of child psychiatrists is so small, their ability to provide services, advocate, train, maintain a professional identity, and deal with future crises is very limited. Other rapidly developing countries can learn from this experience and should take action early to prevent a similar outcome.

  14. Scale-free music of the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the relation between the brain and music. The appealing similarity between brainwaves and the rhythms of music has motivated many scientists to seek a connection between them. A variety of transferring rules has been utilized to convert the brainwaves into music; and most of them are mainly based on spectra feature of EEG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, audibly recognizable scale-free music was deduced from individual Electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. The translation rules include the direct mapping from the period of an EEG waveform to the duration of a note, the logarithmic mapping of the change of average power of EEG to music intensity according to the Fechner's law, and a scale-free based mapping from the amplitude of EEG to music pitch according to the power law. To show the actual effect, we applied the deduced sonification rules to EEG segments recorded during rapid-eye movement sleep (REM and slow-wave sleep (SWS. The resulting music is vivid and different between the two mental states; the melody during REM sleep sounds fast and lively, whereas that in SWS sleep is slow and tranquil. 60 volunteers evaluated 25 music pieces, 10 from REM, 10 from SWS and 5 from white noise (WN, 74.3% experienced a happy emotion from REM and felt boring and drowsy when listening to SWS, and the average accuracy for all the music pieces identification is 86.8%(kappa = 0.800, P<0.001. We also applied the method to the EEG data from eyes closed, eyes open and epileptic EEG, and the results showed these mental states can be identified by listeners. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The sonification rules may identify the mental states of the brain, which provide a real-time strategy for monitoring brain activities and are potentially useful to neurofeedback therapy.

  15. Applying Brain-Based Learning Principles to Athletic Training Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Debbie I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To present different concepts and techniques related to the application of brain-based learning principles to Athletic Training clinical education. Background: The body of knowledge concerning how our brains physically learn continues to grow. Brain-based learning principles, developed by numerous authors, offer advice on how to…

  16. Rapid whole-brain resting-state fMRI at 3 T: Efficiency-optimized three-dimensional EPI versus repetition time-matched simultaneous-multi-slice EPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnberg, Rüdiger; Huijbers, Willem; Brenner, Daniel; Poser, Benedikt A; Breteler, Monique; Stöcker, Tony

    2017-09-18

    State-of-the-art simultaneous-multi-slice (SMS-)EPI and 3D-EPI share several properties that benefit functional MRI acquisition. Both sequences employ equivalent parallel imaging undersampling with controlled aliasing to achieve high temporal sampling rates. As a volumetric imaging sequence, 3D-EPI offers additional means of acceleration complementary to 2D-CAIPIRINHA sampling, such as fast water excitation and elliptical sampling. We performed an application-oriented comparison between a tailored, six-fold CAIPIRINHA-accelerated 3D-EPI protocol at 530 ms temporal and 2.4 mm isotropic spatial resolution and an SMS-EPI protocol with identical spatial and temporal resolution for whole-brain resting-state fMRI at 3 T. The latter required eight-fold slice acceleration to compensate for the lack of elliptical sampling and fast water excitation. Both sequences used vendor-supplied on-line image reconstruction. We acquired test/retest resting-state fMRI scans in ten volunteers, with simultaneous acquisition of cardiac and respiration data, subsequently used for optional physiological noise removal (nuisance regression). We found that the 3D-EPI protocol has significantly increased temporal signal-to-noise ratio throughout the brain as compared to the SMS-EPI protocol, especially when employing motion and nuisance regression. Both sequence types reliably identified known functional networks with stronger functional connectivity values for the 3D-EPI protocol. We conclude that the more time-efficient 3D-EPI primarily benefits from reduced parallel imaging noise due to a higher, actual k-space sampling density compared to SMS-EPI. The resultant BOLD sensitivity increase makes 3D-EPI a valuable alternative to SMS-EPI for whole-brain fMRI at 3 T, with voxel sizes well below 3 mm isotropic and sampling rates high enough to separate dominant cardiac signals from BOLD signals in the frequency domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain hypoxia imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Chun [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The measurement of pathologically low levels of tissue pO{sub 2} is an important diagnostic goal for determining the prognosis of many clinically important diseases including cardiovascular insufficiency, stroke and cancer. The target tissues nowadays have mostly been tumors or the myocardium, with less attention centered on the brain. Radiolabelled nitroimidazole or derivatives may be useful in identifying the hypoxic cells in cerebrovascular disease or traumatic brain injury, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In acute stroke, the target of therapy is the severely hypoxic but salvageable tissue. {sup 18}F-MISO PET and {sup 99m}Tc-EC-metronidazole SPECT in patients with acute ischemic stroke identified hypoxic tissues and ischemic penumbra, and predicted its outcome. A study using {sup 123}I-IAZA in patient with closed head injury detected the hypoxic tissues after head injury. Up till now these radiopharmaceuticals have drawbacks due to its relatively low concentration with hypoxic tissues associated with/without low blood-brain barrier permeability and the necessity to wait a long time to achieve acceptable target to background ratios for imaging in acute ischemic stroke. It is needed to develop new hypoxic marker exhibiting more rapid localization in the hypoxic region in the brain. And then, the hypoxic brain imaging with imidazoles or non-imidazoles may be very useful in detecting the hypoxic tissues, determining therapeutic strategies and developing therapeutic drugs in several neurological disease, especially, in acute ischemic stroke.

  18. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  19. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  20. Brain glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Müller, Margit S; Walls, Anne B

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia....... In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies-it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic...... activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms...

  1. Brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, H R

    1999-05-01

    Current law in the United States authorizes physicians to diagnose brain death by applying generally accepted neurologic criteria for determining loss of function of the entire brain. This article offers a medical-legal perspective on problems that may arise with respect to the determination of brain death. These include the possibility of diagnostic error, conceptual disagreements that may constrain the use of neurologic criteria to diagnose death, and the conflation of brain death and loss of consciousness. This article also addresses legal aspects of the debate over whether to expand the definition of brain death to include permanent unconsciousness. Although existing laws draw a clear distinction between brain death and the persistent vegetative state, many courts have authorized removal of life support from individuals whose unconsciousness is believed to be permanent on proof that removal accords with preferences expressed before sentience was lost.

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons working together form ...

  3. Growing America's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  4. Development of a cost-efficient novel method for rapid, concurrent genotyping of five common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene by tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cathy K; Xu, Michael S; Ross, Colin J; Lo, Ryan; Procyshyn, Ric M; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; White, Randall F; Honer, William G; Barr, Alasdair M

    2015-09-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a molecular trophic factor that plays a key role in neuronal survival and plasticity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the BDNF gene have been associated with specific phenotypic traits in a large number of neuropsychiatric disorders and the response to psychotherapeutic medications in patient populations. Nevertheless, due to study differences and occasionally contrasting findings, substantial further research is required to understand in better detail the association between specific BDNF SNPs and these psychiatric disorders. While considerable progress has been made recently in developing advanced genotyping platforms of SNPs, many high-throughput probe- or array-based detection methods currently available are limited by high costs, slow processing times or access to advanced instrumentation. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based, tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (T-ARMS) method is a potential alternative technique for detecting SNP genotypes efficiently, quickly, easily, and cheaply. As a tool in psychopathology research, T-ARMS was shown to be capable of detecting five common SNPs in the BDNF gene (rs6265, rs988748, rs11030104, 11757G/C and rs7103411), which are all SNPs with previously demonstrated clinical relevance to schizophrenia and depression. The present technique therefore represents a suitable protocol for many research laboratories to study the genetic correlates of BDNF in psychiatric disorders. Copyright Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Play, Stress, and the Learning Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Sam; Aamodt, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Editor?s note: An extraordinary number of species?from squid to lizards to humans?engage in play. But why? In this article, adapted from Dr. Sam Wang and Dr. Sandra Aamodt?s book Welcome to Your Child?s Brain: How the Mind Grows from Conception to College (Bloomsbury USA, 2011; OneWorld Publications, 2011), the authors explore how play enhances brain development in children. As Wang and Aamodt describe, play activates the brain?s reward circuitry but not negative stress responses, which can f...

  6. Hot topics in research: Preventive neuroradiology in brain aging and cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Raji; H. Eyre; S.H. Wei; D.E. Bredesen; S. Moylan (Steven); M. Law; G. Small; P.M. Thompson (Paul); R.M. Friedlander; D.H. Silverman; B.T. Baune; T.A. Hoang; N. Salamon; A.W. Toga (Arthur); M.W. Vernooij (Meike)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPreventive neuroradiology is a new concept supported by growing literature. The main rationale of preventive neuroradiology is the application of multimodal brain imaging toward early and subclinical detection of brain disease and subsequent preventive actions through identification of

  7. Rapidly- growing firms and their main characteristics: a longitudinal study from United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the topic of high-growth phenomenon and its agents. High-growth enterprises are primarily small and medium sized firms that attain very high-growth rates for at least five years. The paper presents a review of the pertinent literature to guide its formulation of hypotheses...... are relatively smaller enterprises and their high growth rates are not restricted to a particular location, industrial region, size or time period. The findings of this analysis point to a population of high-growth enterprises with diverse locations, sizes and times with important implications for scholarly...

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF LEGAL ORGANISATION OF RAPIDLY GROWING COMPANIES FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Novak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of a company’s legal form for the process of internationalisation using a sample of 1577 Slovenian companies. We refer to previous studies and on the basis of additional statistical data evaluate whether the choice of corporate legal structure influences a company’s ability to compete internationally. In the domestic market, most companies operate as limited liability companies; this is also the most frequent legal form in which companies enter foreign markets. We conclude that the form by itself does not influence the decision to go international.

  9. [Case report: Rapidly growing abdominal wall giant desmoid tumour during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Zertuche, Jorge Tadeo; Cardona-Huerta, Servando; Juárez-García, María Luisa; Valdés-Flores, Everardo; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique

    Desmoid tumours are one of the rarest tumours worldwide, with an estimated yearly incidence of 2-4 new cases per million people. They are soft tissue monoclonal neoplasms that originate from mesenchymal stem cells. It seems that the hormonal and immunological changes occurring during pregnancy may play a role in the severity and course of the disease. The case is presented on 28-year-old female in her fifth week of gestation, in whom an abdominal wall tumour was found attached to left adnexa and uterus while performing a prenatal ultrasound. The patient was followed up under clinical and ultrasonographic surveillance. When she presented with abnormal uterine activity at 38.2 weeks of gestation, she was admitted and obstetrics decided to perform a caesarean section. Tumour biopsy was taken during the procedure. Histopathology reported a desmoid fibromatosis. A contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan was performed, showing a tumour of 26×20.5×18cm, with well-defined borders in contact with the uterus, left adnexa, bladder and abdominal wall, with no evidence of infiltration to adjacent structures. A laparotomy, with tumour resection, hysterectomy and left salpingo-oophorectomy, components separation techniques, polypropylene mesh insertion, and drainage was performed. The final histopathology report was desmoid fibromatosis. There is no evidence of recurrence after 6 months follow-up. Desmoid tumours are locally aggressive and surgical resection with clear margins is the basis for the treatment of this disease, using radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy as an adjunct in the treatment. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Water resources in a rapidly growing region-Oakland County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    Oakland County is a suburban county in southeast Michigan. Population and demand for water grew steadily in the county over the 20th century, and these trends are expected to continue in coming decades. Roughly 75 percent of current water demand is met by imported water from the Detroit Water and Sewerage Division (DWSD), but water use from ground-water sources within the county still exceeds 43 million gallons per day. Because much of the population growth is in areas beyond the DWSD system, an additional 20-25 million gallons per day of supply may be necessary to meet future demands. Managing the wastewater produced while also protecting human and ecosystem health also may present challenges.

  11. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... However, laboratory protocols that are commonly used to investigate the presence of mycobacteria in clinical specimens are insufficient for isolation of these organisms form soil and natural water samples (Chilima et al., 2006). In spite of large –scale BCG trial conducted in our country during past decades, ...

  12. Case series: Rapidly growing squamous cell carcinoma after cutaneous surgical intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ibrahim

    2017-12-01

    This case series explores the various mechanisms of de-novo squamous cell carcinoma development in areas of cutaneous surgical intervention, including graft harvest. It also provides recommendations regarding the necessary precautions to avoid implantation of squamous cell carcinoma into distant sites. Lastly it highlights the importance of surveillance for any suspicious lesions arising from areas of previous cutaneous surgical intervention.

  13. Emerging Development Pathways of Urban Livestock Production in Rapidly Growing West Africa Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Roessler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we try to capture the degree of specialization or integration, and of intensification or extensification, of (peri- urban livestock production, along with the factors that influence such decisions and their impact on natural resource uses. A total of 181 and 187 structured questionnaires were completed in livestock-keeping households in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso and Tamale (Ghana. Categorical principal component and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify homogenous groups of livestock-keeping households. Cross tabulation and logistic regression analysis revealed factors that influence livestock husbandry, showing their impacts on resource use by livestock keepers in the two cities. A diversity of livestock species was kept, mostly integrated with crop farming. Yet, some households specialized in either sheep, pig or commercial milk production, and partly intensified their production. The decision to specialize and/or intensify livestock production is site-specific and influenced by the education level of the household head and security of land ownership. Higher inputs in livestock systems do not necessarily lead to higher outputs, and specialization inevitably leads to higher manure wastages. Therefore, links of livestock producers to crop farmers and markets for livestock manure must be strengthened to enable recycling of resources and limit negative externalities of specialized livestock production. Strategies need to be identified to improve livestock productivity by enhancing outputs as input use increases.

  14. Scar sarcoidosis on a finger mimicking a rapidly growing soft tissue tumour: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrichs Marcel-Philipp

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scar sarcoidosis is a rare and uncommon but specific cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. In general it arises in pre-existing scars deriving from mechanical traumas. As most surgeons dealing with scars might not be aware of cutaneous sarcoidosis and its different types of appearance the appropriate staging and treatment might be missed or at least delayed. To our knowledge this is the first case in literature of scar sarcoidosis on a finger. Case presentation We present a case of a 33-year-old carpenter who developed scar sarcoidosis on his right index finger 4 years after the tendon of the long digital flexor got accidentally cut by an angle grinder. He was referred due to a swelling of the finger suspected to be a malignant soft tissue tumour. The circumference of the affected finger had almost doubled, adding up to 94 mm. Incision biopsy revealed typical noncaseating granulomas. Further investigation showed a systemic extent of the disease with involvement of the lung. A systemic treatment with oral steroids led to an almost full regression of the swelling with restoration of function and resolution of lung infiltrates. Conclusion In case of a suspicious and/or progressive swelling a definite diagnosis should be achieved by biopsy within a short time to enable a proper treatment. If scar sarcoidosis is proven further investigation is necessary to exclude a systemical involvement. A surgical treatment of the swelling is not indicated.

  15. Scar sarcoidosis on a finger mimicking a rapidly growing soft tissue tumour: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Marcel-Philipp; Streitbürger, Arne; Gosheger, Georg; Surke, Carsten; Dierkes, Christian; Hardes, Jendrik

    2012-10-02

    Scar sarcoidosis is a rare and uncommon but specific cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. In general it arises in pre-existing scars deriving from mechanical traumas. As most surgeons dealing with scars might not be aware of cutaneous sarcoidosis and its different types of appearance the appropriate staging and treatment might be missed or at least delayed. To our knowledge this is the first case in literature of scar sarcoidosis on a finger. We present a case of a 33-year-old carpenter who developed scar sarcoidosis on his right index finger 4 years after the tendon of the long digital flexor got accidentally cut by an angle grinder. He was referred due to a swelling of the finger suspected to be a malignant soft tissue tumour. The circumference of the affected finger had almost doubled, adding up to 94 mm. Incision biopsy revealed typical noncaseating granulomas. Further investigation showed a systemic extent of the disease with involvement of the lung. A systemic treatment with oral steroids led to an almost full regression of the swelling with restoration of function and resolution of lung infiltrates. In case of a suspicious and/or progressive swelling a definite diagnosis should be achieved by biopsy within a short time to enable a proper treatment. If scar sarcoidosis is proven further investigation is necessary to exclude a systemical involvement. A surgical treatment of the swelling is not indicated.

  16. PET/MR - a rapidly growing technique of imaging in oncology and neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałyga, Alicja; Guzikowska-Ruszkowska, Izabela; Czepczyński, Rafał; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) has become a subject of interest for researchers in the recent several years. Positron emission tomography in combination with magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is the most recent imaging technique classified in the so called hybrid systems category. This review briefly discusses the development history of PET/MR scanners, the principle of their operation, of tandem systems, as well as fully integrated devices. Further, it summarizes recent reports on the application of PET/MR scans and their possible future role in oncological and non-oncological diagnostics. Recent reports regarding the application of PET/MR scanners show huge potential of simultaneously received images, which exceed the advantages of either of those scans used separately. However, the results so far remain uncertain and require further investigations, especially in terms of clinical studies, not only for scientific purposes.

  17. A rapidly growing electronic publishing trend: audiobooks for leisure and education

    OpenAIRE

    Engelen, J J

    2008-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the relatively new phenomenon of the purely commercial availability of audiobooks, sometimes also called “spoken books”, “talking books” or “narrated books”. Having the text of a book read aloud and recorded has been for a very long time the favourite solution to make books and other texts accessible for persons with a serious reading impairment such as blindness or low vision. Specialised production centres do exist in most countries of the world for producing th...

  18. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 350 soil samples were collected from different part of Uremia city and suburbs. We used 3% sodium lauryl sulfate and 1% NaOH for decontamination of soil samples. Of 350 samples, mycobacteria were isolated from 65 (18.3%) specimens. Mycobacterium fortuitum with 18(5.14) strains yielded the highest ...

  19. Peptostreptococcus productus strain that grows rapidly with CO as the energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorowitz, W H; Bryant, M P

    1984-05-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were enriched with a sewage digestor sludge inoculum and a mineral medium supplemented with B-vitamins and 0.05% yeast extract and with a 50% CO-30% N2-20% CO2 (2 atm [202 kPa]) gas phase. Microscopic observation revealed an abundance of gram-positive cocci, 1.0 by 1.4 micron, which occurred in pairs or chains. The coccus, strain U-1, was isolated by using roll tubes with CO as the energy source. Based on morphology, sugars fermented, fermentation products from glucose (H2, acetate, lactate, and succinate), and other features, strain U-1 was identified as Peptostreptococcus productus IIb (similar to the type strain). The doubling time with up to 50% CO was 1.5 h; acetate and CO2 were the major products. In addition, no significant change in the doubling time was observed with 90% CO. Some stock strains were also able to use CO, although not as well. Strain U-1 produced acetate during growth with H2-CO2. Other C1 compounds did not support growth. Most probable numbers of CO utilizers morphologically identical with strain U-1 were 7.5 X 10(6) and 1.1 X 10(5) cells per g for anaerobic digestor sludge and human feces, respectively.

  20. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... A total of 350 soil samples were collected from different part of Uremia city and suburbs. We used 3% sodium lauryl sulfate and 1% NaOH for decontamination of soil samples. Of 350 samples, mycobacteria were isolated from 65 (18.3%) specimens. Mycobacterium fortuitum with 18(5.14) strains yielded the.

  1. Mycobacterium aquaticum sp. nov., a rapidly growing species isolated from haemodialysis water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Trovato, Alberto; Droz, Sara; Haidarieh, Parvin; Borroni, Emanuele; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Mannino, Roberta; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Mariottini, Alessandro; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Tortoli, Enrico

    2017-09-01

    The characterization of five Iranian isolates, four from hospital haemodialysis water and one from the sputum of a patient, led to the detection of a novel mycobacterium species. The strains were characterized by mucoid colonies developing in 3-5 days at temperatures ranging from 25 to 37 °C. The biochemical test pattern was unremarkable while the HPLC profile of mycolic acids resembled that of Mycobacterium fortuitum. The sequences of three major housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB) were unique and differed from those of any other mycobacterium. Mycobacterium brisbanense, which is the species that shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.03 %), was distinct, as shown by the average nucleotide identity and by the genome to genome distance values (91.05 and 43.10 %, respectively). The strains are thus considered to represent a novel species of the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquaticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RW6T (=DSM 104277T=CIP111198T).

  2. Predictors of Postpartum Depression in Dubai, a Rapidly Growing Multicultural Society in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhammadi, Salwa M; Hashem, Lien Abou; Abusbeih, Zainah R; Alzaabi, Fatima S; Alnuaimi, Salama N; Jalabi, Ala F; Nair, Satish C; Carrick, Frederick R; Abdulrahman, Mahera

    2017-09-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem adversely affecting mothers, their newborns, and other members of the family. Although PPD is common and potentially dangerous, only a minority of the cases are identified in primary health care settings during routine care, and the majority of depressed mothers in the community lies unrecognized and therefore untreated. In this study, a total of 1500 mothers were approached randomly, 808 accepted to participate, and 504 were within the inclusion criteria (women who had a birth of a singleton full-term healthy infant, had an uncomplicated pregnancy, and were within their one week to six months postpartum). The participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. A total of 168 women had an EPDS score ≥10, yielding a crude prevalence rate of 33%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 14 out of 504 (3%), among which 11 (79%) had EPDS score of ≥10. We fitted multiple linear regression models to evaluate the predictors of variables measured on the EPDS scale. This model was statistically significant ppredictors. The findings of this study are anticipated to entail the government and policy makers in the region to pay more attention to the apparently high prevalence of unrevealed PPD in the community. It is crucial to enhance screening mechanisms for early detection, providing interventions to manage symptoms, and at the same time mandating local guidelines to address the PPD pathology as a high priority for the UAE population.

  3. Metal-organic frameworks: a rapidly growing class of versatile nanoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Scott T; Greathouse, Jeffery A; Allendorf, Mark D

    2011-01-11

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a new class of hybrid organic-inorganic supramolecular materials comprised of ordered networks formed from organic electron donor linkers and metal cations. They can exhibit extremely high surface areas, as well as tunable pore size and functionality, and can act as hosts for a variety of guest molecules. Since their discovery, MOFs have enjoyed extensive exploration, with applications ranging from gas storage to drug delivery to sensing. This review covers advances in the MOF field from the past three years, focusing on applications, including gas separation, catalysis, drug delivery, optical and electronic applications, and sensing. We also summarize recent work on methods for MOF synthesis and computational modeling.

  4. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate is attributed to the influx rate, campaign design and implementation, and factors related to child and career mobi- lity. Alternative immunisation strategies, with social awareness playing a key role, are being urgently investigated. S Air Med J 1989; 76: 157-159. Measles became a notifiable disease in the RSA in 1979.1.

  5. Contralateral trigeminal neuralgia in a rapidly growing vestibular schwannoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngbeom; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2018-01-01

    We present a rare case of vestibular schwannoma (VS) with contralateral trigeminal neuralgia. A 59 year-old woman presented with right-sided trigeminal neuralgia and a small VS in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) that was found via magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was administered medication; however, her symptoms gradually aggravated, and the size of the tumor increased. Two years after the initial diagnosis, the patient underwent surgical resection. After surgical resection, the patient's facial pain was improved. The trigeminal neuralgia appeared to be related to brainstem displacement caused by the contralateral VS. For VS with contralateral trigeminal neuralgia, surgical resection of the tumor should be considered as a possible treatment strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder that affects a person's ability to move as they want to, resulting in ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... The brain's "fear hub," which activates our natural "fight-or-flight" response to confront or escape from a dangerous ... The brain's "fear hub," which helps activate the fight-or-flight response and is also involved in emotions and ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and plays an important ... of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... to the front of the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in the brain. Problems in ... Problems in making or using glutamate have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... axis —A brain-body circuit which plays a critical role in the body's response to stress. impulse — ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's early 20s. ... Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah ... had problems getting to sleep and generally felt tired, listless, and had no ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where mental disorders begin and perhaps how to slow or stop ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity ... the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. ... brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... our physical surroundings but also factors that can affect our bodies, such as sleep, diet, or stress. These factors may act alone ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain ... had problems getting to sleep and generally felt tired, listless, and had no ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... her symptoms were not caused by a stroke, brain tumor, or similar conditions, Sarah's doctor referred her to a psychiatrist, a type of medical doctor who is an expert on mental ... of serotonin in the brain and help reduce symptoms of depression. Sarah also ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... begun to chart how the brain develops over time in healthy people and are working to compare that with brain development in ... Other medical professionals who can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or ... gets "the blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ... imaging (MRI) mdash;An imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure. mutation — ...

  3. Vision - Gateway to the brain

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Is the brain the result of (evolutionary) tinkering, or is it governed by natural law? How can we objectively know? What is the nature of consciousness? Vision research is spear-heading the quest and is making rapid progress with the help of new experimental, computational and theoretical tools. At the same time it is about to lead to important technical applications.

  4. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2015-04-07

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. AN INTRODUCTION TO KNOWLEDGE-GROWING SYSTEM: A NOVEL FIELD IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin Datumaya Wahyudi Sumari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential matter of Artificial Intelligence (AI is how to build an entity that mimics human intelligence in the way of learning of a phenomenon in a real life to gain knowledge of it and uses the knowledge to solve problems related to it. Based on the findings of intelligenct characteristic displayed by the human brain in growing and generating new knowledge by fusing information perceived by sensory organs, we develop brain-inspired Knowledge-Growing System (KGS that is, a system that is capable of growing its knowledge along with the accretion of information as the time passes. The essential matter of KGS is knowledge-growing method which is based on a new algorithm called Observation Multi-time A3S (OMA3S information-inferencing fusion method. In this paper we deliver the development of KGS along with some examples of KGS application to a real-life problem. Based on the state-of-the-art of AI and approaches to construct OMA3S method as KG method as well as validations to assess the system performance, we state that brain-inspired KGS is a novel field in AI.

  6. [Brain concussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pälvimäki, Esa-Pekka; Siironen, Jari; Pohjola, Juha; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Brain concussion is a common disturbance caused by external forces or acceleration affecting the head. It may be accompanied by transient loss of consciousness and amnesia. Typical symptoms include headache, nausea and dizziness; these may remain for a week or two. Some patients may experience transient loss of inability to create new memories or other brief impairment of mental functioning. Treatment is symptomatic. Some patients may suffer from prolonged symptoms, the connection of which with brain concession is difficult to show. Almost invariably the prognosis of brain concussion is good.

  7. The SGIA and the Common Growing Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu CIOVICA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human or virtual agents are presented in our lives daily. They serve our purposes and represent us in different many situations. Nowadays the number of virtual agents is increasing daily because they are cheaper, faster and more accurate than human agents. Our aim in this article is to define a new type of intelligent agent called SGIA – Self Growing Intelligent Agent and a new defining language for it. The SGIA agent is an intelligent agent with all the common agents’ characteristics and with other special one: that to learn and grow by itself in knowledge and size.

  8. Growing pioneer plants for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N. O.; Lutvynenko, T. L.; Korniichuk, O. S.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Voznyuk, T. M.; Kononuchenko, O.; Zaetz, I.; Rogutskyy, I. S.; Mytrokhyn, O. V.; Mashkovska, S. P.; Foing, B. H.; Kordyum, V. A.

    A precursory scenario of cultivating the first plants in a lunar greenhouse was elaborated in frames of a conceptual study to grow plants for a permanently manned lunar base. A prototype plant growth system represents an ornamental plant Tagetes patula L. for growing in a lunar rock anorthosite as a substrate. Microbial community anticipated to be in use to support a growth and development of the plant in a substrate of low bioavailability and provide an acceptable growth and blossoming of T. patula under growth limiting conditions.

  9. Evolution of the human brain: changing brain size and the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min S; Nguyen, Andrew D; Aryan, Henry E; U, Hoi Sang; Levy, Michael L; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2007-03-01

    Although the study of the human brain is a rapidly developing and expanding science, we must take pause to examine the historical and evolutionary events that helped shape the brain of Homo sapiens. From an examination of the human lineage to a discussion of evolutionary principles, we describe the basic principles and theories behind the evolution of the human brain. Specifically, we examine several theories concerning changes in overall brain size during hominid evolution and relate them to the fossil record. This overview is intended to provide a broad understanding of some of the controversial issues that are currently being debated in the multidisciplinary field of brain evolution research.

  10. Changes in brain entropy are related to abstract temporal topology. Comment on "Topodynamics of metastable brains" by Arturo Tozzi et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çankaya, Mehmet Niyazi; Déli, Eva

    2017-07-01

    It is a great aspiration to consider biological systems, especially the notoriously unpredictable brain, with mathematical tools, because of their reliable predictive power. The classic idea that the brain can be compartmentalized into operational modules, such as vision, movement, emotions or consciousness has come up empty. A new surge of publications sets out the mathematical analysis of this highly integrated, complex and self-regulating system. For example, the resting brain's recurring electromagnetic activities form a highly reproducible harmonic function [1], which permits the use of matrix formulation, borrowed from quantum mechanics, to assess the probabilities of measurable properties, or ;observables;. It has also been suggested that resting state electric activities might take the form of a hypersphere [2], and even the particle-like formalism of the self-regulatory nature of consciousness has even been proposed [3]. The 'TOPODYNAMICS OF METASTABLE BRAINS' by Tozzi et al. [4] is part of the growing wave of publications that seeks to explain the brain's global dynamics within a physical framework. This fast growing literature has uncovered that the oscillatory networks of local electromagnetic potential differences, which are highly responsive to the environment, formulate according to non-classical principles and can be best modeled by the mathematical framework of dynamic and complex physical systems. However, the ability to connect the oscillatory dynamics of the brain to the global cognitive processes of the mind has been difficult. The TOPODYNAMICS OF METASTABLE BRAINS is a pioneering attempt to approach these seemingly disparate areas and bridge their conceptual, methodological divide. Specifically, topodynamics examines how the changing electric signals of the brain form an abstract topology during evoked and resting potential, and give rise to cognitive processes. For example, rapid transitional periods intercept the stable, operational modules

  11. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  12. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  13. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  14. Anatomy of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... stay focused on a task, and managing proper emotional reactions. Reduced ACC activity or damage to this ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... at some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety disorders , bipolar disorder , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , and many others. ... differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with ... our original set of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... but can still remember past events and learned skills, and carry on a conversation, all which rely ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... medicine, the term environment includes not only our physical surroundings but also factors that can affect our ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... are sent from one neuron to another. Share Science News NIMH Director Gordon Elected AAAS Fellow NIMH Launches Director Twitter Account Ethics of Deep Brain Stimulation More General Health Information ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Us Home About the Director Advisory Boards and Groups Strategic Plan Offices and Divisions Budget Careers at NIMH ... of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. Different parts of the PFC ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ... The amygdala also appears to be involved in learning to fear an event, such as touching a ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... and certain abilities, such as a good singing voice. A gene is a segment of DNA that ... as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause severe disability. ... disorders are brain disorders. Evidence shows that they can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, ...

  6. Brain abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including those with certain heart disorders, may receive antibiotics before dental or other procedures to help reduce the risk of infection. Alternative Names Abscess - brain; Cerebral abscess; CNS abscess Patient ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... focused on a task, and managing proper emotional reactions. Reduced ACC activity or damage to this brain ... 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ... component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Top

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... medicine, the term environment includes not only our physical surroundings but also factors that can affect our ...

  11. Brain Health

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    ... that combining good nutrition with mental, social and physical activities may have a greater benefit in maintaining or improving brain health than any single activity. At the Alzheimer’s Association ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... focused on a task, and managing proper emotional reactions. Reduced ACC activity or damage to this brain ... of how environmental factors like diet, stress and post-natal care can change gene expression (when genes ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... specific protein. Scientists believe epigenetics play a major role in mental disorders and the effects of medications. ... feeling regions of the brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... to reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder ... and her husband questions about Sarah's symptoms and family medical history. Epigenetic changes from stress or early- ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... are sent from one neuron to another. Share Science News NIMH Launches Director Twitter Account Ethics of Deep Brain Stimulation Brain’s Alertness Circuitry Revealed More General Health Information from NIH MEDLINEPlus : Authoritative information from government ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into a person's ... as sleep, diet, or stress. These factors may act alone or together in complex ways, to change ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... they can cause tremors or symptoms found in Parkinson's disease. Serotonin —helps control many functions, such as ... brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder that affects a person's ability ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. The brain continues maturing well into ... factors that can affect our bodies, such as sleep, diet, or stress. These factors may act alone ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... illnesses, such as depression, can occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, such as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... that contains codes to make proteins and other important body chemicals. DNA also includes information to control ... cells required for normal function and plays an important role during early brain development. It may also ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... focused on a task, and managing proper emotional reactions. Reduced ACC activity or damage to this brain ... listless, and had no appetite most of the time. Weeks later, Sarah realized she was having trouble ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take ... slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... to produce a specific protein. Scientists believe epigenetics play a major role in mental disorders and the ... thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... another as chemical or electrical signals. The brain begins as a small group of cells in the ... how she's responding to the treatment. She also begins regular talk therapy sessions with her psychiatrist. In ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... studied in mental health research are listed below. Amygdala —The brain's "fear hub," which activates our natural " ... confront or escape from a dangerous situation. The amygdala also appears to be involved in learning to ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... and information that the cell needs for growth, metabolism, and repair. Cytoplasm is the substance that fills ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... This area of the brain also helps to control the amygdala during stressful events. Some research shows that people who have PTSD or ADHD have reduced activity in their PFCs. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) — the ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Us Home About the Director Advisory Boards and Groups Strategic Plan Offices and Divisions Budget Careers at ... electrical signals. The brain begins as a small group of cells in the outer layer of a ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety disorders , bipolar disorder , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , and many others. ... differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... begun to chart how the brain develops over time in healthy people and are working to compare ... listless, and had no appetite most of the time. Weeks later, Sarah realized she was having trouble ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... who can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah and her ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... also linked to reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, ... studies suggest that having too little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on neurons communicating with ... axon, most neurons release a chemical message (a neurotransmitter) which crosses the synapse and binds to receptors ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Using MEG, some scientists have found a specific pattern of brain activity that may help predict who ... people with depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Some people who develop a mental illness may recover completely; others may have repeated episodes of illness ... in early detection, more tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... from one neuron to another. Share Science News Ethics of Deep Brain Stimulation Brain’s Alertness Circuitry Revealed ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. ... and works and the effects of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... glutamate —The most common neurotransmitter in a person's body, which increases neuronal activity, is involved in early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... network of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. Different parts of the PFC ... a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, as well as emotional control ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the most common neurotransmitter, glutamate has ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... bind onto, leading to more normal mood functioning. Dopamine —mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the ... reward systems in the brain. Problems in producing dopamine can result in Parkinson's disease, a disorder that ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the most common ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Amygdala —The brain's "fear hub," which activates our natural "fight-or-flight" response to confront or escape ... genes that appear to increase risk or provide protection from various mental disorders. Other genes may change ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... and information that the cell needs for growth, metabolism, and repair. Cytoplasm is the substance that fills ... as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... of genes and environment on mental health. This knowledge is allowing scientists to make important discoveries that ... increases neuronal activity, is involved in early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... taking SSRIs and has joined an online support group. Sharing her experiences with others also dealing with depression helps Sarah to better cope with her feelings. Brain Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... her feelings. Brain Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of ... other. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mdash;An imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to take pictures of ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... neuron to another. Share Science News NIMH Director Gordon Elected AAAS Fellow NIMH Launches Director Twitter Account Ethics of Deep Brain Stimulation More General Health Information from NIH MEDLINEPlus : Authoritative information from government ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... cells required for normal function and plays an important role during early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the ... at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... sends impulses and extends from cell bodies to meet and deliver impulses to another nerve cell. Axons ... in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... as in areas of the brain that control movement. When electrical signals are abnormal, they can cause ... normal mood functioning. Dopamine —mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... health research are listed below. Amygdala —The brain's "fear hub," which activates our natural "fight-or-flight" ... also appears to be involved in learning to fear an event, such as touching a hot stove, ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... or-flight response and is also involved in emotions and memory. anterior cingulate cortex —Is involved in ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... genes and epigenetics may one day lead to genetic testing for people at risk for mental disorders. ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... neuron's point of contact for receiving chemical and electrical signals called impulses from neighboring neurons. Axon which ... from one neuron to another as chemical or electrical signals. The brain begins as a small group ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, and responds ... via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as sleep and speech. ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Amygdala —The brain's "fear hub," which activates our natural "fight-or-flight" response to confront or escape ... Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of Science Education : Resources for science educators Pillbox: How to identify unknown ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on neurons communicating with one another. Electrical impulses and chemical signals ... depression, can occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in mental illnesses. Scientists have already begun to chart how the brain develops over time in healthy ... our original set of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Labs at NIMH Home Research Areas Principal Investigators Administrative Oversight & Support Collaborations & Partnerships Join A Study News & ... unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... some point. Such disorders include depression , anxiety disorders , bipolar disorder , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , and many ... differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... NIH Research Fact Sheets NIH Office of Science Education : Resources for science educators Pillbox: How to identify ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain and nervous system. Glutamate is an excitatory transmitter: when it is released it increases the chance ... at www.nimh.nih.gov . Glossary action potential —Transmission of signal from the cell body to the ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... can diagnose mental disorders are psychologists or clinical social workers. The psychiatrist asked Sarah and her husband ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. Different parts of the ... a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, as well as emotional ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... people with depression often have lower than normal levels of serotonin. The types of medications most commonly ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that ... fast-acting antidepressant medications. Currently available antidepressants usually take four to six weeks to reach their full ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... of the body. As we grow, we create new cells, each with a copy of our original ... like a gland cell), or may trigger a new chain of messages. Neurotransmitters send chemical messages between ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... embryo. As the cells grow and differentiate, neurons travel from a central "birthplace" to their final destination. ... charges) across the cell membrane. The action potential travels very quickly along the axon, like when a ...

  14. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  15. Growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E Marie; Shores, Andrew; Meintel, Sarah; Hathcock, John T

    2014-09-01

    Growing skull fractures have been reported in humans for many years, usually resulting from injury to the soft skull during the rapid growth period of an infant's life. Nestling raptors have thin, fragile skulls, a rapid growth rate, and compete aggressively for food items. Skull trauma may occur, which may lead to the development of a growing skull fracture. Growing skull fractures may be under-diagnosed in raptor rehabilitation facilities that do not have access to advanced technologic equipment. Three-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography was used to diagnose a growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). The lesion was surgically repaired and the animal was eventually returned to the wild. This is the first report of a growing skull fracture in an animal. In this case, 3-D computed topographic imaging was utilized to diagnose a growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk, surgical repair was performed, and the bird recovered completely and was ultimately released.

  16. Growing up Female: As Six become One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Karen; Balto, Sylvia

    1971-01-01

    Growing up Female: As Six Become One" is an excellent film for people of any age and appropriate for any group. The film explores the lives of six American women showing how they are socialized and what their roles in society are. (Author)

  17. Growing Languages with Metamorphic Syntax Macros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    simultaneously on multiple parse trees at once. The result is a highly flexible mechanism for growing new language constructs without resorting to compile-time programming. In fact, whole new languages can be defined at surprisingly low cost.This work is fully implemented as part of the bigwig system...

  18. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  19. What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: June 2015 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Why Do I Have Pain? How Do Pain Relievers Work? Growth Disorders I'm Growing Up - But Am I Normal? What Medicines Are and What They Do Feeling Too Tall or Too Short Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  20. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…