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Sample records for rapidly exudate solutions

  1. Rapid appearance of resolvin precursors in inflammatory exudates: novel mechanisms in resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Kie; Yang, Rong; Porter, Timothy F; Agrawal, Nitin; Petasis, Nicos A; Irimia, Daniel; Toner, Mehmet; Serhan, Charles N

    2008-12-15

    Resolution of inflammation is essential. Although supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids is widely used, their availability at sites of inflammation is not known. To this end, a multidisciplinary approach was taken to determine the relationship of circulating omega-3 to inflammatory exudates and the generation of resolution signals. In this study, we monitored resolvin precursors in evolving exudates, which initially paralleled increases in edema and infiltrating neutrophils. We also prepared novel microfluidic chambers to capture neutrophils from a drop of blood within minutes that permitted single-cell monitoring. In these, docosahexaenoic acid-derived resolvin D1 rapidly stopped neutrophil migration, whereas precursor docosahexaenoic acid did not. In second organ injury via ischemia-reperfusion, resolvin metabolically stable analogues were potent organ protectors reducing neutrophils. Together, these results indicate that circulating omega-3 fatty acids rapidly appear in inflammatory sites that require conversion to resolvins that control excessive neutrophil infiltration, protect organs, and foster resolution.

  2. The Automated Root Exudate System (ARES): a method to apply solutes at regular intervals to soils in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sangil, Luis; George, Charles; Medina-Barcenas, Eduardo; Birkett, Ali J; Baxendale, Catherine; Bréchet, Laëtitia M; Estradera-Gumbau, Eduard; Sayer, Emma J

    2017-09-01

    Root exudation is a key component of nutrient and carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Exudation rates vary widely by plant species and environmental conditions, but our understanding of how root exudates affect soil functioning is incomplete, in part because there are few viable methods to manipulate root exudates in situ. To address this, we devised the Automated Root Exudate System (ARES), which simulates increased root exudation by applying small amounts of labile solutes at regular intervals in the field.The ARES is a gravity-fed drip irrigation system comprising a reservoir bottle connected via a timer to a micro-hose irrigation grid covering c. 1 m2; 24 drip-tips are inserted into the soil to 4-cm depth to apply solutions into the rooting zone. We installed two ARES subplots within existing litter removal and control plots in a temperate deciduous woodland. We applied either an artificial root exudate solution (RE) or a procedural control solution (CP) to each subplot for 1 min day-1 during two growing seasons. To investigate the influence of root exudation on soil carbon dynamics, we measured soil respiration monthly and soil microbial biomass at the end of each growing season.The ARES applied the solutions at a rate of c. 2 L m-2 week-1 without significantly increasing soil water content. The application of RE solution had a clear effect on soil carbon dynamics, but the response varied by litter treatment. Across two growing seasons, soil respiration was 25% higher in RE compared to CP subplots in the litter removal treatment, but not in the control plots. By contrast, we observed a significant increase in microbial biomass carbon (33%) and nitrogen (26%) in RE subplots in the control litter treatment.The ARES is an effective, low-cost method to apply experimental solutions directly into the rooting zone in the field. The installation of the systems entails minimal disturbance to the soil and little maintenance is required. Although we used

  3. [In situ dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution and organic acids exudation of two aquatic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-yu; Wen, Sheng-fang; Luo, Xian-xiang; Li, Ai-feng; Xing, Bao-shan; Li, Feng-min

    2009-08-15

    A mini-rhizotron experiment with Alternanthera philoxeroides and Typha latifolia was conducted to measure the spatial and temporal dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution. The organic acids in the in situ rhizosphere soil solution were analyzed. A decreasing phosphorus concentration gradient in soil solution toward the root was observed for both A. philoxeroides and T. latifolia. The phosphorus concentration in the rhizosphere soil solution of A. philoxeroides (2.53 mg x L(-1)) was lower than that of T. latifolia (5.43 mg x L(-1)) in the forth sampling day. Compared to T. latifolia, A. philoxeroides released more malic acid (27.33 umol x L(-1)) which was more efficient in phosphorus mobilization. A. philoxeroides was more effective in phosphorus uptake in the rhizosphere than T. latifolia.

  4. Rapid structural analysis of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryuzaki, Sou; Tsutsui, Makusu; He, Yuhui; Yokota, Kazumichi; Arima, Akihide; Morikawa, Takanori; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2017-04-01

    Rapid structural analysis of nanoscale matter in a liquid environment represents innovative technologies that reveal the identities and functions of biologically important molecules. However, there is currently no method with high spatio-temporal resolution that can scan individual particles in solutions to gain structural information. Here we report the development of a nanopore platform realizing quantitative structural analysis for suspended nanomaterials in solutions with a high z-axis and xy-plane spatial resolution of 35.8 ± 1.1 and 12 nm, respectively. We used a low thickness-to-diameter aspect ratio pore architecture for achieving cross sectional areas of analyte (i.e. tomograms). Combining this with multiphysics simulation methods to translate ionic current data into tomograms, we demonstrated rapid structural analysis of single polystyrene (Pst) beads and single dumbbell-like Pst beads in aqueous solutions.

  5. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  6. Microvascular exudative hyperresponsiveness in human coronavirus-induced common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, L.; Andersson, M.; Akerlund, A.; Wollmer, P.; Svensson, C.; Alkner, U.; Persson, C. G.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The inflammatory response of the airway microcirculation in rhinitis and asthma may be recorded as luminal entry of plasma macromolecules (mucosal exudation). This study examines the exudative responsiveness of the subepithelial microvessels in subjects with and without common cold after inoculation with coronavirus. METHODS--The airway mucosa was exposed to exudative concentrations of histamine (40 and 400 micrograms/ml) before and six days after inoculation. To assess whether mucosal penetration of a topically applied agent was altered, nasal absorption of chromium-51 labelled ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA, MW 372) was also examined. A nasal pool technique kept the challenge and tracer solutes in contact with the same ipsilateral mucosal surface. Concentrations of albumin in lavage fluids were measured as an index of mucosal exudation of plasma. Nasal absorption of 51Cr-EDTA was determined by the cumulated 24 hour urinary excretion of radioactivity. RESULTS--Nine subjects developed common cold after coronavirus inoculation and 10 remained healthy. Histamine produced concentration dependent mucosal exudation of plasma in all subjects before and after coronavirus inoculation. In subjects with common cold, however, the histamine-induced mucosal exudation was significantly augmented compared with the group without common cold. This exudative hyperresponsiveness is not explained by an increased baseline exudation because the lavage regimen used produced comparably low baseline exudation in both groups of subjects, nor is it explained by an increased penetration of topical histamine because the ability of the nasal mucosa to absorb 51Cr-EDTA was not significantly increased in the subjects with common cold. CONCLUSIONS--An increased proclivity of the airway subepithelial microcirculation to respond with plasma exudation develops during coronavirus-induced common cold. This specific exudative hyperresponsiveness may be a feature of inflammatory

  7. Forced Spreading of Aqueous Solutions on Zwitterionic Sulfobetaine Surfaces for Rapid Evaporation and Solute Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Singh, Vickramjeet; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2017-08-01

    Solute separation of aqueous mixtures is mainly dominated by water vaporization. The evaporation rate of an aqueous drop grows with increasing the liquid-gas interfacial area. The spontaneous spreading behavior of a water droplet on a total wetting surface provides huge liquid-gas interfacial area per unit volume; however, it is halted by the self-pinning phenomenon upon addition of nonvolatile solutes. In this work, it is shown that the solute-induced self-pinning can be overcome by gravity, leading to anisotropic spreading much faster than isotropic spreading. The evaporation rate of anisotropic spreading on a zwitterionic sulfobetaine surface is 25 times larger as that on a poly(methyl methacrylate) surface. Dramatic enhancement of evaporation is demonstrated by simultaneous formation of fog atop liquid film. During anisotropic spreading, the solutes are quickly precipitated out within 30 s, showing the rapid solute-water separation. After repeated spreading process for the dye-containing solution, the mean concentration of the collection is doubled, revealing the concentration efficiency as high as 100%. Gravity-enhanced spreading on total wetting surfaces at room temperature is easy to scale-up with less energy consumption, and thus it has great potentials for the applications of solute separation and concentration.

  8. Rapidly decaying solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, T. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. d' Analyse Numerique); Weissler, F.B. (ENS, 94 - Cachan (France). Centre de Mathematiques Paris-7 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France). UFR de Sciences)

    1992-06-01

    We consider global solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation iu{sub t}+{Delta}u={lambda}vertical strokeuvertical stroke{sup {alpha}}u, in R{sup N}, (NLS) where {lambda}{epsilon}R and 0<{alpha}< 4/N-2. In particular, for {alpha}>{alpha}{sub 0}=(2-N+{radical}(N{sup 2}+12N+4))/2N, we show that for every ({phi}{epsilon}H{sup 1}(R{sup N}) such that x{phi}(x){epsilon}L{sup 2}(R{sup N}), the solution of (NLS) with initial value {phi}(x)e{sup i(bvertical} {sup strokexvertical} {sup stroke2/4)} is global and rapidly decaying as t{yields}{infinity} if b is large enough. Furthermore, by applying the pseudo-conformal transformation and studying the resulting nonautonomous nonlinear Schroedinger equation, we obtain both new results and simpler proofs of some known results concerning the scattering theory. In particular, we construct the wave operators for 4/N+2<{alpha}<4/N-2. Also, we establish a low energy scattering theory for the same range of {alpha} and show that, at least for {lambda}<0, the lower bound on {alpha} is optimal. Finally, if {lambda}>0, we prove asymptotic completeness for {alpha}{sub 0}{<=}{alpha}<4/N-2. (orig.).

  9. The development of the rhizosphere: simulation of root exudation for two contrasting exudates: citrate and mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Cheng; Bol, Roland; Vetterlein, Doris; Vanderborght, Jan; Schnepf, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Different types of root exudates and their effect on soil/rhizosphere properties have received a lot of attention. Since their influence of rhizosphere properties and processes depends on their concentration in the soil, the assessment of the spatial-temporal exudate concentration distribution around roots is of key importance for understanding the functioning of the rhizosphere. Different root systems have different root architectures. Different types of root exudates diffuse in the rhizosphere with different diffusion coefficient. Both of them are responsible for the dynamics of exudate concentration distribution in the rhizosphere. Hence, simulations of root exudation involving four kinds of plant root systems (Vicia faba, Lupinus albus, Triticum aestivum and Zea mays) and two kinds of root exudates (citrate and mucilage) were conducted. We consider a simplified root architecture where each root is represented by a straight line. Assuming that root tips move at a constant velocity and that mucilage transport is linear, concentration distributions can be obtained from a convolution of the analytical solution of the transport equation in a stationary flow field for an instantaneous point source injection with the spatial-temporal distribution of the source strength. By coupling the analytical equation with a root growth model that delivers the spatial-temporal source term, we simulated exudate concentration distributions for citrate and mucilage with MATLAB. From the simulation results, we inferred the following information about the rhizosphere: (a) the dynamics of the root architecture development is the main effect of exudate distribution in the root zone; (b) a steady rhizosphere with constant width is more likely to develop for individual roots when the diffusion coefficient is small. The simulations suggest that rhizosphere development depends in the following way on the root and exudate properties: the dynamics of the root architecture result in various

  10. Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy

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    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR is a hereditary disease associated with visual loss, particularly in the pediatric group. Mutations in the NDP, FZD4, LRP5, and TSPAN12 genes have been shown to contribute to FEVR. FEVR has been reported to have X-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive inheritances. However, both the genotypic and phenotypic features are variable. Novel mutations contributing to the disease have been reported. The earliest and the most prominent finding of the disease is avascularity in the peripheral retina. As the disease progresses, retinal neovascularization, subretinal exudation, partial and total retinal detachment may occur, which may be associated with certain mutations. With early diagnosis and prompt management visual loss can be prevented with laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF injections. In case of retinal detachment, pars plana vitrectomy alone or combined with scleral buckling should be considered. Identifying asymptomatic family members with various degrees of insidious findings is of certain importance. Wide-field imaging with fluorescein angiography is crucial in the management of this disease. The differential diagnosis includes other pediatric vitreoretinopathies such as Norrie disease, retinopathy of prematurity, and Coats’ disease. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 164-168

  11. CYTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF FENSPIRIDE USAGE IN TREATMENT OF CHRONIC EXUDATIVE OTITIS MEDIA

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    O. Yu. Mezentseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytological investigation of exudates, obtained during tympanostomies, showed the predomination of inflammatory-regenerative cytograms types when using Fenspiride (Eurespal in treatment of secretory stage of chronic exudative otitis media. Received data confirm, that treatment with this drug shortens the course of exudative otitis media and contributes to more rapid change from destructive to reparative stage of inflammation, which prevents the development of adhesive process in the middle ear.

  12. Rapid Time Response: A solution for Manufacturing Issue

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    Norazlin N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Respond time in manufacturing give the major impact that able to contribute too many manufacturing issues. Based on two worst case scenario occurred where Toyota in 2009 made a massive vehicles call due to car complexity of 11 major models and over 9 million vehicles. The recalls cost at least $2 billion in cost of repair, lost deals and result in lost 5% of its market share in United State of America, while A380 was reported on missing target in new production and leads to delayed market entry due to their weak product life cycle management (PLM. These cases give a sign to all industries to possess and optimize the facilities for better traceability in shortest time period. In Industry 4.0, the traceability and time respond become the factors for high performance manufacturing and rapid time respond able to expedite the traceability process and strengthen the communication level between man, machine and management. The round trip time (RTT experiment gives variant time respond between two difference operating system for intra and inter-platform signal. If this rapid time respond is adopted in any manufacturing process, the delay in traceability on every issue that lead to losses can be successfully avoided.

  13. Low molecular weight organic acids in root exudates and cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The S. nigrum accumulated and translocated more Cd than S. lycopersicum. The soil solution pH of S. nigrum was significantly lower than S. lycopersicum. The S. nigrum with higher concentrations of LMWOA in roots exudation accumulated more Cd in the plants. The results indicated tha LMWOA secretion by S. nigrum root ...

  14. Exploring the transfer of recent plant photosynthates to soil microbes: mycorrhizal pathway vs direct root exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Kilburn, Matt R; Clode, Peta L; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Koranda, Marianne; Cliff, John B; Solaiman, Zakaria M; Murphy, Daniel V

    2015-03-01

    Plants rapidly release photoassimilated carbon (C) to the soil via direct root exudation and associated mycorrhizal fungi, with both pathways promoting plant nutrient availability. This study aimed to explore these pathways from the root's vascular bundle to soil microbial communities. Using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging and (13) C-phospho- and neutral lipid fatty acids, we traced in-situ flows of recently photoassimilated C of (13) CO2 -exposed wheat (Triticum aestivum) through arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) into root- and hyphae-associated soil microbial communities. Intraradical hyphae of AM fungi were significantly (13) C-enriched compared to other root-cortex areas after 8 h of labelling. Immature fine root areas close to the root tip, where AM features were absent, showed signs of passive C loss and co-location of photoassimilates with nitrogen taken up from the soil solution. A significant and exclusively fresh proportion of (13) C-photosynthates was delivered through the AM pathway and was utilised by different microbial groups compared to C directly released by roots. Our results indicate that a major release of recent photosynthates into soil leave plant roots via AM intraradical hyphae already upstream of passive root exudations. AM fungi may act as a rapid hub for translocating fresh plant C to soil microbes. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Rapid aggregation and assembly in aqueous solution of Aβ (25-35 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 2. Rapid aggregation and assembly in aqueous solution of A (25-35) peptide. Lia Millucci Roberto Raggiaschi Davide Franceschini Georg Terstappen Annalisa Santucci. Articles Volume 34 Issue 2 June 2009 ...

  16. Effect of artificial root exudates on the sorption and desorption of PAHs in meadow brown soils

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    Wang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    The batch equilibrium experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of artificial root exudates on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene and pyrene. The result showed sorption isotherms were fitted well to the Freundlich equation with the treatment of artificial root exudates. Fructose had the most obvious effect on sorption. The artificial root exudates improved desorption of PAHs, while low molecular weight organic acids were better than serine and fructose. The capability of sorption and desorption was strengthened with the increase of organic acids concentration. And the DOM in the solution might be the most important factor of the adsorption of PAHs in solid phase.

  17. Coupled model of root water uptake, mucilage exudation and degradation

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    Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez A.; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Although the fact that root mucilage plays a prominent role in soil-plant water relations is becoming more and more accepted, many aspects of how mucilage distribution and root water uptake interact with each other remain unexplored. First, it is not clear how long mucilage persists in soil. Furthermore, the effects of water content and root water uptake (i.e. convective fluxes) on the diffusion of mucilage from the root surface into the soil are not included in current models of water uptake. The aims of this study were: i) to measure the effect of soil moisture on mucilage decomposition; ii) to develop a coupled model of root water uptake and mucilage diffusion and degradation during root growth. C4 root mucilage from maize was added as single pulses to a C3 soil of two different moisture levels. We have then employed the Richards Equation for water flow and an advection-dispersion equation to describe the dynamic distribution of mucilage in a single-root model. Most of the mucilage was decomposed under optimum water supply. Drought significantly suppressed mucilage mineralization. Opposed to classical solute transport models the water flow in the rhizosphere was affected by the local concentration of mucilage. Namely a higher concentration of mucilage results in (a) an increase in equilibrium water retention curve, (b) a reduction of hydraulic conductivity at a given water content and (c) a non-equilibrium water retention curve caused by swelling and shrinking dynamics of mucilage in the pore space. The dispersion coefficient, on the other hand, depends on the water content. The parameters of mucilage diffusion have been fitted to observations on real plants. The model shows that mucilage exuded in wet soils diffuses far from the roots and it is rapidly degraded. On the contrary, mucilage of plants growing in dry soil is not easily degradable and it remains at higher concentrations in a narrow region around the roots, resulting in a marked increase in water

  18. Rapid and Efficient Collection of Platinum from Karstedt's Catalyst Solution via Ligands-Exchange-Induced Assembly.

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    Yang, Gonghua; Wei, Yanlong; Huang, Zhenzhu; Hu, Jiwen; Liu, Guojun; Ou, Ming; Lin, Shudong; Tu, Yuanyuan

    2018-02-21

    Reported herein is a novel strategy for the rapid and efficient collection of platinum from Karstedt's catalyst solution. By taking advantage of a ligand-exchange reaction between alkynols and the 1,3-divinyltetramethyldisiloxane ligand (M Vi M Vi ) that coordinated with platinum (Pt(0)), the Karstedt's catalyst particles with a size of approximately 2.5 ± 0.7 nm could be reconstructed and assembled into larger particles with a size of 150 ± 35 nm due to the hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups of the alkynol. In addition, because the silicone-soluble M Vi M Vi ligand of the Karstedt's catalyst was replaced by water-soluble alkynol ligands, the resultant large particles were readily dispersed in water, resulting in rapid, efficient, and complete collection of platinum from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions with platinum concentrations in the range from ∼20 000 to 0.05 ppm. Our current strategy not only was used for the rapid and efficient collection of platinum from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions, but it also enabled the precise evaluation of the platinum content in the Karstedt's catalysts, even if this platinum content was extremely low (i.e., 0.05 ppm). Moreover, these platinum specimens that were efficiently collected from the Karstedt's catalyst solutions could be directly used for the evaluation of platinum without the need for pretreatment processes, such as calcination and digestion with hydrofluoric acid, that were traditionally used prior to testing via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in conventional methods.

  19. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

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    AK Gregg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA. BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

  20. Amorphous material from the rapid evaporation of basalt weathering solutions: Implications for Amazonian alteration

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    Smith, R.; Horgan, B. H. N.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Amorphous silicates of ambiguous origin are detected on the Martian surface through orbiter and rover measurements. Secondary amorphous silicates might precipitate from rapidly evaporating weathering solutions under Amazonian ( 3 BYA - present) surface conditions. Yet, such phases are poorly understood and are underrepresented in infrared spectral libraries. Amazonian weathering was simulated by dissolving two basaltic tephra compositions in DI water under two different atmospheres (1: oxidizing and 2: simulated Martian). The resulting weathering solutions were rapidly evaporated into sample cups. Precipitate mineralogy was studied using visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Solution compositions were analyzed using Ion Chromatography (IC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). All experiments formed hydrated amorphous silicates and nanophase iron-oxides, but precipitates from solutions formed under a simulated Martian atmosphere also contain crystalline carbonate and sulfate minerals. The oxidizing atmosphere precipitates are also S-bearing, based on solution chemistry, but no crystalline sulfates were unambiguously detected. The TIR spectra of all samples exhibit a spectral feature at 460 cm-1 that was previously only known to be present in the spectra of basaltic glass and some terrestrial palagonitized basalt samples, indicating that the precipitates are new to spectral libraries. Ongoing characterization will help determine the composition and structure of the amorphous phases. TIR spectral and XRD instruments on the Spirit and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rovers both indicate high abundances of basaltic glass in rock and soil samples, despite chemical evidence for aqueous alteration. Our results suggest that these measurements are consistent with secondary amorphous silicates formed through the rapid evaporation of basalt weathering solutions. Thus, transient water

  1. Exudation of alcohol and aldehyde sugars from roots of defoliated Lolium perenne L. grown under sterile conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Stephen J; Read, Derek B; Murray, Philip J; Gregory, Peter J

    2008-11-01

    Root exudates were collected over a 27 day period from defoliated and non-defoliated Lolium perenne L. plants grown under sterile conditions in microlysimeters. Eleven individual sugars, including both aldehyde and alcohol sugars, were identified and quantified with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). There was no change in the number of sugars present between 7 and 27 days, but the exudation of alcohol sugars decreased rapidly at about day 12. Xylose and glucose were present in the largest amounts. Defoliation initially increased the total amount of sugars in the exudates, but continuous defoliation reduced total sugar exudation by 16% and induced changes in the exudation patterns of individual sugars. Defoliation enhanced exudation of erythritol, threitol, and xylitol, reduced exudation of glucose and arabitol, but had little effect on the amounts of other sugars exuded. The more complex 6 C, 5 OH aldehyde sugars, especially glucose, showed changes earlier and to a greater extent (17 days), than the 5 C, 4 OH (xylose and ribose) and 6 C 4 OH (fucose) aldehyde groups. These findings confirm the general finding that repeated defoliation reduces the quantity of total sugars exuded, but the pattern of release of individual sugars is complex and variable.

  2. Citrate, Malate, and Succinate Concentration in Exudates from P-Sufficient and P-Stressed Medicago sativa L. Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Doug S.; Blanchar, Robert W.; Blevins, Dale G.

    1987-01-01

    Under certain stress conditions roots exude organic molecules, which may facilitate the uptake of nutrients. The objective of this research was to identify and measure the effect of low P upon the exudation of organic acids by roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings. Surface-sterilized alfalfa seeds were grown aseptically in sterile sand using an apparatus specially designed for the addition of ±P nutrient solutions and for the collection of root exudates. Citric, malic, and succinic acids were detected in the root exudates of 24-day-old alfalfa seedlings. Citrate exudation from the roots of P-stressed alfalfa was 182% that of plants receiving a complete nutrient solution. The increased release of citrate may provide a mechanism by which P-stressed plants enhance the availability of P in the rhizosphere. PMID:16665693

  3. Microfluidic device for rapid solution exchange to study kinetics of cell physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Howard; Honnatti, Meghana; Gillis, Kevin

    2006-11-01

    Exchanging the extracellular solution of the cell rapidly (less than 10ms) is an important requirement in study the kinetics of cell physiology. A microfluidic device is developed to exchange the solution around the cells as they flow through a junction at the intersection of two microfluidic channels. The solution exchange time is measured experimentally by fluorescently labeling the cell surface membranes with a styryl dye, FM1-43 or FM 2-10, and then observing the time course of cell fluorescence decay following the rapid drop in the extracellular concentration of the FM dye that occurs as the cell flows past the fluidic junction. A numerical model is developed to guide the experimental design of microfluidic device. In the model, the motion of a single cell through a fluid junction is simulated and the mixing process of the solutions is solved. The model also includes the kinetics of departitioning of FM dyes from the cell membrane. The departitioning time constants for the FM dyes are determined from fitting the measured data of the cell fluorescence decay. This departitioning kinetics is important as FM dyes are commonly used to label cell membranes for the purpose of measuring the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles via exocytosis and the subsequent reuptake of vesicular membrane by endocytosis.

  4. A nonlinear self-similar solution to barotropic flow over rapidly varying topography

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    Ibanez, Ruy; Kuehl, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Beginning from the Shallow Water Equations (SWE), a nonlinear self-similar analytic solution is derived for barotropic flow over rapidly varying topography. We study conditions relevant to the ocean slope where the flow is dominated by Earth's rotation and topography. Attention is paid to the northern Gulf of Mexico slope with application to pollutant dispersion and the Norwegian Coastal Current which sheds eddies into the Lofoten Basin that are believe to influence deep water formation. The solution is found to extend the topographic β-plume solution (Kuehl 2014, GRL) in two ways: 1) The solution is valid for intensifying jets. 2) The influence of nonlinear advection is included. The SWE are scaled to the case of a topographically controlled jet, then solved by introducing a similarity variable η = Cxy . The nonlinear solution, valid for topographies h =h0 - αxy3 , takes the form of the Lambert W Function for velocity. The linear solution, valid for topographies h =h0 - αxyγ , takes the form of the Error Function for transport. Kuehl's results considered the case - 1 <= γ < 1 which admits expanding jets, while the new result consider the case γ < - 1 which admits intensifying jets.

  5. Implementation of a Multichannel Serial Data Streaming Algorithm using the Xilinx Serial RapidIO Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxley, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current world of applications that use reconfigurable technology implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), there is a need for flexible architectures that can grow as the systems evolve. A project has limited resources and a fixed set of requirements that development efforts are tasked to meet. Designers must develop robust solutions that practically meet the current customer demands and also have the ability to grow for future performance. This paper describes the development of a high speed serial data streaming algorithm that allows for transmission of multiple data channels over a single serial link. The technique has the ability to change to meet new applications developed for future design considerations. This approach uses the Xilinx Serial RapidIO LOGICORE Solution to implement a flexible infrastructure to meet the current project requirements with the ability to adapt future system designs.

  6. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  7. Empirical and mathematical model of rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) process of acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, Le Anh

    2017-09-01

    Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS) is a solvent-free technology to produce small solid particles with very narrow size distribution. RESS process is simple and easy to control in comparison with other methods based on supercritical techniques. In this study, the engineering of nano (or submicron) acetaminophen particles using rapid expansion CO2 supercritical solution (RESS) was investigated. Empirical model with response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effects of processing parameters, i.e. extraction temperature T (313-333 K), extraction pressure P (90-150 bar) and pre-expansion temperature Texp (353-373 K), on the size of precipitated acetaminophen particles. The results show that the smallest particle size, i.e. 52.08 nm can be achieved at 90 bar, 313 K and 353 K (P, T, Texp, respectively). To better understand and develop a mechanistic predictive tool for RESS process, a one dimensional steady flow model was used in this work to describe the subsonic expansion process inside the capillary nozzle and the supersonic expansion process outside expansion nozzle. It was shown that particle characteristics are governed by both operation parameters such as pre-expansion temperature, pre-expansion pressure, and expansion temperature. These parameters affects particle size in the same trend as that was found from experiment data and empirical model.

  8. Rapid analysis of perchlorate, chlorate and bromate ions in concentrated sodium hypochlorite solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Stanford, Benjamin D; Quiñones, Oscar; Pacey, Gilbert E; Gordon, Gilbert; Snyder, Shane A

    2010-02-05

    A sensitive, rapid, and rugged liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for measuring concentrations of perchlorate, chlorate, and bromate ions in concentrated sodium hypochlorite solutions is presented. The LC-MS/MS method offers a practical quantitation limit (PQL) of 0.05 microg L(-1) for ClO(4)(-), 0.2 microg L(-1) for BrO(3)(-), and 0.7 microg L(-1) for ClO(3)(-) and a sample analysis time of only 10 min. Additionally, an iodometric titration technique was compared with the LC-MS/MS method for measurement of chlorate ion at high concentration. The LC-MS/MS method was the most reproducible for chlorate concentrations below 0.025 M while the iodometric titration method employed was the most reproducible above 0.025 M. By using both methods, concentrations of chlorate can be measured over a wide range, from 0.7 microg L(-1) to 210 g L(-1) in hypochlorite ion solutions. Seven quenching agents were also evaluated for their ability to neutralize hypochlorite ion, thereby stopping formation of perchlorate ion in solution, without adversely impacting the other oxyhalide ions. Malonic acid was chosen as the quenching agent of choice, meeting all evaluation criteria outlined in this manuscript. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Imazapyr root exudation from eucalypt seedlings cultivated in nutritive solution Exsudação radicular de imazapyr por mudas de eucalipto cultivadas em solução nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Magno Magalhães da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Imazapyr has been used in Brazilian eucalypt cultivation for the maintenance of clearings and coppicing control in areas undergoing stand reform. However, inquiries have been made as to the final fate of the molecule. Imazapyr root exudation in eucalypt plants was evaluated through a bioassay under greenhouse conditions, by applying different herbicide doses (0.000, 0.375, 0.750, 1.125, and 1.500 kg ha-1 a.i. on Eucalyptus grandis seedlings derived from vegetative propagation, hydroponically cultivated in 2.500 ml vases. Forty-day-old seedlings of the same clone were used as bioindicators, transplanted to the vases two days after herbicide application. After a period of 13 days of coexistence, the sprayed plants were removed and discarded; ten days later, the visual symptoms of toxicity were evaluated and the total dry biomass (aerial part and roots of the bioindicators were determined. The lowest herbicide dose (0.375 kg ha-1 a.i. affected the total biomass and growth, being most evident in the aerial part, with larger I50 for root dry biomass. The E. grandis seedlings exuded imazapyr, and/or its metabolites, in concentrations capable of affecting the growth of plants of the same species.Na eucaliptocultura brasileira, vem-se utilizando o imazapyr para manutenção de aceiros e erradicação de cepas e brotações em áreas de reforma dos povoamentos. Entretanto, têm sido levantadas indagações quanto ao destino final da molécula. A exsudação radicular de imazapyr em plantas de eucalipto foi avaliada por meio de bioensaios em casa de vegetação, aplicando-se diferentes doses do herbicida (0,000; 0,375; 0,750; 1,125; e 1,500 kg ha-1 i.a. sobre mudas de Eucalyptus grandis, provenientes de propagação vegetativa e cultivadas em sistema hidropônico, em vasos de 2.500 mL. Como bioindicador, empregaram-se mudas do mesmo clone com 40 dias de idade, as quais foram transplantadas para os vasos dois dias após a aplicação do herbicida. Depois

  10. Novel micronisation β-carotene using rapid expansion supercritical solution with co-solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, Le Anh

    2017-09-01

    Rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) is the most common approach of pharmaceutical pacticle forming methods using supercritical fluids. The RESS method is a technology producing a small solid product with a very narrow particle size distribution, organic solvent-free particles. This process is also simple and easy to control the operating parameters in comparision with other ways based on supercritical techniques. In this study, β-carotene, a strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits, has been forming by RESS. In addition, the size and morphology effect of four different RESS parameters including co-solvent, extraction temperature, and extraction pressure and expansion nozzle temperature has surveyed. The particle size distribution has been determined by using laser diffraction experiment. SEM has conducted to analyze the surface structure, DSC and FTIR for thermal and chemical structure analysis.

  11. Micronization of phenylbutazone by rapid expansion of supercritical CO2 solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Tsutsumi, Shun-ichiro; Morishita, Shoko; Shinozaki, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Yuichi; Oguchi, Toshio; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2005-08-01

    Rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS) technique was applied for the preparation of phenylbutazone fine particles. The operating temperature and pressure affected the yield of the drug fine particles, which was evaluated by dissolving the sprayed product of drug into ethanol. Effect of pre- and post-expansion conditions on the particle size distribution of phenylbutazone was investigated and the smallest sample (mean particle size: 1.59 microm) was obtained when the RESS method was operated at a pressure of 26 MPa combined with a temperature of 32 degrees C. Physicochemical properties of the fine particles were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that the phenylbutazone fine particles obtained were meta-stable beta form under the experimental conditions tested, suggesting polymorphic transformation during the RESS process.

  12. A Rapid and Simple TLC-Densitometric Method for Assay of Clobetasol Propionate in Topical Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolowy, Malgorzata; Kozik, Violetta; Bak, Andrzej; Jampilek, Josef; Barbusinski, Krzysztof; Thomas, Maciej; Pyka-Pajak, Alina

    2017-11-03

    A rapid, simple to use and low-cost thin-layer chromatographic procedure in normal phase system with densitometric detection at 246 nm was carefully validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines for assay of clobetasol propionate in topical solution containing clobetasol propionate in quantity 0.50 mg/mL. The adopted thin-layer chromatographic (TLC)-densitometric procedure could effectively separate clobetasol propionate from its related compound, namely clobetasol. It is linear for clobetasol propionate in the range of 0.188 ÷ 5 µg/spot. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) value is 0.061 and 0.186 µg/spot, respectively. Accuracy of proposed procedure was evaluated by recovery test. The mean recovery of studied clobetasol propionate ranges from 98.7 to 101.0%. The coefficient of variation (CV, %) obtained during intra-day and inter-day studies, which was less than 2% (0.40 ÷ 1.17%), confirms the precision of described method. The assay value of clobetasol propionate is consistent with the pharmacopoeial requirements. In conclusion, it can be suitable as a simple and economic procedure for routine quality control laboratories of clobetasol propionate in topical solution.

  13. Malate Exudation by Six Aerobic Rice Genotypes Varying in Zinc Uptake Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Zhang, F.; Hoffland, E.

    2009-01-01

    Received for publication February 2, 2009. Zinc (Zn) uptake by plant roots from soils low in plant-available Zn may be increased by Zn-mobilizing rhizosphere processes, including exudation of low-molecular-weight organic anions. A rhizotron experiment with a low Zn clay soil and a nutrient solution

  14. Rapid dechlorination of chlorophenols in aqueous solution by [Ni|Cu] microcell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Lifeng, E-mail: yinlifeng@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Dai, Yunrong, E-mail: daiyunrong@mail.bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Niu, Junfeng, E-mail: junfengn@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Bao, Yueping, E-mail: baoyueping@mail.bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Shen, Zhenyao, E-mail: zyshen@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid dechlorination of chlorophenols in aqueous solution can be achieved by [Ni|Cu] mixture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decomposition rates of chlorophenols by [Ni|Cu] were decuple of that by [Fe|Ni], [Fe|Cu], [Zn|Cu], or [Sn|Cu]. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni{sup 0} acts as an indirect reductant and catalyst in dechlorination reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The H* corridor mechanism from Ni to Cu is proposed based on hydrogen spillover. - Abstract: The [Ni|Cu] microcell was prepared by mixing the Ni{sup 0} and Cu{sup 0} particles. The composition and crystal form were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope. The results evidenced the zero-valence metals Ni and Cu were exposed on the surface of particles mixture. The [Ni|Cu] microcell was employed to decompose chlorophenols in aqueous solution by reductive dechlorination. The dechlorination rates of chlorophenols by [Ni|Cu] were >10 times faster than those by [Fe|Cu], [Zn|Cu], [Sn|Cu], and [Fe|Ni] mixtures under the same conditions. [Ni|Cu] is different from other zero valent metals (ZVMs) in that it performed the best at neutral pH. The main products of chlorophenol dechlorination were cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. The reduction kinetics was between pseudo zero-order and first-order, depending on the pH, concentration, and temperature. These results, combined with electrochemical analysis, suggested that Ni{sup 0} acted as a reductant and catalyst in dechlorination reaction. The H* corridor mechanism from Ni{sup 0} to Cu{sup 0} was also proposed based on hydrogen spillover. The inhibition on the release of Ni{sup 2+} by adding natural organic matters and adjusting pH was investigated.

  15. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND gabonensis GUM EXUDATES A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND gabonensis GUM EXUDATES A. Sani Mamman Ibrahim, Abdullahi. Department of Chemistry ibrakimikel@gma. ABSTRACT. Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte ex O'R. North Eastern Nigeria. The plant is. Physicochemical and rheological studies we standard procedures and the results wer.

  16. Rapid Thermal Annealing for Solution Synthesis of Transparent Conducting Aluminum Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; De Matteis, Fabio; Davoli, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Transparent conducting oxide films with optimized dopant molar ratio have been prepared with limited pre- and postdeposition annealing duration of 10 min. Multiple aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) layers were spin-coated on ordinary glass substrates. The predeposition consolidation temperature and dopant molar ratio were optimized for electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Next, a group of films were deposited on Corning glass substrates from precursor solutions with the optimized dopant ratio, followed by postdeposition rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at different temperatures and in controlled environments. The lowest resistivity of 10.1 × 10-3 Ω cm was obtained for films receiving RTA at 600°C for 10 min each in vacuum then in N2-5%H2 environment, while resistivity of 20.3 × 10-3 Ω cm was obtained for films subjected to RTA directly in N2-5%H2. Optical measurements revealed average total transmittance of about 85% in the visible region. A direct allowed transition bandgap was determined based on the absorption edge with a value slightly above 3.0 eV, within the typical range for semiconductors. RTA resulted in desorption of oxygen with enhanced carrier concentration and crystallinity, which increased the carrier mobility with decreased bulk resistivity while maintaining the required optical transparency.

  17. Mass Housing Using GFRG Panels: A Sustainable, Rapid and Affordable Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Philip; Paul, Shinto; Krishna, S. R. Gouri; Menon, Devdas; Meher Prasad, A.

    2017-06-01

    This work gives an overview of research and development carried out at IIT Madras, using glass fibre reinforced gypsum (GFRG) panels, to provide an innovative solution for rapid and affordable mass housing. The GFRG panels (124 mm thick), made from recycled industrial waste gypsum (from the fertilizer industry), are prefabricated in 3 m × 12 m sizes with cellular cavities inside, which can be filled with reinforced concrete wherever required and can be used as walls as well as floor slabs. The tests carried out (over the past 12 years) establish the performance of GFRG building systems to resist gravity and lateral loads as a load-bearing system (without beams and columns) in multi-storeyed buildings up to 8-10 storeys, with adequate strength, serviceability, durability and ductility. A two-storeyed four-apartment demonstration building has also been successfully constructed in the IIT Madras campus and presently a mass housing scheme (40 apartment units) using this technology is being demonstrated at Nellore. A structural design code has also been approved by the Bureau of Indian Standards, based on the extensive studies carried out on GFRG building systems.

  18. The stoichiometry of root exudation- insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, J. E.; Finzi, A. C.

    2011-12-01

    Forest trees allocate large amounts of C belowground to fuel root processes and the activity of soil microbes through root exudation, rhizodeposition, and the support of mycorrhizal associations. There is a growing recognition that the microbial response to this flux of C belowground can have large impacts on ecosystem function. Here, we use a theoretical enzyme-driven model of decomposition and a field experiment of exudation treatments using root simulators to develop the idea that the response of decomposition to root exudation (i.e. priming of decomposition) depends on the interaction between exudate and microbial stoichiometry (C:N ratios). We added an exudation module to an existing model of decomposition (Schimel and Weintraub, 2003, Soil Biology & Biochemistry). In this model, microbes expend resources (C and N) for maintenance, growth, and the synthesis of exo-enzymes. These exo-enzymes solubilize soil organic C and N (SOC and SON) into dissolved forms (DOC and DON), which are then available for microbial uptake. Exuding DOC had little influence on priming of SOC decomposition, because microbes became N-limited following an exudate pulse and were thus unable to synthesize the N-rich exo-enzymes. However, exuding small amounts of DON in addition to DOC resulted in a large priming pulse of SOC decomposition, as the microbes utilized the DON for exo-enzyme synthesis, and the resulting pulse of enzyme activity decomposed SOC and SON. We tested these model simulations at Harvard Forest (MA- USA) by pumping exudation solutions into forest soils at realistic rates for 6-weeks using an automated system of peristaltic pumps and microlysimeters. Delivering C and N exudates with a C:N ratio of 10 significantly increased soil respiration, microbial biomass, and rates of exo-enzyme activity, while adding C exudates or water only did not affect these measurements of microbial biomass and activity. These results suggest that plants may achieve a positive return on

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Micronized Artemisinin via a Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Zhang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The particle sizes of pharmaceutical substances are important for their bioavailability. Bioavailability can be improved by reducing the particle size of the drug. In this study, artemisinin was micronized by the rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS. The particle size of the unprocessed white needle-like artemisinin particles was 30 to 1200 µm. The optimum micronization conditions are determined as follows: extraction temperature of 62 °C, extraction pressure of 25 MPa, precipitation temperature 45 °C and nozzle diameter of 1000 μm. Under the optimum conditions, micronized artemisinin with a (mean particle size MPS of 550 nm is obtained. By analysis of variance (ANOVA, extraction temperature and pressure have significant effects on the MPS of the micronized artemisinin. The particle size of micronized artemisinin decreased with increasing extraction temperature and pressure. Moreover, the SEM, LC-MS, FTIR, DSC and XRD allowed the comparison between the crystalline initial state and the micronization particles obtained after the RESS process. The results showed that RESS process has not induced degradation of artemisinin and that processed artemisinin particles have lower crystallinity and melting point. The bulk density of artemisinin was determined before and after RESS process and the obtained results showed that it passes from an initial density of 0.554 to 0.128 g·cm−3 after the processing. The decrease in bulk density of the micronized powder can increase the liquidity of drug particles when they are applied for medicinal preparations. These results suggest micronized powder of artemisinin can be of great potential in drug delivery systems.

  20. Rapid adsorption of Pb, Cu and Cd from aqueous solutions by β-cyclodextrin polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junyong; Li, Yulian; Wang, Chengming; Zhang, Kaisheng; Lin, Dongyue; Kong, Lingtao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2017-12-01

    Removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions has drawn more and more attentions these years because of their serious global health challenge to human society. To develop an adsorbent with low-cost and high-efficiency for removal of heavy metals (HMs), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) polymers crosslinked with rigid aromatic groups were prepared and used for lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) removal for the first time. The negatively charged β-CD polymers with large BET surface area were suitable to be used in HMs adsorption. The adsorption process completed in 5 min was well fit by Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo-second-order model. The intraparticle diffusion model was also appropriate to describe the adsorption of Pb, Cu and Cd on β-CD polymer. The maximum of adsorption capacities at 25 °C for Pb, Cu and Cd were 196.42, 164.43 and 136.43 mg/g when the initial concentration was 200 mg/L. The HMs adsorption process on the surface of β-CD polymer was an endothermic and spontaneous process. Both of the electrostatic interaction and distribution of Pb, Cu and Cd species influenced the adsorption process at different pH values. The order of removal efficiencies in multi-component adsorption for the three metal ions were Pb > Cu > Cd. The adsorption mechanisms were H+ ions on hydroxyl groups exchanged with heavy metal ions and electrostatic interactions. This study indicated that β-CD polymers could be developed into effective adsorbents for rapid removal of heavy metals.

  1. Action of plant root exudates in bioremediations: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dundek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a summary of literature dealing with the use of plant root exudates in bioremediations. Bioremediation using plants (phytoremediation or rhizoremediation and associate rhizosphere to decontaminate polluted soil is a method based on the catabolic potential of root-associated microorganisms, which are supported by the organic substrates released from roots. These substrates are called “root exudates”. Root exudates support metabolism of pollutants-decomposing microorganisms in the rhizosphere, and affect sorption / desorption of pollutants. Awareness of exudation rates is necessary for testing soil decontamination. Commonly, water-soluble root exudates of different plants are studied for their qualitative composition which should be related to total carbon of exuded water-soluble compounds. This paper presents the determined rate of plant root exudation and the amount of root exudates carbon used to form artificial rhizosphere.

  2. Development of Novel Method for Rapid Extract of Radionuclides from Solution Using Polymer Ligand Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Jung H.

    Accurate and fast determination of the activity of radionuclides in a sample is critical for nuclear forensics and emergency response. Radioanalytical techniques are well established for radionuclides measurement, however, they are slow and labor intensive, requiring extensive radiochemical separations and purification prior to analysis. With these limitations of current methods, there is great interest for a new technique to rapidly process samples. This dissertation describes a new analyte extraction medium called Polymer Ligand Film (PLF) developed to rapidly extract radionuclides. Polymer Ligand Film is a polymer medium with ligands incorporated in its matrix that selectively and rapidly extract analytes from a solution. The main focus of the new technique is to shorten and simplify the procedure necessary to chemically isolate radionuclides for determination by alpha spectrometry or beta counting. Five different ligands were tested for plutonium extraction: bis(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid (H2DEH[MDP]), di(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), trialkyl methylammonium chloride (Aliquat-336), 4,4'(5')-di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), and 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (HEH[EHP]). The ligands that were effective for plutonium extraction further studied for uranium extraction. The plutonium recovery by PLFs has shown dependency on nitric acid concentration and ligand to total mass ratio. H2DEH[MDP] PLFs performed best with 1:10 and 1:20 ratio PLFs. 50.44% and 47.61% of plutonium were extracted on the surface of PLFs with 1M nitric acid for 1:10 and 1:20 PLF, respectively. HDEHP PLF provided the best combination of alpha spectroscopy resolution and plutonium recovery with 1:5 PLF when used with 0.1M nitric acid. The overall analyte recovery was lower than electrodeposited samples, which typically has recovery above 80%. However, PLF is designed to be a rapid field deployable screening technique and consistency is more important

  3. Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum; Carboximetilacao da goma exsudada do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Durcilene A. da; Paula, Regina C.M. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: rpaula@dqoi.ufc.br

    2001-07-01

    Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

  4. Research advances in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Yun Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy(FEVRis a hereditary disease associated with abnormal angiogenesis in the pediatric period. The most prominent finding of the disease is avascularity in the peripheral retina.Whereas, the phenotypic features are variable. In some minor cases, missed diagnosis would happened due to asymptom, while, in severe FEVR, neovascularization, retinal exudation, retinal folds, macular heterotopy and retinal detachment may occur and give rise to extremely poor vision or even blindness. Mutations in the FZD4, LRP5, NDP, TSPAN12, ZNF408, and KIF11 genes have been reported to contribute to FEVR with X-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive inheritance manners. We have summarized aspects of pathogenesis, clinical features and classification, mutations genes as well as diagnosis and treatment of FEVR in this review.

  5. Core temperature cooling in healthy volunteers after rapid intravenous infusion of cold and room temperature saline solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tracy M; Callaway, Clifton W; Hostler, David

    2008-02-01

    Studies have suggested that inducing mild hypothermia improves neurologic outcomes after traumatic brain injury, major stroke, traumatic hemorrhage, and cardiac arrest. Although infusion of cold normal saline solution is a simple and inexpensive method for initiating hypothermia, human cold-defense mechanisms potentially make this route stressful or ineffective. We hypothesize that rapid infusion of 30 mL/kg of cold (4 degrees C, 39.2 degrees F) 0.9% saline solution during 30 minutes to healthy subjects (aged 27 [standard deviation (SD) 4] years) will reduce core body temperature to the therapeutic range of 33 degrees C to 35 degrees C (91.4 degrees F to 95 degrees F). Sixteen subjects were randomly assigned to receive either cold (4 degrees C, 39.2 degrees F) or room temperature (23 degrees C, 73.4 degrees F) normal saline solution. Subjects were not informed of their assignment, but blinding was not possible after initiation of the infusion. Core temperature, skin temperature, and vital signs were recorded every 2 minutes. Subjects indicated global discomfort during the infusion on a 100-mm visual analog scale at 5-minute intervals. Core temperature decreased in both the cold saline solution (1.0 degrees C [SD 0.4 degrees C]/1.8 degrees F [0.7 degrees F]) and room temperature saline solution (0.5 degrees C [SD 0.1 degrees C]/0.9 degrees F [0.2 degrees F]) groups, whereas skin temperature was unchanged. Slopes calculated from the core temperature cooling curves indicate that the majority of cooling occurred during the first half of the infusion. Examination of the core temperature cooling curves revealed a 2-phase temporal pattern in 30-minute cooling curves. The early phase, spanning 0 to 14 minutes, demonstrated rapid cooling in both groups, with a larger effect observed in subjects receiving cold saline solution. In this pilot study of healthy volunteers, rapid administration of cold saline solution to awake normothermic volunteers resulted in 1 degrees C (1

  6. Rapid synthesis of CdSe nanocrystals in aqueous solution at room ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    NCs dispersed in buffer solution (pH = 4⋅0). FTIR spectra were recorded on a Nexus-470 spectrometer. The morpho- logy measurement was performed using a ... the CdSe solution becomes acidic, free thiols and cad- mium ions will be released from the cadmium thiol com- plexes, the relative coverage rate of the particle ...

  7. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alan D [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Philip, Sam [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Goatman, Keith A [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Williams, Graeme J [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Olson, John A [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Sharp, Peter F [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-21

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

  8. Inhibition of Nitrification by Root Exudates and Plant Materials fromBrachiaria humidicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K Suri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nitrification inhibitors are synthetic or natural compounds highly specific in inhibiting ammonium oxidation to nitrate. Therefore, they are widely used in combination with ammonium fertilizers. Among plants, grasses always are interested for their role in controlling nitrification, and recently the form of nitrogen (ammonium vs. nitrate was shown to be an important factor in release of natural nitrification inhibitors (NNI from grasses. In this study production and release of natural nitrification inhibitors in Brachiaria humidicola was investigated. To study the effects of nitrogen forms on production and release of NNIs, brachiaria seedlings were grown in nutrient solution culture with either ammonium or nitrate, under controlled conditions. Root exudates were collected in two different mediums, distilled water or ammonium chloride, and with shoot and root homogenates were applied separately for their potential nitrification inhibition effect. The results, however, showed that when root exudates were collected in distilled water, there was no inhibitory effect on nitrification, but when root exudates were collected in a medium containing 1 mM NH4Cl, it showed significant nitrification inhibition in our soil nitrification test (bioassay. Leaf but not root homogenates also showed significant nitrification inhibition, independent of N form. This in turn suggests that synthesis of natural nitrification inhibitors in this grass is independent of nitrogen form. Keywords: Nitrification, Root exudates, Ammonium, Nitrate, Brachiaria humidicola, Leaf and root homogenates

  9. [The use of sorption therapy in the combined treatment of exudative erythema multiforme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borysenko, A V; Makhnova-Chumak, E A; Zelyns'ka, N A

    1999-01-01

    Polymethylsiloxan, a sorbent, was used in combination with enterosorption with thermal alkaline mineral water in a complex treatment of patients (n = 37) with multiform exudative erythema. During the 45-min therapeutic session the sorbent-applicator was changed three times. The above therapy makes for rapid healing of erosions, reduces treatment time periods, prevents recurrences irrespective of the causative factors of inductors of the disease under study.

  10. Seasonal variation of exudate ofCistus ladanifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, N; Escudero, J C; Gutiérrez-Merino, C

    1993-11-01

    The production of labdanum exudate byCistus ladanifer L. is highly seasonal, reaching a maximum concentration during summer and a minimum concentration in winter. Because this exudate strongly absorbs in the wavelength range of 260-400 nm (the near-UV-visible range), it may be important biologically as an UV-visible filter. Separation of exudate components has been achieved by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).The retention times of HPLC chromatograms and the spectral characteristics (absorption and fluorescence) of the exudate identify flavonoids as the most relevant chromophores regarding the potency of the exudate as a UV-visible filter. HPLC studies show that kaempferol-3-(O)methyl, kaempferol-3,7-di(O)methyl, and apigenin-4'-(O)methyl are the most enriched flavonoids in the exudate.Other flavonoids [apigenin, apigenin-7-(O)methyl, apigenin-7,4'-di(O)methyl, kaempferol-3,4'-di(O)methyl and kaempferol-3,7,4'-tri(O)methyl] are present in the exudate as minor components, e.g., each contributes by less than 10% to total flavonoids.The ratio of kaempferols to apigenins of the exudate also shows seasonal variation (maximum value in summer and minimum in spring). However, due to the similar absorption spectra of both groups of flavonoids, this has a minor influence on the exudate's ability to filter near-UV-visible radiation.

  11. Elongation of fibers from highly viscous dextran solutions enables fabrication of rapidly dissolving drug carrying fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, John P; Lai, David; Lounds, Maxwell; Chung, Kyeongwoon; Kim, Jinsang; Mansfield, John F; Takayama, Shuichi

    2015-01-28

    A simple method is presented for forming thread-like fibers from highly viscous dextran solutions. Based on the cohesive and adhesive forces between a dextran solution and the substrate to which it is applied, multiple fibers of approximately 10 μm in diameter can be elongated simultaneously. These fibers can be woven into multiple layers to produce fabrics of varying fiber orientations and mechanical properties. Various bioactive agents can be incorporated into the dextran solution prior to fiber formation, including hemostatic and antibiotic agents. Fabrics containing thrombin are capable of coagulating human platelet poor plasma in vitro. Fabrics containing antibiotics are capable of suppressing bacterial growth in a disk diffusion assay. These data suggest that this new material composed entirely of dextran has promise as a drug delivery component in wound dressings. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Potent endogenous allelopathic compounds in Lepidium sativum seed exudate: effects on epidermal cell growth in Amaranthus caudatus seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Amjad; Fry, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Many plants exude allelochemicals – compounds that affect the growth of neighbouring plants. This study reports further studies of the reported effect of cress (Lepidium sativum) seed(ling) exudates on seedling growth in Amaranthus caudatus and Lactuca sativa. In the presence of live cress seedlings, both species grew longer hypocotyls and shorter roots than cress-free controls. The effects of cress seedlings were allelopathic and not due to competition for resources. Amaranthus seedlings grown in the presence of cress allelochemical(s) had longer, thinner hypocotyls and shorter, thicker roots – effects previously attributed to lepidimoide. The active principle was more abundant in cress seed exudate than in seedling (root) exudates. It was present in non-imbibed seeds and releasable from heat-killed seeds. Release from live seeds was biphasic, starting rapidly but then continuing gradually for 24 h. The active principle was generated by aseptic cress tissue and was not a microbial digestion product or seed-treatment chemical. Crude seed exudate affected hypocotyl and root growth at ∼25 and ∼450 μg ml−1 respectively. The exudate slightly (28%) increased epidermal cell number along the length of the Amaranthus hypocotyl but increased total hypocotyl elongation by 129%; it resulted in a 26% smaller hypocotyl circumference but a 55% greater epidermal cell number counted round the circumference. Therefore, the effect of the allelochemical(s) on organ morphology was imposed primarily by regulation of cell expansion, not cell division. It is concluded that cress seeds exude endogenous substances, probably including lepidimoide, that principally regulate cell expansion in receiver plants. PMID:22268144

  13. Variation in phenolic root exudates and rhizosphere carbon cycling among tree species in temperate forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetsloot, Marie; Bauerle, Taryn; Kessler, André; Wickings, Kyle

    2017-04-01

    Temperate forest tree species composition has been highly dynamic over the past few centuries and is expected to only further change under current climate change predictions. While aboveground changes in forest biodiversity have been widely studied, the impacts on belowground processes are far more challenging to measure. In particular, root exudation - the process through which roots release organic and inorganic compounds into the rhizosphere - has received little scientific attention yet may be the key to understanding root-facilitated carbon cycling in temperate forest ecosystems. The aim of this study was to analyze the extent by which tree species' variation in phenolic root exudate profiles influences soil carbon cycling in temperate forest ecosystems. In order to answer this question, we grew six temperate forest tree species in a greenhouse including Acer saccharum, Alnus rugosa, Fagus grandifolia, Picea abies, Pinus strobus, and Quercus rubra. To collect root exudates, trees were transferred to hydroponic growing systems for one week and then exposed to cellulose acetate strips in individual 800 mL jars with a sterile solution for 24 hours. We analyzed the methanol-extracted root exudates for phenolic composition with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determined species differences in phenolic abundance, diversity and compound classes. This information was used to design the subsequent soil incubation study in which we tested the effect of different phenolic compound classes on rhizosphere carbon cycling using potassium hydroxide (KOH) traps to capture soil CO2 emissions. Our findings show that tree species show high variation in phenolic root exudate patterns and that these differences can significantly influence soil CO2 fluxes. These results stress the importance of linking belowground plant traits to ecosystem functioning. Moreover, this study highlights the need for research on root and rhizosphere processes in order to improve

  14. 77 FR 28765 - Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Emergency Solutions Grants Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ...The document advises that the interim rule for the Emergency Solutions Grants program, published on December 5, 2011, displayed an incorrect RIN number. This document advises of the correct RIN number, 2506-AC31, as displayed in the heading of this document.

  15. Is Sordac’s Rapid Acquisition Process Best Prepared To Field Solutions For Future Technological Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government, the...SORDAC) is the Department of Defense (DoD) leader in rapid acquisitions, and its culture and practices should be benchmarked by the other services. This...should be benchmarked by all other services. This essay first examines SORDAC’s acquisition environment and assesses SORDAC’s unique culture. This

  16. Potential rapid solutions to maintain ventilation in the event of anaesthesia machine failure with no access to the patient's airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, E H; Tan, Y; Loh, N H W; Siau, C

    2016-05-01

    Anaesthesia machine failure requires rapid solutions to maintain ventilation and anaesthesia. During procedures with poor access to the patient's airway, it may not be possible to use a self-inflating mechanical ventilation device (SIMVD) for emergency ventilation, and alternative solutions are needed. We evaluated five methods for rescue ventilation using a patient simulator. In Method 1, we used the inspiratory and expiratory tubes and the alternative common gas outlet (ACGO) on the anaesthesia machine to produce a Mapleson E system. In Method 2, we used the tubes, ACGO and an open-ended reservoir bag to produce a Mapleson F system, controlling the bag to achieve ventilation. In Method 3, we attached a SIMVD to the inspiratory tube, and controlled occlusion of the expiratory tube. In Method 4, we used the tubes and ACGO in a Mapleson F configuration, replacing the open-ended bag with a SIMVD to facilitate manual ventilation. In Method 5, we attached a SIMVD to the expiratory tube and left the inspiratory tube attached to its mounting. We were able to achieve ventilation, maintain inhalational anaesthesia, and prevent expired gas rebreathing in Methods 1 and 2. In Method 3 ventilation was achieved with minimal rebreathing of expiratory gas, but with no inhalational agent. Methods 4 and 5 led to rebreathing. Our findings indicate that Methods 1 or 2 are the preferred rapid solutions to maintain ventilation and inhalational anaesthesia in the event of anaesthesia machine failure where there is poor airway access.

  17. THE SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF EXUDATE FLAVONOIDS IN AEONIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; HART, HT; WOLLENWEBER, E

    Leaf exudates of 32 species of Aeonium were examined for the presence of flavonoids. Thirty two flavonoids were detected in exudates of half of the species. The flavonoids were identified as methyl ethers of kaempferol, 6-hydroxykaempferol, quercetin, myricetin and scutellarein. The distribution of

  18. Chemical composition of essential oil of exudates of Dryobalanops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the chemical composition of essential oil from the exudates of Dryobalanops aromatica from Malaysia. Methods: Exudate was collected from D. aromatica and subjected to fractional distillation to obtain essential oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to characterize the ...

  19. Nature and role of root exudates: Efficacy in bioremediation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... Root exudate is one of the ways for plant communication to the neighboring plant and adjoining of microorganisms present in the rhizosphere of the root. The chemicals ingredients of the root exudates are specific to a particular plant species and also depend on the nearby biotic and abiotic environment.

  20. Nature and role of root exudates: Efficacy in bioremediation | Shukla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Root exudate is one of the ways for plant communication to the neighboring plant and adjoining of microorganisms present in the rhizosphere of the root. The chemicals ingredients of the root exudates are specific to a particular plant species and also depend on the nearby biotic and abiotic environment. The chemical ...

  1. Factors which affect the amount of inorganic phosphate, phosphorylcholine, and phosphorylethanolamine in xylem exudate of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B A; Tolbert, N E

    1983-10-01

    Phosphate in the xylem exudate of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants was 70 to 98% inorganic phosphate (Pi), 2 to 30% P-choline, and less than 1% P-ethanolamine. Upon adding (32)Pi to the nutrient, Pi in xylem exudate had the same specific activity within 4 hours. P-choline and P-ethanolamine reached the same specific activity only after 96 hours. The amount of Pi in xylem exudate was dependent on Pi concentration in the nutrient and decreased from 1700 to 170 micromolar when Pi in the nutrient decreased from 50 to 2 micromolar. The flux of 0.4 nmoles organic phosphate per minute per gram fresh weight root into the xylem exudate was not affected by the Pi concentration in the nutrient solution unless it was below 1 micromolar. During 7 days of Pi starvation, Pi in the xylem exudate decreased from 1400 to 130 micromolar while concentrations of the two phosphate esters remained unchanged.The concentration of phosphate esters in the xylem exudate was increased by addition of choline or ethanolamine to the nutrient solution, but Pi remained unchanged. Upon adding [(14)C]choline to the nutrient, 10 times more [(14)C]P-choline than [(14)C]choline was in the xylem exudate and 85 to 90% of the ester phosphate was P-choline. When [(14)C]ethanolamine was added, [(14)C]P-ethanolamine and [(14)C]ethanolamine in the xylem sap were equal in amount. P-choline and P-ethanolamine accumulated in leaves of whole plants at the same time and the same proportion as observed for their flux into the xylem exudate. No relationship between the transport of P-choline and Pi in the xylem was established. Rather, the amount of choline in xylem exudate and its incorporation into phosphatidylcholine in the leaf suggest that the root is a site of synthesis of P-choline and P-ethanolamine for phospholipid synthesis in tomato leaves.

  2. Rapid approximate determination of nonlinear solutions - Application to aerodynamic flows and design/optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahara, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    Stahara et al. (1978) have considered the use of an approximation technique which employs two or more nonlinear base solutions determined by the full computational method to predict entire families of related nonlinear solutions. The present investigation provides results for several applications of that method which demonstrate both its accuracy and its utility for engineering applications. Attention is given to the perturbation concept and methods, aspects of coordinate straining, aspects of analytical formulation, and an application to surface properties. In a discussion of the results, single and multiple parameter perturbations are considered along with a combination of the approximation method with optimization procedures. The results show that it is possible to combine in certain cases large savings in computational cost with improved optimization.

  3. Secure Military Social Networking and Rapid Sensemaking in Domain Specific Concept Systems: Research Issues and Future Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Picking

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the need for a secure military social networking site and the underlying research issues linked to the successful development of such sites. The paper further proposes a solution to the most basic issues by identifying and tackling known potential security threats to military personnel and their families. The paper further defines the base platform for this development to facilitate rapid sensemaking to inform critical communications and rapid decision making processes during abrupt governance and eco-system change, and how the plethora of information (termed as Big Data on social networking sites can be analysed and harnessed. Underlying architectural issues, efficiency and complexity are explored and their future development is considered.

  4. Rapid preparation of solution-processed InGaZnO thin films by microwave annealing and photoirradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heajeong Cheong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated solution-processed indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs by microwave (MW annealing an IGZO precursor film followed by irradiating with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV light. MW annealing allows more rapid heating of the precursor film than conventional annealing processes using a hot plate or electric oven and promotes the crystallization of IGZO. VUV irradiation was used to reduce the duration and temperature of the post-annealing step. Consequently, the IGZO TFTs fabricated through MW annealing for 5 min and VUV irradiation for 1 min exhibited an on/off current ratio of 108 and a field-effect mobility of 0.3 cm2 V−1 s−1. These results indicate that MW annealing and photoirradiation is an effective combination for annealing solution processed IGZO precursor films to prepare the semiconductor layers of TFTs.

  5. Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Smirnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

  6. Rapid biosynthesis of irregular shaped gold nanoparticles from macerated aqueous extracellular dried clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Deshpande; Bedre, Mahesh D; Basavaraja, S; Sawle, Balaji; Manjunath, S Y; Venkataraman, A

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we stress upon rapid synthesis of irregular shape gold nanoparticles from a biological base. Treatment of macerated extracellular aqueous dried clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) solution with the aqueous gold salt solution yielded irregular shaped stable gold nanoparticles in the range of 5-100 nm. The synthesis and morphology of these gold nanoparticles are understood by UV (UV-vis spectroscopy), FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy) techniques. The formation of these bio-adsorbed gold nanoparticles is rapid as the reaction process completes within few minutes. The XRD (X-ray diffraction studies) and EDAX (energy dispersive X-ray analysis) show that the particles are crystalline in nature. This clean-green method of synthesis is performed under ambient conditions. Probable biochemical pathway of the synthesis is studied using FTIR (Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy). It is observed that the freely water soluble flavonoids of clove buds are responsible for bioreduction. The possible applications viz., catalysis, sensor, diagnostics, biomedical imaging and photo thermal therapy of these functionalized noble metal nanoparticles are envisaged. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid analysis of tetracycline hydrochloride solution by attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianyuan; Xie, Lijuan; Ying, Yibin

    2017-06-01

    Despite numerous methods for the detection of antibiotic residues, they are usually destructive and require tedious pre-treatment. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is an emerging technology that has advantages for analyzing chemical and biological compounds since THz waves are very sensitive to the molecular vibrational modes. Here we incorporated attenuated total reflection technique into the THz-TDS and demonstrated that this technology (ATR THz-TDS) allowed to determine the complex refractive indices of tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) solutions with high accuracy and could be used to predict their concentrations. Our results from the simple linear regression models indicated that the complex refractive index exhibited a monotonic decrease with an increase in the TCH concentration. This study will provide new knowledge about the concentration determination of a liquid sample that couldn't be elucidated with the conventional THz-TDS technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid imaging of mycoplasma in solution using Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Manaka, Sachie [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Nakane, Daisuke [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo [Advanced Technology Division, JEOL Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Nishizaka, Takayuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan); Miyata, Makoto [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Maruyama, Yuusuke [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mycoplasma mobile was observed in buffer with the Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer M. mobile attached to sialic acid on the SiN film surface within minutes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells were observed at low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASEM should promote study and early-stage diagnosis of mycoplasma. -- Abstract: Mycoplasma is a genus of bacterial pathogen that causes disease in vertebrates. In humans, the species Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes 15% or more of community-acquired pneumonia. Because this bacterium is tiny, corresponding in size to a large virus, diagnosis using optical microscopy is not easy. In current methods, chest X-rays are usually the first action, followed by serology, PCR amplification, and/or culture, but all of these are particularly difficult at an early stage of the disease. Using Mycoplasma mobile as a model species, we directly observed mycoplasma in buffer with the newly developed Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM). This microscope features an open sample dish with a pressure-resistant thin film window in its base, through which the SEM beam scans samples in solution, from below. Because of its 2-3 {mu}m-deep scanning capability, it can observe the whole internal structure of mycoplasma cells stained with metal solutions. Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Cells were observed at low concentrations, because suspended cells concentrate in the observable zone by attaching to sialic acid on the silicon nitride (SiN) film surface within minutes. These results suggest the applicability of the ASEM for the study of mycoplasmas as well as for early-stage mycoplasma infection diagnosis.

  9. Pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating exudative and transudative pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamal, A B; Yogi, K N; Bam, N; Das, S K; Karn, R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To study the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusion. To compare pleural fluid cholesterol level for exudates with Light's criteria. Design. Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings. Medical wards of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods. Sixty two cases of pleural effusion with definite clinical diagnosis admitted in TUTH were taken and classified as transudates (19) and exudates (43). The parameters pleural fluid protein/serum protein ratio (pfP/sP), pleural fluid LDH/ serum LDH ratio, pleural fluid LDH (pfLDH) and pleural fluid cholesterol (pCHOL) were compared with clinical diagnosis with regard to their usefulness for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates. Results. The pCHOL values determined were 1.92 ± 0.75 for exudates, 0.53 ± 0.28 for transudates, the differences between the transudates and others are statistically significant (P pfLDH/sLDH ratio has a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 94.7% and pCHOL with sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of 100% for differentiating exudative and transudative PE. Conclusion. The determination of pCHOL is of great value for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates and should be included in routine laboratory analysis of pleural effusion.

  10. Pleural Fluid Cholesterol in Differentiating Exudative and Transudative Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Hamal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusion. To compare pleural fluid cholesterol level for exudates with Light’s criteria. Design. Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings. Medical wards of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods. Sixty two cases of pleural effusion with definite clinical diagnosis admitted in TUTH were taken and classified as transudates (19 and exudates (43. The parameters pleural fluid protein/serum protein ratio (pfP/sP, pleural fluid LDH/ serum LDH ratio, pleural fluid LDH (pfLDH and pleural fluid cholesterol (pCHOL were compared with clinical diagnosis with regard to their usefulness for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates. Results. The pCHOL values determined were for exudates, for transudates, the differences between the transudates and others are statistically significant (. It is seen that pfP/sP ratio has a sensitivity of 81.4% and specificity of 82.6%; pfLDH/sLDH ratio has a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 94.7% and pCHOL with sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of 100% for differentiating exudative and transudative PE. Conclusion. The determination of pCHOL is of great value for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates and should be included in routine laboratory analysis of pleural effusion.

  11. Retinoid-like activity and teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Adam; Buranova, Veronika; Scholz, Stefan; Fetter, Eva; Novakova, Katerina; Kohoutek, Jiri; Hilscherova, Klara

    2014-10-01

    Retinoic acids and their derivatives have been recently identified by chemical analyses in cyanobacteria and algae. Given the essential role of retinoids for vertebrate development this has raised concerns about a potential risk for vertebrates exposed to retinoids during cyanobacterial blooms. Our study focuses on extracellular compounds produced by phytoplankton cells (exudates). In order to address the capacity for the production of retinoids or compounds with retinoid-like activity we compared the exudates of ten cyanobacteria and algae using in vitro reporter gene assay. Exudates of three cyanobacterial species showed retinoid-like activity in the range of 269-2,265 ng retinoid equivalents (REQ)/L, while there was no detectable activity in exudates of the investigated algal species. The exudates of one green alga (Desmodesmus quadricaudus) and the two cyanobacterial species with greatest REQ levels, Microcystis aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, were selected for testing of the potential relation of retinoid-like activity to developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. The exudates of both cyanobacteria were indeed provoking diverse teratogenic effects (e.g. tail, spine and mouth deformation) and interference with growth in zebrafish embryos, while such effects were not observed for the alga. Fish embryos were also exposed to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in a range equivalent to the REQ concentrations detected in exudates by in vitro bioassays. Both the phenotypes and effective concentrations of exudates corresponded to ATRA equivalents, supporting the hypothesis that the teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates are likely to be associated with retinoid-like activity. The study documents that some cyanobacteria are able to produce and release retinoid-like compounds into the environment at concentrations equivalent to those causing teratogenicity in zebrafish. Hence, the characterization of retinoid-like and teratogenic potency should be

  12. [Rapid measurement of trace mercury in aqueous solutions with optical-electrical dual pulse LIBS technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xiong, Wei; Chen, Yu-Qi; Li, Run-Hua

    2011-02-01

    A wood slice was used as absorber to transfer liquid sample to solid sample in order to solve the problems existing in directly analyzing aqueous solutions with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). An optical-electrical dual pulse LIBS (OEDP-LIBS) technique was first used to enhance atomic emission of mercury in laser-induced plasma. The calibration curves of mercury were obtained by typical single pulse LIBS and OEDP-LIBS techniques. The limit of detection (LOD) of mercury in these two techniques reaches 2.4 and 0.3 mg x L(-1), respectively. Under current experimental conditions, the time-integrated a tomic emission of mercury at 253.65 nm was enhanced 50 times and the LOD of mercury was improved by one order, if comparing OEDP-LIBS to single pulse LIBS. The required time for a whole analysis process is less than 5 minutes. As the atomic emission of mercury decays slowly while increasing the delay time between electrical pulse and laser pulse, increasing the electrical pulse width can further enhance the time integrated intensity of mercury emission and improve the detection sensitivity of mercury by OEDP-LIBS technique.

  13. Rapid and molecular selective electrochemical sensing of phthalates in aqueous solution

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2015-05-01

    Reported research work presents real time non-invasive detection of phthalates in spiked aqueous samples by employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique incorporating a novel interdigital capacitive sensor with multiple sensing thin film gold micro-electrodes fabricated on native silicon dioxide layer grown on semiconducting single crystal silicon wafer. The sensing surface was functionalized by a self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane (APTES) with embedded molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) to introduce selectivity for the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) molecule. Various concentrations (1-100. ppm) of DEHP in deionized MilliQ water were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the analyte. Frequency response analyzer (FRA) algorithm was used to obtain impedance spectra so as to determine sample conductance and capacitance for evaluation of phthalate concentration in the sample solution. Spectrum analysis algorithm interpreted the experimentally obtained impedance spectra by applying complex nonlinear least square (CNLS) curve fitting in order to obtain electrochemical equivalent circuit and corresponding circuit parameters describing the kinetics of the electrochemical cell. Principal component analysis was applied to deduce the effects of surface immobilized molecular imprinted polymer layer on the evaluated circuit parameters and its electrical response. The results obtained by the testing system were validated using commercially available high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector system.

  14. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardo, Christine M; Adams-McGavin, Robert C; Fung, Barnabas C; Mahoney, Eric J; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla

    2017-02-13

    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal.

  15. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardo, Christine M.; Adams-McGavin, Robert C.; Fung, Barnabas C.; Mahoney, Eric J.; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal.

  16. Interaction of root exudates with the mineral soil constituents and their effect on mineral weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, T.; Terzano, R.; Medici, L.; Lettino, A.; Fiore, S.; Tomasi, N.; Pinton, R.; Cesco, S.

    2012-04-01

    Plants release significant amounts of high and low molecular weight organic compounds into the rhizosphere. Among these exudates organic acids (e.g. citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid), phenolic compounds (e.g. flavonoids), amino acids and siderophores of microbial and/or plant origin strongly influence and modify the biogeochemical cycles of several elements, thus causing changes in their availability for plant nutrition. One class of these elements is composed by the trace elements; some of them are essential for plants even if in small concentrations and are considered micronutrients, such as Fe, Zn, Mn. Their solubility and bioavailability can be influenced, among other factors, by the presence in soil solution of low molecular weight root exudates acting as organic complexing agents that can contribute to the mineral weathering and therefore, to their mobilization in the soil solution. The mobilized elements, in function of the element and of its concentration, can be either important nutrients or toxic elements for plants. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of several root exudates (citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, genistein, quercetin and siderophores) on the mineralogy of two different soils (an agricultural calcareous soil and an acidic polluted soil) and to evaluate possible synergic or competitive behaviors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled with Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) was used to identify the crystalline and amorphous phases which were subjected to mineral alteration when exposed to the action of root exudates. Solubilization of trace metals such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd as well as of major elements such as Si, Al, Fe and Mn was assessed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Soil microorganisms have proven to decrease mineral weathering by reducing the concentration of active root exudates in solution. Results obtained are an important cornerstone to better understand the

  17. How Plant Root Exudates Shape the Nitrogen Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T; Shi, Weiming; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2017-08-01

    Although the global nitrogen (N) cycle is largely driven by soil microbes, plant root exudates can profoundly modify soil microbial communities and influence their N transformations. A detailed understanding is now beginning to emerge regarding the control that root exudates exert over two major soil N processes - nitrification and N2 fixation. We discuss recent breakthroughs in this area, including the identification of root exudates as nitrification inhibitors and as signaling compounds facilitating N-acquisition symbioses. We indicate gaps in current knowledge, including questions of how root exudates affect newly discovered microbial players and N-cycle components. A better understanding of these processes is urgent given the widespread inefficiencies in agricultural N use and their links to N pollution and climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Reducing skin maceration in exudative diabetic foot ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Martínez, José Luis; García-Morales, Esther A; Aragón-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Año-Vidales, Pedro; Allas-Aguado, Silva; García-Alvarez, Yolanda

    2010-03-01

    highly exudate and maceration is one of the causes of delay in diabetic foot ulcers healing. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate the effectiveness in the periwound skin maceration reduction with the use of no-sting barrier film (NSBF) (3M Cavilon). observational study which includes 40 patients with diabetes (29, 72.5% males) who suffer diabetic foot ulcers with maceration and exudate. It was evaluated the application of NSBF during 30 days and its correlation with maceration control and clinical wounds progress. 70% of the ulcers were showed healthy edge or lower exudates after 30 days of treatment (Day 0 n=8 vs Day 30 n=28 pmaceration management of highly exudates diabetic foot ulcers was demonstrated effective.

  19. Mineral protection of soil carbon counteracted by root exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, Marco; Bougoure, Jeremy J.; Nico, Peter S.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weber, Peter K.; Kleber, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Multiple lines of existing evidence suggest that climate change enhances root exudation of organic compounds into soils. Recent experimental studies show that increased exudate inputs may cause a net loss of soil carbon. This stimulation of microbial carbon mineralization (`priming’) is commonly rationalized by the assumption that exudates provide a readily bioavailable supply of energy for the decomposition of native soil carbon (co-metabolism). Here we show that an alternate mechanism can cause carbon loss of equal or greater magnitude. We find that a common root exudate, oxalic acid, promotes carbon loss by liberating organic compounds from protective associations with minerals. By enhancing microbial access to previously mineral-protected compounds, this indirect mechanism accelerated carbon loss more than simply increasing the supply of energetically more favourable substrates. Our results provide insights into the coupled biotic-abiotic mechanisms underlying the `priming’ phenomenon and challenge the assumption that mineral-associated carbon is protected from microbial cycling over millennial timescales.

  20. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Luo

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd. S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress.

  1. Model system for studies of microbial dynamics at exuding surfaces such as the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odham, G.; Tunlid, A.; Valeur, A.; Sundin, P.; White, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    An autoclavable all-glass system for studying microbial dynamics at permeable surfaces is described. Standard hydrophobic or hydrophilic membranes (46-mm diameter) of various pore sizes were supported on a glass frit through which nutrient solutions were pumped by a peristaltic pump. The pump provided a precisely controlled flow at speeds of 0.5 to 500 ml of defined or natural cell exudates per h, which passed through the membrane into a receiving vessel. The construction allowed a choice of membranes, which could be modified. The system was tested with a bacterium, isolated from rape plant roots (Brassica napus L.), that was inoculated on a hydrophilic membrane filter and allowed to develop into a biofilm. A defined medium with a composition resembling that of natural rape root exudate was pumped through the membrane at 0.5 ml/h. Scanning electron microscopic examinations indicated that the inoculum formed microcolonies embedded in exopolymers evenly distributed over the membrane surface. The lipid composition and content of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in free-living and adhered cells were determined by gas chromatography. The bacterial consumption of amino acids in the exudate was also studied.

  2. Effects of Tomato Root Exudates on Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guodong; Zhou, Baoli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Zijun; Wu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yiming; Lü, Shuwen; Zou, Qingdao; Gao, Yuan; Teng, Long

    2016-01-01

    Plant root exudates affect root-knot nematodes egg hatch. Chemicals in root exudates can attract nematodes to the roots or result in repellence, motility inhibition or even death. However, until recently little was known about the relationship between tomato root exudates chemicals and root-knot nematodes. In this study, root exudates were extracted from three tomato rootstocks with varying levels of nematode resistance: Baliya (highly resistant, HR), RS2 (moderately resistant, MR) and L-402 (highly susceptible, T). The effects of the root exudates on Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita) egg hatch, survival and chemotaxis of second-stage juveniles (J2) were explored. The composition of the root exudates was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) prior to and following M. incognita inoculation. Four compounds in root exudates were selected for further analysis and their allopathic effect on M. incognita were investigated. Root exudates from each tomato rootstocks (HR, MR and T strains) suppressed M. incognita egg hatch and increased J2 mortality, with the highest rate being observed in the exudates from the HR plants. Exudate from HR variety also repelled M. incognita J2 while that of the susceptible plant, T, was demonstrated to be attractive. The relative amount of esters and phenol compounds in root exudates from HR and MR tomato rootstocks increased notably after inoculation. Four compounds, 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate, dibutyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate increased significantly after inoculation. The egg hatch of M. incognita was suppressed by each of the compound. L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate showed the most notable effect in a concentration-dependent manner. All four compounds were associated with increased J2 mortality. The greatest effect was observed with dimethyl phthalate at 2 mmol·L-1. Dibutyl phthalate was the only compound observed to repel M. incognita J2 with no effect being detected in the other

  3. Physicochemical characteristic of Exudate of Dacryodes edulis | Udo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Present work deals with the study of exudate of Dacryodes edulis with regards to various seasonal physicochemical properties of the purified solids exudate, acid hydrolysis product and saponification product like charring temperature (oC) (195.73 ± 4.75, 190 ± 7.9, 190 ± 3.4, ); flash point (oC) (105 ± 5.0, 100 ± 7.9, 100 ...

  4. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ particle generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The research conducted by Textron Defense Systems (TDS) represents a potential new and innovative concept for dispersed coal liquefaction. The technical approach is generation of ultra-fine catalyst particles from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst only, or mixtures of catalyst and coal material in supersaturated solvents. The process of rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions was developed at Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the intended purpose of providing a new analytical technique for characterizing supercritical fluids. The concept forming the basis of this research is that ultra-fine particles can be generated from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst or catalyst/coal-material mixtures in supersaturated solvents, such as carbon dioxide or water. The focal point of this technique is the rapid transfer of low vapor pressure solute (i.e., catalyst), dissolved in the supercritical fluid solvent, to the gas phase as the solution is expanded through an orifice. The expansion process is characterized by highly nonequilibrium conditions which cause the solute to undergo extremely rapid supersaturation with respect to the solvent, leading to nucleation and particle growth resulting in nanometer size catalyst particles. A supercritical expansion system was designed and built by TDS at their Haverhill facility.

  5. Highly Efficient, Rapid, and Simultaneous Removal of Cationic Dyes from Aqueous Solution Using Monodispersed Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as the Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peige Qin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a highly efficient and rapid method for simultaneously removing cationic dyes from aqueous solutions was developed by using monodispersed mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs as the adsorbents. The MSNs were prepared by a facile one-pot method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. Experimental results demonstrated that the as-prepared MSNs possessed a large specific surface area (about 585 m2/g, uniform particle size (about 30 nm, large pore volume (1.175 cm3/g, and narrow pore size distribution (1.68 nm. The materials showed highly efficient and rapid adsorption properties for cationic dyes including rhodamine B, methylene blue, methyl violet, malachite green, and basic fuchsin. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum adsorption capacities for the above mentioned cationic dyes were in the range of 14.70 mg/g to 34.23 mg/g, which could be achieved within 2 to 6 min. The probable adsorption mechanism of MSNs for adsorption of cationic dyes is proposed. It could be considered that the adsorption is mainly controlled by electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding between the cationic dyes and MSNs. As a low-cost, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly material, MSNs have a potential application in wastewater treatment for removing some environmental cationic contaminants.

  6. Unilateral, recurrent exudative retinal detachment in association with pansinusitis [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Saatci, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aim: To report a patient with unilateral exudative retinal detachment due to pansinusitis.Methods: Case report.Results: A 65-year-old woman with a two-month history of blurred vision, red eye and lid swelling in her left eye was referred to us. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/200 in the left. Conjunctival vessels were engorged in the OS. Funduscopy revealed a 360° exudative detachment in OS and computerized tomography (CT imaging revealed pansinusitis. Systemic antibiotic treatment was employed and exudative detachment regressed. However, exudative detachment remitted as soon as antibiotic treatment ceased. Finally she underwent sinus surgery and decompression of the orbita. Her visual acuity improved to 20/100 just two days after the surgery, stabilized at 20/30 and no further recurrences occured during the follow-up of 10 months.Conclusion: Since exudative retinal detachment usually accompanies systemic inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, systemic screening and collaboration with other disciplines are mandatory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case that developed exudative retinal detachment due to pansinusitis and only recovered after decompression surgery.

  7. Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

    2012-09-15

    Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  8. Dosimetric consideration for patients with dental filling materials undergoing irradiation of oral cavity using RapidArc: challenges and solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mail, Noor; Albarakati, Y.; Khan, M. Ahmad; Saeedi, F.; Safadi, N.; Al-Ghamdi, S.; Saoudi, A.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of dental filling materials (DFM) on RapidArcTM treatment plans and delivery in a patient undergoing radiotherapy treatment. The presence of DFM creates uncertainties in CT number and causes long streaking artifacts in the reconstructed images which greatly affect the dose distribution inside the oral cavity. The influence of extensive dental filling artifacts on dose distribution was performed using a geometrically well defined head and neck IMRT verification phantom (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) together with inserts from DFM (Amalgam, 11.3 g/cm3). The phantom was scanned using Siemens SOMATOM Sensation CT simulator (Siemens AG, Germany) under standard head and neck imaging protocol (120 kV, 120 mAs, voxel size 1×1×2 mm3). Three RapidArcTM plans were created in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning System (TPS) to treat oral cavity using the same CT dataset including; 1) raw CT image, 2) streaking artifacts replaced with a mask of 10 HU and 3) 2 cm thick 6000 HU virtual filter (a volume around the teeth in TPS to mimic extra attenuation). The virtual filter thickness optimization was purely based on measured PDD data acquired with DFM and the calculation in Eclipse Planning System using direct beam. The dose delivery and distribution for the three plans was verified using Gafchromic EBT2 (International Specialty Product, Wayne, NJ, USA) film measurements. The artifact mask and virtual filter around the teeth in the planning was found very useful to reduce the discrepancies between the dose plan and delivery. From clinical point of view, these results can be helpful to understand the increase of mucositis in patient having DFM, and further investigation is underway for clinical solution.

  9. An efficient near infrared spectroscopy based on aquaphotomics technique for rapid determining the level of Cadmium in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Alfian; Vassileva, Maria; Santo, Ryoko; Tsenkova, Roumina

    2017-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common industrial pollutant with long biological half-life, which makes it as a cumulative toxicant. Near-infrared spectroscopy has been successfully used for quick and accurate assessment of Cd content in agricultural materials, but the development of a quick detection method for ground and drinking water samples is equal importance for pollution monitoring. Metals have no absorbance in the NIR spectral range, thus the methods developed so far have focused on detection of metal-organic complexes (move to intro). This study focuses on the use of Aquaphotomics technique to measure Cd in aqueous solutions by analyzing the changes in water spectra that occur due to water-metal interaction. Measurements were performed with Cd (II) in 0.1 M HNO3, in the 680-1090 nm (water second and third overtones) and 1110-1800 nm (water first overtone) spectral regions, and were subjected to partial least-square regression analysis. It was found/determined that A concentration of Cd from 1 mg L-1 to 10 mg L-1 could be predicted by this model with average prediction correlation coefficient of 0.897. The model was tested by perturbations with temperature and other metal presence in the solution. The regression coefficient showed consistent peaks at 728, 752, 770, 780, 1362, 1430,1444, 1472/1474 and 1484 nm under various perturbations, indicating that metal to influence the water spectra. The residual predictive deviation values (RPD) were greater than 2, indicating that the model is appropriate for practical use. The result suggested that this newly proposed approach is capable of detecting metal ion in a much simpler, rapid and reliable way.

  10. Methods of plant root exudates analysis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dundek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarise current knowledge on methods being used to determine individual compounds and properties of water-soluble plant root exudates. These compounds include amino acids, organic acids and simple sugars, as well as polysaccharides, proteins and organic substances. Qualitative composition of water-soluble root exudates and exudation rate are commonly measured with the aim of consequent synthetic preparation of plant root exudates to be supplied to soil to create artificial rhizosphere for different experimental purposes. Root exudates collection usually requires consequent filtration or centrifugation to remove solids, root detritus and microbial cell debris, and consequent concentration using an evaporator, lyophilizator or ultrafiltration. Methods used for analysis of total groups of compounds (total proteins and total carbohydrates and total organic carbon are simple. On the other hand, HPLC or GS/MS are commonly used to analyse individual low molecular weight organic molecules (sugars, organic acids and amino acids with separation using different columns. Other properties such as pH, conductivity or activity of different enzymes as well as gel electrophoresis of proteins are sometimes assessed. All of these methods are discussed in this work.

  11. Profiling of secondary metabolites in root exudates of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Nadine; Böttcher, Christoph; Schmidt, Stephan; Scheel, Dierk

    2014-12-01

    To explore the chemical composition of root exudates of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana a workflow for nontargeted metabolite profiling of the semipolar fraction of root exudates was developed. It comprises hydroponic plant cultivation and sampling of root exudates under sterile conditions, sample preparation by solid-phase extraction and analysis by reversed-phase UPLC/ESI-QTOFMS. Following the established workflow, root exudates of six-week-old plants were profiled and a set of reproducibly occurring molecular features was compiled. To structurally elucidate the corresponding metabolites, accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry and on-line hydrogen/deuterium exchange were applied. Currently, a total of 103 compounds were detected and annotated by elemental composition of which more than 90 were structurally characterized or classified. Among them, 42 compounds were rigorously identified using an authenticated standard. The compounds identified so far include nucleosides, deoxynucleosides, aromatic amino acids, anabolites and catabolites of glucosinolates, dipeptides, indolics, salicylic and jasmonic acid catabolites, coumarins, mono-, di- and trilignols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and oxylipins and exemplify the high chemical diversity of plant root exudates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The impacts of dental filling materials on RapidArc treatment planning and dose delivery: Challenges and solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mail, Noor; Al-Ghamdi, S.; Saoudi, A. [Princess Norah Oncology Center, National Guard Health Affairs, Jeddah 21423, Saudi Arabia and King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Jeddah 21423 (Saudi Arabia); Albarakati, Y.; Ahmad Khan, M.; Saeedi, F.; Safadi, N. [Princess Norah Oncology Center, National Guard Health Affairs, Jeddah 21423 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The presence of high-density material in the oral cavity creates dose perturbation in both downstream and upstream directions at the surfaces of dental filling materials (DFM). In this study, the authors have investigated the effect of DFM on head and neck RapidArc treatment plans and delivery. Solutions are proposed to address (1) the issue of downstream dose perturbation, which might cause target under dosage, and (2) to reduce the upstream dose from DFM which may be the primary source of mucositis. In addition, an investigation of the clinical role of a custom-made plastic dental mold/gutter (PDM) in sparing the oral mucosa and tongue reaction is outlined.Methods: The influence of the dental filling artifacts on dose distribution was investigated using a geometrically well-defined head and neck intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) verification phantom (PTW, Freiberg, Germany) with DFM inserts called amalgam, which contained 50% mercury, 25% silver, 14% tin, 8% copper, and 3% other trace metals. Three RapidArc plans were generated in the Varian Eclipse System to treat the oral cavity using the same computer tomography (CT) dataset, including (1) a raw CT image, (2) a streaking artifacts region, which was replaced with a mask of 10 HU, and (3) a 2 cm-thick 6000 HU virtual filter [a volume created in treatment planning system to compensate for beam attenuation, where the thickness of this virtual filter is based on the measured percent depth dose (PDD) data and Eclipse calculation]. The dose delivery for the three plans was verified using Gafchromic-EBT2 film measurements. The custom-made PDM technique to reduce backscatter dose was clinically tested on four head and neck cancer patients (T3, N1, M0) with DFM, two patients with PDM and the other two patients without PDM. The thickness calculation of the PDM toward the mucosa and tongue was purely based on the measured upstream dose. Patients’ with oral mucosal reaction was clinically examined

  13. AUTOMATIC RETINA EXUDATES SEGMENTATION WITHOUT A MANUALLY LABELLED TRAINING SET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy which can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesion) in fundus images. In this work, two new methods for the detection of exudates are presented which do not use a supervised learning step and therefore do not require ground-truthed lesion training sets which are time consuming to create, difficult to obtain, and prone to human error. We introduce a new dataset of fundus images from various ethnic groups and levels of DME which we have made publicly available. We evaluate our algorithm with this dataset and compare our results with two recent exudate segmentation algorithms. In all of our tests, our algorithms perform better or comparable with an order of magnitude reduction in computational time.

  14. Hard Retinal exudates and visual loss due to papilledema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    Bilateral papilledema developed in a patient with a cystic, grade 3 astrocytoma of the right frontal lobe. Despite successful neurosurgical treatment, /sup 60/Co radiotherapy, and oral corticosteroid therapy, progressive visual loss occurred. At examination one year later, visual activity was 20/200 and 20/70, and extensive lipid exudates in the peripapillary retina and central macula of each eye were noted. Retinal lipid exudates rarely complicate the course of surviving patients who had papilledema from intracranial tumor; physicians involved in the multispecialty care of such patients should be aware of the possible ocular residuals of persistent papilledema in an otherwise successfully treated patient.

  15. [Surgical treatment of patients with exudative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, N S; Mileshina, N A

    2003-01-01

    The article concerns peculiarities of surgery for chronic exudative otitis media (CEOM). The significance of miringotomy, tympanostomy, tympanotomy and tympanoantrotomy is demonstrated. The experience of the authors in surgical treatment and postoperative management of CEOM is reviewed. Of primary importance is valid selection of patients for each operation and choice of ventilatory tubes depending on the disease stage. Incidence rate and causes of recurrences in respect to the patients' age are presented and the role of follow-up in prevention of CEOM recurrences is shown. Use of temporal bone computed tomography in CEOM is specified. Key words: exudative otitis media, tympanostomy, ventilation tubes, CT of the temporal bone.

  16. Plug-and-play paper-based toolkit for rapid prototyping of microfluidics and electronics towards point-of-care diagnostic solutions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available -1 RAPDASA 2015 conference, Roodevallei, Pretoria, 4 - 6 November 2015 PLUG-AND-PLAY PAPER-BASED TOOLKIT FOR RAPID PROTOTYPING OF MICROFLUIDICS AND ELECTRONICS TOWARDS POINT-OF-CARE DIAGNOSTIC SOLUTIONS S. Smith1*, K. Moodley2 & K. Land3 1...

  17. Rapid delivery of diazepam from supersaturated solutions prepared using prodrug/enzyme mixtures: toward intranasal treatment of seizure emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Mamta; Winter, Tate; Lis, Lev; Georg, Gunda I; Siegel, Ronald A

    2014-05-01

    Current treatments for seizure emergencies, such as status epilepticus, include intravenous or rectal administration of benzodiazepines. While intranasal delivery of these drugs is desirable, the small volume of the nasal cavity and low drug solubility pose significant difficulties. Here, we prepared supersaturated diazepam solutions under physiological conditions and without precipitation, using a prodrug/enzyme system. Avizafone, a peptide prodrug of diazepam, was delivered with--Aspergillus oryzae (A.O.) protease, an enzyme identified from a pool of hydrolytic enzymes in assay buffer, pH 7.4 at 32°C. This enzyme converted avizafone to diazepam at supersaturated concentrations. In vitro permeability studies were performed at various prodrug/enzyme ratios using Madin-Darby canine kidney II-wild type (MDCKII-wt) monolayers, a representative model of the nasal epithelium. Monolayer integrity was examined using TEER measurement and the lucifer yellow permeability assay. Prodrug/drug concentrations were measured using HPLC. Enzyme kinetics with avizafone-protease mixtures revealed K(M) = 1,501 ± 232 μM and V(max) = 1,369 ± 94 μM/s. Prodrug-protease mixtures, when co-delivered apically onto MDCKII-wt monolayers, showed 2-17.6-fold greater diazepam flux (S = 1.3-15.3) compared to near-saturated diazepam (S = 0.7). Data for prodrug conversion upstream (apical side) and drug permeability downstream (basolateral side) fitted reasonably well to a previously developed in vitro two compartment pharmacokinetic model. Avizafone-protease mixtures resulted in supersaturated diazepam in less than 5 min, with the rate and extent of supersaturation determined by the prodrug/enzyme ratio. Together, these results suggest that an intranasal avizafone-protease system may provide a rapid and alternative means of diazepam delivery.

  18. A stable-isotope mass spectrometry-based metabolic footprinting approach to analyze exudates from phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ralf J. M.; Selander, Erik; Sommer, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological...

  19. Exudation of organic acids by Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius as affected by phosphorus supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In phytomining and phytoremediation research mixed cultures of bioenergy crops with legumes hold promise to enhance availability of trace metals and metalloids in the soil plant system. This is due to the ability of certain legumes to mobilize trace elements during acquisition of nutrients making these elements available for co-cultured species. The legumes achieve this element mobilization by exudating carboxylates and enzymes as well as by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. The aim of our research was to determine characteristics and differences in the exudation of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius regarding to quantitative as to qualitative aspects. Especially the affection by phosphorus (P) supply was a point of interest. Thus we conducted laboratory batch experiments, wherein the plants were grown over four weeks under controlled light, moisture and nutritional conditions on sand as substrate. Half of the plants were supplied with 12 mg P per kg substrate, the other half were cultivated under a total lack of P. After cultivation the plants were transferred from the cultivation substrate into a 0,05 mmolṡL-1 CaCl2 solution. After two hours the plants were removed, moist and dry mass off shoots and roots were measured together with the root length (Tennants' method). Concentrations of exudated carboxylates in the CaCl2 solution were determined via IC (column: Metrosept OrganicAcids, eluent 0.5 molṡL-1 H2SO4 + 15% acetone, pH=3; 0.5 mLṡmin-1). As a result four different organic acids were identified (citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid) in concentration ranges of 0.15 mgṡL-1 (fumaric acid) to 9.21 mgṡL-1 (citric acid). Lupinus angustifolius showed a higher exudation rate (in nmol per cm root length per hour) than Lupinus albus in the presence of phosphorus (e.g. regarding citric acid: 1.99 vs 0.64 nmolṡ(gṡh)-1). However, as the root complexity and length of L. albus were far higher than of L. angustifolius, the total

  20. Physical engineering of rhizosphere by plant exudates varies with species, origin and microbial decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Brown, Lawrie; Raffan, Annette; George, Timothy; Bengough, Glyn; Roose, Tiina; Sinclair, Ian; Koebernick, Nicolai; Cooper, Laura; Hallett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Rhizosphere physical conditions are continually modified by the release of plant root exudates and microbial metabolites. Separate studies have shown that model root exudates influence surface tension, contact angle, water retention and soil stability, but an integrated assessment of these properties for different real root exudates is absent. We hypothesise that influence of root exudates on soil physical properties depends on the physico-chemical characteristics of the exudates itself. The first part of this study examines the physico-chemical characteristics of barley root exudate, maize root exudate, and chia seed exudate. The second part of the study has shown the influence of these root exudates on micromechanics (dispersion and aggregation), water retention, hysteresis and shrinkage-swelling of soils. Highest amount of amino acids and organic acids were observed for barley root exudate followed by maize root and chia seed, respectively. Conversely, the reverse is true for sugars i.e. chia seed exudate > maize root exudate > barley root exudate. We found that barley root exudates have the capacity to weaken soil followed by strengthening after biological decomposition. The initial weakening of soil by barley root exudation may ease root penetration through soil and help in releasing nutrients from soil that were initially not accessible. Maize root exudates and chia seed exudates, on the other hand, strengthen soil from the onset, with biological decomposition decreasing strength that was still significantly higher compared to that of control soil. This strengthening of soil by maize root and chia seed exudation could drive more stable soil structure near roots. Under drying conditions both maize root and chia seed exudates were acted as a gel that retained more water but also enhanced hysteresis during rewetting. On the other hand barely root exudate more acted as a surfactant that decreased soil water retention as well as hysteresis compared to the control

  1. SOLUTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  2. Arabidopsis Transporter ABCG37/PDR9 contributes primarily highly oxygenated Coumarins to Root Exudation

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, J?rg; Schmidt, Stephan; Strehmel, Nadine; Scheel, Dierk; Abel, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of root exudates strongly impacts the interactions of plants with microorganisms in the rhizosphere and the efficiency of nutrient acquisition. Exudation of metabolites is in part mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. In order to assess the contribution of individual ABC transporters to root exudation, we performed an LC-MS based non-targeted metabolite profiling of semi-polar metabolites accumulating in root exudates of Arabidopsis thaliana plants and ...

  3. Classification of visualization exudates fundus images results using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kernel function settings; linear, polynomial, quadratic and RBF have an effect on the classification results. For SVM1, the best parameter in classifying pixels is linear kernel function. The visualization results using CAC and radar chart are classified using ts accuracy. It has proven to discriminated exudates and non ...

  4. New phenolic esters from the resinous exudate of Haplopappus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faini, Francesca; Labbé, Cecilia; Torres, René; Rodilla, Jesús M; Silva, Lucía; Delle Monache, Franco

    2007-12-01

    Two new phenolic esters 9-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-alpha-terpineol (1) and 7-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-taedol (2), both endowed with free radical scavenger activity and cleroda-3,13 (E)-dien-15,18-diol (3) for which a cis stereochemistry at the decalin junction was found, were isolated from the resinous exudate from Haplopappus taeda upper parts.

  5. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter; Daugaard, Lise

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S...

  6. Reduction of Exudates (Browning) in Sugarcane Micro Propagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ex plant preparation in the course of sugarcane micro propagation is known to release exudates which lead to the death of sugarcane in vitro. An industrial sugarcane variety (NCS008) was used for the study and was observed to die in less than 14 days in vitro. In a study to reduce the death of this variety, ascorbic acid and ...

  7. Zoospore exudates from Phytophthora nicotianae affect immune responses in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Kong

    Full Text Available Zoospore exudates play important roles in promoting zoospore communication, homing and germination during plant infection by Phytophthora. However, it is not clear whether exudates affect plant immunity. Zoospore-free fluid (ZFF and zoospores of P. nicotianae were investigated comparatively for effects on resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and mutants that affect signaling mediated by salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA: eds16 (enhanced disease susceptibility16, pad4 (phytoalexin deficient4, and npr1 (nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes1. Col-0 attracted more zoospores and had severe tissue damage when flooded with a zoospore suspension in ZFF. Mutants treated with ZFF alone developed disease symptoms similar to those inoculated with zoospores and requirements of EDS16 and PAD4 for plant responses to zoospores and the exudates was apparent. Zoospore and ZFFs also induced expression of the PR1 and PDF1.2 marker genes for defense regulated by SA and JA, respectively. However, ZFF affected more JA defense signaling, down regulating PR1 when SA signaling or synthesis is deficient, which may be responsible for Arabidopsis mutant plants more susceptible to infection by high concentration of P. nicotianae zoospores. These results suggest that zoospore exudates can function as virulence factors and inducers of plant immune responses during plant infection by Phytophthora.

  8. Implication of Climate Variability for Latex Exudates F Rubber Tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at: assessing the relationship between latex exudates and climate variability; identifying the most critical climate element(s) in the yield variability of rubber; and examining the predictability of rubber yield based on climate variability. Fifteen years data was collected from documented, but unpublished, ...

  9. Nature's amazing biopolymer: basic mechanical and hydrological properties of soil affected by plant exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Roose, Tiina; Raffan, Annette; George, Timothy; Bengough, Glyn; Brown, Lawrie; Keyes, Sam; Daly, Keith; Hallett, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Plant exudates are known to have a very large impact on soil physical properties through changes in mechanical and hydrological processes driven by long-chain polysaccharides and surface active compounds. Whilst these impacts are well known, the basic physical properties of these exudates have only been reported in a small number of studies. We present data for exudates obtained from barley roots and chia seeds, incorporating treatments examining biological decomposition of the exudates. When these exudates were added to a sandy loam soil, contact angle and drop penetration time increased exponentially with increasing exudate concentration. These wetting properties were strongly correlated with both exudate density and zero-shear viscosity, but not with exudate surface tension. Water holding capacity and water repellency of exudate mixed soil tremendously increased with exudate concentration, however they were significantly reduced on decomposition when measured after 14 days of incubation at 16C. Mechanical stability greatly increased with increasing exudate amendment to soils, which was assessed using a rheological amplitude sweep test near saturation, at -50 cm matric potential (field capacity) using indentation test, and at air-dry condition using the Brazilian test. This reflects that exudates not only attenuate plant water stress but also impart mechanical stability to the rhizosphere. These data are highly relevant to the understanding and modelling of rhizosphere development, which is the next phase of our research.

  10. Time and substrate dependent exudation of carboxylates by Lupinus albus L. and Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, Tanja; Hann, Stephan; Jaitz, Leonhard; Cesco, Stefano; Gessa, Carlo Emanuele; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2011-11-01

    Root exudates influence significantly physical, chemical and biological characteristics of rhizosphere soil. Their qualitative and quantitative composition is affected by environmental factors such as pH, soil type, oxygen status, light intensity, soil temperature, plant growth, nutrient availability and microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of growth substrate and plant age on the release of carboxylates from Lupinus albus L. and Brassica napus L. Both plant species were studied in continuously percolated microcosms filled with either sand, soil or sand + soil (1:1) mixture. Soil solution was collected every week at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after planting (DAP). Carboxylate concentrations were determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-TOFMS). Oxalate, citrate, succinate, malate and maleate were detected in soil solutions of both plant species. Their concentrations were correlated with the physiological status of the plant and the growth substrate. Oxalate was the predominant carboxylate detected within the soil solution of B. napus plants while oxalate and citrate were the predominant ones found in the soil solutions of L. albus plants. The sampling determination of carboxylates released by plant roots with continuous percolation systems seems to be promising as it is a non-destructive method and allows sampling and determination of soluble low molecular weight organic compounds derived from root exudation as well as the concentration of soluble nutrients, which both might reflect the nutritional status of plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Pleural mesothelioma in differential diagnostics of a tubercular exudative pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Raznatovskaya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Difficulties of differential diagnostics of exudative pleuritis due to pleura mesothelioma and such one of tubercular etiology can take a long time that is the reason of delayed well-timed and correct treatment order. Etiological diagnostics of exudative pleuritis has to be based on an integrated approach taking into account the data of clinical inspection of a patient, a laboratory research of pleural exudate, radial, instrumental, pathomorphological and surgical methods. The aim of our study is to establish the features of diagnosis of exudative pleuritis due to pleura mesothelioma by determining of informativeness and value of applied diagnostic methods for further use for differential diagnostics with exudative pleuritis of tubercular etiology on the cases of own clinical observations. Materials and methods. Four clinical cases of diagnostics of pleura mesothelioma in the patients with exudative pleuritis at Municipal Institution “Zaporizhzhia Regional Antituberculous Clinical Dispensary” were analyzed. Results. Four cases of pleura mesothelioma were diagnosed at Municipal Institution “Zaporizhzhia Regional Antituberculous Clinical Dispensary” within differential diagnostics of exudative pleuritis of obscure origin. In all cases the following similar features of pleura mesothelioma were observed: patients were male; patients complained about dyspnoea at exercise stress, thorax pain (on the side of mesothelioma localization, general weakness, periodic cough; the patients denied tuberculosis contact; the general blood test revealed only lymphopenia against the background of the accelerated ESR; micobacteria of tuberculosis were not revealed at all; steady accumulation of an exudate, despite its systematic evacuation; cytologic research of pleural liquid was characterized by a moderate turbidity, serous (serous and hemorrhagic character, with the specific weight of 1015–1016, rising of protein to 33–66 g/l, positive

  12. Arabidopsis Transporter ABCG37/PDR9 contributes primarily highly oxygenated Coumarins to Root Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Jörg; Schmidt, Stephan; Strehmel, Nadine; Scheel, Dierk; Abel, Steffen

    2017-06-16

    The chemical composition of root exudates strongly impacts the interactions of plants with microorganisms in the rhizosphere and the efficiency of nutrient acquisition. Exudation of metabolites is in part mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. In order to assess the contribution of individual ABC transporters to root exudation, we performed an LC-MS based non-targeted metabolite profiling of semi-polar metabolites accumulating in root exudates of Arabidopsis thaliana plants and mutants deficient in the expression of ABCG36 (PDR8/PEN3), ABCG37 (PDR9) or both transporters. Comparison of the metabolite profiles indicated distinct roles for each ABC transporter in root exudation. Thymidine exudation could be attributed to ABCG36 function, whereas coumarin exudation was strongly reduced only in ABCG37 deficient plants. However, coumarin exudation was compromised in abcg37 mutants only with respect to certain metabolites of this substance class. The specificity of ABCG37 for individual coumarins was further verified by a targeted LC-MS based coumarin profiling method. The response to iron deficiency, which is known to strongly induce coumarin exudation, was also investigated. In either treatment, the distribution of individual coumarins between roots and exudates in the investigated genotypes suggested the involvement of ABCG37 in the exudation specifically of highly oxygenated rather than monohydroxylated coumarins.

  13. [Effect of wheat and faba bean intercropping on root exudation of low molecular weight organic acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing-Xiu; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li

    2014-06-01

    Pot experiment of wheat and faba bean intercropping was conducted and exudates from wheat and faba bean roots were collected at different growth stages. Low molecular weight organic acids (OA) in root exudates were examined by HPLC. The results showed that wheat and faba bean intercropping significantly increased the total amounts of OA exuded by roots. At tillering (57 d), booting (120 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in wheat root exudates by 155%, 35.6% and 92.6% respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture wheat (MW). At branching (57 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in faba bean root exudates by 87.4% and 38.7%, respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture faba bean (MF). Wheat and faba bean intercropping changed the types of OA exuded by roots. At tillering stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping wheat (IW), but not in that of MW. At jointing stage (98 d), citric acid was identified in root exudates of IW, but not in that of MW, and acetic acid was vice versa. At branching stage, acetic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping faba bean (IF), but not in that of MF, and lactic acid was vice versa. At filling stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of IF, but not in that of MF. Wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the OA exudation rate of wheat. At booting stage, the exudation rates of citric and fumaric acid from IW were 179 and 184-times as that of from MW, respectively. At filling stage, the exudation rate of lactic acid from IW was 2.53-times as that from MW. In conclusion, wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the rate and total amount, and changed the types of OA exuded by roots.

  14. Root Exudation: The Ecological Driver of Hydrocarbon Rhizoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Rohrbacher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoremediation is a bioremediation technique whereby microbial degradation of organic contaminants occurs in the rhizosphere. It is considered to be an effective and affordable “green technology” for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Root exudation of a wide variety of compounds (organic, amino and fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, nucleotides, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and proteins provide better nutrient uptake for the rhizosphere microbiome. It is thought to be one of the predominant drivers of microbial communities in the rhizosphere and is therefore a potential key factor behind enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation. Many of the genes responsible for bacterial adaptation in contaminated soil and the plant rhizosphere are carried by conjugative plasmids and transferred among bacteria. Because root exudates can stimulate gene transfer, conjugation in the rhizosphere is higher than in bulk soil. A better understanding of these phenomena could thus inform the development of techniques to manipulate the rhizosphere microbiome in ways that improve hydrocarbon bioremediation.

  15. Identifying root exudates in field contaminated soil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon (C) compounds exuded from plant roots comprise a significant and reactive fraction of belowground C pools. These exudates substantially alter the soil directly surrounding plant roots and play a vital role in the global C cycle, soil ecology, and ecosystem mobility of both nutrients and contaminants. In soils, the solubility and bioavailability of metals such as iron, zinc, and cadmium are intricately linked to the quantity and chemical characteristics of the C compounds allocated to the soil by plants. Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, forms stronger bonds with reduced S- and N-containing compounds than with carboxylic acids, which may influence exudate composition in hyperaccumulator and tolerant plants grown in Cd contaminated soils. We hypothesize that hyperaccumulator plants will exude a larger quantity of aromatic N and chelating di- and tri-carboxylic acid molecules, while plants that exclude heavy metals from uptake will exude a larger proportion of reduced S containing molecules. This study examines how a variety of techniques can measure the low concentrations of complex organic mixtures exuded by hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils. Two congeneric plants, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype), and T. caerulescens (Prayon ecotype) were grown in 0.5 kg pots filled with Cd-contaminated field soils from Chicago, IL. Field soils were contaminated as a result of the application of contaminated biosolids in the 1960's and 1970's. Pots were fitted for rhizon soil moisture samplers, micro-lysimeters developed for in situ collection of small volumes in unsaturated soils, prior to planting. Plants were grown for 8 weeks before exudate collection. After the 8 weeks of growth, a pulse-chase isotope tracer method using the C stable isotope, 13C, was employed to differentiate plant-derived compounds from background soil and microbial-derived compounds. Plants were placed in a CO2 impermeable chamber, and the soil

  16. Neoplastic wounds: controlling pain, exudate, odor and bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Agra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize scientific literature published on the control of pain, exudation, odor and bleeding of neoplastic wounds. Methods: This is an integrative review of the literature in the databases CINAHL, SciELO, MEDLINE and LILACS with articles that approached the theme. Twenty-two articles were included, of which 18 were written in the English language and three in the Spanish language, published between 2004 and 2014. Results: From the articles studied, categories were constructed: Interventions for pain control; Interventions for the control of exudate; Interventions for the control of odor and Interventions for the control of bleeding. Conclusion: Most of the studies were bibliographical research originating from opinions of authorities and / or reports of committees of experts in the area. Therefore, it is urgent to carry out randomized clinical trials.   Keywords: Cutaneous ulcer; Injuries and injuries; Nursing oncology; Nursing care.

  17. Chemical signatures of fossilized resins and recent plant exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Joseph B; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Anderson, Ken B

    2008-01-01

    Amber is one of the few gemstones based on an organic structure. Found over most of the world, it is the fossil form of sticky plant exudates called resins. Investigation of amber by modern analytical techniques provides structural information and insight into the identity of the ancient plants that produced the source resin. Mass spectrometric analysis of materials separated by gas chromatography has identified specific compounds that are the basis of a reliable classification of the different types of amber. NMR spectroscopy of bulk, solid amber provides a complementary classification. NMR spectroscopy also can be used to characterize modern resins as well as other types of plant exudates such as gums, gum resins, and kinos, which strongly resemble resins in appearance but have very different molecular constitutions.

  18. Staphylococcus hyicus virulence in relation to exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Andresen, Lars Ole; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus strains with different phage types, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance patterns were isolated from piglets with exudative epidermitis. The strains could be divided into virulent strains, producing exudative epidermitis, and avirulent strains, producing no dermal...... changes when injected in experimental piglets. The results showed that both virulent and avirulent strains were present simultaneously on diseased piglets. This constitutes a diagnostic problem. Concentrated culture supernatants from nine virulent strains injected in the skin of healthy piglets produced...... a crusting reaction in all piglets. Acanthosis was observed in the histopathological examination of the crustaceous skin. Concentrated culture supernatants from nine avirulent strains produced no macroscopic or microscopic skin changes. Protein profiles from all virulent strains and seven out of nine...

  19. Neuroprotective cadinane sesquiterpenes from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Guo, Yuanqiang; Zhao, Peng; Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Da-qing; Hou, Wenbin; Zhang, Tiejun

    2011-12-01

    Three new cadinane sesquiterpenes, commiterpenes A-C, were isolated from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, ESIMS, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). All the isolated sesquiterpenes showed neuroprotective effects against MPP+-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exudate Protein Composition and Meat Tenderness of Broiler Breast Fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, B; Gamble, G; Zhuang, H

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between meat tenderness and the protein composition of muscle exudates collected from broiler breast fillets deboned at different postmortem times was investigated. A total of 85 broilers were processed and breast fillets from each carcass were deboned at either 2 h (early-deboned, EB) or 24 h (control) postmortem. One fillet per carcass was used for 1 d postmortem meat tenderness measurements and the other fillet was stored at 4°C until 6 d postmortem for the collection of exudate prior to tenderness evaluation. Protein content and composition of muscle exudates were determined by a biuret assay and SDS-PAGE. Fillet pH, color, drip loss, and cook loss were also measured. Early-deboned fillets exhibited greater (P L*a*b*). Control fillets exhibited less drip loss after 6 d of storage (P = 0.005) and less cook loss at 1 and 6 d (P meat due to the combined effects of postmortem deboning time and post-deboning aging. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. A facile and rapid room-temperature route to hierarchical bismuth oxyhalide solid solutions with composition-dependent photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Han, Qiaofeng; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    The unique nanosheet-based flower-like BiOCl1-xBrx (x=0-1) hierarchical solid solutions have been prepared by the reaction of Bi2O3 and KCl/KBr in mixed solution of glacial acetic acid (HAc) and H2O in dozens of minutes under ambient conditions. During the preparation process, the intermediate bismuth oxide acetate (CH3COOBiO) plays a key role in the formation of BiOCl1-xBrx solid solutions in such a short time. The as-prepared hierarchical BiOCl1-xBrx solid solutions possess high specific surface areas and modified band structures, which exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity for Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation in comparison with pure BiOCl and BiOBr under visible light irradiation, with the activity reaching the maximum at x=0.5. The photodegradation efficiency of the BiOCl0.5Br0.5 solid solution is twice and 12times higher than P25 TiO2 under UV and visible light irradiation, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. When evolution is the solution to pollution: Key principles, and lessons from rapid repeated adaptation of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    For most species, evolutionary adaptation is not expected to be sufficiently rapid to buffer the effects of human-mediated environmental changes. Yet large persistent populations of small bodied fish residing in some of the most contaminated estuaries of the US have provided some...

  3. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RETINAL HARD EXUDATES AND DYSLIPIDEMIA IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS IN RURAL KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar B.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association of elevated serum lipids with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Karnataka. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Hospital based cross sectional study which included 60 (n=60 type 2 diabetic patients (60 eyes fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Patients were subjected to detailed ocular examination, fundus examination done under full dilatation using indirect ophth almoscope with 20D lens and slit lamp biomicroscope with 90D lens. Fundus photographs were obtained using fundus camera. Grading of retinal hard exudates performed by utilizing modified Airlie House classification. The modified Airlie House Classification used is as follows: Grade 0 - No evidence of hard exudates; Grade 1 : Questionable hard exudates present; Grade 2 : Hard exudates less than standard photograph 3; Grade 3 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 3, but less than standard p hotograph 5; Grade 4 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 5, but less than standard photograph 4 and Grade 5 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 4. These grades were further divided into three groups of patie nt severity as follows: Group 1 (absent or minimal hard exudates included patients with Grade 0, 1 or 2 hard exudates; Group 2 (hard exudates present included patients with Grade 3 or 4 hard exudates and Group 3 (prominent hard exudates included patient s with Grade 5 hard exudates. Fasting lipid profile including serum total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and triglycerides was obtained. Association of dyslipidemia with retinal hard exudates was analysed using one way ANOVA test. RESULTS: On statistical analysis with ANOVA test retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with elevated total cholesterol (p= .0001, triglycerides (p= .0001, serum LDL (p=.008, serum VLDL (p=.012, and negative correlation was found

  4. When evolution is the solution to pollution: Key principles, and lessons from rapid repeated adaptation of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Andrew; Clark, Bryan W.; Reid, Noah M.; Hahn, Mark E.; Nacci, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract For most species, evolutionary adaptation is not expected to be sufficiently rapid to buffer the effects of human‐mediated environmental changes, including environmental pollution. Here we review how key features of populations, the characteristics of environmental pollution, and the genetic architecture underlying adaptive traits, may interact to shape the likelihood of evolutionary rescue from pollution. Large populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) persist in som...

  5. Nasal mucosa secretion exudation response to cold air in bronchial asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard V. Nekrasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Combined airway hyper responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli in asthma patients results in impairment of lung respiration function and poor disease control compared to patients with isolated airway hyper responsiveness to only one of the stimuli or without such responsiveness that can be connected with edema or mucus hypersecretion.Aim. The purpose of the study is the estimation of the processes of mucin secretion, plasma exudation and oxidative stress in response to cold air in asthma patients with combined airway responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli using nasal mucosa as a model.Materials and methods. 23 patients with asthma participated in the study. For the nasal lavage procedure, a nasal cavity was pre-washed at least three times in 5-min intervals with 5 ml saline solution (~36 °C. A control nasal lavage was done 5 min after the last washing with a dwelling time of 1 min in the nasal cavity. Directly after the control lavage, a cold air nasal challenge was done: a participant was asked to breathe deeply at the pace of a metronome to ensure hyperventilation inhaling cold air (–20 °C through the nose and exhaling through the mouth for 5 min. Nasal lavages were taken at 1 min, 15, and 30 min after the challenge. Mucin secretion was estimated on the basis of total protein (TP content, total carbohydrates (TC, and water-soluble forms of mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B in the lavage fluids. For the estimation of plasma exudation, the concentration of α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG was measured. Oxidative stress was estimated by the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS in lavage fluid. Lung function and airway responsiveness were studied by the forced expiration spirometry method and the bronchial challenge tests with isocapnic cold air hyperventilation (CAHV and distilled water inhalation (DWI.Results. According to the bronchial challenge tests, the patients were divided into groups: 1 without airway

  6. Plant exudates may stabilize or weaken soil depending on species, origin and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, M; Brown, L K; Raffan, A C; George, T S; Bengough, A G; Roose, T; Sinclair, I; Koebernick, N; Cooper, L; Hackett, C A; Hallett, P D

    2017-11-01

    We hypothesized that plant exudates could either gel or disperse soil depending on their chemical characteristics. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Optic) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Freya) root exudates were collected using an aerated hydroponic method and compared with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed exudate, a commonly used root exudate analogue. Sandy loam soil was passed through a 500 - μm mesh and treated with each exudate at a concentration of 4.6 mg exudate g -1 dry soil. Two sets of soil samples were prepared. One set of treated soil samples was maintained at 4°C to suppress microbial processes. To characterize the effect of decomposition, the second set of samples was incubated at 16°C for 2 weeks at -30 kPa matric potential. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the exudates showed that barley had the largest organic acid content and chia the largest content of sugars (polysaccharide-derived or free), and maize was in between barley and chia. Yield stress of amended soil samples was measured by an oscillatory strain sweep test with a cone plate rheometer. When microbial decomposition was suppressed at 4°C, yield stress increased 20-fold for chia seed exudate and twofold for maize root exudate compared with the control, whereas for barley root exudate decreased to half. The yield stress after 2 weeks of incubation compared with soil with suppressed microbial decomposition increased by 85% for barley root exudate, but for chia and maize it decreased by 87 and 54%, respectively. Barley root exudation might therefore disperse soil and this could facilitate nutrient release. The maize root and chia seed exudates gelled soil, which could create a more stable soil structure around roots or seeds. Rheological measurements quantified physical behaviour of plant exudates and effect on soil stabilization.Barley root exudates dispersed soil, which could release nutrients and carbon.Maize root and chia seed exudates had a stabilizing effect on

  7. Microscopic evaluation of aqueous two-phase system emulsion characteristics enables rapid determination of critical polymer concentrations for solution micropatterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Mackenzie; Ko, Kristin Robin; Agarwal, Rishima; Frampton, John P

    2017-05-30

    Aqueous two-phase systems have emerged as valuable tools for microscale analysis of cell growth and many other biotechnology applications. The most critical step in developing an aqueous two-phase system for a specific application is identifying the critical concentrations at which the polymer solutions phase-separate. Current techniques for determining these critical concentrations rely on laborious methods, highly specialized assays or computational methods that make this step difficult for non-specialists. To overcome these limitations, we present a simplified assay that uses only readily accessible laboratory instruments and consumables (e.g., multichannel micropipettes, 96-well plates and a simple compound microscope) to determine the critical concentrations of aqueous two-phase system-forming polymers. We demonstrate that formulations selected from phase diagrams that describe these critical concentrations can be applied for solution micropatterning of cells.

  8. Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME): Using a Multiplexed Miniature Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor Solution for Rapid Process Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Koss, Lawrence L.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Spencer, Lachelle E.; Johnsey, Marissa N.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Ellis, Ronald; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactor research is mostly limited to continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) which are not an option for microgravity (g) applications due to the lack of a gravity gradient to drive aeration as described by the Archimedes principle. Bioreactors and filtration systems for treating wastewater in g could avoid the need for harsh pretreatment chemicals and improve overall water recovery. Solution: Membrane Aerated Bioreactors (MABRs) for g applications, including possible use for wastewater treatment systems for the International Space Station (ISS).

  9. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castejón, David [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Segura, Juan Manuel [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular I, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Escudero, Rosa [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herrera, Antonio [Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cambero, María Isabel, E-mail: icambero@vet.ucm.es [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. - Highlights: • NMR spectra from beef samples and their exudates are very strongly correlated. • 23 metabolites not reported in previous NMR meat studies have been identified. • Meat exudate NMR spectra allow monitoring of biochemical changes related to aging. • PCA of exudate NMR spectra classified meat samples by their storage time. • The aging of a meat sample can be predicted by PLS analysis of its exudate.

  10. Taxonomic and chemical relationships revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of plant exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Joseph B; Wu, Yuyang; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A

    2005-05-01

    Exudates collected from 65 species of gymnosperms and angiosperms were examined by solid-state carbon-13 (13C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Diagnostic criteria were developed to distinguish resins, gums, and gum resins. The typology generated from the exudate spectra generally follows current taxonomic classifications, suggesting that 13C NMR spectroscopy may have applications in exudate identification, at least at the familial level, and in some cases at the generic or specific levels.

  11. Rapid degradation of p-arsanilic acid with simultaneous arsenic removal from aqueous solution using Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiande; Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-02-01

    Although banned in some developed countries, p-arsanilic acid (p-ASA) is still used widely as a feed additive for swine production in many countries. With little uptake and transformation in animal bodies, nearly all the p-ASA administered to animals is excreted chemically unchanged in animal wastes, which can subsequently release the more toxic inorganic arsenic species upon degradation in the environment. For safe disposal of the animal wastes laden with p-ASA, we proposed a method of leaching the highly water-soluble p-ASA out of the manure first, followed by treatment of the leachate using the Fenton process to achieve fast oxidation of p-ASA and removal of the inorganic arsenic species released (predominantly arsenate) from solution simultaneously. The effects of solution pH, dosages of H2O2 and Fe(2+), and the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the treatment efficiency were systematically investigated. Under the optimum treatment conditions (0.53 mmol L(-1) Fe(2+), 2.12 mmol L(-1) H2O2, and initial pH of 3.0), p-ASA (10 mg-As L(-1)) could be completely oxidized to As(V) within 30 min in pure water and 4 natural water samples, and at the final pH of 4.0, the residual arsenic levels in solution phase were as low as 1.1 and 20.1-43.4 μg L(-1) in the two types of water matrixes, respectively. The presence of humic acid significantly retarded the oxidation of p-ASA by scavenging HO, and inhibited the As(V) removal through competitive adsorption on ferric hydroxide. Due to the high contents of DOM in the swine manure leachate samples (TOC at ∼500 mg L(-1)), much higher dosages of Fe(2+) (10.0 mmol L(-1)) and H2O2 (40.0 mmol L(-1)) and a longer treatment time (120 min) were required to achieve near complete oxidation of p-ASA (98.0%), while maintaining the levels of residual arsenic in the solution at factory farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Composition of root exudates of Miscanthus × Giganteus Greef et Deu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Hromádko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rate of root exudation and identification of selected compounds in root exudates of Miscanthus × Giganteus in the autumnal period of growth was performed. Total organic carbon of root exudates was formed from 7.8 % by carbohydrates and from 1.5 % by proteins. Aspartic acid, arginine, alanine and glutamic acid were exuded with the highest rate of all amino acids. This work brings new basic know­led­ge which can be used for phytoremediations.

  13. Complexation of lead by Bermuda grass root exudates in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine; Butler, Afrachanna; Larson, Steven; Medina, Victor; Begonia, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Exudates produced from Bermuda grass roots were collected in deionized water from sterilized Bermuda grass sod at 3-day intervals over a period of 15 days. Exudates were analyzed for total organic carbon, and characterized via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Exudate samples were adjusted to pH values of 4.5, 6.5, and 7.5, amended with lead and quantified for soluble and complexed lead via Inductively Coupled Plasma--Optical Emission Spectrometry. Data obtained from total organic carbon measurements indicated compositional changes in Bermuda grass root exudates as organic carbon concentrations increased over time. Analysis of the infrared spectroscopy data indicated that carboxylic acids and amine functional groups were present in root exudates. Also, the ability of root-exuded compounds to solubilize lead in aqueous media was demonstrated as exudate samples dissolved an average of 60% more lead than deionized water. At pH values 4.5 and 7.5, lead complexation by Bermuda grass root exudates increased with decreasing molecular weight size fractions, while an opposite trend was observed at pH 6.5. Results from this study demonstrated the ability of Bermuda grass root exudates to complex lead in aqueous media.

  14. Root exudate cocktails: the link between plant diversity and soil microorganisms?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinauer, Katja; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2016-01-01

    .... We tested whether higher root exudate diversity enhances soil microbial biomass and diversity in a plant diversity gradient, thereby negating significant plant diversity effects on soil microbial properties...

  15. Exudative vasculopathy in a child with Leber congenital amaurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Thomas P; Patel, Chirag; Gole, Glen A

    2014-06-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis is a severe retinal dystrophy that causes blindness or severe visual impairment, usually before the age of 1 year. We present the case of a 13-year-old girl with Leber congenital amaurosis who developed an exudative vasculopathy. She was successfully treated with cryotherapy and argon green laser. To our knowledge, only 4 cases of this condition in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis have been reported previously. This phenotype may be related to c.2991+1655A>G (p.Cys998X) mutations in the CEP290 gene. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multimodal Imaging Features in Acute Exudative Paraneoplastic Polymorphous Vitelliform Maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daniel Q; Golding, John; Glittenberg, Carl; Choudhry, Netan

    2016-12-01

    An 85-year-old woman with stage IV breast cancer was referred for gradually progressive blurred vision. Dilated fundus examination revealed unifocal, yellow, round vitelliform lesions in the macular region of both eyes. The diagnosis of acute exudative paraneoplastic polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy (AEPPVM) was confirmed with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), fundus autofluorescence, and fluorescein angiography. SS-OCT angiography revealed normal vascular findings in both eyes. Multimodal imaging is useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of AEPPVM and may further the understanding of its pathophysiology. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:1143-1146.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Rapid Removal of Zinc(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using a Mesoporous Activated Carbon Prepared from Agricultural Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Hao, Yinan; Wang, Ximing; Chen, Zhangjing

    2017-08-28

    A low-cost activated carbon (XSBLAC) prepared from XanthocerasSorbifoliaBungehull via chemical activation was investigated to determine its adsorption and desorption properties for zinc(II) ions from aqueous solutions. XSBLAC was characterized based on its N₂-adsorption/desorption isotherm, EDX, XRD, SEM and FTIR results. An adsorption study was conducted in a series of experiments to optimize the process variables for zinc(II) removal using XSBLAC. Modeling the adsorption kinetics indicated good agreement between the experimental data and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Langmuir equilibrium isotherm fit the experimental data reasonably well. The calculated enthalpy (ΔH⁰), entropy (ΔS⁰) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG⁰) values revealed the endothermic and spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. HNO₃ displayed the best desorption performance. The adsorption mechanism was investigated in detail through FTIR and SEM/EDX spectroscopic analyses. The results suggested that XSBLAC is a potential biosorbent for removing zinc(II) from aqueous solutions.

  18. Rapid degradation of aniline in aqueous solution by ozone in the presence of zero-valent zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Yao; Qin, Chao; Liu, Liping; Lan, Yeqing

    2015-12-01

    The effects of Zn(0) dosage from 0.1 to 1.3gL(-1), pH from 2 to 12 and temperature from 288 to 318K on the degradation of aniline in aqueous solution by ozone in the presence of Zn(0) were investigated through batch experiments. The results demonstrated that Zn(0) had a significantly synergistic role in the degradation of aniline by ozone. A complete decomposition of the initial aniline (10mgL(-1)) was achieved by ozone together with Zn(0) within 25min, and meanwhile nearly 70% of the total organic carbon in the solution was removed. The decomposition efficiency of aniline markedly increased with an increase of Zn(0) dosage. However, temperature exerted a slight impact on the degradation of aniline and the optimum removal efficiency of aniline was realized at 298K. Aniline was efficiently degraded at all the tested pHs except for 12. Free radicals were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance technique and free radical scavengers. H2O2 concentration generated during the reactions was analyzed using a photometric method. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is proposed that O2(-) instead of OH is the dominant active species responsible for the degradation of aniline. It is concluded that ozone combined with Zn(0) is an effective and promising approach to the degradation of organic pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME): Using a Multiplexed Miniature Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor Solution for Rapid Process Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Wheeler, Raymond; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele; Richards, Jeffrey; Coutts, Janelle; Koss, Lawrence; Spencer, Lashelle.; Johnsey, Marissa; Ellis, Ronald

    Bioreactor research, even today, is mostly limited to continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs). These are not an option for microgravity applications due to the lack of a gravity gradient to drive aeration as described by the Archimedes principle. This has led to testing of Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors (HFMBs) for microgravity applications, including possible use for wastewater treatment systems for the International Space Station (ISS). Bioreactors and filtration systems for treating wastewater could avoid the need for harsh pretreatment chemicals and improve overall water recovery. However, the construction of these reactors is difficult and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) versions do not exist in small sizes. We have used 1-L modular HFMBs in the past, but the need to perform rapid testing has led us to consider even smaller systems. To address this, we designed and built 125-mL, rectangular reactors, which we have called the Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME) system. A polycarbonate rack of four square modules was developed with each module containing removable hollow fibers. Each FAME reactor is self-contained and can be easily plumbed with peristaltic and syringe pumps for continuous recycling of fluids and feeding, as well as fitted with sensors for monitoring pH, dissolved oxygen, and gas measurements similar to their larger counterparts. The first application tested in the FAME racks allowed analysis of over a dozen fiber surface treatments and three inoculation sources to achieve rapid reactor startup and biofilm attachment (based on carbon oxidation and nitrification of wastewater). With these miniature FAME reactors, data for this multi-factorial test were collected in duplicate over a six-month period; this greatly compressed time period required for gathering data needed to study and improve bioreactor performance.

  20. A Novel Nanocomposite as an Efficient Adsorbent for the Rapid Adsorption of Ni(II) from Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Wang, Ximing; Chen, Zhangjing

    2017-09-22

    A sulfhydryl-lignocellulose/montmorillonite (SLT) nanocomposite was prepared using a chemical intercalation reaction. The SLT nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), the results demonstrated that an intercalated-exfoliated nanostructure was formed in the SLT nanocomposite. Batch experiments were conducted to optimize parameters such as SLT nanocomposite dosage, the initial concentration of Ni(II), solution pH, temperature, and time. The results indicated that the attractive adsorption capacity reached 1134.08 mg/g with 0.05 g of SLT at an initial concentration of Ni(II) of 700 mg/L, solution pH of 5.5, adsorption temperature of 50 °C, and adsorption time of 40 min, meanwhile, the Ni(II) adsorption capacity significantly decreased with the increase in ionic strength. The pseudo-second order kinetic model could describe the whole adsorption process well, and the isotherm adsorption equilibrium conformed to the Freundlich model. The adsorption mechanism of SLT was also discussed by means of FTIR and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (EDX). Dramatically, the introduction of sulfhydryl achieves the increased activated functional groups content of SLT nanocomposite, leading to remarkably higher adsorption amount on Ni(II). The desorption capacity of SLT was dependent on parameters such as HNO3 concentration, desorption temperature, and ultrasonic desorption time. The satisfactory desorption capacity and desorption efficiency of 458.21 mg/g and 40.40% were obtained at an HNO3 concentration, desorption temperature, and ultrasonic desorption time of 0.4 mol/L, 40 °C, and 30 min, respectively. The regeneration studies showed that the adsorption capacity of SLT was consistent for four cycles without any appreciable loss and confirmed that the SLT was reusable. Owing to such outstanding features, the novel SLT nanocomposite proved the

  1. Effect of Dunaliella tertiolecta organic exudates on the Fe(II) oxidation kinetics in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A G; Santana-Casiano, J M; González-Dávila, M; Pérez-Almeida, N; Suárez de Tangil, M

    2014-07-15

    The role played by the natural organic ligands excreted by the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta on the Fe(II) oxidation rate constants was studied at different stages of growth. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon increased from 2.1 to 7.1 mg L(-1) over time of culture. The oxidation kinetics of Fe(II) was studied at nanomolar levels and under different physicochemical conditions of pH (7.2-8.2), temperature (5-35 °C), salinity (10-37), and dissolved organic carbon produced by cells (2.1-7.1 mg L(-1)). The experimental rate always decreased in the presence of organic exudates with respect to that in the control seawater. The Fe(II) oxidation rate constant was also studied in the context of Marcus theory, where ΔG° was 39.31-51.48 kJ mol(-1). A kinetic modeling approach was applied for computing the equilibrium and rate constants for Fe(II) and exudates present in solution, the Fe(II) speciation, and the contribution of each Fe(II) species to the overall oxidation rate constant. The best fit model took into account two acidity equilibrium constants for the Fe(II) complexing ligands with pKa,1=9.45 and pKa,2=4.9. The Fe(II) complexing constants were KFe(II)-LH=3×10(10) and KFe(II)-L=10(7), and the corresponding computed oxidation rates were 68±2 and 36±8 M(-1) min(-1), respectively.

  2. Microstructure, chemical composition and mucilage exudation of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) nutlets from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Marianela I; Ixtaina, Vanesa Y; Nolasco, Susana M; Tomás, Mabel C

    2013-12-01

    The micromorphology and anatomy of nutlets, myxocarpy (mucilage exudation) and mucilage structure of Argentinean chia were described using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proximal composition of nutlets and mucilage was also studied. Chia nutlets are made up of a true seed and a pericarp enclosing the seed; they are small, glabrous, elliptic and apically rounded. The pericarp has cuticle, exocarp, mesocarp and bone cells vertically arranged and endocarp. The myxocarpy was carefully recorded by SEM. After 5 min in contact with water, the cuticle of nutlets is broken and the exocarp cell content gradually surrounds the rest of the nutlet. The proximal composition of chia nutlets was studied; fat is the major component (327 ± 8.0 g kg(-1)) followed by protein (293 ± 4.0 g kg(-1)) and fiber (276 ± 1.0 g kg(-1)). Extractions of chia nutlets with water at room temperature yielded 38 ± 1.0 g kg(-1) (dry basis) of mucilage. The fresh mucilage structure was similar to a network of open pores. The freeze-dried crude mucilage contained more ash, residual fat and protein than commercial guar and locust bean gum. The solubility of 10.0 g L(-1) w/v solution of chia freeze-dried crude mucilage in water increased with temperature, being maximal at 60 °C (870 g kg(-1)). The results obtained show a fast exudation of chia mucilage when nutlets are in contact with water. The freeze-dried crude mucilage hydrates easily in water, even at low temperatures. Chia nutlets have mucilaginous substances, with interesting functional properties from a technological and physiological point of view. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Investigation of selenium-containing root exudates of Brassica juncea using HPLC-ICP-MS and ESI-qTOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderheide, Anne P; Mounicou, Sandra; Meija, Juris; Henry, Heather F; Caruso, Joseph A; Shann, Jodi R

    2006-01-01

    Selenium-containing root exudates were investigated in a known selenium accumulator model plant. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants were grown hydroponically and supplemented with selenite (SeO(3)(2-)) in a 25% Hoagland's nutrient solution. Additive concentrations were 0, 1, 5 and 20 microg mL(-1) Se with five replicate plants per treatment level. Plants were exposed to the respective Se solutions for two weeks, then placed in deionized water for two more weeks. The hydroponic solutions were collected for analysis after the first two weeks of selenium supplementation (day 14) and twice during the deionized water period (days 21 and 28). Separation by ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography was followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for selenium specific detection. Chromatographic peaks unable to be identified by retention-time matching were collected for analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Additional chemical experiments were performed for structural elucidation. Several selenium-containing compounds were identified in the exudate-containing solution and two were identified as selenocystine and the selenosulfate (SSeO(3)(2-)) ion. The presence of dimethylselenide (CH(3)SeCH(3)) is also observed but cannot be attributed exclusively to plant exudation because plants were not grown in sterile conditions. Further, the incorporation of fortified selenoamino acids into peptide structures was found to occur under neutral pH conditions, suggesting that exuded enzymes might facilitate such a reaction. Finally, physiological differences resulting from selenium supplementations were noted and discussed.

  4. The meaning of caring for people with malodorous exuding ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Elisabeth; Norberg, Astrid; Söderberg, Anna

    2008-04-01

    This paper is a report of a study to illuminate the meaning of caring for people with malodorous exuding ulcers. Managing ulcers is complicated and consensus on assessment and treatment difficult to reach. Nurses need knowledge and skills to provide good care. They must stay close and be exposed to contamination and suffering. They must provide care without violating patients and we need to further explore this challenge. A convenience sample of ten participants was recruited. Participants had experience of caring for people with malodorous exuding ulcers and were employed in primary health or hospital care in Sweden. Narrative interviews were conducted during late 2002 to early 2005 and interpreted using a phenomenological-hermeneutic method. Themes were formulated: 'Facing the wound' when nurses reveal what is meant to be concealed and perceive patients' vulnerability; 'Facing one's own defencelessness' when feeling invaded, helpless and ashamed; 'Struggling to shield one's own defencelessness' was achieved by striving to be in control, striving to endure and seeking a way out. 'Struggling to shield patients' vulnerability' was about alleviating patients' additional suffering by striving to spare patients, pushing boundaries, making uncomfortable decisions and sharing togetherness. When failing to shield their own defencelessness and patients' vulnerability, nurses run the risk of experiencing desolation. Physical proximity and bodily suffering affect nurses. Caring for people with ulcers calls for improved interprofessional cooperation in order to provide the best treatments and care. Further education for these nurses is needed, as well as support from managements and organizations.

  5. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium

  6. Optimized co-solute paramagnetic relaxation enhancement for the rapid NMR analysis of a highly fibrillogenic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oktaviani, Nur Alia [University of Groningen, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute (Netherlands); Risør, Michael W. [University of Aarhus, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Chemistry (Denmark); Lee, Young-Ho [Osaka University, Institute for Protein Research (Japan); Megens, Rik P. [University of Groningen, Stratingh Institute for Chemistry (Netherlands); Jong, Djurre H. de; Otten, Renee; Scheek, Ruud M. [University of Groningen, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute (Netherlands); Enghild, Jan J. [University of Aarhus, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics (Denmark); Nielsen, Niels Chr. [University of Aarhus, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Chemistry (Denmark); Ikegami, Takahisa [Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medical Life Science (Japan); Mulder, Frans A. A., E-mail: fmulder@chem.au.dk [University of Groningen, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Co-solute paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) is an attractive way to speed up data acquisition in NMR spectroscopy by shortening the T{sub 1} relaxation time of the nucleus of interest and thus the necessary recycle delay. Here, we present the rationale to utilize high-spin iron(III) as the optimal transition metal for this purpose and characterize the properties of its neutral chelate form Fe(DO3A) as a suitable PRE agent. Fe(DO3A) effectively reduces the T{sub 1} values across the entire sequence of the intrinsically disordered protein α-synuclein with negligible impact on line width. The agent is better suited than currently used alternatives, shows no specific interaction with the polypeptide chain and, due to its high relaxivity, is effective at low concentrations and in ‘proton-less’ NMR experiments. By using Fe(DO3A) we were able to complete the backbone resonance assignment of a highly fibrillogenic peptide from α{sub 1}-antitrypsin by acquiring the necessary suite of multidimensional NMR datasets in 3 h.

  7. Organic acids, amino acids compositions in the root exudates and Cu-accumulation in castor (Ricinus communis L.) Under Cu stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Guangguang; Yao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a hyperaccumulation plant newly discovered in an abandoned land of Cu mine in China. A hydroponic experiment was then carried out to determine the root exudates in the Cu-tolerant castor (Ricinus communis L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with increasing level of Cu doses (0, 100, 250, 500, and 750 μmol/L Cu) in the form of CuSO4. Cu accumulation in the roots and shoots of castor, and root exudates collected from the castor were measured. The results indicated that the castor had a high Cu accumulation capacity and the Cu concentrations in the shoots and roots of the castor treated with 750 μmol/L Cu were 177.1, 14586.7 mg/kg, respectively. Tartaric was the largest in the root exudates in terms of concentrations, which reached up to 329.13 μmol/g (dry plant) in the level of 750 μmol/L Cu. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between the Cu concentration in root and the concentration of succinic (R = 0.92, P < 0.05), tartaric (R = 0.96, P < 0.01), and citric (R = 0.89, P < 0.05). These results indicated that the difference in root exudation from castor could affect their Cu tolerance. What is more, significant is that the high tartaric and citric, the low oxalic and cysteine in the root exudation of castor contributed to toleration of high Cu concentrations.

  8. An HTML5-Based Pure Website Solution for Rapidly Viewing and Processing Large-Scale 3D Medical Volume Reconstruction on Mobile Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Jingna; Wu, Yi; Li, Ying; Mo, Xuemei; Chen, Wei; Xie, Bing; Qiu, Mingguo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to propose a pure web-based solution to serve users to access large-scale 3D medical volume anywhere with good user experience and complete details. A novel solution of the Master-Slave interaction mode was proposed, which absorbed advantages of remote volume rendering and surface rendering. On server side, we designed a message-responding mechanism to listen to interactive requests from clients (Slave model) and to guide Master volume rendering. On client side, we used HTML5 to normalize user-interactive behaviors on Slave model and enhance the accuracy of behavior request and user-friendly experience. The results showed that more than four independent tasks (each with a data size of 249.4 MB) could be simultaneously carried out with a 100-KBps client bandwidth (extreme test); the first loading time was <12 s, and the response time of each behavior request for final high quality image remained at approximately 1 s, while the peak value of bandwidth was <50-KBps. Meanwhile, the FPS value for each client was ≥40. This solution could serve the users by rapidly accessing the application via one URL hyperlink without special software and hardware requirement in a diversified network environment and could be easily integrated into other telemedical systems seamlessly.

  9. An HTML5-Based Pure Website Solution for Rapidly Viewing and Processing Large-Scale 3D Medical Volume Reconstruction on Mobile Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Qiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to propose a pure web-based solution to serve users to access large-scale 3D medical volume anywhere with good user experience and complete details. A novel solution of the Master-Slave interaction mode was proposed, which absorbed advantages of remote volume rendering and surface rendering. On server side, we designed a message-responding mechanism to listen to interactive requests from clients (Slave model and to guide Master volume rendering. On client side, we used HTML5 to normalize user-interactive behaviors on Slave model and enhance the accuracy of behavior request and user-friendly experience. The results showed that more than four independent tasks (each with a data size of 249.4 MB could be simultaneously carried out with a 100-KBps client bandwidth (extreme test; the first loading time was <12 s, and the response time of each behavior request for final high quality image remained at approximately 1 s, while the peak value of bandwidth was <50-KBps. Meanwhile, the FPS value for each client was ≥40. This solution could serve the users by rapidly accessing the application via one URL hyperlink without special software and hardware requirement in a diversified network environment and could be easily integrated into other telemedical systems seamlessly.

  10. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fan, Ben

    2012-06-21

    AbstractBackgroundPlant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.ResultsBacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.ConclusionsHere we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  11. The importance of a sterile rhizosphere when phenotyping for root exudation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, R.C.P.; Snel, J.F.H.; Heddes, M.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims A fast and reliable phenotyping system forms a major bottleneck in root exudation research. Our goal was to develop such a system to quantify genetic and environmental effects on root exudation. Another aim was characterizing non-sterile phenotyping. Methods We developed a system

  12. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by

  13. Evaluating the role of root citrate exudation as a mechanism of aluminium resistance in maize genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariano, E.D.; Keltjens, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Organic anion exudation by roots as a mechanism of aluminium (Al) resistance has been intensively studied lately. In the present study, we evaluated qualitative and quantitative aspects of root exudation of organic anions in maize genotypes of distinct sensitivity to Al in response to Al exposure.

  14. Intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gum exudates from Acacia senegal var. senegal and Acacia seyal var. fistula from Tanzania have been analyzed and their inter- and intra-species variation of their properties evaluated. The results show that significant inter-species variation of the properties of the gum exudates from the two species exist, whereas only ...

  15. Effect of Sugar Maple Root Exudate on Seedlings of Northern Conifer Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1976-01-01

    It has been shows that a root exudate of sugar maple reduces the growth of yellow birch. A laboratory test indicated that the growth of northern conifers is also reduced in sugar maple root exudate. Allelopathy may play an important role in survival of species on sites where sugar maple is abundant.

  16. Function of bacterial cells and their exuded extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in virus removal by red soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingzi; Jiang, Yan; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of autochthonous microorganisms on virus fate in soil is usually determined through extreme conditions of sterilization vs. nonsterilization; however, the relative importance of microbial cells and their exudates remains unclear. In this study, bacterial cells (cell) were harvested, and their exuded extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were extracted from three strains of bacteria, namely, Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. This study aimed to evaluate virus removal in solutions in the presence of cell, EPS, and their combination (cell/EPS), as well as to investigate how their presence affects virus removal efficiencies by four red soils based on batch experiments. Results showed that virus removal percentage in solutions ranged from 11 to 23 in the presence of cells only and from 12 to 15 in the presence of EPS only. The removal percentage in the combined cell/EPS treatment can be estimated by summing the results achieved by the cell and EPS treatments, separately. Meanwhile, cell presence had a negligible effect on virus removal by red soils. EPS and combined cell/EPS significantly reduced virus removal by 20 to 69% and 16 to 50%, respectively, which indicated that EPS served a dominant function in reducing virus removal. This study clearly demonstrated that the prediction of virus removal by red soils must consider the effect of bacteria, especially those producing large quantities of EPS, which can be responsible for the underestimation of viral load in certain studies.

  17. Solid phase extraction and metabolic profiling of exudates from living copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, Erik; Heuschele, Jan; Nylund, Göran M.

    2016-01-01

    describe the development of a closed loop solid phase extraction setup that allows for extraction of exuded metabolites from live copepods. We captured exudates from male and female Temora longicornis and analyzed the content with high resolution LC-MS. Chemometric methods revealed 87 compounds......Copepods are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. They exude bioactive compounds that mediate mate finding or induce defensive traits in prey organisms. However, little is known about the chemical nature of the copepod exometabolome that contributes to the chemical landscape in pelagic habitats. Here we...... that constitute a specific chemical pattern either qualitatively or quantitatively indicating copepod presence. The majority of the compounds were present in both female and male exudates, but nine compounds were mainly or exclusively present in female exudates and hence potential pheromone candidates...

  18. Rapid Discrimination of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria in Liquid Samples by Using NaOH-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solution and Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Atsushi; Kono, Mari; Kawauchi, Sawako; Takagi, Yuri; Morikawa, Takashi; Funakoshi, Kunihiro

    2012-01-01

    Background For precise diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI), and selection of the appropriate prescriptions for their treatment, we explored a simple and rapid method of discriminating gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We employed the NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution conventionally used for plasmid extraction from Escherichia coli and the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i (Sysmex Corporation) for our novel method. The NaOH-SDS solution was used to determine differences in the cell wall structures between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, since the tolerance to such chemicals reflects the thickness and structural differences of bacterial cell walls. The UF-1000i instrument was used as a quantitative bacterial counter. We found that gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, in liquid culture could easily be lysed by direct addition of equal volumes of NaOH-SDS solution. In contrast, Enterococcus faecalis, which is a gram-positive bacterium, could not be completely lysed by the solution. We then optimized the reaction time of the NaOH-SDS treatment at room temperature by using 3 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative bacterial strains and determined that the optimum reaction time was 5 min. Finally, in order to evaluate the generalizability of this method, we treated 8 gram-positive strains and 8 gram-negative strains, or 4 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative strains incubated in voluntary urine from healthy volunteers in the same way and demonstrated that all the gram-positive bacteria were discriminated quantitatively from gram negative bacteria using this method. Conclusions/Significance Using our new method, we could easily discriminate gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid culture media within 10 min. This simple and rapid method may be useful for determining the treatment course of patients with UTIs, especially for those without a prior history of UTIs. The method

  19. Rapid discrimination of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples by using NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Wada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For precise diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI, and selection of the appropriate prescriptions for their treatment, we explored a simple and rapid method of discriminating gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solution conventionally used for plasmid extraction from Escherichia coli and the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i (Sysmex Corporation for our novel method. The NaOH-SDS solution was used to determine differences in the cell wall structures between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, since the tolerance to such chemicals reflects the thickness and structural differences of bacterial cell walls. The UF-1000i instrument was used as a quantitative bacterial counter. We found that gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, in liquid culture could easily be lysed by direct addition of equal volumes of NaOH-SDS solution. In contrast, Enterococcus faecalis, which is a gram-positive bacterium, could not be completely lysed by the solution. We then optimized the reaction time of the NaOH-SDS treatment at room temperature by using 3 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative bacterial strains and determined that the optimum reaction time was 5 min. Finally, in order to evaluate the generalizability of this method, we treated 8 gram-positive strains and 8 gram-negative strains, or 4 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative strains incubated in voluntary urine from healthy volunteers in the same way and demonstrated that all the gram-positive bacteria were discriminated quantitatively from gram negative bacteria using this method. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using our new method, we could easily discriminate gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid culture media within 10 min. This simple and rapid method may be useful for determining the treatment course of patients with UTIs, especially for those without a prior history

  20. Functional Durability of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor for the Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Liquids from Poultry Packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olsen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    .... A rapid, sensitive (350 +/- 150 cells ml/cm) quartz crystal microbalance biosensor, layered with heat-treated anti-Salmonella-phospholipid monolayers by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, has been evaluated by immersion testing in chicken exudate...

  1. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Sierakowski, Maria Rita [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed {eta}{sub CGOX}/{eta}{sub CG} ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  2. Physicochemical and functional parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium (bototo gum exudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Coromoto Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium they were evaluated and were linked to certain functional properties of industrial interest. The physicochemical parameters were determined by the classic methodology used for carbohydrates and the functional properties, as reported in the literature. The results obtained showed that the gum object of this study is low soluble in water, which corresponds with relatively high values of swelling indexes and water absorption capacity. Also, the intrinsic viscosity of the C. vitifolium exudate was related to a high molar mass, in the order of 106. Its emulsifying capacity is high, which is attributed to hydrophobic groups present in its structure. The gum gels at a minimum concentration, similar to that of the gum karaya (4.5%, but the gel that forms agglomerates, it is not uniform. The C. vitifolium gum exhibits important physicochemical and functional parameters which could serve as a criterion for testing its use in various industries.

  3. Rapid and selective determination of free chlorine in aqueous solution using electrophilic addition to styrene by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakigawa, Kengo; Gohda, Akinaga; Fukushima, Sunao; Mori, Takeshi; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2013-01-15

    We developed a rapid and selective method for determination of free chlorine in aqueous solution by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the first time. Free chlorine was converted to styrene chlorohydrin using electrophilic addition to styrene in sodium acetate buffer solution (pH 5). The chlorine derivative obtained was extracted with chloroform, and then analyzed by GC/MS. The calibration curve showed good linearity from 0.2-100 μg/mL (as available chlorine). The detection limit was 0.1 μg/mL, and the intra- and interday accuracy were measured at concentrations of 10, 50, and 75 μg/mL to be -1.3 to 6.9% (intraday) and 3.8-8.0% (interday) as % Bias. The precision was between 1.4 and 4.5% as % RSD. These results indicate that this method is a superior technique for the identification of free chlorine. This method was successfully applied to quantification in commercial samples and in samples of a criminal case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of flunixin meglumine pour-on administration on prostaglandin E2concentration in inflammatory exudate after induction of inflammation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Julien; Fournier, René; Roy, Olivier; Catala, Mathias

    2017-10-01

    The effect of flunixin transdermal pour-on solution (Finadyne® Transdermal; MSD Animal Health) on prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) synthesis in bovine inflammatory exudate was evaluated in a tissue cage model of acute inflammation. Twelve calves were randomly allocated to two-treatment groups over two sequences. Three weeks prior to the first period, sterile hollow perforated polyethylene balls were surgically embedded in the subcutis at four distinct sites in each animal. On the first day of each period, an aseptic inflammation was induced by injecting 0.5mL of a 2% carrageenan solution into the lumen of each tissue cage. Treatment with either flunixin transdermal or negative control (NaCl) immediately followed. 0.5mL of exudate was collected prior to challenge, and at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48h after challenge. Exudate PGE 2 concentrations were analyzed using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method. Mean PGE 2 concentrations were consistently lower in calves treated with flunixin transdermal than those measured in calves treated with negative control, indicating an inhibitory activity on cyclooxygenase. Inhibition was the highest at 8h after treatment, and differences with the negative control were significant at +8, 24, 36 and 48h. The flunixin transdermal formulation was effective in reducing PGE 2 concentrations in bovine exudate following an induced inflammation. Its anti-inflammatory action started in the first hours after treatment and lasted up to 48h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on cucumber seedlings growth and rhizosphere soil microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Shou-wei; Pan, Kai; Wu, Feng-zhi

    2013-04-01

    Taking the Chinese onion cultivars with different allelopathy potentials as the donor and cucumber as the accepter, this paper studied the effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on the seedlings growth of cucumber and the culturable microbial number and bacterial community structure in the seedlings rhizosphere soil. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars could promote the growth of cucumber seedlings, and the stimulatory effect increased with the increasing concentration of the root exudates. However, at the same concentrations of root exudates, the stimulatory effect had no significant differences between the Chinese onion cultivars with strong and weak allelopathy potential. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars increased the individual numbers of bacteria and actinomyces but decreased those of fungi and Fusarium in rhizosphere soil, being more significant for the Chinese onion cultivar with high allelopathy potential (L-06). The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars also increased the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that the differential bacteria bands were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Anaerolineaceae, and Anaerolineaceae only occurred in the rhizosphere soil in the treatment of high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06). It was suggested that high concentration (10 mL per plant) of root exudates from high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06) could benefit the increase of bacterial community diversity in cucumber seedlings rhizosphere soil.

  6. Automatic detection of retinal exudates in fundus images of diabetic retinopathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Partovi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes and can lead to several retinal abnormalities including microaneurysms, exudates, dot and blot hemorrhages, and cotton wool spots. Automated early detection of these abnormalities could limit the severity of the disease and assist ophthalmologists in investigating and treating the disease more efficiently. Segmentation of retinal image features provides the basis for automated assessment. In this study, exudates lesion on retinopathy retinal images was segmented by different image processing techniques. The objective of this study is detection of the exudates regions on retinal images of retinopathy patients by different image processing techniques. Methods: A total of 30 color images from retinopathy patients were selected for this study. The images were taken by Topcon TRC-50 IX mydriatic camera and saves with TIFF format with a resolution of 500 × 752 pixels. The morphological function was applied on intensity components of hue saturation intensity (HSI space. To detect the exudates regions, thresholding was performed on all images and the exudates region was segmented. To optimize the detection efficiency, the binary morphological functions were applied. Finally, the exudates regions were quantified and evaluated for further statistical purposes. Results: The average of sensitivity of 76%, specificity of 98%, and accuracy of 97% was obtained. Conclusion: The results showed that our approach can identify the exudate regions in retinopathy images.

  7. Rapidly Deployable Mobile Security Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    receivers or direct API lockout. Manage wireless network interfaces (Wi- Fi, Bluetooth, etc.) Our application directly restricts access to WiFi and...application by Google or (2) approach Google for further expansion of their Device Policy Manager class and administrator API for inclusion of all 8 features...Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork

  8. Organic acid compounds in root exudation of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and its bioactivity as affected by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junren; Shafi, Mohammad; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jiasen; Ye, Zhengqian; Liu, Chen; Zhong, Bin; Guo, Hua; He, Lizhi; Liu, Dan

    2016-10-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) has great potential as phytoremediation material in soil contaminated by heavy metals. A hydroponics experiment was conducted to determine organic acid compounds of root exudates of lead- (Pb), zinc- (Zn), copper- (Cu), and cadmium (Cd)-tolerant of Moso bamboo. Plants were grown in nutrients solution which included Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd applied as Pb(NO3)2 (200 μM), ZnSO4·7H2O (100 μM), CuSO4·5H2O (25 μM), and CdCl2 (10 μM), respectively. Oxalic acid and malic acid were detected in all treatments. Lactic acid was observed in Cu, Cd, and control treatments. The oxalic was the main organic acid exudated by Moso bamboo. In the sand culture experiment, the Moso bamboo significantly activated carbonate heavy metals under activation of roots. The concentration of water-soluble metals (except Pb) in sand were significantly increased as compared with control. Organic acids (1 mM mixed) were used due to its effect on the soil adsorption of heavy metals. After adding mixed organic acids, the Cu and Zn sorption capacity in soils was decreased markedly compared with enhanced Pb and Cd sorption capacity in soils. The sorption was analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich equations with R 2 values that ranged from 0.956 to 0.999 and 0.919 to 0.997, respectively.

  9. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, Jeremy A. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Alvarez, Pedro J.J. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Schnoor, Jerald L. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)]. E-mail: jerald-schnoor@uiowa.edu

    2005-08-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of {sup 14}C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% {sup 14}CO{sub 2} when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substrates.

  10. Rhizoctonia solani and Bacterial Inoculants Stimulate Root Exudation of Antifungal Compounds in Lettuce in a Soil-Type Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Windisch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies conducted on a unique field site comprising three contrasting soils (diluvial sand DS, alluvial loam AL, loess loam LL under identical cropping history, demonstrated soil type-dependent differences in biocontrol efficiency against Rhizoctonia solani-induced bottom rot disease in lettuce by two bacterial inoculants (Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re-4-18. Disease severity declined in the order DS > AL > LL. These differences were confirmed under controlled conditions, using the same soils in minirhizotron experiments. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS profiling of rhizosphere soil solutions revealed benzoic and lauric acids as antifungal compounds; previously identified in root exudates of lettuce. Pathogen inoculation and pre-inoculation with bacterial inoculants significantly increased the release of antifungal root exudates in a soil type-specific manner; with the highest absolute levels detected on the least-affected LL soil. Soil type-dependent differences were also recorded for the biocontrol effects of the two bacterial inoculants; showing the highest efficiency after double-inoculation on the AL soil. However, this was associated with a reduction of shoot growth and root hair development and a limited micronutrient status of the host plants. Obviously, disease severity and the expression of biocontrol effects are influenced by soil properties with potential impact on reproducibility of practical applications.

  11. Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mutez; Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere of lupines was wetter than the bulk soil during root water uptake. On the other hand, after irrigation the rhizosphere remained markedly dry and it rewetted only after one-two days. We hypothesize that: 1) drying/wetting rates of the rhizosphere are controlled by mucilage exuded by roots; 2) mucilage alters the soil hydraulic conductivity: in particular, wet mucilage increases the soil hydraulic conductivity and dry mucilage makes the soil water repellent; 3) mucilage exudation favors root water uptake in dry soil; and 4) dry mucilage limits water loss from roots to dry soils. We used a root pressure probe to measure the hydraulic conductance of artificial roots sitting in soils. As an artificial root we employed a suction cup with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 45 mm. The root pressure probe gave the hydraulic conductance of the soil-root continuum during pulse experiments in which water was injected into or sucked from the soil. First, we performed experiments with roots in a relatively dry soil with a volumetric water content of 0.03. Then, we repeated the experiment with artificial roots covered with mucilage and then placed into the soil. As a model for mucilage, we collected mucilage from Chia seeds. The water contents (including that of mucilage) in the experiments with and without mucilage were equal. The pressure curves were fitted with a model of root water that includes rhizosphere dynamics. We found that the artificial roots covered with wet mucilage took up water more easily. In a second experimental set-up we measured the outflow of water from the artificial roots into dry soils. We compared two soils: 1) a sandy soil and 2) the same soil wetted with mucilage from Chia seeds and then let dry. The latter soil became water repellent. Due to the water repellency, the outflow of water from

  12. Distribution of intraretinal exudates in diabetic macular edema during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy observed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemp, Berthold; Deák, Gábor; Prager, Sonja; Mitsch, Christoph; Lammer, Jan; Schmidinger, Gerald; Scholda, Christoph; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Bolz, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate changes in the distribution and morphology of intraretinal microexudates and hard exudates (HEs) during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in patients with persistent diabetic macular edema. Twenty-four patients with persistent diabetic macular edema after photocoagulation were investigated in this prospective cohort study. Each eye was assigned to a loading dose of three anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments at monthly intervals. Additional single treatments were performed if diabetic macular edema persisted or recurred. Intraretinal exudates were analyzed over 6 months using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus photography. Before treatment, microexudates were detected by SD-OCT as hyperreflective foci in 24 eyes, whereas HEs were seen in 22 eyes. During therapy, HE increased significantly in number and size. This was accompanied by accumulation of microexudates in the outer retina. Enlargement of hyperreflective structures in SD-OCT was accompanied by enlargement of HE at corresponding fundus locations. A rapid reduction in diabetic macular edema was seen in all patients, but to varying degrees. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels Diabetic macular edema reduction during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy was accompanied by dynamic rearrangement of intraretinal exudates at corresponding locations in fundus photography and SD-OCT. Intraretinal aggregates of microexudates detectable as hyperreflective foci by SD-OCT may compose and precede HE before they become clinically visible.

  13. Influences of rapid thermal process on solution-deposited Ti-silicate/Si films: Phase segregation, composition and interface changes, and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Muk; Hwang, Soo Min [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Soon Yong [Nano-Optical Property Laboratory and Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Woong; Lee, Sang Hyub; Park, Geun Chul; Choi, Ju Yun [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jae Jin [KLA-Tencor Corporation, 1 Technology Drive, Milpitas, CA 95035 (United States); Kim, Tae Jung; Kim, Young Dong [Nano-Optical Property Laboratory and Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoungsub [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jun Hyung, E-mail: lanosjh@gmail.com [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Jinho, E-mail: jinho@skku.edu [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    Ti-silicate/Si films were synthesized using a solution deposition route, and the effects of a rapid thermal process (RTP) on the microstructure, chemical bonding state, and interfacial layer (IL) properties were investigated and correlated to the permittivity of the films. The precursor solution was prepared from Ti(IV)-isopropoxide and tetraethylorthosilicate, spin-coated on HF-treated Si substrates, dried, pyrolyzed (400 °C), and subjected to the RTP at 700 °C–1000 °C. The Ti-silicate film consisted of Ti-rich and Si-rich silicates after the pyrolysis and phase segregation became significant as the RTP temperature increase. The silicates segregated into TiO{sub 2}-like nanocrystals and Si-richer silicate at up to 850 °C, and the TiO{sub 2}-like nanocrystals grew remarkably while the Si-richer silicate was converted into nearly pure SiO{sub 2} at 1000 °C. In addition, the Ti content in the Ti-silicate layer decreased due to Ti out-diffusion to the IL and substrate. Based on HRTEM, FT-IR, XPS, and SIMS analyses, we suggest a model of phase segregation with Ti diffusion and demonstrate that the Ti diffusion can be a critical issue in applications of Ti-silicate/Si systems, in addition to other well-known phenomena, including phase segregation, TiO{sub 2} precipitation, or interface properties. - Highlights: • Role of RTP on microstructure and properties of Ti-silicate film was investigated. • Phase segregation and Ti diffusion varied with the RTP. • Effects of the Ti diffusion on the dielectric properties were firstly investigated. • The Ti diffusion seemed to be one of the critical issues in the film applications. • New phase segregation model with Ti diffusion was suggested.

  14. An integrated application of SAR interferometry and GRACE solution to land subsidence in a rapidly urbanizing groundwater dependent basin in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Waqas; Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Dongkyun

    2017-04-01

    Land subsidence and crustal deformation associated with groundwater abstraction is a gradually instigating phenomenon. The exploitation of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) for land subsidence velocity and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for change in groundwater storage have great potential besides other applications to address this problem. In this paper we used an integrated approach to combine InSAR and GRACE solutions to show that land subsidence velocity in a rapidly urbanizing and groundwater dependent basin in Pakistan is largely attributed to over exploitation of groundwater aquifer. We analyzed a total of 28 Sentinel-1 based interferograms generated for the period October 2014 to November 2016 to quantify the level of land subsidence in the study area. To increase the accuracy of our interferometry results we then applied a filter of Amplitude Dispersion Index (ADI) to confine the spatial extent of land subsidence to persistently scattering pixels. For the GRACE experiment we take the average of change in Total Water Storage (TWS) solutions provided by the Center for Space Research (CSR), the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and validate this mean TWS for the study area using a network of observed time series groundwater levels. The validation result of GRACE TWS field shows that although the GRACE foot print is spatially larger than the extent of the study area but significant change in water storage can contribute to the overall trend of declining water storage. Finally we compared our results of InSAR land subsidence velocities and GRACE TWS change field. A strong dependence of the land subsidence on the temporal change in TWS suggests that most of the land subsidence could be attributed to the unchecked exploitation of groundwater aquifer.

  15. Evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant property of Prunus avium gum exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hossein; Askari, Gholamreza; Jahanbin, Kambiz; Khodaeian, Faramarz

    2016-12-01

    In this study some physicochemical properties and elemental analysis of Prunus avium gum exudates were investigated. The gum studied had, on average, 75.14% carbohydrate, 11.3% uronic acids, 1.11% protein, 7.53% moisture content (w.b.) and 3.12% ash. Measured values for the angle of repose, Carr's index and Hausner ratio showed the good flow ability for the gum powder. The viscosity of 1% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited a Newtonian type of flow and with pH reduction the swelling index was increased. The average molecular weight of the main polysaccharide fraction was about 1.46×10(5)Da (146kDa). GC analysis showed that the main polysaccharide was composed of four kinds of neutral monosaccharides, namely mannose (Man), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal) and xylose (Xyl) with a relative molar ratio of 1.0:14.7:7.1:2.4. FTIR analysis showed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups and glycosidic linkage. The antioxidant activity of the gum was evaluated by determining DPPH scavenging and total phenolic contents which showed poor antioxidant property. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Improving transport container design to reduce broiler chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurio, Rafael S; Soares, Adriana L; Carvalho, Rafael H; Silveira Junior, Vivaldo; Grespan, Moisés; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the chicken production chain, transport from farm to the commercial abattoir is one of the most critical sources of stress, particularly heat stress. The aim of this work was to describe the performance of a new prototype truck container designed to improve the microenvironment and reduce the incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat and dead on arrival (DOA) occurrences. Experiments were carried out for four different conditions: regular and prototype truck, both with and without wetting loaded cages at the farm (for bird thermal stress relief) just before transporting. While there was no difference in the DOA index (P ≥ 0.05), the prototype truck caused a reduction (P < 0.05) in the occurrence of PSE meat by 66.3% and 49.6% with and without wetting, respectively. The results of this experiment clearly revealed a low-cost solution for transporting chickens that yields better animal welfare conditions and improves meat quality. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Atypical unilateral maculopathy associated with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy-like yellowish deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruè, Claudia; Barbazetto, Irene; Markomichelakis, Nikos N; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Bailey Freund, K; Kotsolis, Athanasios I

    2012-01-01

    To report a case of atypical unilateral maculopathy associated with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy-like yellowish deposits. Observational case report of one patient. A 52-year-old man presented with reduced vision in the left eye. Findings resembling acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy were noted with ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. Funduscopic examination revealed an exudative macular detachment with yellowish subretinal deposits inferior to the fovea. On fluorescein angiography, the perifoveal lesions were minimally hyperfluorescent, with no abnormal fluorescence in the central macula. The subretinal deposits were found to be hyperautofluorescent on fundus autofluorescence imaging. Optical coherence tomography confirmed a serous detachment of the retina with intraretinal cystic spaces. The right eye did not show any abnormalities except for an epiretinal membrane. We describe a case of atypical unilateral maculopathy associated with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy-like yellowish deposits.

  18. Influence of seed and root exudations on the rhizosphere effect in Sorghum vulgare and Crotalaria juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, A; Rangaswami, G

    1978-01-01

    The influence of seed and root exudations on the rhizosphere effect of Sorghum vulgare and Crotalaria juncea was examined. While the quantitative occurrence of certain morphological and physiological groups of bacteria on the seeds and rhizospheres of the two plant species differed, there were similarities in the occurrence of certain physiological and nutritional groups of bacteria on the seed as well as on the rhizosphere. The occurrence of some genera of fungi on the seeds and in the rhizosphere indicated the influence of both seeds and root exudations on the rhizosphere effect. Increase in root exudations of amino acids and sugars correlated with a concomitant increase in microbial activity in the rhizosphere on the 15th day of growth in both plant species but there was a delayed effect of the exuded chemicals on the rhizosphere microflora after 30 d of plant growth.

  19. Interactive effects of phosphorus and Pseudomonas putida on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth, nutrient uptake, antioxidant enzymes and organic acids exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israr, Dania; Mustafa, Ghulam; Khan, Khalid Saifullah; Shahzad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Niaz; Masood, Sajid

    2016-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability in alkaline soils of arid and semi-arid regions is a major constraint for decreased crop productivity. Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may enhance plant growth through the increased plant antioxidation activity. Additionally, PGPR may increase nutrient uptake by plants as a result of induced root exudation and rhizosphere acidification. The current study was aimed to investigate combined effects of P and Pesudomonas putida (PGPR) on chickpea growth with reference to antioxidative enzymatic activity and root exudation mediated plant nutrient uptake, particularly P. Half of the seeds were soaked in PGPR solution, whereas others in sterile water and latter sown in soils. Plants were harvested 8 weeks after onset of experiment and analyzed for leaf nutrient contents, antioxidant enzymes activities and organic acids concentrations. Without PGPR, P application (+P) increased various plant growth attributes, plant uptake of P and Ca, soil pH, citric acid and oxalic acid concentrations, whereas decreased the leaf POD enzymatic activity as compared to the P-deficiency. PGPR supply both under -P and +P improved the plant growth, plant uptake of N, P, and K, antioxidative activity of SOD and POD enzymes and concentrations of organic acids, whereas reduced the rhizosphere soil pH. Growth enhancement by PGPR supply was related to higher plant antioxidation activity as well as nutrient uptake of chickpea including P as a result of root exudation mediated rhizosphere acidification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 inhibits germination of Fusarium oxysporum spores in tomato root exudate as well as subsequent formation of new spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilova, Faina; Lamers, Gerda; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2008-09-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.radicis-licopersici (Forl) is a soilborne pathogenic fungus which can cause tomato foot and root rot (TFRR). Tomato root exudate is a good source of nutrients for both Forl and the TFRR-suppressing biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain WCS365. Incubation of Forl microconidia in tomato root exudate stimulates their germination. This phenomenon is observed, to a lesser extent, upon incubation in plant nutrient solution supplemented with citrate or glucose, the major organic acid and sugar components, respectively, of tomato root exudate. Here we show that induction of germination of microconidia is significantly reduced in the presence of P. fluorescens WCS365 in all tested media. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that P. fluorescens WCS365 colonizes developing hyphae. Efficient colonization correlates with low nutrient availability. Eventually, new microconidia are formed. The presence of P. fluorescens WCS365 reduces the number of newly formed microconidia. This reduction does not depend on physical contact between bacteria and hyphae. We discuss that the ability of P. fluorescens WCS365 to slow down the processes of microconidia germination and development of new microconidia of the phytopathogen, and therefore the ability to reduce fungal dissemination, is likely to contribute to the biocontrol efficacy of this strain.

  1. ACAT inhibitory activity of exudates from Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Chien, Shih-Chang; Cheng, Wen-Ling; Xiao, Jun-Hong; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2012-12-01

    Cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an enzyme controlling cholesterol esterification in cells. Large amounts of cholesterol esters accumulate in macrophages and smooth muscle cells of blood vessel walls resulting in the initial stages of atherosclerosis. Thus, atherosclerosis might be inhibited through inhibition of the activity of ACAT. In the present study, we identified by spectral analysis and chromatographic quantification that ferruginol was the most abundant component of exudates secreted from the wounding site of Calocedrus macrolepis Kurz var. formosana. Results obtained from the cholesterol absorption assay revealed that ferruginol exhibited a significant inhibitory activity on cholesterol absorption in mice macrophages (RAW 264.7 cell). Based on the results from analyzing the ratio of cholesterol esterification, ferruginol dose-dependently suppressed cholesterol esterification and the IC50 value was 2.0 microg/mL. In conclusion, ferruginol revealed strong inhibitory activities that retarded the absorption and esterification of cholesterol in cells. Our finding indicates that ferruginol might possess a potential for development as a pharmaceutical product for preventing arteriosclerosis.

  2. Rheological Modeling and Characterization of Ficus platyphylla Gum Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus platyphylla gum exudates (FP gum have been analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and found to be ionic, mildly acidic, odourless, and yellowish brown in colour. The gum is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The nitrogen (0.39% and protein (2.44% contents of the gum are relatively low. The concentrations of the cations were found to increase according to the following trend, Mn>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mg>Cd>Ca. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum of the gum revealed vibrations similar to those found in polysaccharides while the scanning electron micrograph indicated that the gum has irregular molecular shapes, arranged randomly. The intrinsic viscosity of FP gum estimated by extrapolating to zero concentrations in Huggins, Kraemer, Schulz-Blaschke, and Martin plots has an average value of 7 dL/g. From the plots of viscosity versus shear rate/speed of rotation and also that of shear stress versus shear rate, FP gum can be classified as a non-Newtonian gum with characteristics-plastic properties. Development of the Master_s curve for FP gum also indicated that the gum prefers to remain in a dilute domain (C

  3. Collecting and measuring wound exudate biochemical mediators in surgical wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Brendan; Clark, David J; Yeomans, David; Angst, Martin S

    2012-10-20

    We describe a methodology by which we are able to collect and measure biochemical inflammatory and nociceptive mediators at the surgical wound site. Collecting site-specific biochemical markers is important to understand the relationship between levels in serum and surgical wound, determine any associations between mediator release, pain, analgesic use and other outcomes of interest, and evaluate the effect of systemic and peripheral drug administration on surgical wound biochemistry. This methodology has been applied to healthy women undergoing elective cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia. We have measured wound exudate and serum mediators at the same time intervals as patient's pain scores and analgesics consumption for up to 48 hours post-cesarean delivery. Using this methodology we have been able to detect various biochemical mediators including nerve growth factor (NGF), prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2) substance P, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1 and MIP-1β. Studies applying this human surgical wound bioassay have found no correlations between wound and serum cytokine concentrations or their time-release profile (J Pain. 2008; 9(7):650-7).(1) We also documented the utility of the technique to identify drug-mediated changes in wound cytokine content.

  4. Exudates of different marine algae promote growth and mediate trace metal binding in Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D; Leal, M Fernanda C

    2008-12-01

    Phaeodactylum tricornutum was grown in filtered natural seawater enriched with nitrate, phosphate, and silicate only (control) or with exudates from itself, from Emiliania huxleyi (a coccolithophore micro-alga), Porphyra spp. (a red macro-alga) or Enteromorpha spp. (a green macro-alga). Cathodic (and anodic) stripping voltammetry (C(A)SV) were used to determine the concentrations of trace metals, both in the medium and in the algae, as well as total Cu-complexing organic ligands in the medium and, among these, some thiols (compounds identified as cysteine- or as glutathione by CSV). Exudates of different marine micro- and macro-algae could cause allelopathic effects in P. tricornutum cultures. Cell yield of P. tricornutum was increasingly promoted by exudates of E. huxleyi >Porphyra >Enteromorpha. Although exudates strongly complex Cu (and probably other metals), their presence promoted Cu uptake. Significant changes of Ni, Cd, Fe, Zn and Mn uptake by P. tricornutum were also observed in the presence of exudates of different algal species. In addition, both intensity of production and nature of exudates released by P. tricornutum were markedly influenced by the presence of exudates of other algae, the allelopathic effects being very specific (variable from one species to another). Allelopathy will probably also occur in the aquatic environment, although to a lesser extent than in cultures, particularly during bloom events and may have effects on both chemical speciation and bioavailability of chemicals to phytoplanktonic species. Such changes might cause the predominance of some species over other species. Therefore, in future in vitro culture studies with the purpose of using them as models of the real environment, more attention should be paid to the role of algal exudates, in order to improve the environmental relevance and significance of the results.

  5. Uremic pleuritis: A case report and review of recurrent exudative pleural effusions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Matthew D; Galambos, Csaba; Stillwell, Paul C

    2017-09-01

    Despite similar mechanisms driving pleural fluid accumulation, the causes of pleural effusions in children differ significantly from that of adults. When a pleural effusion re-occurs in an adult, literature recommends early thoracentesis, and consideration for pleuroscopy with biopsy to guide the diagnostic evaluation. In children, there is a paucity of literature for guiding management of recurrent exudative pleural effusion. We present an unusual pediatric case of uremic pleuritis with recurrent pericardial and exudative pleural effusions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Correlation of Allelopathy of Rehmannia glutinosa Root Exudates and Their Phenolic Acids Contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Li, Xuan-zhen; Feng, Fa-jie; Gu, Li; Zhang, Jun-yi; Zhang, Liu-ji; Zhang, Zhong-yi

    2015-04-01

    To study the allelopathic potential of Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates in different growth stages and dynamic change of phenolic acids contents, in order to reveal the correlation between phenolic acids and allelbpathy effect of Rehmannia glutinosa. Root exudates of Rehmannia glutinosa in different growth stages were obtained by a new instrument which was used to collect the root exudates of xerophytes. After that, bioassay was applied to estimate allelopathy effect of the root exudates. HPLC was used to determine the contents of five phenolic acids (coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid and ferulic acid) which were reported to relate to allelopathy effect. Correlation of bioassay data and HPLC data were also analyzed. The germination rate of radish after soaking by root exudates of different growth stages of Rehmannia glutinosa was 97. 89%, 92. 38%, 89. 52%, 85. 71%, 85. 71%, 84. 76% and 83. 81%, respectively, which indicated a decline trend. And significant differences were shown from previous enlargement stage compared with the contrast. The bud length after soaking by root exudates was 5. 68, 5. 76, 5. 91, 5. 65, 5. 41, 5. 28 and 5. 11 cm, separately, which increased slightly before decreasing gradually. Previous enlargement stage was also the initial period when significant differences were shown. Five phenolic acids were detected in root exudates by HPLC, while the change of their contents and the allelopathy effect of root exudates did not perform a similar trend. Correlation analysis indicated the five phenolic acids did not have significant relevance (r = - 0. 666 - 0. 590) with germination rate and bud length of radish except the negative correlation (r = -0. 833, P allelopathy effect of Rehmannia glutinosa is performed from previous enlargement stage and enhanced with its growth. Syringic acid is a probable dominant allelochemical of Rehmannia glutinosa.

  7. A Chemo Attractant in Onion Root Exudates Recognized by Ditylenchus dipsaci in Laboratory Bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Y; Burrows, P M; Bar-Eyal, M

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative bioassay that translates preferences of axenically cultured and field population of Ditylenchus dipsaci, observed in vitro, into relative attractiveness of sterile root exudates preparations and their components is described. Onion (Allium cepa cv. White Lisbon) root exudates (ORE) are consistently and significantly much more attractive than the buffer control in all these assays. Exudates from oat cv. Lodi, mustard cv. Albatross and tomato cv. Rehovot 13 are significantly more attractive than the buffer but less attractive than ORE; Arabidopsis sp. cv. Landsberg erecta, oil seed rape cv. Cetes and wheat cv. Bet Hashita are as attractive as the buffer, but canary grass and clover exudates are less attractive than the buffer and, therefore, are classified as repellent. No significant differences in relative attractiveness were detected among exudates from other two cultivars of onion (Texas Grano 502 and Granex Hybrid) and one cultivar of leek (Large American Flag), but exudates from one onion (cv. Evergreen Long White Bunching) and one leek (cv. Broad London) were less attractive than ORE. Relative attractiveness is linear in relation to dilution exponent and therefore log-linear in relation to ORE concentration. Host (onion) penetration study reveals that penetration preferences by D. dipsaci follow the same pattern as those predicted by relative attractiveness coefficients estimated in the bio-assays. Preliminary characterization of the chemo attractant from ORE, using the behavioral bioassay, demonstrated that it was stable to heat and to proteolytic enzymes, nonvolatile and water soluble with a molecular mass <700 kDa.

  8. Acute Exudative Polymorphous Paraneoplastic Vitelliform Maculopathy Managed With Intravitreal Aflibercept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Kaan; Çöndü, Gökçen; Shields, Carol L

    2017-10-01

    The authors report on two patients with bilateral acute exudative polymorphous paraneoplastic vitelliform maculopathy (AEPPVM) treated with intravitreal aflibercept (Eylea; Regeneron, Tarrytown, NY [marketed locally in Turkey by Bayer]). Underlying malignancy had been treated in each case, including breast carcinoma in one case and colon carcinoma in the other case. A macular vitelliform lesion was noted in the right eye and atrophic retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) changes were noted in the left eye of each case. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) of the vitelliform lesion showed sensorineural retinal detachment, highly reflective subretinal material, ellipsoid loss in the right eye, and photoreceptor loss in both eyes of each patient. In both cases, the right eye with a vitelliform macular lesion was treated with intravitreal aflibercept (2.0 mg/0.05 mL) at monthly intervals for the first three injections and at bimonthly intervals for the following injections. Case 1 received a total of six injections and visual acuity (VA) increased from 20/70 to 20/50 at 10 months' follow-up. EDI-OCT showed slight gradual resolution of subretinal vitelliform material. Case 2 received three injections and VA increased from 20/100 to 20/40 at 4 months' follow-up with a decrease in the subretinal vitelliform deposit and intraretinal edema on EDI-OCT. Intravitreal aflibercept may control progression of APPVME in newly diagnosed cases by decreasing vascular leakage and stabilizing RPE function. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:844-850.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Proteome of Soybean Seed Exudates Contains Plant Defense-Related Proteins Active against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Raquel O; Morais, Janne K S; Oliveira, Jose T A; Oliveira, Hermogenes D; Sousa, Daniele O B; Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Moreno, Frederico B; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; de Sá, Maria F Grossi; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-06-10

    Several studies have described the effects of seed exudates against microorganisms, but only few of them have investigated the proteins that have defensive activity particularly against nematode parasites. This study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of soybean seeds and evaluated their nematicidal properties against Meloidogyne incognita. A proteomic approach indicated the existence of 63 exuded proteins, including β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, lectin, trypsin inhibitor, and lipoxygenase, all of which are related to plant defense. The presence of some of these proteins was confirmed by their in vitro activity. The soybean exudates were able to reduce the hatching of nematode eggs and to cause 100% mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2). The pretreatment of J2 with these exudates resulted in a 90% reduction of the gall number in tobacco plants. These findings suggest that the exuded proteins are directly involved in plant defense against soil pathogens, including nematodes, during seed germination.

  10. Stress differentially impacts reserve pools and root exudation: implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhäusser, Simon; Karst, Justine; Wiley, Erin; Gaster, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Environmental stress can influence carbon assimilation and the accumulation and distribution of carbon between growth, reserves, and exudation; however, it is unclear how these processes vary by different stress types. Partitioning of carbon to growth and reserves in plants might also vary between different organs. Roots reserves are of particular interest as they link the plant with the soil carbon cycle through exudation. Simple models of diffusion across concentration gradients predict the more C reserves in roots, the more C should be exuded from roots. However, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation and loss of C from roots may differ depending on the stress experienced by the plants. In a controlled study we tested whether different types of stresses (shade, cold soil, and drought) have differential effects on the distribution, abundance, and form (sugar vs. starch) of carbohydrates in seedlings, and whether these changes alone could explain differences in root exudation between stress types. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration and pool sizes varied by stress type and between organs. Mass-specific C exudation increased with fine root sugar concentration; however, stress type affected exudation independently of reserve concentration. Seedlings exposed to cold soils exuded the most C on a per root mass basis followed by shade and drought. Through 13C labeling, we also found that depending on the stress type, aspen seedlings may be less able to control the loss of C to the soil compared with unstressed seedlings, resulting in more C leaked to the rhizosphere. The loss of C beyond that predicted by simple concentration gradients might have important implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance. If stressed plants lose proportionally more carbon to the soil, existing interactions between plants and soils may decouple under stress, and may include unexpected C fluxes between trees, soils and the atmosphere with a changing climate.

  11. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment and drought stress modify root exudation of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Olga C; Franzaring, Jürgen; Schmid, Iris; Müller, Matthias; Brohon, Nolwenn; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Rising CO2 concentrations associated with drought stress is likely to influence not only aboveground growth, but also belowground plant processes. Little is known about root exudation being influenced by elements of climate change. Therefore, this study wanted to clarify whether barley root exudation responds to drought and CO2 enrichment and whether this reaction differs between an old and a recently released malting barley cultivar. Barley plants were grown in pots filled with sand in controlled climate chambers at ambient (380 ppm) or elevated (550 ppm) atmospheric [CO2 ] and a normal or reduced water supply. Root exudation patterns were examined at the stem elongation growth stage and when the inflorescences emerged. At both dates, root exudates were analyzed for different compounds such as total free amino acids, proline, potassium, and some phytohormones. Elevated [CO2 ] decreased the concentrations in root exudates of some compounds such as total free amino acids, proline, and abscisic acid. Moreover, reduced water supply increased proline, potassium, electric conductivity, and hormone concentrations. In general, the modern cultivar showed higher concentrations of proline and abscisic acid than the old one, but the cultivars responded differentially under elevated CO2 . Plant developmental stage had also an impact on the root exudation patterns of barley. Generally, we observed significant effects of CO2 enrichment, watering levels, and, to a lesser extent, cultivar on root exudation. However, we did not find any mitigation of the adverse effects of drought by elevated CO2 . Understanding the multitude of relationships within the rhizosphere is an important aspect that has to be taken into consideration in the context of crop performance and carbon balance under conditions of climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Combined treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab and laser photocoagulation for exudative maculopathy in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Rita; Beato, João; Silva, Marta; Silva, Sérgio; Brandão, Elisete; Falcão-Reis, Fernando; Penas, Susana

    2017-01-01

    To report a rare case of exudative maculopathy in a patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), and its management. Observational case report. A 62-year-old man with genetically confirmed FSHD was referred to our department complaining of decreased visual acuity in his left eye. At presentation, right eye examination was unremarkable and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20. Left eye BCVA was 20/100 and it presented a dense cataract with the evidence of macular lipid exudation. Cataract surgery combined with intravitreal bevacizumab improved BCVA to 20/20. Postoperative fundus examination disclosed focal macular retinal microvascular dilations with lipid exudation inferotemporal to the fovea. Fluorescein angiography highlighted these macular telangiectatic abnormalities but no peripheral lesions were detected. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed mild temporal retinal thickening, sparing the fovea. A diagnosis of exudative maculopathy due to macular telangiectasia secondary to FSHD was established. One year later, his left eye vision dropped to 20/32 and macular SD-OCT showed an aggravation of the intraretinal fluid and exudation. He was then submitted to a second intravitreal injection of bevacizumab followed by one angio-guided focal laser photocoagulation session, with a significant improvement. Twelve months later, his BCVA remained 20/20 on both eyes with no recurrence of exudation. The present work shows that in cases of visual-threatening macular exudation, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections combined with focal laser photocoagulation may be a safe and effective treatment. This article also highlights that all FSHD patients should be screened for asymptomatic retinal vascular disorders.

  13. Evolution of the Crop Rhizosphere: Impact of Domestication on Root Exudates in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Iannucci, Anna; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Nigro, Franca; Papa, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Domestication has induced major genetic changes in crop plants to satisfy human needs and as a consequence of adaptation to agroecosystems. This adaptation might have affected root exudate composition, which can influence the interactions in the rhizosphere. Here, using two different soil types (sand, soil), we provide an original example of the impact of domestication and crop evolution on root exudate composition through metabolite profiling of root exudates for a panel of 10 wheat genotype...

  14. [Effects of wheat root exudates on cucumber growth and soil fungal community structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-Zhi; Li, Min; Cao, Peng; Ma, Ya-Fei; Wang, Li-Li

    2014-10-01

    With wheat as the donor plant and cucumber as the receptor plant, this study investigated the effects of root exudates from wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials (positive or negative) and companion cropping with wheat on soil fungal community structure by PCR-DGGE method and cucumber growth. Results showed that the wheat root exudates with positive allelopathic potential increased height and stem diameter of cucumber seedlings significantly, compared to the control seedlings (W) after 6 days and 12 days treatment, respectively. Also, wheat root exudates with both positive and negative allelopathic potential increased the seedling height of cucumber significantly after 18 days treatment. The wheat root exudates with different allelopathic potentials decreased the band number, Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungal community significantly in cucumber seedling rhizosphere, and those in the soil with the control seedlings (W) were also significantly higher than that in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 6 days treatment. The band number, Shannon and evenness indices in all the treatments were significantly higher than those in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 18 days treatment. Companion cropping with negative allelopathic potential wheat decreased the Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungi community significantly in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere, suggesting the wheat root exudates and companion cropping with wheat changed soil fungal community structure in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere. The results of DGGE map and the principal component analysis showed that companion cropping with wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials changed soil fungal community structure in cucumber seedling rhizosphere.

  15. Multiscale model of a freeze–thaw process for tree sap exudation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Isabell; Ceseri, Maurizio; Stockie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Sap transport in trees has long fascinated scientists, and a vast literature exists on experimental and modelling studies of trees during the growing season when large negative stem pressures are generated by transpiration from leaves. Much less attention has been paid to winter months when trees are largely dormant but nonetheless continue to exhibit interesting flow behaviour. A prime example is sap exudation, which refers to the peculiar ability of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and related species to generate positive stem pressure while in a leafless state. Experiments demonstrate that ambient temperatures must oscillate about the freezing point before significantly heightened stem pressures are observed, but the precise causes of exudation remain unresolved. The prevailing hypothesis attributes exudation to a physical process combining freeze–thaw and osmosis, which has some support from experimental studies but remains a subject of active debate. We address this knowledge gap by developing the first mathematical model for exudation, while also introducing several essential modifications to this hypothesis. We derive a multiscale model consisting of a nonlinear system of differential equations governing phase change and transport within wood cells, coupled to a suitably homogenized equation for temperature on the macroscale. Numerical simulations yield stem pressures that are consistent with experiments and provide convincing evidence that a purely physical mechanism is capable of capturing exudation. PMID:26400199

  16. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Bogas, Andrea Cristina; Pomini, Armando M; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Marsaioli, Anita J; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2013-12-01

    Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol), respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) and plant exudates (including ethanol) in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF), adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss), to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS) and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU). Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization), which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

  17. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuella Nóbrega Dourado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol, respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones and plant exudates (including ethanol in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF, adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss, to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU. Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization, which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

  18. Low Light Availability Alters Root Exudation and Reduces Putative Beneficial Microorganisms in Seagrass Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda C. Martin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass roots host a diverse microbiome that is critical for plant growth and health. Composition of microbial communities can be regulated in part by root exudates, but the specifics of these interactions in seagrass rhizospheres are still largely unknown. As light availability controls primary productivity, reduced light may impact root exudation and consequently the composition of the root microbiome. Hence, we analyzed the influence of light availability on root exudation and community structure of the root microbiome of three co-occurring seagrass species, Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis and Cymodocea serrulata. Plants were grown under four light treatments in mesocosms for 2 weeks; control (100% surface irradiance (SI, medium (40% SI, low (20% SI and fluctuating light (10 days 20% and 4 days 100%. 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing revealed that microbial diversity, composition and predicted function were strongly influenced by the presence of seagrass roots, such that root microbiomes were unique to each seagrass species. Reduced light availability altered seagrass root exudation, as characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy, and altered the composition of seagrass root microbiomes with a reduction in abundance of potentially beneficial microorganisms. Overall, this study highlights the potential for above-ground light reduction to invoke a cascade of changes from alterations in root exudation to a reduction in putative beneficial microorganisms and, ultimately, confirms the importance of the seagrass root environment – a critical, but often overlooked space.

  19. Stigmatic exudate in the Annonaceae: Pollinator reward, pollen germination medium or extragynoecial compitum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jenny Y. Y.; Pang, Chun‐Chiu; Ramsden, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Although “dry‐type” stigmas are widely regarded as ancestral in angiosperms, the early‐divergent family Annonaceae has copious stigmatic exudate. We evaluate three putative functions for this exudate: as a nutritive reward for pollinators; as a pollen germination medium; and as an extragynoecial compitum that enables pollen tube growth between carpels. Stigmatic exudate is fructose dominated (72.2%), but with high levels of glucose and sucrose; the dominance of hexose sugars and the diversity of amino acids observed, including many that are essential for insects, support a nutritive role for pollinators. Sugar concentration in pre‐receptive flowers is high (28.2%), falling during the peak period of stigmatic receptivity (17.4%), and then rising again toward the end of the pistillate phase (32.9%). Pollen germination was highest in sugar concentrations <20%. Sugar concentrations during the peak pistillate phase therefore provide optimal osmolarity for pollen hydration and germination; subsequent changes in sugar concentration during anthesis reinforce protogyny (in which carpels mature before stamens), enabling the retention of concentrated exudate into the staminate phase as a pollinator food reward without the possibility of pollen germination. Intercarpellary growth of pollen tubes was confirmed: the exudate therefore also functions as a suprastylar extragynoecial compitum, overcoming the limitations of apocarpy. PMID:28880427

  20. Clinical performance of a new silver dressing, Contreet Foam, for chronic exuding venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmark, T; Agerslev, R H; Bendz, S H

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and performance of a new sustained silver-releasing dressing, Contreet Foam (Coloplast A/S), in the treatment of moderately to highly exuding chronic venous leg ulcers in which healing is delayed due to the presence of bacteria. METHOD......: The clinical performance of Contreet Foam was studied for four weeks in 25 patients with moderately to highly exuding delayed-healing venous leg ulcers. Healing was assessed on a weekly basis with reference to the wound-bed tissue composition, degree of odour and pain, dressing performance and the dressing......: Contreet Foam was found to be safe and performed well when used in the treatment of delayed-healing chronic venous leg ulcers, combining effective antibacterial properties with excellent exudate management. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: This study was supported by Coloplast A/S, Humlebaek, Denmark....

  1. Use of hydrocapillary dressing in the management of highly exuding ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norkus, A.; Dargis, V.; Thomsen, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and performance of Alione Hydrocapillary dressing (Coloplast A/S) in the management of highly exuding chronic venous leg ulcers and compare it with two hydropolymer dressings,Tielle and Tielle Plus (Johnson & Johnson). METHOD: A comparative clinical trial...... treatment. Although severe leakage and maceration were observed more frequently in the comparator group compared with the test group, this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Both treatment protocols were safe and effective in treating highly exuding chronic venous leg ulcers. The test dressing...... was conducted on 97 patients with an ankle brachial pressure index > or = 0.8 and a highly exuding leg ulcer. Ulcer duration was at least four weeks.Treatment continued until healing or for a maximum of 12 months. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in healing time or wound area reduction...

  2. Molecular responses in root-associative rhizospheric bacteria to variations in plant exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Hamid; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2015-04-01

    Plant exudates are a major factor in the interface of plant-soil-microbe interactions and it is well documented that the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere is largely influenced by the particular exudates excreted by various plants. Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that is known to interact with a large number of plants, including important food crops. The regulatory gene flcA has an important role in this interaction as it controls morphological differentiation of the bacterium that is essential for attachment to root surfaces. Being a response regulatory gene, flcA mediates the response of the bacterial cell to signals from the surrounding rhizosphere. This makes this regulatory gene a good candidate for analysis of the response of bacteria to rhizospheric alterations, in this case, variations in root exudates. We will report on our studies on the response of Azospirillum, an ecologically, scientifically and agriculturally important bacterial genus, to variations in the rhizosphere.

  3. Multiscale model of a freeze-thaw process for tree sap exudation

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Isabell; Stockie, John M

    2015-01-01

    Sap transport in trees has long fascinated scientists, and a vast literature exists on experimental and modelling studies of trees during the growing season when large negative stem pressures are generated by transpiration from leaves. Much less attention has been paid to winter months when trees are largely dormant but nonetheless continue to exhibit interesting flow behaviour. A prime example is sap exudation, which refers to the peculiar ability of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and related species to generate positive stem pressure while in a leafless state. Experiments demonstrate that ambient temperatures must oscillate about the freezing point before significantly heightened stem pressures are observed, but the precise causes of exudation remain unresolved. The prevailing hypothesis attributes exudation to a physical process combining freeze-thaw and osmosis, which has some support from experimental studies but remains a subject of active debate. We address this knowledge gap by developing the first math...

  4. Isoliquiritigenin, a strong nod gene- and glyceollin resistance-inducing flavonoid from soybean root exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kape, R; Parniske, M; Brandt, S; Werner, D

    1992-01-01

    Isoflavonoid signal molecules from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed and root exudate induce the transcription of nodulation (nod) genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum. In this study, a new compound with symbiotic activity was isolated from soybean root exudate. The isolated 2',4',4-trihydroxychalcone (isoliquiritigenin) is characterized by its strong inducing activity for the nod genes of B. japonicum. These genes are already induced at concentrations 1 order of magnitude below those required of the previously described isoflavonoid inducers genistein and daidzein. Isoliquiritigenin is also a potent inducer of glyceollin resistance in B. japonicum, which renders this bacterium insensitive to potentially bactericidal concentrations of glyceollin, the phytoalexin of G. max. No chemotactic effect of isoliquiritigenin was observed. The highly efficient induction of nod genes and glyceollin resistance by isoliquiritigenin suggests the ecological significance of this compound, although it is not a major flavonoid constituent of the soybean root exudate in quantitative terms. PMID:1622242

  5. The mycorrhizal type governs root exudation and nitrogen uptake of temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Rebecca; Lübbe, Torben; Albers, Nora W; Meier, Ina C

    2017-11-08

    Even though the two dominant mycorrhizal associations of temperate tree species differentially couple carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles in temperate forests, systematic differences between the biogeochemical cycles of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tree species remain poorly described. A classification according to the mycorrhizal type offers the chance, though, to develop a global frame concept for the prediction of temperate ecosystem responses to environmental change. Focusing on the influence of mycorrhizal types on two key plant processes of biogeochemical cycling (root exudation and N acquisition), we investigated four temperate deciduous tree species per mycorrhizal type in a drought experiment in large mesocosms. We hypothesized that (H1) C loss by root exudation is higher in ECM than in AM trees, (H2) drought leads to higher reductions in root exudation of drought-sensitive ECM trees and (H3) inorganic N uptake is higher in AM than in ECM trees. In contradiction to H2, we found no systematic difference in root exudation between the mycorrhizal types at ample soil moisture, but almost twofold higher exudation in ECM trees when exposed to soil drought. In addition, photosynthetic C cost of root exudation strongly increased by ~10-fold in drought-treated ECM trees, while it only doubled in AM trees, which confirms H1. With respect to H3, we corroborated that AM trees had higher absolute and relative inorganic N acquisition rates than ECM trees, while the organic N uptake did not differ between mycorrhizal types. We conclude that ECM trees are less efficient in inorganic N uptake than AM trees, but ECM trees increase root C release as an adaptive response to dry soil to maintain hydraulic conductivity and/or nutrient availability. These systematic differences in key biogeochemical processes support hints on the key role of the mycorrhizal types in coupling C and N cycles in temperate forests. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford

  6. Studies on exudate-depleted sclerotial development in Sclerotium rolfsii and the effect of oxalic acid, sclerotial exudate, and culture filtrate on phenolic acid induction in chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U P; Sarma, B K; Singh, D P; Bahadur, Amar

    2002-05-01

    Exudate depletion from developing sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. in culture caused reduced size and weight of sclerotia. Germination of exudate-depleted sclerotia was delayed on Cyperus rotundus rhizome meal agar medium when compared with that of control sclerotia. The exudate-depleted sclerotia caused infection in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) plants in a glasshouse. Different temperatures and incubation periods had no effect on the germination ability of the exudate-depleted sclerotia. Oxalic acid, sclerotial exudate, and culture filtrate of S. rolfsii induced the synthesis of phenolic acids, including gallic, ferulic, chlorogenic, and cinnamic acids, as well as salicylic acid, in treated chickpea leaves. Gallic acid content was increased in treated leaves compared with the untreated controls. Maximum induction of gallic acid was seen in both leaves treated with oxalic acid followed by exudate and leaves treated with culture filtrate. Cinnamic and salicylic acids were not induced in exudate-treated leaves. Ethyl acetate fractionation indicated that the sclerotial exudates consisted of gallic, oxalic, ferulic, chlorogenic, and cinnamic acids, whereas the culture filtrate consisted of gallic, oxalic, and cinnamic acids along with many other unidentified compounds.

  7. Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F. Haas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals on reefs of Mo‘orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community response to these dissolved exudates by measuring bacterial growth rates and oxygen and DOC fluxes in dark and daylight incubation experiments. All benthic primary producers exuded significant quantities of DOC (roughly 10% of their daily fixed carbon into the surrounding water over a diurnal cycle. The microbial community responses were dependent upon the source of the exudates and whether the inoculum of microbes included planktonic or planktonic plus benthic communities. The planktonic and benthic microbial communities in the unamended control treatments exhibited opposing influences on DO concentration where respiration dominated in treatments comprised solely of plankton and autotrophy dominated in treatments with benthic plus plankon microbial communities. Coral exudates (and associated inorganic nutrients caused a shift towards a net autotrophic microbial metabolism by increasing the net production of oxygen by the benthic and decreasing the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community. In contrast, the addition of algal exudates decreased the net primary production by the benthic communities and increased the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community thereby resulting in a shift towards net heterotrophic community metabolism. When scaled up to the reef habitat, exudate-induced effects on microbial respiration did not outweigh the high oxygen production rates of benthic algae, such that reef areas dominated with

  8. Managing exudate and maceration in venous leg ulceration within the acute health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Annemarie

    2017-11-08

    Exudate has beneficial effects in normal wound healing but detrimental consequences for chronic wounds. Practitioners need to identify and treat its cause, and manage the exudate and prevent if from damaging periwound skin. Management involves dressings of the most appropriate absorbency and other products, and avoiding maceration of periwound skin; compression therapy is the gold standard treatment for treating oedema and venous leg ulceration. Nurses in acute settings may not have the skills to implement or maintain compression therapy; this article is intended for nurses who may have to manage these patients temporarily while they are admitted to secondary care and may not have the skills.

  9. Nitric oxide is involved in phosphorus deficiency-induced cluster root development and citrate exudation in white lupin

    Science.gov (United States)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) forms specialized cluster roots characterized by exudation of organic anions under phosphorus (P) deficiency. Here, we evaluated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in P deficiency-induced cluster-root formation and citrate exudation in white lupin. Plants were treated with NO ...

  10. Evolution of the Crop Rhizosphere: Impact of Domestication on Root Exudates in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidumL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannucci, Anna; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Nigro, Franca; Papa, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Domestication has induced major genetic changes in crop plants to satisfy human needs and as a consequence of adaptation to agroecosystems. This adaptation might have affected root exudate composition, which can influence the interactions in the rhizosphere. Here, using two different soil types (sand, soil), we provide an original example of the impact of domestication and crop evolution on root exudate composition through metabolite profiling of root exudates for a panel of 10 wheat genotypes that correspond to the key steps in domestication of tetraploid wheat (wild emmer, emmer, durum wheat). Our data show that soil type can dramatically affect the composition of root exudates in the rhizosphere. Moreover, the composition of the rhizosphere metabolites is associated with differences among the genotypes of the wheat domestication groups, as seen by the high heritability of some of the metabolites. Overall, we show that domestication and breeding have had major effects on root exudates in the rhizosphere, which suggests the adaptive nature of these changes.

  11. Peritumoral Tissue Compression is Predictive of Exudate Flux in a Rat Model of Cerebral Tumor: an MRI Study in an Embedded Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, James R.; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N.; Aryal, Madhava P.; Keenan, Kelly A; Elmghirbi, Rasha; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Panda, Swayamprava; Lu, Mei; Mikkelsen, Tom; Cabral, Glauber; Brown, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    MRI estimates of extracellular volume and tumor exudate flux in peritumoral tissue are demonstrated in an experimental model of cerebral tumor. Peritumoral extracellular volume predicted the tumor exudate flux.

  12. Organic anion exudation by lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) at zinc and phosphorus deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffland, E.; Wei, C.Z.; Wissuwa, M.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to determine (1) if lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants respond similarly to low zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) availability by increased root exudation of low-molecular weight organic anions (LMWOAs) and (2) if genotypic variation in tolerance to low soil supply of

  13. Pea-root exudates and their effect upon root-nodule bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egeraat, van A.W.S.M.

    1972-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the exudation (mechanism, sites) of various compounds by roots of pea seedlings in relation to the growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    Chapter 1 gives a survey of the literature pertaining to plant-root

  14. [Role of herpes simplex virus in the development of exudative erythema multiforme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samgin, M A; Ivanov, O L; Kuzheleva, S A; Biriukov, A V; L'vov, N D

    1990-03-01

    The paper presents analysis of current knowledge on etiology and immunopathogenesis of multiform exudative erythema (MEE). Among a variety of pathogenetic actions of herpes simplex on immune system are those relevant to MEE onset. These variants are dealt with in detail. The view on MEE as resultant from herpes simplex infection promises appearance of new prospective modes of etiotropic therapy.

  15. Influence of root exudates on attachment of Pasteuria penetrans to Meloidogyne arenaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that root exudates would influence the spore attachment of Pasteuria penetrans to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria). An experiment was carried out using a factorial arrangement of two single spore (SS) lines cultured from P. penetrans and three single egg mass(SEM)lines cult...

  16. Influence of aluminum on growth, mineral nutrition and organic acid exudation of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A randomized complete block design experiment with six aluminum (Al) concentrations was carried out to evaluate the effect of aluminum on nutrient content, plant growth, dry matter production and Al-induced organic acid exudation in rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum). One rambutan cultivar was grown in...

  17. Clinical and molecular evaluation of probands and family members with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, F.N.; Nouhuys, C.E. van; Schuil, J.; Wijs, I.J. de; Donk, K.P. van der; Nikopoulos, K.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Scheffer, H.; Tilanus, M.A.D.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Hoefsloot, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the ophthalmic characteristics and to identify the molecular cause of FEVR in a cohort of Dutch probands and their family members. METHODS: Twenty families with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) comprising 83 affected and nonaffected individuals were studied. Based on

  18. Organic anion exudation by ectomycorrhizal fungi and Pinus sylvestris in response to nutrient deficiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöll, van L.; Hoffland, E.; Breemen, van N.

    2006-01-01

    Low molecular weight organic anions (LMWOA) can enhance weathering of mineral grains. We tested the hypothesis that ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi and tree seedlings increase their exudation of LMWOA when supply of magnesium, potassium and phosphorus is low to enhance the mobilization of Mg, K and P

  19. Lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate in delayed type hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D

    1988-01-01

    as controls. The morphology of the leucocytes in dermis was studied in biopsies taken 8, 24, or 48 h after skin window application, and in a parallel test the morphology of the exudate was examined by sequential collection of the chamber medium during a 48 h period. The infiltrate in dermis of contact...

  20. A case of Acute Myeloid Leukemia masquerading as unilateral exudative detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions and Importance: Acute myeloid leukemia can present as an exudative retinal detachment and can mimic similarly presenting conditions like VKH. Hence, this very important differential diagnosis should be kept in mind and it stresses the importance of simple laboratory investigations like whole and differential blood counts.

  1. Machine learning approach to automatic exudate detection in retinal images from diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopharak, Akara; Dailey, Matthew N.; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Barman, Sarah; Williamson, Tom; Thet Nwe, Khine; Aye Moe, Yin

    2010-01-01

    Exudates are among the preliminary signs of diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Early detection of exudates could improve patients' chances to avoid blindness. In this paper, we present a series of experiments on feature selection and exudates classification using naive Bayes and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. We first fit the naive Bayes model to a training set consisting of 15 features extracted from each of 115,867 positive examples of exudate pixels and an equal number of negative examples. We then perform feature selection on the naive Bayes model, repeatedly removing features from the classifier, one by one, until classification performance stops improving. To find the best SVM, we begin with the best feature set from the naive Bayes classifier, and repeatedly add the previously-removed features to the classifier. For each combination of features, we perform a grid search to determine the best combination of hyperparameters ν (tolerance for training errors) and γ (radial basis function width). We compare the best naive Bayes and SVM classifiers to a baseline nearest neighbour (NN) classifier using the best feature sets from both classifiers. We find that the naive Bayes and SVM classifiers perform better than the NN classifier. The overall best sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy are 92.28%, 98.52%, 53.05%, and 98.41%, respectively.

  2. Use of a hydrocapillary dressing in the management of highly exuding ulcers: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norkus, A; Dargis, V; Thomsen, J K

    2005-01-01

    treatment. Although severe leakage and maceration were observed more frequently in the comparator group compared with the test group, this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Both treatment protocols were safe and effective in treating highly exuding chronic venous leg ulcers. The test dressing...

  3. An assessment of the soil-conditioning capacity of gums exuded by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the soil conditioning capacity of tree gums based on the level of resistance to crumble posed by moulds of treated soils to the impacts of artificial raindrops. Gums exuded by trees viz., Acacia occidental and Parkia bicolor as well as a sample of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) were used as soil conditioners.

  4. Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xu

    chemicals to suppress the growth of native species. Phragmites australis is recognized as the most invasive species in wetland ecosystems in North America, and allelopathy has been reported to be involved in the invasion success of the introduced exotic P. australis. The composition of the root exudates may...

  5. Detection of exudates in fundus photographs using deep neural networks and anatomical landmark detection fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentašić, Pavle; Lončarić, Sven

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading disabling chronic diseases and one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in developed world. Early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy enables timely treatment and in order to achieve it a major effort will have to be invested into automated population screening programs. Detection of exudates in color fundus photographs is very important for early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. We use deep convolutional neural networks for exudate detection. In order to incorporate high level anatomical knowledge about potential exudate locations, output of the convolutional neural network is combined with the output of the optic disc detection and vessel detection procedures. In the validation step using a manually segmented image database we obtain a maximum F1 measure of 0.78. As manually segmenting and counting exudate areas is a tedious task, having a reliable automated output, such as automated segmentation using convolutional neural networks in combination with other landmark detectors, is an important step in creating automated screening programs for early detection of diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of dental adhesives on the exudative phase of the inflammatory process in subcutaneous tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagem-Filho Halim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascular changes in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats induced by dentin bonding systems (one step was studied and compared to those induced by saline solution (negative control and Furacin (positive control, during the exudative phase of the inflammatory process. Twenty mg/kg of Evan's blue were injected intravenously in the vein of the rats' penises; 0.1 ml of each substance tested was inoculated in the subcutaneous tissue. After a 3 hour period the animals were sacrificed and their skins were excised and punched out with a standard steel 2.5 cm in diameter. The specimens were immediately immersed in 8 ml of formamide and taken to a double boiler for 72 hours at 37ºC, to remove the dye. The liquid containing the overflowed dye was filtered, analyzed in the spectrophotometer (620 nm and classified according to the criteria established by Nagem-Filho, Pereira (1976. After statistical analysis, the irritative potential of the substances was ranked as follows: Furacin (severe > Single Bond and Bond 1 (moderate - no significant differences between the dentin bonding systems tested > saline solution (not significant as regards the irritation degree.

  7. How far roots and exudates can transform the soil structure and porosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Kohler-Milleret, Roxane; Lamy, Frédéric; Boivin, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Aims The impact of plant-roots on soil physical porosity and structure is still to be deciphered. Recent results revealed root-induced increases in soil pore volume whose magnitude could not be attributed to root-drilling effect, thus suggesting an indirect effect via microbial activity enhanced by root exudates (Milleret et al., 2009, Kholer-Milleret et al., 2013). This is discussed in the present study by quantifying the soil hydro-structural changes induced by root exudates and microorganisms in the absence of roots. Methods The experiment was performed on series of structured repacked samples from two soils previously experimented with plants in mesocosms (Anthrosol and Luvisol). The samples received a daily input of artificial root exudates for three months. The soil structural changes were then assessed using shrinkage analysis and aggregate stability test. Microbial activity was measured with CO2 emanation. Results In agreement with previous findings, root exudates increased microbial activity and aggregate stability. Oppositely, the observed structural changes were contradictory both in magnitude and pattern with those observed in the presence of plant roots. The soil bulk porosity was almost not changed while the small-diameter structural porosity was decreased in the presence of root exudates. Moreover, the hydro-structural stability of the soil decreased while the aggregate stability increased. Conclusions Though the structural changes observed in the presence of roots cannot be attributed to direct root drilling effect, they are not observed when only root exudates are delivered to the soil. Our results suggest that the soil structure is engineered by a complex soil-plant-microbe interaction combining root mechanical effect and micro-aggregate stabilisation effect. Cumulative structural pore volume increase could result from aggregates rearrangements induced by root growth, either by drilling or lever effect, further stabilized by microorganism

  8. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Atkins, Craig A; Mann, Anthea J; Jordan, Megan E; Smith, Penelope Mc

    2011-02-22

    Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant), in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA). Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%), followed by protein modification/turnover (9%), redox regulation (8%), cell structural components (6%), stress and defence response (6%) with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT) protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt) 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams) and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level). This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes.

  9. Compost and biochar alter mycorrhization, tomato root exudation, and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Adnan; Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Soja, Gerhard; Steinkellner, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    Soil amendments like compost and biochar are known to affect soil properties, plant growth as well as soil borne plant pathogens. Complex interactions based on microbial activity and abiotic characteristics are supposed to be responsible for suppressive properties of certain substrates, however, the specific mechanisms of action are still widely unknown. In the present study, the main focus was on the development of the soil borne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and changes in root exudates of tomato plants grown in different soil substrate compositions, such as compost (Comp) alone at application rate of 20% (v/v), and in combination with wood biochar (WB; made from beech wood chips) or green waste biochar (GWB; made from garden waste residues) at application rate of 3% (v/v), and/or with additional arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The association of GWB and AMF had a positive effect on tomato plants growth unlike to the plants grown in WB containing a soil substrate. The AMF root colonization was not enhanced by the addition of WB or GWB in the soil substrate, though a bio-protective effect of mycorrhization was evident in both biochar amended treatments against Fol. Compost and biochars altered root exudates differently, which is evident from variable response of in vitro growth and development of Fol. The microconidia germination was highest in root exudates from plants grown in the soil containing compost and GWB, whereas root exudates of plants from a substrate containing WB suppressed the mycelial growth and development of Fol. In conclusion, the plant growth response and disease suppression in biochar containing substrates with additional AMF was affected by the feedstock type. Moreover, application of compost and biochars in the soil influence the quality and composition of root exudates with respect to their effects on soil-dwelling fungi. PMID:26217373

  10. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant), in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA). Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%), followed by protein modification/turnover (9%), redox regulation (8%), cell structural components (6%), stress and defence response (6%) with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT) protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt) 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams) and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level). Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes. PMID:21342527

  11. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Anthea J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant, in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA. Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%, followed by protein modification/turnover (9%, redox regulation (8%, cell structural components (6%, stress and defence response (6% with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level. Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes.

  12. Compost and biochar alter mycorrhization, tomato root exudation and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan eAkhter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendments like compost and biochar are known to affect soil properties, plant growth as well as soil borne plant pathogens. Complex interactions based on microbial activity and abiotic characteristics are supposed to be responsible for suppressive properties of certain substrates, however, the specific mechanisms of action are still widely unknown. In the present study, the main focus was on the development of the soil borne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. and changes in root exudates of tomato plants grown in different soil substrate compositions, such as compost (Comp alone at application rate of 20 % (v/v, and in combination with wood biochar (WB; made from beech wood chips or green waste biochar (GWB, made from garden waste residues at application rate of 3 % (v/v, and/or with additional arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. The association of GWB and AMF had a positive effect on tomato plants growth unlike to the plants grown in WB containing soil substrate. The AMF root colonization was not enhanced by the addition of WB or GWB in the soil substrate, though bio-protective effect of mycorrhization was evident in both biochar amended treatments against Fol. Compost and biochars altered root exudates differently, which is evident from variable response of in vitro growth and development of Fol. The microconidia germination was highest under in root exudates from plants grown in the soil containing compost and GWB, whereas root exudates of plants from substrate containing WB suppressed the mycelial growth and development of Fol. In conclusion, the plant growth response and disease suppression in biochar containing substrates with additional AMF was affected by the feedstock type. Moreover, application of compost and biochars in the soil influence the quality and composition of root exudates with respect to their effects on soil-dwelling fungi.

  13. Root exudation of phytochemicals in Arabidopsis follows specific patterns that are developmentally programmed and correlate with soil microbial functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Chaparro

    Full Text Available Plant roots constantly secrete compounds into the soil to interact with neighboring organisms presumably to gain certain functional advantages at different stages of development. Accordingly, it has been hypothesized that the phytochemical composition present in the root exudates changes over the course of the lifespan of a plant. Here, root exudates of in vitro grown Arabidopsis plants were collected at different developmental stages and analyzed using GC-MS. Principle component analysis revealed that the composition of root exudates varied at each developmental stage. Cumulative secretion levels of sugars and sugar alcohols were higher in early time points and decreased through development. In contrast, the cumulative secretion levels of amino acids and phenolics increased over time. The expression in roots of genes involved in biosynthesis and transportation of compounds represented in the root exudates were consistent with patterns of root exudation. Correlation analyses were performed of the in vitro root exudation patterns with the functional capacity of the rhizosphere microbiome to metabolize these compounds at different developmental stages of Arabidopsis grown in natural soils. Pyrosequencing of rhizosphere mRNA revealed strong correlations (p<0.05 between microbial functional genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and secondary metabolites with the corresponding compounds released by the roots at particular stages of plant development. In summary, our results suggest that the root exudation process of phytochemicals follows a developmental pattern that is genetically programmed.

  14. Root Exudation of Phytochemicals in Arabidopsis Follows Specific Patterns That Are Developmentally Programmed and Correlate with Soil Microbial Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Manter, Daniel K.; Vivanco, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots constantly secrete compounds into the soil to interact with neighboring organisms presumably to gain certain functional advantages at different stages of development. Accordingly, it has been hypothesized that the phytochemical composition present in the root exudates changes over the course of the lifespan of a plant. Here, root exudates of in vitro grown Arabidopsis plants were collected at different developmental stages and analyzed using GC-MS. Principle component analysis revealed that the composition of root exudates varied at each developmental stage. Cumulative secretion levels of sugars and sugar alcohols were higher in early time points and decreased through development. In contrast, the cumulative secretion levels of amino acids and phenolics increased over time. The expression in roots of genes involved in biosynthesis and transportation of compounds represented in the root exudates were consistent with patterns of root exudation. Correlation analyses were performed of the in vitro root exudation patterns with the functional capacity of the rhizosphere microbiome to metabolize these compounds at different developmental stages of Arabidopsis grown in natural soils. Pyrosequencing of rhizosphere mRNA revealed strong correlations (proots at particular stages of plant development. In summary, our results suggest that the root exudation process of phytochemicals follows a developmental pattern that is genetically programmed. PMID:23383346

  15. Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ling

    Full Text Available Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON, but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants.

  16. Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics and Synchronized Oscillations of Microbial Populations, Carbon and Oxygen Concentrations, Induced by Root Exudation in the Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molz, F. J.; Faybishenko, B.; Jenkins, E. W.

    2012-12-01

    Mass and energy fluxes within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum are highly coupled and inherently nonlinear. The main focus of this presentation is to demonstrate the results of numerical modeling of a system of 4 coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which are used to describe the long-term, rhizosphere processes of soil microbial dynamics, including the competition between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and those unable to fix nitrogen, along with substrate concentration (nutrient supply) and oxygen concentration. Modeling results demonstrate the synchronized patterns of temporal oscillations of competing microbial populations, which are affected by carbon and oxygen concentrations. The temporal dynamics and amplitude of the root exudation process serve as a driving force for microbial and geochemical phenomena, and lead to the development of the Gompetzian dynamics, synchronized oscillations, and phase-space attractors of microbial populations and carbon and oxygen concentrations. The nonlinear dynamic analysis of time series concentrations from the solution of the ODEs was used to identify several types of phase-space attractors, which appear to be dependent on the parameters of the exudation function and Monod kinetic parameters. This phase space analysis was conducted by means of assessing the global and local embedding dimensions, correlation time, capacity and correlation dimensions, and Lyapunov exponents of the calculated model variables defining the phase space. Such results can be used for planning experimental and theoretical studies of biogeochemical processes in the fields of plant nutrition, phyto- and bio-remediation, and other ecological areas.

  17. Plasma membrane H+-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots.To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify...... the rhizosphere.The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work,we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation...

  18. Lysing bloom-causing alga Phaeocystis globosa with microbial algicide: An efficient process that decreases the toxicity of algal exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guanjing; Yang, Xujun; Lai, Qiliang; Yu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Lei, Xueqian; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2016-02-05

    Algicidal microbes could effectively remove the harmful algae from the waters. In this study, we were concerned with the ecological influence of an algicide extracted from Streptomyces alboflavus RPS, which could completely lyse the Phaeocystis globosa cells within two days. In microcosms, 4 μg/mL of the microbial algicide could efficiently remove P. globosa cells without suppressing other aquatic organisms. Bioluminescent assays confirmed that the toxicity of microbial algicide at this concentration was negligible. Interestingly, the toxicity of P. globosa exudates was also significantly reduced after being treated with the algicide. Further experiments revealed that the microbial algicide could instantly increase the permeability of the plasma membrane and disturb the photosynthetic system, followed by the deformation of organelles, vacuolization and increasing oxidative stress. The pre-incubation of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) verified that the rapid damages to the plasma membrane and photosynthetic system caused the algal death in the early phase, and the increasing oxidative stress killed the rest. The late accumulation and possible release of CAT also explained the decreasing toxicity of the algal culture. These results indicated that this microbial algicide has great potential in controlling the growth of P. globosa on site.

  19. BioSAXS Sample Changer: a robotic sample changer for rapid and reliable high-throughput X-ray solution scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, Adam, E-mail: around@embl.fr; Felisaz, Franck [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Fodinger, Lukas; Gobbo, Alexandre [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Huet, Julien [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Villard, Cyril [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Blanchet, Clement E., E-mail: around@embl.fr [EMBL c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Pernot, Petra; McSweeney, Sean [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I. [EMBL c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Cipriani, Florent, E-mail: around@embl.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2015-01-01

    A robotic sample changer for solution X-ray scattering experiments optimized for speed and to use the minimum amount of material has been developed. This system is now in routine use at three high-brilliance European synchrotron sites, each capable of several hundred measurements per day. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of macromolecules in solution is in increasing demand by an ever more diverse research community, both academic and industrial. To better serve user needs, and to allow automated and high-throughput operation, a sample changer (BioSAXS Sample Changer) that is able to perform unattended measurements of up to several hundred samples per day has been developed. The Sample Changer is able to handle and expose sample volumes of down to 5 µl with a measurement/cleaning cycle of under 1 min. The samples are stored in standard 96-well plates and the data are collected in a vacuum-mounted capillary with automated positioning of the solution in the X-ray beam. Fast and efficient capillary cleaning avoids cross-contamination and ensures reproducibility of the measurements. Independent temperature control for the well storage and for the measurement capillary allows the samples to be kept cool while still collecting data at physiological temperatures. The Sample Changer has been installed at three major third-generation synchrotrons: on the BM29 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the P12 beamline at the PETRA-III synchrotron (EMBL@PETRA-III) and the I22/B21 beamlines at Diamond Light Source, with the latter being the first commercial unit supplied by Bruker ASC.

  20. Proteomics of Parma Dry-Cured Ham: Analysis of Salting Exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredi, Gianluca; Benoni, Roberto; Pighini, Giovanni; Ronda, Luca; Dowle, Adam; Ashford, David; Thomas, Jerry; Saccani, Giovanna; Virgili, Roberta; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2017-08-02

    The production of Parma dry-cured ham involves the steps of salting, drying, and ripening. Although sea salt is the only preserving agent, there are strategies being developed with the goal of reducing salt content in order to decrease its negative impact on consumer health. A 24 h pressure treatment was applied before salting to reduce thickness and inequalities in shape. To evaluate the potential impact of the pressure step on the process outcome, differential proteomic analyses by complementary 2D-PAGE and LC-MS/MS were carried out on exudates collected at day 1, 5, and 18 of the salting phase for hams treated or untreated with pressure. Specific proteins were found differentially abundant in exudates from pressed vs unpressed hams and as a function of time. These changes include glycolytic enzymes and several myofibrillar proteins. These findings indicate that pressure causes a faster loosening of the myofibrillar structure with the release of specific groups of proteins.

  1. Plant growth inhibiting flavonoids in exudate of Cistus ladanifer and in associated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, N; Sosa, T; Escudero, J C

    2001-03-01

    Of the aglycone flavonoids identified in the exudate of cistus ladanifer, two, the flavone apigenin-4'-(O)-methyl and the flavonol kaempferol-3,7-di(O)-methyl inhibit development of the seedlings of Rumex crispus at 0.5 and 1 mM. Additive effects were observed between the major flavonols of the exudate kaempferol-3-(O)-methyl and kaempferol-3,7-di-(O)-methyl in inhibiting the size of the cotyledons and delaying the germination and cotyledon emergence. The presence of apigenin-4'-(O)-methyl, kaempferol-3,7-di-(O)-methyl, and kaempferol-3-(O)-methyl was detected in the soils associated with C. ladanifer during the summer and autumn months. That these compounds are present in the soil and are not restricted to the leaves provides support for the hypothesis that C. ladanifer has allelopathic potential.

  2. Isolation of Histophilus somni from the nasal exudates of a clinically healthy adult goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Romero, Nelson; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco; Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2011-06-01

    The nasal exudate from 42 goats of the Mixteca Region in the state of Puebla, Mexico, was evaluated. A strain was isolated after 4 days of incubation. This strain was identified according to its phenotypic characteristics and by means of a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as well as by sequencing of the amplified product. The species-specific PCR amplified a 407-bp fragment of 16S RNAr subunit, and the product sequencing revealed 100% homology with Histophilus somni 129PT. The nucleotide sequence was deposited in the GenBank under accession number HM032735. This is the first worldwide isolation of H. somni from nasal exudates of a clinically healthy goat.

  3. Effect of soil water content on spatial distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water and nutrients are expected to become the major factors limiting food production. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to these limited soil resources. Low molecular root exudates released into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. However, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was therefore to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging at different levels of water stress. Maize plants were grown in rhizotrons filled with a silty soil and were exposed to varying soil conditions, from optimal to dry. Mucilage distribution around the roots was estimated from the profiles of water content in the rhizosphere - note that mucilage increases the soil water content. The profiles of water content around different root types and root ages were measured with neutron radiography. Rhizosphere extension was approx. 0.7 mm and did not differ between wet and dry treatments. However, water content (i.e. mucilage concentration) in the rhizosphere of plants grown in dry soils was higher than for plants grown under optimal conditions. This effect was particularly pronounced near the tips of lateral roots. The higher water contents near the root are explained as the water retained by mucilage. 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) was used to estimate the distribution of all rhizodeposits. Two days after labelling, 14C distribution was measured using phosphor-imaging. To quantify 14C in the rhizosphere a calibration was carried out by adding given amounts of 14C-glucose to soil. Plants grown in wet soil transported a higher percentage of 14C to the roots (14Croot/14Cshoot), compared to plants grown under dry conditions (46 vs. 36 %). However, the percentage of 14C allocated from roots to

  4. New sesquiterpene lactones from sunflower root exudate as germination stimulants for Orobanche cumana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupp, Frank M; Spring, Otmar

    2013-11-06

    Orobanche cumana is a serious threat for cultivation of sunflower in Europe and Asia. Germination of the parasite is induced by metabolites released from the host root system. The first germination stimulant from sunflower root exudate was recently identified as dehydrocostus lactone, a sesquiterpene lactone. Bioassay-guided fractionation of root exudates now showed the release of additional sesquiterpene lactones. Besides dehydrocostus lactone, costunolide, tomentosin, and 8-epixanthatin were purified and identified spectroscopically. All four compounds induced germination of O. cumana at nano- to micromolar concentrations. Costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone concentrations above 1 μM reduced the activity, and application of 100 μM inhibited germination irreversibly. Seeds of Phelipanche ramosa could not be induced with costunolide. O. cumana seeds also germinated with GR24, a synthetic strigolactone. No bioactive fraction of sunflower contained compounds of this type. This supports previous findings that sesquiterpene lactones instead of strigolactones trigger the sunflower/O. cumana interaction.

  5. Leveraging Multiscale Hessian-Based Enhancement With a Novel Exudate Inpainting Technique for Retinal Vessel Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Roberto; Garzelli, Andrea; Ballerini, Lucia; Mecocci, Alessandro; Trucco, Emanuele

    2016-07-01

    Accurate vessel detection in retinal images is an important and difficult task. Detection is made more challenging in pathological images with the presence of exudates and other abnormalities. In this paper, we present a new unsupervised vessel segmentation approach to address this problem. A novel inpainting filter, called neighborhood estimator before filling, is proposed to inpaint exudates in a way that nearby false positives are significantly reduced during vessel enhancement. Retinal vascular enhancement is achieved with a multiple-scale Hessian approach. Experimental results show that the proposed vessel segmentation method outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms reported in the recent literature, both visually and in terms of quantitative measurements, with overall mean accuracy of 95.62% on the STARE dataset and 95.81% on the HRF dataset.

  6. Generation and characterization of ABBV642, a dual variable domain immunoglobulin molecule (DVD-Ig) that potently neutralizes VEGF and PDGF-BB and is designed for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kun; Eaton, Lucia; Bowley, Diana; Rieser, Matthew; Chang, Qing; Harris, Maria C; Clabbers, Anca; Dong, Feng; Shen, Jikui; Hackett, Sean F; Touw, Debra S; Bixby, Jacqueline; Zhong, Suju; Benatuil, Lorenzo; Bose, Sahana; Grinnell, Christine; Preston, Gregory M; Iyer, Ramesh; Sadhukhan, Ramkrishna; Marchie, Susan; Overmeyer, Gary; Ghayur, Tariq; van Riet, Deborah A; Tang, Shibo; Campochario, Peter A; Gu, Jijie

    Exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of moderate and severe vision loss in developed countries. Intraocular injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or VEGF-A)-neutralizing proteins provide substantial benefit, but frequent, long-term injections are needed. In addition, many patients experience initial visual gains that are ultimately lost due to subretinal fibrosis. Preclinical studies and early phase clinical trials suggest that combined suppression of VEGF and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) provides better outcomes than suppression of VEGF alone, due to more frequent regression of neovascularization (NV) and suppression of subretinal fibrosis. We generated a dual variable domain immunoglobulin molecule, ABBV642 that specifically and potently binds and neutralizes VEGF and PDGF-BB. ABBV642 has been optimized for treatment of exudative AMD based on the following design characteristics: 1) high affinity binding to all VEGF-A isoforms and both soluble and extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated PDGF-BB; 2) potential for extended residence time in the vitreous cavity to decrease the frequency of intraocular injections; 3) rapid clearance from systemic circulation compared with molecules with wild type Fc region for normal FcRn binding, which may reduce the risk of systemic complications; and 4) low risk of potential effector function. The bispecificity of ABBV642 allows for a single injection of a single therapeutic agent, and thus a more streamlined development and regulatory path compared with combination products. In a mouse model of exudative AMD, ABBV642 was observed to be more effective than aflibercept. ABBV642 has potential to improve efficacy with reduced injection frequency in patients with exudative AMD, thereby reducing the enormous disease burden for patients and society.

  7. The key role of biochar in the rapid removal of decabromodiphenyl ether from aqueous solution by biochar-supported Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yunqiang; Wu, Juan; Wei, Yufen; Fang, Zhanqiang; Tsang, Eric Pokeung

    2017-07-01

    Some problems exist in the current remediation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from aqueous solution by using iron-based nanoparticles. Our efforts have contributed to the synthesis of biochar-supported Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticle composites (BC@Ni/Fe). Under the optimum operating parameters of BC@Ni/Fe, the morphologic analysis revealed that biochar effectively solved the agglomeration of Ni/Fe nanoparticles and the removal efficiency of BDE209 obtained by BC@Ni/Fe (91.29%) was seven times higher than the sum of biochar (2.55%) and Ni/Fe (11.22%) in 10 min. The degradation products of BDE209 in the solution and absorbed on the BC@Ni/Fe were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, which indicated that the degradation of BDE209 was mainly a process of stepwise debromination. Meanwhile, compared with Ni/Fe nanoparticles, the adsorption ability of the by-products of BDE209 by BC@Ni/Fe was greater, to a certain extent, which reduced the additional environmental burden. In addition, the concentration of nickle ion leaching from the Ni/Fe nanoparticles was 3.09 mg/L; conversely, the concentration of nickle leaching from BC@Ni/Fe was not detected. This excellent performance in our study indicates a possible means to enhance the reactivity and reduce the secondary risks of Ni/Fe nanoparticles.

  8. BioSAXS Sample Changer: a robotic sample changer for rapid and reliable high-throughput X-ray solution scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, Adam; Felisaz, Franck; Fodinger, Lukas; Gobbo, Alexandre; Huet, Julien; Villard, Cyril; Blanchet, Clement E; Pernot, Petra; McSweeney, Sean; Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I; Cipriani, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of macromolecules in solution is in increasing demand by an ever more diverse research community, both academic and industrial. To better serve user needs, and to allow automated and high-throughput operation, a sample changer (BioSAXS Sample Changer) that is able to perform unattended measurements of up to several hundred samples per day has been developed. The Sample Changer is able to handle and expose sample volumes of down to 5 µl with a measurement/cleaning cycle of under 1 min. The samples are stored in standard 96-well plates and the data are collected in a vacuum-mounted capillary with automated positioning of the solution in the X-ray beam. Fast and efficient capillary cleaning avoids cross-contamination and ensures reproducibility of the measurements. Independent temperature control for the well storage and for the measurement capillary allows the samples to be kept cool while still collecting data at physiological temperatures. The Sample Changer has been installed at three major third-generation synchrotrons: on the BM29 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the P12 beamline at the PETRA-III synchrotron (EMBL@PETRA-III) and the I22/B21 beamlines at Diamond Light Source, with the latter being the first commercial unit supplied by Bruker ASC.

  9. Rapid and efficient degradation of bisphenol A by chloroperoxidase from Caldariomyces fumago: product analysis and ecotoxicity evaluation of the degraded solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaobo; Li, Haiyun; Jiang, Yucheng; Hu, Mancheng; Li, Shuni; Zhai, Quanguo

    2016-09-01

    To degrade enzymatically bisphenol A (BPA) that causes serious environmental concerns and is difficult to be degraded by chemical or physical methods. BPA (150 mg l(-1)) was completely degraded by chloroperoxidase (CPO)/H2O2 within 7 min at room temperature, atmospheric pressure with the enzyme at 6 μg CPO ml(-1). The degradation products were identified by HPLC-MS, which suggested involvement of multiple steps. Enzymatic treatment followed by existing bioremediation technologies (activated sludge) enhanced removal of COD from 9 to 54 %. Using an ecotoxicity evaluation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa, the degradation products had a lower toxicity than BPA. BPA can be degraded rapidly and efficiently under mild conditions with chloroperoxidase at 6 μg ml(-1). The degradation products had a lower toxicity than BPA.

  10. Nasal mucosa secretion exudation response to cold air in bronchial asthma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Eduard V. Nekrasov; Anna G. Prikhodkо; Perelman, Juliy M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Combined airway hyper responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli in asthma patients results in impairment of lung respiration function and poor disease control compared to patients with isolated airway hyper responsiveness to only one of the stimuli or without such responsiveness that can be connected with edema or mucus hypersecretion.Aim. The purpose of the study is the estimation of the processes of mucin secretion, plasma exudation and oxidative stress in response to cold ...

  11. Nature, evolution and characterisation of rhizospheric chemical exudates affecting root herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltpold Ivan; Bernklau Elisa Jo; Bjostad Louis B.; Alvarez Nadir; Miller-Struttmann Nicole E.; Lundgren Jonathan G.; Hibbard Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Similar to aboveground herbivores root feeding insects must locate and identify suitable resources. In the darkness of soil they mainly rely on root chemical exudations and therefore have evolved specific behaviours. Because of their impact on crop yield most of our knowledge in belowground chemical ecology is biased towards soil dwelling insect pests. Yet the increasing literature on volatile mediated interactions in the ground underpins the great importance of chemical signalling in this ec...

  12. Intraspecific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum is linked to the metabolic profile of root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandová, Kateřina; Dostál, Petr; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Kameník, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    Allelopathy may drive invasions of some exotic plants, although empirical evidence for this theory remains largely inconclusive. This could be related to the large intraspecific variability of chemically mediated plant-plant interactions, which is poorly studied. This study addressed intraspecific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed), an invasive species with a considerable negative impact on native communities and ecosystems. Bioassays were carried out to test the alleopathic effects of H. mantegazzianum root exudates on germination of Arabidopsis thaliana and Plantago lanceolata. Populations of H. mantegazzianum from the Czech Republic were sampled and variation in the phytotoxic effects of the exudates was partitioned between areas, populations within areas, and maternal lines. The composition of the root exudates was determined by metabolic profiling using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the relationships between the metabolic profiles and the effects observed in the bioassays were tested using orthogonal partial least-squares analysis. Variance partitioning indicated that the highest variance in phytotoxic effects was within populations. The inhibition of germination observed in the bioassay for the co-occurring native species P. lanceolata could be predicted by the metabolic profiles of the root exudates of particular maternal lines. Fifteen compounds associated with this inhibition were tentatively identified. The results present strong evidence that intraspecific variability needs to be considered in research on allelopathy, and suggest that metabolic profiling provides an efficient tool for studying chemically mediated plant-plant interactions whenever unknown metabolites are involved. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Genotype-Phenotype Characterization of Novel Variants in Six Italian Patients with Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Iarossi; Matteo Bertelli; Paolo Enrico Maltese; Elena Gusson; Giorgio Marchini; Alice Bruson; Sabrina Benedetti; Sabrina Volpetti; Gino Catena; Luca Buzzonetti; Lucia Ziccardi

    2017-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a complex disorder characterized by incomplete development of the retinal vasculature. Here, we report the results obtained on the spectrum of genetic variations and correlated phenotypes found in a cohort of Italian FEVR patients. Eight probands (age range 7–19 years) were assessed by genetic analysis and comprehensive age-appropriate ophthalmic examination. Genetic testing investigated the genes most widely associated in literature with FEVR: F...

  14. Phytochemical screening of the exudate of Aloe otallensis and its effect on Leishmania donovani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Tesfaye Nigusse

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antileishmanial activity of methanolic extract of Aloe otallensis (A. otallensis on the promastigote stage of Leishmania donovani (L. donovani as compared to standard drugs and to screen its phytochemical constituents. Methods: Phytochemical screening was done by using the method mentioned by Evans and Trease on methanolic extract of the exudates of Aloe otallensis leaves. The extract was also evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. donavani which is found from the Parasitology Unit of Black Lion Hospital. The result was compared to standard drugs of sodium stibogluconate, milfostin and paramomycin. Results: The extract has a good antileishmanial activity with an IC50 of 0.1230 μg/mL on L. donovani (AM 563. The experimental data showed that relatively it had better activity than paramomycin and milfostin but less activity than sodium stibogluconate. The data analyses were done by GraphPad Prism version 5 software after it was read by ELISA reader at the wave length of 650 nm. The phytochemical screening of the exudates of A. otallensis showed the presence of phenol, alkaloid and saponin. Conclusions: The methanol extract of the exudates of A. otallensis has a good antileishmaniasis activity and this may be attributed to phenol, alkaloid and saponin present in the plant. But it needs further analysis for the conformation of which constituent presents in high concentration to know which one has the strongest effect.

  15. Prophylactic laser treatment in early age related maculopathy reduced the incidence of exudative complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frennesson, C; Nilsson, S

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the effect of prophylactic laser treatment on drusen area and incidence of exudative lesions in patients with soft drusen maculopathy.
METHODS—In a prospective study, patients with early age related maculopathy (ARM) and good visual acuity were randomised to laser treatment or to a control group. Each group consisted of two subgroups: a fellow eye group and a bilateral drusen group. At 3 years, 36 of 38 enrolled patients remained in the study. Photocoagulation was performed with an argon green laser, approximately 100 mild laser burns being placed on and between the drusen in a perifoveal temporal horseshoe-shaped area. Both cases and controls were subjected to fundus colour photographs and fluorescein angiograms at regular intervals, and the drusen area was calculated in both photographs and angiograms. At baseline, there were no significant differences (p>0.3-0.8) in drusen area between the groups.
RESULTS—In the treatment group, mean drusen area decreased significantly in the fundus photographs as well as in the angiograms (plaser treatment causes a reduction in drusen area in patients with soft drusen maculopathy and may lower the incidence of exudative lesions.

 Keywords: age related maculopathy; exudative complications; laser photocoagulation; soft drusen PMID:9924306

  16. Comparative effects of argon green and krypton red laser photocoagulation for patients with diabetic exudative maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairallah, M; Brahim, R; Allagui, M; Chachia, N

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Focal treatment of diabetic macular oedema is usually done using a haemoglobin absorbing wave-length, such as argon green laser. This study aimed to compare photocoagulation with argon green (514 nm) and krypton red (647 nm), which is poorly absorbed by haemoglobin, in the focal treatment of patients with diabetic exudative maculopathy. METHODS: A total of 151 eyes of 78 outpatients were assigned randomly to receive either argon green (n = 79) or krypton red (n = 72) laser treatment. Pretreatment and post-treatment ocular examinations included visual acuity, fundus biomicroscopic examination, and fluorescein angiography. A total of 141 eyes of 73 patients were available for evaluation after 1 year follow up. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between the two treatment groups with respect to visual acuity results, resorption of hard exudates, and resolution of focal retinal oedema. CONCLUSION: Krypton red laser was effective in the treatment of diabetic exudative maculopathy. Our data suggest that differential absorption of the various wavelengths by haemoglobin within microaneurysms may not be an important factor for ultimate success of focal treatment. PMID:8703882

  17. Retreatment of Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration after Loading 3-Monthly Intravitreal Ranibizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Sakurada, Yoichi; Honda, Shigeru; Miki, Akiko; Matsumiya, Wataru; Yoneyama, Seigo; Kikushima, Wataru; Iijima, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical implications of required retreatment after 3-monthly intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections followed by as-needed reinjections up to 5 years in eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A retrospective cohort study was conducted for 165 treatment-naïve eyes from 165 patients with exudative AMD. Visual changes were investigated in terms of the required retreatments. Retreatment-free proportions were 37.0, 23.7, 16.6, 12.1, and 10.5% at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Visual changes were significantly better in eyes which did not require retreatment at every yearly checkpoint within the 5 years. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that requirement of additional IVR treatments in the first 12-24 months was associated with the T allele (risk allele) of ARMS2 A69S (p = 0.010 and 0.015, respectively). Cox regression analysis revealed that older age (p = 0.046) and the T allele of ARMS2 A69S (p = 0.036) were associated with required retreatment within the 5-year follow-up period. Age and the T allele of ARMS2 A69S are the risk factors requiring retreatments, leading to poor visual change in eyes with exudative AMD following the initial 3-monthly IVR. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quartacci, Mike F., E-mail: mfquart@agr.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Irtelli, Barbara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Sezione di Ecologia e Fisiologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Navari-Izzo, Flavia [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  19. MACULAR HOLE IN A YOUNG PATIENT AFFECTED BY FAMILIAL EXUDATIVE VITREORETINOPATHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, Sara; Pellegrini, Marco; Cereda, Matteo; Oldani, Marta; Staurenghi, Giovanni

    2017-08-24

    To report a case of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy in which genetic testing was used to confirm the diagnosis with a new mutation identified in FZD4 gene. A 28-year-old girl was addressed to our clinic for surgical management of a macular hole possibly associated with Coats disease. Multimodal imaging was performed including fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography. On examination, visual acuity was light perception secondary to previous retinal detachment and 20/32, respectively, in her right and left eye. Clinical and imaging evaluations showed findings suggestive for familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography study of the macula showed a macular pucker with lamellar macular hole and a conservative approach was preferred. After 18 months of observation, the patient underwent surgery secondary to the onset of a full thickness macular hole. After 24 months, the patient's vision was 20/32. Genetic testing was used to confirm the diagnosis demonstrating 2 new mutations in FZD4 gene. Our case emphasizes the importance of a prompt recognition of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy disease also using gene testing and a close follow-up to prevent and manage possible complications.

  20. Exudative v/s transudative ascites: differentiation based on fluid echogenicity on high resolution sonography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malde H

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Real time sonography was performed in 52 patients with ascites to evaluate the accuracy of sonography in differentiating an exudative from a transudative collection. The echogenicity of ascites was graded I, II and III using the echogenicity of normal abdominal viscera as comparative standard reference points. Grade I collections (31 patients were either absolutely anechoic, or showed few internal echoes secondary to particulate matter. Grade II collections (7 patients were hypoechoic as compared to the liver and spleen. Grade III collections (14 patients had an echogenicity similar to or greater than that of the liver and spleen. The results of diagnostic aspiration in all patients were then compared to the sonographic grade of the ascitic fluid. All transudates (28 patients had a Grade I echogenicity. Only 3 patients with an exudative ascites had a Grade I echogenicity. The remaining 21 patients with an exudative collection had an echogenicity equal to or greater than Grade II. Using these results, an ascitic fluid echogenicity of Grade I had a 92.32% sensitivity, 100% specificity, a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.875 in diagnosing transudates. An ascitic fluid echogenicity of Grade II or more had a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.903 in diagnosing transudates.

  1. Plasma exudation in the skin measured by external detection of conversion electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karambatsakidou, A. [Department of Radiophysics, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Bergh, G. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Malmoe University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Ahlgren, L. [Department of Radiophysics, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Strand, S.E. [Department of Radiophysics, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Olsson, O. [Department of Radiophysics, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Greiff, L. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Wollmer, P. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Malmoe University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-03-01

    A novel technique for measurement of plasma exudation in the skin is described. Transferrin labelled in vivo with indium-113m is used as a plasma tracer. The conversion electrons from {sup 113m}In are detected with a polystyrene crystal mounted on a photomultiplier tube. Owing to the short range of the electrons in tissue, background radiation from tracer circulating in underlying tissue will be very small, allowing plasma exudation in the skin to be detected with a high signal to noise ratio. The characteristics of the detector system are described in model experiments using sheets of mylar to simulate soft tissue. The acute inflammatory response to histamine provocation was studied in guinea pig skin. A dose-related increase in count rate representing vasodilatation and plasma exudation was detected over the skin after histamine provocation. The electron radiation system appears suitable for detection of low levels of superficial radioactivity and for pathophysiological studies of the skin. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Thermochemical Properties of Hydrophilic Polymers from Cashew and Khaya Exudates and Their Implications on Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Olorunsola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of a polymer is essential for determining its suitability for a particular purpose. Thermochemical properties of cashew gum (CSG extracted from exudates of Anacardium occidentale L. and khaya gum (KYG extracted from exudates of Khaya senegalensis were determined and compared with those of acacia gum BP (ACG. The polymers were subjected to different thermal and chemical analyses. Exudates of CSG contained higher amount of hydrophilic polymer. The pH of 2% w/v gum dispersions was in the order KYG < CSG < ACG. Calcium was the predominant ion in CSG while potassium was predominant in KYG. The FTIR spectra of CSG and KYG were similar and slightly different from that of ACG. Acacia and khaya gums exhibited the same thermal behaviour which is different from that of CSG. X-ray diffraction revealed that the three gums are the same type of polymer, the major difference being the concentration of metal ions. This work suggests the application of cashew gum for formulation of basic and oxidizable drugs while using khaya gum for acidic drugs.

  3. Rapid Screening for Potential Epitopes Reactive with a Polycolonal Antibody by Solution-Phase H/D Exchange Monitored by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Noble, Kyle A.; Mao, Yuan; Young, Nicolas L.; Sathe, Shridhar K.; Roux, Kenneth H.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2013-07-01

    The potential epitopes of a recombinant food allergen protein, cashew Ana o 2, reactive to polyclonal antibodies, were mapped by solution-phase amide backbone H/D exchange (HDX) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Ana o 2 polyclonal antibodies were purified in the serum from a goat immunized with cashew nut extract. Antibodies were incubated with recombinant Ana o 2 (rAna o 2) to form antigen:polyclonal antibody (Ag:pAb) complexes. Complexed and uncomplexed (free) rAna o 2 were then subjected to HDX-MS analysis. Four regions protected from H/D exchange upon pAb binding are identified as potential epitopes and mapped onto a homologous model.

  4. Viperid Envenomation Wound Exudate Contributes to Increased Vascular Permeability via a DAMPs/TLR-4 Mediated Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucavado, Alexandra; Nicolau, Carolina A.; Escalante, Teresa; Kim, Junho; Herrera, Cristina; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W.

    2016-01-01

    Viperid snakebite envenomation is characterized by inflammatory events including increase in vascular permeability. A copious exudate is generated in tissue injected with venom, whose proteomics analysis has provided insights into the mechanisms of venom-induced tissue damage. Hereby it is reported that wound exudate itself has the ability to induce increase in vascular permeability in the skin of mice. Proteomics analysis of exudate revealed the presence of cytokines and chemokines, together with abundant damage associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) resulting from both proteolysis of extracellular matrix and cellular lysis. Moreover, significant differences in the amounts of cytokines/chemokines and DAMPs were detected between exudates collected 1 h and 24 h after envenomation, thus highlighting a complex temporal dynamic in the composition of exudate. Pretreatment of mice with Eritoran, an antagonist of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), significantly reduced the exudate-induced increase in vascular permeability, thus suggesting that DAMPs might be acting through this receptor. It is hypothesized that an “Envenomation-induced DAMPs cycle of tissue damage” may be operating in viperid snakebite envenomation through which venom-induced tissue damage generates a variety of DAMPs which may further expand tissue alterations. PMID:27886127

  5. Isolation and identification of Desmodium root exudates from drought tolerant species used as intercrops against Striga hermonthica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, A M; Caulfield, J C; Hao, B; Pickett, J A; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R

    2015-09-01

    Plants from the genus Desmodium, in particular D. uncinatum, are used on sub-Saharan small-holder farms as intercrops to inhibit parasitism of cereal crops by Striga hermonthica and Striga asiatica via an allelopathic mechanism. The search for Desmodium species which are adapted to more arid conditions, and which show resilience to increased drought stress, previously identified D. intortum, D. incanum and D. ramosissimum as potential drought tolerant intercrops. Their potential as intercrops was assessed for resource poor areas of rain-fed cereal production where drought conditions can persist through normal meteorological activity, or where drought may have increasing impact through climate change. The chemical composition of the root exudates were characterised and the whole exudate biological activity was shown to be active in pot experiments for inhibition of Striga parasitism on maize. Furthermore, rain fed plot experiments showed the drought tolerant Desmodium intercrops to be effective for Striga inhibition. This work demonstrates the allelopathic nature of the new drought tolerant intercrops through activity of root exudates and the major compounds seen in the exudates are characterised as being C-glycosylflavonoid. In young plants, the exudates show large qualitative differences but as the plants mature, there is a high degree of convergence of the C-glycosylflavonoid exudate chemical profile amongst active Desmodium intercrops that confers biological activity. This defines the material for examining the mechanism for Striga inhibition. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid removal of ultra-high-concentration p-nitrophenol in aqueous solution by microwave-enhanced Fe/Cu bimetallic particle (MW-Fe/Cu) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi; Zhou, Jinfan; Pan, Zhicheng; Lai, Bo; Yuan, Donghai

    2017-10-10

    Ultra-high-concentration PNP-contained wastewaters are produced sometimes due to the wide application of this nitrophenolic compound in the chemical industry. However, there is a lack of appropriate technologies to rapidly pretreat the ultra-high-concentration wastewater. Therefore, a new microwave-enhanced Fe/Cu bimetallic particles (MW-Fe/Cu) system was developed to rapidly remove ultra-high-concentration PNP. First, the priority of the determinative parameters was obtained by orthogonal experiment. Based on this result, the effects of initial pH, microwave power, Fe/Cu dosage and initial PNP concentration on PNP removal were optimized thoroughly. Under the optimal conditions (i.e. initial pH = 1.0, MW power = 385 W, Fe/Cu dosage = 30 g/L and initial PNP concentration = 4000 mg/L), four control treatment systems (i.e. MW-Fe(0), heating-Fe/Cu, MW alone and Fe/Cu alone system) were set up to compare with the MW-Fe/Cu system. The results suggest that high PNP removal (more than 99% with 2.5 min, k1/k2 = 1.18/6.91 min(-1)) and COD removal (26.6% with 5 min treatment) could be obtained by the MW-Fe/Cu system, which were much superior to those obtained using the MW-Fe(0) (k1/k2 = 0.62/2.21 min(-1)) and the heating-Fe/Cu system (k1/k2 = 0.53/1.52 min(-1)). Finally, the determination of the intermediates of PNP degradation by HPLC indicated that the MW assistance process did not change the degradation pathway of PNP. This concludes that the new MW-Fe/Cu system was the promising technology for pretreatment of wastewater containing ultra-high-concentration toxic and refractory pollutants at a fairly short treatment time.

  7. Intravitreal bevacizumab combined with plaque brachytherapy reduces melanoma tumor volume and enhances resolution of exudative detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houston SK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samuel K Houston,1 Nisha V Shah,1 Christina Decatur,1 Marcela Lonngi,1 William Feuer,1 Arnold M Markoe,2 Timothy G Murray1–31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab as an adjuvant treatment to plaque brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive study of 124 patients treated from 2007 to 2009 for choroidal melanoma with plaque brachytherapy. Patients were treated with I-125 plaque brachytherapy with 2 mm margins and 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Consecutive patients were injected intravitreally with 2.5 mg/0.1 mL bevacizumab at a site away from the primary tumor and immediately following plaque removal. Choroidal melanomas were observed using indirect ophthalmoscopy, wide-angle photography, and ultrasound. The main outcome measures were tumor volume, resolution of exudative retinal detachment, and visual acuity.Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The mean patient age was 65.7 years, and the mean apical tumor height was 4.0 ± 2.7 mm and basal diameter was 12.7 ± 3.0 mm. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Prior to treatment, 100% of tumors had exudative retinal detachment, and pretreatment visual acuity was 20/55 (median 20/40. Tumor control was 100%, metastasis was 0% at last follow-up, and 89.8% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, with a mean time to resolution of 3.36 months. At one month, 43% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, which increased to 73% at 4 months. Visual acuity was 20/62 (median 20/40 at 4 months, with stabilization to 20/57 (median 20/40 at 8 months, 20/56 (median 20/30 at 12 months, and 20/68 (median 20/50 at 24 months. Tumor

  8. Measurement of pH, exudate composition and temperature in wound healing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, G; Moore, Z; O'Connor, T

    2017-07-02

    To assess the potential of measurements of pH, exudate composition and temperature in wounds to predict healing outcomes and to identify the methods that are employed to measure them. A systematic review based on the outcomes of a search strategy of quantitative primary research published in the English language was conducted. Inclusion criteria limited studies to those involving in vivo and human participants with an existing or intentionally provoked wound, defined as 'a break in the epithelial integrity of the skin', and excluded in vitro and animal studies. Data synthesis and analysis was performed using structured narrative summaries of each included study arranged by concept, pH, exudate composition and temperature. The Evidence Based Literature (EBL) Critical Appraisal Checklist was implemented to appraise the quality of the included studies. A total of 23 studies, three for pH (mean quality score 54.48%), 12 for exudate composition (mean quality score 46.54%) and eight for temperature (mean quality score 36.66%), were assessed as eligible for inclusion in this review. Findings suggest that reduced pH levels in wounds, from alkaline towards acidic, are associated with improvements in wound condition. Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), neutrophil elastase (NE) and albumin, in descending order, were the most frequently measured analytes in wounds. MMP-9 emerged as the analyte which offers the most potential as a biomarker of wound healing, with elevated levels observed in acute or non-healing wounds and decreasing levels in wounds progressing in healing. Combined measures of different exudate components, such as MMP/TIMP ratios, also appeared to offer substantial potential to indicate wound healing. Finally, temperature measurements are highest in non-healing, worsening or acute wounds and decrease as wounds progress towards healing. Methods used to measure pH, exudate composition and

  9. Affects N fertilization intensity and composition of root exudation from two plant species differing in their exploitation strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, Petr; Kastovska, Eva

    2017-04-01

    The rhizosphere represents one of the most important hotspots of microbial activity in soil. As such, it controls soil element cycling and significantly contributes to important ecosystem processes like C and N sequestration. The close plant-microbe-soil interactions in the rhizosphere are mediated by the input of labile exudates into the surroundings of plant roots. Thus microbial performance is constrained by the intensity and composition of root exudation. However, it is poorly understood how closely root exudation corresponds with the plant metabolome and how it is related to plant traits and changing environmental conditions. To fill this gap, we determined the composition of the root metabolic pool and root exudates in two plant species differing in their exploitation type (conservative Carex acuta versus competitive Glyceria maxima) grown for two months in controlled conditions and treated weekly by two levels of foliar N fertilization. Based on previous studies, we knew that Glyceria has, compared to Carex, a lower tissue C:N ratio, higher photosynthetic rate, higher allocation belowground and also larger investment to exudation. Prior to extraction, the roots were cleaned by water and immediately frozen in liquid N2. The root exudates were collected from carefully cleaned roots of living plants encased in glass vials with water and subsequently lyophilised. Both sample types were silylated and analysed for their metabolic profiles using GC-MS/MS. Our results revealed that the metabolite content in root tissue (DW basis) of Glyceria was on average lower compared to Carex, but increased with fertilization, while the root tissue of Carex was characterized by significantly higher metabolite content in the low intensity fertilization treatment compared to both the control and high N fertilization intensity. In contrast, the amount of exuded compounds was much higher in Glyceria compared to Carex in the control plants, but decreased for Glyceria and increased

  10. Use of Rhizosphere Metabolomics to Investigate Exudation of Phenolics by Arabidopsis Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Rai, Amit; Reuben, Sheela; Nesati, Victor; Almeida, Reinaldo; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The rhizosphere is a specialised micro-niche for bacteria that have an active exchange of signals and nutrients with the host plant. Nearly 20% of photosynthates are released as root exudates, which consist of primary metabolites and products of secondary metabolism which are largely phenolic in nature. Previously, using rhizosphere metabolomics, we showed that nearly 50% of organic carbon in the exudates is in the form of phenolic compounds, of which the largest fraction is from the phenylpropanoid synthesis pathway. Using Arabidopsis as a model, we have demonstrated that a biased rhizosphere can be created using plants with varying levels of phenylpropanoids due to mutations in the biosynthetic or regulatory genes. These phenylpropanoids levels are reflected in the exudates, and exudates from lines with regulatory gene mutations, tt8 and ttg, have higher levels of phenylpropanoids, whereas biosynthetic mutant line, tt4, has very low and undetectable levels of phenylpropanoids. The biased rhizosphere of tt8 and ttg lines provides a nutritional advantage to rhizobacteria that can utilize these phenylpropanoids such as quercetin. With such a strategy to increase the competitiveness of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas putida, this system can be applied to improve plant performance. In order to better understand the metabolic basis of the nutritional advantage behind the competitiveness of the favoured P. putida, we elucidated its quercetin utilization pathway. We have recently cloned the gene for quercetin oxidoreductase (QuoA) and expressed it in transgenic Arabidopsis lines to alter the plant phenylpropanoid metabolism, using a gain of function approach. Since phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in plants involve formation of quercetin from naringenin, we envisaged that QuoA expression in plants will provide us with a genetic tool to "reverse" this biosynthetic step. This perturbation led to a decrease in flavonoids and an increase in lignin

  11. Rapid sample processing for intracellular metabolite studies in Penicillium ochrochloron CBS 123.824: the FiltRes-device combines cold filtration of methanol quenched biomass with resuspension in extraction solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabl, Pamela; Artmann, Desiree J; Schinagl, Christoph W; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Many issues concerning sample processing for intracellular metabolite studies in filamentous fungi still need to be solved, e.g. how to reduce the contact time of the biomass to the quenching solution in order to minimize metabolite leakage. Since the required time to separate the biomass from the quenching solution determines the contact time, speeding up this step is thus of utmost interest. Recently, separation approaches based on cold-filtration were introduced as promising alternative to cold-centrifugation, which exhibit considerably reduced contact times. In previous works we were unable to obtain a compact pellet from cold methanol quenched samples of the filamentous fungus Penicillium ochrochloron CBS 123.824 via centrifugation. Therefore our aim was to establish for this organism a separation technique based on cold-filtration to determine intracellular levels of a selected set of nucleotides. We developed a cold-filtration based technique as part of our effort to revise the entire sample processing method and analytical procedure. The Filtration-Resuspension (FiltRes) device combined in a single apparatus (1) a rapid cold-filtration and (2) a rapid resuspension of the biomass in hot extraction solution. Unique to this is the injection of the extraction solution from below the membrane filter (FiltRes-principle). This caused the mycelial cake to detach completely from the filter membrane and to float upwards so that the biomass could easily be transferred into preheated tubes for metabolite extraction. The total contact time of glucose-limited chemostat mycelium to the quenching solution could be reduced to 15.7 ± 2.5 s, whereby each washing step added another 10-15 s. We evaluated critical steps like filtration time, temperature profile, reproducibility of results, and using the energy charge (EC) as a criterion, effectiveness of enzyme destruction during the transition in sample temperature from cold to hot. As control we used total broth samples

  12. Long-term patterns and short-term dynamics of stream solutes and suspended sediment in a rapidly weathering tropical watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James B.; McDowell, William H.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    The 326 ha Río Icacos watershed in the tropical wet forest of the Luquillo Mountains, northeastern Puerto Rico, is underlain by granodiorite bedrock with weathering rates among the highest in the world. We pooled stream chemistry and total suspended sediment (TSS) data sets from three discrete periods: 1983-1987, 1991-1997, and 2000-2008. During this period three major hurricanes crossed the site: Hugo in 1989, Hortense in 1996, and Georges in 1998. Stream chemistry reflects sea salt inputs (Na, Cl, and SO4), and high weathering rates of the granodiorite (Ca, Mg, Si, and alkalinity). During rainfall, stream composition shifts toward that of precipitation, diluting 90% or more in the largest storms, but maintains a biogeochemical watershed signal marked by elevated K and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. DOC exhibits an unusual "boomerang" pattern, initially increasing with flow but then decreasing at the highest flows as it becomes depleted and/or vigorous overland flow minimizes contact with watershed surfaces. TSS increased markedly with discharge (power function slope 1.54), reflecting the erosive power of large storms in a landslide-prone landscape. The relations of TSS and most solute concentrations with stream discharge were stable through time, suggesting minimal long-term effects from repeated hurricane disturbance. Nitrate concentration, however, increased about threefold in response to hurricanes then returned to baseline over several years following a pseudo first-order decay pattern. The combined data sets provide insight about important hydrologic pathways, a long-term perspective to assess response to hurricanes, and a framework to evaluate future climate change in tropical ecosystems.

  13. Facile Synthesis, Characterization of Poly-2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole Nanoparticles for Rapid Removal of Mercury and Silver Ions from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojun Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Industrial pollution by heavy metal ions such as Hg2+ and Ag+ is a universal problem owing to the toxicity of heavy metals. In this study, a novel nano-adsorbent, i.e., poly-2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (PTT, was synthesized and used to selectively adsorb mercury and silver ions from aqueous solutions. PTT nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical oxidative dehydrogenation polymerization under mild conditions. Oxidant species, medium, monomer concentration, oxidant/monomer molar ratio, and polymerization temperature were optimized to obtain optimum yields. The molecular structure and morphology of the nanoparticles were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF mass and X-ray photoelectron (XPS spectroscopies, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, theoretical calculations and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, respectively. It was found that the polymerization of 2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiodiazole occurs through head-to-tail coupling between the S(2 and C(5 positions. The PTT nanoparticles having a peculiar synergic combination of four kinds of active groups, S–, –SH, N–N, and =N– with a small particle size of 30–200 nm exhibit ultrarapid initial adsorption rates of 1500 mg(Hg·g−1·h−1 and 5364 mg(Ag·g−1·h−1 and high adsorption capacities of up to 186.9 mg(Hg·g−1 and 193.1 mg(Ag·g−1, becoming ultrafast chelate nanosorbents with high adsorption capacities. Kinetic study indicates that the adsorption of Hg2+ and Ag+ follows the pseudo-second-order model, suggesting a chemical adsorption as the rate-limiting step during the adsorption process. The Hg2+ and Ag+-loaded PTT nanoparticles could be effectively regenerated with 0.1 mol·L−1 EDTA or 1 mol·L−1 HNO3 without significantly losing their adsorption capacities even after five adsorption–desorption cycles. With these impressive properties, PTT nanoparticles are

  14. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Böni

    Full Text Available Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making "soy slime", a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food

  15. Genetic Determinism of Sensitivity to Corynespora cassiicola Exudates in Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dinh Minh; Clément-Demange, André; Déon, Marine; Garcia, Dominique; Le Guen, Vincent; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Soumahoro, Mouman; Masson, Aurélien; Label, Philippe; Le, Mau Tuy; Pujade-Renaud, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    An indirect phenotyping method was developed in order to estimate the susceptibility of rubber tree clonal varieties to Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease caused by the ascomycete Corynespora cassiicola. This method consists in quantifying the impact of fungal exudates on detached leaves by measuring the induced electrolyte leakage (EL%). The tested exudates were either crude culture filtrates from diverse C. cassiicola isolates or the purified cassiicolin (Cas1), a small secreted effector protein produced by the aggressive isolate CCP. The test was found to be quantitative, with the EL% response proportional to toxin concentration. For eight clones tested with two aggressive isolates, the EL% response to the filtrates positively correlated to the response induced by conidial inoculation. The toxicity test applied to 18 clones using 13 toxinic treatments evidenced an important variability among clones and treatments, with a significant additional clone x treatment interaction effect. A genetic linkage map was built using 306 microsatellite markers, from the F1 population of the PB260 x RRIM600 family. Phenotyping of the population for sensitivity to the purified Cas1 effector and to culture filtrates from seven C. cassiicola isolates revealed a polygenic determinism, with six QTL detected on five chromosomes and percentages of explained phenotypic variance varying from 11 to 17%. Two common QTL were identified for the CCP filtrate and the purified cassiicolin, suggesting that Cas1 may be the main effector of CCP filtrate toxicity. The CCP filtrate clearly contrasted with all other filtrates. The toxicity test based on Electrolyte Leakage Measurement offers the opportunity to assess the sensitivity of rubber genotypes to C. cassiicola exudates or purified effectors for genetic investigations and early selection, without risk of spreading the fungus in plantations. However, the power of this test for predicting field susceptibility of rubber clones to CLF will have

  16. Sesquiterpenoids from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha and their neuroprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Guo, Yuanqiang; Li, Yushan; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Cuizhou; Ma, Yonggang; Gao, Jie; Hou, Wenbin; Zhang, Tiejun

    2011-12-01

    Ten new furanosesquiterpenoids, myrrhterpenoids A-J (1- 10), together with eight known analogues (11- 18), were isolated from the resinous exudates of COMMIPHORA MYRRHA. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, ESIMS, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and by the ChemDraw 3D modeling using MM2. All isolated furanosesquiterpenes showed neuroprotective effects against MPP (+)-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Ogataea falcaomoraisii sp. nov., a sporogenous methylotrophic yeast from tree exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Paula B; Teixeira, Lia C R S; Bowles, Jane M; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2004-10-01

    Thirteen strains of a new ascospore-forming, methanol-assimilating yeast species were isolated from sap exudates of Sclerolobium sp. (carvoeiro) in two forest fragments in the state of Toncantins, Brazil, and from Hymenaea courbaril (guapinol, jatobá) in Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 large-subunit ribosomal DNA showed that the species belongs to the genus Ogataea (syn. Pichia), and it was described as Ogataea falcaomoraisii. The closest relatives are Candida ortonii and C. nemodendra. The type culture is UFMG-T264-1T (= CBS 9814T = NRRL Y-27756).

  18. Bilateral exudative retinal detachment associated with central serous chorioretinopathy in a patient treated with corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Rueda, T; Sánchez-Vicente, J L; Llerena-Manzorro, L; Medina-Tapia, A; González-García, L; Alfaro-Juárez, A; Vital-Berral, C; López-Herrero, F; Muñoz-Morales, A; Ortega, L S; Herrador-Montiel, Á

    2017-10-01

    The case is presented on a 54-year-old woman with a central serous chorioretinopathy, misdiagnosed as Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, and treated with systemic corticosteroids. The patient presented with a bilateral bullous exudative retinal detachment. Discontinuation of corticosteroid therapy, surgical drainage of subretinal fluid, and photodynamic therapy, led to anatomical and functional improvement. The recognition of an atypical presentation of central serous chorioretinopathy may avoid complications of the inappropriate treatment with corticosteroids. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Bullous Exudative Retinal Detachment after Retinal Pattern Scan Laser Photocoagulation in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Nishikawa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser retinal photocoagulation is the gold standard treatment for diabetic retinopathy. We describe 3 cases in which bullous exudative retinal detachment (ERD developed after pattern scan laser photocoagulation (PASCAL in diabetic retinopathy. ERD spontaneously resolved in all 3 cases with various visual courses. This case series highlights 2 key points: first, ERD can occur regardless of gender, age, glycemic control, or vitreous status and despite a moderate number of laser shots, even with PASCAL; second, ERD in nonvitrectomized eyes may cause irreversible visual loss, even if the ERD resolves within 1 month.

  20. Influence of Cooling on the Glycolysis Rate and Development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Mayka Reghiany Pedrão; Talita Kato; Adriana Lourenço Soares; Elza Iouko Ida; Fábio Augusto Garcia Coró; Moises Grespan; Fernanda Paião; Massami Shimokomaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate pH values fall rate in chicken breast meat under commercial refrigeration processing conditions and the development of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat. Broiler breast samples from the Cobb breed, both genders, at 47 days of age (n = 100) were taken from refrigerated carcasses (RS) immersed in water and ice in a tank chilled at 0°C (±2). pH and temperature (T) values were recorded at several periods throughout refrigeration in comparison to samples left at...

  1. A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease with exudative maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel T Ba′arah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is a rare multisystem familial tumor syndrome of autosomal dominant inheritance. Hallmark lesions include retinal, cerebellum and spinal cord hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, angiomatous or cystic lesions of the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis. We report a case of VHL disease in a 26-year-old patient who presented with exudative macular edema. Ocular and systemic studies revealed the presence of retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, adrenal pheochromocytoma, multiple pancreatic, and kidney cysts. The retinal angiomas were successfully treated with argon laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy.

  2. Vitrectomy for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal detachment refractory to transpupillary thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Dhananjay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report successful surgical management of a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal detachment refractory to transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT. A 33-year-old man with symptomatic serous macular detachment in the left eye (Snellen acuity: 20/200 secondary to a paramacular choroidal hemangioma was treated with TTT. The nonresponsive detachment was subsequently managed by vitrectomy, endophotocoagulation and silicon-oil tamponade. It resulted in complete resolution of the tumor and the detachment. Silicon oil was removed at four months. Visual acuity improved to 20/80 by the last follow-up visit at 10 months without any recurrence.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus hyicus Isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Watts, J.L.; Salmon, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Exudative epidermitis or greasy pig syndrome is caused by the coagulase-variable staphylococcal species Staphylococcus hyicus. Treatment of this disease is problematic because of the limited number of antimicrobial agents available for this purpose. Thirteen antimicrobial agents were evaluated......, with MIC(90)s of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mu g/ml, respectively. However, 41.4% of the 99 strains tested were positive for beta-lactamase production. The MIC(90)s of erythromycin, tetracycline, and streptomycin were >32.0 mu g/ml. Initial testing with sulfadiazine-trimethoprim yielded an MIC(90) of >64.0 mu g...

  4. The case against performing pleural biopsies for the aetiological diagnosis of exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, J M

    2017-10-01

    In most cases, the etiological diagnosis of pleural exudates does not require a pleural biopsy. However, when it is considered necessary, the biopsy should seldom be conducted using invasive methods such as thoracoscopy. Two paradigmatic examples are pleural tuberculosis and malignant effusions. In many centres, pleural fluid adenosine deaminase measurement has replaced closed pleural biopsies in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Similarly, pathological and molecular studies on pleural fluid cell blocks or alternatively, image-guided pleural biopsies have drastically reduced the need for thoracoscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of polyphosphate additives on the pH of processed chicken exudates and the survival of Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Nereus W; He, Yiping; Fratamico, Pina

    2011-10-01

    Campylobacter spp. are nutritionally fastidious organisms that are sensitive to normal atmospheric oxygen levels and lack homologues of common cold shock genes. At first glance, these bacteria seem ill equipped to persist within food products under processing and storage conditions; however, they survive in numbers sufficient to cause the largest number of foodborne bacterial disease annually. A mechanism proposed to play a role in Campylobacter survival is the addition of polyphosphate-containing marinades during poultry processing. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains incubated in chicken exudates collected from poultry treated with a marinade demonstrated considerable survival advantages (1 to 4 log CFU/ml) over the same strains incubated in chicken exudate from untreated birds. Polyphosphates, which constitute a large portion of the commercial poultry marinades, were shown to account for a majority of the observed influence of the marinades on Campylobacter survival. When six different food grade polyphosphates (disodium pyrophosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, pentasodium triphosphate, sodium polyphosphate, monosodium phosphate, and trisodium phosphate) were utilized to compare the survival of Campylobacter strains in chicken exudate, significant differences were observed with regard to Campylobacter survival between the different polyphosphates. It was then determined that the addition of polyphosphates to chicken exudate increased the pH of the exudate, with the more sodiated polyphosphates increasing the pH to a greater degree than the less sodiated polyphosphates. It was confirmed that the change in pH mediated by polyphosphates is responsible for the observed increases in Campylobacter survival.

  6. Status of Exudative Pleural Effusion in Adults of South Khorasan Province, Northeast Iran: Pleural Tuberculosis Tending toward Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Gholam Reza Mortazavi-Moghaddam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The causes and situation of exudative pleural effusion vary from one area to another. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 327 patients with exudative pleural effusion in South Khorasan province (Iran. The patients were older than 12 years and comprised 172 (52.6% males and 155 (47.4% females. The study commenced in 2007 with seven years duration. The Light’s criteria were used to define exudative effusion. Procedures including pleural fluid analysis, microbiological study, pleural biopsy, and systemic investigations were conducted to determine the special cause of pleural effusion. The mean age of the patients was 63.4±18.4 years. Malignancies, tuberculosis, and parapneumonia pleural exudation were diagnosed in 125 (38.2%, 48 (14.7%, and 45 (13.8% cases, respectively. Among malignant effusions, metastasis from lung cancer made 48 (38.4% of the cases. The origin of metastasis was not determined in 44 (35.2% patients. The mean age of patients was not significantly different between malignant (66.9±14.3 years and tuberculosis (63.9±19.7 years cases (P=0.16. The older age of tuberculosis patients could be a new discussion point on the overall impression created on the subject of tuberculosis pleural exudation (TB-PLE occurring in young people.

  7. Evolution of the Crop Rhizosphere: Impact of Domestication on Root Exudates in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Iannucci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestication has induced major genetic changes in crop plants to satisfy human needs and as a consequence of adaptation to agroecosystems. This adaptation might have affected root exudate composition, which can influence the interactions in the rhizosphere. Here, using two different soil types (sand, soil, we provide an original example of the impact of domestication and crop evolution on root exudate composition through metabolite profiling of root exudates for a panel of 10 wheat genotypes that correspond to the key steps in domestication of tetraploid wheat (wild emmer, emmer, durum wheat. Our data show that soil type can dramatically affect the composition of root exudates in the rhizosphere. Moreover, the composition of the rhizosphere metabolites is associated with differences among the genotypes of the wheat domestication groups, as seen by the high heritability of some of the metabolites. Overall, we show that domestication and breeding have had major effects on root exudates in the rhizosphere, which suggests the adaptive nature of these changes.

  8. Transfer of nitrogen from a tropical legume tree to an associated fodder grass via root exudation and common mycelial networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalonen, Riina; Nygren, Pekka; Sierra, Jorge

    2009-10-01

    Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation by legume trees represents a substantial N input in agroforestry systems, which may benefit the associated crops. Applying (15)N labelling, we studied N transfer via common mycelial networks (CMN) and root exudation from the legume tree Gliricidia sepium to the associated fodder grass Dichantium aristatum. The plants were grown in greenhouse in shared pots in full interaction (treatment FI) or with their root systems separated with a fine mesh that allowed N transfer via CMN only (treatment MY). Tree root exudation was measured separately with hydroponics. Nitrogen transfer estimates were based on the isotopic signature of N (delta(15)N) transferred from the donor. We obtained a range for estimates by calculating transfer with delta(15)N of tree roots and exudates. Nitrogen transfer was 3.7-14.0 and 0.7-2.5% of grass total N in treatments FI and MY, respectively. Root delta(15)N gave the lower and exudate delta(15)N the higher estimates. Transfer in FI probably occurred mainly via root exudation. Transfer in MY correlated negatively with grass root N concentration, implying that it was driven by source-sink relationships between the plants. The range of transfer estimates, depending on source delta(15)N applied, indicates the need of understanding the transfer mechanisms as a basis for reliable estimates.

  9. Enhanced hyphal growth of arbuscular mycorrhizae by root exudates derived from high R/FR treated Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Maki; Yamamoto, Naoya; Miyamoto, Taro; Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2016-06-02

    Red/Far Red (R/FR) sensing positively influences the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis of both legume and nonlegume plants through jasmonic acid (JA) and strigolactone signaling. We previously reported that root exudates obtained from high R/FR-grown plants contained more strigolactone than low R/FR-grown plants. To determine whether JA and JA derivatives were secreted from roots, we investigated the expression levels of JA-responsive genes in L. japonicus Miyakojima MG20 plants treated with root exudates prepared from either high or low R/FR light-treated plants. The root exudates from high R/FR light-treated plants were found to enhance the expression levels of JA-responsive genes significantly. Moreover, exogenous JA increased AM fungal hyphal elongation as did the root exudates derived from high R/FR-grown L. japonicus plants. We conclude that increased JA accumulation and secretion into root exudates from high R/FR light-grown plants is the best explanation for increased colonization and enhanced mycorrhization under these conditions.

  10. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  11. MULTIMODAL IMAGING OF ACUTE EXUDATIVE POLYMORPHOUS VITELLIFORM MACULOPATHY WITH OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY AND ADAPTIVE OPTICS SCANNING LASER OPHTHALMOSCOPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skondra, Dimitra; Nesper, Peter L; Fawzi, Amani A

    2017-05-16

    To report a case of acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy including the findings of optical coherence tomography angiography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Findings on clinical examination, color fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, infrared reflectance, autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography angiography, and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. A 54-year-old white man with no significant medical history and history of smoking presented with bilateral multiple serous and vitelliform detachments consistent with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy. Extensive infectious, inflammatory, and malignancy workup was negative. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed thickened, hyperreflective ellipsoid zone, subretinal fluid, and focal as well as diffuse subretinal hyperreflective material corresponding to the vitelliform lesions. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed normal retinal and choroidal vasculature, whereas adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy showed circular focal "target" lesions at the level of the photoreceptors in the area of foveal detachment. Multimodal imaging is valuable in evaluating patients with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy.

  12. Methanol extract of dried exudate of Commiphora mukul prevents bone resorption in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saleemulla; Dwivedi, Chandresh; Parmar, Vinit; Srinivasan, K K; Shirwaikar, Annie

    2012-10-01

    Gum guggul, a resinous exudate of the plant Commiphora mukul Engl. (Burseraceae), has been found efficacious in the treatment of bone fractures, arthritis, and hyperlipidemic disorders. The present study is an effort to explore the anti-bone-resorptive potential of the dried methanol extract of the gummy exudate of C. mukul (MECM) in ovariectomized rat model. The animals were randomly divided into five groups of equal size (n = 6). Animals in all the groups were ovariectomized except group 1, which was sham operated. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were treated with Raloxifene, MECM 250 mg/kg and MECM 500 mg/kg, respectively. The 2nd group was fed with vehicle. biochemical estimations, viz., alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartarate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum calcium (Ca); biomechanical evaluations, and histopathological examinations. The LD(50) of MECM was found to be > 2500 mg/kg orally. A significant elevation was observed in the ALP, TRAP, Ca and cholesterol levels in the 2nd group with a significant reduction in biomechnical strength. Groups 3, 4 and 5, showed a significant reduction in TRAP and ALP levels (p < 0.001). The Ca levels were normalized in the groups 4 and 5, while cholesterol levels dropped in group 5. The bone strength, however, was normalized in all the groups (p < 0.001) along with the histopathology. Findings suggested a significant gain in bone strength and nearly complete restoration of bone microarchitecture along with lowered levels of TRAP indicating the anti-bone resorptive potential of the extract.

  13. Urethral exudates of men with Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections select a restricted lipooligosaccharide phenotype during transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Stephanie E; Cheng, Hui; Ghanem, Khalil G; Yang, Zhijie; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan; Griffiss, J McLeod

    2012-10-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharides (LOSs) induce immunoglobulin G that protects men from experimental infection. This raises the possibility that an LOS vaccine might prevent gonorrhea. Gonococci make different LOS molecules, depending on whether 3 genes, lgtA, lgtC, and lgtD, are in frame (IF) or out of frame (OOF). Mispairing of polymeric guanine (polyG) tracts within each gene determines its frame during replication. We amplified lgtA, lgtC, and lgtD from diagnostic slides of urethral exudates and sequenced their polyG tracts. We found that lgtA in exudative bacteria is IF and that lgtC is OOF. The frame of lgtD varied widely: it was OOF in most but not all cases. This genotype would result in synthesis of polylactosamine α chains that could be sialylated. Polylactosamine α chains would enhance virulence, and their sialylation would enable gonococci to survive within polymorphonuclear cells; however, an active LgtD in a few bacteria could provide a survival advantage in other sites of infection.

  14. Low power transpupillary thermotherapy with retrobulbar injection of triamcinolone acetonide for central exudative chorioretino- pathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Feng Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of low power transpupillary thermotherapy(TTTwith retrobulbar injection of triamcinolone acetonide(TAfor central exudative chorioretinopathy(CEC.METHODS: Fourteen eyes with idiopathic choroidal neovascularization were treated with retrobulbar injection of TA and performed by low power TTT after one week. Laser parameters were as follows: spot diameter 0.8-3.0mm, low power 120-360mW, time 60 seconds. By 3 to 12 months of follow-up, visual acuity, ophthalmoscope, fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAand optical coherence tomography(OCTwere used to observe the curative effects.RESULTS: Visual acuity were improved in 5 eyes(36%, remained stable in 8 eyes(57%and declined in 1 eye(7%after treatment. The macular hemorrhage and exudation were reduced significantly in 12 eyes. FFA showed that the fluorescein leakage ceased or decreased in 7 eyes, unchanged in 5 eyes, and enlarged in 2 eyes. The macular edema of 12 eyes in OCT was reduced unequally.CONCLUSION: Low power TTT combined with retrobulbar injection of TA shows good therapeutic effect on CEC.

  15. Use of a new silver barrier dressing, ALLEVYN Ag in exuding chronic wounds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotz, Paula

    2009-06-01

    Recognising and managing wounds at risk of infection is vital in wound management. ALLEVYN Ag dressings have been designed to manage exudate in chronic wounds that are at risk of infection; are displaying signs of local infection; or where a suspected increase in bacterial colonisation is delaying healing. They combine an absorbent silver sulfadiazine containing hydrocellular foam layer, with a perforated wound contact layer and highly breathable top film. The results presented are from a multi-centre clinical evaluation of 126 patients conducted to assess the performance of ALLEVYN Ag (Adhesive, Non Adhesive and Sacrum dressings) in a range of indications. Clinicians rated the dressings as acceptable for use in various wound types in 88% of patients. The majority of clinical signs of infection reduced between the initial and the final assessment. The condition of wound tissue and surrounding skin was observed to improve, and there was significant evidence of a reduction in the level of exudate from initial to final assessment (p < 0.001). Clinicians rated ALLEVYN Ag as satisfying or exceeding expectations in over 90% of patients. The evaluation showed the dressings to offer real benefits to patients and clinicians across multiple indications when used in conjunction with local protocols.

  16. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Peripical Tissue Exudates of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pezelj-Ribaric

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to determine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels in periapical exudates and to evaluate their relationship with radiological findings. Methodology. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals of 60 single-rooted teeth using absorbent paper points. TNF-α levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The samples were divided into three groups according to the periapical radiolucent area. Results. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between TNF-α concentrations in control group (40, 57±28, 15 pg/mL and group with larger radiolucent areas (2365, 79±582, 95 pg/mL, as well as between control and canals with small radiolucent areas (507, 66±278, 97 (P<.05. Conclusions. The levels of TNF-α increase significantly in teeth with periapical pathosis, from smaller to bigger lesions. This research and its results have shown that objective analysis of the TNF-α levels enables establishment of a relationship between different concentrations of TNF-α and different radiological changes.

  17. Ocular Risk Factors for Exudative AMD: A Novel Semiautomated Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, João Pedro; Costa, Miguel; Melo, Pedro; Oliveira, Carlos Manta; Pires, Isabel; Cachulo, Maria Luz; Figueira, João; Silva, Rufino

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the contribution of the ocular risk factors in the conversion of the fellow eye of patients with unilateral exudative AMD, using a novel semiautomated grading system. Materials and Methods. Single-center, retrospective study including 89 consecutive patients with unilateral exudative AMD and ≥3 years of followup. Baseline color fundus photographs were graded using an innovative grading software, RetmarkerAMD (Critical Health SA). Results. The follow-up period was 60.9 ± 31.3 months. The occurrence of CNV was confirmed in 42 eyes (47.2%). The cumulative incidence of CNV was 23.6% at 2 years, 33.7% at 3 years, 39.3% at 5 years, and 47.2% at 10 years, with a mean annual incidence of 12.0% (95% CI = 0.088-0.162). The absolute number of drusen in the central 1000 and 3000  μ m (P < 0.05) and the absolute number of drusen ≥125 µm in the central 3000 and 6000 µm (P < 0.05) proved to be significant risk factors for CNV. Conclusion. The use of quantitative variables in the determination of the OR of developing CNV allowed the establishment of significant risk factors for neovascularization. The long follow-up period and the innovative methodology reinforce the value of our results. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00801541.

  18. Plant-microbe rhizosphere interactions mediated by Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates under consecutive monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Yang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-10-01

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa declines significantly. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa in a four-year field trial led to significant growth inhibition. Most phenolic acids in root exudates had cumulative effects over time under sterile conditions, but these effects were not observed in the rhizosphere under monoculture conditions. It suggested soil microbes might be involved in the degradation and conversion of phenolic acids from the monocultured plants. T-RFLP and qPCR analysis demonstrated differences in both soil bacterial and fungal communities during monoculture. Prolonged monoculture significantly increased levels of Fusarium oxysporum, but decreased levels of Pseudomonas spp. Abundance of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. with antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum was lower in extended monoculture soils. Phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth, sporulation, and toxin (3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol) production of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibiting growth of the beneficial Pseudomonas sp. W12. This study demonstrates that extended monoculture can alter the microbial community of the rhizosphere, leading to relatively fewer beneficial microorganisms and relatively more pathogenic and toxin-producing microorganisms, which is mediated by the root exudates.

  19. Suppression of native Melaleuca ericifolia by the invasive Phragmites australis through allelopathic root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall William; Caridi, Domenic; Al Harun, Md Abdullah Yousuf

    2014-03-01

    Invasive plants are a great threat to the conservation of natural ecosystems and biodiversity. Allelopathy as a mechanism for invasion of plants such as Phragmites australis, one of the most aggressive invaders, has the potential to suppress neighboring plant species. Allelopathic interference, through root exudates of P. australis on native Melaleuca ericifolia, was investigated to find out the underlying invasion mechanisms. Germination and growth effects of P. australis on M. ericifolia were studied in the greenhouse using potting mix both with and without activated carbon, and a combination of single and repeated cuttings of P. australis as the management tool. P. AUSTRALIS had significant negative effects on germination and growth of M. ericifolia by inhibiting germination percentage, maximum root length and plant height, biomass, stem diameter, and number of growth points with little effect on leaf physiology. Activated carbon (AC) in turn moderately counteracted these effects. The cutting of P. australis shoots significantly reduced the suppressive effects on M. ericifolia compared to the addition of AC to soil. Furthermore, significant changes in soil such as pH, electrical conductivity, osmotic potential, phenolics, and dehydrogenase activity were identified among cutting treatments with little variation between AC treatments. The results demonstrated that allelopathy through root exudates of P. australis had relatively low contribution in suppressing M. ericifolia in comparison to other competitive effects. Management tools combining repeated cutting of P. australis shoots with AC treatments may assist partly in the restoration of native ecosystems invaded by P. australis.

  20. CLINICAL AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION AFTER INTRAVITREAL ZIV-AFLIBERCEPT FOR EXUDATIVE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; de Andrade, Gabriel Costa; Kniggendorf, Vinicius Ferreira; Novais, Eduardo Amorim; Maia, André; Meyer, Carsten; Watanabe, Sung Eun Song; Farah, Michel Eid; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchele

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the 6-month safety and efficacy of ziv-aflibercept intravitreal injections for treating exudative age-related macular degeneration. Fifteen patients with unilateral exudative age-related macular degeneration were enrolled. The best-corrected visual acuity was measured and spectral domain optical coherence tomography was performed at baseline and monthly. Full-field electroretinography and multifocal electroretinography were obtained at baseline and 4, 13, and 26 weeks after the first injection. All patients received three monthly intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept (1.25 mg) followed by as-needed treatment. Between baseline and 26 weeks, the mean logMAR best-corrected visual acuity improved (P = 0.00408) from 0.93 ± 0.4 (20/200) to 0.82 ± 0.5 (20/160) logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, respectively; the central retinal thickness decreased significantly (P = 0.0007) from 490.3 ± 155.1 microns to 327.9 ± 101.5 microns; the mean total macular volume decreased significantly (P macular responses within the first central 15° showed significantly (P macular volume from baseline to 26 weeks. No retinal toxicity on full-field electroretinography or adverse events occurred during the follow-up period.

  1. MACULAR CHOROIDAL VOLUME CHANGES AFTER INTRAVITREAL BEVACIZUMAB FOR EXUDATIVE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovits, Stefan; Seidel, Gerald; Pertl, Laura; Malle, Eva M; Hausberger, Silke; Makk, Johanna; Singer, Christoph; Osterholt, Julia; Herzog, Sereina A; Haas, Anton; Weger, Martin

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on the macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness in treatment naïve eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration. The macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness were measured using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. After a screening examination, each patient received 3 monthly intravitreal injections of 1.25 mg bevacizumab. One month after the third injection was a final assessment. Forty-seven patients with a mean age of 80 ± 6.4 years were included. The macular choroidal volume decreased significantly from median 4.1 mm (interquartile range 3.4-5.9) to median 3.9 mm (interquartile range 3.1-5.6) between the baseline and final examination (difference -0.46 mm, 95% confidence interval: -0.57 to 0.35, P macular choroidal volume at baseline and subfoveal choroidal thickness at baseline were not associated with the response to treatment. The macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness decreased significantly after 3 monthly bevacizumab injections for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

  2. Plant-microbe rhizosphere interactions mediated by Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates under consecutive monoculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Yang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-10-30

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa declines significantly. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa in a four-year field trial led to significant growth inhibition. Most phenolic acids in root exudates had cumulative effects over time under sterile conditions, but these effects were not observed in the rhizosphere under monoculture conditions. It suggested soil microbes might be involved in the degradation and conversion of phenolic acids from the monocultured plants. T-RFLP and qPCR analysis demonstrated differences in both soil bacterial and fungal communities during monoculture. Prolonged monoculture significantly increased levels of Fusarium oxysporum, but decreased levels of Pseudomonas spp. Abundance of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. with antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum was lower in extended monoculture soils. Phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth, sporulation, and toxin (3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol) production of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibiting growth of the beneficial Pseudomonas sp. W12. This study demonstrates that extended monoculture can alter the microbial community of the rhizosphere, leading to relatively fewer beneficial microorganisms and relatively more pathogenic and toxin-producing microorganisms, which is mediated by the root exudates.

  3. Exudate-based diabetic macular edema detection in fundus images using publicly available datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Garg, Seema [University of North Carolina; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy. In a large scale screening environment DME can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesions) in fundus images. In this work, we introduce a new methodology for diagnosis of DME using a novel set of features based on colour, wavelet decomposition and automatic lesion segmentation. These features are employed to train a classifier able to automatically diagnose DME through the presence of exudation. We present a new publicly available dataset with ground-truth data containing 169 patients from various ethnic groups and levels of DME. This and other two publicly available datasets are employed to evaluate our algorithm. We are able to achieve diagnosis performance comparable to retina experts on the MESSIDOR (an independently labelled dataset with 1200 images) with cross-dataset testing (e.g., the classifier was trained on an independent dataset and tested on MESSIDOR). Our algorithm obtained an AUC between 0.88 and 0.94 depending on the dataset/features used. Additionally, it does not need ground truth at lesion level to reject false positives and is computationally efficient, as it generates a diagnosis on an average of 4.4 s (9.3 s, considering the optic nerve localization) per image on an 2.6 GHz platform with an unoptimized Matlab implementation.

  4. [Computed tomography of the temporal bone in diagnosis of chronic exudative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikovich, E I

    2005-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone was made in 37 patients aged 2 to 55 years with chronic exudative otitis media (CEOM). In 21 of them the pathology was bilateral. The analysis of 58 CT images has identified CT signs of chronic exudative otitis media. They include partial (17 temporary bones) or complete (38 temporal bones) block of the bone opening of the auditory tube, pneumatic defects of the tympanic cavity (58 temporal bones), pneumatic defects of the mastoid process and antrum (47 temporal bones), pathologic retraction of the tympanic membrane. The examination of the temporal bone detected both CT-signs of CEOM and other causes of hearing disorders in 14 patients (26 temporal bones) with CEOM symptoms and inadequately high hypoacusis. Among these causes were malformation of the auditory ossicula (n=5), malformation of the labynthine window (n=2), malformation of the middle and internal ear (n=4), a wide aqueduct of the vestibule, labyrinthine anomaly of Mondini's type (n=1), cochlear hypoplasia (n=4), stenosis of the internal acoustic meatuses (n=2). Sclerotic fibrous dysplasia was suggested in 2 temporal bones (by CT data). CT was repeated after surgical treatment of 10 patients (14 temporal bones) and visual assessment of tympanostomy results was made.

  5. Video Assisted Rigid Thoracoscopy in the Diagnosis of Unexplained Exudative Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Beheshtirouy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion is often a difficult diagnostic dilemma that needs further histological study for a definitive etiological diagnosis. Video assisted rigid thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure with a minor morbidity and mortality risk that could resolve this problem.Methods: Between January 2010 and December 2011, we performed thoracoscopy in 26 patients for diagnosis of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion. Clinical and paraclinical data of patients were collected prospectively and analyzed.Results: Sole pleural effusion was the most common CT scan finding seen in 17 (65.4% patients. Thoracoscopy was diagnostic in 24 patients (92.3%. The pathologic findings were carcinoma (46.2%, tuberculosis (30.8% and chronic inflammation without a definitive microbiologic culture (15.4%. Surprisingly mean ADA level in the tuberculosis group was in normal range. No mortality or complication related to our operation was observed.Conclusion: Video assisted thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure with a high definitive diagnostic accuracy in the evaluation of tuberculosis and malignant pleural effusions. Pulmonologist should refer these patients sooner to decrease the waiting period of diagnosis and treatment of such conditions.

  6. Antiprotozoal and Antiglycation Activities of Sesquiterpene Coumarins from Ferula narthex Exudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Amin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The exudate of Ferula narthex Boiss. (Apiaceae is widely used in the Indian subcontinent as a spice and because of its health effects. Six sesquiterpene coumarins have been isolated from this exudate: feselol, ligupersin A, asacoumarin A, 8′-O-acetyl-asacoumarin A, 10′R-karatavacinol and 10′R-acetyl-karatavacinol. Based on its use in infectious and diabetic conditions, the isolated constituents were evaluated for antimicrobial and antiglycation activities. Some compounds showed activity against protozoal parasites, asacoumarin A being the most active one against Plasmodium falciparum K1 (IC50 1.3 μM. With regard to antiglycation activity, in the BSA-glucose test, ligupersin A displayed the highest activity (IC50 0.41 mM, being more active than the positive control aminiguanidine (IC50 1.75 mM. In the BSA-MGO assay, the highest activity was shown by 8′-O-acetyl-asacoumarin A (IC50 1.03 mM, being less active than aminoguanidine (IC50 0.15 mM. Hence, the antiglycation activity of the isolated constituents was due to both oxidative and non-oxidative modes of inhibition.

  7. Biological nitrification inhibition by rice root exudates and its relationship with nitrogen-use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Lu, Yufang; Yu, Fangwei; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2016-11-01

    Microbial nitrification in soils is a major contributor to nitrogen (N) loss in agricultural systems. Some plants can secrete organic substances that act as biological nitrification inhibitors (BNIs), and a small number of BNIs have been identified and characterized. However, virtually no research has focused on the important food crop, rice (Oryza sativa). Here, 19 rice varieties were explored for BNI potential on the key nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea. Exudates from both indica and japonica genotypes were found to possess strong BNI potential. Older seedlings had higher BNI abilities than younger ones; Zhongjiu25 (ZJ25) and Wuyunjing7 (WYJ7) were the most effective genotypes among indica and japonica varieties, respectively. A new nitrification inhibitor, 1,9-decanediol, was identified, shown to block the ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) pathway of ammonia oxidation and to possess an 80% effective dose (ED80 ) of 90 ng μl-1 . Plant N-use efficiency (NUE) was determined using a 15 N-labeling method. Correlation analyses indicated that both BNI abilities and 1,9-decanediol amounts of root exudates were positively correlated with plant ammonium-use efficiency and ammonium preference. These findings provide important new insights into the plant-bacterial interactions involved in the soil N cycle, and improve our understanding of the BNI capacity of rice in the context of NUE. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Effects of root exudates of woody species on the soil anti-erodibility in the rhizosphere in a karst region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen Hong; Fang, Hong; Chen, Mouhui

    2017-01-01

    Rhizospheres, the most active interfaces between plants and soils, play a central role in the long-term maintenance of the biosphere. The anti-erodibility of soils (AES) regulated by the root exudates is crucial to the soil stability in the rhizospheres. However, scientists still debate (1) the key organic matter of the root exudates affecting the AES and (2) the interspecific variation of these root exudates. We used an incubation of soils to test the effects of the root exudates from eight woody plant species on the change in soil aggregation and identified the organic matter in these root exudates with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and biochemical methods. Furthermore, the relationships between the organic matter in the exudates and the AES in the rhizospheres of 34 additional tree species were analyzed. The water-stable aggregates of the soils incubated with the root exudates increased by 15%-50% on average compared with control samples. The interspecific differences were significant. The root exudates included hundreds of specific organic matter types; hydrocarbon, total sugar, total amino acids, and phenolic compounds were crucial to the AES. These organic matter types could explain approximately 20-75% of the variation in the total effect of the root exudates on the AES, which was quantified based on the aggregate status, degree of aggregation, dispersion ratio, and dispersion coefficient. The effects of the root exudates on the AES and the interspecific variation are as important as that of root density, litters, and vegetation covers. Many studies explored the effects of root density, litters, vegetation covers, and vegetation types on the AES, but little attention has been paid to the effects of the root exudates on the AES. Different plants secrete different relative contents of organic matter resulting in the variation of the effect of the root exudates on the AES. Our study quantified the causal relationships between the root exudates

  9. Effects of root exudates of woody species on the soil anti-erodibility in the rhizosphere in a karst region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Hong Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rhizospheres, the most active interfaces between plants and soils, play a central role in the long-term maintenance of the biosphere. The anti-erodibility of soils (AES regulated by the root exudates is crucial to the soil stability in the rhizospheres. However, scientists still debate (1 the key organic matter of the root exudates affecting the AES and (2 the interspecific variation of these root exudates. Methods We used an incubation of soils to test the effects of the root exudates from eight woody plant species on the change in soil aggregation and identified the organic matter in these root exudates with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and biochemical methods. Furthermore, the relationships between the organic matter in the exudates and the AES in the rhizospheres of 34 additional tree species were analyzed. Results The water-stable aggregates of the soils incubated with the root exudates increased by 15%–50% on average compared with control samples. The interspecific differences were significant. The root exudates included hundreds of specific organic matter types; hydrocarbon, total sugar, total amino acids, and phenolic compounds were crucial to the AES. These organic matter types could explain approximately 20–75% of the variation in the total effect of the root exudates on the AES, which was quantified based on the aggregate status, degree of aggregation, dispersion ratio, and dispersion coefficient. Discussion The effects of the root exudates on the AES and the interspecific variation are as important as that of root density, litters, and vegetation covers. Many studies explored the effects of root density, litters, vegetation covers, and vegetation types on the AES, but little attention has been paid to the effects of the root exudates on the AES. Different plants secrete different relative contents of organic matter resulting in the variation of the effect of the root exudates on the AES. Our study

  10. Distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere: combining 14C imaging with neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Carminati, Andrea; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Water and nutrients will be the major factors limiting food production in future. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to limited soil resources. Low molecular weight organic substances released by roots into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability by interactions with microorganisms, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. Though composition and quality of these substances have intensively been investigated, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging depending on drought stress. Plants were grown in rhizotrons well suited for neutron radiography and 14C imaging. Plants were exposed to various soil water contents experiencing different levels of drought stress. The water content in the rhizosphere was imaged during several drying/wetting cycles by neutron radiography. The radiographs taken a few hours after irrigation showed a wet region around the root tips showing the allocation and distribution of mucilage. The increased water content in the rhizosphere of the young root segments was related to mucilage concentrations by parameterization described in Kroener et al. (2014). In parallel 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) showed distribution of rhizodeposits including mucilage. Three days after setting the water content, plants were labeled in 14CO2 atmosphere. Two days later 14C distribution in soil was imaged by placing a phosphor-imaging plate on the rhizobox. To quantify rhizodeposition, 14C activity on the image was related to the absolute 14C activity in the soil and root after destructive sampling. By comparing the amounts of mucilage (neutron radiography) with the amount of total root derived C (14C imaging), we were able to differentiate between mucilage and root

  11. Plant roots can actively regulate hydraulic redistribution by modifying the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere using exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Bogie, Nathaniel; Albalasmeh, Ammar

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of hydraulic lift by roots of plants has been observed in many arid and semi-arid regions. The process involves water transfer from moist deep soil zone to shallow and dry layers, typically at night when transpiration is shut off. The widely held explanation is that hydraulic lift receives the strong water potential gradient created during the day when the plants are actively transpiring. However, it is not fully understood whether hydraulic lift is actively controlled by plants or it is a spontaneous response to the occurrence of pressure gradient. Here, we will present modeling study that demonstrates that plant roots can exert significant control on hydraulic redistribution via exudation and formation of rhizospheath. The model is based on results of potted experiments conducted by Nambiar in 1976 (Plant and Soil, 44:267-271), which have shown that plants are able to acquire essential micronutrients from very dry soil so long as water is available to the root system in sufficient quantity elsewhere. He also observed that the roots in the water-depleted zones exhibited evidence of substantial root exudation, which suggests that exudates are needed in order to provide moisture for mobilization and diffusion of nutrients in the dry regions. In addition, our own recent model-based research demonstrated that exudates play important role in facilitating water flow in otherwise dry rhizosphere region. Our models show that exudates facilitate the release of hydraulically lifted water to the rhizosphere by ensuring hydraulic continuity between the root walls and the surrounding dry soil. In addition, the high water retention capacity of root exudates permits the hydraulic conductivity to remain elevated even at low potential conditions. The results of this modeling study suggest that hydraulic lift is an actively controlled adaptation mechanism that allows plants to remain active during long dry spells by acquiring nutrients from the dry near surface soils

  12. Rhizodeposition flux of competitive versus conservative graminoid: contribution of exudates and root lysates as affected by N loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastovska, Eva; Edwards, Keith; Santruckova, Hana

    2017-04-01

    Carbon allocation pattern represents the plant strategy for growth and nutrient capture. Plants exhibit high plasticity in their allocation pattern and belowground C partitioning in response to changes in the availability of nutrients limiting their production, namely nitrogen (N). Any shift in the belowground C fluxes and partitioning between root production, exudation and other rhizodeposits could affect the soil microbial activity and soil organic matter turnover. We studied the influence of N availability on plant allocation patterns with emphasis on belowground C fluxes of two wetland graminoids, the competitive Glyceria maxima and the conservative Carex acuta. Plants were grown in pots under two levels of N availability. We combined pulse-labeling of plants with 13CO2 to track recent assimilates with estimation of the root death rate calculated from the difference between gross and net root growth rates for assessing the rhizodeposition flux to soil, and the contribution of root exudates and lysates from root turnover. We found that higher N supply enhanced root biomass and, subsequently, the total rhizodeposition. Both species shifted partitioning of belowground C towards higher mass-specific root production and turnover, with lower investments into root exudation. Therefore, the rhizodeposition flux was enriched in root-derived lysates over soluble exudates. Root exudates accounted for 50-70% of the rhizodeposition flux in conditions of low N availability, while it was only 20-40% under high N availability. The N fertilization induced changes in belowground C fluxes were species-specific, with more pronounced changes in the conservative Carex than the competitive Glyceria. In summary, soil N loading enhanced total C rhizodeposition and, simultaneously, the proportion of predominantly more complex root lysates over soluble root exudates, with potential implications for soil organic matter dynamics. Our results further stress the importance of species

  13. Punctate inner choroidopathy complicated with exudative neurosensory detachment: A favourable response to treatment with systemic corticosteroids and intravitreal ranibizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, M; Menezo, M; Ronchera, J M; Esteban, J M; Roca, B

    2017-07-01

    Punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) is a variant of multifocal choroiditis that principally affects young and healthy women. A case of this condition is described in a woman who presented with a scotoma as the main complaint. Four months after the diagnosis of PIC, she developed an exudative neurosensory detachment associated with an active focus of juxtafoveal choroiditis. Finally, with systemic corticosteroids and intravitreal ranibizumab, she made excellent progress. Intravitreal ranibizumab, associated with systemic corticosteroids, may be an effective treatment for exudative neurosensory detachment complicating PIC. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mari, Xavier

    1999-01-01

    The carbon content of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) was measured in the laboratory in particles produced by bubbling exudates of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown under nitrogen non-limited conditions (N:P = 7). The carbon content of these particles (TEP-C) appears to vary...... for dissolved organic carbon in coastal seas. The carbon to nitrogen ratio of TEP was measured from particles formed by bubbling exudates of the diatoms T. weissflogii, Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros neogracile and C. affinis. Each of these diatom species was grown under various N:P ratios, from N...

  15. [Vitreous hemorrhage as the initial manifestation of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy in an eight-year-old child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist D'azy, C; Bonnin, N; Maurin, C; Farguette, F; Chiambaretta, F

    2016-06-01

    To report vitreous hemorrhage as the initial manifestation of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). Case report. An 8-year-old child presented with vitreous hemorrhage leading to the discovery of large neovascularization. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography showed the typical appearance of FEVR. A genetic study confirmed the diagnosis. Treatment by laser photocoagulation was performed with good recovery of visual acuity. Ophthalmologists should be aware of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) so as not to misdiagnose this sight-threatening disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotic-resistance and plasmids in Staphylococcus-hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative eperdermitis and from healthy pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Schwarz, S.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from healthy piglets and piglets with exudative epidermitis originating from 100 different herds was examined for drug-resistance and prevalence of plasmids. Resistance to macrolide/lincosamide antibiotics could be related to plasmids in 55 (93%) of the 59......% of the strains isolated from healthy piglets. Despite its higher prevalence in strains from piglets with EE, the 11.5 kb plasmid could not be shown to encode production of capsule or exfoliative substances: factors which might play a role in the development of exudative epidermitis in piglets....

  17. Evaluating the potential of a novel oral lesion exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooren Joel A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Early diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC increases the survival rate of oral cancer. For early diagnosis, molecular biomarkers contained in samples collected non-invasively and directly from at-risk oral premalignant lesions (OPMLs would be ideal. Methods In this pilot study we evaluated the potential of a novel method using commercial PerioPaper absorbent strips for non-invasive collection of oral lesion exudate material coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery. Results Our evaluation focused on three core issues. First, using an "on-strip" processing method, we found that protein can be isolated from exudate samples in amounts compatible with large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis. Second, we found that the OPML exudate proteome was distinct from that of whole saliva, while being similar to the OPML epithelial cell proteome, demonstrating the fidelity of our exudate collection method. Third, in a proof-of-principle study, we identified numerous, inflammation-associated proteins showing an expected increase in abundance in OPML exudates compared to healthy oral tissue exudates. These results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying differentially abundant proteins from exudate samples, which is essential for biomarker discovery studies. Conclusions Collectively, our findings demonstrate that our exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics has great potential for transforming OSCC biomarker discovery and clinical diagnostics assay development.

  18. Vibrational coherence in polar solutions of Zn(II) tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin with Soret-band excitation: rapidly damped intermolecular modes with clustered solvent molecules and slowly damped intramolecular modes from the porphyrin macrocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Kevin L; Shelly, Katherine R; Beck, Warren F

    2009-04-30

    Ground-state coherent wavepacket motions arising from intermolecular modes with clustered, first-shell solvent molecules were observed using the femtosecond dynamic absorption technique in polar solutions of Zn(II) meso-tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (ZnTMPyP) with excitation in the Soret absorption band. As was observed previously in bacteriochlorophyll a solution, the pump-probe transients in ZnTMPyP solutions are weakly modulated by slowly damped (effective damping time gamma > 1 ps) features that are assigned to intramolecular modes, the skeletal normal modes of vibration of the porphyrin. The 40 cm(-1) and 215 cm(-1) modes from the metal-doming and metal-solvent-ligand modes, respectively, are members of this set of modulation components. A slowly damped 2-4 cm(-1) component is assigned to the internal rotation of the N-methylpyridyl rings with respect to the porphyrin macrocycle; this mode obtains strong resonance Raman intensity enhancement from an extensive delocalization of pi-electron density from the porphyrin in the ground state onto the rings in the pi* excited states. The dominant features observed in the pump-probe transients are a pair of rapidly damped (gamma modes with solvent molecules. This structural assignment is supported by an isotope-dependent shift of the average mode frequencies in methanol and perdeuterated methanol. The solvent dependence of the mean intermolecular mode frequency is consistent with a van der Waals intermolecular potential that has significant contributions only from the London dispersion and induction interactions; ion-dipole or ion-induced-dipole terms do not make large contributions because the pi-electron density is not extensively delocalized onto the N-methylpyridyl rings. The modulation depth associated with the intermolecular modes exhibits a marked dependence on the electronic structure of the solvent that is probably related to the degree of covalency; the strongest modulations are observed in acetonitrile

  19. Preparation of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles by surface imprinting by a sol-gel process for the selective and rapid removal of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunying; Ma, Xiaoguo; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wang, Rui; Li, Xin; Liu, Qianjun

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were synthesized by surface imprinting technology with a sol-gel process and used for the selective and rapid adsorption and removal of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from aqueous solution. The prepared magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The adsorption of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate onto the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer was spontaneous and endothermic. The adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 h, the maximum adsorption capacity was 30.7 mg/g, and the adsorption process could be well described by Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer displayed a good adsorption selectivity for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate with respect to dibutyl phthalate and di-n-octyl phthalate. The reusability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer was demonstrated for at least eight repeated cycles without significant loss in adsorption capacity. The adsorption efficiencies of the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer toward di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in real water samples were in the range of 98-100%. These results indicated that the prepared adsorbent could be used as an efficient and cost-effective material for the removal of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from environmental water samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Transferring the exudate in the tissue engineering chamber as a trigger to incubate large amount adipose tissue in remote area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chen; Dong, Ziqing; Wan, Jinlin; Xiao, Xiaolian; Lu, Feng; Wang, Biao

    2017-10-03

    Tissue engineering chamber (TEC) is a technique that could incubate up to 16 folds volume increase of a fat flap. But the mechanism in the silicone chamber was still unknown. The function of exudate in the chamber was noticed recently. We developed a special model called fluid drainage model (FDM) that consisted of a traditional TEC on the back and paired fat flaps without a chamber in the groins. Then we used a silicon tube to dynamically transfer the exudate from dorsal TEC to one of the paired inguinal fat flap while the other inguinal fat flap with a sham tube was set as control. At week 4, the volume of drainage group reached 8.7 ± 2.3 ml, 576±152% to its original volume while the growth ratio of control group was only 130±39%. Similar volume change and histological change were observed within fat flap from TEC model and drainage group. The exudate in the TEC is a heterogeneous cocktail contains cytokines as well as cells. Intriguingly, transferred exudate in the TEC model sustain the ability to incubate large amount of adipose tissue remotely. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Two mire species respond differently to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation: effects on biomass allocation and root exudation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka Tiivi Mariisa; Gehrke, Carola; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    •  Increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation arising from stratospheric ozone depletion may influence soil microbial communities via effects on plant carbon allocation and root exudation. •  Eriophorum angustifolium and Narthecium ossifragum plants, grown in peatland mesocosms consisting of Sphagnum...

  2. Temporal differences in plant growth and root exudation of two Brachiaria grasses in response to low phosphorus supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Louw-Gaume

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting the natural variability of Brachiaria forage germplasm to identify forage grasses adapted to infertile acid soils that contain very low available phosphorus (P is an important research objective for improving livestock production in the tropics. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the release of root biochemical markers, i.e. carboxylates and acid phosphatases (APases, during the development of P deficiency in signalgrass and ruzigrass. We used the hydroxyapatite pouch system in hydroponics to simulate conditions of low P supply in acid soils to test the response of well-adapted signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, CIAT 606 and less-adapted ruzigrass (B. ruziziensis cv. Kennedy, CIAT 654. We monitored shoot and root growth and other physiological and biochemical components that are important for root functionality at weekly intervals for 3 weeks. We found that monocarboxylate exudation was not associated with the plant’s physiological P status, while exudation of oxalate and secreted-APases increased with declining plant P concentrations in both grasses. Ruzigrass showed higher exudation rates and grew faster than signalgrass, but could not maintain its initial fast growth rate when P concentrations in plant tissue declined to 1.0 mg P/g dry matter. Oxalate was the dominant exuded carboxylate for signalgrass after 21 days of growth and this response might confer some eco-physiological advantages in signalgrass when grown in low-P acid soils.

  3. Differentiation and distribution of three types of exfoliative toxin produced by Staphylococcus hyicus from pigs with exudative epidermitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole

    1998-01-01

    were antigenically distinct. The three toxins were designated ExhA, ExhB and ExhC. From 60 diseased pigs, each representing an outbreak of exudative epidermitis, a total of 584 isolates of S. hl icus were phage typed and tested for production of exfoliative toxin. ExhA-, ExhB- and ExhC-producing S...

  4. Next-generation sequencing of a 40 Mb linkage interval reveals TSPAN12 mutations in patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikopoulos, K.; Gilissen, C.F.H.A.; Hoischen, A.; Nouhuys, C.E. van; Boonstra, F.N.; Blokland, E.A.W.; Arts, P.J.W.; Wieskamp, N.A.W.; Strom, T.M.; Ayuso, C.; Tilanus, M.A.D.; Bouwhuis, S.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Scheffer, H.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Veltman, J.A.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Collin, R.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically heterogeneous retinal disorder characterized by abnormal vascularisation of the peripheral retina, often accompanied by retinal detachment. To date, mutations in three genes (FZD4, LRP5, and NDP) have been shown to be causative for FEVR.

  5. A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Bongard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in environments previously dominated by natives. Coupling these findings with studies on invader pathogen-disrupting root exudates is not well documented in the literature describing plant invasion strategies. The interaction effects of altered AMF associations and the impact of invader root exudates would be more relevant than understanding the AMF dynamics or the phytochemistry of successful invaders in isolation, particularly given that AMF and root exudates can have a similar role in pathogen control but function quite differently. One means to achieve this goal is to assess these strategies concurrently by characterizing both the general (mostly pathogens or commensals and AM-specific fungal colonization patterns found in field collected root samples of successful invaders, native plants growing within dense patches of invaders, and native plants growing separately from invaders. In this review I examine the emerging evidence of the ways in which AMF-plant interactions and the production of defensive root exudates provide pathways to invasive plant establishment and expansion, and conclude that interaction studies must be pursued to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of successful plant invasion.

  6. Root exudate-induced alterations in Bacillus cereus cell wall contribute to root colonization and plant growth promotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnalee Dutta

    Full Text Available The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs. We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430. There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE, compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE. In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2, in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion.

  7. Root Exudates of Various Host Plants of Rhizobium leguminosarum Contain Different Sets of Inducers of Rhizobium Nodulation Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaat, Sebastian A. J.; Wijffelman, Carel A.; Mulders, Ine H. M.; van Brussel, Anton A. N.; Lugtenberg, Ben J. J.

    1988-01-01

    Rhizobium promoters involved in the formation of root nodules on leguminous plants are activated by flavonoids in plant root exudate. A series of Rhizobium strains which all contain the inducible Rhizobium leguminosarum nodA promoter fused to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene, and which differ only in

  8. Importance of CXC Chemokine Receptor 2 in Alveolar Neutrophil and Exudate Macrophage Recruitment in Response to Pneumococcal Lung Infection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbold, Wiebke; Maus, Regina; Hahn, Ines; Ding, Nadine; Srivastava, Mrigank; Christman, John W.; Mack, Matthias; Reutershan, Jörg; Briles, David E.; Paton, James C.; Winter, Christine; Welte, Tobias; Maus, Ulrich A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustained neutrophilic infiltration is known to contribute to organ damage, such as acute lung injury. CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) is the major receptor regulating inflammatory neutrophil recruitment in acute and chronic inflamed tissues. Whether or not the abundant neutrophil recruitment observed in severe pneumonia is essential for protective immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections is incompletely defined. Here we show that CXCR2 deficiency severely perturbs the recruitment of both neutrophils and exudate macrophages associated with a massive bacterial outgrowth in distal airspaces after infection with S. pneumoniae, resulting in 100% mortality in knockout (KO) mice within 3 days. Moreover, irradiated wild-type mice reconstituted with increasing amounts of CXCR2 KO bone marrow (10, 25, 50, and 75% KO) have correspondingly decreased numbers of both neutrophils and exudate macrophages, which is associated with a stepwise increase in bacterial burden and a reciprocal stepwise decrease in survival in S. pneumoniae-induced pulmonary infection. Finally, application of the CXCR2 antagonist SB-225002 resulted in decreased alveolar neutrophil and exudate macrophage recruitment in mice along with increased lung bacterial loads after infection with S. pneumoniae. Together, these data show that CXC chemokine receptor 2 serves a previously unrecognized nonredundant role in the regulation of both neutrophil and exudate macrophage recruitment to the lung in response to S. pneumoniae infection. In addition, we demonstrate that a threshold level of 10 to 25% of reduced neutrophil recruitment is sufficient to cause increased mortality in mice infected with S. pneumoniae. PMID:20368349

  9. Gelatin increases the coarseness of whey protein gels and impairs water exudation from the mixed gel at low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Bakhuizen, E.; Ersch, C.; Urbonaite, V.; Jongh, H.H.J. de; Pouvreau, L.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the origin of water holding of mixed protein gels, a study was performed on water exudation from mixed whey protein (WP)-gelatin gels upon applied pressure. Mixed gels were prepared with varying WP and gelatin concentration and gelatin type to obtain gels with a wide range of gel

  10. Cycloartane-type triterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids from the resinous exudates of Commiphora opobalsamum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Li; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2012-04-01

    Cycloartane-type triterpenoids (1-3), seven sesquiterpenoids (7-13), and five previously reported secondary metabolites, including three cycloartane-type triterpenoids (4-6) and two sesquiterpenoids (14 and 15), were isolated from the resinous exudates of Commiphora opobalsamum. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including UV, IR, NMR, and MS, and comparison with literature data. The structures of 1, 3, and 7 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 was interpreted by the incorporation of CHCl(3) (crystallization solvent) in the crystal and that of 10 was determined by the CD exciton chirality method. Compound 12 represents the first example of a 12-norcadinane-type sesquiterpenoid. Furthermore, compounds 1, 3, 7, and 10-14 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against HeLa and HepG2 cell lines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant activity of a new aromatic geranyl derivative of the resinous exudates from Heliotropium glutinosum Phil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Brenda; Rojas, Macarena; Torres, René; Rodilla, Jesús; Luebert, Federico

    2007-05-21

    Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. (Heliotropiceae) is a resinous bush that grows at a height of 2000 m in Chañaral, Chile. From the resinous exudates of Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. a new aromatic geranyl derivative: 4-methoxy-3-[(2)-7'-methyl-3'-hydroxymethyl-2',6'-octadienyl] phenol (1) and three flavonoids: 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (2), 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (3) and 4'-acetyl-5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4) were isolated and their structures were determined. Their antioxidant activity were evaluated using the bleaching of ABTS and DPPH derived cation radical methods and expressed in terms of FRE (fast reacting equivalents) and TRE (total reacting equivalents), where FRE is a good measure of the quick protection of a given compound against oxidants and TRE measures the degree of long-term protection of the antioxidant, or how effective it is against a strong oxidative stress.

  12. Proteogenomics data for deciphering Frankia coriariae interactions with root exudates from three host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guylaine Miotello

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Frankia coriariae BMG5.1 cells were incubated with root exudates derived from compatible (Coriaria myrtifolia, incompatible (Alnus glutinosa and non-actinorhizal (Cucumis melo host plants. Bacteria cells and their exoproteomes were analyzed by high-throughput proteomics using a Q-Exactive HF high resolution tandem mass spectrometer incorporating an ultra-high-field orbitrap analyzer. MS/MS spectra were assigned with two protein sequence databases derived from the closely-related genomes from strains BMG5.1 andDg1, the Frankia symbiont of Datisca glomerata. The tandem mass spectrometry data accompanying the manuscript describing the database searches and comparative analysis (Ktari et al., 2017, doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00720 [1] have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD005979 (whole cell proteomes and PXD005980 (exoproteome data.

  13. Enlightening the past: analytical proof for the use of Pistacia exudates in ancient Egyptian embalming resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Tim M; Gradl, Manuela; Welte, Beatrix; Metzger, Michael; Pusch, Carsten M; Albert, Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Mastic, the resinous exudate of the evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus, is frequently discussed as one of the ingredients used for embalming in ancient Egypt. We show the identification of mastic in ancient Egyptian embalming resins by an unambiguous assignment of the mastic triterpenoid fingerprint consisting of moronic acid, oleanonic acid, isomasticadienonic and masticadienonic acid through the consolidation of NMR and GC/MS analysis. Differences in the observed triterpenoid fingerprints between mummy specimens suggest that more than one plant species served as the triterpenoid resin source. Analysis of the triterpenoid acids of ancient embalming resin samples in the form of their methyl- and trimethylsilyl esters is compared. In addition we show a simple way to differentiate between residues of mastic from its use as incense during embalming or from direct mastic application in the embalming resin. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Combined orbital proptosis and exudative retinal detachment as initial manifestations of acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaja, Wassia A; Pogrebniak, Alexander E; Bolling, James P

    2015-10-01

    We report bilateral orbital and choroidal involvement as the presenting sign of acute myeloid leukemia in a 2-year-old white girl. The patient presented with painless proptosis and subconjunctival hemorrhage. Ophthalmic examination and magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral leukemic infiltrates of the orbits and choroid, with an exudative retinal detachment in the right eye. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed acute myeloid leukemia. Following radiation treatment, chemotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the patient was doing well 12 months after presentation. Outcomes can be poor, even with treatment; prompt recognition of ophthalmic manifestations of leukemia, including proptosis, choroidal infiltration, and retinal detachment, is necessary. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PENGGUNAAN GETAH PEPAYA DALAM SINTESIS ESTER XILITOL ASAM LEMAK (EXAL [The Use of Papaya Exudates for Fatty Acid Xilitol Synthesis

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    Suhardi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid xylitol-ester (FAXILE are xylitol esters of fatty acids with one to five DE (degree of esterification value. FAXILE with DE value of 3 or higher can be used as low calorie fat replacer since they have low digestive property; while the xylitol ester with DE of less than 3 can be used as emulsifier. The FAXILE synthesis experiments were carried out by esterification of xylitol with palm oil¡¦s fatty acid (POFA using papaya exudates as a lipase source. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential of papaya exuadates for the synthesis of FAXILE. In this first experiment, test were carried out to determine hydrolytic activity of lipases obtained from different part of papaya plant. The test, were performed with the presence of CaO and under different pH value. The papaya exudates were used for FAXILE synthesis under an optimum condition obtained from the first experiment. Samples were drawn during incubation at 40„aC for 1,2,3, and 4 days and hydroxyl number was analyzed to confirm the ester formation. The results showed that the most active exudate was from papaya leaves, followed by exudates from fruit with hydrolytic activity of 653 and 296 ƒÝmol/g. minutes, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of the fruit exudate was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45-50„aC, with the addition of CaO 4% dry exudates. The FAXILE synthesis with acid of papaya exudates was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45„aC with molar ratio of xylitol: fatty acids was 1 to 6,3 days incubation. At this condition the conversion rate xylitol to FAXILE was 79%.

  16. Ubiquitous water-soluble molecules in aquatic plant exudates determine specific insect attraction.

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    Julien Sérandour

    Full Text Available Plants produce semio-chemicals that directly influence insect attraction and/or repulsion. Generally, this attraction is closely associated with herbivory and has been studied mainly under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, the relationship between aquatic plants and insects has been little studied. To determine whether the roots of aquatic macrophytes release attractive chemical mixtures into the water, we studied the behaviour of mosquito larvae using olfactory experiments with root exudates. After testing the attraction on Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae, we chose to work with Coquillettidia species, which have a complex behaviour in nature and need to be attached to plant roots in order to obtain oxygen. This relationship is non-destructive and can be described as commensal behaviour. Commonly found compounds seemed to be involved in insect attraction since root exudates from different plants were all attractive. Moreover, chemical analysis allowed us to identify a certain number of commonly found, highly water-soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds, several of which (glycerol, uracil, thymine, uridine, thymidine were able to induce attraction when tested individually but at concentrations substantially higher than those found in nature. However, our principal findings demonstrated that these compounds appeared to act synergistically, since a mixture of these five compounds attracted larvae at natural concentrations (0.7 nM glycerol, <0.5 nM uracil, 0.6 nM thymine, 2.8 nM uridine, 86 nM thymidine, much lower than those found for each compound tested individually. These results provide strong evidence that a mixture of polyols (glycerol, pyrimidines (uracil, thymine, and nucleosides (uridine, thymidine functions as an efficient attractive signal in nature for Coquillettidia larvae. We therefore show for the first time, that such commonly found compounds may play an important role in plant-insect relationships in aquatic eco-systems.

  17. Foveal localization in non-exudative AMD using scanning laser polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanNasdale, Dean A; Elsner, Ann E; Kohne, Kimberly D; Peabody, Todd D; Malinovsky, Victor E; Haggerty, Bryan P; Weber, Anke; Clark, Christopher A

    2012-05-01

    To determine whether custom scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) images, differing in polarization content, can be used to accurately localize the fovea in the presence of non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To determine whether alterations to the foveal structure in non-exudative AMD significantly disrupts the birefringent Henle fiber layer, responsible for the macular cross pattern in some SLP images. To determine whether phase retardation information, specifically color-coded information representing its magnitude and axis, allow better foveal localization than images including retardation amplitude only. SLP images were acquired in 25 AMD subjects and 25 age-matched controls. Raw data were used to generate five custom image types differing in polarization content. The foveal location was marked by three graders in each image type for each subject. The difference in variability was compared between the AMD subjects and matched controls. We further determined whether the orientation of Henle fiber layer phase retardation improved localization in 10 subjects with the highest variability in images including only phase retardation amplitude. Images that differed in polarization content led to strikingly different visualizations of AMD pathology. The Henle fiber layer remained sufficiently intact to assist in fovea localization in all subjects but with more variability in the AMD group. For both the AMD and matched control group, images containing birefringence amplitude and orientation information reduced the amount of intragrader, intergrader, and interimage variability for estimating foveal location. The disruption in Henle fiber birefringence was evident in the eyes with AMD but nevertheless was sufficient to help in foveal localization despite macular pathology. Phase retardation amplitude and axis of orientation can be a useful tool in foveal localization in patients with AMD.

  18. Clinical Features and Course of Patients with Peripheral Exudative Hemorrhagic Chorioretinopathy

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    Zafer Cebeci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients who were followed in our clinic with the diagnosis of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHC. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 12 patients who were diagnosed with PEHC in İstanbul University İstanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology between July 2006 and June 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: This study included 21 eyes of 12 patients. Four (33.3% of the patients were male and 8 (66.7% were female and ages ranged between 73 and 89 years. Eight (66.7% of the patients were referred to us with the diagnosis of choroidal mass. Unilateral involvement was found in 3 and bilateral involvement in 9 patients. Temporal quadrants were involved in all eyes. Fifteen eyes (71.4% had subretinal hemorrhage and hemorrhagic/serous retinal pigment epithelial detachment, 11 (52.4% had lipid exudation, 5 (23.8% had chronic retinal pigment epithelium alterations, 2 (9.5% had subretinal fibrosis and 1 (4.8% had vitreous hemorrhage. PEHC lesions were accompanied by drusen in 11 eyes (52.4%, geographic atrophy in 2 eyes (9.5%, and choroidal neovascularization scar in 2 eyes (9.5%. Treatment was done in both eyes of a patient for lesions which threatened the macula, in a patient with bilateral macular edema and in a patient with vitreous hemorrhage. The remaining eyes were followed-up without any treatment because the lesions did not threaten the macula and they showed no progression during follow-up. Conclusion: PEHC is a degenerative disease of peripheral retina that is seen in older patients, and signs of age-related macular degeneration (AMD may accompany this pathology. Especially in patients with AMD findings, the peripheral retina must be evaluated carefully for existing PEHC lesions.

  19. Characteristics of type 1 and 2 CNV in exudative AMD in OCT-Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farecki, Marie-Louise; Gutfleisch, Matthias; Faatz, Henrik; Rothaus, Kai; Heimes, Britta; Spital, Georg; Lommatzsch, Albrecht; Pauleikhoff, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    With FA and SD-OCT, different types of CNV in exudative AMD may be differentiated: type 1 CNV (within the sub-RPE space, typically corresponding to angiographically occult CNV), type 2 CNV (within the subretinal space, typically corresponding to angiographically classic CNV) and type 3 NV (intraretinal retinal angiomatous proliferation). OCT-angiography (OCT-A) is a new method to visualize vasculature based on flow characteristics. A correlation of type 1 and 2 CNV was performed. Thirty-six eyes (17 type 1 CNV, 9 combined type 1 and 2 CNV, and 10 type 2 CNV) of 36 patients were examined by FA, SD-OCT and OCT-A. Standardized OCT-A segmentations were performed at the level of mid-choroid, choriocapillaris (CC), RPE and outer retina. On these images the size and demarcation of CNV lesions were classified: "not distinguishable", "minor" or "sharp" demarcation. Furthermore, the size of the different CNV subtypes was determined and compared. Both types of CNV were visible in OCT-A. They could be detected on the slabs "mid-choroid", "CC" and "RPE". While type 1 CNV showed most often a minor demarcation from the surrounding vasculature, type 2 CNV showed nearly always a sharp demarcation. In addition, type 2 CNV extended into the slab "outer retina" and were much smaller than type 1 CNV. Different types of CNV in exudative AMD can be visualized and differentiated with OCT-A. Type 1 CNV were larger with minor demarcation from the surrounding vasculature and were visible on the slab "mid-choroid", "CC" and "RPE". In contrast, type 2 CNV demonstrated a sharp demarcation from the surrounding vasculature reaching the slab "outer retina".

  20. Superior cervical gangliectomy induces non-exudative age-related macular degeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez, Hernán H; Romeo, Horacio E; Fleitas, María F González; Aranda, Marcos L; Milne, Georgia; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Dorfman, Damián

    2017-12-28

    Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration, a prevalent cause of blindness, is a progressive and degenerative disease, characterized by alterations in Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium, and photoreceptors exclusively localized in the macula. Despite there are experimental murine models, the vast majority take too long to develop retinal alterations, which in general are ubiquitous, many result from non-eye specific genetic manipulations, and most do not always reproduce the hallmarks of human age-related macular degeneration. Choroid vessels receive sympathetic innervation from the superior cervical ganglion, which together with the parasympathetic system, regulate the blood flow. Choroid blood flow changes have been involved in age-related macular degeneration development and progression. At present no experimental models take this factor into account. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of superior cervical gangliectomy on the choroid, Bruch's membrane, retinal pigment epithelium, and retina. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were submitted to unilateral superior cervical gangliectomy and a contralateral sham procedure. Although superior cervical gangliectomy induced ubiquitous choroid and choriocapillaris changes, it induced Bruch's membrane thickening, retinal pigment epithelium melanin content and retinoid isomerohydrolase loss, drusen-like deposit occurrence, and retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors atrophy, exclusively localized in the temporal side. Moreover, superior cervical gangliectomy provoked a localized increase in retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors apoptosis, and photoreceptors electroretinographic function decline. Therefore, superior cervical gangliectomy recapitulated the main features of human non-exudative age-related macular degeneration, and could become a new experimental model of dry age-related macular degeneration, and a useful platform for developing new therapies. © 2017. Published by The Company of

  1. Rigor mortis development at elevated temperatures induces pale exudative turkey meat characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, S R; Sams, A R

    1998-01-01

    Development of rigor mortis at elevated post-mortem temperatures may contribute to turkey meat characteristics that are similar to those found in pale, soft, exudative pork. To evaluate this effect, 36 Nicholas tom turkeys were processed at 19 wk of age and placed in water at 40, 20, and 0 C immediately after evisceration. Pectoralis muscle samples were taken at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h post-mortem and analyzed for R-value (an indirect measure of adenosine triphosphate), glycogen, pH, color, and sarcomere length. At 4 h, the remaining intact Pectoralis muscle was harvested, and aged on ice 23 h, and analyzed for drip loss, cook loss, shear values, and sarcomere length. By 15 min post-mortem, the 40 C treatment had higher R-values, which persisted through 4 h. By 1 h, the 40 C treatment pH and glycogen levels were lower than the 0 C treatment; however, they did not differ from those of the 20 C treatment. Increased L* values indicated that color became more pale by 2 h post-mortem in the 40 C treatment when compared to the 20 and 0 C treatments. Drip loss, cook loss, and shear value were increased whereas sarcomere lengths were decreased as a result of the 40 C treatment. These findings suggested that elevated post-mortem temperatures during processing resulted in acceleration of rigor mortis and biochemical changes in the muscle that produced pale, exudative meat characteristics in turkey.

  2. Functional properties of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative broiler meat in the production of mortadella

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    Cassiana Kissel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in order to evaluate whether the functional properties of broiler meat are affected by the factors that lead to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative. PSE meat was characterized by pH and L* values, and mortadella formulations consisted of isolated soy protein, sodium tripolyphosphate, and cassava starch in addition to PSE and normal meats. The functionality of the meat was evaluated by examining the water holding capacity (WHC, texture profile, emulsion stability (ES and color of the final products. The results show that in mortadella prepared with PSE meat, the protein denaturation affected the ES. Additives are necessary to enhance the functional properties of PSE meat.Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito dos fatores que conduzem à formação das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative sobre as propriedades funcionais da carne de frango. Carnes PSE foram caracterizadas pelos valores de pH e L* e as formulações da mortadela consistiram de proteina isolada de soja, trifosfato de sódio, amido de mandioca e a adição das carnes normal e PSE. A funcionalidade da carne foi avaliada medindo a capacidade de retenção de água (CRA, perfil de textura, estabilidade de emulsão (EE, e cor dos produtos finais. Os resultados mostraram que na mortadela preparada com carnes PSE, as proteinas desnaturadas afetaram a EE. Aditivos são necessários para potencializar as propriedades funcionais da carne PSE.

  3. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G.; Bott, S.; Ohler, M. A.; Mock, H.-P.; Lippmann, R.; Grosch, R.; Smalla, K.

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes. PMID:24478764

  4. Efficacy of dexamethasone versus bevacizumab on regression of hard exudates in diabetic maculopathy: data from the BEVORDEX randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Hemal; Fraser-Bell, Samantha; Yeung, Aaron; Campain, Anna; Lim, Lyndell L; Quin, Godfrey J; McAllister, Ian L; Keane, Pearse A; Gillies, Mark C

    2016-07-01

    To report the effect of bevacizumab versus dexamethasone on hard exudates (HEX) in diabetic macular oedema (DME). Post hoc analysis of 24-month data from the Randomised clinical trial of BEVacizumab OR DEXamethasone for diabetic macular oedema (BEVORDEX) phase 2 multicentre randomised clinical trial. Eyes with centre-involving DME resistant to or unlikely to benefit from macular laser therapy were included. Eyes were randomly assigned to bevacizumab every 4 weeks or Ozurdex dexamethasone implant (DEX) every 16 weeks, both as required. The 68 eyes from 48 patients that completed 24-month follow-up were analysed. Two masked graders assessed extent and location of HEX on baseline, 12-month and 24-month foveal-centred colour fundus photographs using validated grading software. Macular HEX was present in 60% of study eyes. Of these, 21 eyes were treated with DEX and 20 eyes with bevacizumab. Both treatments led to reduction in area of macular HEX at 12 months and 24 months. There was greater regression of HEX from the foveal centre in DEX-treated eyes (median change +890 µm, IQR=1040 µm) than bevacizumab-treated eyes (median change +7.0 µm, IQR=590 µm) at 12 months (p=0.04) but the difference was no longer statistically significant (p=0.10) by 24 months (DEX +1400 µm, IQR=1590 µm; bevacizumab +20 µm, IQR=2680 µm). Reassuringly, no study eye developed HEX at the foveal centre, a visually devastating consequence of diabetic maculopathy. Bevacizumab and DEX were effective in reducing area of HEX in eyes with DME. DEX provided more rapid regression of HEX from the foveal centre although bevacizumab-treated eyes started to catch up by 24 months. Distance from the foveal centre as well as total area of macular HEX should be assessed when evaluating treatments for foveal-threatening HEX. NCT01298076; Post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Fabrício Marchi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% halothane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342 aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+ or insensitive (HAL-, depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94 of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248 were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesia foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352 com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL + e não-sensível (HAL -, baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94 frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248 HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75 foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade

  6. Phytosiderophore release by wheat genotypes differing in zinc deficiency tolerance grown with Zn-free nutrient solution as affected by salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshbakhsh, Bahareh; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossein; Shariatmadari, Hossein; Cakmak, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information concerning the effect of salinity on phytosiderophores exudation from wheat roots. The aim of this hydroponic experiment was to investigate the effect of salinity on phytosiderophore release by roots of three bread wheat genotypes differing in Zn efficiency (Triticum aestivum L. cvs. Rushan, Kavir, and Cross) under Zn deficiency conditions. Wheat seedlings were transferred to Zn-free nutrient solutions and exposed to three salinity levels (0, 60, and 120 mM NaCl). The results indicated that Cross and Rushan genotypes exuded more phytosiderophore than did the Kavir genotype. Our findings suggest that the adaptive capacity of Zn-efficient 'Cross' and 'Rushan' wheat genotypes to Zn deficiency is due partly to the higher amounts of phytosiderophore release. Only 15 days of Zn deficiency stress was sufficient to distinguish between Zn-efficient (Rushan and Cross) and Zn-inefficient (Kavir) genotypes, with the former genotypes exuding more phytosiderophore than the latter. Higher phytosiderophore exudation under Zn deficiency conditions was accompanied by greater Fe transport from root to shoot. The maximum amount of phytosiderophore was exuded at the third week in 'Cross' and at the fourth week in 'Kavir' and 'Rushan'. For all three wheat genotypes, salinity stress resulted in higher amounts of phytosiderophore exuded by the roots. In general, for 'Kavir', the largest amount of phytosiderophore was exuded from the roots at the highest salinity level (120mM NaCl), while for 'Cross' and 'Rushan', no significant difference was found in phytosiderophore exudation between the 60 and 120 mM NaCl treatments. More investigation is needed to fully understand the physiology of elevated phytosiderophore release by Zn-deficient wheat plants under salinity conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Exudates used as medicine by the "caboclos river-dwellers" of the Unini River, AM, Brazil – classification based in their chemical composition

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    João Henrique G. Lago

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the use of exudates in traditional medicine has been commonly observed during ethnopharmacological surveys, few records have been made concerning the scientific merits of these products. The aim of this study was to document ethnopharmacological data and to classify exudates used as medicine by the "caboclos" river-dwellers from the Unini River of Amazonas, Brazil, on chemical analyses basis. Using an ethnographic approach, indicated plants and their respective exudates were collected, identified and incorporated into herbarium of the National Institute of Amazonian Research. To classify these exudates, plant material was extracted using methanol, and obtained extracts were analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and mass spectrometry aiming identification of main compounds. Fifteen exudates were indicated by "caboclos" river-dwellers as home remedies; among their therapeutic uses, inflammatory processes, culture-bound syndromes and respiratory diseases are most prominent. Based on their solubility and chemicals classes, fifteen exudates were classified into: latex (7, resins (5, sap (1, gum (1, oleoresin (1; and eleven of them have not been mentioned on pharmacological literature until this moment. The obtained results may contribute to chemical/pharmacological application of exudates from these species, several of which have been classically used in Brazilian folk medicine.

  8. The effects of technological advances on outcomes for elderly persons with exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A; Hanrahan, Brian W

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the major cause of blindness among US elderly. Developing effective therapies for this disease has been difficult. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of introducing new therapies for treating exudative ARMD on vision of the affected population and other outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having ARMD. DESIGN The study used data from a 5% sample of Medicare claims and enrollment data with a combination of a regression discontinuity design and propensity score matching to assess the effects on the introduction or receipt of new technologies on study outcomes during a 2-year follow-up period. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS The analysis was based on longitudinal data for the United States, January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2011, for Medicare beneficiaries with fee-for-service coverage. The sample was limited to beneficiaries 68 years or older newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD as indicated by beneficiaries having no claims with this diagnosis in a 3-year look-back period. EXPOSURES The comparisons with vision outcomes were after vs before the introduction of photodynamic therapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. The comparisons for depression and long-term care facility admission were between beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD who received photodynamic therapy or anti-VEGF therapy compared with beneficiaries having the diagnosis who received no therapy for this disease. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Onset of decrease in vision, vision loss or blindness, depression, and admission to a long-term care facility. RESULTS Among beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD, the introduction of anti-VEGF therapy reduced vision loss by 41% (95% CI, 52%-68%) and onset of severe vision loss and blindness by 46% (95% CI, 47%-63%). Such beneficiaries who received anti-VEGF therapy and were not admitted to a long-term care facility during the look

  9. Diversity and function of the microbial community on anodes of sediment microbial fuel cells fueled by root exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas da Rosa, Angela

    2010-11-26

    Anode microbial communities are essential for current production in microbial fuel cells. Anode reducing bacteria are capable of using the anode as final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain. The electrons delivered to the anode travel through a circuit to the cathode where they reduce oxygen to water generating an electric current. A novel type of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) harvest energy from photosynthetically derived compounds released through the roots. Nothing is known about anode microbial communities of this type of microbial fuel cell. This work consists of three parts. The first part focuses on the study of bacterial and archaeal community compositions on anodes of SMFCs fueled by rice root exudates. By using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), a profiling technique, and cloning / sequencing of 16S rRNA, we determined that the support type used for the plant (vermiculite, potting soil or rice field soil) is an important factor determining the composition of the microbial community. Finally, by comparing microbial communities of current producing anodes and non-current producing controls we determined that Desulfobulbus- and Geobacter-related populations were probably most important for current production in potting soil and rice field soil SMFCs, respectively. However, {delta}-proteobacterial Anaeromyxobacter spp., unclassified {delta}-proteobacteria and Anaerolineae were also part of the anode biofilm in rice field soil SMFCs and these populations might also play a role in current production. Moreover, distinct clusters of Geobacter and Anaeromyxobacter populations were stimulated by rice root exudates. Regarding Archaea, uncultured Euryarchaea were abundant on anodes of potting soil SMFCs indicating a potential role in current production. In both, rice field soil and potting soil SMFCs, a decrease of Methanosaeta, an acetotrophic methanogen, was detected on current producing anodes. In the second part we focused

  10. Monitoring post mortem changes in porcine muscle through 2-D DIGE proteome analysis of Longissimus muscle exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Alessio; Elia, Giuliano; Mullen, Anne Maria; Hamill, Ruth M

    2013-03-20

    Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by a range of factors with post mortem biochemical processes highly influential in defining ultimate quality. High resolution two-dimensional DIfference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and Western blot were applied to study the influence of post mortem meat ageing on the proteome of pork muscle. Exudate collected from the muscle following centrifugation was analysed at three timepoints representing a seven day meat ageing period. The intensity of 136 spots varied significantly (p meat ageing. Since cellular conditions alter with muscle ageing, changes in solubility may also contribute to observed abundance profiles. Muscle exudate provided valuable information about the pathways and processes underlying the post mortem ageing period, highlighting the importance of post mortem modification of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits.

  11. Dominant amino acids, organic acids and sugars in water-soluble root exudates of C4 plants: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Vranová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this mini-review was to identify the dominant carbohydrates, organic acids and amino ­acids in water-soluble root exudates of plants which represent dominant compounds there. The study is focused on plants of C4-type of metabolism taking into account available literature. From group of carbohydrates, those dominant are represented glucose, fructose, arabinose and sucrose. Between dominant amino acids occurring in root exudates of C4-metabolism plants are alanine, se­rine, arginine, glutamine, glutamic and aspartic acid, glycine, proline, cystine, lysine and g-aminobutyric acid. Citric, malic, tartaric, succinic, trans-aconitic represent the dominant organic acids. This knowledge may be useful for planning analyses of these compounds in root exudates of C4 plants. Except for this preparation of synthetic root exudates to simulate rhizosphere of C4 plants may be performed based on these results.

  12. LOC387715/HTRA1 polymorphisms, smoking and combined effects on exudative age-related macular degeneration in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo J; Kim, Na R; Chin, Hee S

    2010-10-01

    This study was to investigate the association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LOC387715 and HTRA1 with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a Korean population and the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in the development of AMD. We genotyped two SNPs that are located in the LOC387715 locus (rs10490924) and HTRA1 (rs11200638) in 137 cases of exudative AMD and 187 controls. Both two SNPs were significantly associated with AMD (P = 0.0001). Homozygotes for the risk allele at LOC387715 and HTRA1 had a 3.80-fold and a 4.03-fold increased risk of exudative AMD, respectively, compared with homozygotes for the wild-type allele (P = 0.0001). The joint effects for complement factor H (CFH) Y402H and 10q26 variants indicated an increased risk of exudative AMD. The odds ratios (ORs) of AMD for individuals carrying one-, two- and three-copy risk alleles of CFH Y402H and LOC387715 were 1.08, 3.49 and 3.64, respectively. Also, the combination effect of the CFH Y402H risk alleles with HTRA1 risk alleles was dose-dependent. The interaction analysis between gene and environmental factors showed that among several factors, smoking synergistically increased the susceptibility of AMD for variants of LOC387715 and HTRA1, with OR 8.33 (3.05-22.74) and OR 8.50 (3.07-23.51), respectively. This study demonstrated the significant association of the 10q26 SNPs (HTRA1 and LOC387715) in an AMD cohort from Korea and was consistent with previous studies from other populations. Also, a statistically significant interaction between genetic and environmental factors was found. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Quantification and enzyme targets of fatty acid amides from duckweed root exudates involved in the stimulation of denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Lu, Yufang; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2016-07-01

    Fatty acid amides from plant root exudates, such as oleamide and erucamide, have the ability to participate in strong plant-microbe interactions, stimulating nitrogen metabolism in rhizospheric bacteria. However, mechanisms of secretion of such fatty acid amides, and the nature of their stimulatory activities on microbial metabolism, have not been examined. In the present study, collection, pre-treatment, and determination methods of oleamide and erucamide in duckweed root exudates are compared. The detection limits of oleamide and erucamide by gas chromatography (GC) (10.3ngmL(-1) and 16.1ngmL(-1), respectively) are shown to be much lower than those by liquid chromatography (LC) (1.7 and 5.0μgmL(-1), respectively). Quantitative GC analysis yielded five times larger amounts of oleamide and erucamide in root exudates of Spirodela polyrrhiza when using a continuous collection method (50.20±4.32 and 76.79±13.92μgkg(-1) FW day(-1)), compared to static collection (10.88±0.66 and 15.27±0.58μgkg(-1) FW day(-1)). Furthermore, fatty acid amide secretion was significantly enhanced under elevated nitrogen conditions (>300mgL(-1)), and was negatively correlated with the relative growth rate of duckweed. Mechanistic assays were conducted to show that erucamide stimulates nitrogen removal by enhancing denitrification, targeting two key denitrifying enzymes, nitrate and nitrite reductases, in bacteria. Our findings significantly contribute to our understanding of the regulation of nitrogen dynamics by plant root exudates in natural ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring post mortem changes in porcine muscle through 2-D DIGE proteome analysis of Longissimus muscle exudate

    OpenAIRE

    Di Luca, Alessio; Elia, Giuliano; Mullen, Anne Maria; Hamill, Ruth M

    2013-01-01

    Background Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by a range of factors with post mortem biochemical processes highly influential in defining ultimate quality. High resolution two-dimensional DIfference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and Western blot were applied to study the influence of post mortem meat ageing on the proteome of pork muscle. Exudate collected from the muscle following centrifugation was analysed at three timepoints representing a seven day meat ageing period. Results Th...

  15. Cycloartane-type triterpenoids from the resinous exudates of Commiphora opobalsamum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Wan, Wen-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Ji, Mei; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Eight new cycloartane-type triterpenoids, cycloartan-24-ene-1alpha,2alpha,3alpha-triol (1), 3beta-acetoxycycloartan-24-ene-1alpha,2alpha-diol (2), 1alpha-acetoxycycloartan-24-ene-2alpha,3beta-diol (3), 3beta-isovaleroyloxycycloartan-24-ene-1alpha,2alpha-diol (4), cycloartan-24-ene-1alpha,3beta-diol (5), cycloartan-23 E-ene-1alpha,2alpha,3beta,25-tetrol (6), and an epimeric mixture of 24 R,25-epoxycycloartane-1alpha,2alpha,3beta-triol (7) and 24 S,25-epoxycycloartane-1alpha,2alpha,3beta-triol (8), together with one known compound, cycloartan-24-ene-1alpha,2alpha,3beta-triol (9), were isolated from the resinous exudates of Commiphora opobalsamum. Their structures were established on the basis of mass spectrometry and multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1-9 was evaluated against the PC3 and DU145 human prostate tumor cell lines. All of the compounds except 1 and 5 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against PC3 or DU145 cells with IC50 values ranging from 10.1 to 37.2 microM.

  16. Identification and effects of interaction phytotoxic compounds from exudate of Cistus ladanifer leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, N; Sosa, T; Alías, J C; Escudero, J C

    2001-03-01

    Eleven allelochemicals (ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, methyl propionate, oxalic acid, methylmalonic acid, p-anisic acid, butyric acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and azulene) were identified in the exudate of Cistus ladanifer L. We studied the effect of each on germination, cotyledon emergence, root length, and cotyledon length of Rumex crispus. Three groups were distinguished with respect to phytotoxic activity: compounds with low activity (ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, oxalic acid, methylmalonic acid, p-anisic acid, hydroxybutyric acid, and azulene), with intermediate activity (cinnamic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid), and with high activity (methyl propionate and butyric acid). The effect of the interaction of the compounds was studied. When acting conjointly, all combinations tested produced a more negative effect on both germination and seedling growth than when acting alone. The interaction affected cotyledon emergence and root length more negatively than germination and cotyledon length. When hydroxycinnamic acid and cinnamic acid were added to these mixtures there was an enhancement in the phytotoxic activity, accentuating the effect of the other allelochemicals.

  17. Automated detection of exudates and macula for grading of diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, M Usman; Tariq, Anam; Khan, Shoab A; Javed, M Younus

    2014-04-01

    Medical systems based on state of the art image processing and pattern recognition techniques are very common now a day. These systems are of prime interest to provide basic health care facilities to patients and support to doctors. Diabetic macular edema is one of the retinal abnormalities in which diabetic patient suffers from severe vision loss due to affected macula. It affects the central vision of the person and causes total blindness in severe cases. In this article, we propose an intelligent system for detection and grading of macular edema to assist the ophthalmologists in early and automated detection of the disease. The proposed system consists of a novel method for accurate detection of macula using a detailed feature set and Gaussian mixtures model based classifier. We also present a new hybrid classifier as an ensemble of Gaussian mixture model and support vector machine for improved exudate detection even in the presence of other bright lesions which eventually leads to reliable classification of input retinal image in different stages of macular edema. The statistical analysis and comparative evaluation of proposed system with existing methods are performed on publicly available standard retinal image databases. The proposed system has achieved average value of 97.3%, 95.9% and 96.8% for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy respectively on both databases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant Activity of a New Aromatic Geranyl Derivative of the Resinous Exudates from Heliotropium glutinosum Phil.

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    Federico Luebert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. (Heliotropiceae is a resinous bush that grows at a height of 2000 m in Chañaral, Chile. From the resinous exudates of Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. a new aromatic geranyl derivative: 4-methoxy-3-[(2-7’-methyl-3’-hydroxymethyl-2’,6’-octadienyl] phenol (1 and three flavonoids: 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (2, 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (3 and 4'-acetyl-5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4 were isolated and their structures were determined. Their antioxidant activity were evaluated using the bleaching of ABTS and DPPH derived cation radical methods and expressed in terms of FRE (fast reacting equivalents and TRE (total reacting equivalents, where FRE is a good measure of the quick protection of a given compound against oxidants and TRE measures the degree of long-term protection of the antioxidant, or how effective it is against a strong oxidative stress.

  19. Diagnostic Value and Safety of Medical Thoracoscopy in the Management of Exudative Pleural Effusion

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    Mehmet Akif Özgül

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medical thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that is performed by experienced pulmonologists under local anesthesia and conscious intravenous sedation. It allows direct observation and evaluation of the pleural space. Our aim is to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy and safety of this procedure while presenting our results of medical thoracoscopy performed by rigid thoracoscopy in our clinic. Methods: Thirty-seven patients who had gone thorough medical thoracoscopy between March 2011 and August 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Of these 37 patients, 26 were male and the average age was 50.94±15.38 years. Fourteen patients had right-sided pleural effusion, whereas 23 had left-sided pleural effusion. Closed pleural biopsy was performed previously in 16 patients with no diagnostic results. In 36 patients (97.3%, a specific diagnosis was achieved. One patient, diagnosed as lymphocytic pleuritis by medical thoracoscopy, underwent decortication and the pathology was consistent with biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma. Another patient, diagnosed as chronic nonspecific pleuritis with medical thoracoscopy, underwent decortication and the diagnosis was fibrinous pleuritis characterized by extensive fibrosis. Three patients had expansion defects during the post-operative period. Hemothorax occurred in one patient that died of respiratory failure on day 34 of hospitalization. The median length of stay in the hospital after the procedure was 5 days (1–34. Conclusion: Medical thoracoscopy is a secure procedure with high diagnostic value in the management of exudative pleural effusion.

  20. Protein profile of Lupinus texensis phloem sap exudates: searching for Fe- and Zn-containing proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Andaluz, Sofía; Matros, Andrea; Calvete, Juan José; Kehr, Julia; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana-Flor

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive overview of the phloem sap protein profile of Lupinus texensis, with a special focus on proteins binding Fe and Zn. L. texensis was chosen as model plant given the simplicity to obtain exudates from sieve elements. Protein profiling by 2DE revealed 249 spots, and 54 of them were unambiguously identified by MALDI-MS and ESI-MS/MS. The largest number of identified protein species belongs to protein modification/turnover and general metabolism (19-21%), followed by redox homeostasis (9%) and defense and cell structural components (7%). This protein profile is similar to that reported in other plant species, suggesting that the phloem sap proteome is quite conserved. Staining of 2DE gels for Fe-containing proteins and affinity chromatography experiments revealed the presence of two low molecular weight Fe-binding proteins in phloem sap: a metallothionein-like protein type 2B identified in the Fe-affinity chromatography, and a second protein identified with both Fe staining methods. This protein species had a molecular weight of 13.5 kDa, a pI of 5.6 and 51% homology to a phloem-specific protein from Medicago truncatula. Zinc affinity chromatography revealed four Zn-binding proteins in phloem sap, one belonging to the dehydrin family and three Zn finger proteins. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Automated Fovea Detection in Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Scans of Exudative Macular Disease

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    Jing Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In macular spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT volumes, detection of the foveal center is required for accurate and reproducible follow-up studies, structure function correlation, and measurement grid positioning. However, disease can cause severe obscuring or deformation of the fovea, thus presenting a major challenge in automated detection. We propose a fully automated fovea detection algorithm to extract the fovea position in SD-OCT volumes of eyes with exudative maculopathy. The fovea is classified into 3 main appearances to both specify the detection algorithm used and reduce computational complexity. Based on foveal type classification, the fovea position is computed based on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Mean absolute distance between system and clinical expert annotated fovea positions from a dataset comprised of 240 SD-OCT volumes was 162.3 µm in cystoid macular edema and 262 µm in nAMD. The presented method has cross-vendor functionality, while demonstrating accurate and reliable performance close to typical expert interobserver agreement. The automatically detected fovea positions may be used as landmarks for intra- and cross-patient registration and to create a joint reference frame for extraction of spatiotemporal features in “big data.” Furthermore, reliable analyses of retinal thickness, as well as retinal structure function correlation, may be facilitated.

  2. Influence of Cooling on the Glycolysis Rate and Development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayka Reghiany Pedrão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate pH values fall rate in chicken breast meat under commercial refrigeration processing conditions and the development of PSE (pale, soft, exudative meat. Broiler breast samples from the Cobb breed, both genders, at 47 days of age (n = 100 were taken from refrigerated carcasses (RS immersed in water and ice in a tank chilled at 0°C (±2. pH and temperature (T values were recorded at several periods throughout refrigeration in comparison to samples left at room T as control (CS. The ultimate pH (pHu value of 5.86 for RS carcasses were only reached at 11°C after 8.35 h post mortem (PM while, for CS samples, pHu value was 5.94 at 22°C after 4.08 h PM. Thus, under commercial refrigeration conditions, the glycolysis rate was retarded by over 4.0 h PM and the breast meat color was affected. At 24.02 h PM, PSE meat incidence was 30% while for CS, meat remained dark and PSE meat was not detected. Results show retardation in the glycolysis rate and PSE meat development was promoted by the refrigeration treatment when compared with samples stored at processing room temperature.

  3. Cr(VI) and lindane removal by Streptomyces M7 is improved by maize root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon Sola, María Z; Pérez Visñuk, Daiana; Benimeli, Claudia S; Polti, Marta Alejandra; Alvarez, Analia

    2017-09-21

    Environmental mixed pollution by both organic and inorganic compounds are detected worldwide. Phytoremediation techniques have been proposed as ecofriendly methods for cleaning up polluted sites. Several studies have demonstrated enhanced dissipation of contaminants at the root-soil interface through an increase in microbial activity caused by the release of plant root exudates (REs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness for Cr(VI) and lindane removal by Streptomyces M7 cultured in a co-contaminated system in presence of maize REs. Our results showed when REs were added to the contaminated minimal medium (MM) as the only carbon source, microbial removal of Cr(VI) and lindane increased significantly in comparison to contaminant removal obtained in MM with glucose 1 g L(-1) . The maximum removal of 91% of lindane and 49.5% of Cr(VI) were obtained in the co-contaminated system. Moreover, Streptomyces M7 showed plant growth promoting traits which could improve plant performance in contaminated soils. The results presented in this study provide evidence that maize REs improved growth of Streptomyces M7 when REs were used as a carbon source in comparison to glucose. Consequently, lindane and Cr(VI) removal was considerably enhanced making evident the phytoremediation potential of the actinobacteria-plant partnership. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The gum exudate of Encephalartos longifolius Lehm. (female): further hydrolytic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, D C; Stephen, A M

    1993-01-15

    Sequential, acid hydrolysis of the gum exudate from Encephalartos longifolius cones gave the neutral disaccharides beta-Gal-(1-->3)-Ara (1), beta-Gal-(1-->3)-Gal, and beta-Gal-(1-->6)-Gal; the triouronic acid beta-GlcA-(1-->6)-beta-Gal-(1-->3)-Ara (2); and the biouronic acids described earlier, namely, beta-GlcA-(1-->6)-Gal (3), beta-4-O-MeGlcA-(1-->6)-Gal, and beta-GlcA-(1-->2)-Man (4). Oligomers up to the tetramer of beta-GlcA-(1-->2)-Man alpha-linked through O-4 of GlcA characterised the inner, core region of the complex acidic polysaccharide. Alternating GlcA and Man residues were indicated by FABMS of methylated, acid-degraded gum. The presence of the constituent sugar units was confirmed by methylation of the gum and partition chromatography of the products of acid hydrolysis. Partial hydrolysis gave fractions containing terminal and in-chain GlcA attached to Gal and Man. Base-catalysed degradation of the methylated products showed Rha to be exterior to GlcA in the periphery.

  5. Exudative retinopathy, cerebral calcifications, duodenal atresia, preaxial polydactyly, micropenis, microcephaly and short stature: a new syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidor, Bertrand; Le Meur, Guylène; Conti, Carole; Caldagues, Emmanuelle; Lainey, Elodie; Launay, Elise; Leclair, Marc David; Le Francois, Thomas; Pichon, Olivier; Boisseau, Pierre; Migraine, Audrey; Keren, Boris; Le Caignec, Cédric; Crow, Yanick J; David, Albert

    2013-08-01

    The association of Coats disease with intrauterine growth retardation, intracranial calcification, leukodystrophy, brain cysts, osteopenia, and gastrointestinal bleeding defines Coats plus syndrome caused by mutations in the CTC1 gene, encoding conserved telomere maintenance component 1. Here, we report on a child with exudative retinopathy, cerebral calcifications, duodenal atresia, preaxial polydactyly, micropenis, microcephaly, and short stature, in whom no mutations in CTC1 were found. Our patient shares some features seen in other diseases associated with telomere shortening including Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson and Revesz syndromes. We therefore measured telomere length by Flow-Fish which was normal. The association of duodenal atresia and microcephaly also suggested a diagnosis of Feingold syndrome. However, direct sequencing of MYCN was normal, and we did not detect any hemizygous deletion of the miR-17∼92 polycistronic miRNA cluster. To our knowledge, the phenotype we report on has not been described previously, leading us to speculate that this condition may represent a new syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Genotype-Phenotype Characterization of Novel Variants in Six Italian Patients with Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarossi, Giancarlo; Bertelli, Matteo; Maltese, Paolo Enrico; Gusson, Elena; Marchini, Giorgio; Bruson, Alice; Benedetti, Sabrina; Volpetti, Sabrina; Catena, Gino; Buzzonetti, Luca; Ziccardi, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a complex disorder characterized by incomplete development of the retinal vasculature. Here, we report the results obtained on the spectrum of genetic variations and correlated phenotypes found in a cohort of Italian FEVR patients. Eight probands (age range 7-19 years) were assessed by genetic analysis and comprehensive age-appropriate ophthalmic examination. Genetic testing investigated the genes most widely associated in literature with FEVR: FZD4, LRP5, TSPAN12, and NDP. Clinical and genetic evaluations were extended to relatives of probands positive to genetic testing. Six out of eight probands (75%) showed a genetic variation probably related to the phenotype. We identified four novel genetic variants, one variant already described in association with Norrie disease and one previously described linked to autosomal dominant FEVR. Pedigree analysis of patients led to the classification of four autosomal dominant cases of FEVR (caused by FZD4 and TSPAN12 variants) and two X-linked FEVR probands (NDP variants). None of the patients showed variants in the LRP5 gene. This study represents the largest cohort study in Italian FEVR patients. Our findings are in agreement with the previous literature confirming that FEVR is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous retinal disorder, even when it manifests in the same family.

  7. Genotype-Phenotype Characterization of Novel Variants in Six Italian Patients with Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Iarossi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR is a complex disorder characterized by incomplete development of the retinal vasculature. Here, we report the results obtained on the spectrum of genetic variations and correlated phenotypes found in a cohort of Italian FEVR patients. Eight probands (age range 7–19 years were assessed by genetic analysis and comprehensive age-appropriate ophthalmic examination. Genetic testing investigated the genes most widely associated in literature with FEVR: FZD4, LRP5, TSPAN12, and NDP. Clinical and genetic evaluations were extended to relatives of probands positive to genetic testing. Six out of eight probands (75% showed a genetic variation probably related to the phenotype. We identified four novel genetic variants, one variant already described in association with Norrie disease and one previously described linked to autosomal dominant FEVR. Pedigree analysis of patients led to the classification of four autosomal dominant cases of FEVR (caused by FZD4 and TSPAN12 variants and two X-linked FEVR probands (NDP variants. None of the patients showed variants in the LRP5 gene. This study represents the largest cohort study in Italian FEVR patients. Our findings are in agreement with the previous literature confirming that FEVR is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous retinal disorder, even when it manifests in the same family.

  8. Benzoxazinoids in root exudates of maize attract Pseudomonas putida to the rhizosphere.

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    Andrew L Neal

    Full Text Available Benzoxazinoids, such as 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H-one (DIMBOA, are secondary metabolites in grasses. In addition to their function in plant defence against pests and diseases above-ground, benzoxazinoids (BXs have also been implicated in defence below-ground, where they can exert allelochemical or antimicrobial activities. We have studied the impact of BXs on the interaction between maize and Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a competitive coloniser of the maize rhizosphere with plant-beneficial traits. Chromatographic analyses revealed that DIMBOA is the main BX compound in root exudates of maize. In vitro analysis of DIMBOA stability indicated that KT2440 tolerance of DIMBOA is based on metabolism-dependent breakdown of this BX compound. Transcriptome analysis of DIMBOA-exposed P. putida identified increased transcription of genes controlling benzoate catabolism and chemotaxis. Chemotaxis assays confirmed motility of P. putida towards DIMBOA. Moreover, colonisation essays in soil with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP-expressing P. putida showed that DIMBOA-producing roots of wild-type maize attract significantly higher numbers of P. putida cells than roots of the DIMBOA-deficient bx1 mutant. Our results demonstrate a central role for DIMBOA as a below-ground semiochemical for recruitment of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria during the relatively young and vulnerable growth stages of maize.

  9. Early Lotus japonicus root transcriptomic responses to symbiotic and pathogenic fungal exudates

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    Marco eGiovannetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate Lotus japonicus transcriptomic responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM germinated spore exudates (GSE, responsible for activating nuclear Ca2+ spiking in plant root epidermis. A microarray experiment was performed comparing gene expression in Lotus rootlets treated with GSE or water after 24 h and 48 h. The transcriptional pattern of selected genes that resulted to be regulated in the array was further evaluated upon different treatments and timings. In particular, Lotus rootlets were treated with: GSE from the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum trifolii; short chitin oligomers (acknowledged AM fungal signals and long chitin oligomers (as activators of pathogenic responses. This experimental set up has revealed that AM GSE generates a strong transcriptomic response in Lotus roots with an extensive defense-related response after 24 hours and a subsequent downregulation after 48 hours. A similar subset of defense-related genes resulted to be upregulated also upon treatment with C. trifolii GSE, although with an opposite trend. Surprisingly, long chitin oligomers activated both defense-like and symbiosis-related genes. Among the genes regulated in the microarray, promoter-GUS assay showed that LjMATE1 activates in epidermal cells and root hairs.

  10. Degradation of proteins by enzymes exuded by Allium porrum roots - a potentially important strategy for acquiring organic nitrogen by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Bartosz; Godlewski, Mirosław; Smolander, Aino; Kitunen, Veikko

    2009-10-01

    Nitrogen is one of the crucial elements that regulate plant growth and development. It is well-established that plants can acquire nitrogen from soil in the form of low-molecular-mass compounds, namely nitrate and ammonium, but also as amino acids. Nevertheless, nitrogen in the soil occurs mainly as proteins or proteins complexed with other organic compounds. Proteins are believed not to be available to plants. However, there is increasing evidence to suggest that plants can actively participate in proteolysis by exudation of proteases by roots and can obtain nitrogen from digested proteins. To gain insight into the process of organic nitrogen acquisition from proteins by leek roots (Allium porrum L. cv. Bartek), casein, bovine serum albumin and oxidized B-chain of insulin were used; their degradation products, after exposure to plant culture medium, were studied using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Casein was degraded to a great extent, but the level of degradation of bovine serum albumin and the B-chain of insulin was lower. Proteases exuded by roots cleaved proteins, releasing low-molecular-mass peptides that can be taken up by roots. Various peptide fragments produced by digestion of the oxidized B-chain of insulin suggested that endopeptidase, but also exopeptidase activity was present. After identification, proteases were similar to cysteine protease from Arabidopsis thaliana. In conclusion, proteases exuded by roots may have great potential in the plant nitrogen nutrition.

  11. Whole transcriptomic analysis of the plant-beneficial rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 during enhanced biofilm formation regulated by maize root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Yang, Dongqing; Wang, Dandan; Miao, Youzhi; Shao, Jiahui; Zhou, Xuan; Xu, Zhihui; Li, Qing; Feng, Haichao; Li, Shuqing; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2015-09-07

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with outstanding abilities to enhance plant growth and to control soil-borne diseases. Root exudates is known to play important roles in plant-microbe interactions. To explore the rhizosphere interactions and plant-beneficial characteristics of SQR9, the complete genome sequence as well as the transcriptome in response to maize root exudates under biofilm-forming conditions were elucidated. Maize root exudates stimulated SQR9 biofilm formation in liquid culture, which is known to be positively correlated with enhanced root colonization. Transcriptional profiling via RNA-sequencing of SQR9 under static conditions indicated that, at 24 h post-inoculation, root exudates stimulated the expression of metabolism-relevant genes, while at 48 h post-inoculation, genes related to extracellular matrix production (tapA-sipW-tasA operon) were activated by root exudates. The individual components in maize root exudates that stimulated biofilm formation included glucose, citric acid, and fumaric acid, which either promoted the growth of SQR9 cells or activated extracellular matrix production. In addition, numerous groups of genes involved in rhizosphere adaptation and in plant-beneficial traits, including plant polysaccharide utilization, cell motility and chemotaxis, secondary antibiotics synthesis clusters, and plant growth promotion-relevant, were identified in the SQR9 genome. These genes also appeared to be induced by the maize root exudates. Enhanced biofilm formation of B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by maize root exudates could mainly be attributed to promoting cell growth and to inducing extracellular matrix production. The genomic analysis also highlighted the elements involved in the strain's potential as a PGPR. This study provides useful information for understanding plant-rhizobacteria interactions and hence for promoting the agricultural applications of this strain.

  12. A COMPARISON OF TWO DESLORATADINE PREPARATIONS’ (SOLUTION AND SYRUP EFFECTIVENESS AND TOLERABILITY IN ATOPIC DERMATITIS TREATMENT IN CHILDREN OF EARLY AGE

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    I. V. Makarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of desloratadine solution vs syrup formulation in children with atopic dermatitis. Methods: Children of the 1st group received desloratadine solution and children of the 2nd group received desloratadine syrup 1,25 mg o.d. in complex atopic dermatitis treatment including also topical therapy, diet and emollients, for 4 weeks. Results: 40 children 12 to 24 months of age with no more than 45 points on the SCORAD scale were included in open-label comparative randomized trial. Subjective atopic dermatitis symptoms, itch and sleep disturbance due to itching, most rapidly decreased after treatment beginning. At the end of the study, itch completely resolved in most patients. Other symptoms such as erythema, papules and skin edema, excoriations, crusts and exudation also decreased. The SCORAD index decreased from 35.9 to 3.45 points and from 34.9 to 3.45 points in the 1st and the 2nd treatment groups, respectively. Treatment tolerability was good in both groups. Conclusion: Desloratadine application in atopic dermatitis complex treatment is effective in children and gives possibility to reach a disease remission in most patients. We did not reveal significant differences in two desloratadine preparations’ (solution and syrup effectiveness and tolerability. 

  13. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  14. Peritumoral tissue compression is predictive of exudate flux in a rat model of cerebral tumor: an MRI study in an embedded tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, James R; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Aryal, Madhava P; Keenan, Kelly A; Elmghirbi, Rasha; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Panda, Swayamprava; Lu, Mei; Mikkelsen, Tom; Cabral, Glauber; Brown, Stephen L

    2015-11-01

    MRI estimates of extracellular volume and tumor exudate flux in peritumoral tissue are demonstrated in an experimental model of cerebral tumor. Peritumoral extracellular volume predicted the tumor exudate flux. Eighteen RNU athymic rats were inoculated intracerebrally with U251MG tumor cells and studied with dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) approximately 18 days post implantation. Using a model selection paradigm and a novel application of Patlak and Logan plots to DCE-MRI data, the distribution volume (i.e. tissue porosity) in the leaky rim of the tumor and that in the tissue external to the rim (the outer rim) were estimated, as was the tumor exudate flow from the inner rim of the tumor through the outer rim. Distribution volume in the outer rim was approximately half that of the inner adjacent region (p tumor exudate flow from the inner rim. Thus, peritumoral extracellular volume predicted the rate of tumor exudate flux. One explanation for these data is that perfusion, i.e. the delivery of blood to the tumor, was regulated by the compression of the mostly normal tissue of the tumor rim, and that the tumor exudate flow was limited by tumor perfusion. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Acacia Senegal gum exudate offers protection against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A; Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Gado, Ali M; Daba, Mohammad H; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Abd-Allah, Adel R A

    2009-01-01

    Cylophosphamide (CYCL) is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate ,Gum Arabic (GA), for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p) with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days) through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA) and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA+CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL and/or the

  16. Results of Intravitreal Ranibizumab Treatment for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Karaca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal ranibizumab injection for exudative age-related macular degeneration. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this study, we included forty-eight eyes of 43 age-related macular degeneration patients followed for at least twelve months. Mean age was 73.65±8.93 years and mean follow-up time was 14.2 months. All patients received three consecutive monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections and then were followed up with clinical examination and optic coherence tomography monthly. Re-injection was executed as needed. Re sults: Twenty patients were male (46.5% and twenty-three patients were female (53.5%. The average number of ranibizumab injection was 3.7 (3-7 per eye. Twenty-six lesions (54.2% were classic (predominantly and minimally and twenty-two (45.8% were occult. Mean best-corrected visual acuity was 46.8 letters with ETDRS chart at the initial examination and 55.5 letters at twelfth month. Mean central foveal thickness decreased from 320 microns to 269 microns. There was a statistically significant improvement in visual acuity and central foveal thickness. On the other hand, this improvement was not significant between lesion types. During follow-up, there were no systemic or serious ocular complications determined. Dis cus si on: Intravitreal ranibizumab injection is safe and effective, both anatomically and functionally, for age-related macular degeneration. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 25-9

  17. Detection of Actinomyces spp. in cervical exudates from women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Alejandra; Coronel-Martínez, Jaime; Leon, David Cantú-de; Romero-Figueroa, María Del Socorro; Caballero-Pantoja, Yolanda Elizabeth; Manzanares-Leal, Gauddy Lizeth; Rodriguez-Morales, Miguel; Sandoval-Trujillo, Horacio; Ramírez-Durán, Ninfa

    2017-06-01

    Under certain circumstances, Actinomyces behaves as an opportunistic microorganism and can cause actinomycosis, a chronic and inflammatory granulomatous infection. The purpose of this project was to detect the presence of Actinomyces in cervical exudates from women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and women with cervical cancer. Cervical samples from 92 women were divided into three groups: CIN, cervical cancer and healthy women. Metagenomic DNA extraction was performed following the Qiagen QIAamp Mini Kit protocol. A specific fragment (675 bp) was amplified by PCR in order to detect the presence of Actinomycetales. Samples in which Actinomycetales was detected were subjected to separate amplification reactions with primer pairs for A. israelii, A. viscosus, A. meyeri and A. odontolyticus. Amplified products were observed by 2 % agarose gel electrophoresis. Actinomyces were found in 10 % of women with CIN, 36.6 % of women with cervical cancer and 9 % of healthy women. The species identified in this study were A. meyeri in 14/92 samples (15.2 %), A. viscosus in 10/92 samples (10.8 %), A. odontolyticus in 4/92 samples (4.3 %) and A. israelii in 6/92 samples (6.5 %). Patients with cervical cancer had a higher prevalence of the presence of Actinomyces compared to the CIN and control groups. This is the first study in which a deliberate search of this genus has been performed in women with cervical pathologies. The use of specific primers for each species facilitated their detection in comparison with traditional isolation methods. More information is necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the complex role that bacterial communities may play in the development of cancer (and vice versa).

  18. Rapid evaluation of gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis in men with Limulus amoebocyte lysate and a chromogenic substrate.

    OpenAIRE

    Prior, R B; Spagna, V A

    1983-01-01

    A chromogenic substrate was used with Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) and compared by parallel testing with the traditional gelation LAL method for the rapid evaluation of exudative urethritis in 125 male patients. Of these patients, 67 had positive cultures for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 58 were negative. The corresponding prevalence of gonococcal urethritis was 53.6%. For assay, diluted urethral samples and chromogenic substrate were added directly to single-test LAL vials, and objective col...

  19. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  20. Clinical safety and effectiveness evaluation of a new antimicrobial wound dressing designed to manage exudate, infection and biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Daniel G; Parsons, David; Bowler, Philip G

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a next-generation antimicrobial wound dressing (NGAD; AQUACEL ® Ag+ Extra™ dressing) designed to manage exudate, infection and biofilm. Clinicians were requested to evaluate the NGAD within their standard protocol of care for up to 4 weeks, or as long as deemed clinically appropriate, in challenging wounds that were considered to be impeded by suspected biofilm or infection. Baseline information and post-evaluation dressing safety and effectiveness data were recorded using standardised evaluation forms. This data included wound exudate levels, wound bed appearance including suspected biofilm, wound progression, skin health and dressing usage. A total of 112 wounds from 111 patients were included in the evaluations, with a median duration of 12 months, and biofilm was suspected in over half of all wounds (54%). After the introduction of the NGAD, exudate levels had shifted from predominantly high or moderate to low or moderate levels, while biofilm suspicion fell from 54% to 27% of wounds. Wound bed coverage by tissue type was generally shifted from sloughy or suspected biofilm towards predominantly granulation tissue after the inclusion of the NGAD. Stagnant (65%) and deteriorating wounds (27%) were shifted to improved (65%) or healed wounds (13%), while skin health was also reported to have improved in 63% of wounds. High levels of clinician satisfaction with the dressing effectiveness and change frequency were accompanied by a low number of dressing-related adverse events (n = 3; 2·7%) and other negative observations or comments. This clinical user evaluation supports the growing body of evidence that the anti-biofilm technology in the NGAD results in a safe and effective dressing for the management of a variety of challenging wound types. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparison of the effect between pegaptanib and ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration with small lesion size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujihara M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yoshihiro Nishimura1,2, Maiko Taguchi1, Takafumi Nagai1, Masashi Fujihara1,2, Shigeru Honda2, Mamoru Uenishi11Department of Ophthalmology, Mitsubishi Kobe Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, JapanPurpose: To compare the effect of pegaptanib versus ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD with small lesion size.Methods: This is a retrospective study of 81 eyes from 78 patients with exudative AMD treated and followed up over 12 months. Patients with baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA under 20/400 and with a greatest linear dimension of lesion over 4500 µm were excluded from the study. Twenty-six eyes from 25 patients were treated with three consecutive intravitreal injections of pegaptanib (IVP group and 55 eyes from 54 patients were treated with three consecutive ranibizumab injections (IVR group. Each therapy was repeated as needed. The alteration in BCVA was evaluated in the IVP and IVR groups.Results: No differences were detected in baseline parameters between the IVP and IVR groups. The mean BCVA (logMAR at month 1, 3, 6 and 12 after the initial treatment was improved from baseline in the IVP group (-0.095, -0.17, -0.18 and -0.18, respectively and in the IVR group (-0.077, -0.15, -0.17 and -0.11, respectively, which was statistically significant. There was no difference in the change in mean BCVA between IVP and IVR groups at the same time periods.Conclusions: The visual outcome of IVP was equivalent with IVR in exudative AMD with small lesion size.Keywords: pegaptanib, ranibizumab, age-related macular degeneration, small lesion size

  2. [Effect of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, tolmetin sodium on exudative inflammation in experimental animals (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Yokoyama, Y; Motoyoshi, S; Ishii, K; Shimizu, M

    1979-07-01

    Effect of tolmetin sodium(Tol) on acute and subacute exudative inflammation was tested in experimental animals. Tol had a potent inhibitory activity (ED50 = 0.75 mg/kg, p.o.) on the increased vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in mice, and the potency was about 0.4 times that of indomethacin (Ind), and 6-93 times that of ibuprofen (Ibu), phenylbutazone(Phe) and aspirin(Asp). The inhibitory activity of Tol(ED50 = 18.2 mg/kg, p.o.) on UV-induced erythema in guinea pigs was about 0.3 times that of Ind. A recovery of the hind paw edema of rats, produced by a mixture of kaolin and carrageenin, was promoted by oral administration of Tol(2.5 approximately 20 mg/kg x 5/2 days). Tol(80 mg/kg/day, p.o.) showed a significant activity in inhibiting the exudation caused by croton oil in rats, and the activity was about 0.025 times that of Ind and greater than that of Ibu, Phe and Asp. Tol(100-800 microgram/ml) inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the phytohemagglutinin-induced blast transformation of cultured lymphocytes from rat thymus, as did salicylic acid. In vitro, Tol showed a potent activity similar to that of Ibu and Phe in preventing the denaturation of bovine serum albumin and the lysis of rat erythrocytes. From these results, it is suggested that Tol has a particularly potent inhibitory activity on acute exudative inflammation, and the mode of action may be attributed to a mechanism similar to that seen with other acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  3. Association of systemic risk factors with the severity of retinal hard exudates in a north Indian population with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdev N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The various risk factors for diabetic retinopathy and its spectrum are still poorly understood in the Indian population. Aims: To study the association of various systemic risk factors with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic north Indian patients and to measure the incidence of dyslipidemia in them. Settings and Design: A tertiary-hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: An observational case-study which included 180 type 2 diabetic patients (180 eyes of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR with clinically significant macular edema (CSME. In these patients the retinal hard exudates were graded on a central 500 fundus picture using modified Airlie House classification and divided into three groups of absent or minimal hard exudates (Group 1, hard exudates present (Group 2 and prominent hard exudates (Group 3. Their association with various risk factors, namely the age of onset of diabetes and its duration, gender, insulin therapy, and various systemic parameters like hypertension, blood hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum (s. creatinine levels, 24-h proteinuria and complete lipid profile including total s. cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL and s. triglyceride (TG was studied. The incidence of dyslipidemia was also calculated among these groups of patients. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA test, linear regression analysis and Spearman′s correlation test. Results: On univariate analysis, the retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with s. creatinine (P=0.016, systolic blood pressure (P=0.014, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001, s. LDL (P=0.008 and s. TG (P=0.013 levels. While on linear regression analysis, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001 and s. LDL cholesterol (P=0.028 were found to be independent risk factors affecting the density of retinal hard exudates. On Spearman′s correlation test, the

  4. Acacia Senegal Gum Exudate Offers Protection Against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Urinary Bladder Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz A. Al-Yahya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylophosphamide (CYCL is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate, Gum Arabic (GA, for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Nitric oxide (NO bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA + CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL

  5. Anti-VEGF therapy in symptomatic peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR) involving the macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Ira; Hager, Annette; Duncker, Tobias; Riechardt, Aline I; Nürnberg, Daniela; Klein, Julian P; Rehak, Matus; Joussen, Antonia M

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomical and functional outcome of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor (anti-VEGF) treatment in symptomatic peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR) involving the macula. Clinical records from patients seen between 2012 and 2013 at a single academic center were reviewed to identify PEHCR patients receiving anti-VEGF therapy due to disease-associated changes involving the macula. Affected eyes were either treated with consecutive intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF or vitrectomy combined with anti-VEGF followed by pro re nata injections. The mean age of the patients was 76 years (range 70-89 years). In all nine eyes, visual acuity was reduced due to central subretinal fluid. On average, three anti-VEGF injections (range 2-5 injections) were required initially to achieve complete resolution of macular subretinal fluid. In three eyes, subretinal fluid reappeared after an average of 10 months (range 5-16 months), and an average of 2.5 anti-VEGF injections (range 2-3 injections) were necessary to attain complete resolution of macular subretinal fluid a second time. Median visual acuity at the visit before the first injection was 1.0 logMAR (range 2.1-0.4 logMAR) and increased to 0.8 logMAR (range 2-0.1 logMAR) at the last visit. Results of this study show that for cases in which PEHCR becomes symptomatic due to macular involvement, anti-VEGF treatment may have drying potential. Although vision was improved in some patients, it remained limited in cases with long-term macular involvement, precluding any definitive functional conclusion. However, we believe that the use of anti-VEGF agents should be recommended in PEHCR that threatens the macula. Due to its often self-limiting course, peripheral lesions should be closely observed. Larger studies are needed in order to provide clear evidence of the efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy in PEHCR.

  6. Leachability of volatile fuel compounds from contaminated soils and the effect of plant exudates: A comparison of column and batch leaching tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Kidd, Petra S; Monterroso, Carmen

    2016-03-05

    Volatile fuel compounds such as fuel oxygenates (FO) (MTBE and ETBE) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) are some of the most soluble components of fuel. Characterizing the leaching potential of these compounds is essential for predicting their mobility through the soil profile and assessing the risk of groundwater contamination. Plant root exudates can play an important role in the modification of contaminant mobility in soil-plant systems, and such effects should also be considered in leaching studies. Artificially spiked samples of A and B horizons from an alumi-umbric Cambisol were leached in packed-columns and batch experiments using Milli-Q water and plant root exudates as leaching agents. The leaching potential and rate were strongly influenced by soil-contaminant interactions and by the presence of root exudates. Organic matter in A horizon preferably sorbed the most non-polar contaminants, lowering their leaching potential, and this effect was enhanced by the presence of root exudates. On the other hand, the inorganic components of the B horizon, showed a greater affinity for polar molecules, and the presence of root exudates enhanced the desorption of the contaminants. Column experiments resulted in a more realistic protocol than batch tests for predicting the leaching potential of volatile organic compounds in dissimilar soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cu(II) complexation of high molecular weight (HMW) fluorescent substances in root exudates from a wetland halophyte (Salicornia europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiangliang; Yang, Jianying; Zhang, Daoyong; Chen, Xi; Mu, Shuyong

    2011-02-01

    High molecular weight (HMW) fractions are important components in root exudates. However, there is little available information concerning complexation of Cu(II) to the HMW fractions in root exudates. In the present study, complexation of root exudates from Salicornia europaea L. with Cu(II) was investigated using excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Two protein-like fluorescence peaks were identified in the EEM spectra of root exudates. Fluorescence of both peaks was clearly quenched by Cu(II). The increase of conditional stability constant with increasing temperature indicates that the fluorescence quenching of the protein-like fluorescence by Cu(II) may be controlled by a dynamic process. The values of conditional stability constants (logK(a)) were in the range of 4.32-4.69, which were close to those of complexation of fulvic acid with Cu(II). This shows that the HMW fluorescent substances in root exudates from S. europaea L. were strong organic ligands for Cu(II). Our study suggests that the HMW fluorescent substances may affect chemical forms, mobility, and thus the fate of copper in wetland. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of natural plant exudates (Sanguis Draxonis) for sustained oral insulin delivery with dramatic reduction of glycemic effects in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenqing, Hou; Zhenxi, Zhang; Chuanxin, Zhang; Mei, Huang

    2004-07-07

    Sanguis Draxonis (SD), a kind of natural plant exudates, has been prescribed for handling diabetic disorders as a Chinese traditional herb. Surprisingly, SD was found to be a good material for oral insulin delivery. The Insulin-loaded Sanguis Draxonis nanocapsules (ISDN) were prepared by deposition technique. The average size and width of distribution of ISDN were 184+/-24 and 110+/-16 nm, respectively. The insulin encapsulation efficiency of ISDN reached up to 69.6+/-5.6%. In vitro the release profile of insulin from ISDN can be well modeled using an exponential function [Y=1-exp(-0.0275t)], showing that there was no initial burst release of insulin. The stability studies indicated that the majority of initial amount of insulin in ISDN was preserved not only after incubation of ISDN in three kinds of proteolytic enzyme solutions at 37 degrees C for 30 min, but also after its storage at 25 degrees C for 6 months. After a single oral administration of ISDN at the dose of 25, 50, and 75 IU/kg in STZ-induced diabetic rats, the blood glucose level was depressed to 60.5+/-2.7%, 52.6+/-2.3% and 47.3+/-3.1% of the initial value at time point 8 h, respectively, and these marked decreases lasted 2-4 days. When 125I-labeled ISDN was administered orally, the distribution sequence of isotope intensity of 125I radioactivity in rat organs was as follows: liver, kidney, heart, spleen and lung. In addition, 125I radioactivity disappeared progressively as a function of time, parallel to the biological effect. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that ISDN elicits a long-term hypoglycemic effect significantly after oral administration in STZ-induced diabetic rats and it can be considered as a stable and effective system for oral insulin delivery.

  9. Isolation and identification of male medfly attractive components inLitchi chinensis stems andFicus spp. stem exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warthen, J D; McInnis, D O

    1989-06-01

    Short-range attraction/feeding stimulation of male Mediterranean fruit flies [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), (Diptera: Tephritidae)] to a stem extract of a host plant,Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Sapindaceae), and to milky exudates from stems of nonhost plants,Ficus retusa L. andF. benjamina L. (Moraceae), were attributed to the presence of the sesquiterpene α-copaene. The presence of α-copaene in the milky exudate from stems ofF. benghalensis L. is also suggested as eliciting similar behavioral responses in male medflies. The presence of minor quantities of α-ylangene in the plants and its contributory effects to the behavioral response of male medflies is discussed. Short-range attraction/feeding stimulation of male medflies to equal amounts of α-ylangene-free α-copaene samples (94.5%+), prepared from α-copaene-enriched angelica seed oil and copaiba oil, respectively, showed no difference in intensity of response. α-Ylangene elicited a slightly less intense response for male medflies than α-copaene.

  10. A mathematical model of sap exudation in maple trees governed by ice melting, gas dissolution and osmosis

    CERN Document Server

    Ceseri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model for sap exudation in a maple tree that is based on a purely physical mechanism for internal pressure generation in trees in the leafless state. There has been a long-standing controversy in the tree physiology literature over precisely what mechanism drives sap exudation, and we aim to cast light on this issue. Our model is based on the work of Milburn and O'Malley [Can. J. Bot., 62(10):2101-2106, 1984] who hypothesized that elevated sap pressures derive from compressed gas that is trapped within certain wood cells and subsequently released when frozen sap thaws in the spring. We also incorporate the extension of Tyree [in Tree Sap, pp. 37-45, eds. M. Terazawa et al., Hokkaido Univ. Press, 1995] who argued that gas bubbles are prevented from dissolving because of osmotic pressure that derives from differences in sap sugar concentrations and the selective permeability of cell walls. We derive a system of differential-algebraic equations based on conservation principles that is u...

  11. The key role of exudative lesions and their encapsulation: Lessons learned from the pathology of human pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere-Joan eCardona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of the pathology of human pulmonary TB cases at different stages of evolution in the pre-antibiotic era suggests that neutrophils play an instrumental role in the progression towards active TB. This progression is determined by the type of lesion generated. Thus exudative lesions, in which neutrophils are the major cell type, are both triggered by and induce local high bacillary load, and tend to enlarge and progress towards liquefaction and cavitation. In contrast, proliferative lesions are triggered by low bacillary loads, mainly comprise epithelioid cells and fibroblasts and tend to fibrose, encapsulate and calcify, thus controlling the infection. Infection of the upper lobes is key to the progression towards active TB for two main reasons, namely poor breathing amplitude, which allows local bacillary accumulation, and the high mechanical stress to which the interlobular septae (which enclose secondary lobes are submitted, which hampers their ability to encapsulate lesions. Overall, progressing factors can be defined as internal (exudative lesion, local bronchogenous dissemination, coalescence of lesions, with lympho-haematological dissemination playing a very limited role, or external (exogenous reinfection. Abrogating factors include control of the bacillary load and the local encapsulation process, as directed by interlobular septae. The age and extent of disease depend on the quality and speed with which lesions liquefy and disseminate bronchially, the volume of the slough, and the amount and distribution of the sloughing debris dispersed.

  12. Spatial Distribution Patterns of Root-Associated Bacterial Communities Mediated by Root Exudates in Different Aged Ratooning Tea Monoculture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Yasir; Wei, Xiaoya; Jiang, Yuhang; Chen, Ting; Saqib, Hafiz Sohaib Ahmed; Lin, Sheng; Lin, Wenxiong

    2017-08-08

    Positive plant-soil feedback depends on beneficial interactions between roots and microbes for nutrient acquisition; growth promotion; and disease suppression. Recent pyrosequencing approaches have provided insight into the rhizosphere bacterial communities in various cropping systems. However; there is a scarcity of information about the influence of root exudates on the composition of root-associated bacterial communities in ratooning tea monocropping systems of different ages. In Southeastern China; tea cropping systems provide the unique natural experimental environment to compare the distribution of bacterial communities in different rhizo-compartments. High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was performed to identify and quantify the allelochemicals in root exudates. A high-throughput sequence was used to determine the structural dynamics of the root-associated bacterial communities. Although soil physiochemical properties showed no significant differences in nutrients; long-term tea cultivation resulted in the accumulation of catechin-containing compounds in the rhizosphere and a lowering of pH. Moreover; distinct distribution patterns of bacterial taxa were observed in all three rhizo-compartments of two-year and 30-year monoculture tea; mediated strongly by soil pH and catechin-containing compounds. These results will help to explore the reasons why soil quality and fertility are disturbed in continuous ratooning tea monocropping systems; and to clarify the associated problems.

  13. ERP SOLUTIONS FOR SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTUNEA MIHAELA FILOFTEIA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The integration of activities, the business processes as well as their optimization, bring the perspective of profitable growth and create significant and competitive advantages in any company. The adoption of some ERP integrated software solutions, from SMEs’ perspective, must be considered as a very important management decision in medium and long term. ERP solutions, along with the transparent and optimized management of all internal processes, also offer an intra and inter companies collaborative platform, which allows a rapid expansion of activities towards e- business and mobile-business environments. This material introduces ERP solutions for SMEs from commercial offer and open source perspective; the results of comparative analysis of the solutions on the specific market, can be an useful aid to the management of the companies, in making the decision to integrate business processes, using ERP as a support.

  14. The proteome of exudates from germinating Lupinus albus seeds is secreted through a selective dual-step process and contains proteins involved in plant defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarafoni, Alessio; Ronchi, Alessandro; Prinsi, Bhakti; Espen, Luca; Assante, Gemma; Venturini, Giovanni; Duranti, Marcello

    2013-03-01

    The general knowledge of defence activity during the first steps of seed germination is still largely incomplete. The present study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of germinating white lupin seeds. During the first 24 h, a release of proteins was observed. Initially (i.e. during the first 12 h), the proteins found in exudates reflected the composition of the seed, indicating a passive extrusion of pre-formed proteins. Subsequently, when the rate of protein release was at its highest, the composition of the released proteome changed drastically. This transition occurred in a short time, indicating that more selective and regulated events, such as secretory processes, took place soon after the onset of germination. The present study considered: (a) the characterization of the proteome accumulated in the germinating medium collected after the appearance of the post-extrusion events; (b) the biosynthetic origin and the modalities that are the basis of protein release outside the seeds; and (c) an assessment of antifungal activity of these exudates. The most represented protein in the exudate was chitinase, which was synthesized de novo. The other proteins are involved in the cellular mechanisms responding to stress events, including biotic ones. This exudate was effectively able to inhibit fungal growth. The results of the present study indicate that seed exudation is a dual-step process that leads to the secretion of selected proteins and thus is not a result of passive leakage. The released proteome is involved in protecting the spermosphere environment and thus may act as first defence against pathogens. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  15. An assessment of the soil-conditioning capacity of gums exuded by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (96.6, 111 and 114 % for samples B, A and C, respectively) was imparted to the soil samples when they were treated with 1% (w/v) CaCl2 solution on its own; prior treatment of the soil samples with the CaCl2 solution enhanced the soil conditioning properties of the tree gums as well as the PVA. The soil conditioning effect ...

  16. [OCT Angiography in Exudative AMD with Detachment of Vascularised Retinal Pigment Epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnemann, Frederic; Rothaus, Kai; Farecki, Marie-Louise; Faatz, Henrik; Book, Benedikt; Lommatzsch, Albrecht; Pauleikoff, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    acuity also improved only slightly (p = 0.7) after therapy. from initially 0.51 to 0.45 logMAR. Conclusions The combination of SD-OCT and OCT-A offers significantly improved visualisation and quantification of CNV in a vascularised PED. With the help of OCT-A imaging, changes in the perfusion/size of the CNV can be quantified. Together with the retinal activity signs, this allows a second activity assessment of the CNV under anti-VEGF therapy. Due to its three-dimensional structure, especially for this subtype of the exudative AMD, it is of the utmost importance to develop three-dimensional imaging for both structural SD-OCT and the OCT-A. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  18. Rapid Prototyping of Mobile Learning Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federley, Maija; Sorsa, Timo; Paavilainen, Janne; Boissonnier, Kimo; Seisto, Anu

    2014-01-01

    This position paper presents the first results of an on-going project, in which we explore rapid prototyping method to efficiently produce digital learning solutions that are commercially viable. In this first phase, rapid game prototyping and an iterative approach was tested as a quick and efficient way to create learning games and to evaluate…

  19. Viscosity Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Camilli, Fabio; Prados, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Viscosity solution is a notion of weak solution for a class of partial differential equations of Hamilton-Jacobi type. The range of applications of the notions of viscosity solution and Hamilton-Jacobi equations is enormous, including common class of partial differential equations such as evolutive problems and problems with boundary conditions, equations arising in optimal control theory, differential games, second-order equations arising in stochastic optimal control...

  20. Rapidly progressive periodontitis. A distinct clinical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, R C; Altman, L C; Ebersole, J L; Vandesteen, G E; Dahlberg, W H; Williams, B L; Osterberg, S K

    1983-04-01

    We report radiographic, clinical, historical, and laboratory observations on seven patients selected to illustrate the features and characteristics of rapidly progressive periodontitis, with the aim of establishing this disease as a distinct clinical entity. This form of periodontitis is seen most commonly in young adults in their twenties, but it can occur in postpubertal individuals up to approximately 35 years of age. During the active phase, the gingival tissues are extremely inflamed and there is hemorrhage, proliferation of the marginal gingiva, and exudation. Destruction is very rapid, with loss of much of the alveolar bone occurring within a few weeks or months. This phase may be accompanied by general malaise, weight loss, and depression, although these symptoms are not seen in all patients. The disease may progress, without remission, to tooth loss, or alternatively, it may subside and become quiescent with or without therapy. The quiescent phase is characterized by the presence of clinically normal gingiva that may be tightly adapted to the roots of teeth with very advanced bone loss and deep periodontal pockets. The quiescent phase may be permanent, it may persist for an indefinite period, or the disease activity may return. Most patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis have serum antibodies specific for various species of Bacteroides, Actinobacillus, or both, and manifest defects in either neutrophil or monocyte chemotaxis. Affected patients generally respond favorably to treatment by scaling and open or closed curettage, especially when accompanied by standard doses of antibiotics for conventional time periods. A small minority of patients do not respond to any treatment, including antibiotics, and the disease progresses inexorably to tooth loss even in the presence of aggressive periodontal therapy and maintenance. At the present time it is not possible to distinguish prior to treatment which individuals will respond to therapy and which will

  1. Fatty acid derivatives and dammarane triterpenes from the glandular trichome exudates of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Teigo; Hara, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-06-01

    Ibicellalutea and Proboscidea louisiana, both of the Martyniaceae family, are known for rich glandular trichomes on their leaves and stems. Chemical investigations of the glandular trichome exudates on leaves of the two plants furnished three types of secondary metabolites, glycosylated fatty acids, glycerides (2-O-(3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols and 2-O-(3-acetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols) and dammarane triterpenes. The glycosylated fatty acids from I. lutea were determined to be 6(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-octadecanoic acid (1A), -eicosanoic acid (1B) and -docosanoic acid (1C), as well as their respective deacetyl congeners (2A, 2B and 2C), whereas P. louisiana furnished 8(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-eicosanoic acid (3A) and -docosanoic acid (3B) and their respective deacetyl congeners (4A and 4B), together with 2B. Both plants contained 12 identical 2-O-[(3R,6S)-3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (5A-L), in which the fatty acyl moieties contained between 17 and 21 carbon atoms. The corresponding mono-acetyloxy compounds, 2-O-[(3R)-3-acetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (6A-L) were detected in both plants. Among these glycerides, ten compounds (5A, 5C, 5F, 5H, 5K, 6A, 6C, 6F, 6H and 6K) had iso-fattyacyl structures and four (5E, 5J, 6E and 6J) had anteiso-fattyacyl structures. A previously unknown dammarane triterpene, betulatriterpene C 3-acetate (7), was isolated together with three known dammarane triterpenes, 24-epi-polacandrin 1,3-diacetate (8), betulatriterpene C (9) and 24-epi-polacandrin 3-acetate (10) from I. lutea, whereas 12 dammarane triterpenes, named probosciderols A-L (12-23), and the known compound betulafolienetriol (11) were isolated from P. louisiana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 2D-NMR techniques and chemical transformations. The 6-O-acetylglucosyloxy-fatty acids 1A-C (42%) and the dammarane triterpenes 7-10 (31%) were the two most abundant constituents in the

  2. Ryecyanatines A and B and ryecarbonitrilines A and B, substituted cyanatophenol, cyanatobenzo[1,3]dioxole, and benzo[1,3]dioxolecarbonitriles from rye (Secale cereale L.) root exudates: Novel metabolites with allelopathic activity on Orobanche seed germination and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Avolio, Fabiana; Yoneyama, Koichi; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche and Phelipanche species (the broomrapes) are root parasitic plants, some of which represent serious weed problems causing heavy yield losses on important crops. Current control relies on the use of certain agronomic practices, resistant crop varieties, and herbicides, albeit success has been marginal. Agronomic practices such as the use of allelopathic species in intercropping or cover crops, or the use of direct seedling over residues of allelopathic species incorporate the principle of allelopathy exerted by molecules exuded from roots or released by crop residues to control broomrapes. In addition, the isolation of natural substances from root exudates of plants with potential to inhibit broomrape development opens the door to the design of new herbicides based on natural and benign sources. Ryecyanatines A and B and ryecarbonitrilines A and B, the first new substituted cyanatophenol, substituted cyanatobenzo[1,3]dioxole, and the latter two new substituted benzo[1,3]dioxolecarbonitriles were isolated from rye (Secale cereale L.) root exudates. They were characterized as 4-cyanato-2-methoxyphenol, 2-cyanato-benzo[1,3]dioxole, 2-methoxybenzo[1,3]dioxole-5-carbonitrile and benzo[1,3]dioxole-2-carbonitrile by spectroscopic (essentially NMR and HRESI MS spectra) methods. These compounds were investigated for allelopathic activity on Orobanche germination and development. Ryecarbonitriline A induced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds, and this germination can be considered as suicidal because O. cumana does not parasite rye roots and cannot survive without host resources beyond germination stage. In addition, ryecyanatine A promotes a rapid cessation of O. cumana, Orobanche crenata and Orobanche minor radicle growth with the promotion of a layer of papillae at the radicle tip in O. cumana and O. crenata hampering the contact of the parasite to the host. Ryecarbonitriline B also displayed the same activity although being less active than ryecyanatine A and

  3. Dynamics of microorganism populations in recirculating nutrient solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    This overview covers the basic microbial ecology of recirculating hydroponic solutions. Examples from NASA and Soviet Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) tests and the commercial hydroponic industry will be used. The sources of microorganisms in nutrient solutions include air, water, seeds, plant containers and plumbing, biological vectors, and personnel. Microbial fates include growth, death, and emigration. Important microbial habitats within nutrient delivery systems are root surfaces, hardware surfaces (biofilms), and solution suspension. Numbers of bacteria on root surfaces usually exceed those from the other habitats by several orders of magnitude. Gram negative bacteria dominate the microflora with fungal counts usually much lower. Trends typically show a decrease in counts with increasing time unless stressed plants increase root exudates. Important microbial activities include carbon mineralization and nitrogen transformations. Important detrimental interactions include competition with plants, and human and plant pathogenesis.

  4. Guaianolides and a seco-Eudesmane from the Resinous Exudates of Cushion Bush (Leucophyta brownii) and Evaluation of Their Cytostatic and Anti-inflammatory Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Mette G; Purup, Stig; Bond, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    A detailed phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane extract of the resinous exudates of the cushion bush plant (Leucophyta brownii) resulted in the isolation of the new 8,12-guaianolides leucophytalins A (5) and B (6), the new 1,10-seco-eudesmane leucophytalin C (10), six rare 8...

  5. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility in relation to antimicrobial usage and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 2001 a total of 467 Staphylococcus hyicus isolates from exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs in Denmark were examined for susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial agents. The presence of selected genes encoding macrolide (erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C)), penicillin (blaZ), streptogramin...

  6. Association of systemic health and functional outcomes with changes in hard exudates associated with clinically significant macular oedema over the natural course of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Yusuke; Kumakawa, Makiko; Endo, Naoko; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko; Kitano, Shigehiko

    2010-06-01

    Hard exudates associated with clinically significant macular oedema (CSMO) do not always increase without laser photocoagulation and can generally be classified as regressing or progressing. We studied the systemic differences and functional outcomes between the two groups. In this retrospective observational controlled study, we compared blood pressure, biochemical parameters and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between 26 patients with regressed hard exudates with CSMO (group A) and 27 patients with progressing hard exudates with CSMO (group B). The eyes had no history of ophthalmic treatments including laser therapy for diabetic retinopathy or maculopathy until the end of the study. Group B had significant increases in the mean total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.0194) and mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p=0.0147) after at least 6 months of follow-up compared with group A. The final mean BCVA was significantly (p=0.0189) higher in group A than group B. A separate within-group analysis showed a significant (p=0.0015) decrease in BCVA from baseline in group B at the final visit. For hard exudates associated with CSMO, strict lipid-lowering therapy, especially regulation of elevated TC and LDL, before a decrease in visual acuity might result in better macular anatomical outcomes and visual preservation through the natural course of the disease.

  7. Effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid on organic acid exudation by the roots of white lupin plants grown under phosphorus-deficient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Diego A; Carpena, Ramón O

    2014-09-15

    The effect of NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) on organic acid exudation in white lupin plants grown under phosphorus deficiency was investigated. Plants were sampled periodically for collecting of organic acids (citrate, malate, succinate), and also were used to study the effect on proton extrusion and release of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The tissues were later processed to quantify the organic acids in tissues, the phosphorus content and the effects on plant biomass. The exogenous addition of NAA led to an increase in organic acid exudation, but this response was not proportional to the concentration of the dose applied, noticing the largest increments with NAA 10(-8)M. In contrast the increase in root weight was proportional to the dose applied, which shows that with higher doses the roots produced are not of proteoid type. Proton extrusion and the release of cations were related to the NAA dose, the first was proportional to the dose applied and the second inversely proportional. Regarding the analysis of tissues, the results of citrate and phosphorus content in shoots show that the overall status of these parts are the main responsible of the organic acids exuded. NAA served as an enhancer of the organic acid exudation that occurs under phosphorus deficient conditions, with a response that depends on the dose applied, not only in its magnitude, but also in the mechanism of action of the plant hormone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of genetically modified starch metabolism in potato plants on photosynthate fluxes into the rhizosphere and on microbial degraders of root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, Silvia; Esperschütz, Jürgen; Buegger, Franz; Reichmann, Michael; Müller, Martin; Munch, Jean Charles; Schloter, Michael

    2011-06-01

    A high percentage of photosynthetically assimilated carbon is released into soil via root exudates, which are acknowledged as the most important factor for the development of microbial rhizosphere communities. As quality and quantity of root exudates are dependent on plant genotype, the genetic engineering of plants might also influence carbon partitioning within the plant and thus microbial rhizosphere community structure. In this study, the carbon allocation patterns within the plant-rhizosphere system of a genetically modified amylopectin-accumulating potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) were linked to microbial degraders of root exudates under greenhouse conditions, using (13)C-CO(2) pulse-chase labelling in combination with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. In addition, GM plants were compared with the parental cultivar as well as a second potato cultivar obtained by classical breeding. Rhizosphere samples were obtained during young leaf developmental and flowering stages. (13)C allocation in aboveground plant biomass, water-extractable organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and PLFA as well as the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere varied significantly between the natural potato cultivars. However, no differences between the GM line and its parental cultivar were observed. Besides the considerable impact of plant cultivar, the plant developmental stage affected carbon partitioning via the plant into the rhizosphere and, subsequently, microbial communities involved in the transformation of root exudates. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early and exudative age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Carsten; Jehs, Tina; Juel, Helene Baek

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have recently identified homeostatic alterations in the circulating T cells of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In cultures of retinal pigment epithelial cells, we have demonstrated that T-cell-derived cytokines induced the upregulation of complement, chemokines...... and other proteins implicated in AMD pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to test whether increased plasma levels of cytokines were present in patients with AMD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study. Age-related macular degeneration status was assessed using standardized multimodal imaging...... forms of AMD and 74 controls. Significantly increased levels of sTNFRII were observed in patients with early or exudative AMD (p age, sex and smoking history, the level of sTNFRII remained a significant predictor for prevalence of AMD with odds ratios...

  10. Influence of exudates of the kelp Laminaria digitata on biofilm formation of associated and exogenous bacterial epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaün, Stéphanie; La Barre, Stéphane; Dos Santos-Goncalvez, Marina; Potin, Philippe; Haras, Dominique; Bazire, Alexis

    2012-08-01

    Wild populations of brown marine algae (Phaeophyta) provide extensive surfaces to bacteria and epiphytic eukaryotes for colonization. On one hand, various strategies allow kelps prevent frond surface fouling which would retard growth by reducing photosynthesis and increasing pathogenesis. On the other hand, production and release of organic exudates of high energy value, sometimes in association with more or less selective control of settlement of epiphytic strains, allow bacteria to establish surface consortia not leading to macrofouling. Here, we present the analysis of adhesion and biofilm formation of bacterial isolates from the kelp Laminaria digitata and of characterized and referenced marine isolates. When they were grown in flow cell under standard nutrient regimes, all used bacteria, except one, were able to adhere on glass and then develop as biofilms, with different architecture. Then, we evaluated the effect of extracts from undisturbed young Laminaria thalli and from young thalli subjected to oxidative stress elicitation; this latter condition induced the production of defense molecules. We observed increasing or decreasing adhesion depending on the referenced strains, but no effects were observed against strains isolated from L. digitata. Such effects were less observed on biofilms. Our results suggested that L. digitata is able to modulate its bacterial colonization. Finally, mannitol, a regular surface active component of Laminaria exudates was tested individually, and it showed a pronounced increased on one biofilm strain. Results of these experiments are original and can be usefully linked to what we already know on the oxidative halogen metabolism peculiar to Laminaria. Hopefully, we will be able to understand more about the unique relationship that bacteria have been sharing with Laminaria for an estimated one billion years.

  11. Partial resistance of carrot to Alternaria dauci correlates with in vitro cultured carrot cell resistance to fungal exudates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël Lecomte

    Full Text Available Although different mechanisms have been proposed in the recent years, plant pathogen partial resistance is still poorly understood. Components of the chemical warfare, including the production of plant defense compounds and plant resistance to pathogen-produced toxins, are likely to play a role. Toxins are indeed recognized as important determinants of pathogenicity in necrotrophic fungi. Partial resistance based on quantitative resistance loci and linked to a pathogen-produced toxin has never been fully described. We tested this hypothesis using the Alternaria dauci-carrot pathosystem. Alternaria dauci, causing carrot leaf blight, is a necrotrophic fungus known to produce zinniol, a compound described as a non-host selective toxin. Embryogenic cellular cultures from carrot genotypes varying in resistance against A. dauci were confronted with zinniol at different concentrations or to fungal exudates (raw, organic or aqueous extracts. The plant response was analyzed through the measurement of cytoplasmic esterase activity, as a marker of cell viability, and the differentiation of somatic embryos in cellular cultures. A differential response to toxicity was demonstrated between susceptible and partially resistant genotypes, with a good correlation noted between the resistance to the fungus at the whole plant level and resistance at the cellular level to fungal exudates from raw and organic extracts. No toxic reaction of embryogenic cultures was observed after treatment with the aqueous extract or zinniol used at physiological concentration. Moreover, we did not detect zinniol in toxic fungal extracts by UHPLC analysis. These results suggest that strong phytotoxic compounds are present in the organic extract and remain to be characterized. Our results clearly show that carrot tolerance to A. dauci toxins is one component of its partial resistance.

  12. Partial Resistance of Carrot to Alternaria dauci Correlates with In Vitro Cultured Carrot Cell Resistance to Fungal Exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisine, Linda; Gatto, Julia; Hélesbeux, Jean-Jacques; Séraphin, Denis; Peña-Rodriguez, Luis M.; Richomme, Pascal; Boedo, Cora; Yovanopoulos, Claire; Gyomlai, Melvina; Briard, Mathilde; Simoneau, Philippe; Poupard, Pascal; Berruyer, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Although different mechanisms have been proposed in the recent years, plant pathogen partial resistance is still poorly understood. Components of the chemical warfare, including the production of plant defense compounds and plant resistance to pathogen-produced toxins, are likely to play a role. Toxins are indeed recognized as important determinants of pathogenicity in necrotrophic fungi. Partial resistance based on quantitative resistance loci and linked to a pathogen-produced toxin has never been fully described. We tested this hypothesis using the Alternaria dauci – carrot pathosystem. Alternaria dauci, causing carrot leaf blight, is a necrotrophic fungus known to produce zinniol, a compound described as a non-host selective toxin. Embryogenic cellular cultures from carrot genotypes varying in resistance against A. dauci were confronted with zinniol at different concentrations or to fungal exudates (raw, organic or aqueous extracts). The plant response was analyzed through the measurement of cytoplasmic esterase activity, as a marker of cell viability, and the differentiation of somatic embryos in cellular cultures. A differential response to toxicity was demonstrated between susceptible and partially resistant genotypes, with a good correlation noted between the resistance to the fungus at the whole plant level and resistance at the cellular level to fungal exudates from raw and organic extracts. No toxic reaction of embryogenic cultures was observed after treatment with the aqueous extract or zinniol used at physiological concentration. Moreover, we did not detect zinniol in toxic fungal extracts by UHPLC analysis. These results suggest that strong phytotoxic compounds are present in the organic extract and remain to be characterized. Our results clearly show that carrot tolerance to A. dauci toxins is one component of its partial resistance. PMID:24983469

  13. Root Exudation by Aphid Leaf Infestation Recruits Root-Associated Paenibacillus spp. to Lead Plant Insect Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-03-01

    Aphids are a large group of hemipteran pests that affect the physiology, growth, and development of plants by using piercing mouthparts to consume fluids from the host. Based an recent data, aphids modulate the microbiomes of plants and thereby affect the overall outcome of the biological interaction. However, in a few reports, aboveground aphids manipulate the metabolism of the host and facilitate infestations by rhizosphere bacteria (rhizobacteria). In this study, we evaluated whether aphids alter the plant resistance that is mediated by the bacterial community of the root system. The rhizobacteria were affected by aphid infestation of pepper, and a large population of gram-positive bacteria was detected. Notably, Paenibacillus spp. were the unique gram-positive bacteria to respond to changes induced by the aphids. Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 was used as a rhizobacterium model to assess the recruitment of bacteria to the rhizosphere by the phloem-sucking of aphids and to test the effect of P. polymyxa on the susceptibility of plants to aphids. The root exudates secreted from peppers infested with aphids increased the growth rate of P. polymyxa E681. The application of P. polymyxa E681 to pepper roots promoted the colonization of aphids within 2 days of inoculation. Collectively, our results suggest that aphid infestation modulated the root exudation, which led to the recruitment of rhizobacteria that manipulated the resistance of peppers to aphids. In this study, new information is provided on how the infestation of insects is facilitated through insect-derived modulation of plant resistance with the attraction of gram-positive rhizobacteria.

  14. Effect of volatiles versus exudates released by germinating spores of Gigaspora margarita on lateral root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue-Guang; Bonfante, Paola; Tang, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi influence the root system architecture of their hosts; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Ectomycorrhizal fungi influence root architecture via volatiles. To determine whether volatiles also play a role in root system changes in response to AM fungi, spores of the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita were inoculated on the same plate as either wild type (WT) Lotus japonicus, the L. japonicus mutant Ljcastor (which lacks the symbiotic cation channel CASTOR, which is required for inducing nuclear calcium spiking, which is necessary for symbiotic partner recognition), or Arabidopsis thaliana, separated by cellophane membranes (fungal exudates experiment), or on different media but with a shared head space (fungal volatiles experiment). Root development was monitored over time. Both germinating spore exudates (GSEs) and geminated-spore-emitted volatile organic compounds (GVCs) significantly promoted lateral root formation (LRF) in WT L. japonicus. LRF in Ljcastor was significantly enhanced in the presence of GVCs. GVCs stimulated LRF in A. thaliana, whereas GSEs showed an inhibitory effect. The expression profile of the genes involved in mycorrhizal establishment and root development were investigated using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis. Only the expression of the LjCCD7 gene, an important component of the strigolactone synthesis pathway, was differentially expressed following exposure to GVCs. We conclude that volatile organic compounds released by the germinating AM fungal spores may stimulate LRF in a symbiosis signaling pathway (SYM)- and host-independent way, whereas GSEs stimulate LRF in a SYM- and host-dependent way. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbial siderophores and root exudates enhanced goethite dissolution and Fe/As uptake by As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Fu, Jing-Wei; Da Silva, Evandro; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Cao, Yue; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic (As) in soils is often adsorbed on Fe-(hydro)oxides surface, rendering them more resistant to dissolution, which is undesirable for phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. Arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata prefers to grow in calcareous soils where available Fe and As are low. To elucidate its mechanisms of acquiring Fe and As from insoluble sources in soils, we investigated dissolution of goethite with pre-adsorbed arsenate (AsV; As-goethite) in presence of four organic ligands, including two root exudates (oxalate and phytate, dominant in P. vittata) and two microbial siderophores (PG12-siderophore and desferrioxamine B). Their presence increased As solubilization from As-goethite from 0.03 to 0.27-5.33 mg L-1 compared to the control. The siderophore/phytate bi-ligand treatment released 7.42 mg L-1 soluble Fe, which was 1.2-fold that of the sum of siderophore and phytate, showing a synergy in promoting As-goethite dissolution. In the ligand-mineral-plant system, siderophore/phytate was most effective in releasing As and Fe from As-goethite. Moreover, the continuous plant uptake induced more As-goethite dissolution. The continued release of As and Fe significantly enhanced their plant uptake (from 0.01 to 0.43 mg plant-1 As and 2.7-14.8 mg plant-1 Fe) and plant growth (from 1.2 to 3.1 g plant-1 fw) in P. vittata. Since microbial siderophores and root exudates often coexist in soil rhizosphere, their synergy in enhancing dissolution of insoluble As-Fe minerals may play an important role in efficient phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  17. Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolpe, Clemens; Giehren, Franziska; Krämer, Ute; Müller, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Plants that are able to hyperaccumulate heavy metals show increased concentrations of these metals in their leaf tissue. However, little is known about the concentrations of heavy metals and of organic defence metabolites in the phloem sap of these plants in response to either heavy metal-amendment of the soil or biotic challenges such as aphid-infestation. In this study, we investigated the effects of heavy metal-exposure and of aphid-infestation on phloem exudate composition of the metal hyperaccumulator species Arabidopsis halleri L. O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz (Brassicaceae). The concentrations of elements and of organic defence compounds, namely glucosinolates, were measured in phloem exudates of young and old (mature) leaves of plants challenged either by amendment of the soil with cadmium and zinc and/or by an infestation with the generalist aphid Myzus persicae. Metal-amendment of the soil led to increased concentrations of Cd and Zn, but also of two other elements and one indole glucosinolate, in phloem exudates. This enhanced defence in the phloem sap of heavy metal-hyperaccumulating plants can thus potentially act as effective protection against aphids, as predicted by the elemental defence hypothesis. Aphid-infestation also caused enhanced Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates. This result provides first evidence that metal-hyperaccumulating plants can increase heavy metal concentrations tissue-specifically in response to an attack by phloem-sucking herbivores. Overall, the concentrations of most elements, including the heavy metals, and glucosinolates were higher in phloem exudates of young leaves than in those of old leaves. This defence distribution highlights that the optimal defence theory, which predicts more valuable tissue to be better defended, is applicable for both inorganic and organic defences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Association of M299V variant in ELOVL4 gene with exudative age-related macular degeneration in a Chinese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hong; Cui, Lei; Liu, Ning-pu

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the association of M299V variant in the elongation of very long chain fatty acids-like 4 (ELOVL4) gene with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a Chinese population. A total of 262 participants enrolled this study, including 145 patients with exudative AMD and 117 control individuals without AMD. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. Genotyping for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3812153: A > G (M299V) in ELOVL4 gene was performed using a method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction enzyme digestion and direct sequencing. Numerical data were examined by Student t test. Genotypes and allele frequencies between AMD cases and the controls were compared by using the chi(2) test. Odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated according to the Woolf's equation. Compliance to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for distribution of genotypes was examined using Haploview version 4.0. There was no significant difference in age or gender between AMD cases and the controls. Genotype distributions for M299V in AMD cases or the control subjects were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The M299V variant in ELOVL4 gene was not associated with exudative AMD in the population sample studied (chi(2) = 0.960, P = 0.619). Frequency of the rare allele G was 17.2% in cases with exudative AMD and 19.7% in the control individuals (chi(2) = 0.505, P = 0.477). Compared to the wild-type AA genotype, OR for risk of AMD was 0.99 (95%CI: 0.78 - 1.26) in heterozygous AG genotype and 0.56 (95%CI: 0.17 - 1.82) in homozygous GG genotype. Our data suggested that there was no association between the M299V variant in ELOVL4 gene and exudative AMD in the Chinese population.

  19. High Resolution DNA Stable Isotope Probing Reveals that Root Exudate Addition to Soil Changes the Identity of the Microbes that Degrade Cellulose but not the Rate of Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A.; Pepe-Ranney, C. P.; Nguyen, A. V. T.; Buckley, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Plant roots release compounds, such as root exudates, which can alter soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and have large impacts on soil carbon (C) retention. The changes in SOM turnover resulting from the addition of organic and/or inorganic substrates are termed 'priming effects'. In this study we examine the effects of root exudates on the priming of cellulose added as particulate organic matter. We amended soil microcosms with 13C-cellulose in the presence or absence of artificial root exudate additions and incubated over time for 45 days. Soils receiving the root exudate (RE) were given either one large dose or multiple, small doses of RE. In each treatment we tracked operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assimilating 13C from cellulose (herein, known as a 'responder') over time using DNA stable isotope probing coupled with next generation sequencing. In all treatments the same amount of cellulose-13C was respired indicating the addition of RE did not result in the priming of cellulose decomposition. However, cellulose responders were different depending on treatment and time of sampling (days 14, 28 and 45). We identified a total of 10,361 OTUs, of which there were 369 cellulose responders in the cellulose only treatment, 273 in the repeated, small dose RE treatment, and 358 in the RE single, large dose treatment. Most of the cellulose responders found in all treatments belonged to phyla Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Chloroflexi. The response time of phyla varies; for instance, more OTUs in Bacteroidetes were observed on day 14 and diminish with each subsequent sampling time. On the other hand, OTUs in Verrucomicrobia increased in response over time. Our study shows no priming effect resulting from the addition of root exudates, although the identity of the microbial mediators of cellulose decomposition varies in each treatment.

  20. 21 CFR 522.900 - Euthanasia solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Euthanasia solution. 522.900 Section 522.900 Food... Euthanasia solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains: (1) 390 milligrams (mg.... For humane, painless, and rapid euthanasia. (2) Amount. One mL per 10 pounds of body weight. (3...

  1. Changes in body composition, hematologic parameters, and serum biochemistry after rapid intravenous infusion or oral intake of 2 liters of 0.9% saline solution in young healthy volunteers: randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José E; Valente, Ana C; Oliveira, Sergio S; Hartmann, Arthur; Slhessarenko, Natasha

    2012-12-01

    The perioperative infusion of 2 L of saline is associated with weight gain and decreased serum albumin and hematocrit. We hypothesized that these parameters would respond differently to oral administration and intravenous infusion of saline solution. This was a crossover study that included 10 healthy young men (ages 18-26 years). At two times, 8 weeks apart, the participants were randomized to receive 2 L of 0.9% saline over 1 h by intravenous (IV) administration to a forearm vein or by oral intake. The participants were weighed and body masses were calculated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed with a single-frequency device using tetrapolar distal limb electrodes. Blood samples were collected 1 h after the administration period for laboratory assays: hematocrit, hemoglobin, blood glucose, serum electrolytes, albumin, creatinine, osmolality. There was an increase in body weight (p<0.01), total body water (p<0.01), and lean body mass (p<0.01) after the experiment in both groups, with no difference between them. The volume of urine output was similar in the two experiments. The hemoglobin (oral group from 14.4±0.8 g/dl to 13.8±0.8 g/dl; IV group from 14.4±0.6 g/dl to 12.6±0.6 g/dl) and hematocrit (oral group from 43.2±1.8% to 43.2±2.8%; IV group from 43.6±2.2% to 40.0±2.6%) significantly decreased (p<0.01) with IV saline. Serum albumin remained stable after oral intake but significantly decreased (p=0.04) after IV infusion. Oral intake of 2 L of 0.9% saline results in minimal variations in serum albumin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit when compared to IV infusion of the same volume.

  2. CFD Script for Rapid TPS Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This grid generation script creates unstructured CFD grids for rapid thermal protection system (TPS) damage aeroheating assessments. The existing manual solution is cumbersome, open to errors, and slow. The invention takes a large-scale geometry grid and its large-scale CFD solution, and creates a unstructured patch grid that models the TPS damage. The flow field boundary condition for the patch grid is then interpolated from the large-scale CFD solution. It speeds up the generation of CFD grids and solutions in the modeling of TPS damages and their aeroheating assessment. This process was successfully utilized during STS-134.

  3. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V

    2015-01-01

    A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick) to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+); for rapid strep== 84(-) and16 (+); For LE== 80(-) and 20(+) From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don't seem to be a random (independent) assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (Pthroat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children.

  4. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara V. Nibhanipudi MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Results: Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+; for rapid strep== 84(- and16 (+; For LE== 80(- and 20(+ Statistics: From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don’t seem to be a random (independent assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001 reject Null Hypothesis and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children.

  5. Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    In classical continuum physics, a wave is a mechanical disturbance. Whether the disturbance is stationary or traveling and whether it is caused by the motion of atoms and molecules or the vibration of a lattice structure, a wave can be understood as a specific type of solution of an appropriate mathematical equation modeling the underlying physics. Typical models consist of partial differential equations that exhibit certain general properties, e.g., hyperbolicity. This, in turn, leads to the possibility of wave solutions. Various analytical techniques (integral transforms, complex variables, reduction to ordinary differential equations, etc.) are available to find wave solutions of linear partial differential equations. Furthermore, linear hyperbolic equations with higher-order derivatives provide the mathematical underpinning of the phenomenon of dispersion, i.e., the dependence of a wave's phase speed on its wavenumber. For systems of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations, there also exists a general ...

  6. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven...

  7. Combined Transpupillary Thermotherapy with Subtenon Triamcinolone Injection in Treatment of Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Exudative Age Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Naseripour

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: In spite of several treatment methods which are being used to treat exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD like laser therapy, Intravitreal steroids injections or anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF, no method has been yet presented as the best treatment way. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of combined transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT with subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA injection in treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV in patients with ARMD. Materials & Methods: In this clinical trial, 63 eyes of 57 patients with CNV secondary to exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD were studied. All CNVs (including 20 predominantly classic and 43 predominantly occult lesions were treated with diode laser (810nm. In 20 eyes with predominantly classic CNVs, 20 mg and 40 mg subtenon triamcinolone was injected in 12 and 8 eyes respectively. The patients were followed for a mean of 9.1 months (ranging from 5.5 to 16 months. The average number of treatment sessions was 1.25. In 43 eyes with occult CNV, 20 mg and 40 mg subtenon triamcinolone was injected in 31 eyes and in 12 eyes respectively. Mean follow up time was 12 months (4.5 to 23 months. Mean treatment times was 1.17. A variable spot size of 0.8, 1.2, 2 and 3 mm was used depending on the size of CNV and treatment was given in one area for 1 minute. Thermotherapy was adminstered through a contact lens at a power range between 120-560 mw. At the end of treatment, each patient randomly received 20 mg or 40 mg subtenon triamcinolone acetonide injection in superotemporal quadrant. Outcome was assessed with clinical and angiographic examination.collected data were analyzed by one-sample and paired –sample T test, using SPSS software. Results: At the end of the study in first group, visual acuity remained stable (0 to ± one line in 14 out of 20 (70 % of eyes, improved (> one line in 2 of 20 (10 % eyes and showed a

  8. Lower Selenoprotein T Expression and Immune Response in the Immune Organs of Broilers with Exudative Diathesis Due to Selenium Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tingru; Liu, Tianqi; Tan, Siran; Wan, Na; Zhang, Yiming; Li, Shu

    2017-08-05

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether dietary selenium (Se) deficiency would affect the expression of selenoprotein T (SelT) and immune response in the immune organs of broilers. Changes in expression of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress response caused by Se deficiency can lead to organism damage, which in turn leads to immune response. Sixty (1-day-old) broilers were divided into the control group and Se-deficiency group. Animal models with exudative diathesis were duplicated in the broilers by feeding them Se-deficient diet for 20 days. After the Se-deficient group exhibited symptoms of exudative diathesis, all the broilers were euthanized, and their immune organs were taken for analysis. The tissues including spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus were treated to determine the pathological changes (including microscopic and ultramicroscopic), the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of SelT and its synthetase (SecS and SPS1), cytokine mRNA expression levels, and antioxidant status. The microscopic and ultramicroscopic analyses showed that immune tissues were obviously injured in the Se-deficient group. The mRNA expression of SelT was decreased compared with that in the control group. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of SecS and SPS1 were downregulated. In the Se-deficient group, the mRNA expression levels of IL-1R and IL-1β were higher than those of three control organs. Additionally, the IL-2 and INF-γ mRNA expression levels were lower than those of the control group. The activity of CAT was decreased, and the contents of H2O2 and •OH were increased due to Se deficiency. Pearson method analysis showed that the expression of SelT had a positive correlation with IL-2, INF-γ, SecS, and SPS1 and a negative correlation with IL-1R and IL-1β. In summary, these data indicated that Se-deficient diet decreased the SelT expression and its regulation of oxidative stress, and it inhibited a pleiotropic mechanism of the immune

  9. [Results of Re-switch from Intravitreal Aflibercept to Ranibizumab in Patients with Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Sören; Matthé, Egbert; Sandner, Dirk

    2017-06-02

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of re-switch from intravitreal aflibercept to ranibizumab in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration. Materials and Methods This retrospective case series included 17 eyes of 17 patients who had previously switched from ranibizumab to aflibercept and finally back to ranibizumab. Main outcomes were change of visual acuity (VA) and assessment of central macular thickness (CMT). Secondary outcomes included predictive factors which had a beneficial effect as VA and CMT before re-switch, number of previous injections and gender. Results The mean VA was 0.64 ± 0.36 logMAR before the switch, and 0.87 ± 0.40 logMAR before the re-switch, and gained with a slight but not significantly improvement up to 0.85 ± 0.58 logMAR after the re-switch (p = 0.896). The average CMT before the switch was 448.6 µm ± 181.5. This decreased to 343.8 µm ± 161.3 after the switch (p = 0.614) to 299.1 µm ± 155.8 at switchback (p = 0.133). Overall, 8 patients (47%) had an improvement of vision, whereas in 5 patients (30%) VA deteriorated. Further analysis of predictive factors revealed a mean improvement of VA in male patients after re-switch, while female patients lost VA, with statistical significance between after the switch and after the re-switch to the benefit of male patients (p = 0.016). Conclusions A re-switch from aflibercept to ranibizumab may enable improvement in morphological parameters and stabilization of VA in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration who achieved no more benefit from the initial switch. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Podcast solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Podcasting is the art of recording radio show style audio tracks, then distributing them to listeners on the Web via podcasting software such as iPodder. From downloading podcasts to producing a track for fun or profit, ""Podcast Solutions"" covers the entire world of podcasting with insight, humor, and the unmatched wisdom of experience.

  11. [Secretion of Phenolic Compounds into Root Exudates of Pea Seedlings upon Inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae or Pseudomonas siringae pv. Pisi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L E; Dudareva, L V; Petrova, I G; Vasil'eva, G G

    2016-01-01

    The content of apigenin, naringenin, pisatin, dibutyl-ortho-phthalate, and N-phenyl-2-naphthyl-amine were assayed in root exudates of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings one day after their inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum, bv. viceae or Pseudomonas siringae pv. pisi, which represent, respectively, mutualistic and antagonistic strategies of interaction with a host plant. After inoculation with either bacteria, the concentrations of apigenin and pisatin in the root exudates were equal, whereas the concentrations of naringenin and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine were different and those of dibutyl-o-phthalate were unchanged. A certain role is suggested for the phenolic compounds in an accomplishment of symbiotic relations of bacteria with a host plant.

  12. Prophylactic laser treatment in early age-related maculopathy: an 8-year follow-up in a randomized pilot study shows a reduced incidence of exudative complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frennesson, Christina I

    2003-10-01

    To study the effect of mild laser treatment on the incidence of exudative complications in patients with soft drusen maculopathy in a longterm perspective. In a prospective study, 38 patients with early age-related maculopathy and good visual acuity (VA) were randomized either to laser treatment using an argon green laser or to observation. At 8 years, 29 patients remained in the study, 16 in the control group and 13 in the treatment group. During follow-up, mean VA decreased significantly in both groups, to 0.53 in the treatment group (p laser treatment of soft drusen maculopathy significantly reduced the rate of exudative complications in a longterm perspective. As the study is small, the results should be viewed with caution.

  13. Cadmium spiked soil modulates root organic acids exudation and ionic contents of two differentially Cd tolerant maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M Tariq; Akram, M Sohail; Tanwir, Kashif; Javed Chaudhary, Hassan; Ali, Qasim; Stoltz, Eva; Lindberg, Sylvia

    2017-07-01

    Our earlier work described that the roots of two maize cultivars, grown hydroponically, differentially responded to cadmium (Cd) stress by initiating changes in medium pH depending on their Cd tolerance. The current study investigated the root exudation, elemental contents and antioxidant behavior of the same maize cultivars [cv. 3062 (Cd-tolerant) and cv. 31P41 (Cd-sensitive)] under Cd stress. Plants were maintained in a rhizobox-like system carrying soil spiked with Cd concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 μmol/kg soil. The root and shoot Cd contents increased, while Mg, Ca and Fe contents mainly decreased at higher Cd levels, and preferentially in the sensitive cultivar. Interestingly, the K contents increased in roots of cv. 3062 at low Cd treatments. The Cd stress caused acidosis of the maize root exudates predominantly in cv. 3062. The concentration of various organic acids was significantly increased in the root exudates of cv. 3062 with applied Cd levels. This effect was diminished in cv. 31P41 at higher Cd levels. Cd exposure increased the relative membrane permeability, anthocyanin (only in cv. 3062), proline contents and the activities of peroxidases (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The only exception was the catalase activity, which was diminished in both cultivars. Root Cd contents were positively correlated with the secretion of acetic acid, oxalic acid, glutamic acid, citric acid, and succinic acid. The antioxidants like POD and SOD exhibited a positive correlation with the organic acids under Cd stress. It is likly that a high exudation of dicarboxylic organic acids improves nutrient uptake and activities of antioxidants, which enables the tolerant cultivar to acclimatize in Cd polluted environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The content of secondary phenol metabolites in pruned leaves of Aloe arborescens, a comparison between two methods: leaf exudates and leaf water extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutterman, Yitzchak; Chauser-Volfson, Elena

    2008-10-01

    Aloe arborescens plants, originating from the deserts of South Africa, are grown in the Introduction Garden at Sede Boker in the Negev Desert of Israel. In previous studies, we developed agro-technical methods to raise the content of secondary phenol metabolites (SPhMs) in the Aloe leaves. Plants that are subjected to repeated leaf pruning respond by increasing the content of their SPhMs. The SPhMs found in Aloe arborescens include barbaloin, aloenin and derivatives of aloeresin. Such compounds are used for many purposes, including human skin protection from sun and fire burns and high radiation, as products of the pharmaceutics and cosmetics industries, and as food supplements for treating stomach ulcers and diabetes. In the current study, the SPhMs were separated from pruned leaves of the same A. arborescens plants at the same time by two methods: (1) exudation by squeezing the tissues of the leaves, (2) immersion of the leaves' pruned cut bottom in water and collection of the extract. The exudates and extract were frozen, freeze-dried to a powder and the SPhMs were then separated by chromatography. The yield of powder from water extraction from pruned leaves was much lower than the yield from the exudates. However, higher percentages of the powder from the water extraction contained SPhMs (between 80 and 92.7%). The content of powder in leaf exudates from pruned leaves was much higher because the SPhMs were squeezed out from the cells and tissues. However, the percentages of SPhMs in this powder were much lower (between 39 and 62%).

  15. Detecting signs of retinal leakage in exudative AMD using Cirrus OCT versus SL SCAN-1, a novel integrated FD-OCT into a common slit lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehouwer, M; Verbraak, F D; Schlingemann, R O; van Leeuwen, T G

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to evaluate the interdevice and interobserver agreements between the SL SCAN-1 (a FD-OCT integrated into a common slit lamp) and a standard stand-alone FD-OCT device (the Cirrus) with regard to the presence or absence of signs of leakage in the retina in patients with exudative AMD and treated with anti-VEGF. Fifty-six patients, known to have exudative AMD and under treatment with anti-VEGF agents, were included. During a regular follow-up, OCT scans were made with the Cirrus (macular-cube pattern) and the SL SCAN-1 (radial-scan pattern). All scans were graded by two medical retina specialists for signs of intraretinal cysts, subretinal fluid accumulation, and thickening of the neurosensory retina. Presence of signs of leakage was concluded if one or more of the three signs were present. In 91 % of the patients, the observers made identical conclusions for both devices of the presence of signs of leakage, resulting in an interdevice Kappa coefficient of 0.87. For the scans with disagreement about the presence or absence of signs of leakage, positive and negative conclusions were equally distributed between both devices, and differences were restricted to more subtle signs of leakage. The interdevice Kappa coefficient of 0.87 shows a high agreement between the SL SCAN-1 and the Cirrus in grading signs of leakage in exudative AMD. OCT images play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and management of exudative diseases like AMD, and the SL SCAN-1 provides a very efficient approach to these patients with the integration of the FD-OCT device into a common slit lamp.

  16. The effects of egg albumin incorporation on quality attributes of pale, soft, exudative (PSE-like) turkey rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Burcu; Serdaroğlu, Meltem

    2017-05-01

    Pale, soft, exudative (PSE-like) poultry phenomenon has been a growing problem in meat industry in terms of quality and economic losses, thus data is required to evaluate PSE raw material in product formulations. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of egg albumin (EA) utilization on quality characteristics of PSE-like turkey rolls. Turkey Pectoralis major muscles were exposed to either 40 °C to stimulate typical processing causing PSE or 0 °C to reduce PSE and keep the muscles "normal". Turkey rolls were prepared in nine different formulations; using 100% normal (N), 50% normal + 50% PSE (NP) or 100% PSE meat (P). Treatments also included 0, 1 or 2% EA. Addition of EA increased protein content of all samples. L*, a* and b* values were affected by PSE level. Increased levels of PSE caused decreased processing yields, while EA incorporation increased processing yield of the samples. Addition of 1% EA increased water-holding capacity (WHC) of the samples, while higher level of EA (2%) caused decrement in the same. Addition of either 1% or 2% EA was effective in reducing purge loss in P samples. Texture profile analysis showed that EA addition rather had considerable effects on N samples. Sensory scores showed that 1% EA utilization has the potential to increase mostly the mouthfeel of PSE-like products. Results showed that EA could be used as a promising ingredient that improved overall quality of PSE-like turkey rolls.

  17. How a phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on carboxylate exudation powers the success and agronomic potential of lupines (Lupinus, Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, Hans; Clements, Jon C; Nelson, Matthew N

    2013-02-01

    Lupines (Lupinus species; Fabaceae) are an ancient crop with great potential to be developed further for high-protein feed and food, cover crops, and phytoremediation. Being legumes, they are capable of symbiotically fixing atmospheric nitrogen. However, Lupinus species appear to be nonmycorrhizal or weakly mycorrhizal at most; instead some produce cluster roots, which release vast amounts of phosphate-mobilizing carboxylates (inorganic anions). Other lupines produce cluster-like roots, which function in a similar manner, and some release large amounts of carboxylates without specialized roots. These traits associated with nutrient acquisition make lupines ideally suited for either impoverished soils or soils with large amounts of phosphorus that is poorly available for most plants, e.g., acidic or alkaline soils. Here we explore how common the nonmycorrhizal phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on exudation of carboxylates is in the genus Lupinus, concluding it is very likely more widespread than generally acknowledged. This trait may partly account for the role of lupines as pioneers or invasive species, but also makes them suitable crop plants while we reach "peak phosphorus".

  18. Isolation of mast cells from the peritoneal exudate of the teleost fish gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-González, Nuria Esther; García-García, Erick; Montero, Jana; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Meseguer, José; García-Ayala, Alfonsa; Mulero, Victoriano

    2014-09-01

    Inflammation is the first response of animals to infection or tissue damage. Sparus aurata (Perciformes) was the first fish species shown to possess histamine-containing mast cells at mucosal tissues. We report a separation protocol for obtaining highly enriched (over 95% purity) preparations of fish mast cells in high numbers (5-20 million mast cells per fish). The peritoneal exudate of S. aurata is composed of lymphocytes, acidophilic granulocytes, macrophages and mast cells. We separated the lymphocyte fraction through discontinuous density gradient centrifugation. The remaining cells were cultivated overnight in RPMI-1640 culture medium containing 5% fetal calf serum, which allowed macrophages to adhere to the cell culture flasks. Finally, acidophilic granulocytes were separated from the mast cells though a Magnetic-Activated Cell Separation (MACS) protocol, using a monoclonal antibody against these cells. The purity of mast cells-enriched fractions was analyzed by flow cytometry and by transmission electron microscopy. The functionality of purified mast cells was confirmed by the detection of histamine release by ELISA after stimulation with compound 48/80 and the induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8 following stimulation with bacterial DNA. This fish mast cells separation protocol is a stepping stone for further studies addressing the evolution of vertebrate inflammatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MACULAR ATROPHY FINDINGS BY OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY COMPARED WITH FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE IN TREATED EXUDATIVE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasago, Yukari; Shiragami, Chieko; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Osaka, Rie; Ono, Aoi; Yamashita, Ayana; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Hirooka, Kazuyuki

    2017-11-28

    To compare the areas of choriocapillaris (CC) nonperfusion and macular atrophy (MA) in treated exudative age-related macular degeneration. This was a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Forty-four eyes exhibiting MA (42 patients with age-related macular degeneration), with a dry macula, underwent fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography angiography. The area of MA detected by fundus autofluorescence and CC nonperfusion detected by optical coherence tomography angiography was measured using image analysis software. The rates of concordance between the MA and CC nonperfusion areas were calculated. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the areas of MA and CC nonperfusion in age-related macular degeneration eyes. The mean areas of MA and CC nonperfusion were 5.95 ± 4.50 mm and 10.66 ± 7.05 mm, respectively (paired t-test, P age-related macular degeneration.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  20. Tissue Xpert™ MTB/Rif assay is of limited use in diagnosing peritoneal tuberculosis in patients with exudative ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Chinmay; Michael, Joy Sarojini; Burad, Deepak; Shirly, Suzana B; Gibikote, Sridhar; Ramakrishna, Banumathi; Goel, Ashish; Eapen, C E

    2015-09-01

    Xpert™ MTB/Rif is a multiplex hemi-nested real-time PCR-based assay to detect presence of M. tuberculosis within 2 hours of sample collection. The present study aimed at assessing efficacy of Xpert™ MTB/Rif assay for diagnosing peritoneal tuberculosis. Patients with exudative ascites, fluid negative for acid-fast bacilli on auramine O fluorescence staining and unyielding fluid cytology for malignant cells, were included. Ultrasound-guided omental biopsy samples were obtained in all. Xpert™ MTB/Rif assay on tissue samples was assessed against a composite "reference" standard for diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis, defined as presence of any of the three-culture showing M tuberculosis, granulomatous inflammation on histology or resolution of ascites with 2 months of antitubercular therapy. During January 2012-July 2013, 28 patients (age:43 ± 15 years; mean ± SD; male:20) were recruited. Serum ascitic albumin gradient was MTB/Rif assay was positive in 4/21 patients with peritoneal tuberculosis and in none of the 7 patients with alternative diagnosis. Thus, sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values for tissue Xpert™ MTB/Rif assay in diagnosing peritoneal tuberculosis were 19% (95% C.I: 6% to 42%), 100% (95% C.I: 59% to 100%), 100% (40% to 100%), and 29% (95% C.I: 13% to 51%), respectively. Tissue Xpert™ MTB/Rif assay was of limited use in diagnosing peritoneal tuberculosis.

  1. Systemic Induction of the Small Antibacterial Compound in the Leaf Exudate During Benzothiadiazole-elicited Systemic Acquired Resistance in Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boyoung; Park, Yong-Soon; Yi, Hwe-Su; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from diverse potential pathogens by induction of the immune systems such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Most bacterial plant pathogens thrive in the intercellular space (apoplast) of plant tissues and cause symptoms. The apoplastic leaf exudate (LE) is believed to contain nutrients to provide food resource for phytopathogenic bacteria to survive and to bring harmful phytocompounds to protect plants against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we employed the pepper-Xanthomonas axonopodis system to assess whether apoplastic fluid from LE in pepper affects the fitness of X. axonopodis during the induction of SAR. The LE was extracted from pepper leaves 7 days after soil drench-application of a chemical trigger, benzothiadiazole (BTH). Elicitation of plant immunity was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four genes, CaPR1, CaPR4, CaPR9, and CaCHI2, by BTH treatment. Bacterial fitness was evaluated by measuring growth rate during cultivation with LE from BTH- or water-treated leaves. LE from BTH-treatment significantly inhibited bacterial growth when compared to that from the water-treated control. The antibacterial activity of LE from BTH-treated samples was not affected by heating at 100°C for 30 min. Although the antibacterial molecules were not precisely identified, the data suggest that small (less than 5 kDa), heat-stable compound(s) that are present in BTH-induced LE directly attenuate bacterial growth during the elicitation of plant immunity.

  2. Absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular de glyphosate em clones de eucalipto: clones Absorption, translocation and radicular glyphosate exudation in Eucalyptus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.L. Machado

    2009-01-01

    , 14C-glyphosate on the leaf was similar in both clones. However, considering the whote plant, it was higher in 2277, at any evaluation time. After washing the leaves, higher amount of 14C-glyphosate was verified in the water of 531, indicating its smaller herbicide absorption. In the ground tissue and in the roots, 14C-glyphosate was similar in both clones, at any application time though, showing higher concentrations in the roots. Between 0.78 and 1.16% any of the applied herbicide was exuded into the nutritive solution, without showing difference on translocation and radicular exudation in both clones. The different absorption between the clones can be a likely explanation for the the different tolerance among genotypes.

  3. Combined effects of genetic and non-genetic risk factors affect response to ranibizumab in exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Miotto, Stefania; Colavito, Davide; Leon, Alberta; Segato, Tatiana

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether genetic and non-genetic risk factors influence 12-month response to ranibizumab treatment for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A cohort of 94 Caucasian patients with unilateral exudative AMD received intravitreal ranibizumab. After a three-injection loading phase, a PRN regimen was followed. Patients were genotyped for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms: CFH rs1061170, ARMS2 rs10490924 and C3 rs2230199. Non-genetic risk factors [choroidal neovascularization (CNV) phenotype, smoking habit, hypertension and body mass index] were considered. The selected end-point was the 12-month variation of number of ETDRS letters. Complement factor H (CFH) risk alleles, smoking history and arterial hypertension each independently influenced treatment response, with worse 12-month BCVA outcomes (p = 0.036, 0.037, 0.043, respectively). A significant cumulative effect of these risk factors was also observed: patients homozygous for the CFH risk alleles and with a positive smoking history showed a mean loss of 8.0 ETDRS letters (p = 0.010). Patients with CFH risk alleles, smoking history and hypertension had a mean loss of 13.9 ETDRS letters (p = 0.013). CNV phenotypes did not influence visual outcomes, nor were they associated with other genetic/non-genetic risk factors. Complement factor H risk alleles, smoking history and hypertension affect the mid-term response to ranibizumab in exudative AMD. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Response-based selection of barley cultivars and legume species for complementarity: Root morphology and exudation in relation to nutrient source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Courtney D; Brown, Lawrie K; Adu, Michael O; Mezeli, Malika M; Sandral, Graeme A; Simpson, Richard J; Wendler, Renate; Shand, Charles A; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Darch, Tegan; Stutter, Marc I; Lumsdon, David G; Zhang, Hao; Blackwell, Martin S A; Wearing, Catherine; Cooper, Patricia; Haygarth, Philip M; George, Timothy S

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) use efficiency may be improved through increased biodiversity in agroecosystems. Phenotypic variation in plants' response to nutrient deficiency may influence positive complementarity in intercropping systems. A multicomponent screening approach was used to assess the influence of P supply and N source on the phenotypic plasticity of nutrient foraging traits in barley (H. vulgare L.) and legume species. Root morphology and exudation were determined in six plant nutrient treatments. A clear divergence in the response of barley and legumes to the nutrient treatments was observed. Root morphology varied most among legumes, whereas exudate citrate and phytase activity were most variable in barley. Changes in root morphology were minimized in plants provided with ammonium in comparison to nitrate but increased under P deficiency. Exudate phytase activity and pH varied with legume species, whereas citrate efflux, specific root length, and root diameter lengths were more variable among barley cultivars. Three legume species and four barley cultivars were identified as the most responsive to P deficiency and the most contrasting of the cultivars and species tested. Phenotypic response to nutrient availability may be a promising approach for the selection of plant combinations for minimal input cropping systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sliding enhances fluid and solute transport into buried articular cartilage contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, B T; Moore, A C; Burris, D L; Price, C

    2017-12-01

    Solutes and interstitial water are naturally transported from cartilage by load-induced interstitial fluid pressures. Fluid and solute recovery during joint articulation have been primarily attributed to passive diffusion and mechanical 'pumping' from dynamic loading. This paper tests if the sliding action of articulation is a significant and independent driver of fluid and solute transport in cartilage. The large osteochondral samples utilized in the present study preserve the convergent wedges necessary for physiological hydrodynamics. Following static load-induced fluid exudation and prior to sliding, a fluorescent solute (AlexaFluor 633) was added to the lubricant bath. In situ confocal microscopy was used to quantify the transport of solute from the bath into the buried stationary contact area (SCA) during sliding. Following static exudation, significant reductions in friction and strain during sliding at 60 mm/s were accompanied by significant solute transport into the inaccessible center of the buried contact; no such transport was detected for the 0- or 1 mm/s sliding conditions. The results suggest that external hydrodynamic pressures from sliding induced advective flows that carried solutes from the bath toward the center of contact. These results provide the first direct evidence that the action of sliding is a significant contributor to fluid and solute recovery by cartilage. Furthermore, they indicate that the sliding-induced transport of solutes into the buried interface was orders of magnitude greater than that attributable to diffusion alone, a result with critical implications for disease prevention and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid Resuscitation with Small Volume Hypertonic Saline Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were entered into a computer data base and analysed. Results: Forty five patients were enrolled and resuscitated with 250 mls 7.5% HSS. Among the studied patients, 88.9% recovered from shock immediately after being infused with 7.5% HSS. Of patients with a single injury, 96.6% recovered from shock whereas ...

  7. Proteome basis of pale, soft, and exudative-like (PSE-like) broiler breast (Pectoralis major) meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Monil A; Jackson, Viodelda; Zhai, Wei; Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Beach, Carol M; Schilling, M Wes

    2016-11-01

    Pale, Soft, and Exudative (PSE) broiler breast meat has poor protein functionality, which leads to quality problems and economic loss in the poultry industry. Proteomics has been applied to characterize the biochemical mechanisms governing tenderness, color, and water-holding capacity in meat. However, the proteome basis of PSE has not yet been characterized for broiler breast meat. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the differences in meat quality (cooking loss and shear force), descriptive sensory characteristics, consumer acceptance, and whole muscle proteome between normal and PSE-like broiler breast meat. Male Hubbard × Cobb 500 birds (n = 1,050) were raised in commercial houses. Prior to harvest, a sample of the broilers (n = 900) were subjected to short-term stress (38°C for 2 h), and the remaining broilers (n = 150) were maintained at control conditions (21°C for 2 h). Broiler breast (Pectoralis major) meat was collected and characterized by pH24 and L*24 as normal (pH24 5.8 to 6.2, L*24 45 to 55) or PSE-like (pH24 5.4 to 5.7, L*24 55 to 65) samples. Normal broiler breast meat had lower shear force values than PSE-like meat (P broiler breast samples. Actin alpha, myosin heavy chain, phosphoglycerate kinase, creatine kinase M type, beta-enolase, carbonic anhydrase 2, proteasome subunit alpha, pyruvate kinase, and malate dehydrogenase were over-abundant (P broiler breast whereas phosphoglycerate mutase-1, alpha-enolase, ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase were over-abundant (P broiler breast meat. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Early and exudative age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Carsten; Jehs, Tina; Juel, Helene Baek; Singh, Amardeep; Falk, Mads Krüger; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2015-05-01

    We have recently identified homeostatic alterations in the circulating T cells of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In cultures of retinal pigment epithelial cells, we have demonstrated that T-cell-derived cytokines induced the upregulation of complement, chemokines and other proteins implicated in AMD pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to test whether increased plasma levels of cytokines were present in patients with AMD. We conducted a case-control study. Age-related macular degeneration status was assessed using standardized multimodal imaging techniques. Plasma was isolated from freshly drawn peripheral venous blood samples and analysed for interleukin (IL)15, IL18, interferon (IFN)γ, soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor II (sTNFRII) and complement factor H (CFH) Y402H genotype. We included 136 individuals with early or late forms of AMD and 74 controls. Significantly increased levels of sTNFRII were observed in patients with early or exudative AMD (p age, sex and smoking history, the level of sTNFRII remained a significant predictor for prevalence of AMD with odds ratios at 3.0 in the middle and 3.6 in the highest tertiles. Levels of IL15, IL18 and IFNγ were low and not associated with AMD. Increased plasma level of sTNFRII is found to be associated with AMD. The data supports the observations of low-grade, systemic inflammatory alterations in patients with AMD. However, it remains to be determined whether increased levels of TNFα can be found, which directly reflects an increased activity of macrophages and T cells. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Novel and recurrent NDP gene mutations in familial cases of Norrie disease and X-linked exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelcastre, Erika L; Villanueva-Mendoza, Cristina; Zenteno, Juan C

    2010-05-01

    To present the results of molecular analysis of the NDP gene in Mexican families with Norrie disease (ND) and X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (XL-FEVR). Two unrelated families with ND and two with XL-FEVR were studied. Clinical diagnosis was suspected on the basis of a complete ophthalmologic examination. Molecular methods included DNA isolation from peripheral blood leucocytes, polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct nucleotide sequencing analysis of the complete coding region and exon-intron junctions of NDP. Haplotype analysis using NDP-linked microsatellites markers was performed in both ND families. A novel Norrin missense mutation, p.Arg41Thr, was identified in two apparently unrelated families with ND. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that affected males in these two families shared the same ND-linked haplotype, suggesting a common origin for this novel mutation. The previously reported p.Arg121Trp and p.Arg121Gln Norrin mutations were identified in the two families with XL-FEVR. Our results expand the mutational spectrum in ND. This is the first report of ND resulting from mutation at arginine position 41 of Norrin. Interestingly, mutations at the same residue but resulting in a different missense change were previously described in subjects with XL-FEVR (p.Arg41Lys) or persistent fetal vasculature syndrome (p.Arg41Ser), indicating that the novel p.Arg41Thr change causes a more severe retinal phenotype. Preliminary data suggest a founder effect for the ND p.Arg41Thr mutation in these two Mexican families.

  10. Systemic Induction of the Small Antibacterial Compound in the Leaf Exudate During Benzothiadiazole-elicited Systemic Acquired Resistance in Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants protect themselves from diverse potential pathogens by induction of the immune systems such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR. Most bacterial plant pathogens thrive in the intercellular space (apoplast of plant tissues and cause symptoms. The apoplastic leaf exudate (LE is believed to contain nutrients to provide food resource for phytopathogenic bacteria to survive and to bring harmful phytocompounds to protect plants against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we employed the pepper-Xanthomonas axonopodis system to assess whether apoplastic fluid from LE in pepper affects the fitness of X. axonopodis during the induction of SAR. The LE was extracted from pepper leaves 7 days after soil drench-application of a chemical trigger, benzothiadiazole (BTH. Elicitation of plant immunity was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four genes, CaPR1, CaPR4, CaPR9, and CaCHI2, by BTH treatment. Bacterial fitness was evaluated by measuring growth rate during cultivation with LE from BTH- or water-treated leaves. LE from BTH-treatment significantly inhibited bacterial growth when compared to that from the water-treated control. The antibacterial activity of LE from BTH-treated samples was not affected by heating at 100°C for 30 min. Although the antibacterial molecules were not precisely identified, the data suggest that small (less than 5 kDa, heat-stable compound(s that are present in BTH-induced LE directly attenuate bacterial growth during the elicitation of plant immunity.

  11. Phosphorus-mobilization ecosystem engineering: the roles of cluster roots and carboxylate exudation in young P-limited ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, Hans; Bishop, John G.; Hopper, Stephen D.; Laliberté, Etienne; Zúñiga-Feest, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Background Carboxylate-releasing cluster roots of Proteaceae play a key role in acquiring phosphorus (P) from ancient nutrient-impoverished soils in Australia. However, cluster roots are also found in Proteaceae on young, P-rich soils in Chile where they allow P acquisition from soils that strongly sorb P. Scope Unlike Proteaceae in Australia that tend to proficiently remobilize P from senescent leaves, Chilean Proteaceae produce leaf litter rich in P. Consequently, they may act as ecosystem engineers, providing P for plants without specialized roots to access sorbed P. We propose a similar ecosystem-engineering role for species that release large amounts of carboxylates in other relatively young, strongly P-sorbing substrates, e.g. young acidic volcanic deposits and calcareous dunes. Many of these species also fix atmospheric nitrogen and release nutrient-rich litter, but their role as ecosystem engineers is commonly ascribed only to their diazotrophic nature. Conclusions We propose that the P-mobilizing capacity of Proteaceae on young soils, which contain an abundance of P, but where P is poorly available, in combination with inefficient nutrient remobilization from senescing leaves allows these species to function as ecosystem engineers. We suggest that diazotrophic species that colonize young soils with strong P-sorption potential should be considered for their positive effect on P availability, as well as their widely accepted role in nitrogen fixation. Their P-mobilizing activity possibly also enhances their nitrogen-fixing capacity. These diazotrophic species may therefore facilitate the establishment and growth of species with less-efficient P-uptake strategies on more-developed soils with low P availability through similar mechanisms. We argue that the significance of cluster roots and high carboxylate exudation in the development of young ecosystems is probably far more important than has been envisaged thus far. PMID:22700940

  12. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  13. Summer confort solutions in mediterranean areas

    OpenAIRE

    Coch Roura, Helena; Serra Florensa, Rafael

    1996-01-01

    The climate of Mediterranean countries is characterized by its complexity. Rapidly changing conditions mean that both cold and heat can be a problem. In architectural practice the design solutions that must be applied in buildings are complex. Solutions for summer comfort in Mediterranean areas also reflect this complexity. The causes of summer discomfort will be described and some examples of solutions against these will be showed and analized. Peer Reviewed

  14. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  15. In situ silicone tube microextraction: a new method for undisturbed sampling of root-exuded thiophenes from marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohney, Brian K; Matz, Tricia; Lamoreaux, Jessica; Wilcox, David S; Gimsing, Anne Louise; Mayer, Philipp; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D

    2009-11-01

    The difficulties of monitoring allelochemical concentrations in soil and their dynamics over time have been a major barrier to testing hypotheses of allelopathic effects. Here, we evaluate three diffusive sampling strategies that employ polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sorbents to map the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of root-exuded thiophenes from the African marigold, Tagetes erecta. Solid phase root zone extraction (SPRE) probes constructed by inserting stainless steel wire into PDMS tubing were used to monitor thiophene concentrations at various depths beneath marigolds growing in PVC pipes. PDMS sheets were used to map the distribution of thiophenes beneath marigolds grown in thin glass boxes. Concentrations of the two major marigold thiophenes measured by these two methods were extremely variable in both space and time. Dissection and analysis of roots indicated that distribution of thiophenes in marigold roots also was quite variable. A third approach used 1 m lengths of PDMS microtubing placed in marigold soil for repeated sampling of soil without disturbance of the roots. The two ends of the tubing remained out of the soil so that solvent could be washed through the tubing to collect samples for HPLC analysis. Unlike the other two methods, initial experiments with this approach show more uniformity of response, and suggest that soil concentrations of marigold thiophenes are affected greatly even by minimal disturbance of the soil. Silicone tube microextraction gave a linear response for alpha-terthienyl when maintained in soils spiked with 0-10 ppm of this thiophene. This method, which is experimentally simple and uses inexpensive materials, should be broadly applicable to the measurement of non-polar root exudates, and thus provides a means to test hypotheses about the role of root exudates in plant-plant and other interactions.

  16. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in the Pea Seedling Root Exudates Depends on the Size of Their Roots and Inoculation of Bacteria Mutualistic and Antagonistic Type of Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Makarova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the bacteria Rhizobium and Pseudomonas on total content of phenolic compounds (PC and their individual components (apigenin, naringenin, dibutyl-ortho-phthalate, pisatin, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine in the root exudates of the pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. at two different growth stages was studied . Bacteria have similar affect on the total number of PC and the number of constituent apigenine, phthalate and pisatine. Difference at the impact of these bacteria on the content of naringenin and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine was detected, which can be attributed to the peculiarities of the interactions of plants of peas with bacteria-antagonists and mutualists.

  17. Study of the chemical composition of the resinous exudate isolated from Heliotropium sclerocarpum and evaluation of the antioxidant properties of the phenolic compounds and the resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Brenda; Salina, Melissa; Rodilla, Jesús; Torres, René

    2009-11-12

    Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae) is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1), one flavanone: naringenin (2) and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical method and expressed as fast reacting equivalents (FRE) and total reacting equivalents (TRE).

  18. Study of the Chemical Composition of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium Sclerocarpum and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of the Phenolic Compounds and the Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Torres

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1, one flavanone: naringenin (2 and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical method and expressed as fast reacting equivalents (FRE and total reacting equivalents (TRE.

  19. [Drug-induced exudative erythema multiforme major with a chronic progressive course and bilateral blindness. Clinical and immunohistologic follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, H J; Richter, U; Pleyer, U; Zierhut, M; Steuhl, K P

    1990-08-01

    A 24-year-old male patient who had been received Fansidar developed exudative erythema multiforme major with massive involvement of the skin, mucous membranes, and both eyes. The chronic inflammation led to proliferation of the conjunctiva, with keratinization of the ocular surface and corneal vascularization. The final result was comparable to cicatricial pemphigoid, with blindness of both eyes. In histological sections, massive lympho-plasma-cellular infiltration with circumscribed perivasculitis was seen. The lymphocyte transformation test was still positive 18 months after onset of the disease. Class II antigens were evident in some of the conjunctival biopsies.

  20. Automated detection of exudative age-related macular degeneration in spectral domain optical coherence tomography using deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, Maximilian; Lauermann, Jost Lennart; Eter, Nicole

    2018-02-01

    Our purpose was to use deep learning for the automated detection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A total of 1112 cross-section SD-OCT images of patients with exudative AMD and a healthy control group were used for this study. In the first step, an open-source multi-layer deep convolutional neural network (DCNN), which was pretrained with 1.2 million images from ImageNet, was trained and validated with 1012 cross-section SD-OCT scans (AMD: 701; healthy: 311). During this procedure training accuracy, validation accuracy and cross-entropy were computed. The open-source deep learning framework TensorFlow™ (Google Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA) was used to accelerate the deep learning process. In the last step, a created DCNN classifier, using the information of the above mentioned deep learning process, was tested in detecting 100 untrained cross-section SD-OCT images (AMD: 50; healthy: 50). Therefore, an AMD testing score was computed: 0.98 or higher was presumed for AMD. After an iteration of 500 training steps, the training accuracy and validation accuracies were 100%, and the cross-entropy was 0.005. The average AMD scores were 0.997 ± 0.003 in the AMD testing group and 0.9203 ± 0.085 in the healthy comparison group. The difference between the two groups was highly significant (p deep learning-based approach using TensorFlow™, it is possible to detect AMD in SD-OCT with high sensitivity and specificity. With more image data, an expansion of this classifier for other macular diseases or further details in AMD is possible, suggesting an application for this model as a support in clinical decisions. Another possible future application would involve the individual prediction of the progress and success of therapy for different diseases by automatically detecting hidden image information.

  1. Vehicle thermal microclimate evaluation during Brazilian summer broiler transport and the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Silveira Simões

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a thermal microclimate within the vehicle during the transport of broilers from farm to slaughterhouse affects the birds' welfare and potentially promotes the development of PSE meat. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of routine commercial practices on the vehicle microclimate formed during transportation of broilers. Twenty-four hours postmortem Pectoralis major m. samples were classified as PSE meat by determining pH and color (L*, a* e b*. Results showed that broiler located at the rear of the truck and with longer journey presented higher amounts of PSE meat because birds were under harsh conditions of both temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation decreased gradually from the front to the rear of the truck, and the water bath at the farm was beneficial over a long distance by reducing the overall occurrence of PSE meat.O microambiente térmico formado no caminhão de transporte de frangos da granja ao abatedouro pode ser a causa primária que compromete o bem estar das aves e a qualidade final da carne com o desenvolvimento de PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative em filés de peito de frango. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do microambiente formado durante o transporte por caminhão em uma linha comercial. Para classificação de filés de peito em PSE, o pH e a cor (L*, a* e b* foram medidos nos filés de peito de frango 24 h postmortem. Os resultados mostraram que em jornadas longas, as aves transportadas nas regiões do meio e fundo do veículo apresentaram maior ocorrência de PSE devido às drámaticas condições de temperatura e umidade relativa no microambiente destas regiões. A ventilação diminuiu gradualmente da frente à trazeira do caminhão e a aplicação do banho de água sobre os frangos após o carregamento na granja foi benéfica em jornadas longas ao reduzir a ocorrência de carnes PSE.

  2. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  3. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  4. Cook & Chill - Rapid Chilling of Food 'in situ'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Rapid cooling of products is of increasing importance for food preservation and for industrial processes. Slurry ice (Binary Ice) is a two-phase cooling fluid consisting of suspended ice crystals in an aqueous solution or mixture. Latent energy contained in the fluid yields rapid cooling which...

  5. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  6. Plant-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Trifolium resupinatum seed exudate and their antifungal efficacy on Neofusicoccum parvum and Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Mehrdad; Nejad, Meysam Soltani; Salari, Samira; Almani, Pooya Ghasemi Nejad

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, biosynthesis and the utilisation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has become an interesting subject. In this study, the authors investigated the biosynthesis of AgNPs using Trifolium resupinatum (Persian clover) seed exudates. The characterisation of AgNPs were analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Also, antifungal efficacy of biogenic AgNPs against two important plant-pathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani and Neofusicoccum Parvum) in vitro condition was evaluated. The XRD analysis showed that the AgNPs are crystalline in nature and have face-centred cubic geometry. TEM images revealed the spherical shape of the AgNPs with an average size of 17 nm. The synthesised AgNPs were formed at room temperature and kept stable for 4 months. The maximum distributions of the synthesised AgNPs were seen to range in size from 5 to 10 nm. The highest inhibition effect was observed against R. solani at 40 ppm concentration of AgNPs (94.1%) followed by N. parvum (84%). The results showed that the antifungal activity of AgNPs was dependent on the amounts of AgNPs. In conclusion, the AgNPs obtained from T. resupinatum seed exudate exhibit good antifungal activity against the pathogenic fungi R. solani and N. Parvum.

  7. Interaction of Pseudostellaria heterophylla with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mediated by its root exudates in a consecutive monoculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongpo; Wu, Linkun; Chu, Leixia; Yang, Yanqiu; Li, Zhenfang; Azeem, Saadia; Zhang, Zhixing; Fang, Changxun; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-02-03

    In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of Fusarium oxysporum, an important replant disease pathogen in Pseudostellaria heterophylla rhizospheric soil. Moreover, HPLC was used to identify phenolic acids in root exudates then it was further to explore the effects of the phenolic acid allelochemicals on the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla. The amount of F. oxysporum increased significantly in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil under a consecutive replant system as monitored through qPCR analysis. Furthermore, the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium was enhanced by root exudates with a maximum increase of 23.8%. In addition, the number of spores increased to a maximum of 12.5-fold. Some phenolic acids promoted the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium and spore production. Our study revealed that phenolic acids in the root secretion of P. heterophylla increased long with its development, which was closely related to changes in rhizospheric microorganisms. The population of pathogenic microorganisms such as F. oxysporum in the rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla also sharply increased. Our results on plant-microbe communication will help to better clarify the cause of problems associated with P. heterophylla under consecutive monoculture treatment.

  8. Quantification of endotoxins in infected root canals and acute apical abscess exudates: monitoring the effectiveness of root canal procedures in the reduction of endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ezilmara L R; Martinho, Frederico C; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Leite, Fabio R M; Gomes, Brenda P F A

    2014-02-01

    This clinical study was conducted to measure the endotoxin levels in infected root canals (RCs) and exudates related to acute apical abscesses (AAAs). In addition, the effectiveness of RC procedures in reducing the endotoxin levels in RCs was monitored. Paired samples of infected RCs and exudates from AAAs were collected from 10 subjects by using paper points. RCs samples were collected before (RCS1) and after chemomechanical preparation (CMP) (RCS2), after 17% EDTA (RCS3), and after 30 days of intracanal medication (Ca[OH]2 + chlorhexidine) (RCS4). A turbidimetric kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay was used for the measurement of endotoxins. Endotoxins were detected in 100% of the baseline samples of AAAs and RCs (RCS1) with median values of 175 EU/mL and 41.5 EU/mL, respectively (P endotoxins were reduced to a median value of 0.54 EU/mL (P endotoxin levels (median= 0.37 EU/mL) (P = .07). However, intracanal medication for 30 days (RCS4) reduced endotoxins to median values of 0.03 EU/mL (P endotoxins found in AAAs and RCs collected from the same tooth. Moreover, the effectiveness of CMP in reducing the endotoxin levels from RCs in acute endodontic infection was improved by the use of RC medication. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Simple and Rapid Complexometric Determination of Thallium(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, rapid and selective complexometric method is proposed for the determination of thallium(III), using mercaptoethane(EtSH) as demasking agent. The sample solution containing Tl(III) is first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTA is removed by titration at pH 5–6 with zinc sulphate solution using ...

  10. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  11. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  12. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  13. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  14. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design(RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.; Bloor, Malcolm I. G.; Wilson, Michael J.; Thomas, Almuttil M.

    2004-01-01

    An efficient methodology is presented for defining a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail, horizontal tail, and canard components. The wing, tail, and canard components are manifested by solving a fourth-order partial differential equation subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. Grid sensitivity is obtained by applying the automatic differentiation precompiler ADIFOR to software for the grid generation. The computed surface grids, volume grids, and sensitivity derivatives are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation and configuration optimizations.

  15. A Dual Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its

  16. Rapid Decolorization of Cobalamin

    OpenAIRE

    Falah H. Hussein; Ahmed F. Halbus

    2012-01-01

    The photocatalytic decolorization of cobalamin was carried out in aqueous solution of different types of catalysts including ZnO, TiO2 (Degussa P25), TiO2 (Hombikat UV100), TiO2 (Millennium PC105), and TiO2 (Koronose 2073) by using UVA source of irradiation. The effect of various parameters such as photocatalyst amount, cobalamin concentration, type of catalyst, pH of aqueous solution, light intensity, addition of H2O2, flow rate of O2, type of current gas, and temperature on photocatalytic o...

  17. Effect of four irrigation solutions on the intraocular pressure and total bacterial count of the normal eye in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ahmed Hamdy Abdelhakiem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous agents that have been used for irrigation of the ocular tissue from attached foreign bodies, inflammatory exudate and microorganisms. For evaluation of four agents of these irrigation solutions, sixteen clinically healthy dogs of both sexes were used in this study. The dogs were allocated into four equal groups. The right eye of dogs for each group was irrigated 3 times daily for three successive days. The groups were irrigated as following: The first group: ringer’s lactate, the second group: normal saline 0.9%, the third group: boric acid 2% and sodium bicarbonate 1% was used for the fourth group. The left eye was considered control one. The results revealed that the four solutions did not cause any obvious alteration of the eyes and change the intraocular pressure (IOP. According to their effects on the total bacterial count, the four irrigation solutions had not any significant effect. It could be concluded that all of these agents may be used for irrigation of the intact eye and removal of the attached exudate and foreign bodies.

  18. Antinematicidal Efficacy Of Root Exudates Of Some Crotalaria Species On Meloidogyne Incognita Root-Knot Nematode Kofoid And White Chitwood Isolated From Infected Lycopersicum Esculentum L.Tomato Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S Danahap

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The antinematicidal efficacies of exudates of four common weeds Crotalaria breviflora Crotalaria juncea Crotalaria retusa and Crotalaria spectabilis were carried out against Meloidogyne incognita. The young actively growing seedling of the common weeds were uprooted and taken to the laboratory for analyses. The root exudates of test plants were prepared by growing the young actively growing seedlings in test tubes wrapped with black carbon paper for five days under lighted florescent bulbs. Root exudates of Crotalaria breviflora Crotalaria juncea Crotalaria retusa and Crotalaria spectabilis exhibited nematicidal properties against the Meloidogyne incognita. The effects varied with concentrations of the exudates P0.05 using analysis of variance ANOVA. The effects also differed among test plants with Crotalaria retusa topping in terms of reduction in nematode population. This was followed by C.breviflora C.juncea and C.spectabilis respectively. The results thus confirmed that all the test plants are potentially viable trap weeds and can be used for the control of Meloidogyne incognita and should be employed as such.

  19. Impact of exudative diathesis induced by selenium deficiency on LncRNAs and their roles in the oxidative reduction process in broiler chick veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinxin; Zhao, Xia; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2017-01-01

    Selenium deficiency may induce exudative diathesis (ED) in broiler chick, and this damage is closely related to oxidative damage. Long noncoding RNA (LncRNA) can regulate the redox state in vivo. The aim of the present study was to clarify the LncRNA expression profile in broiler veins and filter and verify the LncRNAs related to oxidative damage of ED. This study established an ED model induced by selenium deficiency and presented the expression and characterization of LncRNAs in normal and ED samples. A total of 15412 LncRNAs (including 8052 novel LncRNAs) were generated in six cDNA libraries using the Illumina Hi-Seq 4000 platform. 635 distinct changes in LncRNAs (up-regulated fold change > 1.5, down-regulated fold change broiler chick veins for the first time and confirmed 23 LncRNAs involving in the vein oxidative damage in ED. PMID:28157700

  20. An investigation of exudative epidermitis (greasy pig disease) and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M.; Poljak, Zvonimir; Weese, J. Scott; Dewey, Cate E.

    2013-01-01

    Exudative epidermitis (EE) is a common skin disease of young pigs, caused mainly by Staphylococcus hyicus. Increased prevalence of EE and poor response to treatment are reported. Common strategies used by Ontario pork producers to treat pigs with EE were determined using a survey. Injection of penicillin G was reported as the most common parenteral antibiotic choice. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. hyicus and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical cases (30 herds with samples from approximately 6 pigs per farm) showed that 97% of S. hyicus isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin; 71% of these isolates were resistant to ceftiofur. Similar resistance was noted among S. aureus isolates. Antimicrobial resistance has become a problem in the treatment of EE in Ontario. PMID:23904636

  1. The role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine on the level of cytokines in periapical exudates and the post-treatment pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsani Maryam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive–microbial disturbances. Objective To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1 cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400 mg, ibuprofen tablets (400 mg, NAC (400 mg/ibuprofen (200 mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- α, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and post-treatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p = 0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p = 0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p = 0.049. Conclusion The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain.

  2. The Role of Prophylactic Ibuprofen and N-Acetylcysteine on the Level of Cytokines in Periapical Exudates and the Post-Treatment Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohsen Aghajanpour Mir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive-microbial disturbances. Objective:To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- alpha, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1 cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400 mg, ibuprofen tablets (400 mg, NAC (400 mg/ibuprofen (200 mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- alpha, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and posttreatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results:There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p = 0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p = 0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p = 0.049. Conclusion:The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain

  3. Influence of oxalic and malic acids in chickpea leaf exudates on the biological activity of CryIAc towards Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V Surekha; Sharma, Hari C; Rao, P Arjuna

    2013-04-01

    Efforts are being made to express toxin genes from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in chickpea for minimizing the losses due to the pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera. However, there is an apprehension that acidic exudates in chickpea leaves may influence the protoxin-toxin conversion in the insect midgut, and thus, reduce the efficacy of Bt toxins. Therefore, we studied the influence of organic acids (oxalic acid and malic acid) present in the trichome exudates of chickpea on the biological activity and binding of Bt δ-endotoxin Cry1Ac to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of the pod borer, H. armigera. Oxalic and malic acids in combination at concentrations present in chickpea leaves did not influence the biological activity of Bt toxin Cry1Ac towards H. armigera larvae. Amounts of Cry1Ac protein in the midgut of insects reared on diets with organic acids were similar to those reared on artificial diet without the organic acids. However, very high concentrations of the organic acids reduced the amounts of Cry1Ac in the midgut of H. armigera larvae. Organic acids in the artificial diet also increased the excretion of Cry1Ac in the fecal matter. Organic acids reduced the amount of protein in the BBMV of insects reared on diets with Cry1Ac, possibly because of reduced size of the larvae. Oxalic and malic acids at concentrations present in chickpea leaves did not affect the biological activity of Cry1Ac, but it will be desirable to have high levels of expression of Cry1Ac toxin proteins in chickpea for effective control of the pod borer, H. armigera. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of automated fundus photograph analysis algorithms for detecting microaneurysms, haemorrhages and exudates, and of a computer-assisted diagnostic system for grading diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, B; Walter, T; Erginay, A; Ordonez, R; Deb-Joardar, N; Gain, P; Klein, J-C; Massin, P

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate automated fundus photograph analysis algorithms for the detection of primary lesions and a computer-assisted diagnostic system for grading diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the risk of macular edema (ME). Two prospective analyses were conducted on fundus images from diabetic patients. Automated detection of microaneurysms and exudates was applied to two small image databases on which these lesions were manually marked. A computer-assisted diagnostic system for the detection and grading of DR and the risk of ME was then developed and evaluated, using a large database containing both normal and pathological images, and compared with manual grading. The algorithm for the automated detection of microaneurysms demonstrated a sensitivity of 88.5%, with an average number of 2.13 false positives per image. The pixel-based evaluation of the algorithm for automated detection of exudates had a sensitivity of 92.8% and a positive predictive value of 92.4%. Combined automated grading of DR and risk of ME was performed on 761 images from a large database. For DR detection, the sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm were 83.9% and 72.7%, respectively, and, for detection of the risk of ME, the sensitivity and specificity were 72.8% and 70.8%, respectively. This study shows that previously published algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis is a reliable alternative to time-consuming manual analysis of fundus photographs when screening for DR. The use of this system would allow considerable timesavings for physicians and, therefore, alleviate the time spent on a mass-screening programme. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of nicotine from tobacco root exudates on chemotaxis, growth, biocontrol efficiency, and colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NXHG29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Zheng, Shuai Chao; Zhang, Ti Kun; Liu, Zi Yi; Wang, Xue Jian; Zhou, Xing Kui; Yang, Cheng Gang; Duo, Jin Ling; Mo, Ming He

    2018-02-03

    Accumulated evidence suggests that root exudates have a major role in mediating plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere. Here, we characterized tobacco root exudates (TREs) by GC-MS and nicotine, scopoletin, and octadecane were identified as three main components of TREs. Qualitative and quantitative chemotaxis assays revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa NXHG29 with antagonistic activity displayed positive chemotactic responses towards TREs and their three main components (nicotine, scopoletin, octadecane) and its enhanced chemotaxis were induced by these substances in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, following GC-MS and chemotaxis analysis, nicotine was selected as the target for evaluation of the effect on NXHG29 regarding antagonism, growth, root colonization and biocontrol efficiency. Results of in vitro studies showed that nicotine as a sole carbon source could enhance growth of NXHG29 and significantly increased the antagonism of NXHG29. We also demonstrated that nicotine exerted enhancing effects on the colonization ability of NXHG29 on tobacco roots by combining CLSM observations with investigation of population level dynamics by selective dilution plating method. Results from greenhouse experiments suggested nicotine exhibited stimulatory effects on the biocontrol efficiency of NXHG29 against bacterial wilt and black shank on tobacco. The stimulatory effect of nicotine was affected by the concentration and timing of nicotine application and further supported by the results of population level of NXHG29 on tobacco roots. This is the first report on the enhancement effect of nicotine from TREs on an antagonistic bacterium for its root colonization, control of soil-borne pathogens, regarding the chemotaxis and in vitro antagonism and growth.

  6. Regulation of root morphogenesis in arbuscular mycorrhizae: what role do fungal exudates, phosphate, sugars and hormones play in lateral root formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusconi, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AMs) form a widespread root-fungus symbiosis that improves plant phosphate (Pi) acquisition and modifies the physiology and development of host plants. Increased branching is recognized as a general feature of AM roots, and has been interpreted as a means of increasing suitable sites for colonization. Fungal exudates, which are involved in the dialogue between AM fungi and their host during the pre-colonization phase, play a well-documented role in lateral root (LR) formation. In addition, the increased Pi content of AM plants, in relation to Pi-starved controls, as well as changes in the delivery of carbohydrates to the roots and modulation of phytohormone concentration, transport and sensitivity, are probably involved in increasing root system branching. This review discusses the possible causes of increased branching in AM plants. The differential root responses to Pi, sugars and hormones of potential AM host species are also highlighted and discussed in comparison with those of the non-host Arabidopsis thaliana. Fungal exudates are probably the main compounds regulating AM root morphogenesis during the first colonization steps, while a complex network of interactions governs root development in established AMs. Colonization and high Pi act synergistically to increase root branching, and sugar transport towards the arbusculated cells may contribute to LR formation. In addition, AM colonization and high Pi generally increase auxin and cytokinin and decrease ethylene and strigolactone levels. With the exception of cytokinins, which seem to regulate mainly the root:shoot biomass ratio, these hormones play a leading role in governing root morphogenesis, with strigolactones and ethylene blocking LR formation in the non-colonized, Pi-starved plants, and auxin inducing them in colonized plants, or in plants grown under high Pi conditions.

  7. Regulation of root morphogenesis in arbuscular mycorrhizae: what role do fungal exudates, phosphate, sugars and hormones play in lateral root formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusconi, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AMs) form a widespread root–fungus symbiosis that improves plant phosphate (Pi) acquisition and modifies the physiology and development of host plants. Increased branching is recognized as a general feature of AM roots, and has been interpreted as a means of increasing suitable sites for colonization. Fungal exudates, which are involved in the dialogue between AM fungi and their host during the pre-colonization phase, play a well-documented role in lateral root (LR) formation. In addition, the increased Pi content of AM plants, in relation to Pi-starved controls, as well as changes in the delivery of carbohydrates to the roots and modulation of phytohormone concentration, transport and sensitivity, are probably involved in increasing root system branching. Scope This review discusses the possible causes of increased branching in AM plants. The differential root responses to Pi, sugars and hormones of potential AM host species are also highlighted and discussed in comparison with those of the non-host Arabidopsis thaliana. Conclusions Fungal exudates are probably the main compounds regulating AM root morphogenesis during the first colonization steps, while a complex network of interactions governs root development in established AMs. Colonization and high Pi act synergistically to increase root branching, and sugar transport towards the arbusculated cells may contribute to LR formation. In addition, AM colonization and high Pi generally increase auxin and cytokinin and decrease ethylene and strigolactone levels. With the exception of cytokinins, which seem to regulate mainly the root:shoot biomass ratio, these hormones play a leading role in governing root morphogenesis, with strigolactones and ethylene blocking LR formation in the non-colonized, Pi-starved plants, and auxin inducing them in colonized plants, or in plants grown under high Pi conditions. PMID:24227446

  8. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  9. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  10. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  11. Evidence that polyhydroxylated C60 fullerenes (fullerenols) amplify the effect of lipopolysaccharides to induce rapid leukocyte infiltration in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, D M; Girard, D

    2013-12-16

    Fullerenols C60(OH) have therapeutic potential, but there is debate regarding their toxicity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that C60(OH)n possesses a pro-inflammatory effect in vivo. Kinetic and dose-dependent experiments performed with the murine air pouch model of acute inflammation revealed that, unlike TiO2 used as a positive control in this model, C60(OH)n NPs were not pro-inflammatory in CD-1, C57BL/6, and BALB/c mice. However, after 3 h of treatment, C60(OH)n NPs were found to amplify the effect of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) causing a rapid leukocyte influx in which the major cells observed are neutrophils. The use of an antibody array assay to detect different analytes simultaneously indicates that the amplification effect is, at least partially, explained by an increased local production of several cytokines/chemokines in the exudates, including the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Using an ELISA to quantify the amount of IL-6 produced into air pouch exudates, we demonstrated that C60(OH)n increases the LPS-induced local production of this cytokine. Therefore, although C60(OH)n NPs alone do not exert proinflammatory