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Sample records for rapidly form gum

  1. Rapid screening of guar gum using portable Raman spectral identification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Hirsch K; Wolfgang, Steven; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-01-25

    Guar gum is a well-known inactive ingredient (excipient) used in a variety of oral pharmaceutical dosage forms as a thickener and stabilizer of suspensions and as a binder of powders. It is also widely used as a food ingredient in which case alternatives with similar properties, including chemically similar gums, are readily available. Recent supply shortages and price fluctuations have caused guar gum to come under increasing scrutiny for possible adulteration by substitution of cheaper alternatives. One way that the U.S. FDA is attempting to screen pharmaceutical ingredients at risk for adulteration or substitution is through field-deployable spectroscopic screening. Here we report a comprehensive approach to evaluate two field-deployable Raman methods--spectral correlation and principal component analysis--to differentiate guar gum from other gums. We report a comparison of the sensitivity of the spectroscopic screening methods with current compendial identification tests. The ability of the spectroscopic methods to perform unambiguous identification of guar gum compared to other gums makes them an enhanced surveillance alternative to the current compendial identification tests, which are largely subjective in nature. Our findings indicate that Raman spectral identification methods perform better than compendial identification methods and are able to distinguish guar gum from other gums with 100% accuracy for samples tested by spectral correlation and principal component analysis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Gum forming olefinic precursors in motor gasoline: a model compound study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.M.; Joshi, G.C.; Singh, J.; Rastogi, S.N. (Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India))

    1994-01-01

    The source of the cracked components in motor gasoline are generally (Fluid Catalytic Cracking) FCC and thermal cracking naphthas incorporated in the gasoline pool. The FCC olefins are predominant in isostructures, while thermal cracking naphthas obtained from visbreaking and coking operations contain substantial amounts of cyclic structures. The contribution of various olefinic structures present in these naphthas are likely to vary. The gum forming tendencies of different types of olefinic structures have been studied by taking model compounds in a known sample matrix through potential gum measurements under accelerated test conditions. Peroxide number values have also been determined on aged sample. Cyclic and dicyclic structures have been found to contribute maximum, towards gum formation tendencies. Branching generally increases the gum formation. However, position of branching plays an important role besides the double bond. Synergistic effects of dienes with straight chain and branched olefins have also been studied. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Gum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and gums isn't removed by good daily dental care, over time it will harden into a crust called calculus or tartar . Once tartar forms, it starts to destroy gum tissue, causing gums to bleed and pull away from the teeth. This is known as periodontitis (pronounced: pair-ee- ...

  4. Synthesis and characterization of an in situ forming hydrogel using tyramine conjugated high methoxyl gum tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Moslem; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Soleimani, Masoud; Hashemi-Najafabadi, Sameereh

    2016-02-01

    In this study, an enzyme catalyzed in situ forming hydrogel based on tyramine conjugated high methoxyl content gum tragacanth (TA-HMGT) was prepared and characterized. TA-HMGT was synthesized via heterogeneous ammonolysis of methyl ester groups of HMGT. Then, the hydrogel was prepared via horseradish peroxidase catalyzed coupling reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogel properties, such as gelation time, swelling/degradation behavior and rheological properties could be adjusted by tuning the gelation parameters and extent of tyramine conjugation. This system was a soft elastic hydrogel with appropriate biocompatibility. The fast gelation of the hydrogel is desirable for clinical applications. Also, in vitro bovine serum albumin release from the synthesized hydrogel showed good release profile with limited burst release. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Evaluation of gum mastic (Pistacia lentiscus as a microencapsulating and matrix forming material for sustained drug release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh M. Morkhade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a natural gum mastic was evaluated as a microencapsulating and matrix-forming material for sustained drug release. Mastic was characterized for its physicochemical properties. Microparticles were prepared by oil-in-oil solvent evaporation method. Matrix tablets were prepared by wet and melt granulation techniques. Diclofenac sodium (DFS and diltiazem hydrochloride (DLTZ were used as model drugs. Mastic produced discrete and spherical microspheres with DLTZ and microcapsules with DFS. Particle size and drug loading of microparticles was in the range of 22–62 µm and 50–87%, respectively. Increase in mastic: drug ratio increased microparticle size, improved drug loading and decreased the drug release rate. Microparticles with gum: drug ratio of 2:1 could sustain DLTZ release up to 12 h and released 57% DFS in 12 h. Mastic produced tablets with acceptable pharmacotechnical properties. A 30% w/w of mastic in tablet could sustain DLTZ release for 5 h from wet granulation, and DFS release for 8 h and 11 h from wet and melt granulation, respectively. Results revealed that a natural gum mastic can be used successfully to formulate matrix tablets and microparticles for sustained drug release.

  6. Gums, badgers, and economics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gums trees (in the genus Eucalyptus, from Australia) are not set to ‘disappear’ (even if some people wanted them to). Gums form an important component of the forest industry and, at last count, they covered over 540 000 ha in formal plantations...

  7. Xanthan - A Versatile Gum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conveniently from microbial sources due to several factors. They can ... Why do Microorganisms Produce Gums? Most phytopathogenic bacteria do not form spores. Many of .... salts of the polymer at alkaline pH, precipitation as a quarternary.

  8. Characterization of microcapsulated β-carotene formed by complex coacervation using casein and gum tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashay; Thakur, Deepika; Ghoshal, Gargi; Katare, O P; Shivhare, U S

    2016-06-01

    Complex coacervation in casein/gum tragacanth (CAS/GT) mixtures was studied as a function of pH, initial protein to polysaccharide mixing ratio (Pr:Ps), total biopolymer concentration, core material load and ionic strength. This study is aimed at understanding how these parameters influence the coacervation kinetics, the coacervate yield, and entrapment efficiency. At a Pr:Ps=2:1, an optimum pH of complex coacervation was found 4.35, at which the intensity of electrostatic interaction was maximum. At these conditions, the phase separation occurred the fastest and the final coacervate yield and entrapment efficiency were the largest. Moreover, the developed β-carotene loaded microcapsules formulation was found to have particle size 159.71±2.16μm, coacervates yield 82.51±0.412%, entrapment efficiency 79.36±0.541%. Varying the Pr:Ps shifted the value of optimum pH. Electrostatic interaction and formation of coacervates was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectra. Size and surface properties of coacervates were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Entrapment of core material within the coacervates was confirmed by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). The resultant formulation was evaluated for release study and antioxidant activity. Stability of encapsulated β-carotene was evaluated under three levels of temperature (5, 25 and 40°C) for 3 months. Encapsulation strongly increased the stability of micronutrients. Our results advocate potential of microcapsules as a novel carrier for the safeguard and sustained release of micronutrient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tragacanth gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Gavlighi, Hassan Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    highly substituted pectin-like structural elements. Enzymatically produced low molecular- weight fractions of tragacanth gum exhibit potential prebiotic activity by promoting growth in vitro of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strains. These findings may lead to new uses of this gum for production...... of value-added prebiotic compounds for functional foods....

  10. Nicotine Gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a smoking cessation program, which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine gum ... and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  11. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Jalilian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine which exists in drinks such as coffee as well as in drug dosage forms in the global market is among the materials that increase alertness and decrease fatigue. Compared to other forms of caffeine, caffeine gum can create faster and more prominent effects. In this study, the main goal is to design a new formulation of caffeine gum with desirable taste and assess its physicochemical properties. Caffeine gum was prepared by softening of gum bases and then mixing with other formulation ingredients. To decrease the bitterness of caffeine, sugar, aspartame, liquid glucose, sorbitol, manitol, xylitol, and various flavors were used. Caffeine release from gum base was investigated by mechanical chewing set. Content uniformity test was also performed on the gums. The gums were evaluated in terms of organoleptic properties by the Latin-Square design at different stages. After making 22 formulations of caffeine gums, F11 from 20 mg caffeine gums and F22 from 50 mg caffeine gums were chosen as the best formulation in organoleptic properties. Both types of gum released about 90% of their own drug content after 30 min. Drug content of 20 and 50 mg caffeine gum was about 18.2-21.3 mg and 45.7-53.6 mg respectively. In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release) were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  12. Frost Grape Polysaccharide (FGP), an Emulsion-Forming Arabinogalactan Gum from the Stems of Native North American Grape Species Vitis riparia Michx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Neil P J; Vermillion, Karl E; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-08-19

    A new arabinogalactan is described that is produced in large quantity from the cut stems of the North American grape species Vitis riparia (Frost grape). The sugar composition consists of l-arabinofuranose (l-Araf, 55.2%) and d-galactopyranose (d-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of d-xylose (11.2%), d-mannose (3.5%), and glucuronic acid (GlcA, ∼2%), the latter linked via a galactosyl residue. Permethylation identified 3-linked Galp residues, some substituted at the 2-position with Galp or Manp, terminal Araf and Xylp, and an internal 3-substituted Araf. NMR (HSQC, TOCSY, HMBC, DOSY) identified βGalp and three αAraf spin systems, in an Araf-α1,3-Araf-α1,2-Araf-α1,2-Galp structural motif. Diffusion-ordered NMR showed that the FGP has a molecular weight of 1-10 MDa. Unlike gum arabic, the FGP does not contain a hydroxyproline-rich protein (HPRP). FGP forms stable gels at >15% w/v and at 1-12% solutions are viscous and are excellent emulsifiers of flavoring oils (grapefruit, clove, and lemongrass), giving stable emulsions for ≥72 h. Lower concentrations (0.1% w/v) were less viscous, yet still gave stable grapefruit oil/water emulsions. Hence, FGP is a β1,3-linked arabinogalactan with potential as a gum arabic replacement in the food and beverage industries.

  13. RAPID FREEFORM SHEET METAL FORMING: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND SYSTEM VERIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiridena, Vijitha [Ford Scientific Research Lab., Dearborn, MI (United States); Verma, Ravi [Boeing Research and Technology (BR& T), Seattle, WA (United States); Gutowski, Timothy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, John [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2018-03-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a transformational RApid Freeform sheet metal Forming Technology (RAFFT) in an industrial environment, which has the potential to increase manufacturing energy efficiency up to ten times, at a fraction of the cost of conventional technologies. The RAFFT technology is a flexible and energy-efficient process that eliminates the need for having geometry-specific forming dies. The innovation lies in the idea of using the energy resource at the local deformation area which provides greater formability, process control, and process flexibility relative to traditional methods. Double-Sided Incremental Forming (DSIF), the core technology in RAFFT, is a new concept for sheet metal forming. A blank sheet is clamped around its periphery and gradually deformed into a complex 3D freeform part by two strategically aligned stylus-type tools that follow a pre-described toolpath. The two tools, one on each side of the blank, can form a part with sharp features for both concave and convex shapes. Since deformation happens locally, the forming force at any instant is significantly decreased when compared to traditional methods. The key advantages of DSIF are its high process flexibility, high energy-efficiency, low capital investment, and the elimination of the need for massive amounts of die casting and machining. Additionally, the enhanced formability and process flexibility of DSIF can open up design spaces and result in greater weight savings.

  14. Drug release from enzyme-mediated in situ-forming hydrogel based on gum tragacanth-tyramine conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Niri, Maryam; Tavakol, Moslem; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Ganji, Fariba

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, injectable hydrogels based on gum tragacanth-tyramine conjugate were prepared by enzymatic oxidation of tyramine radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Then, in vitro release of bovine serum albumin and insulin as model protein drugs from this polymeric network was investigated. Also, to improve the properties of this hydrogel, a blended hydrogel composed of tyramine-conjugated gelatin and tyramine-conjugated tragacanth was prepared. Experimental results showed that the gelation time ranged from 3 to 28 s depending on the polymer and enzyme concentrations. Results of morphological investigation of hydrogels indicated that the average pore size of hydrogels varied from 120 to 160 µm. Swelling degree of hydrogels and the rate of drug release decreased by increasing of hydrogen peroxide and polymer concentrations. The release profile of drug from hydrogels followed Higuchi and Fickian diffusion mechanism. Finally, it was shown that the swelling characteristics and drug release behavior of this polymeric network could be improved by blending it with tyramine-conjugated gelatin. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Continuous production of controlled release dosage forms based on hot-melt extruded gum arabic: Formulation development, in vitro characterization and evaluation of potential application fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Thomas; Rein, Hubert

    2016-01-30

    Controlled release matrices based on gum arabic are prepared by applying a continuous hot-melt extrusion technology: the pre-mixture consisting of gum arabic and the incorporated API is plasticized by a co-rotating twin-screw extruder, an intermediate strand is formed by a round nozzle. Single dosed matrices are prepared by cutting the semi elastic strand with a rotary fly cutter. Paracetamol and phenazone are used as model drug substances. High drug loadings up to 70% can be realized. Matrices are characterized concerning their crystalline structure, in vitro dissolution, disintegration time and various physical parameters including glass transition temperature (Tg). Release characteristic behavior is mainly influenced by erosion of the matrices. At higher drug loadings also diffusion based transport gain importance. The solubility of the API shows an influence on the erosion rate of the matrix and should therefore be considered during formulation development. Tg is mainly influenced by the solubility of the API in the surrounding matrix. High soluble phenazone shows a decrease, whereas paracetamol addition has nearly no influence on the Tg of the polymeric system. Activation energy (EA) of the glass transition is determined via dynamic mechanical analysis. The addition of APIs leads to a reduction of EA indicating an increased molecular movement at Tg region compared to placebo extrudates. X-ray diffraction is used to determine the crystalline state of the extruded matrices and interaction between matrix and incorporated APIs. The production of thin layer matrices is an interesting option to provide a fast drug delivery to the oral cavity. High mechanical strength combined with fast disintegration times can be a great advantage for the development of oro-dispersible tablets. A great benefit of the evaluated processing technology is the simple adaption of the final dose by varying either the cutting length or the diameter of the nozzle resulting in a cost

  16. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Record the sample as “negative” for xanthan gum if no gel forms or if a soft or brittle gel forms both... more than 1.5 percent of pyruvic acid and “negative” for xanthan gum if the sample contains less than 1... preclude such use. (f) To assure safe use of the additive: (1) The label of its container shall bear, in...

  17. Immune reactivities against gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of gums from various sources enjoy an extremely broad range of commercial and industrial use, from food and pharmaceuticals to printing and adhesives. Although generally recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), gums have a history of association with sensitive or allergic reactions. In addition, studies have shown that gums have a structural, molecular similarity to a number of common foods. A possibility exists for cross-reactivity. Due to the widespread use of gums in almost every aspect of modern life, the overall goal of the current investigation was to determine the degree of immune reactivity to various gum antigens in the sera of individuals representing the general population. The study was a randomized, controlled trial. 288 sera purchased from a commercial source. The sera was screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against extracts of mastic gum, carrageenan, xantham gum, guar gum, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, and β-glucan, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For each gum antigen, inhibition testing was performed on the 4 sera that showed the highest IgG and IgE immune reactivity against the different gums used in the study. Inhibition testing on these same sera for sesame albumin, lentil, corn, rice, pineapple, peanut, pea protein, shrimp, or kidney bean was used to determine the cross-reactivity of these foods with the gum. Of the 288 samples, 4.2%-27% of the specimens showed a significant elevation in IgG antibodies against various gums. Only 4 of 288, or 1.4%, showed a simultaneous elevation of the IgG antibody against all 7 gum extracts. For the IgE antibody, 15.6%-29.1% of the specimens showed an elevation against the various gums. A significant percentage of the specimens, 12.8%, simultaneously produced IgE antibodies against all 7 tested extracts. Overall, the percentage of elevation in IgE antibodies against different gum extracts, with

  18. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications—A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2011-01-01

    Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. Thus, it is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movement...

  19. Rapid Prototyping by Single Point Incremental Forming of Sheet Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin

    2008-01-01

    . The process is incremental forming since plastic deformation takes place in a small local zone underneath the forming tool, i.e. the sheet is formed as a summation of the movement of the local plastic zone. The process is slow and therefore only suited for prototypes or small batch production. On the other...... in the plastic zone. Using these it is demonstrated that the growth rate of accumulated damage in SPIF is small compared to conventional sheet forming processes. This combined with an explanation why necking is suppressed is a new theory stating that SPIF is limited by fracture and not necking. The theory...... SPIF. A multi stage strategy is presented which allows forming of a cup with vertical sides in about half of the depth. It is demonstrated that this results in strain paths which are far from straight, but strains are still limited by a straight fracture line in the principal strain space. The multi...

  20. Gum Arabic authentication and mixture quantification by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yongjiang; Sørensen, Klavs Martin; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    A rapid and reliable method is developed for Gum Arabic authentication based on Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometric methods. On a large industrial collection of authentic gum Arabics, the two major Acacia gum species, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal could be assigned perfectly...... by the NIR spectroscopic method. In addition, a partial least squares (PLS) regression model is calibrated to predict the blending percentage of the two pure gum types, producing an accuracy, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.8%. Sampling of the Gum Arabic ‘tears’ is discussed......, and it was determined that subsamples from three ‘tears’ is required for a representative result. It is concluded that NIR spectroscopy is a very powerful and reliable method for authenticity testing of Gum Arabic species....

  1. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. Thus, it is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of guar gum.

  2. Characterization of tungsten silicides formed by rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, M.; Santiago, J.J.; VanDerSpiegel, J.

    1986-01-01

    Tungsten silicide samples were formed by sputter depositing 80 nm W metal onto (100) oriented, 5 ohm-cm Si wafers. After deposition, the samples were fast radiatively processed in an RTA system using quartz-halogen tungsten lamps as radiation sources for time intervals ranging from 20 to 60s under high vacuum. Films processed at 22-25 W/cm 2 radiation with the film side of the samples oriented away from the lamps result in films which are metallic or cloudy in color, and have mixed composition as evidenced by x-ray diffraction (W, W 5 Si 3 and WSi 2 ). Films processed with the film side oriented toward the lamps show the occurrence of a phase transformation clearly nucleated at the film edge

  3. Natural gums and modified natural gums as sustained-release carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, T R; Kanwar, M; Lal, R; Gupta, A

    2000-10-01

    Although natural gums and their derivatives are used widely in pharmaceutical dosage forms, their use as biodegradable polymeric materials to deliver bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. These natural polysaccharides do hold advantages over the synthetic polymers, generally because they are nontoxic, less expensive, and freely available. Natural gums can also be modified to have tailor-made materials for drug delivery systems and thus can compete with the synthetic biodegradable excipients available in the market. In this review, recent developments in the area of natural gums and their derivatives as carriers in the sustained release of drugs are explored.

  4. Entandophragma angolense Gum as a Novel Binder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    the development of oral controlled release dosage forms. These semisynthetic polymers are quite expensive when compared with natural polymers such as guar gum and alginates, while the natural polymers are nontoxic and readily available [18]. The present study was designed to evaluate the hydrophilic natural gum ...

  5. TECHNICAL NOTE: The effect of the green additive guar gum on the properties of magnetorheological fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chen; Zhao, Bin Yuan; Chen, LeSheng; Wu, Qing; Liu, Nan; Hu, Ke Ao

    2005-02-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluid containing guar gum was prepared for the first time by ball-milling the guar gum powder together with silicone oil and carbonyl iron powder. By forming a coating layer over the ground carbonyl iron powder, the guar gum improves the sedimentation stability and thixotropy of the MR fluid effectively.

  6. Gum Disease in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Club Program Perio Store Education & Careers Careers in Periodontics Perio Exam for Dental Licensure Recommended Competencies Periodontal ... With Find a Periodontist Gum Disease In Children Chronic gingivitis. aggressive periodontitis and generalized aggressive periodontitis are ...

  7. Gum Graft Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tomography (CBCT) American Academy of Periodontology Installs New President, Officers in Boston American Academy of Periodontology Announces ... May Increase Lung Cancer Risk CDC Estimate: New Mexico, Hawaii Have Highest U.S. Incidence of Advanced Gum ...

  8. Gum Disease and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tomography (CBCT) American Academy of Periodontology Installs New President, Officers in Boston American Academy of Periodontology Announces ... May Increase Lung Cancer Risk CDC Estimate: New Mexico, Hawaii Have Highest U.S. Incidence of Advanced Gum ...

  9. Gum Disease Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tomography (CBCT) American Academy of Periodontology Installs New President, Officers in Boston American Academy of Periodontology Announces ... May Increase Lung Cancer Risk CDC Estimate: New Mexico, Hawaii Have Highest U.S. Incidence of Advanced Gum ...

  10. Impact of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lei; Zhao Qinglin; Yao Chukang; Zhou Mingkai

    2012-01-01

    The retarding effect of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration, as a partial system of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) hydration, was investigated with several methods. The tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration behavior in the presence or absence of welan gum was researched by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and zeta potential analysis. Meanwhile, we studied the surface electrochemical properties and adsorption characteristics of welan gum by utilizing a zeta potential analyzer and UV–VIS absorption spectrophotometer. By adding welan gum, the morphology change of ettringite and retardation of hydration stages in tricalcium aluminate–gypsum system was observed. Moreover, we detected the adsorption behavior and zeta potential inversion of tricalcium aluminate and ettringite, as well as a rapid decrease in the zeta potential of tricalcium aluminate–gypsum system. The reduction on nucleation rate of ettringite and hydration activity of C 3 A was also demonstrated. Thus, through the adsorption effect, welan gum induces a retarding behavior in tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration. Highlights: ► Adsorption characteristics of welan gum on C 3 A and ettringite have been studied. ► C 3 A–gypsum hydration behavior and the hydration products are examined in L/S = 3. ► Welan gum retards the process of C 3 A–gypsum hydration. ► The addition of welan gum changes the nucleation growth of ettringite.

  11. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Audra L.; Card, Daren C.; Ruggiero, Robert P.; Schield, Drew R.; Adams, Richard H.; Pollock, David D.; Secor, Stephen M.; Castoe, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and ...

  12. The effect of gamma irradiation on guar gum, locust bean gum, gum tragacanth and gum karaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Karen; Gray, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Changes in rheological properties, as measured by viscosity, of two galactomannans (guar gum and locust beam gum) and two acidic polysaccharides (gumtragacanth and gum karaya) were studied at a range of irradiation doses o C for 1 h was determined over a wide shear rate range. All samples showed pseudoplastic behaviour which approached Newtonian with increasing irradiation dose. Viscosities were calculated at a shear rate of 54 sec -1 to enable comparison across the samples. Both galactomannans showed a decrease in viscosity with increasing γ irradiation independent of temperature and a hypothesis is proposed that at low γ irradiation doses (<2 kGy) there is a reduction in polymer aggregation in solution, whereas at higher doses polymer hydrolysis occurs. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy data supports this hypothesis, with the detection of different free radicals at low and high irradiation doses. The viscosity of the acidic polysaccharides, gum karaya and gum tragacanth, following γ irradiation at low doses (<1 kGy) was unchanged or slightly higher when compared to the unirradiated control samples. Above 1 kGy dispersion viscosity decreased with increasing dose. For these polysaccharides chain hydrolysis seems to occur during irradiation at all doses resulting in an increase in the amount of soluble polymer and hence increased viscosity at low doses, whilst at high doses viscosity decreases due to extensive polymer hydrolysis. Similar electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra were obtained at low and high doses with a stronger signal at the higher dose. (Author)

  13. The effect of gamma irradiation on guar gum, locust bean gum, gum tragacanth and gum karaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Karen (Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, Belfast (United Kingdom) Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)); Gray, Richard (Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, Belfast (United Kingdom))

    1993-02-01

    Changes in rheological properties, as measured by viscosity, of two galactomannans (guar gum and locust beam gum) and two acidic polysaccharides (gumtragacanth and gum karaya) were studied at a range of irradiation doses < 10 kGy. Powdered samples were irradiated, and the viscosity of a 1% dispersion prepared at room temperature or by heating to 80[sup o]C for 1 h was determined over a wide shear rate range. All samples showed pseudoplastic behaviour which approached Newtonian with increasing irradiation dose. Viscosities were calculated at a shear rate of 54 sec[sup -1] to enable comparison across the samples. Both galactomannans showed a decrease in viscosity with increasing [gamma] irradiation independent of temperature and a hypothesis is proposed that at low [gamma] irradiation doses (<2 kGy) there is a reduction in polymer aggregation in solution, whereas at higher doses polymer hydrolysis occurs. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy data supports this hypothesis, with the detection of different free radicals at low and high irradiation doses. The viscosity of the acidic polysaccharides, gum karaya and gum tragacanth, following [gamma] irradiation at low doses (<1 kGy) was unchanged or slightly higher when compared to the unirradiated control samples. Above 1 kGy dispersion viscosity decreased with increasing dose. For these polysaccharides chain hydrolysis seems to occur during irradiation at all doses resulting in an increase in the amount of soluble polymer and hence increased viscosity at low doses, whilst at high doses viscosity decreases due to extensive polymer hydrolysis. Similar electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra were obtained at low and high doses with a stronger signal at the higher dose. (Author).

  14. Administration of Caffeine in Alternate Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Wickham, Kate A.; Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2018-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and absorption in the gut, although total caffeine absorption over time is not different. Rapid absorption may be importa...

  15. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Audra L; Card, Daren C; Ruggiero, Robert P; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Pollock, David D; Secor, Stephen M; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-05-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression and their relationship to changes in intestinal form and function upon feeding. Our results indicate that >2,000 genes show significant changes in expression in the small intestine following feeding, including genes involved in intestinal morphology and function (e.g., hydrolases, microvillus proteins, trafficking and transport proteins), as well as genes involved in cell division and apoptosis. Extensive changes in gene expression occur surprisingly rapidly, within the first 6 h of feeding, coincide with changes in intestinal morphology, and effectively return to prefeeding levels within 10 days. Collectively, our results provide an unprecedented portrait of parallel changes in gene expression and intestinal morphology and physiology on a scale that is extreme both in the magnitude of changes, as well as in the incredibly short time frame of these changes, with up- and downregulation of expression and function occurring in the span of 10 days. Our results also identify conserved vertebrate signaling pathways that modulate these responses, which may suggest pathways for therapeutic modulation of intestinal function in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Fluoroacetic acid in guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, T; Gynther, J

    1984-04-01

    The toxicity of guar gum, derived from the Indian leguminous plant Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, is thought to be due to a globulin which can be denaturated and made non-toxic. Another very toxic compound, fluoroacetic acid, has been detected at a low level in raw samples of guar gum (0.07-1.42 micrograms fluoroacetic acid/g). A sample of a guar-gum pharmaceutical formulation contained only 0.08 ppm fluoroacetate. One exceptionally high value of 9.5 micrograms/g was found in a guar-gum powder. The low concentrations of fluoroacetate found in guar gum dispel any considerations about possible health risks associated with fluoroacetate during the prolonged use of guar gum at the recommended doses.

  17. The next GUM and its proposals: a comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, J. C.; Couto, P. R. G.

    2018-03-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is currently under revision. New proposals for its implementation were circulated in the form of a draft document. Two of the main changes are explored in this work using a Brinell hardness model example. Changes in the evaluation of uncertainty for repeated indications and in the construction of coverage intervals are compared with the classic GUM and with Monte Carlo simulation method.

  18. Natural polymers, gums and mucilages as excipients in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shobhit; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Use of natural polymers, gums and mucilages in drug delivery systems has been weighed down by the synthetic materials. Natural based excipients offered advantages such as non-toxicity, less cost and abundantly availablity. Aqueous solubility of natural excipients plays an important role in their selection for designing immediate, controlled or sustained release formulations. This review article provide an overview of natural gum, polymers and mucilages as excipients in dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems.

  19. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as..., methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil, tragacanth, and xanthan gum. Esophageal obstruction and...

  20. Laser rapid forming technology of high-performance dense metal components with complex structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weidong; Chen, Jing; Li, Yanming; Lin, Xin

    2005-01-01

    Laser rapid forming (LRF) is a new and advanced manufacturing technology that has been developed on the basis of combining high power laser cladding technology with rapid prototyping (RP) to realize net shape forming of high performance dense metal components without dies. Recently we have developed a set of LRF equipment. LRF experiments were carried out on the equipment to investigate the influences of processing parameters on forming characterizations systematically with the cladding powder materials as titanium alloys, superalloys, stainless steel, and copper alloys. The microstructure of laser formed components is made up of columnar grains or columnar dendrites which grow epitaxially from the substrate since the solid components were prepared layer by layer additionally. The result of mechanical testing proved that the mechanical properties of laser formed samples are similar to or even over that of forging and much better than that of casting. It is shown in this paper that LRF technology is providing a new solution for some difficult processing problems in the high tech field of aviation, spaceflight and automobile industries.

  1. Physicochemical and functional parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium (bototo gum exudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Coromoto Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium they were evaluated and were linked to certain functional properties of industrial interest. The physicochemical parameters were determined by the classic methodology used for carbohydrates and the functional properties, as reported in the literature. The results obtained showed that the gum object of this study is low soluble in water, which corresponds with relatively high values of swelling indexes and water absorption capacity. Also, the intrinsic viscosity of the C. vitifolium exudate was related to a high molar mass, in the order of 106. Its emulsifying capacity is high, which is attributed to hydrophobic groups present in its structure. The gum gels at a minimum concentration, similar to that of the gum karaya (4.5%, but the gel that forms agglomerates, it is not uniform. The C. vitifolium gum exhibits important physicochemical and functional parameters which could serve as a criterion for testing its use in various industries.

  2. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells form nonclassical and potent immune synapses driving rapid cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, A J; Cross, R S; Watson, K A; Liao, Y; Shi, W; Prince, H M; Beavis, P A; Trapani, J A; Kershaw, M H; Ritchie, D S; Darcy, P K; Neeson, P J; Jenkins, M R

    2018-02-27

    Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells are effective serial killers with a faster off-rate from dying tumor cells than CAR-T cells binding target cells through their T cell receptor (TCR). Here we explored the functional consequences of CAR-mediated signaling using a dual-specific CAR-T cell, where the same cell was triggered via TCR (tcrCTL) or CAR (carCTL). The carCTL immune synapse lacked distinct LFA-1 adhesion rings and was less reliant on LFA to form stable conjugates with target cells. carCTL receptors associated with the synapse were found to be disrupted and formed a convoluted multifocal pattern of Lck microclusters. Both proximal and distal receptor signaling pathways were induced more rapidly and subsequently decreased more rapidly in carCTL than in tcrCTL. The functional consequence of this rapid signaling in carCTL cells included faster lytic granule recruitment to the immune synapse, correlating with faster detachment of the CTL from the target cell. This study provides a mechanism for how CAR-T cells can debulk large tumor burden quickly and may contribute to further refinement of CAR design for enhancing the quality of signaling and programming of the T cell. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  3. Semi-solid dosage form of clonazepam for rapid oral mucosal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Osamu; Machida, Yoshiharu; Onishi, Hiraku

    2011-07-01

    In order to obtain an alternative to the intravenous (i.v.) dosage form of clonazepam (CZ), an oral droplet formulation of CZ was developed previously; however, the droplet was physically unstable. Therefore, in the present study, it was attempted to develop an easily-handled dosage form, which was more physically stable and allowed rapid drug absorption from oral mucosa. A semi-solid dosage form, composed of polyethylene glycol 1500 (PEG), CZ, and oleic acid (OA) at 37/1/2 (w/w) and named PEG/CZ/OA, and a semi-solid dosage form containing PEG and CZ at 39/1 (w/w), called PEG/CZ, were prepared. Their physical stability in air at room temperature and oral mucosal absorption in rats were investigated. The semi-solid dosage forms were much more stable physically than the droplet, that is, no recrystallization of CZ was observed for at least 8 days. The effective concentration for humans and rats (20 ng/mL or more) was achieved within 30 min after buccal administration for both PEG/CZ/OA and PEG/CZ. The plasma concentration increased gradually and less varied at each time point for PEG/CZ/OA. PEG/CZ/OA was found to show more rapid and higher absorption of CZ in buccal administration than in sublingual administration. Buccal administration with the semi-solid dosage PEG/CZ with or without OA was suggested to be a possibly useful novel dosage form as an alternative to i.v. injection.

  4. A new form of rapid binocular plasticity in adult with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurological disorder of binocular vision affecting up to 3% of the population resulting from a disrupted period of early visual development. Recently, it has been shown that vision can be partially restored by intensive monocular or dichoptic training (4-6 weeks). This can occur even in adults owing to a residual degree of brain plasticity initiated by repetitive and successive sensory stimulation. Here we show that the binocular imbalance that characterizes amblyopia can be reduced by occluding the amblyopic eye with a translucent patch for as little as 2.5 hours, suggesting a degree of rapid binocular plasticity in adults resulting from a lack of sensory stimulation. The integrated binocular benefit is larger in our amblyopic group than in our normal control group. We propose that this rapid improvement in function, as a result of reduced sensory stimulation, represents a new form of plasticity operating at a binocular site.

  5. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-01-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca–, Na–, Mg– and Fe–chloride brines and multi-component (Fe2 (SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe–chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and

  6. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multicomponent (Fe2(SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21 °C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  7. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C; Rogers, A Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C; Jensen, Heidi B; Reeder, Richard J; Dyar, M Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multi-component (Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO 3 ) brines at ∼21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  8. Extraction and characterization of artocarpus integer gum as pharmaceutical excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Uzma; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Natural polymers are widely used as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations. They are easily available, cheap and less toxic as compared to synthetic polymers. This study involves the extraction and characterization of kathal (Artocarpus integer) gum as a pharmaceutical excipient. Water was used as a solvent for extraction of the natural polymer. Yield was calculated with an aim to evaluate the efficacy of the process. The product was screened for the presence of Micrometric properties, and swelling index, flow behavior, surface tension, and viscosity of natural polymers were calculated. Using a water based extraction method, the yield of gum was found to be 2.85%. Various parameters such as flow behavior, organoleptic properties, surface tension, viscosity, loss on drying, ash value and swelling index together with microscopic studies of particles were done to characterize the extracted gum. The result showed that extracted kathal gum exhibited excellent flow properties. The gum was investigated for purity by carrying out chemical tests for different phytochemical constituents and only carbohydrates were found to be present. It had a good swelling index (13 ± 1). The pH and surface tension of the 1% gum solution were found to be 6 ± 0.5 and 0.0627 J/m2, respectively. The ash values such as total ash, acid insoluble ash, and water soluble ash were found to be 18.9%, 0.67% and 4% respectively. Loss on drying was 6.61%. The extracted gum was soluble in warm water and insoluble in organic solvents. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) revealed rough and irregular particles of the isolated polymer. The results of the evaluated properties showed that kathal-derived gum has acceptable pH and organoleptic properties and can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient to formulate solid oral dosage forms.

  9. Characterization of Grewia Gum, a Potential Pharmaceutical Excipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah.I.Nep

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Grewia gum was extracted from the inner stem bark of Grewia mollis and characterized by several techniques such as gas chromatography (GC, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis of the extracted sample. Spectroscopic techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and 1H and 13C NMR techniques were also used to characterize the gum. The results showed that grewia gum is a typically amorphous polysaccharide gum containing glucose, rhamnose, galactose, arabinose and xylose as neutral sugars. It has an average molecular weight of 5925 kDa expressed as the pullulan equivalent. The gum slowly hydrated in water, dispersing and swelling to form a highly viscous dispersion exhibiting pseudoplastic flow behaviour. The polysaccharide gum is thermally stable and may have application as stabilizer or suspending agent in foods, cosmetics and in pharmaceuticals. It may have application as a binder or sustained-release polymer matrix in tablets or granulations.

  10. Oxidized Xanthan Gum and Chitosan as Natural Adhesives for Cork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paiva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural cork stopper manufacturing produces a significant amount of cork waste, which is granulated and combined with synthetic glues for use in a wide range of applications. There is a high demand for using biosourced polymers in these composite materials. In this study, xanthan gum (XG and chitosan (CS were investigated as possible natural binders for cork. Xanthan gum was oxidized at two different aldehyde contents as a strategy to improve its water resistance. This modification was studied in detail by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and the degree of oxidation was determined by the hydroxylamine hydrochloride titration method. The performance of the adhesives was studied by tensile tests and total soluble matter (TSM determinations. Xanthan gum showed no water resistance, contrary to oxidized xanthan gum and chitosan. It is hypothesized that the good performance of oxidized xanthan gum is due to the reaction of aldehyde groups—formed in the oxidation process—with hydroxyl groups on the cork surface during the high temperature drying. Combining oxidized xanthan gum with chitosan did not yield significant improvements.

  11. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    Locust bean gum or carob gum is a galactomannan obtained from seed endosperm of carob tree i.e. Ceratonia siliqua. It is widely utilized as an additive in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, oil well drilling and cosmetics. Industrial applications of locust bean gum are due to its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer due to its dietary fiber action. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of locust bean gum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Implications of Partial Conjugation of Whey Protein Isolate to Durian Seed Gum through Maillard Reactions: Foaming Properties, Water Holding Capacity and Interfacial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Tabatabaee Amid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the conjugation of durian seed gum (DSG with whey protein isolate (WPI through Maillard reactions. Subsequently, the functional properties of durian seed gum in the non-conjugated (control sample and conjugated forms were compared with several commercial gums (i.e., Arabic gum, sodium alginate, kappa carrageenan, guar gum, and pectin. The current study revealed that the conjugation of durian seed gum with whey protein isolate significantly (p < 0.05 improved its foaming properties. In this study, the conjugated durian seed gum produced the most stable foam among all samples. On the other hand, the emulsion stabilized with the conjugated durian seed gum also showed more uniform particles with a larger specific surface area than the emulsion containing the non-conjugated durian seed gum. The conjugated durian seed gum showed significant different foaming properties, specific surface area, particle uniformity and water holding capacity (WHC as compared to the target polysaccharide gums. The conjugated durian seed gum showed more similar functional properties to Arabic gum rather than other studied gums.

  13. Exudate gums: occurrence, production, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeken, D; Dierckx, S; Dewettinck, K

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents a review of the industrially most relevant exudate gums: gum arabic, gum karya, and gum tragacanth. Exudate gums are obtained as the natural exudates of different tree species and exhibit unique properties in a wide variety of applications. This review covers the chemical structure, occurrence and production of the different gums. It also deals with the size and relative importance of the various players on the world market. Furthermore, it gives an overview of the main application fields of the different gums, both food and non-food.

  14. Superplastic forming of rapid solidification processed Al-4Li-0.2Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschter, P.J.; Lederich, R.J.; Sastry, S.M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Aluminum-4 wt pct lithium alloys are attractive as structural materials because they are 13 to 14 pct less dense and have 25 pct larger elastic moduli than high-strength 2XXX-and 7XXX-series aluminum alloys. These low-density alloys can be produced only by rapid solidification processing (RSP). Successful RSP of Al-4Li-0.2Zr, Al-4Li-1Mg-0.2Zr, and Al-4Li-1Cu-0.2Zr alloys with strengths similar to that of 7075-T76 has recently been demonstrated. Net-shaped processing techniques such as superplastic forming are capable of producing complex structural elements while minimizing usage of expensive material; thus, these techniques are particularly applicable to Al-Li alloys. The purpose of this study was to determine the conditions of strain rate and temperature under which RSP Al-4Li alloys could be superplastically formed

  15. Nicotine chewing gum (2 mg, 4 mg) and cigarette smoking: comparative effects upon vigilance and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, A C; Winder, G

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen male smokers, abstinent the morning before testing, were assessed under four conditions: placebo chewing gum, 2 mg nicotine chewing gum, 4 mg nicotine gum, and cigarette smoking. Placebo gum was administered in the cigarette condition, while sham smoking occurred in the gum conditions. Pre-drug administration and post-drug difference scores were calculated for each assessment measure: rapid visual information processing (RVIP), memory for new information, and heart rate. Nicotine raised heart rate in a significant monotonic dose-related manner (P less than 0.001): placebo +0.2; 2 mg gum +5.1; 4 mg gum +9.8; cigarette +17.5 bpm. Rapid visual information processing target detections were also significantly related to dose (P less than 0.01), with this increased vigilance significant under 4 mg nicotine gum and cigarette smoking. Memory task performance was not significantly affected. Self-reported feelings of alertness/energy were higher while smoking than under placebo or 4 mg gum. Complaints about the taste of the 4 mg nicotine gum were frequent.

  16. Nanodisturbances in deformed Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, Mikhail Yu.; Ishizaki, Toshitaka; Kuramoto, Shigeru; Ovid'ko, Ilya A.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic experiments have been performed to characterize defect structures in deformed Gum Metal, a special titanium alloy with high strength, low Young's modulus, excellent cold workability and low resistance to shear in certain crystallographic planes. Results from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy characterization reveal nanodisturbances (planar nanoscopic areas of local shear) as typical elements of defect structures in deformed Gum Metal. A theoretical model is suggested describing nanodisturbances as nanoscale dipoles of non-conventional partial dislocations with arbitrary, non-quantized Burgers vectors. It is shown theoretically that the homogeneous generation of nanodisturbances is energetically favorable in Gum Metal, where they effectively carry plastic flow

  17. Hydrothermal vents in Lake Tanganyika harbor spore-forming thermophiles with extremely rapid growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Prieur, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A thermophilic anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a sublacustrine hydrothermal vent site in Lake Tanganyika (East Africa) with recorded fluid temperatures of 66–103 °C and pH values of 7.7–8.9. The bacterium (strain TR10) was rod-shaped, about 1 by 5 μm in size, and readily formed distal...... and peptone. The optimum temperature for growth was 60 °C, while minimum and maximum temperatures were 40 and 75 °C. The pH response was alkalitolerant with optimum pH at 7.4 and 8.5 depending on the growth medium. The distinct feature of rapid proliferation and endospore formation may allow the novel...

  18. A Rapid Determination of Cinnarizine in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by LC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Heda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, selective, rapid and precise reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the estimation of cinnarizine from pharmaceutical formulation. The method was developed using MICRA-NPS C18 (length×OD×ID =33×8.0×6.0 mm, 1.5 μm column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, triethylamine buffer (adjusted to pH 4.5 with 10% w/v potassium hydroxide and tetrahydrofuran in the ratio 30:66:4 respectively, at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Wavelength was fixed at 253 nm. The developed method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. The proposed method can be used for the routine estimation of cinnarizine in pharmaceutical dosage form.

  19. Simulation of Microstructure during Laser Rapid Forming Solidification Based on Cellular Automaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grain microstructure of molten pool during the solidification of TC4 titanium alloy in the single point laser cladding was investigated based on the CAFE model which is the cellular automaton (CA coupled with the finite element (FE method. The correct temperature field is the prerequisite for simulating the grain microstructure during the solidification of the molten pool. The model solves the energy equation by the FE method to simulate the temperature distribution in the molten pool of the single point laser cladding. Based on the temperature field, the solidification microstructure of the molten pool is also simulated with the CAFE method. The results show that the maximum temperature in the molten pool increases with the laser power and the scanning rate. The laser power has a larger influence on the temperature distribution of the molten pool than the scanning rate. During the solidification of the molten pool, the heat at the bottom of the molten pool transfers faster than that at the top of the molten pool. The grains rapidly grow into the molten pool, and then the columnar crystals are formed. This study has a very important significance for improving the quality of the structure parts manufactured through the laser cladding forming.

  20. Martian outflow channels: How did their source aquifers form, and why did they drain so rapidly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J Alexis P; Kargel, Jeffrey S; Baker, Victor R; Gulick, Virginia C; Berman, Daniel C; Fairén, Alberto G; Linares, Rogelio; Zarroca, Mario; Yan, Jianguo; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Glines, Natalie

    2015-09-08

    Catastrophic floods generated ~3.2 Ga by rapid groundwater evacuation scoured the Solar System's most voluminous channels, the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels. Based on Viking Orbiter data analysis, it was hypothesized that these outflows emanated from a global Hesperian cryosphere-confined aquifer that was infused by south polar meltwater infiltration into the planet's upper crust. In this model, the outflow channels formed along zones of superlithostatic pressure generated by pronounced elevation differences around the Highland-Lowland Dichotomy Boundary. However, the restricted geographic location of the channels indicates that these conditions were not uniform. Furthermore, some outflow channel sources are too high to have been fed by south polar basal melting. Using more recent mission data, we argue that during the Late Noachian fluvial and glacial sediments were deposited into a clastic wedge within a paleo-basin located in the southern circum-Chryse region, which at the time was completely submerged under a primordial northern plains ocean [corrected]. Subsequent Late Hesperian outflow channels were sourced from within these geologic materials and formed by gigantic groundwater outbursts driven by an elevated hydraulic head from the Valles Marineris region. Thus, our findings link the formation of the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels to ancient marine, glacial, and fluvial erosion and sedimentation.

  1. A method of LED free-form tilted lens rapid modeling based on scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yidan

    2017-10-01

    According to nonimaging optical principle and traditional LED free-form surface lens, a new kind of LED free-form tilted lens was designed. And a method of rapid modeling based on Scheme language was proposed. The mesh division method was applied to obtain the corresponding surface configuration according to the character of the light source and the desired energy distribution on the illumination plane. Then 3D modeling software and the Scheme language programming are used to generate lens model respectively. With the help of optical simulation software, a light source with the size of 1mm*1mm*1mm in volume is used in experiment, and the lateral migration distance of illumination area is 0.5m, in which total one million rays are computed. We could acquire the simulated results of both models. The simulated output result shows that the Scheme language can prevent the model deformation problems caused by the process of the model transfer, and the degree of illumination uniformity is reached to 82%, and the offset angle is 26°. Also, the efficiency of modeling process is greatly increased by using Scheme language.

  2. Dusty Cloud Acceleration by Radiation Pressure in Rapidly Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Davis, Shane W.; Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.

    2018-02-01

    We perform two-dimensional and three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations to study cold clouds accelerated by radiation pressure on dust in the environment of rapidly star-forming galaxies dominated by infrared flux. We utilize the reduced speed of light approximation to solve the frequency-averaged, time-dependent radiative transfer equation. We find that radiation pressure is capable of accelerating the clouds to hundreds of kilometers per second while remaining dense and cold, consistent with observations. We compare these results to simulations where acceleration is provided by entrainment in a hot wind, where the momentum injection of the hot flow is comparable to the momentum in the radiation field. We find that the survival time of the cloud accelerated by the radiation field is significantly longer than that of a cloud entrained in a hot outflow. We show that the dynamics of the irradiated cloud depends on the initial optical depth, temperature of the cloud, and intensity of the flux. Additionally, gas pressure from the background may limit cloud acceleration if the density ratio between the cloud and background is ≲ {10}2. In general, a 10 pc-scale optically thin cloud forms a pancake structure elongated perpendicular to the direction of motion, while optically thick clouds form a filamentary structure elongated parallel to the direction of motion. The details of accelerated cloud morphology and geometry can also be affected by other factors, such as the cloud lengthscale, reduced speed of light approximation, spatial resolution, initial cloud structure, and dimensionality of the run, but these have relatively little affect on the cloud velocity or survival time.

  3. STUDIES ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA BARK GUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  4. Herbal-caffeinated chewing gum, but not bubble gum, improves aspects of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matthew G

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that standard chewing gum can affect aspects of both attention and memory. The present study examined the effects of Think Gum®, a caffeinated-herbal chewing gum, on both concentration and memory using a series of paper-based and online testing. Compared to standard chewing gum and a no-gum control, chewing caffeinated-herbal gum during testing improved aspects of memory, but did not affect concentration. The findings suggest that caffeinated-herbal chewing gum is an effective memory aid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Setting Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steels for Rapid Hot Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbbe, Christian; Hering, Oliver; Hiegemann, Lars; Tekkaya, A. Erman

    2016-01-01

    Hot stamping of sheet metal is an established method for the manufacturing of light weight products with tailored properties. However, the generally-applied continuous roller furnace manifests two crucial disadvantages: the overall process time is long and a local setting of mechanical properties is only feasible through special cooling techniques. Hot forming with rapid heating directly before shaping is a new approach, which not only reduces the thermal intervention in the zones of critical formability and requested properties, but also allows the processing of an advantageous microstructure characterized by less grain growth, additional fractions (e.g., retained austenite), and undissolved carbides. Since the austenitization and homogenization process is strongly dependent on the microstructure constitution, the general applicability for the process relevant parameters is unknown. Thus, different austenitization parameters are analyzed for the conventional high strength steels 22MnB5, Docol 1400M, and DP1000 in respect of the mechanical properties. In order to characterize the resulting microstructure, the light optical and scanning electron microscopy, micro and macro hardness measurements, and the X-ray diffraction are conducted subsequent to tensile tests. The investigation proves not only the feasibility to adjust the strength and ductility flexibly, unique microstructures are also observed and the governing mechanisms are clarified. PMID:28773354

  6. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Sierakowski, Maria Rita [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed {eta}{sub CGOX}/{eta}{sub CG} ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  7. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Sierakowski, Maria Rita

    2007-01-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed η CGOX /η CG ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  8. Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla M. Wassim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of Aedes caspius mosquitoes are incriminated to be a potential reservoir of “Rift Valley Fever Virus” (RVF during interepizootic periods in Egypt. Ae. caspius contains two distinct forms which are morphologically indistinguishable but differ in physiology and behavior; Ae. caspius form (a requires a blood meal for each egg batch(anautogeny, is unable to mate in confined spaces(eurygamous. The second form (b lays egg batch without blood meal (autogenous and can mate in confined spaces (stenogamous. In this work, we collected the autogenous and anautogenous forms of Ae. caspius from two different breeding habitats in the Qalyubia Governorate. Analysis of the Drosophila ace-Orthologous acetylecholinesterase gene revealed that a single polymorphic region characterized each species. Based on this region, specific primers were used to amplify the entire section of intron II, sections of Exon 2 and Exon 3 of ace-2 gene for differentiating the complex species of mosquitoes. The amplicons of anautogenous form sized 441 pb and increase 116 bp than autogenous form of Ae. caspius. High rates of point mutations were addressed; deletion/insertion events are 120 bases. The transversion mutations were 44 bases and were relatively close to the transtion mutations 43 base. The genetic distance was 0.01 between the two forms.

  9. Synthesis, physico-chemical and biomedical applications of sulfated Aegle marmelos gum: Green chemistry approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jindal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed at obtaining a sulfated derivative of gum obtained from partially ripe fruits of Aegle marmelos employing the ultrasonication technique. Elemental analysis and FTIR-ATR studies confirmed successful sulfation. The molarity of sulfuric acid exerted maximum influence on the degree of substitution followed by reaction temperature and reaction time. The sulfated derivative showed higher swelling in both acidic and alkaline pH as compared to the unmodified gum. It also possessed higher negative zeta potential, higher viscosity, work of shear, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity as compared to both unmodified gum as well as sodium alginate. Sulfated derivative was superior to unmodified gum and sodium alginate in terms of antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities. The sulfated sample appears to be a potential substitute over the unmodified gum sample and sodium alginate for modulating the physicochemical properties of food and drug release dosage forms.

  10. Oral health benefits of chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gum tragacanth. 184.1351 Section 184.1351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Gum tragacanth is the exudate from one of several...

  12. Grewia Gum 2: Mucoadhesive Properties of Compacts and Gels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Tragacanth, a plant gum, has been used as a bioadhesive polymer to promote dosage form residence time as well as to improve intimacy of contact with various absorptive surfaces of biological systems [3]. Several approaches have been used to evaluate in vitro interaction between mucin and mucoadhesive systems and ...

  13. Elastic properties of Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Shigeru; Furuta, Tadahiko; Hwang, Junghwan; Nishino, Kazuaki; Saito, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction measurements under tensile loading and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to investigate the mechanisms of elastic deformation in Gum Metal. Tensile stress-strain curves for Gum Metal indicate that cold working substantially decreases the elastic modulus while increasing the yield strength, thereby confirming nonlinearity in the elastic range. The gradient of each curve decreased continuously to about one-third its original value near the elastic limit. As a result of this decrease in elastic modulus and nonlinearity, elastic deformability reaches 2.5% after cold working. Superelasticity is attributed to stress-induced martensitic transformations, although the large elastic deformation in Gum Metal is not accompanied by a phase transformation

  14. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towbin, Alexander J.

    2008-01-01

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  15. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  16. GumTree: Data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, Hugh [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: hrz@ansto.gov.au; Hathaway, Paul [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Hauser, Nick [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Fei, Yang [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Franceschini, Ferdi [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Lam, Tony [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation.

  17. GumTree: Data reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, Hugh; Hathaway, Paul; Hauser, Nick; Fei, Yang; Franceschini, Ferdi; Lam, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation

  18. Modeling of Filament Deposition Rapid Prototyping Process with a Closed form Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Steven Leon

    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM(TM)) or fused filament fabrication (FFF) systems are extrusion-based technologies used to produce functional or near functional parts from a wide variety of plastic materials. First patented by S. Scott Crump and commercialized by Stratasys, Ltd in the early 1990s, this technology, like many additive manufacturing systems, offers significant opportunities for the design and production of complex part structures that are difficult if not impossible to produce using traditional manufacturing methods. Standing on the shoulders of a twenty-five year old invention, a rapidly growing open-source development community has exponentially driven interest in FFF technology. However, part quality often limits use in final product commercial markets. Development of accurate and repeatable methods for determining material strength in FFF produced parts is essential for wide adoption into mainstream manufacturing. This study builds on the empirical, squeeze flow and intermolecular diffusion model research conducted by David Grewell and Avraham Benatar, applying a combined model to predict auto adhesion or healing to FFF part samples. In this research, an experimental study and numerical modeling were performed in order to drive and validate a closed form heat transfer solution for extrusion processes to develop temperature field models. An extrusion-based 3D printing system, with the capacity to vary deposition speeds and temperatures, was used to fabricate the samples. Standardized specimens of Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) filament were used to fabricate the samples with different speeds and temperatures. Micro-scanning of cut and lapped specimens, using an optical microscope, was performed to find the effect of the speed and the temperature on the geometry of the cross-sections. It was found that by increasing the speed of the extrusion printing, the area of the cross-section and the maximum thickness decrease

  19. Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jess R; Bezance, Jessica B; Zellaby, Ella; Aggleton, John P

    2004-10-01

    Two experiments examined whether chewing spearmint gum can affect the initial learning or subsequent recall of a word list. Comparing those participants in Experiment 1 who chewed gum at the learning or the recall phases showed that chewing gum at initial learning was associated with superior recall. In addition, chewing gum led to context-dependent effects as a switch between gum and no gum (or no gum and gum) between learning and recall led to poorer performance. Experiment 2 provided evidence that sucking gum was sufficient to induce some of the same effects as chewing.

  20. Evaluation of accelerated stability test conditions for medicated chewing gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Lauretta; Conte, Ubaldo; Nhamias, Alain; Grenier, Pascal; Vergnault, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The overall stability of medicated chewing gums is investigated under different storage conditions. Active substances with different chemical stabilities in solid state are chosen as model drugs. The dosage form is a three layer tablet obtained by direct compression. The gum core contains the active ingredient while the external layers are formulated to prevent gum adhesion to the punches of the tableting machine. Two accelerated test conditions (40°C/75% RH and 30°C/65% RH) are performed for 6 months. Furthermore, a long-term stability test at room conditions is conducted to verify the predictability of the results obtained from the stress tests. Some drugs are stable in all the conditions tested, but other drugs, generally considered stable in solid dosage forms, have shown relevant stability problems particularly when stress test conditions are applied to this particular semi-solid dosage forms. For less stable drugs, the stress conditions of 40°C/75% RH are not always predictable of chewing gum stability at room temperature and may produce false negative; intermediate conditions, 30°C/65% RH, are more predictive for this purpose, the results of drug content found after 6 months at intermediate stress conditions and 12 months at room conditions are generally comparable. But the results obtained show that only long-term conditions stability tests gave consistent results. During aging, the semi solid nature of the gum base itself, may also influence the drug delivery rate during chewing and great attention should be given also to the dissolution stability.

  1. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and..., Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.615 Chewing gum base. The food additive chewing gum base... substances listed in paragraph (a) of this section, chewing gum base may also include substances generally...

  2. Lost mold-rapid infiltration forming: Strength control in mesoscale 3Y-TZP ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Nicholas E.

    The strength of nanoparticulate enabled microdevices and components is directly related to the interfacial control between particles and the flaws introduced as these particles come together to form the device or component. One new application for micro-scale or meso-scale (10's microm to 100's microm) devices is surgical instruments designed to enter the body, perform a host of surgeries within the body cavity, and be extracted with no external incisions to the patient. This new concept in surgery, called natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), requires smaller and more functional surgical tools. Conventional processing routes do not exist for making these instruments with the desired size, topology, precision, and strength. A process, called lost mold-rapid infiltration forming (LM-RIF), was developed to satisfy this need. A tetragonally stabilized zirconia polycrystalline material (3Y-TZP) is a candidate material for this process and application because of its high strength, chemical stability, high elastic modulus, and reasonably high toughness for a ceramic. Modern technical ceramics, like Y-TZP, are predicated on dense, fine grained microstructures and functional mesoscale devices must also adhere to this standard. Colloid and interfacial chemistry was used to disperse and concentrate the Y-TZP nanoparticles through a very steep, yet localized, potential energy barrier against the van der Waals attractive force. The interparticle interaction energies were modeled and compared to rheological data on the suspension. At high concentrations, the suspension was pseudoplastic, which is evidence that a structure was formed within the suspension that could be disrupted by a shearing force. The LM-RIF process exploits this rheological behavior to fill mold cavities created by photolithography. The premise of the LM-RIF process is to process the particulate material into a dense ceramic body while the unsintered mesoscale parts are supported en masse

  3. Occupational asthma caused by guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, F; Cartier, A; Somer, J; Dolovich, J; Malo, J L

    1990-04-01

    Some vegetable gums have been reported to cause asthma. We describe three subjects who were exposed at work to guar gum, which is derived from the outer part of Cyanopsis tetragonolobus, a vegetable that grows in India. The first subject worked for a pharmaceutical company; the second and third subjects worked at a carpet-manufacturing plant. All three subjects developed symptoms of rhinitis and asthma after the onset of exposure to guar gum. All subjects were atopic and demonstrated mild bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled histamine at the time they were observed. Skin prick tests demonstrated an immediate skin reaction to guar gum. All three subjects had high levels of serum IgE antibodies to guar gum. Specific inhalation challenges in which the three subjects were exposed for short intervals (less than or equal to 4 minutes) to powder of guar gum elicited isolated immediate bronchospastic reactions in two subjects and a dual reaction in the other subject.

  4. Isolation and characterization of gum from Chrysophyllum albidum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the morphology, physicochemical and compressional characteristics of a natural gum derived from the fruits of Chrysophyllum albidum. Preliminary phytochemical screening and physicochemical properties of Chrysophyllum albidum gum (in comparison with tragacanth gum) were determined while ...

  5. Application of Neem Gum for Aqueous Film Coating of Ciprofloxacin Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    A P Kulkarni; Y R Shaikh; MH GR Dehghan

    2013-01-01

    Summary. At present the pharmaceutical industry and academia are focusing on the use of natural materials and resources for development of pharmaceutical product. In previous study, neem gum (NG), obtained from Azadirachata indica plant revealed satisfactory film forming ability. The present study evaluates the application potential of neem gum, as an aqueous film coating material, using ciprofloxacin hydrchloride (drug) as a model drug. Initial study of physical mixture indicated absence of ...

  6. Rapidly-administered short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Alison J; Pliskin, Neil; Holdnack, James; Axelrod, Bradley; Randolph, Christopher

    2007-11-01

    Although the Wechsler Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) is a common component of most neuropsychological evaluations, there are many clinical situations where the complete administration of this battery is precluded by various constraints, including limitations of time and patient compliance. These constraints are particularly true for dementia evaluations involving elderly patients. The present study reports data on two short forms particularly suited to dementia evaluations, each requiring less than 20min of administration time. One of the short forms was previously validated in dementia for the WAIS-R [Randolph, C., Mohr, E., & Chase, T. N. (1993). Assessment of intellectual function in dementing disorders: Validity of WAIS-R short forms for patients with Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 743-753]; the second was developed specifically for patients with motor disabilities. These short forms were validated using the WAIS-III normative standardization sample (N=2450), neurologic sample (N=63), and matched controls (N=49), and a separate mixed clinical sample (N=70). The results suggest that each short form provides an accurate and reliable estimate of WAIS-III FSIQ, validating their use in appropriate clinical contexts. The present data support the use of these short forms for dementia evaluations, and suggests that they may be applicable for the evaluation of other neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders that involve acquired neurocognitive impairment.

  7. Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by chewing gum with added calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fan; Shen, Peiyan; Walker, Glenn D; Reynolds, Coralie; Yuan, Yi; Reynolds, Eric C

    2009-10-01

    Chewing sugar-free gum has been shown to promote enamel remineralization. Manufacturers are now adding calcium to the gum in an approach to further promote enamel remineralization. The aim of this study was to compare the remineralization efficacy of four sugar-free chewing gums, two containing added calcium, utilizing a double-blind, randomized, crossover in situ model. The sugar-free gums were: Trident Xtra Care, Orbit Professional, Orbit and Extra. Ten subjects wore removable palatal appliances with four human-enamel half-slab insets containing subsurface demineralized lesions. For four times a day for 14 consecutive days subjects chewed one of the chewing gums for 20min. After each treatment the enamel slabs were removed, paired with their respective demineralized control slabs, embedded, sectioned and mineral level determined by microradiography. After 1-week rest the subjects chewed another of the four gums and this was repeated until each subject had used the four gum products. Chewing with Trident Xtra Care resulted in significantly higher remineralization (20.67+/-1.05%) than chewing with Orbit Professional (12.43+/-0.64%), Orbit (9.27+/-0.59%) or Extra (9.32+/-0.35%). The form of added calcium in Trident Xtra Care was CPP-ACP and that in Orbit Professional calcium carbonate with added citric acid/citrate for increased calcium solubility. Although saliva analysis confirmed release of the citrate and calcium from the Orbit Professional gum the released calcium did not result in increased enamel remineralization over the normal sugar-free gums. These results highlight the importance of calcium ion bioavailability in the remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions in situ.

  8. Phenolic carbonyls undergo rapid aqueous photodegradation to form low-volatility, light-absorbing products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Haley; Anastasio, Cort

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the aqueous photochemistry of six phenolic carbonyls - vanillin, acetovanillone, guaiacyl acetone, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, and coniferyl aldehyde - that are emitted from wood combustion. The phenolic carbonyls absorb significant amounts of solar radiation and decay rapidly via direct photodegradation, with lifetimes (τ) of 13-140 min under Davis, CA winter solstice sunlight at midday (solar zenith angle = 62°). The one exception is guaiacyl acetone, where the carbonyl group is not directly connected to the aromatic ring: This species absorbs very little sunlight and undergoes direct photodegradation very slowly (τ > 103 min). We also found that the triplet excited states (3C*) of the phenolic carbonyls rapidly oxidize syringol (a methoxyphenol without a carbonyl group), on timescales of 1-5 h for solutions containing 5 μM phenolic carbonyl. The direct photodegradation of the phenolic carbonyls, and the oxidation of syringol by 3C*, both efficiently produce low volatility products, with SOA mass yields ranging from 80 to 140%. Contrary to most aliphatic carbonyls, under typical fog conditions we find that the primary sink for the aromatic phenolic carbonyls is direct photodegradation in the aqueous phase. In areas of significant wood combustion, phenolic carbonyls appear to be small but significant sources of aqueous SOA: over the course of a few hours, nearly all of the phenolic carbonyls will be converted to SOA via direct photodegradation, enhancing the POA mass from wood combustion by approximately 3-5%.

  9. The Troy Microneedle: A Rapidly Separating, Dissolving Microneedle Formed by Cyclic Contact and Drying on the Pillar (CCDP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroo Kim

    Full Text Available In dissolving microneedle (DMN-mediated therapy, complete and rapid delivery of DMNs is critical for the desired efficacy. Traditional patch-based DMN delivery, however, may fail due to incomplete delivery from insufficient skin insertion or rapid separation of microneedles due to their strong bond to the backing film. Here, we introduce the Troy microneedle, which was created by cyclic contact and drying on the pillar (CCDP, and which enabled simultaneous complete and rapid delivery of DMN. This CCDP process could be flexibly repeated to achieve a specific desired drug dose in a DMN. We evaluated DMN separation using agarose gel, and the Troy microneedle achieved more complete and rapid separation than other, more deeply dipped DMN, primarily because of the Troy's minimal junction between the DMN and pillar. When Troy microneedles were applied to pig cadaver skin, it took only 15 s for over 90% of encapsulated rhodamine B to be delivered, compared to 2 h with application of a traditional DMN patch. In vivo skin penetration studies demonstrated rapid DMN-separation of Troy microneedles still in solid form before dissolution. The Troy microneedle overcomes critical issues associated with the low penetration efficiency of flat patch-based DMN and provides an innovative route for DMN-mediated therapy, combining patient convenience with the desire drug efficacy.

  10. The Troy Microneedle: A Rapidly Separating, Dissolving Microneedle Formed by Cyclic Contact and Drying on the Pillar (CCDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miroo; Yang, Huisuk; Kim, Suyong; Lee, Chisong; Jung, Hyungil

    2015-01-01

    In dissolving microneedle (DMN)-mediated therapy, complete and rapid delivery of DMNs is critical for the desired efficacy. Traditional patch-based DMN delivery, however, may fail due to incomplete delivery from insufficient skin insertion or rapid separation of microneedles due to their strong bond to the backing film. Here, we introduce the Troy microneedle, which was created by cyclic contact and drying on the pillar (CCDP), and which enabled simultaneous complete and rapid delivery of DMN. This CCDP process could be flexibly repeated to achieve a specific desired drug dose in a DMN. We evaluated DMN separation using agarose gel, and the Troy microneedle achieved more complete and rapid separation than other, more deeply dipped DMN, primarily because of the Troy's minimal junction between the DMN and pillar. When Troy microneedles were applied to pig cadaver skin, it took only 15 s for over 90% of encapsulated rhodamine B to be delivered, compared to 2 h with application of a traditional DMN patch. In vivo skin penetration studies demonstrated rapid DMN-separation of Troy microneedles still in solid form before dissolution. The Troy microneedle overcomes critical issues associated with the low penetration efficiency of flat patch-based DMN and provides an innovative route for DMN-mediated therapy, combining patient convenience with the desire drug efficacy.

  11. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic assessment of electronic cigarettes, combustible cigarettes, and nicotine gum: implications for abuse liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Mitchell F; Campbell, Leanne R; Graff, Donald W; Jones, Bobbette A; Fant, Reginald V; Henningfield, Jack E

    2017-09-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are becoming popular alternatives for smokers, but there has been limited study of their abuse liability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abuse liability of three Vuse Solo ECs, ranging from 14 to 36 mg in nicotine content, relative to high- and low-abuse liability comparator products (usual brand combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum, respectively) in a group of 45 EC-naïve smokers. Enrolled subjects' ratings of subjective effects and nicotine uptake over 6 h were used to measure abuse liability and pharmacokinetics following in-clinic use of each EC. Use of Vuse Solo resulted in subjective measures and nicotine uptake that were between those of combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum, although generally closer to nicotine gum. Compared to combustible cigarettes, use of Vuse Solo resulted in significantly lower scores in measures of product liking, positive effects, and intent to use again. These pharmacodynamic findings were consistent with the pharmacokinetic data, showing that cigarettes produced substantially faster and higher levels of nicotine uptake as compared to Vuse Solo and nicotine gum. Vuse Solo resulted in more rapid initial uptake of nicotine compared to nicotine gum, but peak concentration and long-term extent of uptake were not different or were lower with Vuse. Collectively, these findings suggest that Vuse Solo likely has an abuse liability that is somewhat greater than nicotine gum but lower than cigarettes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02269514.

  12. Application and Characterization of Gum from Bombax buonopozense Calyxesas an Excipient in Tablet Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi C.; Kyari, Jehu; Taplong, John; Uwaezuoke, Onyinye J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore gum from Bombax buonopozense calyxes as a binding agent in formulation of immediate release dosage forms using wet granulation method. The granules were characterized to assess the flow and compression properties and when compressed, non-compendial and compendial tests were undertaken to assess the tablet properties for tablets prepared with bombax gum in comparison with those prepared with tragacanth and acacia gums. Granules prepared with bombax exhibited good flow and compressible properties with angle of repose 28.60°, Carr’s compressibility of 21.30% and Hausner’s quotient of 1.27. The tablets were hard, but did not disintegrate after one hour. Furthermore, only 52.5% of paracetamol was released after one hour. The drug release profile followed zero order kinetics. Tablets prepared with bombax gum have the potential to deliver drugs in a controlled manner over a prolonged period at a constant rate. PMID:24300296

  13. Structural, thermal and rheological characterization of modified Dalbergia sissoo gum--A medicinal gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Hira; Shahid, Muhammad; Anjum, Fozia; Mudgil, Deepak

    2016-03-01

    Dalbergia sissoo gum was purified by ethanol precipitation. The purified gum was modified and hydrolyzed. Gum was modified by performing polyacrylamide grafting and carboxymethylation methods. The hydrolysis was carried out by using mannanase, barium hydroxide and trifluoroacetic acid. The modified and hydrolyzed gums were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The decrease in viscosity was studied by performing the flow test. The modified and hydrolyzed gums were thermally stable as compared to crude gum. There was increase in crystallinity after modification and hydrolysis, determined through XRD. FTIR analysis exhibits no major transformation of functional group, only there was change in the intensity of transmittance. It is concluded that the modified and hydrolyzed gum can be used for pharmaceutical and food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris pv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava starch is a main renewable bio-resource with low price and mass production in Guangxi, China. It was used as carbon source in growing Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 8004 (Xcc 8004) for xanthan gum production in this study. The xanthan gum yield of gelatinized cassava starch was higher than that of ...

  15. Gum chewing and cognition : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, L.I.; Koerts, J.

    In recent years, there was a debate about the effects of gum chewing on various aspects of cognitive functioning. In this review, the results of previous studies are presented and summarized. There is a clear indication that gum chewing can improve various aspects of cognitive functioning including

  16. Gum chewing affects academic performance in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewing gum may have an impact on improved memory during specific tasks of recognition and sustained attention. Research objective was to determine the effect of gum chewing on standardized test scores and math class grades of eighth grade students. Four math classes, 108 students, were randomized i...

  17. gum production by Xanthomonas campestris pv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2012-09-11

    Sep 11, 2012 ... 8004) for xanthan gum production in this study. ... strain for xanthan gum production using cassava starch in industrial applications. ... the cassava price is cost-effective relative to other ... For amylase activity determination, a crude enzyme sample (1 ml) .... time point to stop fermentation from an economic.

  18. 21 CFR 582.7351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 582.7351 Section 582.7351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... tragacanth. (a) Product. Tragacanth (gum tragacanth). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. Compatibility of chewing gum excipients with the amino acid L-cysteine and stability of the active substance in directly compressed chewing gum formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Alma; Björkqvist, Mikko; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Juppo, Anne Mari; Marvola, Martti; Sivén, Mia

    2008-09-01

    Using L-cysteine chewing gum to eliminate carcinogenic acetaldehyde in the mouth during smoking has recently been introduced. Besides its efficacy, optimal properties of the gum include stability of the formulation. However, only a limited number of studies exist on the compatibility of chewing gum excipients and stability of gum formulations. In this study we used the solid-state stability method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and isothermal microcalorimetry to investigate the interactions between L-cysteine (as a free base or as a salt) and excipients commonly used in gum. These excipients include xylitol, sorbitol, magnesium stearate, Pharmagum S, Every T Toco and Smily 2 Toco. The influence of temperature and relative humidity during a three-month storage period on gum formulation was also studied. Cysteine alone was stable at 25 degrees C/60% RH and 45 degrees C/75% RH whether stored in open or closed glass ambers. As a component of binary mixtures, cysteine base remained stable at lower temperature and humidity but the salt form was incompatible with all the studied excipients. The results obtained with the different methods corresponded with each other. At high temperature and humidity, excipient incompatibility with both forms of cysteine was obvious. Such sensitivity to heat and humidity during storage was also seen in studies on gum formulations. It was also found that cysteine is sensitive to high pressure and increase in temperature induced by compression. The results suggest that the final product should be well protected from temperature and humidity and, for example, cooling process before compression should be considered.

  20. Rapid interactions between lexical semantic and word form analysis during word recognition in context: evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Albert; Lai, Vicky

    2012-05-01

    We used ERPs to investigate the time course of interactions between lexical semantic and sublexical visual word form processing during word recognition. Participants read sentence-embedded pseudowords that orthographically resembled a contextually supported real word (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a ceke…") or did not (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a tont…") along with nonword consonant strings (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a srdt…"). Pseudowords that resembled a contextually supported real word ("ceke") elicited an enhanced positivity at 130 msec (P130), relative to real words (e.g., "She measured the flour so she could bake a cake…"). Pseudowords that did not resemble a plausible real word ("tont") enhanced the N170 component, as did nonword consonant strings ("srdt"). The effect pattern shows that the visual word recognition system is, perhaps, counterintuitively, more rapidly sensitive to minor than to flagrant deviations from contextually predicted inputs. The findings are consistent with rapid interactions between lexical and sublexical representations during word recognition, in which rapid lexical access of a contextually supported word (CAKE) provides top-down excitation of form features ("cake"), highlighting the anomaly of an unexpected word "ceke."

  1. Must Star-forming Galaxies Rapidly Get Denser before They Quench?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, L. E.; Morishita, T.

    2018-05-01

    Using the deepest data yet obtained, we find no evidence preferring compaction-triggered quenching—where rapid increases in galaxy density truncate star formation—over a null hypothesis in which galaxies age at constant surface density ({{{Σ }}}e\\equiv {M}* /2π {r}e2). Results from two fully empirical analyses and one quenching-free model calculation support this claim at all z ≤ 3: (1) qualitatively, galaxies’ mean U–V colors at 6.5 ≲ {log}{{{Σ }}}e/{\\text{}}{M}ȯ {kpc}}-2≲ 10 have reddened at rates/times correlated with {{{Σ }}}e, implying that there is no density threshold at which galaxies turn red but that {{{Σ }}}e sets the pace of maturation; (2) quantitatively, the abundance of {log}{M}* /{\\text{}}{M}ȯ ≥slant 9.4 red galaxies never exceeds that of the total population a quenching time earlier at any {{{Σ }}}e, implying that galaxies need not transit from low to high densities before quenching; (3) applying d{log}{r}e/{dt}=1/2 d{log}{M}* /{dt} to a suite of lognormal star formation histories reproduces the evolution of the size–mass relation at {log}{M}* /{\\text{}}{M}ȯ ≥slant 10. All results are consistent with evolutionary rates being set ab initio by global densities, with denser objects evolving faster than less-dense ones toward a terminal quiescence induced by gas depletion or other ∼Hubble-timescale phenomena. Unless stellar ages demand otherwise, observed {{{Σ }}}e thresholds need not bear any physical relation to quenching beyond this intrinsic density–formation epoch correlation, adding to Lilly & Carollo’s arguments to that effect.

  2. COMPLEX GAS KINEMATICS IN COMPACT, RAPIDLY ASSEMBLING STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorin, R.; Vilchez, J. M.; Perez-Montero, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia S/N, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Haegele, G. F.; Firpo, V. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad de la Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Papaderos, P., E-mail: amorin@iaa.es [Centro de Astrofisica and Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-08-01

    Deep, high-resolution spectroscopic observations have been obtained for six compact, strongly star-forming galaxies at redshift z {approx} 0.1-0.3, most of them also known as green peas. Remarkably, these galaxies show complex emission-line profiles in the spectral region including H{alpha}, [N II] {lambda}{lambda}6548, 6584, and [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6717, 6731, consisting of the superposition of different kinematical components on a spatial extent of few kiloparsecs: a very broad line emission underlying more than one narrower component. For at least two of the observed galaxies some of these multiple components are resolved spatially in their two-dimensional spectra, whereas for another one a faint detached H{alpha} blob lacking stellar continuum is detected at the same recessional velocity {approx}7 kpc away from the galaxy. The individual narrower H{alpha} components show high intrinsic velocity dispersion ({sigma} {approx} 30-80 km s{sup -1}), suggesting together with unsharped masking Hubble Space Telescope images that star formation proceeds in an ensemble of several compact and turbulent clumps, with relative velocities of up to {approx}500 km s{sup -1}. The broad underlying H{alpha} components indicate in all cases large expansion velocities (full width zero intensity {>=}1000 km s{sup -1}) and very high luminosities (up to {approx}10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}), probably showing the imprint of energetic outflows from supernovae. These intriguing results underline the importance of green peas for studying the assembly of low-mass galaxies near and far.

  3. Transport mechanisms in low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-InP formed by rapid thermal annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Leistiko, Otto

    1993-01-01

    process is related to interdiffusion and compound formation between the metal elements and the InP. The onset of low specific contact resistance is characterized by a change in the dominant transport mechanism; from predominantly a combination of thermionic emission and field emission to purely thermionic......Thermionic emission across a very small effective Schottky barrier (0-0.2 eV) are reported as being the dominant transport process mechanism in very low-resistance ohmic contacts for conventional AuZn(Ni) metallization systems top-InP formed by rapid thermal annealing. The barrier modulation...

  4. EU-approved rapid tests for bovine spongiform encephalopathy detect atypical forms: a study for their sensitivities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Meloni

    Full Text Available Since 2004 it become clear that atypical bovine spongiform encephalopthies (BSEs exist in cattle. Whenever their detection has relied on active surveillance plans implemented in Europe since 2001 by rapid tests, the overall and inter-laboratory performance of these diagnostic systems in the detection of the atypical strains has not been studied thoroughly to date. To fill this gap, the present study reports on the analytical sensitivity of the EU-approved rapid tests for atypical L- and H-type and classical BSE in parallel. Each test was challenged with two dilution series, one created from a positive pool of the three BSE forms according to the EURL standard method of homogenate preparation (50% w/v and the other as per the test kit manufacturer's instructions. Multilevel logistic models and simple logistic models with the rapid test as the only covariate were fitted for each BSE form analyzed as directed by the test manufacturer's dilution protocol. The same schemes, but excluding the BSE type, were then applied to compare test performance under the manufacturer's versus the water protocol. The IDEXX HerdChek ® BSE-scrapie short protocol test showed the highest sensitivity for all BSE forms. The IDEXX® HerdChek BSE-scrapie ultra short protocol, the Prionics®--Check WESTERN and the AJ Roboscreen® BetaPrion tests showed similar sensitivities, followed by the Roche® PrionScreen, the Bio-Rad® TeSeE™ SAP and the Prionics®--Check PrioSTRIP in descending order of analytical sensitivity. Despite these differences, the limit of detection of all seven rapid tests against the different classes of material set within a 2 log(10 range of the best-performing test, thus meeting the European Food Safety Authority requirement for BSE surveillance purposes. These findings indicate that not many atypical cases would have been missed surveillance since 2001 which is important for further epidemiological interpretations of the sporadic character of

  5. Examining disadoption of gum arabic production in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ruben, R.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2008-01-01

    Gum arabic production in Sudan has developed over the years in a well-established traditional bush-fallow system in which the gum tree (Acacia senegal) is rotated with annual crops. Following the Sahel drought, the gum area has suffered from deforestation and gum production has declined. Several

  6. Brief Report: Gum Chewing Affects Standardized Math Scores in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig A.; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum…

  7. Probiotic capsules and xylitol chewing gum to manage symptoms of pharyngitis: a randomized controlled factorial trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Wingrove, Zoe; Mullee, Mark; Thomas, Tammy; Johnson, Sophie; Leydon, Gerry; Richards-Hall, Samantha; Williamson, Ian; Yao, Lily; Zhu, Shihua; Moore, Michael

    2017-12-18

    Reducing the use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections is needed to limit the global threat of antibiotic resistance. We estimated the effectiveness of probiotics and xylitol for the management of pharyngitis. In this parallel-group factorial randomized controlled trial, participants in primary care (aged 3 years or older) with pharyngitis underwent randomization by nurses who provided sequential intervention packs. Pack contents for 3 kinds of material and advice were previously determined by computer-generated random numbers: no chewing gum, xylitol-based chewing gum (15% xylitol; 5 pieces daily) and sorbitol gum (5 pieces daily). Half of each group were also randomly assigned to receive either probiotic capsules (containing 24 × 10 9 colony-forming units of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) or placebo. The primary outcome was mean self-reported severity of sore throat and difficulty swallowing (scale 0-6) in the first 3 days. We used multiple imputation to avoid the assumption that data were missing completely at random. A total of 1009 individuals consented, 934 completed the baseline assessment, and 689 provided complete data for the primary outcome. Probiotics were not effective in reducing the severity of symptoms: mean severity scores 2.75 with no probiotic and 2.78 with probiotic (adjusted difference -0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.24 to 0.24). Chewing gum was also ineffective: mean severity scores 2.73 without gum, 2.72 with sorbitol gum (adjusted difference 0.07, 95% CI -0.23 to 0.37) and 2.73 with xylitol gum (adjusted difference 0.01, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.30). None of the secondary outcomes differed significantly between groups, and no harms were reported. Neither probiotics nor advice to chew xylitol-based chewing gum was effective for managing pharyngitis. Trial registration: ISRCTN, no. ISRCTN51472596. © 2017 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  8. The FIR-Radio Correlation in Rapidly Star-Forming Galaxies: The Spectral Index Problem and Proton Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Todd A.; Lacki, Brian C.

    We review the physics of the FIR-radio correlation (FRC) of star-forming galaxies, focusing on "electron calorimetry" as an explanation. We emphasize the importance of the "spectral index problem"—that galaxies have flatter GHz synchrotron spectra than predicted in the strong-cooling calorimeter limit. We argue that these shallow spectra require significant bremsstrahlung and/or ionization losses for the primary and secondary CR electron/positron populations. This then implies that CR protons suffer strong pionic losses before escape in dense starburst galaxies ("proton calorimetry"), and that these systems should be gamma-ray bright, forming a FIR-gamma-ray correlation. Implications for the diffuse non-thermal cosmic gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds are mentioned. Caveats and uncertainties, as well as other solutions to the "spectral index problem" such as rapid advection of CRs in starburst superwinds, are highlighted.

  9. Occupational allergic rhinitis from guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, L; Tupasela, O; Jolanki, R; Vaheri, E; Estlander, T; Keskinen, H

    1988-05-01

    Three cases of allergic rhinitis from a vegetable gum, guar gum, have been detected. Two subjects were exposed to fine guar gum powder (Emco Gum 563, Meyhall Chemical AG, Switzerland), an insulator in rubber cables, when opening cables in a power cable laboratory. After 1-2 years' exposure the patients developed rhinitis. Scratch-chamber tests, nasal provocation tests, nasal eosinophilia and a RAST test proved their allergy. A third subject developed allergic rhinitis from another guar gum product (Meyproid 5306, Meyhall Chemical AG) after 2 years' exposure in a paper factory. A positive skin test and nasal provocation test confirmed the diagnosis. A fourth case of possible allergy to guar gum after exposure to Meyproid 5306 in a paper factory is also presented. No final diagnosis was reached in this case (in 1974). The present subjects, only one of whom was atopic, developed allergy within 2 years, although their exposure to guar gum was not especially heavy. Therefore, when handling guar, adequate ventilation facilities should be provided and protective clothing, including a respiratory mask, should be worn.

  10. Chewing gum moderates the vigilance decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kate; Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    We examine the impact of chewing gum on a Bakan-type vigilance task that requires the continual updating of short-term order memory. Forty participants completed a 30-min auditory Bakan-task either with, or without, the requirement to chew gum. Self-rated measures of mood were taken both pre- and post-task. As expected, the vigilance task produced a time-dependent performance decrement indexed via decreases in target detections and lengthened correct reaction times (RTs), and a reduction in post-task self-rated alertness scores. The declines in both performance and subjective alertness were attenuated in the chewing-gum group. In particular, correct RTs were significantly shorter following the chewing of gum in the latter stages of the task. Additionally, the gradients of decline for target detection and incline for correct RTs were both attenuated for the chewing-gum group. These findings are consistent with the data of Tucha and Simpson (2011), Appetite, 56, 299-301, who showed beneficial effects of chewing gum in the latter stages of a 30 min visual attention task, and extend their data to a task that necessitates the continuous updating of order memory. It is noteworthy that our data contradict the claim (Kozlov, Hughes, & Jones, 2012, Q. J. Exp. Psychology, 65, 501-513) that chewing gum negatively impacts short-term memory task performance. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory: the independent roles of chewing gum and mint flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2008-05-01

    Two experiments independently investigated the basis of the chewing gum induced context-dependent memory effect. At learning and/or recall, participants either chewed flavourless gum (Experiment 1) or received mint-flavoured strips (Experiment 2). No context-dependent memory effect was found with either flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips, indicating that independently the contexts were insufficiently salient to induce the effect. This is found despite participants' subjective ratings indicating a perceived change in state following administration of flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips. Additionally, some preliminary evidence for a non-additive facilitative effect of receiving gum or flavour at either learning and/or recall is reported. The findings raise further concerns regarding the robustness of the previously reported context-dependent memory effect with chewing gum.

  12. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory: The independent roles of chewing gum and mint flavour

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.J.; Miles, C.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments independently investigated the basis of the chewing-gum induced context-dependent memory effect (Baker et al, 2004). At learning and/or recall participants either chewed flavourless gum (Experiment 1) or received mint-flavoured strips (Experiment 2). No context dependent memory effect was found with either flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips, indicating that independently the contexts were insufficiently salient to induce the effect. This is found despite participants’ su...

  13. Gummed-up memory: Chewing gum impairs short-term recall

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity...

  14. Extraction and Characterization of Boswellia Serrata Gum as Pharmaceutical Excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Sumedha; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript deals with the purification and characterization of Boswellia serrata gum as a suspending agent. The Boswellia serrata gum was purchased as crude material, purified and further characterized in terms of organoleptic properties and further micromeritic studies were carried out to characterize the polymer as a pharmaceutical excipient. The suspending properties of the polymer were also evaluated. The results showed that the extracted gum possesses optimum organoleptic as well as micromeritic and suspending properties. To characterize Boswellia serrata gum as a natural excipient. Boswellia serrata gum, paracetamol, distilled water. The results showed that the extracted gum possesses optimum organoleptic as well as micromeritic and suspending properties. It is concluded from the research work that the gum extracted from Boswellia serrata shows the presence of carbohydrates after chemical tests. All the organoleptic properties evaluated were found to be acceptable. The pH was found to be slightly acidic. Swelling Index reveals that the gum swells well in water. Total ash value was within the limits. The values of angle of repose and Carr's Index of powdered gum powder showed that the flow property was good. IR spectra confirmed the presence of alcohol, amines, ketones, anhydrides and aromatic rings. The suspending properties of Boswellia serrata gum were found to be higher as compared to gum acacia while the flow rate of Boswellia serrata gum (1% suspension) was less than gum acacia (1% suspension). The viscosity measurement of both Boswellia serrata gum suspension and gum acacia suspension showed approximately similar results.

  15. Rapid, dynamic segregation of core forming melts: Results from in-situ High Pressure- High Temperature X-ray Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, H. C.; Yu, T.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The timing and mechanisms of core formation in the Earth, as well as in Earth-forming planetesimals is a problem of significant importance in our understanding of the early evolution of terrestrial planets . W-Hf isotopic signatures in meteorites indicate that core formation in small pre-differentiated planetesimals was relatively rapid, and occurred over the span of a few million years. This time scale is difficult to achieve by percolative flow of the metallic phase through a silicate matrix in textural equilibrium. It has been suggested that during this active time in the early solar system, dynamic processes such as impacts may have caused significant deformation in the differentiating planetesimals, which could lead to much higher permeability of the core forming melts. Here, we have measured the change in permeability of core forming melts in a silicate matrix due to deformation. Mixtures of San Carlos olivine and FeS close to the equilibrium percolation threshold (~5 vol%FeS) were pre-synthesized to achieve an equilibrium microstructure, and then loaded into the rotational Drickamer apparatus at GSE-CARS, sector 13-BMD, at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory). The samples were subsequently pressed to ~2GPa, and heated to 1100°C. Alternating cycles of rotation to collect X-ray tomography images, and twisting to deform the sample were conducted until the sample had been twisted by 1080°. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed on the resulting 3-dimensional x-ray tomographic images to evaluate the effect of shear deformation on permeability and migration velocity. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations were conducted, and show a marked increase in the permeability with increasing deformation, which would allow for much more rapid core formation in planetesimals.

  16. Diabetes, Gum Disease, and Other Dental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes, Sexual, & Bladder Problems Diabetes, Gum Disease, & Other Dental Problems How can diabetes affect my mouth? Too ... What if my mouth is sore after my dental work? A sore mouth is common after dental ...

  17. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND gabonensis GUM EXUDATES A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    fundamental property of a gum therefore is i water solubility ... tion November, 2017. Journal of ... ly or after mechanical incision of the .... and structure of liquid water. .... On the other hand, the strength .... the mineral/aqueous solution interface.".

  18. Self-healing guar gum and guar gum-multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite gels prepared in an ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Mukesh, Chandrakant; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2013-10-15

    Guar gum is a galactomannan extracted from the seed of the leguminous shrub Cyamopsis tetragonoloba. It was found to form a soft viscoelastic gel in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, an ionic liquid at an optimized concentration of 10%w/v. A nanocomposite gel of the gum with enhanced strength could be prepared with 0.2%w/v of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the ionic liquid. When the gels thus prepared were subjected to surface fractures or bisected completely, they found to self-heal at room temperature without any external interventions. The self-healing process could be repeated several times. These viscoelastic gel systems showed thixotropic nature and recovery of the storage modulus with time for several cycles was observed upon rheological investigations. The interaction took place between ionic liquid, guar gum and MWCNT was studied by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, powder XRD and rheometry. The results suggested that, upon standing at room temperature development of electrostatic interactions and the van der Waals interactions among the ionic liquid molecules facilitated the formation of reversible noncovalent bonds and eventually activated the self-healing in the gel systems through appropriate chain entanglements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of Oral Dissolvable Films of Diclofenac Sodium for Osteoarthritis Using Albizia and Khaya Gums as Hydrophilic Film Formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Aduenimaa Bonsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral dissolvable films (ODFs of diclofenac sodium intended for osteoarthritis were prepared using Albizia and Khaya gums as hydrophilic film formers. The physicochemical properties of the gums were characterized and the gums were used to prepare diclofenac sodium ODFs (~50 mg/4 cm2 film by solvent casting. The two gums showed satisfactory film forming properties. The physicomechanical properties, drug-excipient compatibility, and in vitro drug release of the films in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 were studied. Khaya gum had higher extraction yield, moisture content, insoluble matter and true density while Albizia gum showed greater swelling capacity, solubility, and minerals content. The ODFs were thin, soft, and flexible with smooth glossy surfaces and possessed satisfactory physicomechanical properties. FTIR studies showed that no interaction occurred between the drug and the gums. The ODFs disintegrated in 75% drug release within 7 min with dissolution efficiencies of ~83–96%. Drug releases from F2, F3, F4, F5, and F6 were similar to F1 (p>0.05; f115 and f2<50. Drug release followed the Higuchi kinetic model which is indicative of Fickian drug diffusion.

  20. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, I.M.S. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Zampa, M.F. [Nucleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, Campus Parnaiba, CMRV, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64202-020 (Brazil); Campus Parnaiba, Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui, IFPI, Parnaiba, PI, 64210-260 (Brazil); Moura, J.B.; Santos, J.R. dos [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, PI, 64049-550 (Brazil); Eaton, P. [REQUIMTE, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Porto, 4169-007 (Portugal); Zucolotto, V. [Grupo de Biofisica Molecular Sergio Mascarenhas, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, IFSC, USP, Sao Carlos, SP, 13566-590 (Brazil); and others

    2012-08-01

    The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piaui and Ceara states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study focused on the use of cashew gum for the formation of LbL films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LbL films containing cashew gums were investigated by AFM and cyclic voltammetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum contributed to obtain stable films with well-defined redox processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cashew gum films detected dopamine in low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These LbL films presented potential application in nanobiomedical devices.

  1. Contribution of the cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) for development of layer-by-layer films with potential application in nanobiomedical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, I.M.S.; Zampa, M.F.; Moura, J.B.; Santos, J.R. dos; Eaton, P.; Zucolotto, V.

    2012-01-01

    The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piauí and Ceará states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors. Highlights: ► This study focused on the use of cashew gum for the formation of LbL films. ► LbL films containing cashew gums were investigated by AFM and cyclic voltammetry. ► Cashew gum contributed to obtain stable films with well-defined redox processes. ► Cashew gum films detected dopamine in low concentrations. ► These LbL films presented potential application in nanobiomedical devices.

  2. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvielmo, Márcia de Mello; Borges, Caroline Dellinghausen; Toyama, Daniela de Oliveira; Vendruscolo, Claire Tondo; Scamparini, Adilma Regina Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on gum purification are required to remove excess sodium, verify the efficiency loss and the consequent increase in the polymer viscosity. Alkali stress altered the structure of xanthan gum from a polygon-like shape to a star-like form. At the end of the fermentation, early structural changes in the bacterium were observed. After alkali stress, marked structural differences were observed in the cells. A more vacuolated cytoplasm and discontinuities in the membrane cells evidenced the cell lysis. Xanthan was observed in the form of concentric circles instead of agglomerates as observed prior to the alkali stress. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Gum Producers Can Improve Quality Of Gum Marketed and Get Higher Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph W. Clements

    1979-01-01

    Acid waste from over-treatment and old, wornout iron cups have contributed significantly to the generally poor quality of gum marketed. Today producers are reluctant to purchase new cups and gutters and invest up to $1.80 per tree for production when the market price for gum averages 14.54 per pound annually. Guidelines are given for improving the quality by...

  4. Superelastic load cycling of Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, V.A.; Jones, N.G.; Rahman, K.M.; Dye, D.

    2015-01-01

    The superelastic beta titanium alloy, Gum Metal, has been found to accumulate plastic strain during tensile load cycling in the superelastic regime. This is evident from the positive drift of the macroscopic stress vs. strain hysteresis curve parallel to the strain axis and the change in its geometry subsequent to every load–unload cycle. In addition, there is a progressive reduction in the hysteresis loop width and in the stress at which the superelastic transition occurs. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has shown that the lattice strain exhibited the same behaviour as that observed in macroscopic measurements and identified further evidence of plastic strain accumulation. The mechanisms responsible for the observed behaviour have been evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed a range of different defects that formed during load cycling. The formation of these defects is consistent with the classical mathematical theory for the bcc to orthorhombic martensitic transformation. It is the accumulation of these defects over time that alters its superelastic behaviour

  5. Rheological and interfacial properties at the equilibrium of almond gum tree exudate (Prunus dulcis) in comparison with gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Sessa, Mariarenata; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem; Donsi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50  ℃) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations.The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences.

  7. Optimizing gelling parameters of gellan gum for fibrocartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeyeon; Fisher, Stephanie; Kallos, Michael S; Hunter, Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    Gellan gum is an attractive biomaterial for fibrocartilage tissue engineering applications because it is cell compatible, can be injected into a defect, and gels at body temperature. However, the gelling parameters of gellan gum have not yet been fully optimized. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanics, degradation, gelling temperature, and viscosity of low acyl and low/high acyl gellan gum blends. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum resulted in increased stiffness and the addition of high acyl gellan gum resulted in greatly decreased stiffness. Degradation studies showed that low acyl gellan gum was more stable than low/high acyl gellan gum blends. Gelling temperature studies showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum and CaCl₂ increased gelling temperature and low acyl gellan gum concentrations below 2% (w/v) would be most suitable for cell encapsulation. Gellan gum blends were generally found to have a higher gelling temperature than low acyl gellan gum. Viscosity studies showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum increased viscosity. Our results suggest that 2% (w/v) low acyl gellan gum would have the most appropriate mechanics, degradation, and gelling temperature for use in fibrocartilage tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets using cross-linked natural gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Qurratul Ain; Masood, Muhammad Irfan; Jamil, Muhammad Nauman; Masood, Imran; Iqbal, Shahid Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    Polysaccharide gums because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-immunogenic properties are considered as the best choice for preparing sustained release tablets as compared to their synthetic counterpart. The cross linking of natural gums in matrix tablets increase the sustained release property of matrix tablets. Isoniazid is a first line therapy of tuberculosis, belongs to BCS I with half-life of 3-4 hours. These characteristics make isoniazid a good candidate for sustained release dosage form. Karaya gum crossed linked with trisodium tri metaphosphate was used as release rate retardant for preparing isoniazid cross-linked matrix tablet. Total 8 sustained release formulations were prepared. Both granules and tablets were evaluated under in vitro condition against different parameters. Dissolution studies were performed with all eight formulations for 12 hours using USP apparatus I. Four formulations designated as F1, F2, F3, F4 have drug and karaya gum while other four formulations F5, F6, F7, F8 have drug and crossed linked polymer in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 respectively. Dissolution data was analyzed by using different kinetic models. Best fit model for most efficient formulation was zero order while release mechanism was super case I. Formulation 8 showed sufficiently slow release kinetics and about 83% of drug was released in 10 hours, indicating that cross-linked karaya gum proved efficient in preparing sustained release tablets.

  9. Effect of Different Combinations of Gums and Emulsifiers on the Quality of Bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, M. R.; Din, G. M. U.; Mehmood, A.; Hussain, A.; Nasir, M. U.

    2016-01-01

    A project was designed to evaluate the effect of different combinations of emulsifiers and gums on the quality of bread. Wheat variety AARI-11 was milled to get straight grade flour and mixed with the Emulsifiers (DMG and DATEM) and Gums (G.G and CMC) in a quantity of (0.3- 0.6 %). Both, straight grade flour as well as treated flour (combination with gums and emulsifiers) were subjected to proximate and rheological analysis. Results of the rheological study showed a significant change in water absorption, dough development time, dough stability time and dough viscosity i.e. W/A 61.33-62.93%, D.D.T 3.9-4.8 min, D.S.T 7-9.1 min and 818.33-950.00 BU, respectively. Breads prepared with both flours were also studied for their sensory attributes during storage after the interval of 24 h. The highest score was awarded to T1 (0.3% DATEM and 0.5% guar gum) on the bases of its excellent external attributes (colour of crust, volume, symmetry of form, evenness of bake and crust character) and internal characteristics (aroma, grain, texture, taste, mastication and colour of crumb). After the sensory and physicochemical analyses, it is concluded that with the addition of DATEM (0.3%) and guar gum (0.5%) resulted in good quality of bread. (author)

  10. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  11. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Some excipients are currently available for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. ... Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family ... Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum.

  12. Rapid shear alignment of sub-10 nm cylinder-forming block copolymer films based on thermal expansion mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Samuel M.; Gadelrab, Karim R.; G, Amir Tavakkoli K.; Ross, Caroline A.; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Berggren, Karl K.

    2018-01-01

    Directed self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) provided by shear-stress can produce aligned sub-10 nm structures over large areas for applications in integrated circuits, next-generation data storage, and plasmonic structures. In this work, we present a fast, versatile BCP shear-alignment process based on coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch of the BCP film, a rigid top coat and a substrate. Monolayer and bilayer cylindrical microdomains of poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) aligned preferentially in-plane and orthogonal to naturally-forming or engineered cracks in the top coat film, allowing for orientation control over 1 cm2 substrates. Annealing temperatures, up to 275 °C, provided low-defect alignment up to 2 mm away from cracks for rapid (<1 min) annealing times. Finite-element simulations of the stress as a function of annealing time, annealing temperature, and distance from cracks showed that shear stress during the cooling phase of the thermal annealing was critical for the observed microdomain alignment.

  13. Transmission electron microscopy studies on nanometer-sized ω phase produced in Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Takaaki; Murakami, Yasukazu; Shindo, Daisuke; Hayasaka, Yuichiro; Kuramoto, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    The morphology, numerical density and average spacing of the ω phase formed in Gum Metal, a Ti-based alloy showing unique mechanical properties, were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Based on dark-field image observations and precise thickness measurements using a thin-foil specimen, the average spacing of the nanometer-sized ω phase was determined to be 6 nm. This spacing appeared to be sufficiently small for trapping dislocations. The results are discussed in conjunction with the dislocation-free deformation mechanism proposed for Gum Metal.

  14. Preliminary study on aluminum-air battery applying disposable soft drink cans and Arabic gum polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, S.; Sundari, R.; Wijaya, H. F.; Majlan, E. H.; Sudaryanto; Arwati, I. G. A.; Sebayang, D.

    2017-09-01

    This study is in relation to preliminary investigation of aluminium-air battery using disposable soft drink cans as aluminium source for anode. The cathode uses commercial porous carbon sheet to trap oxygen from air. This work applies a commercial cashing to place carbon cathode, electrolyte, Arabic gum polymer, and aluminium anode in a sandwich-like arrangement to form the aluminium-air battery. The Arabic gum as electrolyte polymer membrane protects anode surface from corrosion due to aluminium oxide formation. The study result shows that the battery discharge test using constant current loading of 0.25 mA yields battery capacity of 0.437 mAh with over 100 minute battery life times at 4M NaOH electrolyte and 20 % Arabic gum polymer as the best performance in this investigation. This study gives significant advantage in association with beneficiation of disposable soft drink cans from municipal solid waste as aluminium source for battery anode.

  15. Production and Investigation of Controlled Drug Release Properties of Tamoxifen Loaded Alginate-Gum Arabic Microbeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukiye Yavaşer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The entrapment of tamoxifen onto alginate-gum arabic beads and the production of controlled drug release was investigated in this study. The polymeric system that would provide the controlled release of tamoxifen was formed using alginate and gum arabic. In the first phase of the study, the optimization of the alginate-gum arabic beads production was conducted; then the study continued with drug entrapment experiments. Tamoxifen entrapment yield was found to be approximately 90% of initial tamoxifen concentration. In vitro drug release experiments were performed in simulated gastric juice and intestinal fluid where the tamoxifen release was 20% and 53% of the initial drug present, respectively. As a result of this study, it is expected that a valuable contribution to the field of controlled drug release system production is realized.

  16. Mutanase-containing chewing gum: A new potential approach for prevention of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Study on the effect of topically applied mutanase on plaque formation and caries in rats showed strong inhibition of dental caries. Furthermore, it has been shown that the presence of mutanase in dental plaque may affect the synthesis and structure of sticky, extracellular glucans. The Hypothesis: Mutanase can be easily added to gum base. After chewing of mutanase-containing chewing gum, the enzyme will be released into the oral cavity. Mutanase will hydrolyze sticky, extracellular glucans, e.g., mutan inhibiting cariogenic bacteria to cohere/adhere and form plaque. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The main challenge with this hypothesis is the source of mutanase. It can be obtained from Paenibacillus sp. MP-1 or Trichoderma harzianum F-340. Directly compressible medicated chewing gum bases can be used to avoid inactivation of mutanase during the manufacturing process.

  17. Closed-form expressions for flip angle variation that maximize total signal in T1-weighted rapid gradient echo MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnitzky, Matthias; Klose, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    Magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequences are commonly employed for T1-weighted structural brain imaging. Following a contrast preparation radiofrequency (RF) pulse, the data acquisition proceeds under nonequilibrium conditions of the relaxing longitudinal magnetization. Variation of the flip angle can be used to maximize total available signal. Simulated annealing or greedy algorithms have so far been published to numerically solve this problem, with signal-to-noise ratios optimized for clinical imaging scenarios by adhering to a predefined shape of the signal evolution. We propose an unconstrained optimization of the MPRAGE experiment that employs techniques from resource allocation theory. A new dynamic programming solution is introduced that yields closed-form expressions for optimal flip angle variation. Flip angle series are proposed that maximize total transverse magnetization (Mxy) for a range of physiologic T1 values. A 3D MPRAGE sequence is modified to allow for a controlled variation of the excitation angle. Experiments employing a T1 contrast phantom are performed at 3T. 1D acquisitions without phase encoding permit measurement of the temporal development of Mxy. Image mean signal and standard deviation for reference flip angle trains are compared in 2D measurements. Signal profiles at sharp phantom edges are acquired to access image blurring related to nonuniform Mxy development. A novel closed-form expression for flip angle variation is found that constitutes the optimal policy to reach maximum total signal. It numerically equals previously published results of other authors when evaluated under their simplifying assumptions. Longitudinal magnetization (Mz) is exhaustively used without causing abrupt changes in the measured MR signal, which is a prerequisite for artifact free images. Phantom experiments at 3T verify the expected benefit for total accumulated k-space signal when compared with published flip angle series. Describing

  18. Dependence on the nicotine gum in former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2009-03-01

    We conducted an Internet survey in 2004-2007 in 526 daily users of the nicotine gum, to assess use of, and dependence on the nicotine gum in former smokers. We used modified versions of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS-G), the Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS-G) and the Fagerström Test (FTND-G). After 30 days, 155 participants (29%) indicated their gum use. Higher dependence on the gum predicted a lower chance of stopping using it at follow-up (odds ratio=0.36 for each standard deviation unit on CDS-G, p=0.001). More long-term (>3 months) than short-term (dependence on the gum than short-term users, as assessed with NDSS-Gum, CDS-Gum and FTND-Gum (all pdependence on the nicotine gum. Lower levels of dependence on the gum predicted cessation of gum use. However, long term use of the nicotine gum has no known serious adverse consequence, and may be beneficial if it prevents late relapse.

  19. Granule properties of paracetamol made with Bombax ceiba gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bombax ceiba gum was extracted from the calyx of the Bombax flower using both hot and cold water extraction method. The gum was used as binder to prepare paracetamol granules in concentrations of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 %. Acacia gum was used to prepare the standard at the same concentrations. The granule properties of ...

  20. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and

  1. Grewia Gum 1: Some Mechanical and Swelling Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: Compacts (500 mg) of both freeze-dried and air-dried grewia gum were separately ... grewia gum films were compared with films of pullulan and guar gum which were similarly prepared. .... Freeze-drying was carried out using an.

  2. Rheological Modeling and Characterization of Ficus platyphylla Gum Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus platyphylla gum exudates (FP gum have been analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and found to be ionic, mildly acidic, odourless, and yellowish brown in colour. The gum is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The nitrogen (0.39% and protein (2.44% contents of the gum are relatively low. The concentrations of the cations were found to increase according to the following trend, Mn>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mg>Cd>Ca. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum of the gum revealed vibrations similar to those found in polysaccharides while the scanning electron micrograph indicated that the gum has irregular molecular shapes, arranged randomly. The intrinsic viscosity of FP gum estimated by extrapolating to zero concentrations in Huggins, Kraemer, Schulz-Blaschke, and Martin plots has an average value of 7 dL/g. From the plots of viscosity versus shear rate/speed of rotation and also that of shear stress versus shear rate, FP gum can be classified as a non-Newtonian gum with characteristics-plastic properties. Development of the Master_s curve for FP gum also indicated that the gum prefers to remain in a dilute domain (Cgum (calculated from Arrhenius-Frenkel-Eyring plot was relatively low and indicated the presence of fewer inter- and intramolecular interactions.

  3. 75 FR 44251 - Wood Oils and Gums, and Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0441; FRL-8829-8 Wood Oils and Gums, and... integrated use in tank mixes with chemical fungicides. The Wood Oils and Gums Registration Review Case no longer contains any other wood oils or gums with active ingredients with registered products except for...

  4. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  5. Chewing gum moderates the vigilance decrement.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K.; Johnson, A.J.; Miles, C..

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of chewing gum on a Bakan-type vigilance task that requires the continual updating of short-term order memory. Forty participants completed a 30-min auditory Bakan-task either with, or without, the requirement to chew gum. Self-rated measures of mood were taken both pre- and post-task. As expected, the vigilance task produced a time-dependent performance decrement indexed via decreases in target detections and lengthened correct reaction times (RTs), and a reduction in p...

  6. Administration of Caffeine in Alternate Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Kate A; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2018-03-01

    There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and absorption in the gut, although total caffeine absorption over time is not different. Rapid absorption may be important in many sporting situations. Caffeinated chewing gum improved endurance cycling performance, and there is limited evidence that repeated sprint cycling and power production may also be improved. Mouth rinsing with caffeine may stimulate nerves with direct links to the brain, in addition to caffeine absorption in the mouth. However, caffeine mouth rinsing has not been shown to have significant effects on cognitive performance. Delivering caffeine with mouth rinsing improved short-duration, high-intensity, repeated sprinting in normal and depleted glycogen states, while the majority of the literature indicates no ergogenic effect on aerobic exercise performance, and resistance exercise has not been adequately studied. Studies with caffeinated energy drinks have generally not examined the individual effects of caffeine on performance, making conclusions about this form of caffeine delivery impossible. Caffeinated aerosol mouth and nasal sprays may stimulate nerves with direct brain connections and enter the blood via mucosal and pulmonary absorption, although little support exists for caffeine delivered in this manner. Overall, more research is needed examining alternate forms of caffeine delivery including direct measures of brain activation and entry of caffeine into the blood, as well as more studies examining trained athletes and female subjects.

  7. [Effect of sandblasting particle sizes on bonding strength between porcelain and titanium fabricated by rapid laser forming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-jun; Wang, Zhong-yi; Gao, Bo; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Chun-bao

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of sandblasting particle sizes of Al2O3 on the bonding strength between porcelain and titanium fabricated by laser rapid forming (LRF). The thermal expansion coefficient, roughness (Ra), contact angle, surface morphology of titanium surface and the bonding strength between titanium and porcelain were evaluated after the titanium surface being sandblasted using different sizes of Al2O3 (50 microm, 120 microm, 250 microm) at a pressure of 0.5 MPa. The cast titanium specimens were used as control, and were sandblasted with 50 microm Al2O3 at the same pressure. The thermal expansion coefficient of cast titanium [(9.84 +/- 0.42) x 10(-6)/ degrees C] and LRF Ti [(9.79 +/- 0.31) x 10(-6)/ degrees C) matched that of Noritake Ti-22 dentin porcelain [(8.93 +/- 0.36) x 10(-6)/ degrees C). When larger size of Al2O3 was used, the value of Ra and contact angle increased as well. There was no significant difference in bonding strength between the LRF Ti-50 microm [(25.91 +/- 1.02) MPa] and cast titanium [(26.42 +/- 1.65) MPa]. Significantly lower bonding strength was found in LRF Ti-120 microm [(21.86 +/- 1.64) MPa] and LRF Ti-250 microm [(19.96 +/- 1.03) MPa]. The bond strength between LRF Ti and Noritake Ti-22 dentin porcelain was above the lower limit value in the ISO 9693 (25 MPa) after using 50 microm Al2O3 sandblasting in 0.5MPa air pressure.

  8. Neem Gum as a Binder in a Formulated Paracetamol Tablet with Reference to Acacia Gum BP

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing ...

  9. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Oliver; Mecklinger, Lara; Maier, Kerstin; Hammerl, Marianne; Lange, Klaus W

    2004-06-01

    In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined. The results of this study indicated that chewing a piece of gum results in an improvement of working memory and of both immediate and delayed recall of words but not of attention. In the present study, memory and a variety of attentional functions of healthy adult participants were examined under four different conditions: no chewing, mimicking chewing movements, chewing a piece of tasteless chewing gum and chewing a piece of spearmint flavoured chewing gum. The sequence of conditions was randomised across participants. The results showed that the chewing of gum did not improve participants' memory functions. Furthermore, chewing may differentially affect specific aspects of attention. While sustained attention was improved by the chewing of gum, alertness and flexibility were adversely affected by chewing. In conclusion, claims that the chewing a gum improves cognition should be viewed with caution.

  10. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.

    2004-01-01

    composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...

  11. Enzymatic production of polysaccharides from gum tragacanth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases...

  12. Effect of gum hardness on chewing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesh, O; Bishop, B; McCall, W

    1986-06-01

    Chewing rhythms are set by a putative central pattern generator whose output is influenced by sensory feedback. In this study we assessed how an altered feedback imposed by changing the hardness of a gum bolus modifies the timing of chewing, the maximal gape, and the activity in the masseter muscle on the chewing side. Ten adult subjects with no orofacial dysfunction chewed a standard piece of soft or hard gum for at least 3 min in random order. Vertical jaw movements were recorded with a kinesiograph and activity of the masseter muscle was recorded and integrated from surface EMG electrodes. The subjects sat in a dental chair and viewed a video lecture to distract their attention from chewing; they were instructed to chew on the right molars. Cycle-by-cycle analysis showed that 9 of the 10 subjects chewed the hard gum more slowly than the soft with no significant change in gape. The increases in cycle duration were due to changes in the duration of the opening and occlusal phases. The duration of closing was not significantly changed even though the duration and level of masseter activity were both significantly increased. We conclude that gum hardness by altering proprioceptive feedback modifies the output of the masticatory central pattern generator in such a way that the temporal aspects of chewing and the output of the masseteric motor pool are affected.

  13. Tuliposides and tulipalins in tulip Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbe, A.; Verpoorte, R.; Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.H.G.E.

    2013-01-01

    Gummosis in tulip bulbs is one of the negative effects of ethylene gas that is produced during storage by Fusarium-infected bulbs on the healthy bulbs. Several aspects of the gummosis process, like the factors inducing it, the underlying carbohydrate metabolism and the composition of the gum have

  14. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives. PMID:25473499

  15. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives.

  16. Exopolysaccharide Gellan Gum and Derived Oligo-Gellan Enhance Growth and Antimicrobial Activity in Eucomis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the visible trends in the cultivation of plants, particularly of medicinal ones, is the increasing interest of researchers in polysaccharides and their derivatives that show biostimulatory properties and are also safe to use. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of gellan gum and its depolymerized form oligo-gellan, on growth and antimicrobial activity of two ornamental species Eucomis bicolor and Eucomis comosa used in natural medicine. The biopolymers were applied in the form of bulb coating prepared by using polyelectrolyte complexes. In both species investigated, gellan gum and oligo-gellan enhanced the fresh weight of leaves and bulbs, the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus, and the leaf content of basic macronutrients. In comparison with the control, the plants treated with oligo-gellan accumulated more biomass, were first to flower, and had the highest leaf content of potassium. The extracts from the bulbs treated with gellan gum and oligo-gellan showed higher effectiveness in reducing the count of Bacillus atrophaeus, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus than those from the bulbs not treated with the polysaccharides. The research described here largely expands our current knowledge on the effects of gellan gum derivatives and has a huge practical potential in agriculture production.

  17. Effect of GutsyGum(tm), A Novel Gum, on Subjective Ratings of Gastro Esophageal Reflux Following A Refluxogenic Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel; Sam, Cecilia H Y; Green, Tim; Wood, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Chewing gum alleviates symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) following a refluxogenic meal. GutsyGum(tm), a chewing gum developed to alleviate the symptoms of GER contains calcium carbonate, with a proprietary blend of licorice extract, papain, and apple cider vinegar (GiGs®). The efficacy of GutsyGum(tm) was determined in alleviating the symptoms of GER after a refluxogenic meal compared to placebo gum. This double-blind, placebo-controlled-crossover trial with a one-week washout between treatments had 24 participants with a history of GER consume a refluxogenic meal and then chew GutsyGum(tm) or placebo gum. Participants completed GER symptom questionnaires, consisting of symptom based 10 cm Visual Analogue Scales, immediately following the meal and then at regular intervals out to four hours postmeal. Adjusted mean ± SEM heartburn score (15-min postmeal to 240 min) was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo gum treatment (0.81 ± 0.20 vs. 1.45 ± 0.20 cm; p = 0.034). Mean acid reflux score was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo treatment (0.72 ± 0.19 vs. 1.46 ± 0.19 cm; p = 0.013). There were no significant differences for any of the secondary outcomes. However, pain approached significance with less pain reported in GutsyGum(tm) versus placebo treatment (0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 cm; p = 0.081). Although nausea (p = 0.114) and belching (p = 0.154) were lower following GutsyGum(tm), the difference was not statistically significant. GutsyGum(tm) is more effective than a placebo gum in alleviating primary symptoms of heartburn and acid reflux (Clinical Trial Registration: ACTRN12612000973819).

  18. Competition in the gum arabic market: a game theoretic modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ierland, van E.C.; Weikard, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Gum arabic is mainly produced from two Acacias that are found in the gum belt of Sub-Saharan Africa. These are Acacia senegal that produces high quality gum and Acacia seyal that produces low quality gum. In recent years the gum market structure has changed and Sudan lost its near monopoly position

  19. Physico-chemical study on guar gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Nahla Mubarak

    2000-05-01

    Guar plant is an annual summer plant and it can resist diseases, pests and drought. Guar gum is used in a lot of industries. The present study deals with some physical properties of two commercial grade samples of guar gum cyamopsis tetragonoloba which where produced in 1996 and 1997 seasons (S 1 and S 2 respectively). Our analytical data are compared with those of previous workers in this area and international quality. Guar gum (S 2 ) is separated into water-insoluble components. Three fractions were obtained from the water-soluble components by fractional participation using acetone. Guar gum powder is yellowish white; the water-insoluble component is brownish white. Comparison study between gum samples (S 1 and S 2 ) and water-insoluble fraction (1) and water-soluble fractions are close to each other in their physico-properties. chemical All samples and fractions contain galactomannan polysaccharide as explained by infra-red spectra.Moisture contents for the gum samples were 5.2% and 7.8% and that for the water-insoluble fraction 4.7% while that for fraction samples were 5.2%-7.5% ash contents for the gum samples was 0.81% and 1.14% and for the water-insoluble component 0.88% while the contents in the fractions between 0.5%-0.66%. Nitrogen content determination showed that the gum samples had value of 0.678% and 0.732% and water -insoluble fraction had a value of 0.118%. The values decreased in the water-soluble fractions giving 0.049%, 0.053 and 0.056%. Water-soluble component and its fractions record the following results: pH measurements showed that the water-soluble component had pH 6.70 and 6.84 while its fractions had pH 5.90 and 7.00. Viscosity measurements showed that water-soluble fractions had intrinsic viscosity of 6.4 and 6.8 dL. g -1 . The fractions derived from water-soluble fraction had intrinsic viscosity of 6.6, 7 and 7.5 dl. g -1 . Using Mark-Howink equation, calculated average molecular weights for the water-soluble components were 7.01x10 5

  20. Fast microwave-assisted green synthesis of xanthan gum grafted acrylic acid for enhanced methylene blue dye removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhado, Edwin; Pandey, Sadanand; Nomngongo, Philiswa N; Ramontja, James

    2017-11-15

    In the present project, graft polymerization was employed to synthesis a novel adsorbent using acrylic acid (AA) and xanthan gum (XG) for cationic methylene dye (MB + ) removal from aqueous solution. The XG was rapidly grafted with acrylic acid (CH 2 =CHCOOH) under microwave heating. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Proton Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques were used to verify the adsorbent formed under optimized reaction conditions. Optimum reaction conditions [AA (0.4M), APS (0.05M), XG (2gL -1 ), MW power (100%), MW time (80s)] offer maximum %G and %GE of 484 and 78.3, respectively. The removal ratio of adsorbent to MB + reached to 92.8% at 100mgL -1 . Equilibrium and kinetic adsorptions of dyes were better explained by the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetic model respectively. The results demonstrate xanthan gum grafted polyacrylic acid (mw XG-g-PAA) absorbent had the universality for removal of dyes through the chemical adsorption mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rheological Characterization of Isabgol Husk, Gum Katira Hydrocolloids, and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rheological parameters of Isabgol husk, gum katira, and their blends were determined in different media such as distilled water, 0.1 N HCl, and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. The blend properties of Isabgol husk and gum katira were measured for four different percentage compositions in order to understand their compatibility in dispersion form such as 00 : 100, 25 : 50, 50 : 50, 75 : 25, and 100 : 00 in the gel strength of 1 mass%. The miscibility of blends was determined by calculating Isabgol husk-gum katira interaction parameters by Krigbaum and Wall equation. Other rheological properties were analyzed by Bingham, Power, Casson, Casson chocolate, and IPC paste analysis. The study revealed that the power flow index “p” was less than “1” in all concentrations of Isabgol husk, gum katira, and their blends dispersions indicating the shear-thinning (pseudoplastic behavior. All blends followed pseudoplastic behavior at thermal conditions as 298.15, 313.15, and 333.15°K and in dispersion media such as distilled water, 0.1 N HCl, and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. Moreover, the study indicated the applicability of these blends in the development of drug delivery systems and in industries, for example, ice-cream, paste, nutraceutical, and so forth.

  2. Effect of Probiotic Yogurt and Xylitol-Containing Chewing Gums on Salivary S Mutans Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Elnaz; Mazaheri, Romina; Tahmourespour, Arezoo

    In addition to improving gastrointestinal health and intestinal microflora, probiotic bacteria have been recently suggested to decrease cariogenic agents in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums on reducing salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. This randomized clinical trial recruited 50 female students with over 10 5 colony forming units S. mutans per milliliter of their saliva. The participants were randomly allocated to two equal groups to receive either probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 andBifidobacteriumbifidum ATCC 29521 (200 g daily) or xylitol-containing chewing gums (two gums three times daily after each meal; total xylitol content: 5.58 g daily) for three weeks. At baseline and one day, two weeks, and four weeks after the interventions, saliva samples were cultured on mitis-salivarius-bacitracin agar and salivary S. mutans counts were determined. Data were analyzed with independent t-tests, analysis of variance, and Fisher's least significant difference test. In both groups, S. mutans counts on the first day, second week, and fourth weeks after the intervention were significantly lower than baseline values (P yogurt consumers, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums seem to be as effective in reduction of salivary S. mutans levels. Their constant long-term consumption is thus recommended to prevent caries.

  3. Canais secretores em Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl (Vochysiaceae Gum ducts in Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl (Vochysiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therezinha Isaia Paviani

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a ocorrência de canais secretores de goma nos orgãos vegetativos de Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl, planta nativa dos cerrados do Brasil Central. Nos estágios iniciais do desenvolvimento, a espécie possui uma tuberosidade formada pelo hipocótilo e pela parte superior da raiz principal. O xilema secundário da parte hipocotilar da tuberosidade apresenta áreas parenquimáticas e canais secretores de goma. Discute-se a possível relação ontogenética entre as áreas parenquimáticas e os canais de goma. Questiona-se a origem traumática dos canais.The occurrence of gum ducts in the vegetative organs of Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl, a native plant from the "cerrado" vegetation of central Brazil was studied. This species presents a swollen structure, which forms from the hypocotyl and the upper part of the primary root during the early stages of development. The secondary xylem of the hypocotyl part of the swollen structure shows the presence of both parenchymatic zones and gum ducts. The possible ontogenetic relationship between the parenchymatic zones and the gum ducts is discussed in this paper. The traumatic origin of the gum ducts is questioned.

  4. Graft polymerization of guar gum with acryl amide irradiated by microwaves for colonic drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Gul, Yousra; Munir, Hira; Anjum, Fozia; Zuber, Mohammad; Jamil, Tahir; Zia, Khalid Mahmood

    2013-11-01

    This article is aimed to discuss the modification of guar gum through microwave irradiation by varying the time of irradiation. The characterization of the modified products was carried out using FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The FT-IR spectrum of the pure guar gum (GG) sample showed a broad peak at 3298 cm(-1) while the modified GG sample displayed a peak at 1541 cm(-1) which was absent in the crude sample. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the increase in crystallinity due to grafting of the sample with polyacrylamide (GG-g-PAM). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that granular form of guar gum was changed into fibrillar structure after grafting. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of the modified samples was also carried out and discussed. The role of guar gum as a matrix for controlled release of drug triamcinolone was evaluated. The GG-acrylamide grafted samples presented a correlation between drug release and time of microwave exposure. The results revealed that such modified product has potential applications in colonic drug delivery system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Yield stress determines bioprintability of hydrogels based on gelatin-methacryloyl and gellan gum for cartilage bioprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, Vivian H. M.; Melchels, Ferry P.W.; Visser, Jetze; Dhert, Wouter J.A.; Gawlitta, Debby; Malda, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting of chondrocyte-laden hydrogels facilitates the fabrication of constructs with controlled organization and shape for e.g. articular cartilage implants. Gelatin-methacryloyl (gelMA) supplemented with gellan gum is a promising bio-ink. However, the rheological properties governing the printing process, and the influence of gellan gum on the mechanical properties and chondrogenesis of the blend, are still unknown. Here, we investigated the suitability of gelMA/gellan for cartilage bioprinting. Multiple concentrations, ranging from 3-25% gelMA with 0-1.5% gellan gum, were evaluated for their printability, defined as the ability to form filaments and to incorporate cells at 15-37°C. To support the printability assessment, yield stress and viscosity of the hydrogels were measured. Stiffness of UV-cured constructs, as well as cartilage-like tissue formation by embedded chondrocytes, were determined in vitro. A large range of gelMA/gellan concentrations were printable with inclusion of cells and formed the bioprinting window. Addition of gellan gum improved filament deposition by inducing yielding behavior, increased construct stiffness, and supported chondrogenesis. High gellan gum concentrations, however, did compromise cartilage matrix production and distribution, and even higher concentrations resulted in too high yield stresses to allow cell encapsulation. This study demonstrates the high potential of gelMA/gellan blends for cartilage bioprinting and identifies yield stress as dominant factor for bioprintability. PMID:27431733

  6. Yield stress determines bioprintability of hydrogels based on gelatin-methacryloyl and gellan gum for cartilage bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, Vivian H M; Melchels, Ferry P W; Visser, Jetze; Dhert, Wouter J A; Gawlitta, Debby; Malda, Jos

    2016-07-19

    Bioprinting of chondrocyte-laden hydrogels facilitates the fabrication of constructs with controlled organization and shape e.g. for articular cartilage implants. Gelatin-methacryloyl (gelMA) supplemented with gellan gum is a promising bio-ink. However, the rheological properties governing the printing process, and the influence of gellan gum on the mechanical properties and chondrogenesis of the blend, are still unknown. Here, we investigated the suitability of gelMA/gellan for cartilage bioprinting. Multiple concentrations, ranging from 3% to 20% gelMA with 0%-1.5% gellan gum, were evaluated for their printability, defined as the ability to form filaments and to incorporate cells at 15 °C-37 °C. To support the printability assessment, yield stress and viscosity of the hydrogels were measured. Stiffness of UV-cured constructs, as well as cartilage-like tissue formation by embedded chondrocytes, were determined in vitro. A large range of gelMA/gellan concentrations were printable with inclusion of cells and formed the bioprinting window. The addition of gellan gum improved filament deposition by inducing yielding behavior, increased construct stiffness and supported chondrogenesis. High gellan gum concentrations, however, did compromise cartilage matrix production and distribution, and even higher concentrations resulted in too high yield stresses to allow cell encapsulation. This study demonstrates the high potential of gelMA/gellan blends for cartilage bioprinting and identifies yield stress as a dominant factor for bioprintability.

  7. Study of chemical and physical properties of irradiated Guar Gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H. A. S.

    2012-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different gamma radiation doses to decontamination of micro-organisms present in Guar Gum powder. As well as to study the effect of radiation on the chemical and physical properties of the carbohydrate components of the Gum's material. Two types of samples were used in this study (powder and liquid). All samples were collected from commercially available Guar Gum (G G), which were obtained from the company (Sudanese Guar Gum ltd). Samples putted in polyethylene tightly closed container, then irradiated by applying different doses (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 20,30,40,and 50 kGy) from Co-60 source at room temperature in air. And take zero kGy as control. Irradiated powder samples of (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 kGy) were investigated for contamination by using growth media agar and the result showed that 2.5 kGy is appropriate dose to remove the contamination of the samples. And then analyzed using fourier transform infrared (FTTR) x-ray fluorescence (X RF) and spectroscopy. The FTIR spectroscopy results suggested that there were no major chemical functional group transformation during irradiation. No change occurs by using low dose as 2.5 kGy. Also evaluation impact of radiation on liquid Samples (Aqueous solutions prepared in tow concentration of 1% and 5% wv that is by exposing the samples to the same dose of gamma rays) the effect of irradiation on it were investigated by using ultra violet spectroscopy ( UV.Vis), results showed that low dose has steeply effect in solutions specially in low concentration, it was more pronoun than that in high concentration, high dose has made change similar to that it made in powder. Also for both concentrations of liquid samples and for solutions made of irradiated powder pH measured and viscosity which used in investigations of molecular weight of liquid and powder, comparing the results of impact in the form of powder with the results of effects in the solutions found that the effects of

  8. Development of natural gum based fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide

    OpenAIRE

    Antesh Kumar Jha; Dipak Chetia

    2012-01-01

    Dysphagia and risk of choking are leading causes of patient non-compliance in the self-administration of conventional tablets. To overcome these limitations of conventional tablets fast-disintegrating tablets were developed, using natural gums. Natural gums were evaluated for bulk swelling capacity. Powder mix containing natural gums and glipizide was evaluated for water sorption, swelling index and capillary action. For faster onset and immediate hypoglycemic action, the fast disintegrating ...

  9. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Aslani; Sahar Rafiei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Materials and Methods: Nicotine, sugar, liquid...

  10. Flavor release measurement from gum model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero-López, Isabel; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans; Bredie, Wender L P

    2004-12-29

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio-scaled using the signal from acetone in the breath of subjects. Next, APCI-MS and sensory TI curves are smoothed by low-pass filtering. Principal component analysis of the individual curves is used to display graphically the product differentiation by APCI-MS or TI signals. It is shown that differences in gum composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory adaptation and sensitivity differences of human perception versus APCI-MS detection might explain the divergence between the two dynamic measurement methods.

  11. Validating the applicability of the GUM procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Maurice G.; Harris, Peter M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper is directed at practitioners seeking a degree of assurance in the quality of the results of an uncertainty evaluation when using the procedure in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) (JCGM 100 : 2008). Such assurance is required in adhering to general standards such as International Standard ISO/IEC 17025 or other sector-specific standards. We investigate the extent to which such assurance can be given. For many practical cases, a measurement result incorporating an evaluated uncertainty that is correct to one significant decimal digit would be acceptable. Any quantification of the numerical precision of an uncertainty statement is naturally relative to the adequacy of the measurement model and the knowledge used of the quantities in that model. For general univariate and multivariate measurement models, we emphasize the use of a Monte Carlo method, as recommended in GUM Supplements 1 and 2. One use of this method is as a benchmark in terms of which measurement results provided by the GUM can be assessed in any particular instance. We mainly consider measurement models that are linear in the input quantities, or have been linearized and the linearization process is deemed to be adequate. When the probability distributions for those quantities are independent, we indicate the use of other approaches such as convolution methods based on the fast Fourier transform and, particularly, Chebyshev polynomials as benchmarks.

  12. Phytase application in chewing gum - A technical assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    either prior to ingestion, i.e. in the food, or post ingestion, i.e. in the human gastrointestinal tract. We have assessed the technical aspects of formulation and release of phytase added to chewing gum as a delivery vehicle. Phytases from Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli incorporated into chewing...... gum were released quantitatively upon chewing and retained phytase activity (50-80% of the enzyme activity added was released within 10 minutes). Initial evaluations of phytase chewing gum shelf life showed good stability after 48 days of storage of the chewing gum at ambient conditions....

  13. Preparation and characterization of cross-linked excipient of coprocessed xanthan gum-acacia gum as matrix for sustained release tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surini, Silvia; Wati, Dina Risma; Syahdi, Rezi Riadhi

    2018-02-01

    Sustained release tablet is solid dosage form which is designed to release drugs slowly in the body. This research was intended to prepare and characterize the cross-linked excipients of co-processed xanthan gum-acacia gum (CL-Co-XGGA) as matrices for sustained release tablets with gliclazide as a model drug. CL-Co-XGGA excipients were cross-linked materials of co-processed excipients of xanthan gum-acacia gum (Co-XGGA) using sodium trimetaphosphate. Co-processed excipients of xanthan gum-acacia gum were prepared in the ratio of each excipient 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1. Co-XGGA and CL-Co-XGGA excipients were characterized physically, chemically and functionally. Then, the sustained release (SR) tablets were formulated by wet granulation method using CL-Co-XGGA excipients as matrices. Also, the dissolution study of the gliclazide SR tablets was carried out in phosphate buffer medium pH 7,4 containing sodium lauryl sulphate 0.2% for 12 hours. The results showed that the degree of substitution (DS) of CL-Co-XGGA 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 excipients were respectively 0.067, 0.082 and 0.08. Besides that, the excipients gel strengths were 14.03, 17.27 and 20,70 gF, respectively. The cross-linked excipients had improved flow properties and swelling capability compared to the Co-XGGA excipients. The results of the gliclazide SR tablets evaluations showed that all tablets were passed all tablet requirements. Moreover, the gliclazide release from SR tablets F1 - F6 revealed the sustained release profile, which was following zero order kinetics (F1, F2, F3, F6) and Higuchi kinetics (F4 and F5). It could be concluded that the obtained CL-Co-XGGA excipients might be used as matrices for sustained release tablets and could retard drug release up to 8 until 32 hours.

  14. Surface Modification of Magnetic Nanoparticles Using Gum Arabic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Darryl N.; Gold, Katie A.; Holoman, Tracey R. Pulliam; Ehrman, Sheryl H.; Wilson, Otto C.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized by coating the particle surfaces with gum arabic (GA) to improve particle stability in aqueous suspensions (i.e. biological media). Particle characterization was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to analyze the morphology and quantify the size distribution of the nanoparticles, respectively. The results from DLS indicated that the GA-treated nanoparticles formed smaller agglomerates as compared to the untreated samples over a 30-h time frame. Thermogravimetric analyses indicated an average weight loss of 23%, showing that GA has a strong affinity toward the iron oxide surface. GA most likely contributes to colloid stability via steric stabilization. It was determined that the adsorption of GA onto magnetite exhibits Langmuir behavior

  15. Progress in the Use of Rapid Molecular Techniques to Detect Life Forms in Soil: Implications for Interplanetary Astrobiology Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmflash, D.; Larios-Sanz, M.; Fox, G. E.; McKay, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of two promising technologies, we have applied Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as well as probes that target the 16S rRNA molecule to search for life in terrestrial soil samples, known to contain numerous life forms. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. RAPID MULTICOMPONENT ANALYSIS OF HEMOGLOBIN DERIVATIVES FOR CONTROLLED ANTIDOTAL USE OF METHEMOGLOBIN-FORMING AGENTS IN CYANIDE POISONING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG

    When cyanide poisoning is treated with a methemoglobin-forming agent, oxidative metabolism is protected at the expense of the oxygen capacity of the blood.The affinity of methemoglobin for CN- is high enough to compete with cytochrome oxidase, which protects the latter from becoming blocked, but all

  17. Stabilization of emulsions by gum tragacanth (Astragalus spp.) correlates to the galacturonic acid content and methoxylation degree of the gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Meyer, Anne S.; Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz

    2013-01-01

    Gum tragacanth samples from six species of Iranian Astragalus bush plants (“goat's-horn”) were evaluated for their emulsion stabilizing effects and their detailed chemical composition in order to examine any possible correlation between the make-up and the emulsion stabilizing properties of gum......:50 (A. rahensis, A. microcephalus, A. compactus) or tipped toward higher bassorin than tragacanthin (A. gossypinus). The monosaccharide make-up of the six gums also varied, but all the gums contained relatively high levels of galacturonic acid (∼100–330 mg/g), arabinose (50–360 mg/g), xylose (∼150...

  18. Formulation and experimental evaluation of closed-form control laws for the rapid maneuvering of reactor neutronic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes both the theoretical development and the experimental evaluation of a novel, robust methodology for the time-optimal adjustment of a reactor's neutronic power under conditions of closed-loop digital control. Central to the approach are the 'MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws' which determine the rate at which reactivity should be changed in order to cause a reactor's neutronic power to conform to a specified trajectory. Using these laws, reactor power can be safely raised by five to seven orders of magnitude in a few seconds. The MIT-SNL laws were developed to facilitate rapid increases of neutronic power on spacecraft reactors operating in an SDI environment. However, these laws are generic and have other applications including the rapid recovery of research and test reactors subsequent to an unanticipated shutdown, power increases following the achievement of criticality on commercial reactors, power adjustments on commercial reactors so as to minimize thermal stress, and automated startups. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under contract to the Sandia National Laboratories. Support was also provided by the US Department of Energy's Division of University and Industry Programs. The work described in this report is significant in that a novel solution to the problem of time-optimal control of neutronic power was identified, in that a rigorous description of a reactor's dynamics was derived in that the rate of change of reactivity was recognized as the proper control signal, and in that extensive experimental trials were conducted of these newly developed concepts on actual nuclear reactors. 43 refs., 118 figs., 11 tabs

  19. Rapid Retort Processing of Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-04

    cyclodextrin, xanthan gum , ι-carrageenan, λ-carrageenan, κ-carrageenan, guar gum , locust bean gum , xanthan gum and starch. To improve the flavor of the...Cyclodextrin and κ-carrageenan were not effective in preventing synerisis. Guar gum and locust bean gum , and λ-carrageenan resulted in products with a slimy...Laboratory batches were prepared by hydrating the xanthan gum and pregelatinized starch in water which contained the salt and citric acid. The powdered

  20. Neem gum as a binder in a formulated paracetamol tablet with reference to Acacia gum BP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-04-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing strength-friability/disintegration time ratio were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration time and dissolution times. Tablet formulations containing NMG exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower mechanical strength; however, the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate was lower when compared to those containing ACA. Inclusion of NMG improved the balance between binding and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets produced than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower disintegration and dissolution times than those containing ACA.

  1. Shrinking of silicon nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous silicon oxide matrix during rapid thermal annealing in a forming gas atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sebille, M.; Fusi, A.; Xie, L.; Ali, H.; van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.; Leifer, K.; Zeman, M.

    2016-09-01

    We report the effect of hydrogen on the crystallization process of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon oxide matrix. We show that hydrogen gas during annealing leads to a lower sub-band gap absorption, indicating passivation of defects created during annealing. Samples annealed in pure nitrogen show expected trends according to crystallization theory. Samples annealed in forming gas, however, deviate from this trend. Their crystallinity decreases for increased annealing time. Furthermore, we observe a decrease in the mean nanocrystal size and the size distribution broadens, indicating that hydrogen causes a size reduction of the silicon nanocrystals.

  2. The method of normal forms for singularly perturbed systems of Fredholm integro-differential equations with rapidly varying kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobodzhanov, A A; Safonov, V F [National Research University " Moscow Power Engineering Institute" , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-31

    The paper deals with extending the Lomov regularization method to classes of singularly perturbed Fredholm-type integro-differential systems, which have not so far been studied. In these the limiting operator is discretely noninvertible. Such systems are commonly known as problems with unstable spectrum. Separating out the essential singularities in the solutions to these problems presents great difficulties. The principal one is to give an adequate description of the singularities induced by 'instability points' of the spectrum. A methodology for separating singularities by using normal forms is developed. It is applied to the above type of systems and is substantiated in these systems. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  3. Intrinsic viscosity of guar gum in sweeteners solutions | Samavati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rheological methods were applied to study the effect of sweeteners on the rheological behavior of guar gum in dilute solutions. The concentration of the sweeteners were 0.1, 0.2%w/v for aspartame, acesulfame-k and cyclamate, and 0.001, 0.002%w/v for neotame. Gum was evaluated for intrinsic viscosity by various ...

  4. Gum from the bark of Anogeissius leiocarpus as a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gum from the bark of Anogeissius leiocarpusas a potential pharmaceutical raw material – granule properties. Philip F Builders, Olubayo O Kunle, Yetunde C Isimi. Abstract. With the continuous effort to discover and produce cheap but high quality excipients for drug production Anogeissius leiocarpus gum (ALG), a brownish ...

  5. Grewia Gum 1: Some Mechanical and Swelling Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the mechanical and dynamic swelling properties of grewia gum, evaluate its compression behaviour and determine the effect of drying methods on its properties. Methods: Compacts (500 mg) of both freeze-dried and air-dried grewia gum were separately prepared by compression on a potassium bromide ...

  6. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... chemical properties of gum were determined for infested and control trees. A. senegal infested by A. ... also in the textile, pottery, lithography, cosmetics and ... Deforestation within the gum belt has lead to an increase in desert .... Atomic Absorption = V*N EDTA*1000/Volume of extract (mg/l). Where, V is the ...

  7. Gellan Gum: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar B. Bajaj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial exopolysaccharides are water-soluble polymers secreted by microorganisms during fermentation. The biopolymer gellan gum is a relatively recent addition to the family of microbial polysaccharides that is gaining much importance in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its novel properties. It is commercially produced by C. P. Kelco in Japan and the USA. Further research and development in biopolymer technology is expected to expand its use. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the gellan gum synthesized by Sphingomonas paucimobilis with special emphasis on its fermentative production and downstream processing. Rheological behaviour of fermentation broth during fermentative production of gellan gum and problems associated with mass transfer have been addressed. Information on the biosynthetic pathway of gellan gum, enzymes and precursors involved in gellan gum production and application of metabolic engineering for enhancement of yield of gellan gum has been specified. Characteristics of gellan gum with respect to its structure, physicochemical properties, rheology of its solutions and gel formation behaviour are discussed. An attempt has also been made to review the current and potential applications of gellan gum in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

  8. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the beetle Agrilus nubeculosus and gum arabic production by Acacia senegal. Some trees were tapped and left open to facilitate infestation by A. nubeculosus and others were covered with wire mesh as control. Gum yield, physical and chemical properties of ...

  9. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... Despite the fact that gum arabic is widely used as a vehicle for .... humidity, are the main factors affecting gum arabic yield. ... 450 mm from May to October; the soil is uniform deep reddish sand with little textural differentiation in the profile. .... 0.01; Mg/l * equivalent weight = mg/l (ppm); Molecular weight *.

  10. Design, formulation, and evaluation of ginger medicated chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Ginger chewing gum comprises admissible properties to be used as a modern drug delivery system due to its advantageous results in motion sickness. It passed all the specified tests for an acceptable chewing gum. Thus, it may be successfully produced to help GI problems.

  11. Gum acacia coating with garlic and cinnamon as an alternate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madhumita

    The antibacterial activity of gum arabic coating with ... Key words: Gum acacia coating, garlic, cinnamon, antioxidant, antimicrobial, meat, ... cinnamaldehyde and eugenol inhibit production of an ... antioxidant activity because these two properties are ... temperatures .... activity of these spices but no report on its application.

  12. Formulation and In vitro Evaluation of Natural Gum-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    obtained using the blends of natural gum: alginate at total polymer concentration of 2 % w/v using 10 % w/v calcium ... Keywords: Microbeads, Ibuprofen, Natural gums, Sodium alginate, Drug release kinetics. Tropical ... addition, its high cohesiveness which result in ... different chelating agents in order to optimize the.

  13. Seeds of genus Cassia as possible sources of industrial gums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, M I.H.; Kapoor, V P; Islam, G

    1978-01-01

    Water-soluble mucilages (gums) and their properties were determined for the seeds of twenty Indian Cassia species, including nine trees and nine shrubs. The seeds of the shrub C. alata were regarded as the best potential commercial source of gums; those of the trees C. fistula, C. grandis, C. javanica, C. marginata and C. multijuga were also promising.

  14. Formation of the distributed NiSiGe nanocrystals nonvolatile memory formed by rapidly annealing in N2 and O2 ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chih-Wei; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tu, Chun-Hao; Chiang, Cheng-Neng; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Min-Chen; Chang, Chun-Yen; Sze, Simon M.; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2010-01-01

    In this work, electrical characteristics of the Ge-incorporated Nickel silicide (NiSiGe) nanocrystals memory device formed by the rapidly thermal annealing in N 2 and O 2 ambient have been studied. The trapping layer was deposited by co-sputtering the NiSi 2 and Ge, simultaneously. Transmission electron microscope results indicate that the NiSiGe nanocrystals were formed obviously in both the samples. The memory devices show obvious charge-storage ability under capacitance-voltage measurement. However, it is found that the NiSiGe nanocrystals device formed by annealing in N 2 ambient has smaller memory window and better retention characteristics than in O 2 ambient. Then, related material analyses were used to confirm that the oxidized Ge elements affect the charge-storage sites and the electrical performance of the NCs memory.

  15. A galaxy rapidly forming stars 700 million years after the Big Bang at redshift 7.51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, S L; Papovich, C; Dickinson, M; Song, M; Tilvi, V; Koekemoer, A M; Finkelstein, K D; Mobasher, B; Ferguson, H C; Giavalisco, M; Reddy, N; Ashby, M L N; Dekel, A; Fazio, G G; Fontana, A; Grogin, N A; Huang, J-S; Kocevski, D; Rafelski, M; Weiner, B J; Willner, S P

    2013-10-24

    Of several dozen galaxies observed spectroscopically that are candidates for having a redshift (z) in excess of seven, only five have had their redshifts confirmed via Lyman α emission, at z = 7.008, 7.045, 7.109, 7.213 and 7.215 (refs 1-4). The small fraction of confirmed galaxies may indicate that the neutral fraction in the intergalactic medium rises quickly at z > 6.5, given that Lyman α is resonantly scattered by neutral gas. The small samples and limited depth of previous observations, however, makes these conclusions tentative. Here we report a deep near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 43 photometrically-selected galaxies with z > 6.5. We detect a near-infrared emission line from only a single galaxy, confirming that some process is making Lyman α difficult to detect. The detected emission line at a wavelength of 1.0343 micrometres is likely to be Lyman α emission, placing this galaxy at a redshift z = 7.51, an epoch 700 million years after the Big Bang. This galaxy's colours are consistent with significant metal content, implying that galaxies become enriched rapidly. We calculate a surprisingly high star-formation rate of about 330 solar masses per year, which is more than a factor of 100 greater than that seen in the Milky Way. Such a galaxy is unexpected in a survey of our size, suggesting that the early Universe may harbour a larger number of intense sites of star formation than expected.

  16. Injectable self-gelling composites for bone tissue engineering based on gellan gum hydrogel enriched with different bioglasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, T.E.; Piwowarczyk, W.; Pamula, E.; Liskova, J.; Schaubroeck, D.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.; Brackman, G.; Balcaen, L.; Detsch, R.; Declercq, H.; Cholewa-Kowalska, K.; Dokupil, A.; Cuijpers, V.M.; Vanhaecke, F.; Cornelissen, R.; Coenye, T.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Dubruel, P.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels of biocompatible calcium-crosslinkable polysaccharide gellan gum (GG) were enriched with bioglass particles to enhance (i) mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP); (ii) antibacterial properties and (iii) growth of bone-forming cells for future bone regeneration applications. Three

  17. Rapid fabrication of an ordered nano-dot array by the combination of nano-plastic forming and annealing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Masahiko; Ohsawa, Hiroki; Yamanaka, Akinori

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new fabrication method for an ordered nano-dot array is developed. Combination of coating, nano-plastic forming and annealing processes is studied to produce uniformly sized and ordered gold nano-dot array on a quartz glass substrate. The experimental results reveal that patterning of a groove grid on the gold-coated substrate with NPF is effective to obtain the ordered gold nano-dot array. In the proposed fabrication process, the size of the gold nano-dot can be controlled by adjusting the groove grid size. A minimum gold nano-dot array fabricated on a quartz-glass substrate was 93 nm in diameter and 100 nm in pitch. Furthermore, the mechanism of nano-dot array generation by the presented process is investigated. Using a theoretical model it is revealed that the proposed method is capable of fabrication of smaller nano-dots than 10 nm by controlling process conditions adequately.

  18. Deformation Mechanisms of Gum Metals Under Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Rohini Priya

    Gum Metal is a set of multi-component beta-Ti alloys designed and developed by Toyota Central R&D Labs in 2003 to have a nearly zero shear modulus in the direction. After significant amounts of cold-work (>90%), these alloys were found to have yield strengths at a significant fraction of the predicted ideal strengths and exhibited very little work hardening. It has been speculated that this mechanical behavior may be realized through an ideal shear mechanism as opposed to conventional plastic deformation mechanisms, such as slip, and that such a mechanism may be realized through a defect structure termed "nanodisturbance". It is furthermore theorized that for near ideal strength to be attained, dislocations need to be pinned at sufficiently high stresses. It is the search for these defects and pinning points that motivates the present study. However, the mechanism of plastic deformation and the true origin of specific defect structures unique to gum metals is still controversial, mainly due to the complexity of the beta-Ti alloy system and the heavily distorted lattice exhibited in cold worked gum metals, rendering interpretation of images difficult. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to clarify the starting as-received microstructures of gum metal alloys through conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration-corrected high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with high-angle annular dark field detector (HAADF-HRSTEM) imaging. To elucidate the effects of beta-stability and starting microstructure on the deformation behavior of gum metals and thus to provide adequate context for potentially novel deformation structures, we investigate three alloy conditions: gum metal that has undergone solution heat treatment (STGM), gum metal that has been heavily cold worked (CWGM), and a solution treated alloy of nominal gum metal composition, but leaner in beta-stabilizing content (ST Ref-1). In order to directly relate observed

  19. Rapid visible color change and physical swelling during water exposure in triethanolamine-metalcone films formed by molecular layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Paul C.; Oldham, Christopher J.; Parsons, Gregory N.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular layer deposition (MLD) of “metalcones,” including alucone, zincone, titanicone, and others, involves self-limiting half-reactions between organic and organometallic (or metal-halide) reactants. Studies have typically focused on metal precursors reacting with ethylene glycol or glycerol to form the films' polymeric O-M-O-(CH x ) y -O-M-O repeat units. The authors report new MLD materials that incorporate tertiary amine groups into the organic linkage. Specifically, reacting triethanolamine (TEA) with either trimethylaluminum or titanium tetrachloride produces TEA-alucone (Al-TEA) and TEA-titanicone (Ti-TEA), respectively, and the amine group leads to unique physical and optical properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirms that the films have prominent C-H, C-N, and M-O-C peaks, consistent with the expected bond structure. When exposed to vapors, including water, alcohol, or ammonia, the Ti-TEA films changed their visible color within minutes and increased physical thickness by >35%. The Al-TEA showed significantly less response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and FTIR suggest that HCl generated during MLD coordinates to the amine forming a quaternary ammonium salt that readily binds adsorbates via hydrogen bonding. The visible color change is reversible, and ellipsometry confirms that the color change results from vapor absorption. The unique absorptive and color-changing properties of the TEA-metalcone films point to new possible applications for MLD materials in filtration, chemical absorption, and multifunctional chemical separations/sensing device systems

  20. Rapid visible color change and physical swelling during water exposure in triethanolamine-metalcone films formed by molecular layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, Paul C.; Oldham, Christopher J.; Parsons, Gregory N., E-mail: gnp@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Molecular layer deposition (MLD) of “metalcones,” including alucone, zincone, titanicone, and others, involves self-limiting half-reactions between organic and organometallic (or metal-halide) reactants. Studies have typically focused on metal precursors reacting with ethylene glycol or glycerol to form the films' polymeric O-M-O-(CH{sub x}){sub y}-O-M-O repeat units. The authors report new MLD materials that incorporate tertiary amine groups into the organic linkage. Specifically, reacting triethanolamine (TEA) with either trimethylaluminum or titanium tetrachloride produces TEA-alucone (Al-TEA) and TEA-titanicone (Ti-TEA), respectively, and the amine group leads to unique physical and optical properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirms that the films have prominent C-H, C-N, and M-O-C peaks, consistent with the expected bond structure. When exposed to vapors, including water, alcohol, or ammonia, the Ti-TEA films changed their visible color within minutes and increased physical thickness by >35%. The Al-TEA showed significantly less response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and FTIR suggest that HCl generated during MLD coordinates to the amine forming a quaternary ammonium salt that readily binds adsorbates via hydrogen bonding. The visible color change is reversible, and ellipsometry confirms that the color change results from vapor absorption. The unique absorptive and color-changing properties of the TEA-metalcone films point to new possible applications for MLD materials in filtration, chemical absorption, and multifunctional chemical separations/sensing device systems.

  1. Form and function of damselfish skulls: rapid and repeated evolution into a limited number of trophic niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper W James

    2009-01-01

    data support a tight and biomechanically defined link between structure and the functional ecology of fish skulls, and indicate that certain mechanisms for transmitting motion through their jaw linkages may require particular anatomical configurations, a conclusion that contravenes the concept of "many-to-one mapping" for fish jaw mechanics. Damselfish trophic evolution is characterized by rapid and repeated shifts between a small number of eco-morphological states, an evolutionary pattern that we describe as reticulate adaptive radiation.

  2. Form and function of damselfish skulls: rapid and repeated evolution into a limited number of trophic niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W James; Westneat, Mark W

    2009-01-30

    between structure and the functional ecology of fish skulls, and indicate that certain mechanisms for transmitting motion through their jaw linkages may require particular anatomical configurations, a conclusion that contravenes the concept of "many-to-one mapping" for fish jaw mechanics. Damselfish trophic evolution is characterized by rapid and repeated shifts between a small number of eco-morphological states, an evolutionary pattern that we describe as reticulate adaptive radiation.

  3. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rafiei, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Nicotine, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, different sweetening and taste-masking agents, and a flavoring agent were added to the gum bases at appropriate temperature. The medicated gums were cut into pieces of suitable size and coated by acacia aqueous solution (2% w/v), sugar dusting, followed by acacia-sugar-calcium carbonate until a smooth surface was produced. The gums' weight variation and content uniformity were determined. The release of nicotine was studied in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer using a mastication device which simulated the mastication of chewing gum in human. The Latin Square design was used for the evaluation of organoleptic characteristics of the formulations at different stages of development. Most formulations released 79-83% of their nicotine content within 20 min. Nicotine-containing sugar-coated gums in which aspartame as sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as flavoring agents were incorporated (i.e. formulations F(19-SC) and F(20-SC), respectively) had optimal chewing hardness, adhering to teeth, and plumpness characteristics, as well as the most pleasant taste and highest acceptability to smokers. Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  4. Determination of locust bean gum and guar gum by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K; Rosa, C; Hischenhuber, C; Meyer, R

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to differentiate the thickening agents locust bean gum (LBG) and the cheaper guar gum in finished food products. Universal primers for amplification of the intergenic spacer region between trnL 3' (UAA) exon and trnF (GAA) gene in the chloroplast (cp) genome and subsequent restriction analysis were applied to differentiate guar gum and LBG. The presence of guar gum powder added to LBG powder was detectable. Based on data obtained from sequencing this intergenic spacer region, a second PCR method for the specific detection of guar gum DNA was also developed. This assay detected guar gum powder in LBG in amounts as low as 1% (w/w). Both methods successfully detected guar gum and/or LBG in ice cream stabilizers and in foodstuffs, such as dairy products, ice cream, dry seasoning mixes, a finished roasting sauce, and a fruit jelly product, but not in products with highly degraded DNA, such as tomato ketchup and sterilized chocolate cream. Both methods detected guar gum and LBG in ice cream and fresh cheese at levels <0.1%.

  5. THE EFFECT OF PREPARATION CONDITIONS OF RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED IRON BASED GRANULES ON PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL FORMED BY CASTING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variety of requirements for friction pairs requires the development of different technologies for the production of tribological materials with reference to the operation modes. Composite materials obtained by the casting technology have been successfully applied for the normalization of the thermomechanical state of the steam turbines. These composites consist of the matrix based on copper alloys reinforced with cast iron granules. Because the structure and properties of cast iron are determined by the conditions of their production studies have been conducted on determination of preparation conditions on grain structure and properties of the synthesized composite material. Using an upgraded unit for production of granules technological regimes were determined providing narrow fractional composition. It has been found that granules formed are characterized with typical microstructure of white cast iron containing perlite and ledeburite. Microhardness of pilot cast iron granules is characterized by high values (from 7450 up to 9450 MPa and depends on the size of the fraction. Composite materials obtained using experimental granules had a microhardness of the reinforcing cast iron granules about 3500 MPa, and a bronze matrix – 1220 MPa, which is higher than the hardness of the composite material obtained by using the annealed DCL-1granules (2250 MPa. Metal base of experimental granules in the composite material has the structure of perlitic ductile iron with inclusions of ferrite not exceeding 10–15% and set around a flocculent graphite. As a result, the increase of physical-mechanical properties of finished products made of composite material is observed. 

  6. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Rapid Determination of Doxycycline in Pharmaceutical Bulk and Dosage Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Shabnam Pourmoslemi, Soroush Mirfakhraee, Saeid Yaripour, Ali Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: A rapid stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for analysis of doxycycline in the presence of its degradation products was developed and validated. Methods: Forced degradation studies were carried out on bulk samples and capsule dosage forms of doxycycline using acid, base, H2O2, heat, and UV light as described by ICH for stress conditions to demonstrate the stability-indicating power of the method. Separations were performed on a Perfectsil® Target ODS column (3-5µm, 125 mm×4 mm), u...

  7. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Balmeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. PMID:26904639

  8. Encapsulation of Aloe Vera extract into natural Tragacanth Gum as a novel green wound healing product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz

    2016-12-01

    Application of natural materials in wound healing is an interest topic due to effective treatment with no side effects. In this paper, Aloe Vera extract was encapsulated into Tragacanth Gum through a sonochemical microemulsion process to prepare a wound healing product. FESEM/EDX and FT-IR proved the successfully formation of the nanocapsules with spherical shape by cross-linking aluminum ions with Tragacanth Gum. The therapeutic characteristics of the prepared wound healing product were investigated using antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and wound healing assays. Relative high antimicrobial activities with the microbial reduction of 84, 91 and 80% against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans, a cell viability of 98% against human fibroblast cells and a good wound healing activity with considerable migration rate of fibroblast cells are the important advantages of the new formed wound healing product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Occurrence of gum spots in black cherry after partial harvest cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles O. Rexrode; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1990-01-01

    Bark beetles, primarily the bark beetle Phlosotribus liminori (Harris), are the major cause of gum spots in sawtimber-size black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Approximately 90 percent of all gum spots in the bole sections are caused by bark beetles. Gum spots were studied in 95 black cherry trees near Parsons, West Virginia. Over 50 percent of the bark beetle-caused gum...

  10. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Flavor perception, the integration of taste and odor, is a critical factor in eating behavior. It remains unclear how such sensory signals influence the human brain systems that execute the eating behavior.WE TESTED CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (CBF IN THE FRONTAL LOBES BILATERALLY WHILE SUBJECTS CHEWED THREE TYPES OF GUM WITH DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF TASTE AND ODOR: no taste/no odor gum (C-gum, sweet taste/no odor gum (T-gum, and sweet taste/lemon odor gum (TO-gum. Simultaneous recordings of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD and near infrared spectrometer (NIRS were used to measure CBF during gum chewing in 25 healthy volunteers. Bilateral masseter muscle activity was also monitored.We found that subjects could discriminate the type of gum without prior information. Subjects rated the TO-gum as the most flavorful gum and the C-gum as the least flavorful. Analysis of masseter muscle activity indicated that masticatory motor output during gum chewing was not affected by taste and odor. The TCD/NIRS measurements revealed significantly higher hemodynamic signals when subjects chewed the TO-gum compared to when they chewed the C-gum and T-gum.These data suggest that taste and odor can influence brain activation during chewing in sensory, cognitive, and motivational processes rather than in motor control.

  11. Preparation and in-vitro in-vivo evaluation of sustained release matrix diclofenac sodium tablets using PVP-K90 and natural gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Raza; Nasir, Fazli; Khan, Jamshaid Ali; Rashid, Abdur; Khan, Abbas; Khan, Abad

    2011-10-01

    Conventional dosage form is nowadays mostly replaced by sustained release formulation in order to increase drug efficacy and patient compliance. The sustained release properties of the PVP K90 alone and in combination with guar gum, xanthan gum and gum tragacanth were evaluated using diclofenac sodium (100 mg/tablet) as a model drug. Tablets were processed using wet granulation method and evaluated for sustained drug release properties. The drug release from the formulations was studied in relationship with Commercially available Diclofenac Sodium SR, used as a reference tablets and results were expressed as similarity (f1) and differential factor (f2). The tablets prepared using PVP K90 160 mg/tablet sustained the release of diclofenac sodium for 12 hours. Formulations where the PVP K90 was partially replaced with different gums also sustained the release of drug for 12 hours. The release of the drug from these formulations mainly followed Higuchi model and super case-II and Non-Fickian diffusion. The in-vivo drug release was studied in healthy human volunteers using non-blinded cross over, two period design using Diclofenac Sodium SR Tablets as a reference drug. The relative bioavailability of the formulation containing PVP K90 and gum tragacanth was 0.91. The studies showed that the use of the PVP K90 in combination with gum tragacanth both in-vitro and in-vivo sustained the release of the drug.

  12. Farmers’ perception on the effects of gum Arabic agroforestry on livelihoods in the Sahelian zone of Borno State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha, S.B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analysed farmers’ perception of effects of gum Arabic agroforestry on livelihoods in the Sahelian zone of Borno state, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained mainly through primary sources. Multi stage, purposive and random sampling techniques were employed to select 321 respondents that was used for this study. The study revealed that the most important (30.25% farm information by respondents was radio. This was closely followed by friends and relatives representing 29.91% of the respondents in the study area. However extension agents were the least important (9.34% source of farm information among respondents in the study area. The study indicated that the most important (29% reason for planting gum Arabic tree was for economic reason. The result showed that the respondents’ perception on improved environmental situation and improved socio-economic status had a mean score of 2.68 and 2.63 respectively implying that the respondents had an agreed perception on the effects of gum Arabic agroforestry on livelihoods. The results in also indicated that all the constraints identified by respondents had a mean score of > 2.56, implying that they had agreed to have encountered problems in the adoption of gum Arabic agroforestry in the study area. The study recommends that awareness creation should be mounted through extension education approach to enlighten the public on the skills, knowledge, techniques and benefits of the adoption of gum Arabic agroforestry in the study area. Farmers in the study area should also be encouraged to form gum Arabic agroforestry cooperatives as this will enable them to take advantage of government and non-governmental programmes, such as provision of credit facilities and technologies etc.

  13. Chew on this: No support for facilitating effects of gum on spatial task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Ingo W; Gittler, Georg; Waldherr, Karin; Pietschnig, Jakob

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether chewing of gum facilitates spatial task performance in healthy participants, two behavioral experiments were performed. In the first experiment, spatial task performance of 349 men and women preceding and after treatment administration (saccharated chewing gum, sugar-free chewing gum, no chewing gum) was assessed using effect modeling by means of Item Response Theory. In the second experiment, another 100 participants were either administered sugar-free chewing gum or no chewing gum during spatial task performance. Effects of gum in the second study were assessed by standard means of data analysis. Results indicated no significant effects of either chewing gum or sugar on spatial task performance in either experiment. Our findings are consistent with recent studies investigating the influences of chewing gum on various memory functions, extending them by another measure of cognitive ability. Thus, further doubt is cast on enhancing effects of chewing gum on cognitive task performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Masticatory performance alters stress relief effect of gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Matsuka, Yoshizo

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of gum chewing on the response to psychological stress induced by a calculation task and investigated the relationship between this response and masticatory performance. Nineteen healthy adult volunteers without dental problems undertook the Uchida-Kraepelin (UK) test (30 min of reiterating additions of one-digit numbers). Before and immediately after the test, saliva samples were collected from the sublingual area of the participants. Three min after the UK test, the participants were made to chew flavorless gum for 3 min, and the final saliva samples were collected 10 min after the UK test. The experiment was performed without gum chewing on a different day. Masticatory performance was evaluated using color-changing chewing gum. Salivary CgA levels at immediately and 10 min after the UK test were compared with and without gum chewing condition. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant interaction between gum chewing condition and changes in CgA levels during post 10 min UK test period. A significant correlation was found between changes in CgA levels and masticatory performance in all participants. Our results indicate that gum chewing may relieve stress responses; however, high masticatory performance is required to achieve this effect. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Importance of the rate of hydration of pharmaceutical preparations of guar gum; a new in vitro monitoring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, P R; Morris, E R

    1991-05-01

    Dietary supplements of guar gum are known to improve blood glucose control in diabetic patients. The efficacy of guar is probably dependent mainly upon its capacity to hydrate rapidly and thus to increase viscosity in the small intestine post-prandially. Measurement of the rate of hydration in vitro might therefore be a useful index of the effectiveness of guar formulations. A simple method for monitoring the hydration rate of guar gum has been developed, which involves measuring the changes in viscosity at discrete time intervals over a period of 5 h using a Brookfield RVT rotoviscometer. Six different samples of guar gum (four pharmaceutical preparations and two food grades of guar flour) were hydrated in sealed glass jars rotated at 6 rev min-1 in order to prevent particle aggregation. Marked differences in hydration rate and ultimate (maximum) viscosity between the different guar samples were observed. Three of the four pharmaceutical preparations were lower in viscosity than the food grades of guar flour during the first 60 min of hydration. Two of the preparations hydrated so slowly that even after 5 h they attained viscosity levels of only 60% of their ultimate viscosity. These results may explain why some guar gum preparations are clinically ineffective.

  16. Effects of caffeine in chewing gum on mood and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Recent research has shown that even small doses (attention tasks. Previous studies have given the caffeine in a variety of beverages or in capsules and it was of interest to see whether similar effects could be observed when the caffeine was given in gum. In addition, chewing gum has been shown to have behavioural effects and the present study extended our knowledge of this topic. To compare the effects of caffeinated gum (40 mg), placebo gum and no gum conditions on mood and attention. A double blind placebo controlled study was conducted with volunteers being randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Baseline measures of mood and attention were taken prior to chewing and a test session was then conducted. One hundred and eighteen young adults participated in the study. Caffeinated gum was associated with a more positive mood and better performance on tasks requiring sustained attention. The caffeine improved the speed of encoding of new information which is consistent with previous findings. Chewing placebo gum was also found to be associated with more positive mood, both shortly after chewing and at the end of the study. The implications of the present study are that chewing caffeinated gum has been shown to improve performance efficiency and mood by its alerting and energising effects. The profile of caffeine effects is what one would predict from the existing caffeine literature and such effects may be extremely beneficial in real-life situations. Prior chewing of placebo gum was associated with a more positive mood and this also confirms previous findings.

  17. Evidence against memorial facilitation and context-dependent memory effects through the chewing of gum

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.J.; Miles, C.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment examined the prediction that chewing gum at learning and/or recall facilitated subsequent word recall. Chewing gum at learning significantly impaired recall, indicating that the chewing of gum has a detrimental impact upon initial word encoding. In addition, a context-dependent memory effect was reported for those participants who both learned and recalled in the absence of gum, however a context dependent effect was not found with chewing gum. The findings contradict previous ...

  18. Evidence against memorial facilitation and context-dependent memory effects through the chewing of gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    The experiment examined the prediction that chewing gum at learning and/or recall facilitated subsequent word recall. Chewing gum at learning significantly impaired recall, indicating that the chewing of gum has a detrimental impact upon initial word encoding. In addition, a context-dependent memory effect was reported for those participants who both learned and recalled in the absence of gum; however, a context-dependent effect was not found with chewing gum. The findings contradict previous research.

  19. EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING ON AIR SWALLOWING, SALIVA SWALLOWING AND BELCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Viana da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1 while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2 after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal, in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3 final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches

  20. In vitro tooth whitening effect of two medicated chewing gums compared to a whitening gum and saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroea Geoffrey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whitening chewing gum (C and human saliva (D. Methods Bovine incisors were stained by alternating air exposure and immersion in a broth containing natural pigments such as coffee, tea and oral microorganisms for 10 days. Stained enamel samples were exposed to saliva alone or to the test chewing gums under conditions simulating human mastication. The coloration change of the enamel samples was measured using a spectrophotometer. Measurements were obtained for each specimen (average of three absorbances using the L*a*b scale: lightness (L*, red-green (a and yellow-blue (b. Results Medicated chewing gums (A and B removed a greater amount of visible extrinsic stain, while the confectionary chewing gum with a whitening claim (C had a milder whitening effect as evaluated by quantitative and qualitative assessment. Conclusion The tested Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT chewing gums were more effective in the removal of the extrinsic tooth stain. This visible improvement in tooth whitening appearance could strengthen the smokers' motivation to quit smoking.

  1. What do GUM physicians think should be taught in a modern undergraduate GUM module? A qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, I

    2015-10-01

    Traditional undergraduate Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) teaching in the UK concentrated on the management of individual sexually transmitted infections. There is significant variation, however, in the GUM teaching provided by different medical schools today. I undertook a qualitative interview study to gather views of GUM and other sexual health clinicians regarding what should be taught within a modern undergraduate GUM module. Nine GUM clinicians and two Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) clinicians participated in the study; all were directly involved in undergraduate teaching. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with study participants by a single interviewer, focusing on three key topics: their individual opinions regarding important learning outcomes (LOs) for a modern model GUM curriculum, their preferred teaching methods and the total recommended teaching time required. Interviews were audio-recorded with consent and professionally transcribed. Data were analysed by the content analysis method. Interviewees frequently stressed skill and attitudinal LOs, even above knowledge. Recommended important skills included sexual history taking, HIV risk assessment and testing, and male and female genital examination. Recommended attitudinal LOs were developing an open and non-judgemental approach to sexual health issues and understanding sexual well-being to be an important component of general health. Respondents were keen for a mixture of teaching methods, but generally agreed that clinic attendance and experiential learning were beneficial. They preferred that GUM teaching should be delivered in the latter years of the undergraduate curriculum. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. MICROENCAPSULATION OF TURMERIC OLEORESIN IN BINARY AND TERNARY BLENDS OF GUM ARABIC, MALTODEXTRIN AND MODIFIED STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Maria Cano-Higuita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spray-drying is a suitable method to obtain microencapsulated active substances in the powdered form, resulting in powders with improved protection against environmental factors as well as with higher solubility in water, as in the case of turmeric oleoresin. The present study investigated the spray-drying process of turmeric oleoresin microencapsulated with binary and ternary mixtures of different wall materials: gum Arabic, maltodextrin, and modified corn starch. A statistical simplex centroid experimental design was used considering the encapsulation efficiency, curcumin retention, process yield, water content, solubility, and particle morphology as the analyzed responses. Wall matrices containing higher proportions of modified starch and gum Arabic resulted in higher encapsulation efficiency and curcumin retention, whereas the process yield and water content increased with higher proportions of maltodextrin and gum Arabic, respectively. Regression models of the responses were obtained using a surface response method (ANOVA way, showing statistical values of R2 > 0.790. Also, mean analysis was carried out by Tukey's test, permitting to observe some statistical differences between the blends

  3. Structural characterization of a glucuronoarabinoxylan from pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) gum exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; de Souza, Lauro M; Wagner, Ricardo; Pereira, Graciele C Z; Barraza, Ruth R; Wendel, Cinthia F; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

    2013-04-15

    Native polysaccharide from pineapple gum (PANP) was obtained following alkaline extraction of gum and fractionation with cetylpyridinium chloride. It was characterized as a glucuronoarabinoxylan using NMR, methylation data, controlled Smith degradation, carboxy-reduction, and ESI-MS of oligosaccharides produced on mild acid hydrolysis of PANP. HSPEC-MALLS-RI of carboxy-reduced fraction showed homogeneous profile (Mw 1.943×10(5) g/mol). PANP was composed of Ara, Xyl, Gal, and GlcpA (40:23:7:30 molar ratio). Its main chain presented (1→4)-linked β-xylan, highly substituted at O-2 and O-3 by side chains of 3-O- and 3,5-di-O-linked α-Araf, 2-O- and 4-O-linked α-GlcpA, and nonreducing end-units of α-Araf, β-Arap, β-Galp, and α-GlcpA. ESI-MS of a mixture of oligosaccharides formed on the mild acid hydrolysis of PANP was consistent with repetitive structures of α-GlcpA O-3 linked at β-Xylp units, whereas in others glucuronoarabinoxylan-type gum exudates, α-GlcpA units had been previously found to be linked at O-2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Xylitol chewing gum and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, J M

    1995-02-01

    There is an extensive peer-reviewed literature on xylitol chewing gum as it pertains to effects on tooth decay in human subjects, on human dental plaque reduction, on inhibition of dental plaque acid production, on inhibition of the growth and metabolism of the mutans group of streptococci which are the prime causative agents of tooth decay, on reduction of tooth decay in experimental animals, and on xylitol's reported contribution to the remineralisation of teeth. The literature not only supports the conclusion that xylitol is non-cariogenic but it is now strongly suggestive that xylitol is caries inhibitory, that is, anti-cariogenic in human subjects, and it supplies reasonable mechanistic explanation(s).

  5. Homogeneous (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 intermetallic compound joints rapidly formed in asymmetrical Ni/Sn/Cu system using ultrasound-induced transient liquid phase soldering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z L; Dong, H J; Song, X G; Zhao, H Y; Tian, H; Liu, J H; Feng, J C; Yan, J C

    2018-04-01

    Homogeneous (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 intermetallic compound (IMC) joints were rapidly formed in asymmetrical Ni/Sn/Cu system by an ultrasound-induced transient liquid phase (TLP) soldering process. In the traditional TLP soldering process, the intermetallic joints formed in Ni/Sn/Cu system consisted of major (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 and minor Cu 3 Sn IMCs, and the grain morphology of (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 IMCs subsequently exhibited fine rounded, needlelike and coarse rounded shapes from the Ni side to the Cu side, which was highly in accordance with the Ni concentration gradient across the joints. However, in the ultrasound-induced TLP soldering process, the intermetallic joints formed in Ni/Sn/Cu system only consisted of the (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 IMCs which exhibited an uniform grain morphology of rounded shape with a remarkably narrowed Ni concentration gradient. The ultrasound-induced homogeneous intermetallic joints exhibited higher shear strength (61.6 MPa) than the traditional heterogeneous intermetallic joints (49.8 MPa). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies on some Physicochemical Properties of the Plant Gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. senegal, A. sieberiana and A. nilotica) in Batagarawa, Katsina State, were determined and compared. Data generated from the study confirm that there are a number of physicochemical differences between the gum exudates.

  7. {sup 13} C-NMR of mesquite gum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cristina T; Garcia, Rosangela B [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas

    1992-12-31

    Mesquite and guar gums are galactomannans extracted from the seeds of Proposis Juliflora and Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, respectively. An experimental sample of mesquite gum and a commercial sample of guar gum were partially depolymerized by ultrasonic radiation and the produce analysed by high resolution {sup 13} C-NMR spectroscopy. The different carbon lines were resolved and their assignments were done as those reported in the literature. The galactose to mannose ratios (G/M) were estimated from the relative peak areas of the C-1 lines as G/M=61 for mesquite and G/M=0.54 for guar gum. The next nearest-neighbour probabilities (diad frequencies) of the D-galactosyl substitution to the D-mannose backbone were evaluated by integrating C-4 mannose splitted peaks. (author) 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Germination Response of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to Hot Water Pre-Treatment in Maiduguri, ... of Maiduguri under tree shade, to study the effect of hot water pre-treatment duration. ... Germination response, pre-sowing treatment, gum Arabic, orthodox seeds.

  9. Evaluation of mucoadhesive potential of gum cordia, an anionic polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Munish; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-04-01

    The study involves mucoadhesive evaluation by formulating buccal discs using fluconazole as the model drug. The effect of compression pressure and gum cordia/lactose ratio on the ex vivo bioadhesion time and in vitro release of fluconazole was optimized using central composite experimental design. It was observed that the response ex vivo bioadhesion time was affected significantly by the proportion of gum cordia in the buccal discs while the in vitro release of fluconazole from the buccal discs was influenced significantly by the compression pressure. The optimized batch of buccal discs comprised of gum cordia/lactose - 0.66, fluconazole - 20 mg and was compressed at the pressure of 6600 kg. Further, it provided the ex vivo bioadhesion of 22 h and in vitro release of 80% in 24h. In conclusion, gum cordia is a promising bucoadhesive polymer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid intranasal delivery of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in the active form to different brain regions as a model for enzyme therapy in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appu, Abhilash P; Arun, Peethambaran; Krishnan, Jishnu K S; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, Aryan M A

    2016-02-01

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) is critical for maintaining central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis by restricting entry of potentially toxic substances. However, the BBB is a major obstacle in the treatment of neurotoxicity and neurological disorders due to the restrictive nature of the barrier to many medications. Intranasal delivery of active enzymes to the brain has therapeutic potential for the treatment of numerous CNS enzyme deficiency disorders and CNS toxicity caused by chemical threat agents. The aim of this work is to provide a sensitive model system for analyzing the rapid delivery of active enzymes into various regions of the brain with therapeutic bioavailability. We tested intranasal delivery of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), a relatively large (75kD) enzyme, in its active form into different regions of the brain. CAT was delivered intranasally to anaesthetized rats and enzyme activity was measured in different regions using a highly specific High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HP-TLC)-radiometry coupled assay. Active enzyme reached all examined areas of the brain within 15min (the earliest time point tested). In addition, the yield of enzyme activity in the brain was almost doubled in the brains of rats pre-treated with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Intranasal administration of active enzymes in conjunction with MMP-9 to the CNS is both rapid and effective. The present results suggest that intranasal enzyme therapy is a promising method for counteracting CNS chemical threat poisoning, as well as for treating CNS enzyme deficiency disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Xylitol Chewing Gums on the Market: Do They Prevent Caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanzi, Abrar; Soderling, Eva; Varghese, Anisha; Honkala, Eino

    To measure the xylitol content in sugar-free chewing gums available on the market in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in the Middle East, in order to identify those products that can provide the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention (6-7 g). Acid production from chewing gums was also measured in vitro and in vivo. Twenty-one chewing gums containing xylitol were identified and collected from the GCC market (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Oman). Xylitol was extracted and its concentration was analysed using a special enzymatic kit. The pH of extracts was measured during 30-min incubation with Streptococcus mutans. Changes in saliva and plaque pH were noted in four subjects after the consumption of highly concentrated xylitol gums. The xylitol content in grams was clearly mentioned only on one product's label. Twelve products stated the percentage of xylitol (3.5% to 35%). The rest did not specify the amount. The mean measured weight of one piece of gum was 1.67 ± 0.38 g. The mean measured xylitol content/piece was 0.33 ± 0.21 g. Xylitol content was 0.5 g in 5 products. None of the highly concentrated xylitol gums showed a pH drop in vitro or in vivo. One chewing gum, containing xylitol and glucose, resulted in a low pH level (xylitol chewing gums sold on the GCC market do not provide the consumers with the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention. Clear, accurate labeling is recommended.

  12. Effect of guar and xanthan gums on functional properties of mango (Mangifera indica) kernel starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Hasnain, Abid

    2016-12-01

    The effects of different concentrations of guar and xanthan gums on functional properties of mango kernel starch (MKS) were studied. Both guar and xanthan gum enhanced the water absorption of MKS. The addition of xanthan gum appeared to reduce the SP (swelling power) and solubility at higher temperatures while guar gum significantly enhanced the SP as well as solubility of MKS. The addition of both gums produced a reinforcing effect on peak viscosity of MKS as compared to control. Pasting temperature of MKS was higher than that of starch modified by gums indicating ease of gelatinization. Guar gum played an accelerative effect on setback but xanthan gum delayed the setback phenomenon during the cooling of the starch paste. Both gums were found to be effective in reducing the syneresis while gel firmness was markedly improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro and in vivo ocular safety and eye surface permanence determination by direct and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of ion-sensitive hydrogels based on gellan gum and kappa-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; González Barcia, Miguel; Gil-Martínez, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Lema, Isabel; Argibay, Barbara; Blanco Méndez, José; Lamas, Maria Jesus; Otero-Espinar, Francisco Javier

    2015-08-01

    Gellan gum, kappa-carrageenan and alginates are natural polysaccharides able to interact with different cations that can be used to elaborate ion-activated in situ gelling systems for different uses. The interaction between fluid solutions of these polysaccharides and cations presents into the tear made these biopolymers very interesting to elaborate ophthalmic drug delivery systems. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of mixtures of these polymers to obtain ion-activated ophthalmic in situ gelling systems with optimal properties for ocular use. To achieve this purpose different proportion of the biopolymers were analyzed using a mixture experimental design evaluating their transparency, mechanical properties and bioadhesion in the absence and presence of simulated tear fluid. Tear induces a rapid sol-to-gel phase transition in the mixtures forming a consistent hydrogel. The solution composed by 80% of gellan gum and 20% kappa-carrageenan showed the best mechanical and mucoadhesive properties. This mixture was evaluated for rheological behavior, microstructure, cytotoxicity, acute corneal irritancy, ex-vivo and in vivo ocular toxicity and in vivo corneal contact time using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) techniques. Result indicates that the system is safe at ophthalmic level and produces an extensive ocular permanence higher than 6h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of carboxymethyl moringa gum as nanometric carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpy; Abhishek; Ahuja, Munish

    2017-10-15

    In the present study, carboxymethylation of Moringa oleifera gum was carried out by reacting with monochloroacetic acid. Modified gum was characterised employing Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Rheology study. The carboxymethyl modification of moringa gum was found to increase its degree of crystallinity, reduce viscosity and swelling, increase the surface roughness and render its more anionic. The interaction between carboxymethyl moringa gum and chitosan was optimised by 2-factor, 3-level central composite experimental design to prepare polyelectrolyte nanoparticle using ofloxacin, as a model drug. The optimal calculated parameters were found to be carboxymethyl moringa gum- 0.016% (w/v), chitosan- 0.012% (w/v) which provided polyelectrolyte nanoparticle of average particle size 231nm and zeta potential 28mV. Carboxymethyl moringa gum-chitosan polyelectrolyte nanoparticles show sustained in vitro release of ofloxacin upto 6h which followed first order kinetics with mechanism of release being erosion of polymer matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. GumTree-An integrated scientific experiment environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Goetz, Andy; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia

    2006-01-01

    GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis

  16. Fabrication and characterization of gum Arabic bonded Rhizophora spp. particleboards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuarra, Ali; Hashim, Rokiah; Bauk, Sabar; Kandaiya, Sivamany; Tousi, Ehsan Taghizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exploring gum Arabic as a binder for Rhizophora sp. particleboards. • The addition of gum Arabic improved overall properties. • Gum Arabic could be added to manufacture particleboards. - Abstract: Gum Arabic (GA) was used as a binder for the fabrication of Rhizophora spp. particleboards. The physical and mechanical properties of the bioadhesive bonded particleboards, including moisture content, internal bond (IB) strength, thickness swelling (TS), water absorption (WA) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to characterize the manufactured particleboards. Three different particle sizes of the Rhizophora spp. with four adhesive levels were utilized. Results revealed that the addition of GA into the particleboards noticeably improved panel overall properties. The GA bonded particleboards resulted in smoother surfaces, more rigid texture and better internal bonding strength compared to binderless particleboards made without using any adhesive. All specimens had internal bond strength of more than the minimum requirement of the Japanese Industrial Standard JIS A-5908 Type-8 of 0.15 N/mm 2 and were noticed to increase by increasing the adhesive level. However the GA bonded particleboards had higher percentage of WA and the TS compared with the binderless boards. Microscopic study also revealed that particleboards bonded with the gum had better contact compared to the binderless boards. Based on these results, it could be concluded that gum Arabic is an effective natural substance that could be added to manufacture particleboards to improve some of panels’ physical and mechanical properties

  17. GumTree - An Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia; Goetz, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Full text: GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis. (authors)

  18. GUM2DFT—a software tool for uncertainty evaluation of transient signals in the frequency domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichstädt, S; Wilkens, V

    2016-01-01

    The Fourier transform and its counterpart for discrete time signals, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), are common tools in measurement science and application. Although almost every scientific software package offers ready-to-use implementations of the DFT, the propagation of uncertainties in line with the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) is typically neglected. This is of particular importance in dynamic metrology, when input estimation is carried out by deconvolution in the frequency domain. To this end, we present the new open-source software tool GUM2DFT, which utilizes closed formulas for the efficient propagation of uncertainties for the application of the DFT, inverse DFT and input estimation in the frequency domain. It handles different frequency domain representations, accounts for autocorrelation and takes advantage of the symmetry inherent in the DFT result for real-valued time domain signals. All tools are presented in terms of examples which form part of the software package. GUM2DFT will foster GUM-compliant evaluation of uncertainty in a DFT-based analysis and enable metrologists to include uncertainty evaluations in their routine work. (paper)

  19. The effect of acacia gum and a water-soluble dietary fiber mixture on blood lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, C D; Spiller, G A; Gates, J E; Miller, A F; Whittam, J H

    1993-04-01

    Water-soluble dietary fibers (WSDF) are generally thought to lower cholesterol. This study compared the cholesterol-lowering effects of a medium viscosity WSDF mixture (psyllium, pectin, guar gum and locust bean gum) with an equal amount of WSDF from acacia gum, which has a lower viscosity. Hypercholesterolemic males (n = 13) and females (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two WSDF treatments provided in a low-calorie powder form for mixing into beverages (powders into their usual beverages and to consume them three times daily (5 g WSDF/serving) for 4 weeks while consuming their typical fat-modified diets. Exercise and body weights were also held constant. The WSDF mixture yielded a 10% decrease in plasma total cholesterol (from 251 +/- 20 to 225 +/- 19 mg/dL; p gum-treated group showed no change in any plasma lipid parameters. The WSDF treatments did not produce significant changes in mean dietary intakes within or between treatment groups. These data support previous findings that a diet rich in select WSDF can be a useful cholesterol-lowering adjunct to a fat-modified diet, but that caution should be exercised in ascribing cholesterol-lowering efficacy to dietary fibers based solely on their WSDF classification. Finally, WSDF viscosity is a potential cholesterol-lowering factor to be explored further.

  20. In vitro tooth whitening effect of two medicated chewing gums compared to a whitening gum and saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Michael; Hasler-Nguyen, Nathalie; Saroea, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B) on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whi...

  1. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Rapid Determination of Doxycycline in Pharmaceutical Bulk and Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Pourmoslemi, Soroush Mirfakhraee, Saeid Yaripour, Ali Mohammadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A rapid stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for analysis of doxycycline in the presence of its degradation products was developed and validated. Methods: Forced degradation studies were carried out on bulk samples and capsule dosage forms of doxycycline using acid, base, H2O2, heat, and UV light as described by ICH for stress conditions to demonstrate the stability-indicating power of the method. Separations were performed on a Perfectsil® Target ODS column (3-5µm, 125 mm×4 mm, using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-50 mM ammonium acetate buffer (containing 0.1% v/v trifluoroacetic acid and 0.1% v/v triethylamine, pH 2.5 (50:50 v/v at room temperature. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min. Results: The method linearity was investigated in the range of 25–500 µg/mL (r > 0.9999. The LOD and LOQ were 5 and 25 µg/mL, respectively. The method selectivity was evaluated by peak purity test using a diode array detector. There was no interference among detection of doxycycline and its stressed degradation products. Total peak purity numbers were in the range of 0.94-0.99, indicating the homogeneity of DOX peaks. Conclusion: These data show the stability-indicating nature of the method for quality control of doxycycline in bulk samples and capsule dosage forms.

  2. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    2011-04-01

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The results revealed a significant main effect of time and a significant interaction between gum chewing and time. The findings suggest that gum chewing differentially affects attention performance. While gum chewing has detrimental effects on sustained attention in earlier stages of the task, beneficial effects on sustained attention were observed at later stages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Beyond the GUM: variance-based sensitivity analysis in metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, I

    2016-01-01

    Variance-based sensitivity analysis is a well established tool for evaluating the contribution of the uncertainties in the inputs to the uncertainty in the output of a general mathematical model. While the literature on this subject is quite extensive, it has not found widespread use in metrological applications. In this article we present a succinct review of the fundamentals of sensitivity analysis, in a form that should be useful to most people familiarized with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). Through two examples, it is shown that in linear measurement models, no new knowledge is gained by using sensitivity analysis that is not already available after the terms in the so-called ‘law of propagation of uncertainties’ have been computed. However, if the model behaves non-linearly in the neighbourhood of the best estimates of the input quantities—and if these quantities are assumed to be statistically independent—sensitivity analysis is definitely advantageous for gaining insight into how they can be ranked according to their importance in establishing the uncertainty of the measurand. (paper)

  4. Analytical studies on the gum exudate from Anogeissus leiocarpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Samia Eltayeb

    1999-04-01

    Anogeissus leiocarpus gum samples were collected as natural exudate nodules, from three different location. Physicochemical properties of gum samples were studied. results showed significant differences within each location in most parameters studied except refractive index value which was found to be constant in all samples. The effect of location on the properties of gum samples was also studied and the analysis of variance showed insignificant differences (P≤0.05) in all properties studied except in ash content. Inter nodule variations of gum from two different location were studied individually. Results showed significant differences for each parameter studied except for the refractive index value. The properties studied of all gum samples were as follows: 9.2% moisture, 3.4% ash, 0.72% nitrogen, 4.74% protein, -35.5 specific rotation, 1.68 relative viscosity, 4.2 pH, 1.334 refractive index, 14.3 uronic acid, 0.44% reducing sugar, 1336.0 equivalent weight and 0.68% tannin content. UV absorption spectra of gum samples and gum nodules were determined. Cationic composition of gum samples was also determined and the results showed that (Mg) has highest value in all samples studied followed by Fe, Na, K, Ca, Zn and trace amount of Mn, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb. The water holding capacity was found to be 65.5% and emulsifying stability was found to be 1.008. The component sugars of gum were examined by different methods followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. Analysis of hydrolysate crude gum sample by HPLC show L-rhamnose (6.82), L-arabinose (48.08), D-galactose (11.26) and two unknown oligosaccharides having values (0.22 and 32.61). Some physicochemical properties were studied. Results showed significant differences in nitrogen and protein contents, specific rotation, relative viscosity, equivalent weight and pH of fractions, where as insignificant differences were observed in uronic acid content and refractive index values

  5. Solar drying of uruguayan red gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ono

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he use of solar energy as an alternative to non-renewable energy sources has been widely researched in the last decades. Compared to air drying, solar drying kilns can better control the drying process, resulting in a higher quality of the dry wood and lower final wood moisture content values. Investment and running costs for a solar drying kiln are lower than those of a conventional kiln. Moreover, the solar drying process can be advantageous for drying hardwoods which are traditionally considered difficult to dry such as eucalyptus wood of medium and high density (Red gums, known in Spanish as “Eucaliptos colorados”. The solar drying kiln naturally incorporates a daily high relative humidity period that can be similar to a conditioning or steaming step, although at a lower temperature.This results in fewer defects due to the drying process.A pilot scale 2.5 m3 semi-greenhouse type solar wood drying kiln was constructed at LATU (Uruguay Technological Laboratory in Montevideo, Uruguay. The operating conditions and the results from two drying runs are presented. Two species of red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., ADD 870 kg/m3, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., ADD 800 kg/m3 were dried from initial average moisture contents (WMC of around 60% down to 10.0% and 12.7% in 108 days and 76 days, respectively. Boards were provided by the Grupo Forestal San Gregorio from trees harvested at Tacuarembo and Paysandu Departments from cattle shelter forests 60 and 70 years old.Mean volume shrinkage was 18% for E. tereticornis, and 16% for E. camaldulensis, and the level of defects was moderate. Residual stresses and moisture content gradients were observed for both species. Final moisture content values were similar compared to those obtained in conventional drying kilns but with longer drying periods and lower operating costs. This would make the solar drying process attractive to small and medium sized forest products industries in a small country

  6. Effect of Angum gum in combination with tragacanth gum on rheological and sensory properties of ketchup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeilyfard, Ahmadreza; Fazel, Mohammad; Akhavan, Hamidreza; Mousakhani Ganjeh, Alireza

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Angum gum (AnG) alone and in combination with tragacanth gum (TG) on the stability, texture, sensory, and rheological properties of tomato ketchup. AnG, TG, and Angum gum and tragacanth gum mixture (AnGT; 1:1 ratio) were added at levels of 0.5, 1, and 1.5%. Ten tomato ketchup formulations were produced: control (without hydrocolloid), AnG (0.5-1.5%), TG (0.5-1.5%), AnGT (0.5-1.5%). It was observed that the hydrocolloids addition to tomato ketchup significantly decreased the Bostwick consistency value and serum separation at 2200, 5000, and 8800 g. Textural properties of tomato ketchup by using back extrusion test and particle size analysis were significantly increased with hydrocolloid addition. All tomato ketchup formulations showed shear thinning behavior and the addition of hydrocolloids increased apparent viscosity. The power law and Herschel-Bulkley models were successfully fitted with experimental data. The flow behavior indices of Herschel-Bulkley and power law models were changed in the range of 0.19-0.24 and 0.14-0.30, respectively. The consistency coefficients of these models were in the range of 16.31-79.57 and 11.19-146.06 Pa s n , respectively. The storage modulus (G') of all tomato ketchups was higher than the loss modulus (G″). Hydrocolloid addition showed no significant effect on the color indices (L*, a*, b*, hue angle, chroma, and total color differences) of tomato ketchup. The overall acceptability of 1.5% AnG, 0.5% TG, 1 and 1.5% AnGT were significantly higher than other samples. Therefore, AnG can be used alone and in combination with TG as stabilizer in tomato ketchup. The consistency of tomato ketchup is an important attribute from both engineering and consumer viewpoints. It was observed that addition of TG, AnG, and AnGT to tomato ketchups significantly decreased their Bostwick consistency values and their serum separation. In addition, hydrocolloid addition showed no significant effect

  7. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  8. Aplikasi Campuran Alginat Dari Sargassum Crassifolium Dan Gum Sebagai Pengental Textile Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subaryono Subaryono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian aplikasi campuran alginat dari Sargassum crassifolium dan gum untuk meningkatkan viskositas alginat sebagai pengental pada textile printing telah dilakukan. Viskositas campuran alginat dengan guar gum, gum arab, dan locust bean gum diamati pada penyimpanan selama 8 jam. Produk terbaik diujikan sebagai pengental pada textile printing. Campuran alginat dengan guar gum pada perbandingan 90:10 dan 80:20 meningkatkan viskositas dan stabilitas alginat selama penyimpanan. Campuran alginat dengan gum arab dan locust bean gum akan menurunkan viskositas alginat sehingga tidak sesuai untuk aplikasi textile printing. Aplikasi campuran alginat dengan guar gum 90:10 dan 80:20 sebagai pengental pada tekstil printing menghasilkan produk akhir yang setara dengan pengental komersial manutex.

  9. The impact of chewing gum resistance on immediate free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Sarah; Johnson, Andrew; Miles, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Although the facilitative effects of chewing gum on free recall have proved contentious (e.g., Tucha, Mecklinger, Maier, Hammerl, & Lange, 2004; Wilkinson, Scholey, & Wesnes, 2002), there are strong physiological grounds, for example, increased cerebral activity and blood flow following the act of mastication, to suppose facilitation. The present study manipulated resistance to mastication, that is, chewing four pellets versus one pellet of gum, with the assumption that increased resistance will accentuate cerebral activity and blood flow. Additionally, chewing rate was recorded for all participants. In a within-participants design, participants performed a series of immediate free recall tasks while chewing gum at learning (one or four pellets) and recall (one or four pellets). Increased chewing resistance was not associated with increased memory performance, despite consistent chewing rates for both the one and four pellet conditions at both learning and recall. However, a pattern of recall consistent with context-dependent memory was observed. Here, participants who chewed the equivalent number of gum pellets at both learning and recall experienced significantly superior word recall compared to those conditions where the number of gum pellets differed. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Using Gamma Irradiation to Modify Properties of Polysaccharides (Guar Gum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, H.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation processing of material is one of most recent technology used in modification of material properties. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on the Polysaccharides Viscosity and Molecular Weight, as definition of Guar Gum. Its series of glactomanene (glactos + manose). (1-2-,3). Guar Gum powder was the main material and Co-60 irradiator facility as main technique. For gamma–ray source of required doses, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy. Viscosity of the aqueous suspensions of irradiated Guar Gum at different concentrations (0.1–0.5%) was measured, also it measured for solutions made of irradiated powder. Results used to calculate the difference occur in molecular weight, in order to determine the irradiation effect in the material. The monitored rheological parameters showed (non-Newtonian Behavior) of the samples which processed by gamma irradiation. The decrease tendency of the viscosity by irradiation of samples under study (different concentrations) and compared with control also for irradiated powder decrease of the concentration as well has been noticed. From results evaluation concluded that the viscosity values for all studied concentrations decreased by irradiation. This aspect suggests a depolymerization phenomenon of the aqueous Guar Gum solutions. This study contributes to the knowledge of the viscoelastic properties of Guar Gum as powder or aqueous solution, with application for food, agriculture, medical products, Petroleum and construction. (author)

  11. Development and Validation of a Rapid RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Dosage forms using Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Somasekhar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to develop a simple, accurate, precise and rapid reversed-phase HPLC method and subsequent validation as per ICH guidelines for the determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The proposed RP-HPLC method utilizes a 5 μm Varian® Microsorb-MV 100 C18 column (250 mmx4.6 mm at ambient temperature. A 23 factorial design consisting of 3 factors at 2 levels was set up to standardize the chromatographic conditions. A numerical optimization technique employing the desirability approach was used to locate the optimum chromatographic conditions. The optimum mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile, 0.04 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and methanol (45:25:30, v/v, with pH adjusted to 5.5 using 10% phosphoric acid solution. The mobile phase was delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at 224 nm. The calibration plots constructed using the optimized chromatographic conditions displayed good linear relationship in the concentration range of 1-50 μg/mL with r=0.9992. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, robustness and recovery. The minimum detectable and minimum quantifiable amounts were found to be 0.568 and 1.72 μg/mL, respectively and the method was found to be reproducible from the statistical data generated. Venlafaxine hydrochloride was eluted at 3.43 min

  12. Evaluation of Blue Gum Chalid Infestation Woodlots in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otuoma, J.; Muchiri, M.N

    2007-01-01

    Blue gum chalcid (BGC) Leptocybe invasa is a gall-forming wasp that belongs to the insect order Hymenoptera, family Eulophidae. It attacks a wide range of Eucalyptus species mostly between the seedling stage and five years of age. BGC causes damage to eucalyptus by forming bump-shaped galls on the leaf midribs, petioles and stems.Twisted and knobbed leaves manifest severe infestation. The aim of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of BGC and extent of host plant damage in Eucalyptus woodlots in Western Kenya. The study was carried out in six permanent sampling plots in Eucalyptus woodlots in Busia, Bungoma, Kakamega and Nyando. Trees were assessed for crown damage by estimating and classifying the density of galls on the leaves into four levels of infestation: low (greater than 50% of foliage canopy with galls and no twisted or knobbed leaves), moderate (greater than 50% of foliage with galls and less than 50% of the leaves twisted and knobbed), high (greater than 50% of the leaves twisted and knobbed, galls on the twigs and some twigs deformed and severe (greater than 50% of the twigs deformed and regeneration foliage observed). An evaluation of the pests' infestation and the extent of host plant damage indicated that, 4% of the trees and severe infestation; 5% high; 20% moderate and 70% low. Approximately 1% of trees died as a result of loss of foliage attributable to severe infestation. Other observations from the study were that the severity of BGC infestation tended to decline as trees grew older and BGC infestation retarded tree growth

  13. Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may increase alertness and lead to changes in cognitive performance. The present study examined effects of chewing gum on these functions within the context of a single study. This study had four main aims. The first was to examine whether chewing gum improved learning and memory of information in a story. The second aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved test performance on a validated intellectual task (the Alice Heim task). A third aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved performance on short memory tasks (immediate and delayed recall of a list of words, delayed recognition memory, retrieval from semantic memory, and a working memory task). The final aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved mood (alertness, calm and hedonic tone). A cross-over design was used with gum and no-gum sessions being on consecutive weeks. In each week, volunteers attended for two sessions, two days apart. The first session assessed mood, immediate recall of information from a story and performance on short memory tasks. The second session assessed mood, delayed recall of information from a story and performance of an intelligence test (the Alice Heim test). There were no significant effects of chewing gum on any aspect of recall of the story. Chewing gum improved the accuracy of performing the Alice Heim test which confirms the benefits of gum on test performance seen in an earlier study. Chewing gum had no significant effect on the short memory tasks. Chewing gum increased alertness at the end of the test session in both parts of the study. This effect was in the region of a 10% increase and was highly significant (P increases alertness. In contrast, no significant effects of chewing gum were observed in the memory tasks. Intellectual performance was improved in the gum condition. Overall, the results suggest further research on the alerting effects of chewing gum and possible improved test performance in these

  14. Effects of xanthan, guar, carrageenan and locust bean gum addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Zeynep Ozben; Yılmaz, Ismail; Demirci, Ahmet Şukru

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan and locust bean gum on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs. Meatball samples were produced with three different formulations including of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% each gum addition and gum added samples were compared with the control meatballs. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on raw and cooked samples separately. Moisture contents of raw samples decreased by addition of gums. There were significant decreases (p meatball samples formulated with gum when compared with control. Ash contents and texture values increased with gum addition to meatballs. Meatball redness decreased with more gum addition in raw and cooked meatball samples, which means that addition of gums resulted in a lighter-coloured product. According to sensory analysis results, locust bean gum added (1%) samples were much preferred by the panelists.

  15. Evaluation of the Binding Effect of Local Gum of Boswellia papyrifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, B. papyrifera gum has been evaluated for its binding effect in paracetamol granules and tablet formulations in comparison with the commonly used binders, Acacia BP and PVP K-30. Some physicochemical properties of the extracted gum indicated that the gum exhibited solubility in water, absence of tannin and ...

  16. Fluoride and urea chewing gums in an intra-oral experimental caries model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjogren, K; Ruben, J; Lingstrom, P; Lundberg, AB; Birkhed, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of sugar-free chewing gums containing fluoride (F) and urea in an intra-oral experimental caries model. Placebo chewing gums (without any active ingredient) and no gum served as controls. Fifteen subjects participated in a cross-over,

  17. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The

  18. Development of controlled release spheroids using Buchananiacochinchinesis gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Babulal Gaikwad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chirauli nut gum was isolated from the bark of Buchanania cochinchinesis (fam. Anacadiacea and was used as a release modifier for the preparation of Diclofenac sodium spheroids using the extrusion spheronization technique. The process was studied for the effects on variables when making spheroids with satisfactory particle shape, size and size distribution. The prepared spheroids were characterized for surface morphology, qualitative surface porosity, friability, bulk density and flow properties. In vitro studies demonstrated that the release exhibited Fickian diffusion kinetics which was confirmed by the Higuchi and the Korsmeyer-Peppas models. The physico-chemical parameters of the gum could be correlated to the in vitro dissolution profile of the spheroids. The spheroids were not able to sustain the drug releases over 12 hours. A greater concentration of Chirauli nut gum and a process that can accommodate such greater concentrations may produce a formulation capable of significant sustained release.

  19. Tragacanth gum: an effective oil well drilling fluid additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahto, V.; Sharma, V. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Department of Petroleum Engineering

    2005-02-15

    The low penetration rate, excessive torque and drag, poor hole cleaning and formation damage are major impediments in drilling oil and gas well. These have a major impact on drilling efficiency and well economics. Keeping these in mind, an attempt was made to design a water based drilling fluid system using Indian bentonite clays and tragacanth gum. The effect of tragacanth gum on rheological behavior of three different Indian bentonite water suspensions was studied and a drilling fluid system was developed. The filtrates of these drilling fluids were subjected to formation damage study on the field core using Ruska Liquid Permeameter. The laboratory investigation furnishes that tragacanth gum acts as a good viscosifier and fluid loss control agent. The drilling fluid filtrate also has less effect on formation damage. (author)

  20. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  1. Chewing gum and lozenges as delivery systems for noscapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard Jensen, L.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Menger, N.

    1991-01-01

    Chewing gum and lozenges were evaluated as delivery systems for noscapine with the aim of developing improved antitussive preparations. The formulations studied were prepared with both the water-soluble hydrochloride salt of noscapine and with the poorly soluble embonate salt and noscapine free...... base. The release characteristics of the preparations were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and their taste properties examined. Only the formulations containing noscapine base were without any appreciable taste. Chewing gum containing this compound showed, however, a low level of drug release both...

  2. Seeking sunlight: rapid phototactic motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria optimize photosynthesis and enhance carbon burial in Lake Huron’s submerged sinkholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bopaiah A Biddanda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria consisting primarily of Oscillatoria-like cells growing under low-light, low-oxygen and high-sulfur conditions in Lake Huron’s submerged sinkholes using in situ observations, in vitro measurements and time-lapse microscopy. Gliding movement of the cyanobacterial trichomes (100-10,000 µm long filaments, composed of cells ~10 µm wide and ~3 µm tall revealed individual as well as group-coordinated motility. When placed in a petri dish and dispersed in ground water from the sinkhole, filaments re-aggregated into defined colonies within minutes, then dispersed again. Speed of individual filaments increased with temperature from ~50 µm minute-1 or ~15 body lengths minute-1 at 10°C to ~215 µm minute-1 or ~70 body lengths minute-1 at 35°C – rates that are rapid relative to non-flagellated/ciliated microbes. Filaments exhibited precise and coordinated positive phototaxis towards pinpoints of light and congregated under the light of foil cutouts. Such light-responsive clusters showed an increase in photosynthetic yield – suggesting phototactic motility aids in light acquisition as well as photosynthesis. Once light source was removed, filaments slowly spread out evenly and re-aggregated, demonstrating coordinated movement through inter-filament communication regardless of light. Pebbles and pieces of broken shells placed upon intact mat were quickly covered by vertically motile filaments within hours and became fully buried in the anoxic sediments over 3-4 diurnal cycles – likely facilitating the preservation of falling debris. Coordinated horizontal and vertical filament motility optimize mat cohesion and dynamics, photosynthetic efficiency and sedimentary carbon burial in modern-day sinkhole habitats that resemble the shallow seas in Earth’s early history. Analogous cyanobacterial motility may have played a key role in the oxygenation of the planet by optimizing

  3. Seeking sunlight: rapid phototactic motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria optimize photosynthesis and enhance carbon burial in Lake Huron's submerged sinkholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddanda, Bopaiah A; McMillan, Adam C; Long, Stephen A; Snider, Michael J; Weinke, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    We studied the motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria consisting primarily of Oscillatoria-like cells growing under low-light, low-oxygen, and high-sulfur conditions in Lake Huron's submerged sinkholes using in situ observations, in vitro measurements and time-lapse microscopy. Gliding movement of the cyanobacterial trichomes (100-10,000 μm long filaments, composed of cells ∼10 μm wide and ∼3 μm tall) revealed individual as well as group-coordinated motility. When placed in a petri dish and dispersed in ground water from the sinkhole, filaments re-aggregated into defined colonies within minutes, then dispersed again. Speed of individual filaments increased with temperature from ∼50 μm min(-1) or ∼15 body lengths min(-1) at 10°C to ∼215 μm min(-1) or ∼70 body lengths min(-1) at 35°C - rates that are rapid relative to non-flagellated/ciliated microbes. Filaments exhibited precise and coordinated positive phototaxis toward pinpoints of light and congregated under the light of foil cutouts. Such light-responsive clusters showed an increase in photosynthetic yield - suggesting phototactic motility aids in light acquisition as well as photosynthesis. Once light source was removed, filaments slowly spread out evenly and re-aggregated, demonstrating coordinated movement through inter-filament communication regardless of light. Pebbles and pieces of broken shells placed upon intact mat were quickly covered by vertically motile filaments within hours and became fully buried in the anoxic sediments over 3-4 diurnal cycles - likely facilitating the preservation of falling debris. Coordinated horizontal and vertical filament motility optimize mat cohesion and dynamics, photosynthetic efficiency and sedimentary carbon burial in modern-day sinkhole habitats that resemble the shallow seas in Earth's early history. Analogous cyanobacterial motility may have played a key role in the oxygenation of the planet by optimizing photosynthesis while favoring

  4. Effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum on pasting, thermo-mechanical and rheological properties of wheat dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2016-12-01

    Partially hydrolyzed guar gum was prepared using enzymatic hydrolysis of native guar gum that can be utilized as soluble fiber source. The effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) on pasting, thermo-mechanical and rheological properties of wheat flour was investigated using rapid visco-analyzer, Mixolab and Microdoughlab. Wheat flour was replaced with 1-5g PHGG per 100g of wheat flour on weight basis. PHGG addition decreased the peak, trough, breakdown, setback and final viscosity of wheat flour. Water absorption and amylase activity of wheat dough were increased whereas starch gelatinization and protein weakening of wheat dough were reduced as a result of PHGG addition to wheat flour. PHGG addition also increased the peak dough height, arrival time, dough development time, dough stability and peak energy of wheat dough system. However, dough softening was decreased after PHGG addition to wheat flour dough. Overall, it can be assumed that PHGG has influenced the properties of wheat flour dough system by decreasing the RVA viscosities and increasing the water absorption and starch gelatinization of wheat dough system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluorescence spectral studies of Gum Arabic: Multi-emission of Gum Arabic in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhenadhayalan, Namasivayam, E-mail: ndhena@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Mythily, Rajan, E-mail: rajanmythily@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India); Kumaran, Rajendran, E-mail: kumaranwau@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Gum Arabic (GA), a food hydrocolloid is a natural composite obtained from the stems and branches of Acacia Senegal and Acacia Seyal trees. GA structure is made up of highly branched arabinogalactan polysaccharides. Steady-state absorption, fluorescence, and time-resolved fluorescence spectral studies of acid hydrolyzed GA solutions were carried out at various pH conditions. The fluorescence in GA is predominantly attributed to the presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine amino acids. The presence of multi-emissive peaks at different pH condition is attributed to the exposure of the fluorescing amino acids to the aqueous phase, which contains several sugar units, hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Time-resolved fluorescence studies of GA exhibits a multi-exponential decay with different fluorescence lifetime of varying amplitude which confirms that tyrosine is confined to a heterogeneous microenvironment. The existence of multi-emissive peaks with large variation in the fluorescence intensities were established by 3D emission contour spectral studies. The probable location of the fluorophore in a heterogeneous environment was further ascertained by constructing a time-resolved emission spectrum (TRES) and time-resolved area normalized emission spectrum (TRANES) plots. Fluorescence spectral technique is used as an analytical tool in understanding the photophysical properties of a water soluble complex food hydrocolloid containing an intrinsic fluorophore located in a multiple environment is illustrated. - Highlights: • The Manuscript deals with the steady state absorption, emission, fluorescence lifetime and time-resolved emission spectrum studies of Gum Arabic in aqueous medium at various pH conditions. • The fluorescence emanates from the tyrosine amino acid present in GA. • Change in pH results in marked variation in the fluorescence spectral properties of tyrosine. • Fluorescence spectral techniques are employed as a tool in establishing the

  6. Interactions between whey protein isolate and gum Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Miri; Aserin, Abraham; Ben Ishai, Paul; Garti, Nissim

    2010-09-01

    In this study we have attempted to understand the nature of "charge interactions" between two negatively charged biopolymers (whey protein isolate, WPI and gum Arabic, GA) and, consequently, why their mixture exhibits better interfacial activity. Surface tension (gamma(0)) measurements indicated that at ca. 1 wt.% of the biopolymer mixture (3:1 wt. ratio) the air/water surface is saturated. At 5 wt.% the gamma(0) of the mixture is lower than the calculated co-operative value. The zeta-potential measurements revealed that the isoelectric point of the WPI:GA 3:1 wt. ratio mixture is 3.8. The zeta-potential values up to pH 6 are below those calculated. Similarly, the electrical conductivities of the mixture are lower than those calculated. All these measurements indicate: (1) partial charge neutralization in spite of the fact that both biopolymers are negative or (2) partial charge-charge interactions between the two biopolymers. The thermal heating behavior of the frozen water in the aqueous mixture studied by DSC (heating cycle of the frozen sample) clearly indicates that the two biopolymers are interacting. We calculated the enthalpy, the free energy and the chemical potential of the interactions. We found that the interactions of the biopolymers are rather weak. They are likely derived from some local positively charged domains (pH 7) on the protein that neutralize some of the negatively charged GA. These interactions form weak charge adducts. These charge adducts are sufficient to improve its adsorption into the oil-water interface and enhance the emulsion stability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Formulation and evaluation of controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Arora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to prepare controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum as natural polymer. Tablets were formulated by direct compression technology employing the natural polymer in different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w. The prepared batches were evaluated for drug assay, diameter, thickness, hardness and tensile strength, swelling index, mucoadhesive strength (using texture analyzer and subjected to in vitro drug release studies. Real-time stability studies were also conducted on prepared batches. In vitro drug release data were fitted in various release kinetic models for studying the mechanism of drug release. Tensile strength was found to increase from 0.808 ± 0.098 to 1.527 ± 0.10 mN/cm 2 and mucoadhesive strength increased from 13.673 ± 1.542 to 40.378 ± 2.345 N, with an increase in the polymer concentration from 5 to 20% (A1 to A4. Swelling index was reported to increase with both increase in the concentration of gum and the time duration. The in vitro drug release decreased from 97.76 to 83.4% (A1 to A4 with the increase in polymer concentration. The drug release from the matrix tablets was found to follow zero-order and Higuchi models, indicating the matrix-forming potential of natural polymer. The value of n was found to be between 0.5221 and 0.8992, indicating the involvement of more than one drug release mechanism from the formulation and possibly the combination of both diffusion and erosion. These research findings clearly indicate the potential of S. plebeian gum to be used as binder, release retardant and mucoadhesive natural material in tablet formulations.

  8. Application of guar gum biopolymer in the prescription of tablets with sodium ibuprofen--quality tests and pharmaceutical availability in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner-Strzelczyk, Aneta; Kołodziejska, Justyna; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj

    2006-01-01

    The increasing interest of the technology of drug form in natural biopolymers has become the reason for undertaking investigations on the possibility of guar gum application in the prescription of oral solid form of a drug. Alternative compositions and technology of the production of tablets of regulated in time sodium ibuprofen release were worked out for children. Two series of tablets were prepared with guar gum (5 and 10% content) and a series without the biopolymer. The tablet mass in each case contained keryostatic sorbitol and bioadhesive polyvinylpyrrolidone. All tablets were tested as regards the quality of production, compliance with the requirements of Polish Pharmacopoeia VI and potential therapeutic usefulness, manifestation of which is pharmaceutical availability of the therapeutic agent (sodium ibuprofen). The tests demonstrated that the produced tablets with sodium ibuprofen have proper physicochemical properties, in compliance with Polish Pharmacopoeia VI requirements. Application of biopolymer of guar gum type as adjuvant substance contributes to the improvement of the tablet hardness parameters and prevents technological problems (lining mixture of powders to tableting machine punch). The designed tablets demonstrate proper pharmaceutical availability of over 80%. Introduction of guar gum into their prescription prolonged their disintegration time and the rate of sodium ibuprofen release, which predisposes the produced form of a drug to have the function of a tablet with slowed-down release.

  9. Extrudates of starch-xanthan gum mixtures as affected by chemical agents and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, M.A.; Chinnaswamy, R.; Gray, D.R.; Miladinov, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    Mixtures of starch, xanthan gum and either polyvinyl alcohol, epichlorohydrin, valeric acid or adipoyl chloride were extruded. Properties of extrudates including apparent viscosity, water solubility, water absorption indices and extrudate expansion were measured for different proportions of xanthan gum, 70% amylose starch (with or without irradiation) and chemical agents. Extrusion with chemical agents and irradiation changed physical properties of both starch and xanthan gum. Expansions of extrudates were higher than that of starch. Viscosity of extrudates increased with xanthan gum concentration. The addition of 1% (w/w) polyvinyl alcohol had the greatest effect of the chemical agents. Irradiation increased the apparent viscosity of starch-xanthan gum mixtures

  10. Mango kernel starch-gum composite films: Physical, mechanical and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Lutfi, Zubala; Hasnain, Abid

    2017-05-01

    Composite films were developed by the casting method using mango kernel starch (MKS) and guar and xanthan gums. The concentration of both gums ranged from 0% to 30% (w/w of starch; db). Mechanical properties, oxygen permeability (OP), water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility in water and color parameters of composite films were evaluated. The crystallinity and homogeneity between the starch and gums were also evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scanning electron micrographs showed homogeneous matrix, with no signs of phase separation between the components. XRD analysis demonstrated diminished crystalline peak. Regardless of gum type the tensile strength (TS) of composite films increased with increasing gum concentration while reverse trend was noted for elongation at break (EAB) which found to be decreased with increasing gum concentration. The addition of both guar and xanthan gums increased solubility and WVP of the composite films. However, the OP was found to be lower than that of the control with both gums. Furthermore, addition of both gums led to changes in transparency and opacity of MKS films. Films containing 10% (w/w) xanthan gum showed lower values for solubility, WVP and OP, while film containing 20% guar gum showed good mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of enzymatic depolymerization on physicochemical and rheological properties of guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-09-01

    Depolymerization of guar gum using enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to obtain depolymerized guar gum having functional application as soluble dietary fiber. Enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum significantly affected the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of guar gum. The depolymerized guar gum showed a significant increase in crystallinity index from 3.86% to 13.2% and flow behavior index from 0.31 to 1.7 as compared to native guar gum. Remarkable decrease in intrinsic viscosity and consistency index was also observed from 9 to 0.28 and 4.04 to 0.07, respectively. Results revealed that enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum resulted in a polysaccharide with low degree of polymerization, viscosity and consistency which could make it useful for incorporation in food products as dietary fiber without affecting the rheology, consistency and texture of the products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory effects: a re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Christopher; Johnson, Andrew J

    2007-03-01

    Two experiments re-examined whether chewing spearmint gum affects initial word learning and/or immediate recall for a word list. Both experiments failed to show effects of chewing gum at learning or recall, nor did they suggest that chewing gum produces a context-dependent memory effect. This was true when extraneous contextual cues at learning and recall were minimised (Experiment 2). Together, the data are inconsistent with [Wilkinson, L., Scholey, A. & Wesnes, K. (2002). Chewing gum selectively improves aspects of memory in healthy volunteers. Appetite, 38, 235-236.] claim that chewing gum aids immediate recall of visually presented words. Our results are consistent with [Baker, J. R., Bezance, J. B., Zellaby, E. & Aggleton, J. P. (2004). Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory. Appetite, 43, 207-210.] finding that chewing gum of itself is not a sufficient condition to provoke context-dependent learning with immediate testing.

  13. Effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, heart rate, EEG and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Jacob, Tim J C; Smith, Andrew P

    2014-06-22

    Research has shown that chewing gum improves attention, although the mechanism for this effect remains unclear. This study investigated the effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, mood, heart rate and EEG. Participants completed a vigilance task four times; at baseline, with or without chewing gum, and twice post-chewing. EEG alpha and beta power at left frontal and temporal lobes, subjective mood and heart rate were assessed. Chewing gum shortened reaction time and increased the rate of hits, although hits fell during the second post-chewing task. Chewing gum heightened heart rate, but only during chewing. Gum also increased beta power at F7 and T3 immediately post-chewing, but not following the post-chewing tasks. The findings show that chewing gum affects several different indicators of alertness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum as a potential prebiotic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Patel, Ami; Shah, Nihir

    2018-06-01

    Guar galactomannan was enzymatically hydrolyzed to obtain partially hydrolyzed guar gum which can be utilized as prebiotic source. In present study, growth of probiotics (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains) were studied with glucose, partially hydrolyzed guar gum and native guar gum. All the six strains were galactose &/or mannose positive using the API CHl 50 test. Almost all these strains showed an ability to assimilate partially hydrolyzed guar gum with respect to increase in optical density and viable cell count with concomitant decrease in the pH of the growth medium. Streptococcus thermophilus MD2 exhibited higher growth (7.78 log cfu/ml) while P. parvulus AI1 showed comparatively less growth (7.24 log cfu/ml) as compared to used lactobacillus and Weissella strains. Outcomes of the current study suggest that partially hydrolyzed guar can be considered as potential prebiotic compound that may further stimulate the growth of potentially probiotic bacteria or native gut microflora. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation induced degradation of xanthan gum in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayrabolulu, Hande; Demeter, Maria; Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Güven, Olgun; Şen, Murat

    2018-03-01

    In our previous study, we have investigated the effect of gamma rays on xanthan gum in the solid state and it was determined that dose rate was an important factor effecting the radiation degradation of xanthan gum. In the present study, in order to provide a better understanding of how ionizing radiation effect xanthan gum, we have investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on aqueous solutions of xanthan at various concentrations (0.5-4%). Xanthan solutions were irradiated with gamma rays in air, at ambient temperature, at different dose rates (0.1-3.3-7.0 kGy/h) and doses (2.5-50 kGy). Change in their molecular weights was followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Chain scission yield (G(S)), and degradation rate constants (k) were calculated. It was determined that, solution concentration was a factor effecting the degradation chemical yield and degradation rate of xanthan gum. Chain scission reactions were more effective for lower solution concentrations.

  16. Gellan gum fluid gels for topical administration of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Mohammed H; Conway, Barbara R; Mills, Thomas; Smith, Alan M

    2016-12-30

    Diclofenac topical formulations are often preferred for drug administration to patients who experience serious GIT problems. Absorption of the drug through the skin, however, can be challenging due to the natural protective feature of the stratum corneum (SC). In this article, fluid gels prepared from gellan gum were explored as a topical drug delivery vehicle. Rheological analysis of the formulations showed that it was possible to produce a topical gel with a viscosity and the mechanical strength similar to that of the commercially available Voltaren ® gel using 1% w/w of a 50:50 low acyl/high acyl (LA/HA) gellan blend. Soft-tribology was used to assess the lubrication properties of gellan fluid gels. The lubrication of the gellan gum fluid gel formulations at high rubbing speeds was similar to the lubrication of the Voltaren ® gel. The use of gellan gum dramatically increased skin permeation of diclofenac when compared with the commercially available formulation and could be controlled by changing the gellan gum concentration and/or sodium ion concentration in the formulation. This study highlights the potential use of fluid gels that can be easily tuned to have physical properties suitable for topical formulations with the added advantage of increasing drug permeation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cetirizine release from cyclodextrin formulated compressed chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojanov, Mladen; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2012-01-01

    release patterns, but with variations in the total amount released. Chewing gum formulated with cetirizine alone, demonstrated a release of 75% after 8 min of chewing. The presence of CDs resulted in increased cetirizine release. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that parameters with the most...... the statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated significance in the release (P

  18. Cashew gum and gelatin blend for food packaging application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashew gum (CG) and gelatin (G) films were developed using the casting method and response surface methodology. The objective was produce packaging films from CG/G blends that exhibit effective barrier properties. A study of zeta potential versus pH was first carried out to determine the isoelectric...

  19. Ask a Periodontist (Frequently Asked Questions about Gum Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May Increase Lung Cancer Risk CDC Estimate: New Mexico, Hawaii Have Highest U.S. Incidence of Advanced Gum ... Finally, periodontists can be integral in the comprehensive planning of your oral care, along ... the costs of implants can often vary from urban to rural areas and will depend on how ...

  20. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cola acuminata gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calamine suspensions were formulated with CAG between the concentration range of 1 – 4 % w/v and compared with suspensions formulated with two standard suspending agents (tragacanth and acacia gums). Sedimentation volume, flow rate, rheology and redispersibility were used as evaluating parameters.

  1. Iron microencapsulation in gum tragacanth using solvent evaporation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari-Varzaneh, Elham; Shahedi, Mohammad; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar

    2017-10-01

    In this study iron salt (FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O) was microencapsulated in gum tragacanth hydrogel using solvent evaporation method. Three significant parameters (ferrous sulfate content, content of gum tragacanth, and alcohol to mixture ratio) were optimized by response surface methodology to obtain maximum encapsulation efficiency. Ferrous sulfate content, 5%, content of gum tragacanth, 22%, and alcohol to mixture ratio, 11:1 was determined to be the optimum condition to reach maximum encapsulation efficiency. Microstructure of iron microcapsules was thoroughly monitored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microphotographs indicated two distinct crystalline and amorphous structures in the microcapsules. This structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of microcapsules. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of iron microcapsules identified the presence of iron in the tragacanth microcapsules. The average size of microcapsules was determined by particle size analyzer. Release assessment of iron in simulated gastric fluid showed its complete release in stomach which is necessary for its absorption in duodenum. However, the use of encapsulated iron in gum tragacanth in watery foods is rather recommended due to the fast release of iron in water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Binding Properties Of A Polymeric Gum From Cola accuminata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However all the tablets produced with 1 % w/w binder; Sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (SCMC) and Cola accuminata failed the hardness test. Hardness increased while friability decreased as tablet binder concentration increased. However, the tablets produced with Cola accuminata gum had long disintegration times ...

  3. Seeking sunlight: rapid phototactic motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria optimize photosynthesis and enhance carbon burial in Lake Huron’s submerged sinkholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddanda, Bopaiah A.; McMillan, Adam C.; Long, Stephen A.; Snider, Michael J.; Weinke, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the motility of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria consisting primarily of Oscillatoria-like cells growing under low-light, low-oxygen, and high-sulfur conditions in Lake Huron’s submerged sinkholes using in situ observations, in vitro measurements and time-lapse microscopy. Gliding movement of the cyanobacterial trichomes (100–10,000 μm long filaments, composed of cells ∼10 μm wide and ∼3 μm tall) revealed individual as well as group-coordinated motility. When placed in a petri dish and dispersed in ground water from the sinkhole, filaments re-aggregated into defined colonies within minutes, then dispersed again. Speed of individual filaments increased with temperature from ∼50 μm min-1 or ∼15 body lengths min-1 at 10°C to ∼215 μm min-1 or ∼70 body lengths min-1 at 35°C – rates that are rapid relative to non-flagellated/ciliated microbes. Filaments exhibited precise and coordinated positive phototaxis toward pinpoints of light and congregated under the light of foil cutouts. Such light-responsive clusters showed an increase in photosynthetic yield – suggesting phototactic motility aids in light acquisition as well as photosynthesis. Once light source was removed, filaments slowly spread out evenly and re-aggregated, demonstrating coordinated movement through inter-filament communication regardless of light. Pebbles and pieces of broken shells placed upon intact mat were quickly covered by vertically motile filaments within hours and became fully buried in the anoxic sediments over 3–4 diurnal cycles – likely facilitating the preservation of falling debris. Coordinated horizontal and vertical filament motility optimize mat cohesion and dynamics, photosynthetic efficiency and sedimentary carbon burial in modern-day sinkhole habitats that resemble the shallow seas in Earth’s early history. Analogous cyanobacterial motility may have played a key role in the oxygenation of the planet by optimizing photosynthesis while

  4. Confectionery-based dose forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangso, Kristian J; Ho, Quy Phuong; Boyd, Ben J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional dosage forms such as tablets, capsules and syrups are prescribed in the normal course of practice. However, concerns about patient preferences and market demands have given rise to the exploration of novel unconventional dosage forms. Among these, confectionery-based dose forms have strong potential to overcome compliance problems. This report will review the availability of these unconventional dose forms used in treating the oral cavity and for systemic drug delivery, with a focus on medicated chewing gums, medicated lollipops, and oral bioadhesive devices. The aim is to stimulate increased interest in the opportunities for innovative new products that are available to formulators in this field, particularly for atypical patient populations.

  5. Naturalistic assessment of demand for cigarettes, snus, and nicotine gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Wilson, A George; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Judd, Michael C; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral economic measures of demand provide estimates of tobacco product abuse liability and may predict effects of policy-related price regulation on consumption of existing and emerging tobacco products. In the present study, we examined demand for snus, a smokeless tobacco product, in comparison to both cigarettes and medicinal nicotine. We used both a naturalistic method in which participants purchased these products for use outside the laboratory, as well as laboratory-based self-administration procedures. Cigarette smokers (N = 42) used an experimental income to purchase their usual brand of cigarettes and either snus or gum (only one product available per session) across a range of prices, while receiving all products they purchased from one randomly selected price. In a separate portion of the study, participants self-administered these products during laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions. Demand elasticity (sensitivity of purchasing to price) was significantly greater for snus than cigarettes. Elasticity for gum was intermediate between snus and cigarettes but was not significantly different than either. Demand intensity (purchasing unconstrained by price) was significantly lower for gum compared to cigarettes, with no significant difference observed between snus and cigarettes. Results of the laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions were generally discordant with measures of demand elasticity, with significantly higher "breakpoints" for cigarettes compared to gum and no significant differences between other study products. Moreover, breakpoints and product purchasing were generally uncorrelated across tasks. Under naturalistic conditions, snus appears more sensitive to price manipulation than either cigarettes or nicotine gum in existing smokers.

  6. Value added product recovery from sludge generated during gum arabic refining process by vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Veena; Satyanarayan, Sanjeev; Satyanarayan, Shanta

    2016-09-01

    Gum arabic is multifunctional and used in food products, pharmaceutical, confectionery, cosmetic, printing and textile industry. Gum arabic has an excellent market and its production is being increased to meet the market demand. In the process, huge quantity of solid waste is generated during its refining process. An attempt has been made to vermicompost this organic waste using Eudrilus eugeniae. This research work is first of its kind. Literature on this substrate has not been reported anywhere else for vermicomposting. Results were excellent with volatile solid reduction of 51.34 %; C/N ratio reduced to 16.31 % indicating efficient loss of carbon as carbon dioxide during vermicomposting period. Manurial value, i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in the range, required for the plants also increased. Porosity of 67.74 % and water holding capacity of 65.75 % were observed. The maturity of the vermicompost was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy wherein the complete conversion of large raw material particles into finer particles forming a uniform matrix with more surface area was observed indicating its efficient conversion. Microbial quality of vermicompost was also studied. The final vermicompost is free of fungal cells and pathogenic bacteria.

  7. Acute Ingestion of Caffeinated Chewing Gum Improves Repeated Sprint Performance of Team Sport Athletes With Low Habitual Caffeine Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Tierney, Peter; Gray, Nicola; Hawe, Greg; Macken, Maria; Egan, Brendan

    2018-04-23

    The effects of acute ingestion of caffeine on short-duration high-intensity performance are equivocal, while studies of novel modes of delivery and the efficacy of low doses of caffeine are warranted. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of acute ingestion of caffeinated chewing gum on repeated sprint performance (RSP) in team sport athletes, and whether habitual caffeine consumption alters the ergogenic effect, if any, on RSP. A total of 18 male team sport athletes undertook four RSP trials using a 40-m maximum shuttle run test, which incorporates 10 × 40-m sprints with 30 s between the start of each sprint. Each participant completed two familiarization sessions, followed by caffeine (CAF; caffeinated chewing gum; 200 mg caffeine) and placebo (PLA; noncaffeinated chewing gum) trials in a randomized, double-blind manner. RSP, assessed by sprint performance decrement (%), did not differ (p = .209; effect size = 0.16; N = 18) between CAF (5.00 ± 2.84%) and PLA (5.43 ± 2.68%). Secondary analysis revealed that low habitual caffeine consumers (130 mg/day, n = 6; 3.98 ± 2.57% vs. 3.80 ± 1.79%, respectively; p = .684; effect size = 0.08). The data suggest that a low dose of caffeine in the form of caffeinated chewing gum attenuates the sprint performance decrement during RSP by team sport athletes with low, but not moderate-to-high, habitual consumption of caffeine.

  8. Guar gum and scleroglucan interactions with borax: experimental and theoretical studies of an unexpected similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Mazzuca, Claudia; Sandolo, Chiara; Margheritelli, Silvia; Alhaique, Franco; Coviello, Tommasina; Palleschi, Antonio

    2010-10-21

    Guar gum is a galactomannan that assumes a very flexible conformation in solution, while Scleroglucan is a very rigid polysaccharide that dissolves in water as triple helices. Both polymers can form gels in the presence of borax. Despite their structural differences, the freeze-dried gel systems of both polymers, when compressed to form tablets, show a peculiar anisotropic swelling in water that reflects an amazing similarity in terms of their molecular properies. In this paper the behavior of the Guar/borax gel is compared with that of Scleroglucan/borax. The macroscopic properties of the two systems were characterized in terms of rheological measurements. Atomic force microscopy images and molecular dynamics simulation allowed to evaluate, at molecular level, the effect of borax addition to the Guar polymer. Both experiments show that an increasing of the polymer rigidity is produced by borax. The role played by galactose in the side chain was also discussed.

  9. The effect of chewing gum's flavor on salivary flow rate and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Nogourani, Maryam; Kowsari-Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini-Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2011-12-01

    Chewing sugar-free gums is a convenient way to increase salivary flow. Salivary flow increases in response to both gustatory (taste) and mechanical (chewing) stimuli, and chewing gum can provide both of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of five different flavors of sugar-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH. Fifteen dental students volunteered at the same time on six consecutive days, to collect one minute unstimulated saliva. After five minutes, while some volunteers continued to collect only unstimulated saliva, the others asked to start chewing one of the five flavored gums randomly. The flavors were spearmint, cinnamon, watermelon, strawberry, and apple. The whole saliva was collected over time periods of 0 - 1, 1 - 3, and 3 - 6 minutes, and the SFR and pH were also measured. The data were subjected to pair t-test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and Duncan tests. Compared to the unstimulated rate, all five different flavored gums significantly increased the SFR within six minutes. Although the flow rate peaked during the first minute of stimulation with all five products, it reduced gradually, but still remained above the unstimulated saliva, after six minutes. In the first minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest weight, yet, it only induced a significantly higher SFR compared to the cinnamon-flavored gums. During one to three minutes, strawberry and apple-flavored gums showed significantly higher SFR, respectively, compared to cinnamon-flavored gums. There were no significant differences in the flow rates elicited by each flavored gum through the three-to-six minute interval, although the spearmint-flavored gums induced slightly higher SFR. Only the spearmint and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased the salivary pH. Gum flavor can affect the SFR and special flavors may be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  10. Sexual health clinics for women led by specialist nurses or senior house officers in a central London GUM service: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, K; Penny, N; Mercey, D; Power, R

    2002-04-01

    To assess the care process and clinical outcomes for two different models of GUM clinic for women: one led by specialist nurses and the other by senior house officers (SHOs). An open randomised controlled trial was carried out in a central London genitourinary medicine (GUM) women's clinic. Of 1172 women telephoning for an appointment, 880 were randomised to provide 169 eligible patients in the specialist nurse arm and 178 in the SHO arm. Of the eligible patients a total of 224 attended their appointment. The clinical records of the randomised women were audited for adequacy of care according to local guidelines. 30 key variables were objectively assessed and recorded on a standard audit form. An overall unitary index score (%) was calculated for each patient. The main variables associated with the outcome of specialist nurse and SHO decision making (diagnostic test request, preliminary diagnosis, and treatment provided) were then analysed independently. The median documentation audit scores for specialist nurses (n=103) and SHOs (n=121) were 92% and 85% respectively (pnurses' documentation was significantly (pnurses performed equally to the SHOs with regard to requesting the correct diagnostic tests, providing the correct preliminary diagnosis, and providing the correct treatment. A model of care using trained GUM nurses working within agreed protocols can provide comprehensive patient care for female patients that is equal to care provided by SHOs. Our results raise important issues regarding advanced GUM nursing education and training, protocol development, and accountability.

  11. Application and Characterization of Gum from Bombax buonopozense Calyxes as an Excipient in Tablet Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyinye J. Uwaezuoke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to explore gum from Bombax buonopozense calyxes as a binding agent in formulation of immediate release dosage forms using wet granulation method. The granules were characterized to assess the flow and compression properties and when compressed, non-compendial and compendial tests were undertaken to assess the tablet properties for tablets prepared with bombax gum in comparison with those prepared with tragacanth and acacia gums. Granules prepared with bombax exhibited good flow and compressible properties with angle of repose 28.60°, Carr’s compressibility of 21.30% and Hausner’s quotient of 1.27. The tablets were hard, but did not disintegrate after one hour. Furthermore, only 52.5% of paracetamol was released after one hour. The drug release profile followed zero order kinetics. Tablets prepared with bombax gum have the potential to deliver drugs in a controlled manner over a prolonged period at a constant rate.

  12. Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of Acetylsalicylic Acid, Paracetamol, and Their Degradation and Toxic Impurity Products by HPLC in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    OpenAIRE

    AKAY, Cemal

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Determinations of drug impurity and drug degradation products are very important from both pharmacological and toxicological perspectives. Establishment of monitoring methods for impurities and degradation products during pharmaceutical development is necessary because of their potential toxicity. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and simultaneous determination method for paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid (ACA) and their degradation and toxic impurity products by high perf...

  13. Sulfomethylated graft copolymers of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, I.W.; Empey, R.A.; Racciato, J.S.

    1978-08-08

    A water-soluble anionic graft copolymer of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide is described in which at least part of the amide function of the acrylamide portion of the copolymer is sulfomethylated and the xanthan gum portion of the copolymer is unreacted with formaldehyde. The copolymer is sulfomethylated by reaction with formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite. The formaldehyde does not cause any appreciable cross-linking between hydroxyl groups of the xanthan moieties. The sulfomethylation of the acrylamido group takes place at temperatures from 35 to 70 C. The pH is 10 or higher, typically from 12 to 13. The degree of anionic character may be varied by adjusting the molar ratio of formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite with respect to the copolymer. 10 claims.

  14. Rhythm and amplitude of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity during sleep in bruxers - comparison with gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shinpei; Yamaguchi, Taihiko; Mikami, Saki; Okada, Kazuki; Gotouda, Akihito; Sano, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate characteristics of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) during sleep by comparing masseteric EMG (electromyogram) activities of RMMA with gum chewing. The parts of five or more consecutive phasic bursts in RMMA of 23 bruxers were analyzed. Wilcoxon signed-rank test for matched pairs and Spearman's correlation coefficient by the rank test were used for statistical analysis. Root mean square value of RMMA phasic burst was smaller than that during gum chewing, but correlates to that of gum chewing. The cycle of RMMA was longer than that of gum chewing due to the longer burst duration of RMMA, and variation in the cycles of RMMA was wider. These findings suggest that the longer but smaller EMG burst in comparison with gum chewing is one of the characteristics of RMMA. The relation between size of RMMA phasic bursts and gum chewing is also suggested.

  15. X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-05-01

    Guar gum was hydrolyzed using cellulase from Aspergillus niger at 5.6 pH and 50°C temperature. Hydrolyzed guar gum sample was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, dilute solution viscometry and rotational viscometry. Viscometry analysis of native guar gum showed a molecular weight of 889742.06, whereas, after enzymatic hydrolysis, the resultant product had a molecular weight of 7936.5. IR spectral analysis suggests that after enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum there was no major transformation of functional group. Thermal analysis revealed no major change in thermal behavior of hydrolyzed guar gum. It was shown that partial hydrolysis of guar gum could be achieved by inexpensive and food grade cellulase (Aspergillus niger) having commercial importance and utilization as a functional soluble dietary fiber for food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth.

  17. Influence of tragacanth gum in egg white based bioplastics: Thermomechanical and water uptake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Castejón, María Luisa; Bengoechea, Carlos; García-Morales, Moisés; Martínez, Inmaculada

    2016-11-05

    This study aims to extend the range of applications of tragacanth gum by studying its incorporation into bioplastics formulation, exploring the influence that different gum contents (0-20wt.%) exert over the thermomechanical and water uptake properties of bioplastics based on egg white albumen protein (EW). The effect of plasticizer nature was also evaluated through the modification of the water/glycerol ratio within the plasticizer fraction (fixed at 40wt.%). The addition of tragacanth gum generally yielded an enhancement of the water uptake capacity, being doubled at the highest content. Conversely, presence of tragacanth gum resulted in a considerable decrease in the bioplastic mechanical properties: both tensile strength and maximum elongation were reduced up to 75% approximately when compared to the gum-free system. Ageing of selected samples was also studied, revealing an important effect of storage time when tragacanth gum is present, possibly due to its hydrophilic character. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation and characterization of tragacanth-locust bean gum edible blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Fatemeh Sadat; Kadkhodaee, Rassoul; Emadzadeh, Bahareh; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-03-30

    The present work introduces the structure and physicomechanical properties of a novel blend film made from binary solutions of gum tragacanth (GT) and locust bean gum (LBG) at different mixing ratios. Apparent viscosities and surface tensions of individual and blend gum solutions were also investigated. The viscosity data indicated that there was a distinct synergism between the two gums at all mixing ratios. FTIR spectra showed the existence of noncovalent intermolecular interactions between gums. The surface tensions of binary solutions were significantly lower than those of individual gums which is advantageous for coating applications. All films had homogenous and smooth surface morphology and their transparency, water vapour barrier and mechanical properties were improved by incorporating LBG in blend. The results of this study suggest that GT-LBG blend film, owing to its desirable properties, has the potential to be used as a new degradable food packaging material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargaraan, Azizollaah

    2011-01-01

    The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high...... of Astragalus, and this variation led to interesting differences in functional properties. Rheological measurements performed on dispersions of the six species of gum tragacanth demonstrated viscoelastic properties. The mechanical spectra derived from strain sweep and frequency sweep measurements indicated...... that the different gum tragacanth dispersions had distinctive viscoelastic behaviours. Investigation of the viscoelastic properties of the different gum dispersions in the presence of NaCl revealed that the addition of NaCl could lead to slight to drastic decreases in the G′, G″ or η∗ values of the various gums...

  20. Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Durcilene A. da; Paula, Regina C.M.

    2001-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

  1. Enhancement of electrical conductivity in the Gum Arabica complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Sourav S.; Sarkar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Gum Arabica is a natural biopolymer obtained from plant Acacia Arabica. In this present study the electro-active nature of its complex has been investigated. The complexes were developed using pure Gum Arabica and pure Citric acid by the sol-gel process. The scope of complex formation has been investigated and their natures were examined experimentally. The experiments which were carried out in this work are namely d.c V-I characteristics, d.c Arrhenius, ion transference number measurement, UV-VIS and IR photo-absorption. Solid specimen of the complex at various concentration of Citric acid has been developed for d.c experiments and adequate specimens were also developed for UV-VIS experiment. The result of d.c V-I characteristics on specimens at different Citric acid concentrations shows that d.c conductivity increases with concentration of the acid. The said enhancement is observed to be about 100 times that of pure hosts. The ion transference number measurement shows that the total conductivity increases with external acid concentration of which d.c conductivity enhance many times compared to that of ionic part. The result from d.c Arrhenius study shows that electro-thermal activation energy decreases with increasing acid concentration leading to enhancement of electronic conductivity of the complex. The result of UV-VIS study confirms the formation of the acid complex of Gum Arabica. The nature of photo-absorption indicates very clearly that main absorption region shows gradual shifts towards longer wavelength with increase of acid concentration. The result of FTIR absorption shows the structural concepts of electro-activity and complex formation indication of pure Gum Arabica. The overall analysis shows that the electro-activity of the mentioned biopolymer may be tailored.

  2. Effect of irradiation on functional properties of Gum Tragacanth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Mollakhalili meybodi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: irradiation is a physical treatment in which products are exposed to ionized radiation such as gamma and x rays to improve the security and quality. Hydrocolloids are components that are used in food science to improve texture properties. Exposing to irradiation treatment may change structural and functional properties. By regard to the importance of irradiation on decontaminating of hydrocolloids in food application, the aim of this study is studying the effect of irradiation at different doses on functional properties of Gum Tragacanth in food application. Material and methods: effect of irradiation treatment was studied on the rheological properties, zeta potential, particle size distribution and surface tension of dispersion systems contained 0/5% w/ w gum tragacanth that is irradiated at different doses (0, 0.75. 3, 5 kGy. The effect of irradiation on rheological properties was monitored by rheometer. In order to monitor the effect of irradiation treatment on particle size distribution, zeta potential and surface tension, particle sizer, Brookhaven zeta plus and tensiometer sere used respectively. All treatments were performed three times and the data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Significant differences between means were identified (P values < 0.05 using Duncan test. Results: Irradiation, change rheologiacal properties and particle size distribution of dispersion contained gum tragacanth. Irradiation treatment up to 0.75 kGy increase zeta potential, but irradiating at higher doses decrease it again. Results of studying parameters showed that irradiation changes the functional properties by affecting on structure. These changes depend on irradiation dose Conclusion: Gum tragacanth irradiation may improve the functional properties by affecting on structure.

  3. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karami Nogourani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1–3, and 3–6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (<0.001. The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1–3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  4. Chewing gum, occupational stress, work performance and wellbeing. An intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Chaplin, Katherine; Wadsworth, Emma

    2012-06-01

    An intervention study was carried out to examine the effects of chewing gum on occupational stress and related outcomes. 101 volunteers from Cardiff University completed the study. The results showed that chewing gum reduced stress (both at work and outside work), reduced fatigue, reduced anxiety and depression and led to a more positive mood. Chewing gum was also associated with perceptions of better performance (both at work and outside). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural, Thermal, Physical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Chitosan Films with the Addition of Xanthan Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Lima, Maria; Carneiro, Lucia Cesar; Bianchini, Daniela; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Prentice, Carlos; Moreira, Angelita da Silveira

    2017-03-01

    Films based on chitosan and xanthan gum were prepared using casting technique aiming to investigate the potential of these polymers as packaging materials. Six formulations of films were studied varying the proportion of chitosan and xanthan gum: 100:0 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C100XG0 film); 90:10 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C90XG10 film); 80:20 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C80XG20 film); 70:30 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C70XG30 film); 60:40 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C60XG40 film); and 50:50 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C50XG50 film). The total quantity of solids (chitosan and xanthan gum) in the filmogenic solution was 1.5 g per 100 mL of aqueous solution for all treatments, according to the proportion of each polymer. The films were evaluated by their functional groups, structural, thermal, morphological, physical, mechanical, and barrier properties. All films have presented endothermic peaks in the range of 122 to 175 °C and broad exothermic peaks above 200 °C, which were assigned to the melting temperature and thermal decomposition, respectively. These results demonstrated that films with xanthan gum have the highest T m and Δ m H. The films containing higher content of xanthan gum show also the highest tensile strength and the lowest elongation. Xanthan gum addition did not affect the water vapor permeability, solubility, and moisture of films. This set of data suggests the formation of chitosan-xanthan complexes in the films. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants: effects on lipid oxidation of peanuts

    OpenAIRE

    Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Azam, Mahmood; Hasnain, Abid

    2013-01-01

    Performance of antioxidants is improved by incorporating them into polymer matrix such as polysaccharides based edible coatings. Gum cordia, an anionic polysaccharide extracted from the fruits of Cordia.myxa could be used as carrier of antioxidants by virtue of its strong adhering and emulsifying properties. This study aimed to explore the potential of gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants when applied as edible coating on peanuts. Gum Cordia was compared with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in...

  7. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Andrew P.; Smith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on w...

  8. Chewing gum benefits sustained attention in the absence of task degradation.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.J.; Muneem, M.; Miles, C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the effect of chewing gum on sustained attention and associated changes in subjective alertness. METHODS: In a within-participants design, 20 participants completed an extended version of the sustained attention response task (SART: Robertson et al., 1997), both with and without chewing gum. Self-rated measures of alertness, contentedness, and calmness were taken before and after the SART. RESULTS: Chewing gum was associated with improved attentional tas...

  9. Electron beam irradiation effects on xanthan gum. Rheological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, F.F.; Del Mastro, N.L.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the application of electron beam irradiation to xanthum gum as used as ingredient by the food or cosmetics industry in order to establish their radiosensitivity. The edible powder of xanthum gum samples were irradiated in 1mm thick layers of Petri dishes covered by a transparent PVC of films using an EB accelerator Dynamitron (Radiation Dynamics Inc.) model JOB 188, dose rate 11.17 kGy/s, 0.637 MeV, 1.78 mA, 5 kGy per passage, 3.36 m min -1 with doses of 5, 10, 20 and 50kGy. One % aqueous solutions from irradiated and non-irradiated xanthum gum were prepared and the radiation effects were measured following viscosity changes at 25 deg. C using a Brookfield viscometer; model DVIII, spindel L, with Rheocalc software. Viscosity measurements were performed according to our previous experience and the results are the mean of at least 3 experiments

  10. Fabrication of electrospun almond gum/PVA nanofibers as a thermostable delivery system for vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Atefe; Tavanai, Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the fabrication of vanillin incorporated almond gum/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers through electrospinning has been investigated. Electrospinning of only almond gum was proved impossible. It was found that the aqueous solution of almond gum/PVA (80:20, concentration=7% (w/w)) containing 3% (w/w) vanillin could have successfully electrospun to uniform nanofibers with diameters as low as 77nm. According to the thermal analysis, incorporated vanillin in almond gum/PVA nanofibers showed higher thermal stability than free vanillin, making this composite especially suitable for high temperature applications. XRD and FTIR analyses proved the presence of vanillin in the almond gum/PVA nanofibers. It was also found that vanillin was dispersed as big crystallites in the matrix of almond gum/PVA nanofibers. FTIR analysis showed almond gum and PVA had chemical cross-linking by etheric bonds between COH groups of almond gum and OH groups of PVA. Also, in the nanofibers, there were no major interaction between vanillin and either almond gum or PVA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Teucrium Polium-Containing Chewing Gum on Reducing Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Khoramian Tusi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have reported the antibacterial effect of Teucrium polium extract. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of a chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium on the level of salivary Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, 20 dental students were randomly assigned to two groups of intervention and control. The intervention group received a chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium, and the control group received a chewing gum without any plant extract. Each person chewed the gum for 20 minutes three times a day (after each meal for three weeks. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment before the use of the gums and one day after the final gum consumption. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR technique was employed to determine the bacterial level. The colonization rate of Streptococcus mutans was compared between the two groups by using t-test in SPSS, version 21. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of Streptococcus mutans counts before the intervention (P>0.05. The consumption of Teucrium polium extract-containing chewing gum in comparison with the placebo gum significantly diminished the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies (P=0.002. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the chewing gum containing the aqueous extract of Teucrium polium significantly lowered the colonization rate of Streptococcus mutans in human saliva.

  12. Whole and crushed nutlets of chia (Salvia hispanica from Mexico as a source of functional gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Segura-Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and functional properties of Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica gums extracted from defatted whole and crushed nutlets using the Soxhlet and SFE-CO2 methods. Chia gums have interesting chemical and functional properties for the food industry. The oil and gum yields were in the range of 1.98-16.42% and 5.81-12.60%, respectively. The defatting procedure did not affect significantly the oil and gum extraction; the nutlet type (whole or crushed was the only parameter influencing the yield. The proximate composition and the protein and fiber contents of chia gum were evaluated. Low contents of protein and fiber and high NFE levels were found in whole nutlet gums. The functional properties of chia gum extracted from whole and crushed nutlets with the Soxhlet and SFE-COs methods showed the following ranges of water absorption capacity of 62.64 to 143.66 g/g, water adsorption capacity of 0.69 to 1.35 g/g, and water and oil holding capacity of 100 to 149.28 g/g and19.5 to 40.4 g/g, respectively. The rheological behavior exhibited by the gums was pseudoplastic or shear thinning. From a functional perspective, chia gum is an important food component due its emulsifier and stabilizer potentials.

  13. Effects of chewing gum and time-on-task on alertness and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A P; Smith, A P

    2012-07-01

    Chewing gum has been shown to reliably increase subjective alertness whereas the effects on attention are more variable. It has been suggested that chewing gum only enhances attention when the person has been performing a task for some time. The current research aimed to investigate if time-on-task trends enhancing effects of chewing gum could be observed in alertness and attention during and following chewing. Study 1 used tests of reported mood, including reported mood, and tests of attention (categoric search, focussed attention, simple reaction time, and vigilance). These tasks were performed shortly after the start of chewing. Study 2 examined effects of previous and current chewing on reported alertness and the attention tests. Study 1 showed that chewing gum increased reported alertness and hedonic tone and improved performance on the categoric search task. Chewing gum maintained reported alertness across sessions in study 2. In the first experimental session of study 2 gum improved categoric search performance, and during the second session gum broadened focus of attention and quickened vigilance reaction time. This effect on vigilance reaction time was moderated by time-on-task, with an initial negative effect being replaced by a positive effect. The results confirm the robust effect of chewing gum on reported alertness and show that changes in the effects of chewing gum on attention require further investigation. Future research may also determine underlying mechanisms for an alerting effect.

  14. Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum-polyvinyl alcohol biodegradable composite film: Physicochemical, mechanical, thermal and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjazeb Marvdashti, Leila; Koocheki, Arash; Yavarmanesh, Masoud

    2017-01-02

    Films made from Alyssum homolocarpum seeds gum (AHSG) have poor mechanical and barrier (to oxygen) properties. In the present study poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) was used to improve the physicochemical properties of AHSG films. Results indicated that the addition of PVA significantly increased the moisture content, solubility, elongation at break (EB) and transparency while it decreased the density, oxygen permeability, chroma, water contact angle and Young modulus of AHSG based films. Films with higher AHSG to PVA ratios had lower water vapor permeability (WVP). The light barrier measurements presented low values of transparency at 600nm for PVA/AHSG films, indicating that films were very transparent while they had excellent barrier properties against UV light. Results for FTIR, DSC and SEM showed a clear interaction between PVA and AHSG, forming a new material. These results indicated that PVA/AHSG blend films had good compatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple functionalities of Ni nanoparticles embedded in carboxymethyl guar gum polymer: catalytic activity and superparamagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardar, Debasmita; Sengupta, Manideepa; Bordoloi, Ankur; Ahmed, Md. A.; Neogi, S.K.; Bandyopadhyay, Sudipta; Jain, Ruchi; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S.; Bala, Tanushree

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ni nanoparticles were synthesized in polymer to form Ni-Polymer composite. • Ni nanoparticles retain their superparamagnetism in the composite. • Ni-Polymer composites showed catalytic activity. - Abstract: Composites comprising of metallic nanoparticles in polymer matrices have allured significant importance due to multifunctionalities. Here a simple protocol has been described to embed Ni nanoparticles in carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) polymer. The composite formation helps in the stabilization of Ni nanoparticles which are otherwise prone towards aerial oxidation. Further the nanoparticles retain their superparamagnetic nature and catalytic capacity. Ni-Polymer composite catalyses the reduction of 4-Nitrophenol to 4-Aminophenol very efficiently in presence of NaBH_4, attaining a complete conversion under some experimental conditions. Ni-Polymer composite is well characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XPS, powder XRD, TGA, SEM and TEM. A detailed magnetic measurement using superconducting quantum interference device-vibrating sample magnetometer (SQUID-VSM) reveals superparamagnetic behaviour of the composite.

  16. Study on plant Gums and their new development in application: with focus on tragacanth, guar and arabic Gum; a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassanpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gums refer to a type of polysaccharides which are used to increase viscosity and create some other functional properties such as thickening agent, emulsifying agent, stabilizer, crystal inhibitor and so forth. They are classifying based on their nature and originality including, microbial, plant, exudate and animal Gums. This article shortly reviews a group of plant Gums and recent findings in their application. Gums or Hydrocolloids are main compounds which create stability of emulsion via entering into water phase. The importance of these compounds is on viscosity and electrostatic reactions to stabilize nonalcoholic emulsion with below properties; 1 easily soluble in cold water, 2 the lowest amount of viscosity in water, 3 having maximum level of emulsifier amount, 4 no creation of gelling. Diversity and functionality of Gums and regarding their still novelty in food industries have made Gums one of the main additives in food formulations. Since sourced of Gums are different we must focus on using them together to improve their synergistic effect but interactions among them and combined matrixes produced by them also need to be studied in details.

  17. The addition of locust bean gum but not water delayed the gastric emptying rate of a nutrient semisolid meal in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björgell Ola

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the previous studies regarding the effects of gel-forming fibres have considered the gastric emptying of liquid or solid meals after the addition of pectin or guar gum. The influence of locust bean gum, on gastric emptying of nutrient semisolid meals in humans has been less well studied, despite its common occurrence in foods. Using a standardised ultrasound method, this study was aimed at investigating if the gastric emptying in healthy subjects could be influenced by adding locust been gum, a widely used thickening agent, or water directly into a nutrient semisolid test meal. Methods The viscosity of a basic test meal (300 g rice pudding, 330 kcal was increased by adding Nestargel (6 g, 2.4 kcal, containing viscous dietary fibres (96.5% provided as seed flour of locust bean gum, and decreased by adding 100 ml of water. Gastric emptying of these three test meals were evaluated in fifteen healthy non-smoking volunteers, using ultrasound measurements of the gastric antral area to estimate the gastric emptying rate (GER. Results The median value of GER with the basic test meal (rice pudding was estimated at 63 %, (range 47 to 84 %, (the first quartile = 61 %, the third quartile = 69 %. Increasing the viscosity of the rice pudding by adding Nestargel, resulted in significantly lower gastric emptying rates (p p = 0.28 compared to the GER of the basic test meal. Conclusions We conclude that the addition of locust bean gum to a nutrient semisolid meal has a major impact on gastric emptying by delaying the emptying rate, but that the addition of water to this test meal has no influence on gastric emptying in healthy subjects.

  18. The release of vitamin C from chewing gum and its effects on supragingival calculus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingström, Peter; Fure, Solveig; Dinitzen, Bettina; Fritzne, Christina; Klefbom, Carin; Birkhed, Dowen

    2005-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate (i): whether vitamin C in chewing gum, alone or in combination with carbamide, influences calculus formation, and (ii) whether carbamide affects the release, stability and uptake of vitamin C in a chewing gum. In two test series (Series I and II), 30 subjects, all calculus formers, participated. They were instructed to chew on five (Series I) or 10 (Series II) pieces of gum per day for a period of 3 months. The chewing gums were: vitamin C (60 mg, Series I), non-vitamin C (Series I) and vitamin C + carbamide (30 mg + 30 mg, Series II). In both series, no gum was used as a negative control. Calculus formation was scored on three lingual sites on the six anterior mandibular teeth according to the Volpe-Manhold index. The effect on plaque and gingivitis was also determined. A significant reduction in the total calculus score was observed after the use of vitamin C (33%) and vitamin C + carbamide (12%) gums compared with no gum use; this reduction was most pronounced in the heavy calculus formers. A reduced amount of visible plaque was also observed after use of vitamin C and non-vitamin C gum, but only the vitamin C gum reduced the number of bleeding sites (37%). In a separate study, the release, stability and uptake of vitamin C were evaluated using the iodine titration method in both saliva and urine after exposure to the following gums: vitamin C + carbamide (30 mg + 30 mg) and vitamin C (30 mg). There was no indication that carbamide affected the release, stability or uptake of vitamin C when used in a chewing gum.

  19. Rapid Chondrocyte Isolation for Tissue Engineering Applications: The Effect of Enzyme Concentration and Temporal Exposure on the Matrix Forming Capacity of Nasal Derived Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srujana Vedicherla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory based processing and expansion to yield adequate cell numbers had been the standard in Autologous Disc Chondrocyte Transplantation (ADCT, Allogeneic Juvenile Chondrocyte Implantation (NuQu®, and Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (MACI. Optimizing cell isolation is a key challenge in terms of obtaining adequate cell numbers while maintaining a vibrant cell population capable of subsequent proliferation and matrix elaboration. However, typical cell yields from a cartilage digest are highly variable between donors and based on user competency. The overall objective of this study was to optimize chondrocyte isolation from cartilaginous nasal tissue through modulation of enzyme concentration exposure (750 and 3000 U/ml and incubation time (1 and 12 h, combined with physical agitation cycles, and to assess subsequent cell viability and matrix forming capacity. Overall, increasing enzyme exposure time was found to be more detrimental than collagenase concentration for subsequent viability, proliferation, and matrix forming capacity (sGAG and collagen of these cells resulting in nonuniform cartilaginous matrix deposition. Taken together, consolidating a 3000 U/ml collagenase digest of 1 h at a ratio of 10 ml/g of cartilage tissue with physical agitation cycles can improve efficiency of chondrocyte isolation, yielding robust, more uniform matrix formation.

  20. In situ effect of CPP-ACP chewing gum upon erosive enamel loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Ribeiro Barros de ALENCAR

    Full Text Available Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI – Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII – Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII – No chewing gum (control. Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day. After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm. Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p0.05. Conclusion The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss.

  1. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami Nogourani, Maryam; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Kowsari Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2012-01-01

    Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women) healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1-3, and 3-6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (P salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  2. Protein-free cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and rheological properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Protein-free cress seed gum (PFCSG) was obtained by precipitation of crude cress seed gum (CSG) withethanol followed by treatment with protease. Molecular weight, moisture, ash and uronic acids contentdecreased after elimination of protein. Elimination of protein improved significantly rheologica...

  3. intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    The results show that significant inter-species variation of the properties of the gum exudates from the two species exist, whereas only some parameters show significant intra-species variation. The specific optical rotations of the gum exudates have been found to vary from ---43.2o to ---52o for Acacia senegal var. senegal ...

  4. Recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates: From synthesis to food and non-food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Ellouz Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the development of new applications for natural gums. These molecules were used for a variety of purposes since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. They represent one of the most abundant raw materials used not only in commercial food products, but also in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Plant gums take their advantages compared to other gums (e.g., from animal and microbial sources) mainly because of their acceptance by consumers. Despite of the well description given in literature for the features of plant gum exudates, there is a lack distinguishing the different families that are producing gums, and their potential applications. Among these gums, the ones produced by Rosaceae family (e.g., almond, apricot, cherry, peach, and plum plants) have been taking special attention. Thus, the aim of this review is to report the recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates. An emphasis is given for the formation mechanisms of these gums, their chemical composition, functional properties and structures, beneficial properties, as well as their food/non-food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of gamma radiation on the physicochemical and rheological properties of sterculia gum polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Baljit; Sharma, Vikrant

    2013-01-01

    Keeping in view the influence of gamma radiation on the physiochemical properties of the polysaccharides and their importance in the food and pharmaceutical industry, in the present study attempt has been made to investigate the effects of absorbed dose on FTIR, XRD, SEMs, absorbance, pH, solubility, water absorption capacity, emulsion stability and rheology of sterculia gum. Increase in solubility and decrease in swellability of gum has been observed on increasing the absorbed dose. The emulsion stability has improved for the gum sample irradiated with total dose of 8.1±0.2 kGy. Apparent viscosity of gum solution first increased with increase in dose from 0 to 8.1±0.2 kGy than decreased with regular trends with further increase in total absorbed dose. Flow behavior of gum solution shifted to Newtonian from non-Newtonian with increasing the dose. - Highlights: • Solubility increased and swellability decreased of gum on increasing the total dose. • Apparent viscosity of gum solution increased upto 8.1 kGy then decreased. • Emulsion stability improved for gum irradiated with total dose of 8.1 kGy. • Flow behavior shifted to Newtonian from non-Newtonian with increasing total dose

  6. Rheological and Quality Characteristics of Taftoon Bread as Affected by Salep and Persian Gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sahari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of salep gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w flour basis and the Persian gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 3% (w/w flour basis and combination of the two gums at concentrations of 0.5% + 0.5%, 0.75% + 0.25%, and 0.25% + 0.75% on rheological properties of the wheat flour dough and quality of Taftoon bread were studied with regard to retardation of staling. Rheological (farinograph and extensograph characteristics, staling, and organoleptic evaluations were performed on the dough and the resulting Taftoon bread. Statistical results showed that the salep gum at 5% and Persian gum at 3% (w/w flour basis had a significant effect on the dough properties. Salep and Persian gums when each separately added increased and decreased dough water absorption, respectively. Both hydrocolloids increased the dough resistance to extension and decreased its extensibility. Persian gum shows dual nature in water absorption and some other baking properties. Textural studies revealed that addition of 5% salep gum (w/w flour basis reduced the bread crumb firmness and delayed the staling process of the Taftoon bread. X-ray diffraction study also confirmed this result.

  7. Rheological and Quality Characteristics of Taftoon Bread as Affected by Salep and Persian Gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahari, M A; Mohammadi, R; Hamidi Esfehani, Z

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salep gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w flour basis) and the Persian gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 3% (w/w flour basis) and combination of the two gums at concentrations of 0.5% + 0.5%, 0.75% + 0.25%, and 0.25% + 0.75% on rheological properties of the wheat flour dough and quality of Taftoon bread were studied with regard to retardation of staling. Rheological (farinograph and extensograph) characteristics, staling, and organoleptic evaluations were performed on the dough and the resulting Taftoon bread. Statistical results showed that the salep gum at 5% and Persian gum at 3% (w/w flour basis) had a significant effect on the dough properties. Salep and Persian gums when each separately added increased and decreased dough water absorption, respectively. Both hydrocolloids increased the dough resistance to extension and decreased its extensibility. Persian gum shows dual nature in water absorption and some other baking properties. Textural studies revealed that addition of 5% salep gum (w/w flour basis) reduced the bread crumb firmness and delayed the staling process of the Taftoon bread. X-ray diffraction study also confirmed this result.

  8. Dilute solution, flow behavior, thixotropy and viscoelastic characterization of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, rheological properties of cress seed gum (CSG) and its fractions (F1, F2, F3; fractionated using stepwise extraction with water) were investigated. Cress seed gum and its fractions revealed random coil conformation in dilute regimes; chain flexibility and intrinsic viscosity...... indicated that CSG and the fractions exhibited significantly different rheological properties....

  9. Unveiling the Sources of Chromium in Pictorialist Photographs: Gum-Dichromate Process or Paper Sizing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Centeno, Silvia A; Kennedy, Nora W

    2015-01-01

    For this issue of Hand Papermaking devoted to paper sizing, we offer a review and extension of pertinent results obtained in our investigations of the gum-dichromate photographic process, commonly known as the gum-bichromate process.1 We have published three articles to date on our findings; this...

  10. Gum chewing improves adolescents’ math performance in an SAT preparatory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of gum chewing on students’ performance in a preparatory course for the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). A total of 182 adolescents enrolled in an SAT preparatory class were randomized into one of two treatments: 1) gum chewing condition (G...

  11. Gum Disease by the Numbers | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... us Gum Disease by the Numbers Gum (or periodontal) disease is one of the leading threats to dental health. It's typically caused by poor brushing and flossing habits that allow plaque—a sticky film of bacteria—to build up on teeth and harden. In ...

  12. Market-driven production with transaction costs outlook: Gum arabic collection systems in Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Burger, C.P.J.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Low returns from marketing of non-timber forest products such as gum arabic restrict the collection of these products. A hypothesis is tested that access to good markets motivates collectors to harvest and market gum arabic. Analyses of the choice of participation in group marketing, sale price,

  13. Vegetation status and socio-economic importance of gum and resin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences ... Abstract. Study on population status, socio-economic importance and threats of gum- and resin-producing plant species was made in Borena, South Wollo, (Ethiopia). ... A total of 14 gum- and resin-bearing plant species representing seven families were recorded. Five of them ...

  14. investigation of the effect of zinc oxide-modified gum arabic on polar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    Gum Arabic solution, a water-based adhesive, was modified with zinc oxide filler and the formulation was applied on wood, ceramic, glass and textile substrates. A strip of paper was used as a common adherent to all the substrates. Zinc oxide increased the viscosity of 30wt% gum Arabic solution and increased bond ...

  15. Investigation of the effect of zinc oxide-modified gum Arabic on polar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gum Arabic solution, a water-based adhesive, was modified with zinc oxide filler and the formulation was applied on wood, ceramic, glass and textile substrates. A strip of paper was used as a common adherent to all the substrates. Zinc oxide increased the viscosity of 30wt% gum Arabic solution and increased bond ...

  16. Economic analysis of deforestation : the case of the gum Arabic belt in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Gum Arabic; Deforestation; Entry and Exit; Real options Drought; Socio-economic, Oligopoly; Interdependent markets; Stackelberg.The gum arabic belt inSudanoffered in the past an

  17. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric characterisation of plant gums in samples from painted works of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaduce, Ilaria; Brecoulaki, Hariclia; Colombini, Maria Perla; Lluveras, Anna; Restivo, Vincenzo; Ribechini, Erika

    2007-12-21

    This paper presents an analytical GC-MS procedure to study the chemical composition of plant gums, determining aldoses and uronic acids in one step. The procedure is based on the silylation of aldoses and uronic acids, released from plant gums by microwave assisted hydrolysis, and previously converted into the corresponding diethyl-dithioacetals and diethyl-dithioacetal lactones. Using this method only one peak for each compound is obtained, thus providing simple and highly reproducible chromatograms. The analytical procedure was optimised using reference samples of raw plant gums (arabic, karaya, ghatti, guar, locust bean and tragacanth, cherry, plum and peach gums), commercial watercolours and paint layers prepared according to ancient recipes at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure of Florence (Italy). To identify gum media in samples of unknown composition, a decisional schema for the gum identification and the principal component analysis of the relative sugar percentage contents were employed. The procedure was used to study samples collected from wall paintings from Macedonian tombs (4th-3rd centuries bc) and from the Mycenaean "Palace of Nestor" (13th century bc) in Pylos, Greece. The presence of carbohydrates was ascertained and plant gum binders (fruit and a mixture of tragacanth and fruit tree gums) were identified in some of the samples.

  18. Economic incentives for abandoning or expanding gum arabic production in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ierland, van E.C.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we use a real options approach to analyze farmers' economic incentives to abandon gum production or expand by creating new plantations. Our results indicate that agricultural crops currently provide higher economic benefits as compared to gum agroforestry. However, we show that the

  19. Evaluation of the suspening property of Grewia gum in zinc oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in zinc oxide suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for zinc oxide. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  20. The influence of excessive chewing gum use on headache frequency and severity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watemberg, Nathan; Matar, Manar; Har-Gil, Miki; Mahajnah, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Excessive gum-chewing is underreported as a headache precipitant in children and adolescents. We evaluated the influence of daily excessive gum-chewing in older children and teenagers with chronic headache, emphasizing the impact of habit discontinuation and its reintroduction. Patients with chronic headache and excessive gum-chewing were consecutively recruited and asked to fill questionnaire pertaining headache characteristics, potential triggers, family history of headaches, and gum-chewing habits. These individuals were classified into four groups depending on the number of daily hours of gum-chewing. All children discontinued chewing for 1 month, reintroduced the habit, and were reinterviewed after 2 to 4 weeks. Thirty patients (25 girls) were recruited. Median age was 16 years. Most had migraine-like headaches. Following gum-chewing discontinuation, 26 reported significant improvement, including headache resolution in 19. All 20 patients reinstituting the habit reported symptom relapse within days. Duration of headache before discontinuation and the number of daily hours of chewing had no influence on the response to habit discontinuation. Excessive daily gum-chewing may be associated with chronic headache and should get more attention in the medical literature. Physician and patient awareness of this association could have a meaningful impact on the quality of life of children and adolescents with chronic headache who chew gum excessively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential benefits of chewing gum for the delivery of oral therapeutics and its possible role in oral healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Maitra, Amarnath; Dodds, Michael W. J.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the years, chewing gum has developed from a candy towards an oral health-promoting nutraceutical. This review summarizes evidence for the oral health benefits of chewing gum, emphasizing identification of active ingredients in gum that facilitate prevention and removal of oral

  2. Pressure production in oral vestibule during gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, M; Ono, T; Yoshinaka, M; Fujiwara, S; Yoshinaka, M; Maeda, Y

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to record oral vestibule pressure (OVP) by the lip and cheek contraction during gum chewing, to examine the characteristics of these pressures and coordination between the OVP and jaw movement. The subjects were eight healthy adult men (mean age of 29·3 ± 3·3 years). An experimental plate that incorporated four pressure sensors on the midline of the upper jaw (Ch. 1), upper right canine (Ch. 2), upper right first molar (Ch. 3) and upper left first molar (Ch. 4) was used for measuring OVP. The right masseter electromyogram (EMG) was recorded simultaneously. Subjects chewed gum on the right side 20 times, and eight consecutive strokes were used for the analysis of the sequential order, maximal magnitude and duration of each OVP. Onset of OVP was observed at the molar on the non-chewing side (Ch. 4) before chewing side (Ch. 3), and offset was largely simultaneous at each site. On the chewing side (Chs. 1-3), OVP onset during the interval of EMG activity reached to the peak around the end of interval and offset in the duration of EMG activity. The maximal pressure was significantly larger at Chs. 1-3 than at Ch. 4, but no significant differences were observed in duration of pressure among each site. These results suggest that OVP is coordinated with jaw movement during gum chewing, and larger pressure is produced on the chewing side than on the non-chewing side. Our findings are quantitative indices for the evaluation of lip and cheek function during mastication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm(-1) (-OH), 1660 cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632 cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414 cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219 cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose.

  4. The use of gum Arabic as "Green" stabilizer of poly(aniline) nanocomposites: a comprehensive study of spectroscopic, morphological and electrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilha, Ronaldo C; Orth, Elisa S; Grein-Iankovski, Aline; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C; Vidotti, Marcio

    2014-11-15

    Herein we show the synthesis and characterization of water dispersible composites formed by poly(aniline) and the natural polymer gum Arabic (GA), used as stabilizer. The materials were synthesized via a rapid and straightforward method and were fully characterized by different techniques such as UV-Vis, Raman, FTIR, TEM, SEM and cyclic voltammetry. TEM and SEM images revealed that the proportion of stabilizer highly influences the growth mechanism of the nanostructures. It was found spherical particles, elongated structures and large agglomerates at the lower, intermediate and at the higher GA amount, respectively. Accordingly to fluorescence spectra, different hydrophobic structures are formed depending on the GA amount in aqueous solutions, possibly acting as hosting sites for the PANI growth. In order to further study the PANI polymerization in the presence of GA, kinetics experiments were performed and showed that nucleation is the limiting step for the composite growth and a model is proposed. Spectroscopic experiments showed that the presence of GA affects the PANI conformation, avoiding the formation of phenazine structures which highly impairs the electroactivity of PANI. The material integrity is achieved by strong hydrogen bond interactions between PANI and GA as evidenced by the study of specific NH bands in FTIR and Raman analyses. The intensity of the hydrogen bonds decreased upon higher amounts of GA, probably due to steric impediment around the NH sites. Cyclic voltammograms showed a good electroactivity behavior of the modified electrodes presenting distinguishable diffusional processes through the adsorbed composites. By this way, we have thoroughly investigated the formation and properties of new conducting polymer composite materials. Taken into account the low toxicity of GA and the excellent dispersity in water, the materials can successfully be applied in bioelectrochemical applications or as green corrosion inhibitors. Copyright © 2014

  5. Selective depression behavior of guar gum on talc-type scheelite flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-zhong; Gu, Guo-hua; Wu, Xiang-bin; Zhao, Kai-le

    2017-08-01

    The depression behavior and mechanism of guar gum on talc-type scheelite flotation were systematically investigated by flotation experiments, adsorption tests, zeta-potential measurements, and infrared spectroscopic analyses. The flotation results for monominerals, mixed minerals, and actual mineral samples indicated that guar gum exhibited much higher selective depression for talc than for scheelite. Bench-scale closed-circuit tests showed that a tungsten concentrate with a WO3 grade of 51.43% and a WO3 recovery of 76.18% was obtained. Adsorption tests, zeta-potential measurements, and infrared spectral analyses confirmed that guar gum absorbed more strongly onto the talc surface than onto the scheelite surface because of chemisorption between guar gum and talc. This chemisorption is responsible for the guar gum's highly selective depression for talc and small depression for scheelite. The flotation results provide technical support for talc-type scheelite flotation.

  6. Influence of gamma radiation on the physicochemical and rheological properties of sterculia gum polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Sharma, Vikrant

    2013-11-01

    Keeping in view the influence of gamma radiation on the physiochemical properties of the polysaccharides and their importance in the food and pharmaceutical industry, in the present study attempt has been made to investigate the effects of absorbed dose on FTIR, XRD, SEMs, absorbance, pH, solubility, water absorption capacity, emulsion stability and rheology of sterculia gum. Increase in solubility and decrease in swellability of gum has been observed on increasing the absorbed dose. The emulsion stability has improved for the gum sample irradiated with total dose of 8.1±0.2 kGy. Apparent viscosity of gum solution first increased with increase in dose from 0 to 8.1±0.2 kGy than decreased with regular trends with further increase in total absorbed dose. Flow behavior of gum solution shifted to Newtonian from non-Newtonian with increasing the dose.

  7. [Analysis of constituents of ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Masuda, Aino; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yamagata, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2007-12-01

    The differences in the constituents of ten ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives in Japan (urushi wax, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, rice bran wax, shellac wax, jojoba wax, bees wax, Japan wax, montan wax, and lanolin) were investigated. Several kinds of gum bases showed characteristic TLC patterns of lipids. In addition, compositions of fatty acid and alcohol moieties of esters in the gum bases were analyzed by GC/MS after methanolysis and hydrolysis, respectively. The results indicated that the varieties of fatty acids and alcohols and their compositions were characteristic for each gum base. These results will be useful for identification and discrimination of the ester-type gum bases.

  8. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis: comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, Casper P; Brand, Henk S; Veerman, Enno C I; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; Van Amerongen, Barbara M; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Valentijn, Robert M; Vos, Pieter F; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bezemer, Pieter D; ter Wee, Piet M

    2005-04-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White) and a xanthan gum-based artificial saliva (Xialine) in the management of xerostomia in chronic HD patients. Sixty-five HD patients participated in a 6-week crossover trial. The artificial saliva was rated significantly lower than the chewing gum for effectiveness, taste and a global assessment. No preference differences were found for gender and age, although older subjects rated the artificial saliva with a higher mark. Thirty-nine subjects (60%) preferred chewing gum, 15% (n=10) preferred the artificial saliva. Therefore, both chewing gum and artificial saliva could play an important role in the palliative care of xerostomia in HD patients.

  9. Study of the nanostructure of Gum Metal using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, T.; Murakami, Y.; Shindo, D.; Kuramoto, S.

    2009-01-01

    The nanostructure of Gum Metal, which has many anomalous mechanical properties, was investigated using transmission electron microscopy with energy filtering. A precise analysis of the weak diffuse electron scattering that was observed in the electron diffraction patterns of the Gum Metal specimen revealed that Gum Metal contains a substantial amount of the nanometer-sized ω phase. The morphology of the ω phase appeared to have a correlation with the faulting in the {2 1 1} planes, which are one of the characteristic lattice imperfections of the Gum Metal specimen. It is likely that the nanometer-sized ω phase may be a type of obstacle related to the restriction of the dislocation movement, which has been a significant problem in research on Gum Metal

  10. Enzymatic depolymerization of gum Tragacanth: Bifidogenic potential of low molecular weight oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Michalak, Malwina; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Gum tragacanth derived from the plant “goat’s horn” (Astragalus sp.) has a long history of use as a stabilizing, viscosity-enhancing agent in food emulsions. The gum contains pectinaceous arabinogalactans and fucose-substituted xylogalacturonans. In this work, gum tragacanth from Astragalus...... and galactose content. The growth-stimulating potential of the three enzymatically produced gum tragacanth fractions was evaluated via growth assessment on seven different probiotic strains in single culture fermentations on: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum (2 strains), B. longum subsp. infantis (3 strains...... that on galactan (control). HAG3 completely inhibited the growth of the Cl. perfringens strain. Tragacanth gum is thus a potential source of prebiotic carbohydrates that exert no viscosity effects and which may find use as natural functional food ingredients....

  11. The mechanism of strength and deformation in Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, T.; Kuramoto, S.; Morris, J.W.; Nagasako, N.; Withey, E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    Gum Metal” refers to β-Ti alloys that achieve exceptional elastic elongation and, with a specific alloy composition, appear to deform via a dislocation-free mechanism involving elastic instability at the limit of strength. This paper describes the current status of research on its strength, deformation mechanism and the possible role of stress-induced martensite. The theoretical basis for deformation at ideal strength is presented. The relevant experimental data is then discussed, including ex situ nanoindentation behavior and in situ pillar compression observed by transmission electron microscopy

  12. Estimative of relative stiffness of the exudate gum polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marilia A.; Paula, Regina C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Smidsrod empirical stiffness parameter (B) of A. occidentale and A. lebbeck gum were determined using the correlation of intrinsic viscosity [η] with ionic strength. The B value of 0.204 and 0.193 found respectively for A. occidentale and A. lebbeck suggests a flexible the molecule. The ionic strength has a greater influence on the [η]. The decrease of [η] increase of I, from 0.01 M to 0.1 M of NaCl, is higher for A. lebbeck (89%) than for A. occidentale (19%). (author)

  13. Switching between chewing-gum and no-gum at learning and retrieval does not accentuate error production in free recall

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, C.; Johnson, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments compared chewing gum to a no gum condition to examine further the finding (Anderson, Berry, Morse & Diotte, 2005) that switching flavour between learning and recall encourages error production independently of free recall. In order to encourage error production, participants in Experiment 1 were told to guess responses at recall, participants in Experiment 2 were required to recall categorised word lists and in Experiment 3 participants repeated the same learning-recall comb...

  14. KARAKTERISTIK EMULSI SANTAN DAN MINYAK KEDELAI YANG DITAMBAH GUM ARAB DAN SUKROSA ESTER [Emulsion Characteristics of Coconut Milk and Soybean Oil Added with Gum Arabic and Sucrose Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmi Hartayanie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available High saturated fatty acid content in coconut milk can be reduced by adding unsaturated fat. Pretreatment such as pasteurisation, homogenization or stabilizer and emulsifier addition are essential to prevent emulsion deterioration that could happen in few hours. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate combination of gum arabic and sucrose ester to produce good emulsion stability based on its physical and chemical characteristics. Furthermore this study also aimed to determine correlation between creaming index and other characteristics of coconut milk emulsion. Emulsion stability of mixed coconut milk in sterile glass bottles was observed for 7 days under 23-24°C. Stabilizer and emulsifier added were gum arabic and sucrose ester in five combinations, i.e. 6% gum arabic, 0.3% sucrose ester, 6% gum arabic + 0.3% sucrose ester, 3% gum arabic + 0.15% sucrose ester and 4.5% gum arabic + 0.225% sucrose ester. The physical characteristics evaluated were creaming index, total color change, viscosity and droplet distribution, while the chemical characteristics observed included pH, TBA value, and protein content. Data were analyzed by One Way Anova at 95% significant level to determine the differences among treatments. Bivariate Pearson Correlation was used in order to determine the interaction among sample characteristics. The data showed that, gum arabic and sucrose ester can maintain the emulsion stability. A combination of 4.5% gum arabic and 0.225% sucrose ester provided the best physicochemical characteristics with the lowest creaming index and decreased viscosit, and uniform droplet distribution.

  15. Feasibility and acceptability of point of care HIV testing in community outreach and GUM drop-in services in the North West of England: A programmatic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelliman Pauline

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Liverpool, injecting drug users (IDUs, men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM and UK Africans experience a disproportionate burden of HIV, yet services do not reach out to these groups and late presentations continue. We set out to: increase testing uptake in targeted marginalized groups through a community and genitourinary medicine (GUM-based point of care testing (POCT programme; and conduct a process evaluation to examine service provider inputs and document service user perceptions of the programme. Methods Mixed quantitative, qualitative and process evaluation methods were used. Service providers were trained to use fourth generation rapid antibody/antigen HIV tests. Existing outreach services incorporated POCT into routine practice. Clients completed a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGDs were held with service providers. Results Between September 2009 and June 2010, 953 individuals underwent POCT (GUM: 556 [59%]; community-based sites: 397 [42%]. Participants in the community were more likely to be male (p = 0.028, older (p Conclusions Community and GUM clinic-based POCT for HIV was feasible and acceptable to clients and service providers in a low prevalence setting. It successfully reached target groups, many of whom would not have otherwise tested. We recommend POCT be considered among strategies to increase the uptake of HIV testing among groups who are currently underserved.

  16. Significantly enhanced critical current density in nano-MgB2 grains rapidly formed at low temperature with homogeneous carbon doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yongchang; Lan, Feng; Ma, Zongqing; Chen, Ning; Li, Huijun; Barua, Shaon; Patel, Dipak; Shahriar, M; Hossain, Al; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Acar, S

    2015-01-01

    High performance MgB 2 bulks using carbon-coated amorphous boron as a boron precursor were fabricated by Cu-activated sintering at low temperature (600 °C, below the Mg melting point). Dense nano-MgB 2 grains with a high level of homogeneous carbon doping were formed in these MgB 2 samples. This type of microstructure can provide a stronger flux pinning force, together with depressed volatility and oxidation of Mg owing to the low-temperature Cu-activated sintering, leading to a significant improvement of critical current density (J c ) in the as-prepared samples. In particular, the value of J c for the carbon-coated (Mg 1.1 B 2 )Cu 0.05 sample prepared here is even above 1 × 10 5 A cm −2 at 20 K, 2 T. The results herein suggest that the combination of low-temperature Cu-activated sintering and employment of carbon-coated amorphous boron as a precursor could be a promising technique for the industrial production of practical MgB 2 bulks or wires with excellent J c , as the carbon-coated amorphous boron powder can be produced commercially at low cost, while the addition of Cu is very convenient and inexpensive. (paper)

  17. Significantly enhanced critical current density in nano-MgB2 grains rapidly formed at low temperature with homogeneous carbon doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchang; Lan, Feng; Ma, Zongqing; Chen, Ning; Li, Huijun; Barua, Shaon; Patel, Dipak; Shahriar, M.; Hossain, Al; Acar, S.; Kim, Jung Ho; Xue Dou, Shi

    2015-05-01

    High performance MgB2 bulks using carbon-coated amorphous boron as a boron precursor were fabricated by Cu-activated sintering at low temperature (600 °C, below the Mg melting point). Dense nano-MgB2 grains with a high level of homogeneous carbon doping were formed in these MgB2 samples. This type of microstructure can provide a stronger flux pinning force, together with depressed volatility and oxidation of Mg owing to the low-temperature Cu-activated sintering, leading to a significant improvement of critical current density (Jc) in the as-prepared samples. In particular, the value of Jc for the carbon-coated (Mg1.1B2)Cu0.05 sample prepared here is even above 1 × 105 A cm-2 at 20 K, 2 T. The results herein suggest that the combination of low-temperature Cu-activated sintering and employment of carbon-coated amorphous boron as a precursor could be a promising technique for the industrial production of practical MgB2 bulks or wires with excellent Jc, as the carbon-coated amorphous boron powder can be produced commercially at low cost, while the addition of Cu is very convenient and inexpensive.

  18. Antinociceptive activity of Astragalus gummifer gum (gum tragacanth) through the adrenergic system: A in vivo study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Keyhani, Leila; Heydari, Mehrangiz; Dashti-R, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In Iranian traditional medicine, gum obtained from Astragalus gummifer and some other species of Astragalus was used as analgesic agent. In this study, we investigated the antinociceptive effect of several concentrations (125, 250, and 500 μg/kg body weight) of Astragalus gummifer gum (AGG) on thermal and acetic acid induced pain in mice. AGG was dissolved in distillated water and injected i.p to male mice 15 minute before the onset of experiment. Writhing and hot-plate tests were applied to study the analgesic effect of AGG and compared with that of diclofenac sodium (30 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (8 mg/kg, i.p). To investigate the mechanisms involved in antinociception, yohimbine, naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline were used in writhing test. These drugs were injected intraperitoneally 15 min before the administration of AGG. The number of writhes were counted in 30 minutes and analyzed. AGG exhibited a significant antinociceptive effect and the most effective dose of AGG was 500 μg/kg. The most maximum possible effect (%MPE) was observed (117.4%) 15 min after drug administration. The %inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in AGG 125, 250 and 500 was 47%, 50% and 54% vs %15 of control and 66.3% of diclofenac sodium group. The antinociceptive effect induced by this gum in the writhing test was reversed by the systemic administration of yohimbine (α2-adrenergic antagonist), but naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline did not reverse this effect. The findings of this study indicated that AGG induced its antinociceptive through the adrenergic system.

  19. Antinociceptive activity of Astragalus gummifer gum (gum tragacanth through the adrenergic system: A in vivo study in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Majid Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Iranian traditional medicine, gum obtained from Astragalus gummifer and some other species of Astragalus was used as analgesic agent. Objective: In this study, we investigated the antinociceptive effect of several concentrations (125, 250, and 500 μg/kg body weight of Astragalus gummifer gum (AGG on thermal and acetic acid induced pain in mice. Materials and Methods: AGG was dissolved in distillated water and injected i.p to male mice 15 minute before the onset of experiment. Writhing and hot-plate tests were applied to study the analgesic effect of AGG and compared with that of diclofenac sodium (30 mg/kg, i.p. or morphine (8 mg/kg, i.p. To investigate the mechanisms involved in antinociception, yohimbine, naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline were used in writhing test. These drugs were injected intraperitoneally 15 min before the administration of AGG. The number of writhes were counted in 30 minutes and analyzed. Results: AGG exhibited a significant antinociceptive effect and the most effective dose of AGG was 500 μg/kg. The most maximum possible effect (%MPE was observed (117.4% 15 min after drug administration. The %inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in AGG 125, 250 and 500 was 47%, 50% and 54% vs %15 of control and 66.3% of diclofenac sodium group. The antinociceptive effect induced by this gum in the writhing test was reversed by the systemic administration of yohimbine (α2 -adrenergic antagonist, but naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline did not reverse this effect. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that AGG induced its antinociceptive through the adrenergic system.

  20. Green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using gum karaya as a biotemplate and their antibacterial application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thekkae Padil VV

    2013-02-01

    3 mM. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy profiles indicated that the O 1s and Cu 2p peak corresponding to the CuO nanoparticles were observed. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized nanoparticles was tested against Gram-negative and positive cultures.Conclusion: The formed CuO nanoparticles are small in size (4.8 ± 1.6 nm, highly stable, and have significant antibacterial action on both the Gram classes of bacteria compared to larger sizes of synthesized CuO (7.8 ± 2.3 nm nanoparticles. The smaller size of the CuO nanoparticles (4.8 ± 1.6 nm was found to be yielding a maximum zone of inhibition compared to the larger size of synthesized CuO nanoparticles (7.8 ± 2.3 nm. The results also indicate that increase in precursor concentration enhances an increase in particle size, as well as the morphology of synthesized CuO nanoparticles.Keywords: gum karaya, CuO nanoparticles, XRD, FTIR, XPS, antibacterial activity

  1. Gum arabic based composite edible coating on green chillies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiathan, Sreejit; Athmaselvi, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    Green chillies were coated with a composite edible coating composed of gum arabic (5%), glycerol (1%), thyme oil (0.5%) and tween 80 (0.05%) to preserve the freshness and quality of green chillies and thus reduce the cost of preservation. In the present work, the chillies were coated with the composite edible coating using the dipping method with three dipping times (1, 3 and 5 min). The physicochemical parameters of the coated and control chillies stored at room temperature (28±2ºC) were evaluated at regular intervals of storage. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the physicochemical properties between the control chillies and coated chillies with 1, 3 and 5 min dipping times. The coated green chillies showed significantly (p≤0.05) lower weight loss, phenolic acid production, capsaicin production and significantly (p≤0.05) higher retention of ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll content, colour, firmness and better organoleptic properties. The composite edible coating of gum arabic and thyme oil with 3 min dipping was effective in preserving the desirable physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of the green chillies up to 12 days, compared to the uncoated chillies that had a shelf life of 6 days at room temperature.

  2. Franšīzes līgums

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņš, Artūrs

    2011-01-01

    Bakalaura darba "Franšīzes līgums" mērķis ir jaunā nacionālā tiesiskā regulējuma izpēte, tā atbilstības starptautiskajam regulējumam konstatēšana. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no četrām nodaļām, kurās tiek aplūkots franšīzes līgums un tā būtība, tā atšķirība no citiem civiltieskiem līgumiem, franšīzes attīstība Latvijā un tiesiskā regulējuma pilnveidošana Eiropas Savienības tiesiskā regulējuma ietvaros, kā arī problēmjautājumi un to risinājums. Darba autors nonāk pie secinājuma, ka nolūkā past...

  3. Development of lamivudine containing multiple emulsions stabilized by gum odina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Kumar Jena

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a multiple emulsion (W/O/W of lamivudine was developed using a new biopolymer, gum odina (GOd to increase bioavailability and patient compliances. GOd was employed to stabilize both the interfaces of liquid membrane in both the external and internal aqueous phases. The developed W/O/W multiple emulsion of lamivudine was characterized by analyzing droplet size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI, sedimentation, viscosity, rheological properties, drug entrapment efficiency, in-vitro drug release and stability at various storage conditions. The results obtained were also compared with W/O/W multiple emulsion of lamivudine prepared using Tween 80 (a standard emulsion stabilizer. The drug entrapment efficiency of W/O/W multiple emulsion stabilized using GOd was measured as 91.60 ± 3.66% with sustained lamivudine release over a period of 6 h. Rheological and microscopic examinations indicated long term stability of the developed emulsion prepared using GOd. The results of the current study provide a promising scope to attain sustained drug release through the W/O/W multiple emulsions stabilized by GOd in antiviral therapies. Keywords: Gum odina, Lamivudine, Multiple emulsions

  4. Structure of the arabinogalactan from gum tragacanth (Astralagus gummifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Cesar A; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

    2002-10-08

    The polysaccharide obtained by ethanol precipitation from an aqueous solution of gum tragacanth contained arabinogalactan and tragacanthic acid, as well as starch ( approximately 0.6%). GC-MS, NMR, and ESI-MS analyses showed the structure of the arabinogalactan to be even more complex than previously determined, with core structures containing Arap, beta-Araf, and alpha-Galp units, as well as known terminal, and 2-O- and 3-O-substituted alpha-Araf units. Analysis was aided by examination of free, reducing oligosaccharides present in the gum. In addition to maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, and maltopentaose, the following were characterized: mixed alpha-Araf (1-->2)-alpha-Araf-(1-->4)-Ara and alpha-Araf-(1-->2)-alpha-Araf-(1-->5)-Ara, which correspond to the side chains of the arabinogalactan, beta-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-Gal; and a mixture of beta-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-Gal and beta-Glcp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-Gal, which did not resemble side-chain structures of the arabinogalactan. The latter are suggested to be related to tragacanthic acid, which has been previously found to contain beta-Galp nonreducing end-units.

  5. Thermal stability and haemolytic effects of depolymerized guar gum derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Majid; Zahoor, Tahir; Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Amir; Hameed, Aneela

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of current study was to purify and partially depolymerize guar gum by β-mannanase, HCl, Ba(OH) 2 actions and subjected to inspect compositional, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and haemolytic activity. Chemical composition revealed mannose and galactose ratio remained un-altered even after process of purification and hydrolysis. TGA thermograms affirmed initial and final decomposition temperature in various zones. Major decomposition stages apparently revealed partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) exhibited better heat stable properties having more zones of degradation than crude one. Furthermore, all guar fractions (2.5-250 mg/mL) were subjected to haemolysis to evaluate toxic effects during process of hydrolysis. The crude and hydrolyzed guar galactomannans exhibited minor haemolytic activity (1.9 ± 0.03-7.24 ± 0.02%) when compared to 0.1% Triton-X 100 (100% haemolysis) showing no toxic effects to human RBC's. Conclusively, hydrolyzed guar-galactomannans are safe and can be used in food products with improved heat stability.

  6. Thiol derivatization of Xanthan gum and its evaluation as a mucoadhesive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Meenakshi; Ahuja, Munish; Mehta, Heena

    2015-10-20

    Thiol-derivatization of xanthan gum polysaccharide was carried out by esterification with mercaptopropionic acid and thioglycolic acid. Thiol-derivatization was confirmed by Fourier-transformed infra-red spectroscopy. Xanthan-mercaptopropionic acid conjugate and xanthan-thioglycolic acid conjugate were found to possess 432.68mM and 465.02mM of thiol groups as determined by Ellman's method respectively. Comparative evaluation of mucoadhesive property of metronidazole loaded buccal pellets of xanthan and thiolated xanthan gum using chicken buccal pouch membrane revealed higher ex vivo bioadhesion time of thiolated xanthan gum as compared to xanthan gum. Improved mucoadhesive property of thiolated xanthan gum over the xanthan gum can be attributed to the formation of disulfide bond between mucus and thiolated xanthan gum. In vitro release study conducted using phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) revealed a sustained release profile of metronidazole from thiolated xanthan pellets as compared to xanthan pellets. In conclusion, thiolation of xanthan improves its mucoadhesive property and sustained the release of metronidazole over a prolonged period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P.; Smith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance. PMID:26075253

  8. Gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants: effects on lipid oxidation of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Azam, Mahmood; Hasnain, Abid

    2015-04-01

    Performance of antioxidants is improved by incorporating them into polymer matrix such as polysaccharides based edible coatings. Gum cordia, an anionic polysaccharide extracted from the fruits of Cordia.myxa could be used as carrier of antioxidants by virtue of its strong adhering and emulsifying properties. This study aimed to explore the potential of gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants when applied as edible coating on peanuts. Gum Cordia was compared with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in delivering of antioxidants: butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (AA). Coated and uncoated peanuts were stored at 35 °C for 126 days and coating carrier effectiveness was measured by following lipid oxidation using chemical parameters (peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive species) and sensory evaluation (oxidized flavor). Significant differences (p cordia was found better than CMC to deliver the antioxidants. Gum cordia based coating in combination with BHA/BHT exhibited highest protection (290 % higher shelf life than control) based on peroxide value (40 meq.O2 kg(-1)) followed by gum codia plus BHT (244 %), gum cordia plus BHA (232 %), CMC plus BHA/BHT (184 %), CMC plus BHA (139 %), CMC plus BHT (119 %), gum cordia plus AA (96 %) and CMC plus AA (46 %).

  9. Guar gum effects on food intake, blood serum lipids and glucose levels of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, A C; Sgarbieri, V C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of guar gum derived from the endosperm of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (75% soluble fiber, 7.6% insoluble fiber, 2.16% crude protein, 0.78% total lipids, 0.54% ash and 9.55% moisture) on food intake, levels of blood serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glucose and LDL and HDL-cholesterol were studied. The effects of guar gum on indices of protein absorption and utilization were also investigated. Diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% (w/w) guar gum or 10% and 20% cellulose powder (reference) were fed to normal rats for 60 days. The rats fed the guar gum diets showed significantly (p Guar gum decreased blood serum glucose only during the first month of the experiment, and no changes in the indices of protein absorption and utilization were found. The guar gum caused a 10% increase in the small intestine length and a 25% retardation in the intestinal transit. The results of this research suggested that guar gum could potentially be effective in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and obesity in humans.

  10. Effect of Guar Gum with Sorbitol Coating on the Properties and Oil Absorption of French Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bo; Fan, Daming; Li, Jinwei; Duan, Zhenhua; Fan, Liuping

    2017-12-13

    This paper investigated the effects of guar gum with sorbitol coating on the oil absorption of French fries by combined dye oil methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that pretreatment of blanching with calcium ions and coating with guar gum and sorbitol could significantly reduce the structural oil (STO) and penetrated surface oil (PSO) of French fries and have no negative effects on its texture and also effectively control the final moisture content ( p French fries with guar gum and sorbitol reduced by 50.8%, 33.1% and 30.6%, respectively. CLSM photographs confirmed that STO significantly reduced after coating with guar gum and sorbitol, followed by PSO. In the process of frying, the coatings of guar gum or guar gum with sorbitol could effectively prevent oil from infiltrating the potato tissue, which can be seen in the SEM photographs. The barrier properties of French fries were enhanced by coating guar gum, and sorbitol was added to avoid pores and cracks. Blanching with calcium ion can significantly reduce the final moisture content of coating French fries.

  11. Chewing gum benefits sustained attention in the absence of task degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew J; Muneem, Mohammed; Miles, Christopher

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined the effect of chewing gum on sustained attention and associated changes in subjective alertness. In a within-participants design, 20 participants completed an extended version of the sustained attention response task (SART: Robertson et al., 1997), both with and without chewing gum. Self-rated measures of alertness, contentedness, and calmness were taken before and after the SART. Chewing gum was associated with improved attentional task performance. This finding was not contingent upon a general decrease in attentional performance and was apparent at all stages of the task. Subjective measures of alertness, contentedness, and calmness were higher following the chewing of gum. Changes in sustained attention co-varied with subjective alertness. The effects of chewing gum on attention and alertness are consistent with past literature and were not contingent on declines in attention. Additionally, we found evidence that gum-induced changes in self-rated alertness and attention are related. We found no support for the proposition that chewing gum can impair attention due to the division of resources.

  12. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance.

  13. Chewing gum: cognitive performance, mood, well-being, and associated physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Smith, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance.

  14. Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William; Evans, Lynsay; Birrel, Laura; Sontag, Thomas A; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Impairments of attention are cardinal features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and can seriously affect the daily life of children with ADHD. Despite effective treatment strategies, there is a need of further treatment options that can be added to available and well established treatments. Further treatment options are needed since available treatments are often time consuming, expensive and limited regarding their external validity. Recent research demonstrated that gum chewing has beneficial effects on cognition including certain aspects of attention. Therefore, gum chewing may benefit children with ADHD in situations requiring particular cognitive efforts. In a crossover study, attentional functioning of 32 children with ADHD and 32 children without the condition was examined. All participants were assessed with chewing gum and without chewing gum. A computerized test was used for the assessment of vigilance and sustained attention. The findings of the present study suggest that gum chewing during task execution has detrimental effects on vigilance of both healthy children and children with ADHD. Sustained attention was not affected by gum chewing. Chewing gum, therefore, appears not to improve attentional performance in children with ADHD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro studies on guar gum based formulation for the colon targeted delivery of Sennosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Munira; Pundarikakshudu, K

    2004-09-24

    The objective of the present study is to develop colon targeted drug delivery systems for sennosides using guar gum as a carrier. Matrix tablets containing various proportions of guar gum were prepared by wet granulation technique using starch paste as a binder. The tablets were evaluated for content uniformity and in vitro drug release study as per BP method. T(50) % value from the dissolution studies was taken for selecting the best formulation. Guar gum matrix tablets released 4-18% sennosides in the physiological environment of gastrointestinal tract depending on the proportion of the guar gum used in the formulation. The matrix tablets containing 50% of guar gum were found to be suitable for targeting of sennosides for local action in the colon. Compared to tablets having 30% and 40% of guar gum, those with 50% guar gum gave better T(50)% (11.7 h) le and fewer amounts (5-8%) of drug release in upper GIT. These tablets with 50% guar gum released 43% and 96% sennosides with and without rat caecal fluids. This suggests the susceptibility of matrix to the colonic micro flora. The similarity factor (f2 value) for drug release with and without rat caecal fluids was found to be less than 30. When hydroxy propyl methylcellulose phthalate (10%) was used as a coat material on the matrix tablets, the initial loss of 5-8% sennosides in stomach could be completely averted. These tablets showed no change in physical appearance, content and dissolution profile upon storage at 45 degrees C / 75% relative humidity for 3 months. The results of our study indicates that matrix tablets containing 50% guar gum and coated with 10% hydroxy propyl methylcellulose phthalate are most suitable for drugs like sennosides which are mainly active in the lower GIT.

  16. Effects of chewing gum on cognitive function, mood and physiology in stressed and non-stressed volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may improve aspects of cognitive function and mood. There is also evidence suggesting that chewing gum reduces stress. It is important, therefore, to examine these two areas and to determine whether contextual factors (chewing habit, type of gum, and personality) modify such effects. The aims of the present study were: (i) to determine whether chewing gum improved mood and mental performance; (ii) to determine whether chewing gum had benefits in stressed individuals; and (iii) to determine whether chewing habit, type of gum and level of anxiety modified the effects of gum. A cross-over study involving 133 volunteers was carried out. Each volunteer carried out a test session when they were chewing gum and without gum, with order of gum conditions counterbalanced across subjects. Baseline sessions were conducted prior to each test session. Approximately half of the volunteers were tested in 75 dBA noise (the stress condition) and the rest in quiet. Volunteers were stratified on chewing habit and anxiety level. Approximately, half of the volunteers were given mint gum and half fruit gum. The volunteers rated their mood at the start and end of each session and had their heart rate monitored over the session. Saliva samples were taken to allow cortisol levels (good indicator of alertness and stress) to be assayed. During the session, volunteers carried out tasks measuring a range of cognitive functions (aspects of memory, selective and sustained attention, psychomotor speed and accuracy). Chewing gum was associated with greater alertness and a more positive mood. Reaction times were quicker in the gum condition, and this effect became bigger as the task became more difficult. Chewing gum also improved selective and sustained attention. Heart rate and cortisol levels were higher when chewing which confirms the alerting effect of chewing gum. Overall, the results suggest that chewing gum produces a number of benefits that are

  17. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    Guar gum is a polysaccharide obtained from guar seed endosperm portion. Enzymatically hydrolyzed guar gum is low in viscosity and has several health benefits as dietary fiber. In this study, response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum conditions for hydrolysis that give minimum viscosity of guar gum. Central composite was employed to investigate the effects of pH (3–7), temperature (20–60 °C), reaction time (1–5 h) and cellulase concentration (0.25–1.25 mg/g) on viscosity d...

  18. Chewing gum does not induce context-dependent memory when flavor is held constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Amy A; Sun, Justin; Golding, Abbe C; Prevost, Darius

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the effect of chewing gum on memory when flavor is held constant. Four separate groups of participants (total n=101) completed a word recall task. At learning and recall, participants either chewed a piece of gum or sucked a sweet. Each participant completed the memory task twice, once with abstract words and once with concrete words. A significant effect of word type (concrete vs. abstract) was found, however recall performance was not improved by matched oral activity at learning and recall. The results cast further doubt on the ability of chewing gum to induce context-dependent memory effects.

  19. Effect of chewing gums containing the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on oral malodour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette K; Bardow, Allan; Jensdottir, Thorbjörg

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chewing gums containing probiotic bacteria on oral malodour. The null hypothesis was that no difference would be displayed compared with placebo gums. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy young adults with self-reported malodorous morning breath completed...... this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial. The design included run-in and wash-out periods interspersed by two intervention periods of 14 days each. The subjects were instructed to chew one gum in the morning and one in the evening containing either two strains of probiotic lactobacilli (L...... lower in the probiotic group compared with the placebo group (p chewing...

  20. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum...... and tablets (p>0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts....

  1. Trace element evaluation of different varieties of chewing gum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Ahmad, S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element. (author)

  2. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christrup, L L; Angelo, H R; Bonde, J; Kristensen, F; Rasmussen, S N

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum and tablets (p greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts.

  3. Natural gums of plant origin as edible coatings for food industry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anuradha; Tyagi, Shvetambri; Gupta, Rajinder K; Tyagi, Yogesh K

    2017-12-01

    Natural plant-based gums and their derivatives are widely utilized in food industries, however, their applications as edible coatings to extend fresh fruits and vegetable shelf-life has been explored recently. These natural polymeric polysaccharides have many advantages as compared to synthetic polymers, because they are biodegradable, nontoxic, economical and easily available in the environment. Natural gums can also be semi synthetically modified to produce derivatives, which can easily compete with the synthetic preservatives available on the food market. In this review, the recent developments in the use of natural gums and their derivatives as edible coatings have been explored and discussed.

  4. The amino acid composition of the proteinaceous component of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D M; Howlett, J F; McNab, C G

    1985-01-01

    Six Iranian and seven Turkish samples of commercial gum tragacanth, and a sample of Turkish 'gum traganton', have been studied. Their nitrogen content varied from 0.17 to 0.58%. Their amino acid compositions are characterized by the presence of very large but variable proportions of hydroxyproline and substantial proportions of serine, proline and valine. The data presented may be useful for extending the current specifications for identity and purity, at present based solely on polysaccharide parameters, for gum tragacanth (E413).

  5. Low cost technology for the rapid and safe in-house (hospital-based) preparation of dual - radiotherapeutic (Rx) and radiodiagnostic (Dx) - dosage forms of high specific activity 131I-mIBG for clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, O.P.D.; Sonawane, G.A.; Samuel, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Radioiodinated mIBG is finding increasing utility in nuclear medicine. However, its widespread use in developing countries is precluded by logistic constraints owing to the relative instability of the labelled molecule with respect to time and temp., and high costs. This prompted us to develop a low cost in-house batch process technology that could be used for the small-scale preparation of 131 I-mIBG even in a less equipped hospital-based radiopharmacy. The production of large amounts of 131 I-mIBG for clinical use requires sophisticated infrastructure (a scarce resource) to contain / safeguard against internal and external radiation exposures. We have indigenously designed a semi-automated, self-shielded, remote-controlled and safe microplant + process assemblies using easily accessible and cheap inputs, and developed the complete technology for the rapid and safe production of dual dosage forms of 131 I-mIBG, a radiotherapeutic (R x ) single dosage form of high activity along with 1-3 low activity radiodiagnostics (D x ) as multidosage forms. The radioiodide exchange reaction was effected in the solid / melt phase at 190 deg. C in 1.0 h. The radiolabelling yield was ∼80.0-86.0%, and the radiochemical purity > 99.5% and specific activity of R x /D x =900-1300/60-800 MBq ( x dosage forms at 3 weeks. The dosage forms (especially R x ) were only made against firm patient appointment(s). Thus far we have prepared 14 R x (49.0 GBq) and 70 + 14 batches (43.43 GBq) of (∼150 nos.) D x forms, and used them in 14 and > 1100 patients respectively. (author)

  6. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  7. Solution properties of targacanthin (water-soluble part of gum tragacanth exudate from Astragalus gossypinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Musavi, Seyed Mohammad; Kiumarsi, Amir; Williams, Peter A

    2006-02-28

    Solution properties of tragacanthin (the water-soluble part of gum tragacanth) were studied by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) combined with multi-angle light scattering and viscometry at 25 degrees C. Photon correlation spectroscopy was used to determine the hydrodynamic radius. Ultrasonic degradation was applied to obtain biopolymer fractions of different molecular weights. The dependence of intrinsic viscosity [eta] and radius of gyration (s2)z(1/2) on weight average molecular mass M(w) for this biopolymer were found to be [eta] = 9.077 x 10(-5) M(w)(0.87) (dL g(-1)) and (s2)z(1/2) in the range of M(w) from 1.8 x 10(5) to 1.6 x 10(6). The conformational parameters of tragacanthin were calculated to be 1111 nm for molar mass per unit contour length (M(L)), 26 nm for persistence length (q) and 1.87 ratio of R(g)/R(h). It was found that the Smidsrød parameter B, the empirical stiffness parameter was 0.013, which is lower than that of several polysaccharides indicating the stiff backbone for tragacanthin. The rheological behavior of aqueous solutions of gum tragacanth and its insoluble and soluble fractions (bassorin and tragacanthin, respectively) were studied. For concentrations equal to 1%, at 25 degrees C and in the absence of salt, bassorin solution showed the highest viscosity and shear thinning behaviour. Power law and Williamson models were used to describe the rheological behaviour of bassorin and tragacanthin, respectively. Oscillatory shear experiments showed a gel like structure for the bassorin but for tragacanthin the oscillatory data were as would be expected for semi-dilute to concentrated solution of entangled, random coil polymers. NaCl changed the steady and oscillatory rheological properties of both fractions and in this way the final viscosity of bassorin was even less than tragacanthin. The calculated activation energy for bassorin and tragacanthin indicated a more rapid decrease in viscosity with temperature for tragacanthin. The plot of

  8. Development of novel hydrogels by modification of sterculia gum through radiation cross-linking polymerization for use in drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Baljit; Vashishtha, Manu

    2008-01-01

    In order to modify the sterculia gum polysaccharide, to develop the hydrogels meant for the drug delivery, we have prepared sterculia gum, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylic acid (AAc) based hydrogels by radiation-induced crosslinking polymerization. Polymeric networks (hydrogels) thus formed were characterized with SEMs, FTIR,TGA and swelling studies which were carried out as a function monomers concentration, radiation dose, amount of sterculia contents in the polymer matrix and nature of the swelling medium. This paper discusses the swelling kinetics of the hydrogels and release dynamics of anti-diarrhea model drug ornidazole from the hydrogels to evaluation of swelling and drug release mechanism. Diffusion exponent 'n' have 0.73, 0.56 and 0.61 values and gel characteristic constant 'k' have 1.28 x 10 -2 , 2.95 x 10 -2 and 2.14 x 10 -2 values in distilled water, pH 2.2 buffer and pH 7.4 buffer. The release of drug from the polymer matrix occurred through non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The values for the late time diffusion coefficients have been lower than the values of initial and average diffusion coefficients. It reflects that in the initial stages rate of release of drug from polymer matrix was higher as compared to the late stages, it means after certain time the drug release occurred in controlled manner

  9. Preparation and characterization of a chemically sulfated cashew gum polysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura Neto, Erico de; Maciel, Jeanny da S.; Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Paula, Regina Celia M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Cashew gum (CG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the reagent. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical S=O stretching vibration at 1259 cm{sup -1}. The degrees of substitution were 0.02, 0.24 and 0.88 determined from the sulfur percentage. 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data showed that the sulfation occurred at primary carbons. An increase of at least 4% of the solution viscosity was observed due to sulfation. The thermal gravimetric curves (TGA) indicate that the derivatives are stable up to ca. 200 deg C. The sulfated CG is compared to carboxymethylated CG in order to verify the possibility of the use of the former in the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes; the latter is already being used for this application. (author)

  10. Modification of gellan gum films by halloysite: physicochemical evaluation and drug permeation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of gellan gum (GG) and halloysite (HS) dispersions at different mixing ratios and to investigate the potential of GG-HS dispersions in film formation. To this end, the dispersions and films were characterized. The dispersions formed films with large particles ranging from 3 to 4 μm in size, with a zeta potential of ∼-35 mV. The GG-HS films were fabricated using a solvent-casting technique, which generated films with a white opaque appearance and rough surface. The GG-HS films were formed via hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions at the inner cavity and outer surface, as confirmed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The %water uptake and erosion of the GG-HS film decreased with increasing HS content, whereas both puncture strength and elongation were increased in the GG-HS ratios of 1:0.4 and 1:1.2. Moreover, addition of HS into the GG films could possibly decrease drug permeability coefficient when using higher HS ratio in acidic and neutral media. These results suggested that HS modifies the characteristics of the GG used to coat modified-release tablets.

  11. Development of postcompressional textural tests to evaluate the mechanical properties of medicated chewing gum tablets with high drug loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hagbani, Turki; Nazzal, Sami

    2018-02-01

    Medicated chewing gum tablets (CGTs) represent a unique platform for drug delivery. Loading directly compressible gums with high concentrations of powdered medication, however, results in compacts with hybrid properties between a chewable gum and a brittle tablet. The aim of the present study was to develop textural tests that can identify the point at which CGTs begin to behave like a solid tablet upon drug incorporation. Curcumin (CUR) CGTs made with Health in gum were prepared with increasing CUR load from 0 to 100% and were characterized for their mechanical properties by a single-bite (knife) and a two-bite tests. From each test several parameters were extracted and correlated with drug loading. In the single-bite test, the change in the resistance of the compacts to plastic deformation was found to give a definitive guide on whether they behave as gums or tablets. A more in depth analysis of the impact of CUR loading on the chewability of the CGTs was provided by the two-bite test where CUR loading was found to have a nonlinear impact on the mechanical properties of compacts. An upper limit of 10% was found to yield compacts with gum-like properties, which were abolished at higher CUR loads. The textural test procedure outlined in this study are expected to assist those involved in the formulation of medicated gums for pharmaceutical applications in making an informed decision on the impact of drug loading on gum behavior before proceeding with clinical testing. There is a growing interest in utilizing medicated chewing gums for drug delivery, especially those made using directly compressible gum bases, such as Health in gum. Directly compressing a gum base with high amounts of solid drug powder, however, poses a challenge as it may result in compressed compacts with hybrid properties between a chewing gum and a hard tablet. Currently, official Pharmacopeias do not specify a testing procedure for the estimation of the mechanical and textural properties of

  12. Formulation and evaluation of xanthan gum based aceclofenac tablets for colon targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiruganesh Ramasamy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to develop a colon targeted drug delivery systems for Aceclofenac using xanthan gum as a carrier. In this study, multilayer coated system that is resistant to gastric and small intestinal conditions but can be easily degraded by colonic bacterial enzymes was designed to achieve effective colon delivery of Aceclofenac. The xanthan gum, the drug and the physical mixture were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. All the formulations were evaluated for hardness, drug content uniformity and other physical properties. Release aspects of Aceclofenac in simulated gastrointestinal fluid and colonic fluid with enzymes were investigated. From these results, Eudragit coated system exhibited gastric and small intestinal resistance to the release of Aceclofenac. The rapid increase in release of Aceclofenac in SCF was revealed as due to the degradation of the xanthan gum membrane by bacterial enzymes. The designed system could be used potentially as a carrier for colon delivery of Aceclofenac by regulating drug release in stomach and the small intestine.O presente estudo teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de sistema de liberação cólon-alvo de aceclofenaco empregando goma xantana. Nesse trabalho, o revestimento de múltiplas camadas com característica de resistência às condições do intestino delgado além de gastrorresistência oferece como vantagem a rápida degradação desse sistema por enzimas bacterianas colônicas. Dessa forma, o planejamento de tal sistema possibilitou a liberação específica do aceclofenaco no cólon. A goma xantana e o fármaco, além da mistura física desses dois componentes, foram caracterizados por espectroscopia no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR e calorimetria diferencial exploratória (DSC. Todas as formulações foram avaliadas no que se refere à dureza, à uniformidade de conteúdo do f

  13. Matrix Effect on the Spray Drying Nanoencapsulation of Lippia sidoides Essential Oil in Chitosan-Native Gum Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Haroldo C B; Oliveira, Erick F; Carneiro, Maria J M; de Paula, Regina C M

    2017-03-01

    Essential oils have many applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and food fields, however, their use is limited to the fact that they are very labile, requiring their a priori encapsulation, aiming to preserve their properties.This work reports on the preparation of chitosan-gum nanoparticles loaded with thymol containing Lippia sidoides essential oil, using exudates of Anacardium Occidentale (cashew gum), Sterculia striata (chichá gum), and Anadenanthera macrocarpa trees (angico gum). Nanoparticles were produced by spray drying an emulsion of L. sidoides essential oil and aqueous solution of gums with different chitosan : gum ratios. Samples were characterized by FTIR and UV/VIS spectroscopy, particle size, volume distribution, and zeta potential. The FTIR spectrum showed the main signals of chitosan and the gums. Data obtained revealed that the samples had sizes in the nano range, varying from 17 nm to 800 nm. The zeta potential varied from + 30 mV to - 40 mV. Nanoparticle loading values varied from 6.7 % to 15.6 %, with an average encapsulating efficiency of 62 %, where the samples with high ratios of cashew gum and chichá gum presented high oil loading values. The data revealed that both the chitosan : gum ratio and polysaccharide characteristics play major roles in nanoencapsulation processes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Immunogenicity, immunological cross reactivity and non-specific irritant properties of the exudate gums, arabic, karaya and tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, S; Ferguson, A; Anderson, D M

    1986-01-01

    An animal model has been used to investigate the immunogenicity and non-specific irritant properties of exudate gums. The materials studied were four preparations of gum arabic (Acacia spp.), two of gum karaya (Sterculia spp.), two of gum tragacanth (Astralagus spp.) and a residue obtained after ethanol extraction of gum arabic. Groups of animals were intradermally immunized with the gum in complete Freund's adjuvant. Serum antibody levels were measured by an ELISA technique and delayed hypersensitivity responses by a footpad swelling test. Antigenic cross-reactivity within each gum species was tested in a crossover fashion. All gum preparations elicited systemic immune responses after immunization. Further processing reduced immunogenicity, although there was no evidence that systemic immunity to these complex polysaccharide antigens responses could be completely abolished by processing or purification. The ethanolic extract, and some of the gum preparations, particularly tragacanth and karaya, caused considerable footpad swelling when injected intradermally. It is concluded that processing and awareness of subspecies differences can reduce the inherent immunogenicity and potential irritant effects of exudate gums.

  15. Preparation of Acetylated Guar Gum – Unsaturated Polyester Composites & Effect of Water on Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D’Melo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Guar gum has seen extensive use in blends, however, its application as a filler in thermoset composites has as yet not been investigated. The effect of the addition of guar gum and its acetyl derivatives on the kinetics of water diffusion in unsaturated polyester composites was studied. The effect of water on the mechanical properties of the composites was studied with respect to the nature of filler, filler concentration and time of immersion. All the mechanical properties were observed to decrease on exposure to water. Further, it was observed that acetylated guar gum, with a degree of substitution of 0.21, showed the best mechanical properties, surpassing the other filled composites and that of the pure unsaturated polyester. Thus, acetylated guar gum showed promise as eco-friendly filler in composite formulation.

  16. The relative bioavailability of loratadine administered as a chewing gum formulation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr-Jensen, Lene; Damkier, Per; Bidstrup, Tanja Busk

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of loratadine and its active metabolite desloratadine after single-dose administration of loratadine as a conventional tablet, orally disintegrating tablet (smelt tablet) and a chewing gum formulation with and without...... of medicated chewing gum without collection of saliva and a 30-mg portion of medicated chewing gum with collection of saliva. Blood samples were taken at predefined sampling points 0-24 h after medication, and the plasma concentrations of loratadine and desloratadine were determined by high-performance liquid...... chromatography. Each study period was separated by a wash-out period of at least 7 days. RESULTS: The mean dose-corrected area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity AUC(0-infinity) for the chewing gum formulation was statistically significantly increased compared to the tablet...

  17. Analysis of a gum from the exudates of Dichrostachys cinerea (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... In conclusion, this gum has potential as a product for the cosmetic, .... Care was taken that no black or grey specks remained conspicuous in the ..... properties of chemically modified rice starch model solutions. J. Food.

  18. Microwave Irradiated Copolymerization of Xanthan Gum with Acrylamide for Colonic Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fozia Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthan gum (XG is a polysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas campestris. The aim of the present study was to modify the xanthan by hydrolysis and grafting with acrylamide through microwave irradiation for different time intervals. Pure xanthan was partially hydrolyzed via enzymatic and chemical treatments followed by optional grafting. Proximate composition analysis, moisture content, and carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and fiber contents were determined. The morphological characteristics, structural composition, functional groups, and heat resistance of the crude, hydrolyzed, and grafted gum were evaluated using SEM, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, and TGA. Morphological studies revealed that xanthan was broken down into smaller fragments as a result of hydrolysis and became somewhat smoother. Thermal analysis studies indicated a larger heat tolerance in the grafted xanthan relative to that of the native and hydrolyzed gums. Xanthan bound to a triamcinolone drug was evaluated in the context of controlled drug release. Controlled drug release correlated well with the exposure time to microwaves used to graft the gum.

  19. Controlled dual release study of curcumin and a 4-aminoquinoline analog from gum acacia containing hydrogels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderibigbe, BA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of gum acacia containing hydrogels as controlled dual-drug delivery systems for antiprotozoal agents was investigated. 4-Aminoquinoline analog and curcumin were selected as model drugs because they exhibit antiprotozoal activity...

  20. Antibacterial activities of some constituents from oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, M Asif; Sabir, A W

    2004-03-01

    The essential oil, chloroform extract and seven sesquiterpenoids compounds newly isolated from the oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul showed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria.

  1. Evaluation of Beilschmiedia Seed Gum as a Tablet Binder MN FEMI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Darmstadt, Germany). The tablet disintegration rates were determined using an Apex ... seeds were sun dried, crushed using a mortar and pestle and pulverized in a blender (Model 857,. Chrome white, Osterizer, U.S.A.) to produce the gum powder.

  2. Use of co-precipitates of Brachystegia Eurycoma gum and egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    precipitates of Brachystegia gum and egg albumin as binder, and testing the stability of the metronidazole tablets with regard to moisture uptake and also the effect of moisture sorption on disintegration and dissolution profiles of the tablets.

  3. Influence of gas injection on viscous and viscoelastic properties of Xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobade, Veena; Cheetham, Madalyn; Hashim, Jamal; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2018-05-01

    Xanthan gum is widely used as a model fluid for sludge to mimic the rheological behaviour under various conditions including impact of gas injection in sludge. However, there is no study to show the influence of gas injection on rheological properties of xanthan gum specifically at the concentrations at which it is used as a model fluid for sludge with solids concentration above 2%. In this paper, the rheological properties of aqueous xanthan gum solutions at different concentrations were measured over a range of gas injection flow rates. The effect of gas injection on both the flow and viscoelastic behaviour of Xanthan gum (using two different methods - a creep test and a time sweep test) was evaluated. The viscosity curve of different solid concentrations of digested sludge and waste activated sludge were compared with different solid concentrations of Xanthan gum and the results showed that Xanthan gum can mimic the flow behaviour of sludge in flow regime. The results in linear viscoelastic regime showed that increasing gas flow rate increases storage modulus (G'), indicating an increase in the intermolecular associations within the material structure leading to an increase in material strength and solid behaviour. Similarly, in creep test an increase in the gas flow rate decreased strain%, signifying that the material has become more resistant to flow. Both observed behaviour is opposite to what occurs in sludge under similar conditions. The results of both the creep test and the time sweep test indicated that choosing Xanthan gum aqueous solution as a transparent model fluid for sludge in viscoelastic regime under similar conditions involving gas injection in a concentration range studied is not feasible. However Xanthan gum can be used as a model material for sludge in flow regime; because it shows a similar behaviour to sludge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EFFECTS.OF BORIC ACID ON THE CURE OF BORON-FILLED Y-3602 SILICONE GUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichliter, G E

    1974-10-01

    The first two phases of a program designed to determine the effects of boric acid on the cure of Y-3602 silicone gum were conducted to evaluate extraction solvents and extraction time. The standard production formulation of B10-filled Y-3602 silicone gum was used in these evaluations. Results showed that the best solvent for reproducibility and high amine content was chloroform. The second phase indicated that extraction was essentially complete at the end of 4 hours.

  5. Want to block earworms from conscious awareness?B(u)y gum!

    OpenAIRE

    Beaman, C. Philip; Powell, Kitty; Rapley, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examine the role of articulatory motor planning in experiencing an involuntary musical recollection (an “earworm”). Experiment 1 shows that interfering with articulatory motor programming by chewing gum reduces both the number of voluntary and the number of involuntary—unwanted—musical thoughts. This is consistent with other findings that chewing gum interferes with voluntary processes such as recollections from verbal memory, the interpretation of ambiguous auditory images,...

  6. Determination of trace elements in chewing gum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Six trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest (Al, Ca, Cl, Mn, Na and Sr) were determined in three different brands of chewing gum by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For the particular brands of gum examined, none of the detected elements was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element for an American adult. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  7. TECHNICAL NOTE: The strengthening effect of guar gum on the yield stress of magnetorheological fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei Ping; Zhao, Bin Yuan; Wu, Qing; Chen, LeSheng; Hu, Ke Ao

    2006-08-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach for producing obvious strengthening of the magnetorheological (MR) effect of MR fluids. Carbonyl iron powders coated with guar gum were used as magnetic particles in the MR fluid. Experimental results showed that inducing a guar gum coating not only greatly improved the sedimentation stability but also strengthened the yield stress of the MR fluid. An intermolecular force based model was proposed for explaining the strengthening effect.

  8. A novel emulsion-forming arabinogalactan gum from the stems of Frost grape (Vitis riparia Michx.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel arabinogalactan polysaccharide (FGP) is described that is produced in large quantities from the cut stems of Frost grape (Vitis riparia Michx.). The sugar composition consists of L-arabinofuranose (L-Araf, 55.2 %) and D-galactopyranose (D-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of D-xylose (11....

  9. A slow-releasing form of prostacyclin agonist (ONO1301SR) enhances endogenous secretion of multiple cardiotherapeutic cytokines and improves cardiac function in a rapid-pacing-induced model of canine heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaka, Tomonori; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Saito, Atsuhiro; Shiozaki, Motoko; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Matsuura, Nariaki; Nakatani, Satoshi; Sakai, Yoshiki; Daimon, Takashi; Okita, Yutaka; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2013-08-01

    Cardiac functional deterioration in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is known to be reversed by intramyocardial up-regulation of multiple cardioprotective factors, whereas a prostacyclin analog, ONO1301, has been shown to paracrinally activate interstitial cells to release a variety of protective factors. We here hypothesized that intramyocardial delivery of a slow-releasing form of ONO1301 (ONO1301SR) might activate regional myocardium to up-regulate cardiotherapeutic factors, leading to regional and global functional recovery in DCM. ONO1301 elevated messenger RNA and protein level of hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and stromal-derived factor-1 of normal human dermal fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Intramyocardial delivery of ONO1301SR, which is ONO1301 mixed with polylactic and glycolic acid polymer (PLGA), but not that of PLGA only, yielded significant global functional recovery in a canine rapid pacing-induced DCM model, assessed by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization (n = 5 each). Importantly, speckle-tracking echocardiography unveiled significant regional functional recovery in the ONO1301-delivered territory, consistent to significantly increased vascular density, reduced interstitial collagen accumulation, attenuated myocyte hypertrophy, and reversed mitochondrial structure in the corresponding area. Intramyocardial delivery of ONO1301SR, which is a PLGA-coated slow-releasing form of ONO1301, up-regulated multiple cardiotherapeutic factors in the injected territory, leading to region-specific reverse left ventricular remodeling and consequently a global functional recovery in a rapid-pacing-induced canine DCM model, warranting a further preclinical study to optimize this novel drug-delivery system to treat DCM. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of glucose in chewing gum-related facilitation of cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Richard; Tunney, Richard J

    2004-10-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that chewing gum leads to cognitive benefits through improved delivery of glucose to the brain, by comparing the cognitive performance effects of gum and glucose administered separately and together. Participants completed a battery of cognitive tests in a fully related 2 x 2 design, where one factor was Chewing Gum (gum vs. mint sweet) and the other factor was Glucose Co-administration (consuming a 25 g glucose drink vs. consuming water). For four tests (AVLT Immediate Recall, Digit Span, Spatial Span and Grammatical Transformation), beneficial effects of chewing and glucose were found, supporting the study hypothesis. However, on AVLT Delayed Recall, enhancement due to chewing gum was not paralleled by glucose enhancement, suggesting an alternative mechanism. The glucose delivery model is supported with respect to the cognitive domains: working memory, immediate episodic long-term memory and language-based attention and processing speed. However, some other mechanism is more likely to underlie the facilitatory effect of chewing gum on delayed episodic long-term memory.

  11. Gum chewing improves swallow frequency and latency in Parkinson patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Angela R; Somers, Stephanie M; Jog, Mandar S

    2010-04-13

    Reduced swallowing frequency affects secretion management in Parkinson disease (PD). Gum chewing increases saliva flow and swallow frequency. This study uses chewing gum to modify swallow frequency and latency between swallows in patients with PD. 1) Assess the frequency and latency of swallow at baseline (BL), during gum chewing (GC), and post gum chewing (PGC) for participants with PD (stage 2-4) nonsymptomatic for prandial dysphagia; and 2) assess carryover after gum is expectorated. Twenty participants were studied across 3 tasks, each of 5 minutes in duration: BL, GC, and PGC. Respiratory and laryngeal signals were continuously recorded using PowerLab (version 5.5.5; ADI Instruments, Castle Hill, Australia). Frequency and latency of swallow events were calculated. Differences (analysis of variance) are reported for frequency (p Parkinson disease. This study provides Class III evidence that chewing gum increases swallow frequency and decreases latency of swallowing in an experiment in patients with stage 2 to 4 Parkinson disease who are nonsymptomatic for significant prandial dysphagia.

  12. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarika, P.R.; Cinthya, Kuriakose; Jayakrishnan, A.; Anilkumar, P.R.; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture

  13. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Cinthya, Kuriakose [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Jayakrishnan, A. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Anilkumar, P.R., E-mail: anilkumarpr@sctimst.ac.in [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); James, Nirmala Rachel, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2014-10-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture.

  14. Effects of caffeinated chewing gum on muscle pain during submaximal isometric exercise in individuals with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Masataka; Kempka, Laura; Weatherby, Amy; Greenlee, Brennan; Mansion, Kimberly

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity is important to manage symptom of fibromyalgia (FM); however, individuals with FM typically experience augmented muscle pain during exercise. This study examined the effects of caffeinated chewing gum on exercise-induced muscle pain in individuals with FM. This study was conducted with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Twenty-three patients with FM completed a caffeine condition where they consumed a caffeinated chewing gum that contains 100mg of caffeine, and a placebo condition where they consumed a non-caffeinated chewing gum. They completed isometric handgrip exercise at 25% of their maximal strength for 3 min, and muscle pain rating (MPR) was recorded every 30s during exercise. Clinical pain severity was assessed in each condition using a pain questionnaire. The order of the two conditions was randomly determined. MPR increased during exercise, but caffeinated chewing gum did not attenuate the increase in MPR compared to placebo gum. Clinical pain severity was generally associated with the average MPR and the caffeine effects on MPR, calculated as difference in the average MPR between the two conditions. The results suggest that more symptomatic individuals with FM may experience greater exercise-induced muscle pain, but benefit more from caffeinated chewing gum to reduce exercise-induced muscle pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The potential of dental-protective chewing gum in oral health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Kiet A; Milgrom, Peter; Rothen, Marilynn

    2008-05-01

    The authors provide an overview of chewing gum as a delivery vehicle for dental-protective agents, highlighting xylitol and its potential application in caries-prevention programs for children. The authors reviewed selected clinical investigations and previous reviews associated with chewing gum containing substances such as calcium, bicarbonate, carbamide, chlorhexidine, fluoride and xylitol and their effects on reducing caries. They searched the MEDLINE database by using the key words "dental caries," "oral health," "calcium," "bicarbonate," "carbamide," "chlorhexidine," "fluoride" and "xylitol." Chewing gum is being used as a delivery vehicle for substances such as calcium, bicarbonate, carbamide, chlorhexidine, fluoride and xylitol to improve oral health and reduce caries. These substances exhibit properties that are protective of the oral environment and mediate common oral diseases. The debate for advocating xylitol use in caries prevention is advancing; however, chewing gum use by young schoolchildren in the United States is hindered by choking hazard concerns and lack of specific xylitol dosing recommendations. The use of chewing gum containing dental-protective substances, particularly xylitol, in caries-prevention programs can reduce the tooth decay epidemic. Chewing gum use by children in the school setting should be reconsidered.

  16. Pharmacological properties of guggulsterones, the major active components of gum guggul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rohan; Gulati, Vandana; Palombo, Enzo A

    2012-11-01

    Oleo gum resin secreted by Commiphora mukul, also known as gum guggul, has been used widely as an ayurvedic drug. Commiphora mukul is a short thorny shrub that is native to the Indian subcontinent. Oleo gum resin extracted by incision of the bark is a very complex mixture of gum, minerals, essential oils, terpenes, sterols, ferrulates, flavanones and sterones. Its active constituents, the Z- and E-guggulsterones, have been demonstrated to exhibit their biological activities by binding to nuclear receptors and modulating the expression of proteins involved in carcinogenic activities. Guggulsterones have also been reported to regulate gene expression by exhibiting control over other molecular targets including transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and steroid receptors. Considerable scientific evidence indicates the use of gum guggul as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammation, nervous disorders, hyperlipidaemia and associated cardiac disorders such as hypertension and ischaemia, skin disorders, cancer and urinary disorders. This review highlights the taxonomic details, phytochemical properties and pharmacological profile of gum guggul. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. QbD based synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide grafted corn fibre gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akashdeep; Mangla, Bhumika; Sethi, Sheshank; Kamboj, Sunil; Sharma, Radhika; Rana, Vikas

    2017-01-20

    The aim of present investigation was to utilize quality by design approach for the synthesis of polyacrylamide corn fibre gum (PAAm-g-CFG) from corn fibre gum (CFG) by varying concentration of acrylamide and initiator. The spectral analysis (ATR-FTIR, 1 H NMR, DSC, X-ray and Mass spectroscopy) was conducted to assure grafting copolymerization of CFG with acrylamide. The powder flow properties confirm the porous nature of PAAm-g-CFG. The grafted copolymer dispersion showed shear thinning behaviour that follows Herschel Bulkley model. The viscoelastic analysis suggested viscous liquid like nature of PAAm-g-CFG and its viscosity increases with increase in concentration of PAAm-g-CFG. The mucoadhesive strength of synthesized PAAm-g-CFG was found to be higher than moringa oleifera gum, karaya gum, guar gum, xanthan gum, chitosan and gelatin. Further, the results pointed toward enhanced thermal stability of PAAm-g-CFG. Thus, PAAm-g-CFG has a great potential to be used in food and pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Water adsorption isotherms of carboxymethyl cellulose, guar, locust bean, tragacanth and xanthan gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, María D; Moreira, Ramón; Chenlo, Francisco; Vázquez, María J

    2012-06-20

    Water adsorption isotherms of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), guar gum (GG), locust bean gum (LBG), tragacanth gum (TG) and xanthan gum (XG) were determined at different temperatures (20, 35, 50, and 65°C) using a gravimetric method. Several saturated salt solutions were selected to obtain different water activities in the range from 0.09 to 0.91. Water adsorption isotherms of tested hydrocolloids were classified like type II isotherms. In all cases, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature at each water activity value. Three-parameter Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was employed to fit the experimental data in the water activity range and statistical analysis indicated that this model gave satisfactory results. CMC and GG were the most and the least hygroscopic gums, respectively. Sorption heats decreased with increasing moisture content. Monolayer moisture content evaluated with GAB model was consistent with equilibrium conditions of maximum stability calculated from thermodynamic analysis of net integral entropy. Values of equilibrium relative humidity at 20°C are proposed to storage adequately the tested gums. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of gum tragacanth on the physicochemical and rheological properties of kashk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Gorji, Elham Ghorbani; Ezzatpanah, Hamid; Zohouri, Nilofar

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the physicochemical properties of a low-fat dried yogurt paste (kashk) were determined, and the effects of different concentrations (0, 0·1, 0·3 and 0·5% w/w) of gum tragacanth exudates from Astragalus gossypinus on the stability and texture of the samples were investigated by measuring amount of syneresis, turbidity, particle size distribution (PSD), flow behaviour and viscoelastic properties. The flow behaviour index was not very sensitive to the concentration of gum, while a remarkable concentration dependency of the power-law consistency coefficient and Herschel-Bulkley yield stress was observed. The initial increase in the gum concentration at 0·1 and 0·3% levels led to a higher degree of syneresis, which was related to the depletion flocculation mechanism. However, the reduced amount of syneresis in samples containing 0·5% gum tragacanth was attributed to the significant increase in viscosity of the continuous phase, which is also accompanied by trapping of the aggregated casein particles. The presence of 3% salt in the samples may have led to the neutralization of charges on the surface of gum tragacanth; consequently, the non-adsorbing behaviour of high-ionic-strength polysaccharides inhibited the formation of electrostatic protein-polysaccharide complexes. Furthermore, maximum values of polydispersity, syneresis and tan δ at high frequencies were found in samples containing 0·1% gum tragacanth.

  20. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

    2001-07-01

    An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks.

  1. Characterization of new biodegradable edible film made from basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Naimeh; Esmaiili, Mohsen; Djomeh, Zahra Emam; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Jouki, Mohammad

    2014-02-15

    It is well known that the market for edible films is experiencing remarkable growth and expected to continue. This study investigated the using of basil seed gum (BSG) as a new film-forming material under the influence of addition of glycerol (GLY) as plasticizer. Edible films based on BSG and three different concentrations of GLY (25%, 35%, and 50% w/w BSG) were developed, and their water vapor permeability (WVP), as well as physical, thermal and mechanical properties were measured. The addition of glycerol significantly increased water vapor permeability and solubility of the film (p<0.05). As expected, the increase in GLY concentration from 25% to 50% (w/w) increased the extensibility, but decreased tensile strength. This suggests weaker mechanical strength and higher mobility of polymer chains by plasticizing effect of GLY. The color measurement values showed that increasing the glycerol concentration in polymer matrix caused the b and L values increased while ΔE value decreased. The electron scanning micrograph showed plasticized films as smooth, and uniform which lacked pores or cracks compared with those were not plasticized. This study revealed that the BSG had a good potential to be used in producing edible films for various food applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving the water solubility of Monascus pigments under acidic conditions with gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wenjie; Sun, Yuanming; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2017-07-01

    Monascus pigments (Mps) are natural food colorants and their stability in acidic solutions is important for application in the food industry. This study aimed to evaluate the use of gum arabic (GA) as a stabilizer for maintaining the solubility of Mps in an acidic aqueous solution exposed to a high temperature, and to analyze the molecular interactions between GA and Mps. Mps dispersed (0.2 g kg -1 ) in deionized water at pH 3.0-4.0 without GA formed precipitates but remained in a stable solution in the presence of GA (1 g kg -1 ). The significant improvement of Mps water solubility under acidic conditions was attributed to the formation of Mps-GA complexes, as indicated by a sharp increase in the fluorescence intensity. The results on particle size, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy further suggested that molecular binding of Mps to GA, electrostatic repulsion, and steric hindrance of GA were contributing factors to preventing the aggregation of Mps in acidic solutions. A mechanistic model was presented for GA-Mps interactions and complex structures. GA was proven to be an effective stabilizer of natural food colorants in acidic solutions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The deformation of Gum Metal through in situ compression of nanopillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withey, E.A.; Minor, A.M.; Chrzan, D.C.; Morris, J.W.; Kuramoto, S.

    2010-01-01

    The name 'Gum Metal' has been given to a set of β-Ti alloys that achieve exceptional elastic elongation and, with appropriate preparation, appear to deform by a dislocation-free mechanism triggered by elastic instability at the limit of strength. We have studied the compressive deformation of these materials with in situ nanocompression in a quantitative stage in a transmission electron microscope. The samples studied are cylindrical nanopillars 80-250 nm in diameter. The deformation pattern is monitored in real time using bright-field microscopy, dark-field microscopy or electron diffraction. Interesting results include the following: (i) nanopillars approach, and in several examples appear to reach, ideal strength; (ii) in contrast to conventional crystalline materials, there is no substantial 'size effect' in pillar strength; (iii) the deformation mode is fine-scale with respect to the sample dimension, even in pillars of 100 nm size; (iv) shear bands ('giant faults') do form in some tests, but only after yield and plastic deformation; and (v) a martensitic transformation to the base-centered orthorhombic α'' phase is sometimes observed, but is an incidental feature of the deformation rather than a significant cause of it.

  4. Multiple functionalities of Ni nanoparticles embedded in carboxymethyl guar gum polymer: catalytic activity and superparamagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardar, Debasmita [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Sengupta, Manideepa; Bordoloi, Ankur [Nano Catalysis, Catalytic Conversion and Process Division, CSIR—Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP), Mohkampur, Dehradun 248005 (India); Ahmed, Md. A.; Neogi, S.K.; Bandyopadhyay, Sudipta [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Jain, Ruchi; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S. [Catalysis Division and Center of Excellence on Surface Science, CSIR—National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411 008 (India); Bala, Tanushree, E-mail: tanushreebala@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Ni nanoparticles were synthesized in polymer to form Ni-Polymer composite. • Ni nanoparticles retain their superparamagnetism in the composite. • Ni-Polymer composites showed catalytic activity. - Abstract: Composites comprising of metallic nanoparticles in polymer matrices have allured significant importance due to multifunctionalities. Here a simple protocol has been described to embed Ni nanoparticles in carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) polymer. The composite formation helps in the stabilization of Ni nanoparticles which are otherwise prone towards aerial oxidation. Further the nanoparticles retain their superparamagnetic nature and catalytic capacity. Ni-Polymer composite catalyses the reduction of 4-Nitrophenol to 4-Aminophenol very efficiently in presence of NaBH{sub 4}, attaining a complete conversion under some experimental conditions. Ni-Polymer composite is well characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XPS, powder XRD, TGA, SEM and TEM. A detailed magnetic measurement using superconducting quantum interference device-vibrating sample magnetometer (SQUID-VSM) reveals superparamagnetic behaviour of the composite.

  5. Factors affecting microstructure, physicochemical and textural properties of a novel Gum tragacanth-PVA blend cryogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknia, Nushin; Kadkhodaee, Rassoul

    2017-01-02

    Gum tragacanth (GT) gels are usually formed by using chemical crosslinkers which cause safety concerns owing to their toxicity. This study introduces a novel and safe method for gelation of GT in the presence of small amounts of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) followed by successive freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles. Gel formation was performed at two GT: PVA mixing ratios (1:1 and 3:1), four F-T consecutive cycles and two different thawing temperatures (25 and 5°C). Gel fraction, syneresis as well as mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of the resultant gels were then studied. Gel fraction and mechanical properties improved by increasing F-T cycles and decreasing thawing temperature. Gel fraction increased by increasing the number of F-T cycles and decreasing the thawing temperature. Syneresis increased by increasing F-T cycles at GT: PVA mixing ratio of 1:1; whilst it was diminished at GT: PVA mixing ratio of 3:1. Microstructural observations by SEM confirmed mechanical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microscopic study of gum-metal alloys: A role of trace oxygen for dislocation-free deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasako, Naoyuki; Asahi, Ryoji; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Kuramoto, Shigeru; Furuta, Tadahiko

    2016-01-01

    A class of Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr–O alloys called gum metal are known to display high strength, low Young's modulus and high elastic deformability up to 2.5%, simultaneously, and considered to deform by a dislocation-free deformation mechanism. A trace of oxygen (∼1%) in gum metal is indispensable to realize such significant properties; however, the detailed mechanism and the role of the oxygen has not been understood. To investigate an effect of trace oxygen included in gum metal, first-principles calculations for gum-metal approximants including zirconium and oxygen are performed. Calculated results clearly indicate that oxygen site with less neighboring Nb atom is energetically favorable, and that Zr–O bonding has an important role to stabilize the bcc structure of gum metal. The three-dimensional atom-probe tomography (3-D APT) measurements for gum metal were also performed to identify compositional inhomogeneity attributed to the trace elements. From the 3-D APT measurements, Zr ions bonding with oxygen ions are observed, which indicates existence of Zr–O nano-clusters in gum metal. Consequently, it is found that (a) coexistence of Zr atom and oxygen atom improves elastical stability of gum metal, (b) inhomogeneous distribution of the compositions induced by the trace elements causes anisotropical change of shear moduli, and (c) Zr–O nano-clusters existing in gum metal are expected to be obstacles to suppress movemen of dislocations.

  7. [done no pages] An overview on applications of guar gum in food systems to modify structural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana B. Popova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides define as complex polymers composed of units interlinked with glycosidic bonds originated naturally. Polysaccharides are categorizing in several groups and among them, Gums are those with critical roles in food systems. Guar Gum is imparting softness, emulsification, stabilizing via its addition to formulas. This Gum is a fast soluble in cold water and can be active in a wide range of pH. The aim of this overview is giving an initial concept about guar gum and then convey to an introduction of its applications in food industries.

  8. Texture of low-fat Iranian White cheese as influenced by gum tragacanth as a fat replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, J; Khosrowshahi, A; Madadlou, A; Aziznia, S

    2007-09-01

    The effect of different concentrations of gum tragacanth on the textural characteristics of low-fat Iranian White cheese was studied during ripening. A batch of full-fat and 5 batches of low-fat Iranian White cheeses with different gum tragacanth concentrations (without gum or with 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1 g of gum/kg of milk) were produced to study the effects of fat content reduction and gum concentration on the textural and functional properties of the product during ripening. Cheese samples were analyzed with respect to chemical, color, and sensory characteristics, rheological parameters (uniaxial compression and small-amplitude oscillatory shear), and microstructure. Reducing the fat content had an adverse effect on cheese yield, sensory characteristics, and the texture of Iranian White cheese, and it increased the instrumental hardness parameters (i.e., fracture stress, elastic modulus, storage modulus, and complex modulus). However, increasing the gum tragacanth concentration reduced the values of instrumental hardness parameters and increased the whiteness of cheese. Although when the gum concentration was increased, the low-fat cheese somewhat resembled its full-fat counterpart, the interaction of the gum concentration with ripening time caused visible undesirable effects on cheese characteristics by the sixth week of ripening. Cheeses with a high gum tragacanth concentration became very soft and their solid texture declined somewhat.

  9. Viscoelastic gels of guar and xanthan gum mixtures provide long-term stabilization of iron micro- and nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Dingqi [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia-DISAT and Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Ambiente, del Territorio e delle Infrastrutture-DIATI (Italy); Sethi, Rajandrea, E-mail: rajandrea.sethi@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Ambiente, del Territorio e delle Infrastrutture-DIATI (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    Iron micro- and nanoparticles used for groundwater remediation and medical applications are prone to fast aggregation and sedimentation. Diluted single biopolymer water solutions of guar gum (GG) or xanthan gum (XG) can stabilize these particles for few hours providing steric repulsion and by increasing the viscosity of the suspension. The goal of the study is to demonstrate that amending GG solutions with small amounts of XG (XG/GG weight ratio 1:19; 3 g/L of total biopolymer concentration) can significantly improve the capability of the biopolymer to stabilize highly concentrated iron micro- and nanoparticle suspensions. The synergistic effect between GG and XG generates a viscoelastic gel that can maintain 20 g/L iron particles suspended for over 24 h. This is attributed to (i) an increase in the static viscosity, (ii) a combined polymer structure the yield stress of which contrasts the downward stress exerted by the iron particles, and (iii) the adsorption of the polymers to the iron surface having an anchoring effect on the particles. The XG/GG viscoelastic gel is characterized by a marked shear thinning behavior. This property, coupled with the low biopolymer concentration, determines small viscosity values at high shear rates, facilitating the injection in porous media. Furthermore, the thermosensitivity of the soft elastic polymeric network promotes higher stability and longer storage times at low temperatures and rapid decrease of viscosity at higher temperatures. This feature can be exploited in order to improve the flowability and the delivery of the suspensions to the target as well as to effectively tune and control the release of the iron particles.

  10. Viscoelastic gels of guar and xanthan gum mixtures provide long-term stabilization of iron micro- and nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Dingqi; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2012-01-01

    Iron micro- and nanoparticles used for groundwater remediation and medical applications are prone to fast aggregation and sedimentation. Diluted single biopolymer water solutions of guar gum (GG) or xanthan gum (XG) can stabilize these particles for few hours providing steric repulsion and by increasing the viscosity of the suspension. The goal of the study is to demonstrate that amending GG solutions with small amounts of XG (XG/GG weight ratio 1:19; 3 g/L of total biopolymer concentration) can significantly improve the capability of the biopolymer to stabilize highly concentrated iron micro- and nanoparticle suspensions. The synergistic effect between GG and XG generates a viscoelastic gel that can maintain 20 g/L iron particles suspended for over 24 h. This is attributed to (i) an increase in the static viscosity, (ii) a combined polymer structure the yield stress of which contrasts the downward stress exerted by the iron particles, and (iii) the adsorption of the polymers to the iron surface having an anchoring effect on the particles. The XG/GG viscoelastic gel is characterized by a marked shear thinning behavior. This property, coupled with the low biopolymer concentration, determines small viscosity values at high shear rates, facilitating the injection in porous media. Furthermore, the thermosensitivity of the soft elastic polymeric network promotes higher stability and longer storage times at low temperatures and rapid decrease of viscosity at higher temperatures. This feature can be exploited in order to improve the flowability and the delivery of the suspensions to the target as well as to effectively tune and control the release of the iron particles.

  11. Spatially Resolved Hα Maps and Sizes of 57 Strongly Star-forming Galaxies at z ~ 1 from 3D-HST: Evidence for Rapid Inside-out Assembly of Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erica June; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Förster Schreiber, Natascha; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Kriek, Mariska; Labbe, Ivo; Lundgren, Britt; Quadri, Ryan; Schmidt, Kasper B.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the buildup of galaxies at z ~ 1 using maps of Hα and stellar continuum emission for a sample of 57 galaxies with rest-frame Hα equivalent widths >100 Å in the 3D-HST grism survey. We find that the Hα emission broadly follows the rest-frame R-band light but that it is typically somewhat more extended and clumpy. We quantify the spatial distribution with the half-light radius. The median Hα effective radius re (Hα) is 4.2 ± 0.1 kpc but the sizes span a large range, from compact objects with re (Hα) ~ 1.0 kpc to extended disks with re (Hα) ~ 15 kpc. Comparing Hα sizes to continuum sizes, we find =1.3 ± 0.1 for the full sample. That is, star formation, as traced by Hα, typically occurs out to larger radii than the rest-frame R-band stellar continuum; galaxies are growing their radii and building up from the inside out. This effect appears to be somewhat more pronounced for the largest galaxies. Using the measured Hα sizes, we derive star formation rate surface densities, ΣSFR. We find that ΣSFR ranges from ~0.05 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 for the largest galaxies to ~5 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 for the smallest galaxies, implying a large range in physical conditions in rapidly star-forming z ~ 1 galaxies. Finally, we infer that all galaxies in the sample have very high gas mass fractions and stellar mass doubling times <500 Myr. Although other explanations are also possible, a straightforward interpretation is that we are simultaneously witnessing the rapid formation of compact bulges and large disks at z ~ 1.

  12. SPATIALLY RESOLVED Hα MAPS AND SIZES OF 57 STRONGLY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1 FROM 3D-HST: EVIDENCE FOR RAPID INSIDE-OUT ASSEMBLY OF DISK GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Erica June; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Lundgren, Britt; Brammer, Gabriel; Förster Schreiber, Natascha; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Labbe, Ivo; Rix, Hans-Walter; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Kriek, Mariska; Quadri, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the buildup of galaxies at z ∼ 1 using maps of Hα and stellar continuum emission for a sample of 57 galaxies with rest-frame Hα equivalent widths >100 Å in the 3D-HST grism survey. We find that the Hα emission broadly follows the rest-frame R-band light but that it is typically somewhat more extended and clumpy. We quantify the spatial distribution with the half-light radius. The median Hα effective radius r e (Hα) is 4.2 ± 0.1 kpc but the sizes span a large range, from compact objects with r e (Hα) ∼ 1.0 kpc to extended disks with r e (Hα) ∼ 15 kpc. Comparing Hα sizes to continuum sizes, we find e (Hα)/r e (R) > =1.3 ± 0.1 for the full sample. That is, star formation, as traced by Hα, typically occurs out to larger radii than the rest-frame R-band stellar continuum; galaxies are growing their radii and building up from the inside out. This effect appears to be somewhat more pronounced for the largest galaxies. Using the measured Hα sizes, we derive star formation rate surface densities, Σ SFR . We find that Σ SFR ranges from ∼0.05 M ☉ yr –1 kpc –2 for the largest galaxies to ∼5 M ☉ yr –1 kpc –2 for the smallest galaxies, implying a large range in physical conditions in rapidly star-forming z ∼ 1 galaxies. Finally, we infer that all galaxies in the sample have very high gas mass fractions and stellar mass doubling times <500 Myr. Although other explanations are also possible, a straightforward interpretation is that we are simultaneously witnessing the rapid formation of compact bulges and large disks at z ∼ 1.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of tragacanth gum based hydrogels by radiation method for use in wound dressing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Varshney, Lalit; Francis, Sanju; Rajneesh

    2017-06-01

    Keeping in view the inherent wound healing ability of tragacanth gum (TG), mucoadhesive and gel forming nature of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), in the present work, an attempt has been made to prepare the antibiotic drug 'gentamicin' and analgesic drug 'lidocaine' loaded sterile TG-PVA-PVP hydrogel dressings for care of wound infection and wound pain together. These polymers were characterized by cryo-SEM, AFM, FTIR, XRD, 13C NMR, TGA, DSC and swelling studies. Drug release mechanism and kinetic models, network parameters and other properties like haemolysis, mucoadhesion, water vapor permeability, microbial penetration, antioxidant activities and oxygen permeability were also determined. The results showed wound fluid absorption and slow drug release ability of hydrogel films. These polymer films were found to be blood compatible, permeable to water vapor and O2, and impermeable to microorganism. Further, the synergic effects of mucoadhesive, antimicrobial and antioxidant nature of hydrogel dressings will make them suitable candidate for wound management.

  14. Asparagus polysaccharide and gum with hepatic artery embolization induces tumor growth and inhibits angiogenesis in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Ling-Ling; Xiang, Jian-Feng; Lin, Jin-Bo; Yi, Shang-Hui; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yi-Sheng; Zeng, Hao-Tao; Lin, Sheng-Ming; Xin, Dong-Wei; Zhao, Hai-Liang; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Min-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer is one of leading digestive malignancies with high morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapies for this deadly disease. It has been proven that asparagus polysaccharide, one of the most active derivates from the traditional medicine asparagus, possesses notable antitumor properties. However, little is known about the efficacy of asparagus polysaccharide as an adjuvant for liver cancer chemotherapy. Herein, we reported that asparagus polysaccharide and its embolic agent form, asparagus gum, significantly inhibited liver tumor growth with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) therapy in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor model, while significantly inhibiting angiogenesis and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, asparagine gelatinous possessed immunomodulatory functions and showed little toxicity to the host. These results highlight the chemotherapeutic potential of asparagus polysaccharide and warrant a future focus on development as novel chemotherapeutic agent for liver cancer TACE therapy.

  15. Effect of gum arabic in an oral rehydration solution on recovery from diarrhea in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichberg, S; Wingertzahn, M A; Moyse, J; Wapnir, R A

    1999-10-01

    It has been shown that gum arabic, a soluble fiber, enhances water, electrolyte, and glucose absorption from oral rehydration solutions in jejunal perfusion of healthy rats and in animals with theophylline-induced secretion or chronic osmotic-secretory diarrhea. This report concerns a study of the effectiveness of an oral rehydration solution supplemented with gum arabic, during recovery from chronic osmotic secretory diarrhea in free-living rats. Chronic diarrhea was induced in 60- to 80-g juvenile rats by providing a magnesium citrate-phenolphthalein solution as the sole fluid source for 7 days. This led to diarrhea characterized by dehydration, soft stools, increased cecal volume, decreased food and fluid intake and failure to gain weight. After 7 days of diarrhea, rats recovered for 24 hours with either tap water or an oral rehydration solution (90 mM Na, 111 mM glucose, 20 mM K, 80 mM chloride, 20 mM citrate) with or without 2.5 g/l gum arabic. Although all three solutions improved the diarrhea, optimal recovery from diarrhea was achieved with the gum arabic-supplemented oral rehydration solution. After 4 hours and 24 hours, rats drinking the gum arabic-supplemented solution gained more weight and had lower fecal output than rats receiving water or the rehydration solution without gum arabic. All three solutions normalized plasma osmolality after 24 hours. The positive effects of the gum arabic-supplemented rehydration solution on fluid and electrolyte absorption seen during jejunal perfusion also occurred during recovery from chronic osmotic secretory diarrhea, when free-living animals drank the solution ad libitum.

  16. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: (a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; (b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); (c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence, the nicotine dependence syndrome scale, the cigarette dependence scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (≤3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of xanthan gum on the structural characteristics of myofibrillar proteins treated by high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamonte, Gina; Jury, Vanessa; Jung, Stéphanie; de Lamballerie, Marie

    2015-03-01

    The effects of xanthan gum on the structural modifications of myofibrillar proteins (0.3 M NaCl, pH 6) induced by high pressure (200, 400, and 600 MPa, 6 min) were investigated. The changes in the secondary and tertiary structures of myofibrillar proteins were analyzed by circular dichroism. The protein denaturation was also evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry. Likewise, the protein surface hydrophobicity and the solubility of myofibrillar proteins were measured. High pressure (600 MPa) induced the loss of α-helix structures and an increase of β-sheet structures. However, the presence of xanthan gum hindered the former mechanism of protein denaturation by high pressure. In fact, changes in the secondary (600 MPa) and the tertiary structure fingerprint of high-pressure-treated myofibrillar proteins (400 to 600 MPa) were observed in the presence of xanthan gum. These modifications were confirmed by the thermal analysis, the thermal transitions of high-pressure (400 to 600 MPa)-treated myofibrillar proteins were modified in systems containing xanthan gum. As consequence, the high-pressure-treated myofibrillar proteins with xanthan gum showed increased solubility from 400 MPa, in contrast to high-pressure treatment (600 MPa) without xanthan gum. Moreover, the surface hydrophobicity of high-pressure-treated myofibrillar proteins was enhanced in the presence of xanthan gum. These effects could be due to the unfolding of myofibrillar proteins at high-pressure levels, which exposed sites that most likely interacted with the anionic polysaccharide. This study suggests that the role of food additives could be considered for the development of meat products produced by high-pressure processing. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Gum acacia mitigates genetic damage in adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B H; Al Balushi, K; Al-Husseini, I; Mandel, P; Nemmar, A; Schupp, N; Ribeiro, D A

    2015-12-01

    Subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF) exhibit oxidative genome damage, which may predispose to carcinogenesis, and Gum acacia (GumA) ameliorates this condition in humans and animals. We evaluated here renal DNA damage and urinary excretion of four nucleic acid oxidation adducts namely 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 8-oxoguanosine (8-oxoGuo) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanisone (8-OHdg) in rats with adenine (ADE)-induced CRF with and without GumA treatment. Twenty-four rats were divided into four equal groups and treated for 4 weeks. The first group was given normal food and water (control). The second group was given normal food and GumA (15% w/v) in drinking water. The third group was fed powder diet containing adenine (ADE) (0·75% w/w in feed). The fourth group was fed like in the third group, plus GumA in drinking water (15%, w/v). ADE feeding induced CRF (as measured by several physiological, biochemical and histological indices) and also caused a significant genetic damage and significant decreases in urinary 8-oxo Gua and 8-oxoGuo, but not in the other nucleic acids. However, concomitant GumA treatment reduced the level of genetic damage in kidney cells as detected by Comet assay and significantly reversed the effect of adenine on urinary 8-oxoGuo. Treatment with GumA is able to mitigate genetic damage in renal tissues of rats with ADE-induced CRF. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  19. The effects of dietary gum tragacanth in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, M A; Brydon, W G; Anderson, D M

    1984-04-01

    Following a 7-day control period, 5 male volunteers consumed 9.9 g gum tragacanth (GT) daily for 21 days. The GT was well tolerated and there were no adverse effects in any of the volunteers. The daily intake was very high in relation to the minor amounts of GT (estimated at 2 g per person per annum) likely to be ingested as a foodstuffs additive. The wide range of measurements made before and at the end of the test period show that the ingestion of GT had no significant effect on any of the following: plasma biochemistry; haematological indices; urinalysis parameters; glucose tolerance; serum cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids; breath hydrogen and methane concentrations. The intestinal transit time decreased and faecal fat concentration increased (P less than 0.01) for 4 subjects. The faecal wet and dry weights increased in all subjects (P less than 0.01). These changes may be of nutritional and physiological interest but do not reflect any adverse toxicological effects arising from the ingestion of large daily doses of GT.

  20. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart J. F. Keijser

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis.Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165. One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA. Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism.Conclusion: The results showed that

  1. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, Bart J F; van den Broek, Tim J; Slot, Dagmar E; van Twillert, Lodewic; Kool, Jolanda; Thabuis, Clémentine; Ossendrijver, Michel; van der Weijden, Fridus A; Montijn, Roy C

    2018-01-01

    Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis. Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165). One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative) aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA). Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism. Conclusion: The results showed that chewing itself

  2. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, Bart J. F.; van den Broek, Tim J.; Slot, Dagmar E.; van Twillert, Lodewic; Kool, Jolanda; Thabuis, Clémentine; Ossendrijver, Michel; van der Weijden, Fridus A.; Montijn, Roy C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis. Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165). One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative) aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA). Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism. Conclusion: The results showed that chewing itself

  3. A SANS study of the adsorption of guar gum on talc surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, S.L.; Knott, R.; Hanley, H.

    2002-01-01

    Reagents based on guar gum are commonly used as 'gangue' depressants in the flotation of sulphides from ores containing naturally floating layer silicate minerals such as talc. Nickel sulphide ores processed by WMC Resources Ltd. at the Leinster Nickel Operations in Western Australia typically contain 1-2 % talc. Guar gum, added to the flotation cell, depresses the talc by adsorbing onto its surface, thereby reducing its hydrophobic nature. Guar gum is a long chain polysaccharide containing many hydroxyl functional groups along the length of its chain. The ratio of chain length to the number of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups causes the guar gum to be selective in depressing talc rather than nickel sulphide minerals. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) it is an excellent tool for probing structures in the nano length scale. Unlike X-rays, neutrons are sensitive to low atomic weight elements, especially hydrogen and therefore organics. Using SANS it is possible to contrast different parts of a composite sample to get information on spatial arrangements. These qualities make SANS an obvious choice for studying the adsorption of guar gum on the surface of talc in aqueous solutions. Complimentary SANS experiments were carried out in Australia at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and in the United States at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Initially talc samples were studied 'as supplied', however as experiments proceeded attempts to reduce the particle size and distribution were carried out by milling and centrifuging procedures. Contrast matching techniques were used to observed the scattering behaviour of talc with and without the presence of guar gum and vice versa, over a total q range of 0.002 - 0.1 Angstroms -1 . The size of the talc particles appears to affect the scattering behaviour not only of talc but also of guar gum in the same solutions. This implies that the structure of the guar gum is strongly

  4. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2014-08-01

    Guar gum is a polysaccharide obtained from guar seed endosperm portion. Enzymatically hydrolyzed guar gum is low in viscosity and has several health benefits as dietary fiber. In this study, response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum conditions for hydrolysis that give minimum viscosity of guar gum. Central composite was employed to investigate the effects of pH (3-7), temperature (20-60 °C), reaction time (1-5 h) and cellulase concentration (0.25-1.25 mg/g) on viscosity during enzymatic hydrolysis of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus) gum. A second order polynomial model was developed for viscosity using regression analysis. Results revealed statistical significance of model as evidenced from high value of coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.9472) and P < 0.05. Viscosity was primarily affected by cellulase concentration, pH and hydrolysis time. Maximum viscosity reduction was obtained when pH, temperature, hydrolysis time and cellulase concentration were 6, 50 °C, 4 h and 1.00 mg/g, respectively. The study is important in optimizing the enzymatic process for hydrolysis of guar gum as potential source of soluble dietary fiber for human health benefits.

  5. Behavioral economic substitutability of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Johnson, Patrick S; Rass, Olga; Pacek, Lauren R

    2017-07-01

    The public health impact of e-cigarettes may depend on their substitutability for tobacco cigarettes. Dual users of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes completed purchasing tasks in which they specified daily use levels under hypothetical conditions that varied the availability and price of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum (for those with nicotine gum experience). When either e-cigarettes or tobacco cigarettes were the only available commodity, as price per puff increased, purchasing decreased, revealing similar reinforcement profiles. When available concurrently, as the price of tobacco puffs increased, purchasing of tobacco puffs decreased while purchasing of fixed-price e-cigarette puffs increased. Among those with nicotine gum experience, when the price of tobacco puffs was closest to the actual market value of tobacco puffs, e-cigarette availability decreased median tobacco puff purchases by 44% compared to when tobacco was available alone. In contrast, nicotine gum availability caused no decrease in tobacco puff purchases. E-cigarettes may serve as a behavioral economic substitute for tobacco cigarettes, and may be a superior substitute compared to nicotine gum in their ability to decrease tobacco use. Although important questions remain regarding the health impacts of e-cigarettes, these data are consistent with the possibility that e-cigarettes may serve as smoking cessation/reduction aids.

  6. Properties of a color-changeable chewing gum used to evaluate masticatory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Yohei; Kanazawa, Manabu; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Uchida, Tatsuro; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-01

    To clarify the basic properties of a color-changeable chewing gum to determine its applicability to evaluations of masticatory performance under different types of dental status. Ten participants with natural dentition aged 26-30 years chewed gum that changes color during several chewing strokes over five repetitions. Changes in color were assessed using a colorimeter, and then L*, a*, and b* values in the CIELAB color system were quantified. Relationships between chewing progression and color changes were assessed using regression analysis and the reliability of color changes was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. We then measured 42 dentate participants (age, 22-31 years) and 47 complete denture wearers (age, 44-90 years) to determine the detectability of masticatory performance under two types of dental status. Regression between the number of chewing strokes and the difference between two colors was non-linear. The intraclass correlation coefficients were highest between 60 and 160 chewing strokes. Dentate and edentulous groups significantly differed (Wilcoxon rank sum test) and values were widely distributed within each group. The color of the chewing gum changed over a wide range, which was sufficient to evaluate the masticatory performance of individuals with natural dentition and those with complete dentures. Changes in the color values of the gum reliably reflected masticatory performance. These findings indicate that the color-changeable chewing gum will be useful for evaluating masticatory performance under any dental status. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gum in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. shoots induced by methyl jasmonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well known that some fungal pathogens (Monilia laxa, M. fructigena, Cytospora cincta, larvae of Grapholita molesta and plant hormone - ethylene, induce gummosis in apricot shoots. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me was also found to induce gummosis in apricot shoots as well as biotic and abiotic factors mentioned above. In order to know the mode of action of JA-Me on gum induction and/or formation, chemical composition of polysaccharides (after hydrolysis in gums of apricot shoots induced by JA-Me compared with those by ethephon and their mixture, and naturally occurring ones was studied, resulted in the succesful identification of monosaccharides, and the similarity of a composition consisting of xylose, arabinose and galactose at molar ratio 1:10:14, respectively. These results suggest that beside different inducers of gum in apricot the mechanism of polysaccharides biosynthesis of gums is the same or similar. The physiological role for JA-Me on gum induction and/or formation in apricot shoots, and other species are also discussed.

  8. Synthesis of oxidized guar gum by dry method and its application in reactive dye printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Honghong; Liu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Bing; Cui, Dapeng; Gao, Chunmei; Ni, Boli; Chen, Jiucun

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare oxidized guar gum with a simple dry method, basing on guar gum, hydrogen peroxide and a small amount of solvent. To obtain a product with suitable viscosity for reactive dye printing, the effects of various factors such as the amount of oxidant and solvent, reaction temperature and time were studied with respect to the viscosity of reaction products. The product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The hydrated rate of guar gum and oxidized guar gum was estimated through measuring the required time when their solutions (1%, w/v) reached the maximum viscosity. The effects of the salt concentration and pH on viscosity of the resultant product were studied. The mixed paste containing oxidized guar gum and carboxymethyl starch was prepared and its viscosity was determined by the viscometer. The rheological property of the mixed paste was appraised by the printing viscosity index. In addition, the applied effect of mixed paste in reactive dye printing was examined by assessing the fabric stiffness, color yield and sharp edge to the printed image in comparison with sodium alginate. And the results indicated that the mixed paste could partially replace sodium alginate as thickener in reactive dye printing. The study also showed that the method was low cost and eco-friendly and the product would have an extensive application in reactive dye printing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderling, Eva; ElSalhy, Mohamed; Honkala, Eino; Fontana, Margherita; Flannagan, Susan; Eckert, George; Kokaras, Alexis; Paster, Bruce; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Honkala, Sisko

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the salivary microbiota of children. The study was a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial. Healthy children used xylitol chewing gum (xylitol group, n = 35) or sorbitol chewing gum (control group, n = 38) for 5 weeks. The daily dose of xylitol/sorbitol was approximately 6 g/day. At baseline and at the end of the test period, unstimulated and paraffin-stimulated saliva were collected. The microbial composition of the saliva was assessed using human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM). Mutans streptococci (MS) were plate cultured. As judged by HOMIM results, no xylitol-induced changes in the salivary microbiota took place in the xylitol group. In the control group, Veillonella atypica showed a significant decrease (p = 0.0001). The xylitol gum chewing decreased viable counts of MS in both stimulated (p = 0.006) and unstimulated (p = 0.002) saliva, but similar effects were also seen in the control group. The use of xylitol gum decreased MS, in general, but did not change the salivary microbial composition. Short-term consumption of xylitol had no impact on the composition of the salivary microbiota, but resulted in a decrease in the levels of MS.

  10. Surface analysis characterisation of gum binders used in modern watercolour paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoko; Cumpson, Peter J.

    2016-02-01

    Conducting this study has demonstrated that not only SEM-EDX but also XPS can be an efficient tool for characterising watercolour paint surfaces. We find that surface effects are mediated by water. Once the powdered components in the watercolour come into contact with water they dramatically transform their chemical structures at the surface and show the presence of pigment components with a random dispersion within the gum layer. Hence the topmost surface of the paint is confirmed as being composed of the gum binder components. This result is difficult to confirm using just one analytical technique (either XPS or SEM-EDX). In addition, peak fitting of C1s XPS spectra suggests that the gum binder in the commercial watercolour paints is probably gum arabic (by comparison with the reference materials). This identification is not conclusive, but the combination techniques of XPS and SEM shows the surface structure with material distribution of the gum binder and the other ingredients of the watercolour paints. Therefore as a unique technique, XPS combined with SEM-EDX may prove a useful method in the study of surface structure for not only watercolour objects but also other art objects; which may in future help in the conservation for art.

  11. Evaluation of masticatory function after maxillectomy using a colour-changing chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Y; Ishida, S; Kobayashi, M; Hasegawa, T; Nibu, K; Komori, T

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the masticatory dysfunction after maxillectomy using a colour-changing chewing gum. Thirty-nine patients who underwent maxillectomy between January 2002 and May 2010 in the Department of Kobe University Hospital were recruited for this study. There were 20 male and 19 female subjects, with a median age of 73·3 years (range of 44-90) at the time of surgery. The intra-oral conditions after maxillectomy were classified by HS classification, and the masticatory function was evaluated by a colour-changing chewing gum and the results of a modified Sato's questionnaire. The scores of the colour-changing gum were closely correlated with the scores of the modified Sato's questionnaire (r = 0·661, P gum test masticatory dysfunction were the number of anchor teeth ≤2 and a soft palate defect. A colour-changing gum was found to be useful for evaluating the post-operative masticatory function, and it was important to conserve the anchor teeth and the soft palate to avoid masticatory dysfunction. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Formation of stable nanoparticles via electrostatic complexation between sodium caseinate and gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Flanagan, John; Singh, Harjinder

    2006-06-05

    The formation of electrostatic complexes between sodium caseinate and gum arabic (GA) was studied as a function of pH (2.0-7.0), using slow acidification in situ with glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) or titration with HCl. The colloidal behavior of the complexes under specific conditions was investigated using absorbance measurements (at 515 or 810 nm) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). In contrast to the sudden increase in absorbance and subsequent precipitation of sodium caseinate solutions at pH sodium caseinate and GA increased to a level that was dependent on GA concentration at pH 5.4 (pH(c)). The absorbance values remained constant with further decreases in pH until a sudden increase in absorbance was observed (at pH(phi)). The pH(phi) was also dependent upon the GA concentration. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data showed that the sizes of the particles formed by the complexation of sodium caseinate and GA between pH(c) and pH(phi) were between 100 and 150 nm and these nanoparticles were visualized using negative staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Below pH(phi), the nanoparticles associated to form larger particles, causing phase separation. zeta-Potential measurements of the nanoparticles and chemical analysis after phase separation showed that phase separation was a consequence of charge neutralization. The formation of complexes between sodium caseinate and GA was inhibited at high ionic strength (>50 mM NaCl). It is postulated that the structure of the nanoparticles comprises an aggregated caseinate core, protected from further aggregation by steric repulsion of one, or more, electrostatically attached GA molecules. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Distribution of Blue Gum Chalcid, Leptocybe invasa and it's Damage on Eucalyptus in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutitu, K.E; Otieno, B.O; Oeba, V.O; Nyeko, P.; Day, R.K

    2007-01-01

    Blue Gum chalcid is a gall-forming wasp, which causes an extensive damage to Eucalyptus. It attacks mostly seedlings and field saplings. It causes damage on it's host by forming massive typical bump-shaped galls on trees canopy, specifically on the leaf midribs, petioles and stems of new growths. The pest was first reported in Kenya and Uganda in 2002 attacking the three major commercially grown Eucalyptus species; Eucalyptus grandis, E. camaldulennsis, E. saligna in East Africa. Eucalyptus is fast growing and widely planted in both plantations and farmers' woodlots. It is important for both industrial and domestic use. It is a major source of income generation for rural poor families. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution, incidence and severity patterns of L. invasa and possible relationship to environment and biophysical factors in East Africa. Over 312 randomly selected stands were assessed for BGC incidence to it's distribution. In each identified stand 60 trees were selected from 3 randomly established plots of 20 trees each and BGC damage/incidence assessed on a 4-point scale. This was to determine the incidence and severity patterns. ANOVA using generalized linear procedures, regression analysis and correlation were done to determine the relationship between the percentage incidence of L. invasa infestation against altitude, age interval, agro-ecological zones and topography. There was widespread of pest in all the districts sampled. There was significant difference (p 0.05) on L. invasa incidence among the three species. The study recommends that. further studies on damage and L. invasa population dynamics relationship to environment and biophysical factors should be conducted

  14. Dryland resources, livelihoods and institutions : diversity and dynamics in use and management of gum and resin trees in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshale Woldeamanuel Habebo, Teshale

    2011-01-01

    Dry woodlands comprise the largest forest resources in Ethiopia. An important feature of these forests is their richness in Acacia, Boswellia and Commiphora (ABC) species that produce gum and resin. Gums/resins significantly contribute to rural livelihoods, the national economy, and ecosystem

  15. Common challenges in gum arabic production and commercialization in West Africa: a comparative study of Cameroon, Niger and Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Madi, O.P.; Zoubeirou, A.M.; Sene, A.; Maisharou, A.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2013-01-01

    As gum arabic is widely used in food and non-food industries, demand is high all over the world. Still, smaller production countries in West Africa such as Cameroon, Niger and Senegal seem to have so many difficulties producing and commercializing gum arabic that their market shares have declined

  16. Self-perceived mouthfeel and physico-chemical surface effects after chewing gums containing sorbitol and Magnolia bark extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Dodds, Michael W. J.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2017-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority recognizes the contribution of sugar-free chewing gum to oral health through increased salivation, clearance of food debris, and neutralization of biofilm pH. Magnolia bark extract is a gum additive shown to reduce the prevalence of bad-breath bacteria but its

  17. Effects of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol on the development of gingivitis and plaque: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keukenmeester, R.S.; Slot, D.E.; Rosema, N.A.M.; van Loveren, C.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to test the effect of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol compared to the use of a gum base or no gum on gingivitis and plaque scores under both brushing and non-brushing circumstances. Methods The design of the study was a four-group,

  18. Effect of xanthan gum on the release of strawberry flavor in formulated soy beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Li, Bingbing; Qin, Fang; Wang, Linxiang; Wu, Shengfang; Chen, Jie

    2017-08-01

    The effects of xanthan gum on the release of strawberry flavor compounds in formulated soy protein isolate (SPI) beverage were investigated by headspace gas chromatography (GC). Seven strawberry flavor compounds (limonene, ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and diacetyl) could be detected by GC and hence analyzed the gas-matrix partition coefficients (K). The release of flavor compounds was restrained in SPI and/or xanthan gum solution. The retention of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, limonene and diacetyl significantly changed (pfuraneol) accelerated the release of ester compounds to some extent in different matrices. The above results demonstrated that presence of SPI and xanthan gum could bring about an imbalance in the strawberry flavor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Examples of measurement uncertainty evaluations in accordance with the revised GUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runje, B.; Horvatic, A.; Alar, V.; Medic, S.; Bosnjakovic, A.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents examples of the evaluation of uncertainty components in accordance with the current and revised Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). In accordance with the proposed revision of the GUM a Bayesian approach was conducted for both type A and type B evaluations.The law of propagation of uncertainty (LPU) and the law of propagation of distribution applied through the Monte Carlo method, (MCM) were used to evaluate associated standard uncertainties, expanded uncertainties and coverage intervals. Furthermore, the influence of the non-Gaussian dominant input quantity and asymmetric distribution of the output quantity y on the evaluation of measurement uncertainty was analyzed. In the case when the probabilistically coverage interval is not symmetric, the coverage interval for the probability P is estimated from the experimental probability density function using the Monte Carlo method. Key highlights of the proposed revision of the GUM were analyzed through a set of examples.

  20. Dose response of xylitol and sorbitol for epr retrospective dosimetry with applications to chewing gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israelsson, A.; Gustafsson, H.; Lund, E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal in sweeteners xylitol and sorbitol for use in retrospective dosimetry. For both sweeteners and chewing gum, the signal changed at an interval of 1-84 d after irradiation with minimal changes after 4-8 d. A dependence on storage conditions was noticed and the exposure of the samples to light and humidity was therefore minimised. Both the xylitol and sorbitol signals showed linearity with dose in the measured dose interval, 0-20 Gy. The dose-response measurements for the chewing gum resulted in a decision threshold of 0.38 Gy and a detection limit of 0.78 Gy. A blind test illustrated the possibility of using chewing gums as a retrospective dosemeter with an uncertainty in the dose determination of 0.17 Gy (1 SD). (authors)

  1. Effects of nicotine gum on psychomotor performance in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarch, I; Kerr, J S; Sherwood, N

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nicotine on human performance. In the first study six smokers, who had been allowed to smoke normally prior to testing, completed a battery of psychometric tests (choice reaction time, memory scanning, tracking and flicker fusion threshold) at set points over 4 h after chewing 0, 2, or 4 mg nicotine polacrilex gum. A second study followed a similar design, but used five non-smoker volunteers who were required to chew only the 0 or 2 mg nicotine gum. Blood nicotine levels following the gum were measured in all subjects. The results indicate that additional nicotine improved both the speed and accuracy of motor activity among the smokers, but did not enhance central cognitive processes. No drug effects were found in the non-smoker study.

  2. Lack of carcinogenicity of tragacanth gum in B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, A; Boonyaphiphat, P; Kawabe, M; Naito, H; Shirai, T; Ito, N

    1992-08-01

    Tragacanth gum was administered at dietary levels of 0 (control), 1.25 and 5.0% to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice for 96 wk after which all animals were maintained on a basal diet without tragacanth gum for a further 10 wk. Mean body weights of females in the 5.0% and 1.25% groups were lower than those of the controls after 11 and 16 wk, respectively. However, there were no treatment-related clinical signs or adverse effects on survival rate, urinalysis, haematology, blood biochemistry and organ weight. While detailed histopathology revealed the development of squamous cell hyperplasias, papillomas and one carcinoma in the forestomach, there was no significant treatment-related increase in the incidence of any preneoplastic or neoplastic lesion. Thus, under the experimental conditions used, tragacanth gum was not carcinogenic in B6C3F1 mice of either sex.

  3. Enhancement of preneoplastic lesion yield by Chios Mastic Gum in a rat liver medium-term carcinogenesis bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Kenichiro; Wei, Min; Kitano, Mitsuaki; Uematsu, Naomi; Inoue, Masayo; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    The mastic (Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) tree is native throughout the Mediterranean region and has long proved a source of food additives and medical treatments. To investigate the modifying effects of Chios Mastic Gum on rat liver carcinogenesis, 6-week-old male F344 rats were subjected to the established rat liver medium-term carcinogenesis bioassay (Ito-test). At the commencement, rats (groups 1-4) were intraperitoneally injected with 200 mg/kg body weight of diethylnitrosamine (DEN). After two weeks, mastic was added to CRF (Charles River Formula)-1 powdered basal diet at doses of 0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1% in groups 1-4, respectively. At week 3, all rats were underwent two-thirds partial hepatectomy. The experiment was terminated at week 8. As results show, liver weights were significantly increased in a mastic dose-dependent manner among groups 1-4. The numbers (/cm 2 ) and the areas (mm 2 /cm 2 ) of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive cell foci (≥ 0.2 mm in diameter) were significantly increased in the DEN-1% group compared to the DEN-alone group, along with the average areas per foci and larger-sized foci (≥ 0.4 mm). 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) + GST-P double-immunohistochemistry showed the highest BrdU-labeling indices within GST-P foci in the DEN-1% group. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in liver DNA did not vary, while real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of livers revealed many up- or down-regulated genes in the DEN-1% group. In conclusion, this is the first report to display a promotion potential of Chios Mastic Gum on the formation of preneoplastic lesions in the established rat liver medium-term carcinogenesis bioassay

  4. Temperature dependency of the interaction between xanthan gum and sage seed gum: An interpretation of dynamic rheology and thixotropy based on creep test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed M A; Behrouzian, Fataneh; Alghooneh, Ali

    2017-10-01

    The viscoelastic (transient and dynamic) and time-dependent rheological behaviors of XG (xanthan gum), SSG (sage seed gum) and their blends at various ratios (1-3, 1-1, and 3-1 SSG-XG) and temperatures (10, 30, and 50C) were investigated using creep and recovery analyses. The creep compliance was converted to stress relaxation data; then, the structural kinetic model satisfactorily fitted the time-dependent relaxation modulus. Furthermore, dynamic rheology of mixtures was investigated using creep analyses. The most important contribution of the Maxwell spring to deformation (53.51%), was that corresponding to the SSG at 50C and the most important contribution of the Maxwell dashpot to the maximum deformation, were those corresponding to the XG (61.44%) and 1-3 SSG-XG (58.91%) samples both at 50C. The breakdown rate constant ( α) of the crosslinked gum structure in SSG and 3-1 SSG-XG under the application of external shear stress increases with temperature from 10 to 50C in the range of 0.14-0.32 (1/s) and 0.14-0.24 (1/s), respectively, whereas other dispersions showed the reverse trend. Among all dispersions, only XG and 1-3 SSG-XG demonstrated crossover frequency at 9.95 and 31.47 rad/s, respectively, at 50C, indicative of the lowest entanglement density for 1-3 SSG-XG. The greatest interaction between SSG and XG occurred for 3-1 ratio at 50C, which was confirmed by the Han curves. Hydrocolloid blends, particularly those consisting of xanthan gum and a galactomannan from new source can provide a range of attractive textural properties. Rheological studies contribute to the description of the molecular structure and prediction of the structural changes during their manufacturing processes. Sage seed gum (SSG), as a polyelectrolyte galactomannan, has a great potential to exert stabilizing, thickening, gelling and binding properties in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical systems. Therefore, we elaborate the interactions between SSG and xanthan gum and also the

  5. Effect of CMC and arabic gum in the manufacture of jackfruit velva (Artocarpus heterophyllus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhistira, B.; Riyadi, N. H.; Pangestika, A. D.; Pertiwi, S. R.

    2018-03-01

    Velva is one type of frozen dessert which is made from fruit/vegetable with ice cream maker, low fat and high fiber content. Jackfruit is a raw material for the manufacture of velva because of the high fiber content of 2.31 gr. The use of a stabilizers combination of CMC and arabic gum in the manufacture of velva will provide a better gel mix than single use. The purpose of this research is to know the influence of variation of CMC and arabic gum stabilizer on the characteristics (physical, chemical, and sensory) of jackfruit velva (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and determine variations in the most appropriate combinations of stabilizers to produce jackfruit velva with the best quality. This research applied Completely Randomized Design consist of one factor which is the combination of CMC and arabic gum levels in the making of jackfruit velva with two replicates and two replications of the analysis. The data obtained then analyzed statistically using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), when there is a significant difference, then followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance level of 0.05. The results of this study concluded that the jackfruit velva with the addition of various concentrations of CMC and arabic gum is significantly affecting the taste, texture and overall parameters, but no significant difference on the color and flavor parameters of jackfruit velva. Based on the results of physical characteristics, chemical and sensory jackfruit velva with the addition of a stabilizing concentration of CMC and arabic gum 1: 1 result in best jackfruit velva. The best jackfruit velva with stabilizing the concentration of CMC and arabic gum 1: 1 contains a water content of 61.95%, dietary fiber 2.231%, total dissolved solids 20.38 °Brix, overrun 19.709%, meltdown 28.215 minutes. As for the color attribute score 3.72; Taste 4; flavor 3.60; Texture 3.68, and overall 3.88.

  6. The Association of Gum Bleeding with Respiratory Health in a Population Based Study from Northern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gómez Real

    Full Text Available There is little knowledge about how oral and respiratory health is interrelated even though the mucosa of the oral cavity and airways constitutes a continuum and the exposures to these are partly similar.To investigate whether gum bleeding is related to asthma, respiratory symptoms and self-reported COPD.A postal questionnaire including questions about respiratory and oral health was sent to general population samples in seven Northern European centres. In 13,409 responders, gum bleeding when brushing teeth was reported always/often by 4% and sometimes by 20%. Logistic regressions accounted for age, smoking, educational level, centre and gender. Effects of BMI, cardio-metabolic diseases, early life factors, gastro-oesophageal reflux, dental hygiene, nasal congestion, and asthma medication were addressed.Gum bleeding always/often was significantly associated with ≥ 3 asthma symptoms (OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.10-3.18, asthma (1.62 [1.23-2.14] and self-reported COPD (2.02 [1.28-3.18]. There was a dose-response relationship between respiratory outcomes and gum bleeding frequency (≥ 3 symptoms: gum bleeding sometimes 1.42 [1.25-1.60], often/always 2.58 [2.10-3.18], and there was no heterogeneity between centres (p(heterogeneity = 0.49. None of the investigated risk factors explained the associations. The observed associations were significantly stronger among current smokers (p(interaction = 0.004.A consistent link between gum bleeding and obstructive airways disease was observed, not explained by common risk factors or metabolic factors. We speculate that oral pathogens might have unfavourable impact on the airways, and that the direct continuity of the mucosa of the oral cavity and the airways reflects a pathway that might provide novel opportunities for interventions.

  7. Cardiovascular responses in humans to experimental chewing of gums of different consistencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farella, M; Bakke, M; Michelotti, A; Marotta, G; Martina, R

    1999-10-01

    Although the cardiovascular effects of exercise have been extensively investigated in man, little attention has been paid to such responses to jaw muscle activity. The aim here was to investigate the general cardiovascular effects of chewing activity in a single-blind, cross-over design. Ten healthy individuals performed one of the following chewing tasks in four separate sessions: chewing a very hard gum, chewing a moderately hard gum, chewing a soft gum, and "empty chewing" without a bolus. Unilateral chewing of gum or empty chewing was performed for 20 min on the participant's most convenient chewing side at a constant rate of 80 cycles/min. In each session, heart rate and arterial blood pressure were recorded together with electromyographic activity in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles on the chewing side. Ratings of perceived masticatory fatigue were recorded with visual analogue scales. The heart rate and blood pressure were significantly increased (ANOVA; p chewing tasks and the increases were, in parallel with the muscle activity, more pronounced the harder the gum. With the very hard gum, heart rate increased by up to 11 beats/min, the systolic blood pressure was 14 mmHg (1.9kPa) higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was 11 mmHg (1.5kPa) higher. The perceived fatigue was proportional to the level of muscle activity. After 10 min of recovery from exercise, heart rate and arterial blood pressures were slightly but still significantly elevated. The results demonstrate that chewing is associated with general circulatory effects proportional to the bolus resistance.

  8. Crosslinked Spondia purpurea gum: NaCl and p H effects on the gel absorption capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Joao Batista A.; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Paula, Regina C.M.; Paula, Haroldo C.B.

    1999-01-01

    Exudate gum from Spondia purpurea tree was cross linked with epichlorohydrin and its swelling behaviour as a function of Na Cl concentration and pH was investigated. Preliminary structural study was carried out by C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The gum was found to absorb 35 time its own weight in water. Swelling increased with pH, being maximal in the pH range 8-10. The equilibrium water content was found to decrease with increasing Na Cl concentration. (author)

  9. A study of guar seed and guar gum properties (Cyamopsis tetragonolabous)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldaw, Ganal Elawad [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-06-01

    Guar seed components of three genotypes (HFG53, HFG182, HFG363), are hull (13.4-14%), germ (43.3-44.2%) and endosperm (36.0-40%). The proximate composition of guar seed in mean values is moisture (11.3{+-}0.01%), crude protein (29.10{+-}0.01%), crude fat (1.58{+-}0.01%), crude fibre (9.01{+-}0.01%) and carbohydrates by difference. The endosperm analysis showed mean values for moisture (6.18{+-}0.03%), ash (1.35{+-}0.03%), crude protein (4.41{+-}0.0%), crude fat (0.30{+-}0.0%), crude fibre (1.55{+-}0.01%) and carbohydrates (0.41{+-}0.04%). The micro and macro-elements quantities of the endosperm of the three genotypes are as follows: Zn (29-44 mg/kg), fe (52-112 mg/kg), Cu (2.6-3.8 mg/kg), Pb (0.34-0.38 mg/kg) and As (0.24 mg/kg), Na (0.1-0.5%), K (0.70-0.95%), Ca (0.30-0.37%) and Mg (0.11%), respectively. The micro and macro elements of germ and hull are also reported in this study. The Ost wald relative viscosity of guar gum behave Newtonian up to 0.5% mg/ml. The relative viscosity linear curves have high coefficient of correlation (r=0.87, 0.82-1.05, and 0.99) for gum of endosperm, respectively. Redwood measures kinematic viscosity of guar gum for the three genotypes at varying temperatures 40-80 degree. Heat stability of HFG53 is the best among the three genotypes guar gum. the high contamination in gum lowered the heat stability of the three genotypes. Brookfield method shows a high rate of dispersability for HFG363 followed by HFG182 and HFG53. The comparative study of the effect of purification on guar gum viscosities measured by Ostwald within the three genotypes show high coefficient of correlation. The influence of salt concentration 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% on heat stability of commercial guar gum show high viscosities. Sugar influence in heated guar gum solution 0.5% (200 mesh) gives a high viscosity increase than 80 mesh with 5, 10 and 15% added sugar. The effect of combined salt-sugar on commercial guar gives increased viscosity than the control.

  10. Tragacanth Gum: Structural Composition, Natural Functionality and Enxymatic Conversion as Source of Potential Prebiotic Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan

    very high viscosities when in aqueous solution, and is described as a complex, highly branched, heterogeneous hydrophilic polysaccharide. The gum contains pectinaceous arabinogalactans and fucose-substituted xylogalacturonans. The objective of this PhD study were to evaluate tragacanth samples from six...... and fractionated by centrifugation to soluble and insoluble. To examine correlation between composition structure, sugar composition and methoxyl and acetyl content was determined. The six gum samples varied with respect totheir levels and ratios of water-soluble and water-swellable fractions, their monosaccharide...

  11. Development and Antibacterial Activity of Cashew Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José dos S. Soares

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the development of a green synthesis of silver nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by exuded gum from Anacardium occidentale L. and evaluates in vitro their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Characterization of cashew gum-based silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was carried out based on UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis which revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape, measuring about 4 nm in size with a uniform dispersal. AgNPs presented antibacterial activity, especially against Gram-negative bacteria, in concentrations where no significant cytotoxicity was observed.

  12. A study of guar seed and guar gum properties (Cyamopsis tetragonolabous)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldaw, Ganal Elawad

    1998-06-01

    Guar seed components of three genotypes (HFG53, HFG182, HFG363), are hull (13.4-14%), germ (43.3-44.2%) and endosperm (36.0-40%). The proximate composition of guar seed in mean values is moisture (11.3±0.01%), crude protein (29.10±0.01%), crude fat (1.58±0.01%), crude fibre (9.01±0.01%) and carbohydrates by difference. The endosperm analysis showed mean values for moisture (6.18±0.03%), ash (1.35±0.03%), crude protein (4.41±0.0%), crude fat (0.30±0.0%), crude fibre (1.55±0.01%) and carbohydrates (0.41±0.04%). The micro and macro-elements quantities of the endosperm of the three genotypes are as follows: Zn (29-44 mg/kg), fe (52-112 mg/kg), Cu (2.6-3.8 mg/kg), Pb (0.34-0.38 mg/kg) and As (0.24 mg/kg), Na (0.1-0.5%), K (0.70-0.95%), Ca (0.30-0.37%) and Mg (0.11%), respectively. The micro and macro elements of germ and hull are also reported in this study. The Ost wald relative viscosity of guar gum behave Newtonian up to 0.5% mg/ml. The relative viscosity linear curves have high coefficient of correlation (r=0.87, 0.82-1.05, and 0.99) for gum of endosperm, respectively. Redwood measures kinematic viscosity of guar gum for the three genotypes at varying temperatures 40-80 degree. Heat stability of HFG53 is the best among the three genotypes guar gum. the high contamination in gum lowered the heat stability of the three genotypes. Brookfield method shows a high rate of dispersability for HFG363 followed by HFG182 and HFG53. The comparative study of the effect of purification on guar gum viscosities measured by Ostwald within the three genotypes show high coefficient of correlation. The influence of salt concentration 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% on heat stability of commercial guar gum show high viscosities. Sugar influence in heated guar gum solution 0.5% (200 mesh) gives a high viscosity increase than 80 mesh with 5, 10 and 15% added sugar. The effect of combined salt-sugar on commercial guar gives increased viscosity than the control

  13. Physical Stability of Oil in Water Emulsions in the Presence of Gamma Irradiated Gum Tragacanth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Neda Mollakhalili; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Farhoodi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Gum tragacanth (GT) exuded from an Iranian Astragalus species was γ-irradiated at 0, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 5, 7, 10 kGy and used to stabilize a model oil in water emulsion system. Stability and physicochemical properties of emulsion samples were investigated with respect to the effect of irradiation...... treatment on functional properties of gum tragacanth. Particle size distribution, interfacial tension, zeta potential, steady shear and oscillatory rheological measurements were used to characterize and evaluate the emulsion samples and obtain more information about the possible stability mechanism...

  14. An investigation into the effects of nicotine gum on short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S; Fox, P

    1998-12-01

    Using a between-subjects 2x2x2 factorial design, 60 smokers and 60 non-smokers (equal number of males and females) performed a short-term memory task requiring delayed free recall of a visually presented supraspan word list. Using a double-blind procedure, half the subjects chewed nicotine gum and the other half chewed placebo gum prior to performing the memory task. Results support previous research findings which show that nicotine significantly improves short-term memory. Sex differences were also investigated, but findings showed no significant differences between male and female subjects. Methodological considerations are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  15. Design and characteristics of gellan gum beads for modified release of meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmałek, Tomasz; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Froelich, Anna; Szybowicz, Mirosław; Białowąs, Wojciech; Kapela, Marcin; Gadziński, Piotr; Ancukiewicz, Katarzyna

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the presented work was to design, formulate and evaluate the properties of low-acyl gellan macro beads with the potential application as carriers for oral delivery of meloxicam (MLX) in the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer. The beads were obtained by means of ionotropic gelation technique. Calcium chloride (1.0%, 9.0 × 10 -2  M) was used as the cross-linking agent. Nine different polymer, drug and surfactant (Tween ® 80) mixtures were used for production of the beads. The quantitative compositions of the mixtures were generated with the application of the Design of Experiments (DoE) modulus from the STATISTICA Software. The prepared formulations revealed 7.2-27.0% of drug loading and 29.2-50.7% drug encapsulation efficiency. It turned out that 0.5% amount of gellan gum in the mixtures was not sufficient to obtain spherical beads. The morphology and surface of the dried beads were analyzed by SEM. Raman spectra confirmed that MLX did not undergo structural changes during production of the beads. The swelling behavior and degradation of the beads were evaluated in three simulated gastrointestinal fluids at different pH (1.2; 4.5; 6.8). The MLX in vitro release studies were conducted on USP apparatus IV, working in the open loop mode. The obtained results showed that MLX release from the dried beads was pH-dependent. The formulations obtained from mixtures containing 1.0 and 1.5% of gellan may be considered as oral dosage forms for MLX, intended to omit the stomach and release the drug in the distal parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Gum arabic modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles cross linked with collagen for isolation of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chittor Raghuraman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles are important class of materials in the field of nanobiotechnology, as it is an emerging area of research for material science and molecular biology researchers. One of the various methods to obtain multifunctional nanomaterials, molecular functionalization by attaching organic functional groups to nanomagnetic materials is an important technique. Recently, functionalized magnetic nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be useful in isolation/detection of dangerous pathogens (bacteria/viruses for human life. Iron (Fe based material especially FePt is used in the isolation of ultralow concentrations (2 cfu/ml of bacteria in less time and it has been demonstrated that van-FePt may be used as an alternative fast detection technique with respect to conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. However, still further improved demonstrations are necessary with interest to biocompatibility and green chemistry. Herein, we report the synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles by template medication and its application for the detection/isolation of S. aureus bacteria. Results The reduction of anhydrous Iron chloride (FeCl3 in presence of sodium borohydride and water soluble polyelectrolyte (polydiallyldimethyl ammonium chloride, PDADMAC produces black precipitates. The X-ray diffraction (XRD, XPS and TEM analysis of the precipitates dried at 373 K demonstrated the formation of nanocrystalline Fe3O4. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed isolated staphylococcous aureus (S. aureus bacteria at ultralow concentrations using collagen coated gum arabic modified iron oxide nanoparticles (CCGAMION. Conclusion We are able to synthesize nanocrystalline Fe3O4 and CCGAMION was able to isolate S. aureus bacteria at 8-10 cfu (colony forming units/ml within ~3 minutes.

  17. Development and optimization of locust bean gum and sodium alginate interpenetrating polymeric network of capecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mansi; Adena, Sandeep Kumar Reddy; Vardhan, Harsh; Pandey, Sureshwar; Mishra, Brahmeshwar

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the study was to develop interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) of capecitabine (CAP) using natural polymers locust bean gum (LBG) and sodium alginate (NaAlg). The IPN microbeads were optimized by Box-Behnken Design (BBD) to provide anticipated particle size with good drug entrapment efficiency. The comparative dissolution profile of IPN microbeads of CAP with the marketed preparation proved an excellent sustained drug delivery vehicle. Ionotropic gelation method utilizing metal ion calcium (Ca 2+ ) as a cross-linker was used to prepare IPN microbeads. The optimization study was done by response surface methodology based Box-Behnken Design. The effect of the factors on the responses of optimized batch was exhibited through response surface and contour plots. The optimized batch was analyzed for particle size, % drug entrapment, pharmacokinetic study, in vitro drug release study and further characterized by FTIR, XRD, and SEM. To study the water uptake capacity and hydrodynamic activity of the polymers, swelling studies and viscosity measurement were performed, respectively. The particle size and % drug entrapment of the optimized batch was 494.37 ± 1.4 µm and 81.39 ± 2.9%, respectively, closer to the value predicted by Minitab 17 software. The in vitro drug release study showed sustained release of 92% for 12 h and followed anomalous drug release pattern. The derived pharmacokinetic parameters of optimized batch showed improved results than pure CAP. Thus, the formed IPN microbeads of CAP proved to be an effective extended drug delivery vehicle for the water soluble antineoplastic drug.

  18. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum in pediatric functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Claudio; Comito, Donatella; Famiani, Annalisa; Calamarà, Sabrina; Loddo, Italia

    2013-01-14

    To assess the effects of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) diet supplement in pediatric chronic abdominal pain (CAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A randomized, double-blind pilot study was performed in sixty children (8-16 years) with functional bowel disorders, such as CAP or IBS, diagnosed according to Rome III criteria. All patients underwent ultrasound, blood and stool examinations to rule out any organic disease. Patients were allocated to receive PHGG at dosage of 5 g/d (n = 30) or placebo (fruit-juice n = 30) for 4 wk. The evaluation of the efficacy of fiber supplement included IBS symptom severity score (Birmingham IBS Questionnaire), severity of abdominal pain (Wong-Baker Face Pain Rating Score) and bowel habit (Bristol Stool Scale). Symptom scores were completed at 2, 4, and 8 wk. The change from baseline in the symptom severity scale at the end of treatment and at 4 wk follow-up after treatment was the primary endpoint. The secondary endpoint was to evaluate compliance to supplementation with the PHGG in the pediatric population. Differences within groups during the treatment period and follow-up were evaluated by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results of the study were assessed considering some variables, such as frequency and intensity of symptoms with modifications of the bowel habit. Both groups were balanced for baseline characteristics and all patients completed the study. Group A (PHGG group) presented a higher level of efficacy compared to group B (control group), (43% vs 5%, P = 0.025) in reducing clinical symptoms with modification of Birmingham IBS score (median 0 ± 1 vs 4 ± 1, P = 0.025), in intensity of CAP assessed with the Wong-Baker Face Pain Rating Score and in normalization of bowel habit evaluated with the Bristol Stool Scale (40% vs 13.3%, P = 0.025). In IBS subgroups, statistical analysis shown a tendency toward normalization of bowel movements, but there was no difference in the prevalence of improvement in two bowel

  19. Qualidade de balas de gelatina fortificadas com vitaminas A, C e E Quality of gelatine gums fortified with vitamins A, C and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Garcia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo verificar a estabilidade das vitaminas A, C e E, na forma de acetato de vitamina A, ácido ascórbico e acetato de vitamina E, sobredosadas em 80%, 80% e 50% respectivamente na fortificação de confeitos do tipo balas de gelatina, fornecendo 30% da IDR destas vitaminas em 100 g de produto. As vitaminas adicionadas não afetaram a qualidade das gomas de gelatina em relação à textura e claridade, parâmetros estes avaliados após processamento. Houve uma perda média no processamento de vitamina A de 25% em relação ao adicionado, seguida da vitamina E com 12% e vitamina C com 1%. Aumentando-se a temperatura de depósito da calda das gomas, de 70ºC para 80ºC encontrou-se uma diminuição na concentração da vitamina A de aproximadamente 37% e de 9% para a vitamina C. A eliminação do ácido cítrico da formulação das gomas com o propósito de minimizar perdas no processo não foi benéfica para as vitaminas C e E. Na estocagem de 6 meses obteve-se uma queda média de 93% da vitamina A, 57% para a vitamina C e 24% da vitamina E. Verificou-se, portanto que as vitaminas A e C irão ditar a vida de prateleira das gomas de gelatina e não foram sobredosadas em concentrações suficientes para garantir o declarado no rótulo até 6 meses numa estocagem controlada a 20ºC.This study had as objective to verify the stability of vitamins A, C and E, in the form of vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E acetate, with overages at 80%, 80% and 50% respectively in gelatine gums confectionery type, supplying 30% of RDI of these vitamins in 100 g product. The added vitamins did not affect the quality of gelatine gums in relation to the texture and clarity, which were analyzed after processing; however, the gums with vitamins became brown with shelf life, being vitamin C the responsible for the presented defect. There were an average loss of vitamin A of 25% in relation to the initially added, followed by vitamin E

  20. Influence of interlocked transactions on gum arabic production and marketing in Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Interlocked relationships are characterised by traders’ supply of inputs and cash to producers on credit, to be reimbursed at sale time based on a pre-defined price which is often lower than the prevailing market price. The study analyses determinants of choice of interlocking in the gum sector in

  1. Purification of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification methods (ethanol, isopropanol and ethanol-isopropanol) on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of cress seed gum. Sugar composition and molecular weight of the samples varied significantly. All the...

  2. Stepwise extraction of Lepidium sativum seed gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Cress seed gum (CSG) was fractionated using stepwise extraction with water, yielding three fractions (F1, F2, F3) whose average molecular weights ranged from 863 to 1080 kDa. The chemical composition (monosaccharide, ash, moisture, CHN and uronic acid contents) and molecular weight of the fractio...

  3. Two-colour chewing gum mixing ability: digitalisation and spatial heterogeneity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, R A F; Scherder, E J A; Visscher, C M; Gorissen, T; Yoshida, E; Lobbezoo, F

    2013-10-01

    Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital analysis algorithm was applied to a mixing ability test using two-coloured gum samples in a stepwise increased number of chewing cycles protocol (Experiment 1: n = 14; seven men, 19-63 years), a test-retest assessment (Experiment 2: n = 10; four men, 20-49 years) and compared to an established wax cubes mixing ability test (Experiment 3: n = 13; 0 men, 21-31 years). Data were analysed with repeated measures anova (Experiment 1), the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; Experiment 2) and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient (Experiment 3). The method was sensitive to increasing numbers of chewing cycles (F5,65 = 57·270, P = 0·000) and reliable in the test-retest (ICC value of 0·714, P = 0·004). There was no significant correlation between the two-coloured gum test and the wax cubes test. The two-coloured gum mixing ability test was able to adequately assess masticatory function and is recommended for use in a population of elderly persons with dementia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened hewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, B.J.F.; Broek1, T.J. van den; Slot, D.E.; Twillert, L. van; Kool, J.; Thabuis, C.; Ossendrijver, M.; Weijden, F.A. van der; Montijn, R.C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in

  5. Preparation, characterization and electrical study of gum arabic/ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gum arabic (GA)-mediated chemical synthesis was carried out for obtaining ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) (particle size of ZnO ≈ 40 nm) which, in turn, was used for preparing ZnO–biopolymer nanocomposites. The dielectric study of this synthesized products is reported in this paper. The synthesized products were ...

  6. Analysis of the socio-economic factors associated with gum Arabic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is an analysis of the socio-economic factors associated with gum arabic collectors in Northern Guinea Savanna Zone of Adamawa State, Nigeria through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 100 respondents obtained through a multi stage sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive ...

  7. Two-colour chewing gum mixing ability: digitalisation and spatial heterogeneity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, R.A.F.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Visscher, C.M.; Gorissen, T.; Yoshida, E.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital

  8. Synthesis of acrylate guar-gum for delivery of bio-active molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used in a number of industries (pharmaceutics, personal care, enhanced oil recovery) in which ... to produce guar-gum propyl and methyl ethers, esters and phosphates. ... dation, salt tolerance, faster hydration rate, enzyme resistance, dispersibility, improved dry ... has excellent ability to control rheology by economic water.

  9. Colon Targeted Guar Gum Compression Coated Tablets of Flurbiprofen: Formulation, Development, and Pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh Kumar Vemula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rationale of the present study is to formulate flurbiprofen colon targeted compression coated tablets using guar gum to improve the therapeutic efficacy by increasing drug levels in colon, and also to reduce the side effects in upper gastrointestinal tract. Direct compression method was used to prepare flurbiprofen core tablets, and they were compression coated with guar gum. Then the tablets were optimized with the support of in vitro dissolution studies, and further it was proved by pharmacokinetic studies. The optimized formulation (F4 showed almost complete drug release in the colon (99.86% within 24 h without drug loss in the initial lag period of 5 h (only 6.84% drug release was observed during this period. The pharmacokinetic estimations proved the capability of guar gum compression coated tablets to achieve colon targeting. The Cmax of colon targeted tablets was 11956.15 ng/mL at Tmax of 10 h whereas it was 15677.52 ng/mL at 3 h in case of immediate release tablets. The area under the curve for the immediate release and compression coated tablets was 40385.78 and 78214.50 ng-h/mL and the mean resident time was 3.49 and 10.78 h, respectively. In conclusion, formulation of guar gum compression coated tablets was appropriate for colon targeting of flurbiprofen.

  10. Colon Targeted Guar Gum Compression Coated Tablets of Flurbiprofen: Formulation, Development, and Pharmacokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontha, Vijaya Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The rationale of the present study is to formulate flurbiprofen colon targeted compression coated tablets using guar gum to improve the therapeutic efficacy by increasing drug levels in colon, and also to reduce the side effects in upper gastrointestinal tract. Direct compression method was used to prepare flurbiprofen core tablets, and they were compression coated with guar gum. Then the tablets were optimized with the support of in vitro dissolution studies, and further it was proved by pharmacokinetic studies. The optimized formulation (F4) showed almost complete drug release in the colon (99.86%) within 24 h without drug loss in the initial lag period of 5 h (only 6.84% drug release was observed during this period). The pharmacokinetic estimations proved the capability of guar gum compression coated tablets to achieve colon targeting. The C max of colon targeted tablets was 11956.15 ng/mL at T max of 10 h whereas it was 15677.52 ng/mL at 3 h in case of immediate release tablets. The area under the curve for the immediate release and compression coated tablets was 40385.78 and 78214.50 ng-h/mL and the mean resident time was 3.49 and 10.78 h, respectively. In conclusion, formulation of guar gum compression coated tablets was appropriate for colon targeting of flurbiprofen. PMID:24260738

  11. Effective removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution using gum ghatti-based biodegradable hydrogel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable hydrogels of gum ghatti (Gg) with a co-polymer mixture of acrylamide (AAm) and methacrylic acid (MAA) (termed as Gg-cl-P(AAm-co-MAA)) were synthesised by microwave-assisted free radical graft co-polymerisation technique. The hydrogel...

  12. Analysis of temporal variation in human masticatory cycles during gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Elizabeth A; Rothman, Edward D; Childers, David; Gerstner, Geoffrey E

    2013-10-01

    The study investigated modulation of fast and slow opening (FO, SO) and closing (FC, SC) chewing cycle phases using gum-chewing sequences in humans. Twenty-two healthy adult subjects participated by chewing gum for at least 20s on the right side and at least 20s on the left side while jaw movements were tracked with a 3D motion analysis system. Jaw movement data were digitized, and chewing cycle phases were identified and analysed for all chewing cycles in a complete sequence. All four chewing cycle phase durations were more variant than total cycle durations, a result found in other non-human primates. Significant negative correlations existed between the opening phases, SO and FO, and between the closing phases, SC and FC; however, there was less consistency in terms of which phases were negatively correlated both between subjects, and between chewing sides within subjects, compared with results reported in other species. The coordination of intra-cycle phases appears to be flexible and to follow complex rules during gum-chewing in humans. Alternatively, the observed intra-cycle phase relationships could simply reflect: (1) variation in jaw kinematics due to variation in how gum was handled by the tongue on a chew-by-chew basis in our experimental design or (2) by variation due to data sampling noise and/or how phases were defined and identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Chewing Cinnamon Flavored Gum on Mood, Feeling and Spelling Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew; Kim, Wonsun; Raudenbush, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate if the effects of chewing cinnamon flavored gum can increase mood, feeling and spelling acquisition. 5th grade students (n = 22) at Ilshin elementary school in South Korea served as participants. The same students were required to take 4 spelling tests with 1 given every day over the course of 4 days. For…

  14. "JCE" Classroom Activity #105. A Sticky Situation: Chewing Gum and Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Gonzalez, Ingrid; Cintron-Maldonado, Jose A.; Perez-Medina, Ilia E.; Montes-Berrios, Veronica; Roman-Lopez, Saurie N.

    2010-01-01

    In this Activity, students perform several solubility tests using common food items such as chocolate, chewing gum, water, sugar, and oil. From their observations during the Activity, students will initially classify the substances tested as soluble or insoluble. They will then use their understanding of the chemistry of solubility to classify the…

  15. Terrestrial Sediments of the Earth: Development of a Global Unconsolidated Sediments Map Database (GUM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börker, J.; Hartmann, J.; Amann, T.; Romero-Mujalli, G.

    2018-04-01

    Mapped unconsolidated sediments cover half of the global land surface. They are of considerable importance for many Earth surface processes like weathering, hydrological fluxes or biogeochemical cycles. Ignoring their characteristics or spatial extent may lead to misinterpretations in Earth System studies. Therefore, a new Global Unconsolidated Sediments Map database (GUM) was compiled, using regional maps specifically representing unconsolidated and quaternary sediments. The new GUM database provides insights into the regional distribution of unconsolidated sediments and their properties. The GUM comprises 911,551 polygons and describes not only sediment types and subtypes, but also parameters like grain size, mineralogy, age and thickness where available. Previous global lithological maps or databases lacked detail for reported unconsolidated sediment areas or missed large areas, and reported a global coverage of 25 to 30%, considering the ice-free land area. Here, alluvial sediments cover about 23% of the mapped total ice-free area, followed by aeolian sediments (˜21%), glacial sediments (˜20%), and colluvial sediments (˜16%). A specific focus during the creation of the database was on the distribution of loess deposits, since loess is highly reactive and relevant to understand geochemical cycles related to dust deposition and weathering processes. An additional layer compiling pyroclastic sediment is added, which merges consolidated and unconsolidated pyroclastic sediments. The compilation shows latitudinal abundances of sediment types related to climate of the past. The GUM database is available at the PANGAEA database (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.884822).

  16. Enhanced transport of zerovalent iron nanoparticles in saturated porous media by guar gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2009-01-01

    In order to ensure adequate mobility of zerovalent iron nanoparticles in natural aquifers, the use of a stabilizing agent is necessary. Polymers adsorbed on the nanoparticle surface will give rise to electrosteric stabilization and will decrease attachment to the surface soil grains. Water saturated sand-packed columns were used in this study to investigate the transport of iron nanoparticle suspensions, bare or modified with the green polymer guar gum. The suspensions were prepared at 154 mg/L particle concentration and 0.5 g/L polymer concentration. Transport experiments were conducted by varying the ionic strength, ionic composition, and approach velocity of the fluid. Nanoparticle deposition rates, attachment efficiencies, and travel distances were subsequently calculated based on the classical particle filtration theory. It was found that bare iron nanoparticles are basically immobile in sandy porous media. In contrast, guar gum is able to ensure significant nanoparticle transport at the tested conditions, regardless of the chemistry of the solution. Attachment efficiency values for guar gum-coated nanoparticles under the various conditions tested were smaller than 0.066. Although the calculated travel distances may not prove satisfactory for field application, the investigation attested the promising role of guar gum to ensure mobility of iron nanoparticles in the subsurface environment.

  17. Compressional, mechanical and release properties of a novel gum in paracetamol tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedokun Musiliu O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The binding properties of Eucalyptus gum obtained from the incised trunk of Eucalyptus tereticornis, were evaluated in paracetamol tablet formulations, in comparison with that of Gelatin B.P. In so doing, the compression properties were analyzed using density measurements and the compression equations of Heckel, Kawakita and Gurham. In our work, the mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using the crushing strength and friability of the tablets, while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration and dissolution times. The results of the study reveal that tablet formulations incorporating Eucalyptus gum as binder, exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing gelatin. What is more, the Gurnham equation could be used as a substitute for the Kawakita equation in describing the compression properties of pharmaceutical tablets. Furthermore, the crushing strength, disintegration and dissolution times of the tablets increased with binder concentration, while friability values decreased. We noted that no significant differences in properties exist between formulations derived from the two binders (p > 0.05 exist. While tablets incorporating gelatin exhibited higher values for mechanical properties, Eucalyptus gum tablets had better balance between mechanical and release properties - as seen from the CSFR/Dt values. Tablets of good mechanical and release properties were prepared using Eucalyptus gum as a binder, and, therefore, it could serve as an alternative binder in producing tablets with good mechanical strength and fast drug release.

  18. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis : Comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, CP; Brand, HS; Veerman, ECI; Valentijn-Benz, M; Van Amerongen, BM; Amerongen, AVN; Valentijn, RM; Vos, PI; Bijlsma, JA; ter Wee, PM

    2005-01-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White(TM)) and a

  19. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis: comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, Casper P.; Brand, Henk S.; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van Amerongen, Barbara M.; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V.; Valentijn, Robert M.; Vos, Pieter F.; Bijlsma, Joost A.; Bezemer, Pieter D.; ter Wee, Piet M.

    2005-01-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White) and a

  20. Adsorptive removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions by almond gum: Kinetic study and equilibrium isotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Kallel, Fatma; Ghorbel, Rhoudha Ellouz; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2017-12-01

    This work aimed at investigating the potential of almond gum as low cost adsorbent for the removal of the cationic dye; malachite green from aqueous solutions. Almond gum was first analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and then the adsorption behavior was studied in batch system. The effects of the adsorption parameters (adsorbent dose, pH, contact time, particle size, initial dye concentration, temperature and agitation) on the dye removal have been studied. Adsorption equilibrium and isotherms were evaluated depending on temperature using the isotherms of Freundlich, Langmuir, and Tempkin. The obtained result showed that both Langmuir and Freundlich models were adapted to study the dye sorption. The maximum adsorption capacities were equal to 172.41mg/g, 181.81mg/g, and 196.07mg/g at 303.16K, 313.16K, and 323.16K, respectively. The kinetics of sorption were following the pseudo-second order model. The thermodynamic changes in enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), and free energy (ΔG) indicated that the adsorption of malachite green at the surface of almond gum is endothermic and occurs spontaneously. Desorption experiments were conducted to regenerate almond gum, showing great desorption capacity when using HCl at pH 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.