WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly expanding universe

  1. Expanding versus non expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In cosmology the number of scientists using the framework of an expanding universe is very high. This model, the big-bang, is now overwhelmingly present in almost all aspects of society. It is the main stream cosmology of today. A small number of scientists are researching on the possibility of a non-expanding universe. The existence of these two groups, one very large and the other very small, is a good proof of the use of the scientific method: it does not drive to an absolute certainty. All models have to be permanently validated, falsified. Ockham's razor, a powerful philosophical tool, will probably change the amount of scientists working in each of these groups. We present here a model where a big-bang is unnecessary. It ends, in a finite time, in a second INFLATION, or a disaggregation to infinity. We also discuss the possibilities of a non-expanding universe model. Only a few references will be cited, mainly concerned with our own work in the past, thus purposely avoiding citing the many thousands of ...

  2. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  3. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  4. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. DE FREITAS PACHECO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  5. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  6. The Expanding Universe: Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, Don [Fermilab; Nord, Brian [Fermilab

    2014-09-01

    In 1998, observations of distant supernovae led physicists that not only was the universe expanding, but the expansion was speeding up. In this article, we describe the evidence for an expanding universe and describe what physicists and cosmologists have learned in the intervening years. The target audience for this article is high school physics teachers and college physics professors at teaching institutions.

  7. Discovery of Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saul Perlmutter and the Brian Schmidt – Adam Riess teams reported that their Friedmann-model GR-based analysis of their supernovae magnitude-redshift data re- vealed a new phenomenon of “dark energy” which, it is claimed, forms 73% of the energy / matter density of the present-epoch universe, and which is linked to the further claim of an accelerating expansion of the universe. In 2011 Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating ex- pansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. Here it is shown that (i a generic model-independent analysis of this data reveals a uniformly expanding universe, (ii their analysis actually used Newtonian gravity, and finally (iii the data, as well as the CMB fluctuation data, does not require “dark energy” nor “dark matter”, but instead reveals the phenomenon of a dynamical space, which is absent from the Friedmann model.

  8. Morphological Transition in Rapidly Expanding Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolinski, J.; Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Many explosive eruptions are initiated by rapid decompression of bubbly magma, which behaves as an elastic material during the decompression and fragments into discrete pieces following the decompression. To emulate the rapid decompression of bubbly magma, we subject a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles to quasi-static expansion. A recent theory predicts that where a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles is first subjected to expansion, the foam expands homogeneously. After a critical value of expansion is attained, the foam undergoes a morphological transition and separates into a large number of small bubbles immersed in a background of a few large bubbles [Vainchtein and Aref, Physics of Fluids 13, 2001]. In our experiments we verify the phenomenon of morphological transition under area expansion. We verity the predictions of Vainchtein and Aref, compare our results with the experimental results on rapidly expanding bubble-bearing viscoelastic fluids reported by [Namiki and Manga, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, 2005], and discuss the implications of our results for the rapid decompression of magmas.

  9. Why Does the Universe Expand ?

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is five-fold: (a) Argue that the question in the title can be presented in a meaningful manner and that it requires an answer. (b) Discuss the conventional answers and explain why they are unsatisfactory. (c) Suggest that a key ingredient in the answer could be the instability arising due to the `wrong' sign in the Hilbert action for the kinetic energy term corresponding to expansion factor. (d) Describe how this idea connects up with another peculiar feature of our universe, viz. it spontaneously became more and more classical in the course of evolution. (e) Provide a speculative but plausible scenario, based on the thermodynamic perspective of gravity, in which one has the hope for relating the thermodynamic and cosmological arrows of time.

  10. CLASSICS WHY THE UNIVERSE IS EXPANDING

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (H. G. Wells, The Time Machine and other Stories). WHY IS THE UNIVERSE EXPANDING? Chemical Explosion and Astrophysical Explosion Similarities and Differences. The expansion of the Universe is a reliably established fact. There was the “Big Bang” about 15 billion years ago. But why did it happen? What are the ...

  11. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    H ubble's nam e is associated closely w ith the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and the distances of galaxies. H ubble also did a lot of pioneering w ork on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at H ubble's law and discuss how it ...

  12. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Amal Najihah M; Corstanje, Ron; Harris, Jim A; Grafius, Darren R; Siriwardena, Gavin M

    2017-06-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) and Yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier) in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines). The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance) were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such models for

  13. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe. J S Bagla. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 216-225. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/014/03/0216-0225 ...

  14. Parameter estimation for an expanding universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieci Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the parameter estimation for excitations of Dirac fields in the expanding Robertson–Walker universe. We employ quantum metrology techniques to demonstrate the possibility for high precision estimation for the volume rate of the expanding universe. We show that the optimal precision of the estimation depends sensitively on the dimensionless mass m˜ and dimensionless momentum k˜ of the Dirac particles. The optimal precision for the ratio estimation peaks at some finite dimensionless mass m˜ and momentum k˜. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by choosing the probe state as an eigenvector of the hamiltonian. This occurs because the largest quantum Fisher information is obtained by performing projective measurements implemented by the projectors onto the eigenvectors of specific probe states.

  15. Distant Supernovae Indicate Ever-Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    ESO Astronomers Contribute towards Resolution of Cosmic Puzzle Since the discovery of the expansion of the Universe by American astronomer Edwin Hubble in the 1920's, by measurement of galaxy velocities, astronomers have tried to learn how this expansion changes with time. Until now, most scientists have been considering two possibilities: the expansion rate is slowing down and will ultimately either come to a halt - whereafter the Universe would start to contract, or it will continue to expand forever. However, new studies by two independent research teams, based on observations of exploding stars ( supernovae ) by ESO astronomers [1] with astronomical telescopes at the La Silla Observatory as well as those of their colleagues at other institutions, appear to show that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating . The results take the discovery of the cosmological expansion one step further and challenge recent models of the Universe. If the new measurements are indeed correct, they show that the elusive "cosmological constant" , as proposed by Albert Einstein , contributes significantly to the evolution of the Universe. The existence of a non-zero cosmological constant implies that a repulsive force, counter-acting gravity, currently dominates the universal expansion , and consequently leads to an ever-expanding Universe. This new research is being named as the "Breakthrough of the Year" by the renowned US science journal Science in the December 18, 1998, issue. A Press Release is published by the journal on this occasion. "Fundamental Parameters" of the Universe Three fundamental parameters govern all cosmological models based on the theory of General Relativity. They are 1. the current expansion rate as described by Hubble's constant , i.e. the proportionality factor between expansion velocity and distance 2. the average matter density in the Universe, and 3. the amount of "other energy" present in space. From the measured values of these fundamental

  16. Historical Notes on the Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael J.; Belenkyi, Ari; Nussbaumer, Harry; Peacock, John

    2014-01-01

    The article Measuring the Hubble constant by Mario Livio and Adam Riess (Physics Today, October 2013, page 41) reviewed studies of the expanding universe from the 1920s to the present. Although the history of the subject underwent considerable compression to fit the length of a magazine article, we think it may leave a misleading impression of some of the key steps to our current understanding. We therefore offer the following clarifications. Most significantly, papers by Arthur Eddington and by Willem de Sitter in 1930, who successfully promoted Georges Lematres 1927 article for the Scientific Society of Brussels, effected a paradigm shift in interpretation of extragalactic redshifts in 1930. Before then, the astronomical community was generally unaware of the existence of nonstatic cosmological solutions and did not broadly appreciate that redshifts could be thought of locally as Doppler shifts in an expanding matter distribution. Certainly, in 1929 Edwin Hubble referred only to the de Sitter solution of 1917. At the time, the relation between distance and redshift predicted in that model was generally seen purely as a manifestation of static spacetime curvature.

  17. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Watts

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases--including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep--have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  18. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases-including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep-have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  19. Spherical Accretion in a Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpi, Monica; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Wasserman, Ira

    1996-10-01

    We consider spherically symmetric accretion of material from an initially homogeneous, uniformly expanding medium onto a Newtonian point mass M. The gas is assumed to evolve adiabatically with a constant adiabatic index F, which we vary over the range Γ ɛ [1, 5/3]. We use a one-dimensional Lagrangian code to follow the spherical infall of material as a function of time. Outflowing shells gravitationally bound to the point mass fall back, giving rise to a inflow rate that, after a rapid rise, declines as a power law in time. If there were no outflow initially, Bondi accretion would result, with a characteristic accretion time-scale ta,0. For gas initially expanding at a uniform rate, with a radial velocity U = R/t0 at radius R, the behavior of the flow at all subsequent times is determined by ta,0/t0. If ta,0/t0 ≫ 1, the gas has no time to respond to pressure forces, so the fluid motion is nearly collisionless. In this case, only loosely bound shells are influenced by pressure gradients and are pushed outward. The late-time evolution of the mass accretion rate Mdot is close to the result for pure dust, and we develop a semianalytic model that accurately accounts for the small effect of pressure gradients in this limit. In the opposite regime, ta,0/t0 ≪ 1, pressure forces significantly affect the motion of the gas. At sufficiently early times, t ≤ ttr, the flow evolved along a sequence of quasi-stationary, Bondi-like states, with a time-dependent Mdot determined by the slowly varying gas density at large distances. However, at later times, t ≥ ttr, the fluid flow enters a dustllke regime; ttr is the time when the instantaneous Bondi accretion radius reaches the marginally bound radius. The transition time ttr depends sensitively on ta,0/t0 for a given Γ and can greatly exceed t0. We show that there exists a critical value Γ = 11/9, below which the transition from fluid to ballistic motion disappears. As one application of our calculations, we consider the

  20. Evaluation of the stiffness characteristics of rapid palatal expander screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lombardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of the screws used for rapid expansion of the upper jaw. Methods Ten types of expansion screw were assessed, seven with four arms: Lancer Philosophy 1, Dentaurum Hyrax Click Medium, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type “S”, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type “S” for narrow palates, Forestadent Memory, Leone A 2620-10 with telescopic guide, and Leone A 0630-10 with orthogonal arms; and three with two arms: Dentaurum Variety S.P., Target Baby REP Veltri, and Leone A 362113. A test expander with the mean dimensions taken from measurements on a sample of 100 expanders was constructed for each screw. The test expanders were connected to the supports of an Instron 4467 (Instron Corp., USA mechanical testing machine equipped with a 500 N load cell, and the compression force exerted after each activation was measured. The mean forces expressed by the two- and four-arm expanders were then compared. Results After five activations, the forces expressed by the two-arm devices were double than those expressed by the four-arm devices on average (224 ± 59.9 N vs. 103 ± 32.9 N, and such values remained high after subsequent activations. Conclusions The expanders tested demonstrated stiffness characteristics compatible with opening of the palatine sutures in pre-adolescent patients. The stiffness of such devices can be further increased during the construction phase.

  1. Particle Creation in Anisotropically Expanding Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Using squeezed vacuum state formalism of quantum optics, an approximate solution to the semiclassical Einstein equation is obtained in Bianchi type-I universe. The phenomena of nonclassical particle creation is also examined in the anisotropic background cosmology.

  2. The Expanding Universe of Astronomy on Tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Rachael C.; Morris, Brett; Narayan, Gautham; Morrison, Sarah J.; Schneider, Evan; Bozek, Brandon; Rice, Emily L.; Hummels, Cameron B.; Garofali, Kristen; Martinez, Raquel; Li, Yuan; Green, Joel D.; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Silvia, Devin W.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Arcavi, Iair; Silverman, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy on Tap (AoT) is a constellation of free public outreach presentations held in bars. AoT events aim to engage audiences who might not choose to attend public lectures in a university setting by creating an informal atmosphere and combining scientific talks with music, games, and prizes. The events have a flexible format, typically consisting of between one and three astronomy-related presentations, sometimes with additional games and trivia, and some locations also produce merchandise. The flexible structure means that the format can be adapted to the resources available in the location and the time commitment the local organizers are willing to make. Some events are broadcast online through live streaming, with some others being posted to YouTube. In conjunction with an active social media presence, this ensures engagement beyond those able to attend events in person. Astronomy on Tap events have now been held in 20 cities around the world and are typically organised by postdocs and graduate students, with some involvement from faculty and outreach or education staff. Holding these events under the global AoT constellation facilitates knowledge transfer, sharing of resources, and networking opportunities for scientists interested in outreach/communication. The events have been highly successful, with some locations regularly attracting more than 200 people per month. In this poster we describe the goals and characteristics of AoT events, the different adaptations by various locations, the resources we have developed, and provide information for those interested in starting a new event in their location.

  3. Scalar-Tensor Black Holes Embedded in an Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakova, Daria; Latosh, Boris

    2018-02-01

    In this review we focus our attention on scalar-tensor gravity models and their empirical verification in terms of black hole and wormhole physics. We focus on a black hole, embedded in an expanding universe, describing both cosmological and astrophysical scales. We show that in scalar-tensor gravity it is quite common that the local geometry is isolated from the cosmological expansion, so that it does not backreact on the black hole metric. We try to extract common features of scalar-tensor black holes in an expanding universe and point out the gaps that must be filled.

  4. Scalar-Tensor Black Holes Embedded in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Tretyakova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus our attention on scalar-tensor gravity models and their empirical verification in terms of black hole and wormhole physics. We focus on black holes, embedded in an expanding universe, describing both cosmological and astrophysical scales. We show that in scalar-tensor gravity it is quite common that the local geometry is isolated from the cosmological expansion, so that it does not backreact on the black hole metric. We try to extract common features of scalar-tensor black holes in an expanding universe and point out the issues that are not fully investigated.

  5. Gravitational Clustering of Galaxies in an Expanding Universe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-12-08

    Dec 8, 2006 ... Abstract. We inquire the phenomena of clustering of galaxies in an expanding universe from a theoretical point of view on the basis of ther- modynamics and correlation functions. The partial differential equation is developed both for the point mass and extended mass structures of a two-point correlation ...

  6. Dynamical 3-Space: Black Holes in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothall D. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Black holes are usually studied without including effects of the expanding universe. However in some recent studies black holes have been embedded in an expanding universe, in order to determine the interplay, if any, of these two dynamical processes. Dynamical 3-space theory contains time independent solutions for black holes, which are spatial in-flows, and separately the time dependent Hubble expansion. This theory has explained numerous puzzles in observational astrophysics and contains 3 constants; G, - which from experimental data turns out to be the fine structure constant, and - which is a small but nonzero distance, possibly a Planck-type length. The Hubble expansion in the dynamical 3-space theory cannot be “switched o”, forcing the study, first, of isolated black holes coexisting with the expanding universe. It is shown that a time dependent black hole and expanding universe solution exists. The nature and implications of these solutions are discussed as they evolve over time. A dynamical network of black holes and induced linking cosmic filaments forming bubble structures is discussed, as a consequence of dynamical 3-space undergoing a dynamical breakdown of homogeneity and isotropy, even in the absence of baryonic matter.

  7. Gravitational Clustering of Galaxies in an Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We inquire the phenomena of clustering of galaxies in an expanding universe from a theoretical point of view on the basis of thermodynamics and correlation functions. The partial differential equation is developed both for the point mass and extended mass structures of a two-point correlation function by using ...

  8. Critical ignition in rapidly expanding self-similar flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Matei I.; Maxwell, Brian M.

    2010-06-01

    The generic problem of ignition of a particle undergoing an expansion given by a power law rate of decay behind a decaying shock is addressed in the present study. It is demonstrated, using a one-step Arrhenius irreversible reaction, that a sufficiently strong expansion wave can quench the reaction. The critical conditions for extinction are obtained in closed form in terms of the time scale for the expansion process and the thermochemical properties of the gas, yielding a critical Damkohler number, i.e., the ratio of the expansion time scale to the homogeneous ignition time scale, given by (γ -1)(Ea/RT)-1/n, where n is the power law exponent of the self-similar expansion. The critical ignition criteria, which are valid in the asymptotic limit n(γ -1)(Ea/RT)=O(1), were found in excellent agreement with numerical results. The applicability of the results obtained are discussed for ignition in rapidly expanding flows which occur behind decaying shock waves, as encountered in problems of detonation initiation by a Taylor-Sedov blast wave, and reacting jet startup, and for reactions in steady hypersonic flows around projectiles.

  9. Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2014-02-01

    In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogenous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Albert Einstein's fundamental equations also allow dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Georges Lemaître, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaître's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often advocated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.

  10. Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2013-01-01

    In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogeneous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Einstein's fundamental equation also allowed dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Geroges Lemaitre, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaitre's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often repeated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.

  11. Environmental CPT Violation in an Expanding Universe in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Sarkar, Sarben

    2013-01-01

    We consider a model of an expanding Universe in string theory that yields `environmental' CPT violation for fermions, in the sense of different dispersion relations for fermions and antifermions. These are induced by a cosmological background with constant torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field (axion) of the string gravitational multiplet. This effect induces different densities of neutrinos and antineutrinos while in chemical equilibrium, offering new scenarios for leptogenesis and baryogenesis even in the absence of CP violation.

  12. The Hubble party balloon and the expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Rosi, T.; Oss, S.

    2016-09-01

    We show that the metaphor of the inflated balloon used to describe expanding space-time according to the Hubble law can be transformed into a simple laboratory experiment. We obtain, in terms of measured recession speeds and distances of ink dots drawn on a party balloon, easy renditions of various cosmological models, such as the static one and the Einstein-De Sitter universe.

  13. On Dark Energy and Matter of the Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available At present the expanding universe is observed to be dominated by the not fully under- stood concepts of dark energy and matter, in a conceived almost flat Euclidian geometry. As one of the possible efforts to understand the global behaviour of the expanding uni- verse, the present paper attempts to explain these concepts in terms of the pressure force and gravity of a spherical photon gas cloud of zero point energy, in a flat geometry. A difficult point of the conventional theory concerns the frequency distribution of the zero point energy oscillations which leads to the unacceptable result of an infinite total en- ergy per unit volume. A modification of this distribution is therefore proposed which results in finite energy density. A corresponding equilibrium state is investigated, as well as small dynamic deviations from it, to form a basis for a model of the expanding universe. Provided that the crucial points of the present approach hold true, the model satisfies the requirements of cosmic linear dimensions, results in an estimated accelera- tion of the expansion being of the order of the observed one, presents a possible solution of the coincidence problem of dark energy and matter, and provides one of the possible explanations of the observed excess of high-energy electrons and positrons in recent balloon and satellite experiments.

  14. India: When cities expand too rapidly | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-13

    May 13, 2016 ... “If you walk around Bangalore,” she continues, “the first thing you notice is how much everything is expanding – roads, buildings, everything.” As a result, the inhabitants must gradually change their way of life. “No one wants to stay in agriculture because it's easier to find work in the city,” explains Srinivasan ...

  15. New Aspects of Photon Propagation in Expanding Universes

    CERN Document Server

    Fahr, H -J

    2016-01-01

    According to present cosmological views the energy density of CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) photons, freely propagating through the expanding cosmos, varies proportional to 1/S^4 with S being the scale factor of the universe. This behavior is expected, because General Theory of Relativity, in application to FLRW- (Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker) cosmological universes, leads to the conclusion that the photon wavelengths increase during their free passage through the spacetime metrics of the universe by the same factor as does the scale factor S. This appears to be a reasonable explanation for the presently observed Planckian CMB spectrum with its actual temperature of about 2.7 K, while at the time of its origin after the last scattering during the recombination phase its temperature should have been about 3000 K, at an epoch of about 380 ky after the Big Bang, when the scale of the universe S_r was smaller by roughly a factor of S/S_r = 1+z_r = 1100 compared to the present scale S = S_0 of the unive...

  16. The expanding universe of Sherlockian fandom and archival collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jerome Johnson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1887, in sometimes cosmic fashion, nearly every medium and format has been used in sharing the original 60 Sherlock Holmes adventures along with their pastiche and parodying offspring. Such creative energy is evidence of a literary big bang, and an expanding universe of creative possibilities, many of them now born digital or residing on digital platforms. We trace older and newer Sherlockian enthusiasms; their points of entry; the creative manifestations of these fandoms over time and through various media; and the emerging challenges and opportunities presented to library and archival professionals by the explosive growth of creative works, especially those produced during the last decade. Curatorial actions involving acquisition, preservation, description, and user discovery of these materials are considered alongside the relationship building necessary between curator and fan in acquiring evolving, dynamic new Sherlockian expressions and insights.

  17. Expanding Medicare and employer plans to achieve universal health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K

    1991-05-15

    This article presents a proposal for expanding Medicare and employer-based health insurance plans to achieve universal health insurance. Under this proposed health care financing system, employees would provide basic health insurance coverage to workers and dependents, or pay a payroll tax contribution toward the cost of their coverage under Medicare. States would have the option of buying all Medicaid beneficiaries and other poor individuals into Medicare by paying the Medicare premiums and cost sharing. Other uninsured individuals would be automatically covered by Medicare. Employer plans would incorporate Medicare's provider payment methods. This proposal would result in incremental federal governmental outlays on the order of $25 billion annually. These new federal budgetary costs would be met through a combination of premiums, employer payroll tax, income tax, and general tax revenues. The principal advantage of this plan is that it draws on the strengths of the current system while simplifying the benefit and provider payment structure and instituting innovations to promote efficiency.

  18. Maxillary ulceration resulting from using a rapid maxillary expander in a diabetic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Martins Maia, Luiz Guilherme [UNESP; Monini, Andre da Costa [UNESP; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini Júnior, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-01-01

    One of the characteristics of diabetes mellitus is the exaggerated inflammatory response. The present report shows the reaction from the use of a rapid maxillary expander in a diabetic patient. A 9-year-old child presented an uncommon reaction to the treatment with a rapid maxillary expander, and on follow-up examination, it was discovered that the patient had diabetes mellitus. After controlling the disease, the proposed treatment was used without further incidents. The case calls attention ...

  19. Physics of Rotating and Expanding Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshavatharam U. V. S.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its journey universe follows strong gravity. By unifying general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics a simple derivation is given for rotating black hole's temperature. It is shown that when the rotation speed approaches light speed temperature approaches Hawking's black hole temperature. Applying this idea to the cosmic black hole it is noticed that there is "no cosmic temperature" if there is "no cosmic rotation". Starting from the Planck scale it is assumed that universe is a rotating and expanding black hole. Another key assumption is that at any time cosmic black hole rotates with light speed. For this cosmic sphere as a whole while in light speed rotation "rate of decrease" in temperature or "rate of increase" in cosmic red shift is a measure of "rate of cosmic expansion". Since 1992, measured CMBR data indicates that, present CMB is same in all directions equal to $2.726^circ$ K, smooth to 1 part in 100,000 and there is no continuous decrease! This directly indicates that, at present rate of decrease in temperature is practically zero and rate of expansion is practically zero. Universe is isotropic and hence static and is rotating as a rigid sphere with light speed. At present galaxies are revolving with speeds proportional to their distances from the cosmic axis of rotation. If present CMBR temperature is $2.726^circ$ K, present value of obtained angular velocity is $2.17 imes 10^{-18}$ rad/sec $cong$ 67 Km/sec$imes$Mpc. Present cosmic mass density and cosmic time are fitted with a $ln (volume ratio$ parameter. Finally it can be suggested that dark matter and dark energy are ad-hoc and misleading concepts.

  20. Physics of Rotating and Expanding Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshavatharam U. V. S.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its journey universe follows strong gravity. By unifying general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics a simple derivation is given for rotating black hole’s temperature. It is shown that when the rotation speed approaches light speed temperature approaches Hawking’s black hole temperature. Applying this idea to the cosmic black hole it is noticed that there is “no cosmic temperature” if there is “no cosmic rotation”. Starting from the Planck scale it is assumed that- universe is a rotating and expanding black hole. Another key assumption is that at any time cosmic black hole rotates with light speed. For this cosmic sphere as a whole while in light speed rotation “rate of decrease” in temperature or “rate of increase” in cosmic red shift is a measure of “rate of cosmic expansion”. Since 1992, measured CMBR data indicates that, present CMB is same in all directions equal to 2 : 726 K ; smooth to 1 part in 100,000 and there is no continuous decrease! This directly indicates that, at present rate of decrease in temperature is practically zero and rate of expansion is practically zero. Universe is isotropic and hence static and is rotating as a rigid sphere with light speed. At present galaxies are revolving with speeds proportional to their distances from the cosmic axis of rotation. If present CMBR temperature is 2 : 726 K, present value of obtained angular velocity is 2 : 17 10 Present cosmic mass density and cosmic time are fitted with a ln ( volume ratio parameter. Finally it can be suggested that dark matter and dark energy are ad-hoc and misleading concepts.

  1. Charged black holes in expanding Einstein-de Sitter universes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Manuela G

    2015-01-01

    Inspired in a previous work by McClure and Dyer (Classical Quantum Gravity 23, 1971 (2006)), we analyze some solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which were originally written to describe charged black holes in cosmological backgrounds. A detailed analysis of the electromagnetic sources for a sufficiently general metric is performed, and then we focus on deriving the electromagnetic four-current as well as the conserved electric charge of each metric. The charged McVittie solution is revisited and a brief study of its causal structure is performed, showing that it may represent a charged black hole in an expanding universe, with the black hole horizon being formed at infinite late times. Charged versions of solutions originally put forward by Vaidya (Vd) and Sultana and Dyer (SD) are also analyzed. It is shown that the charged Sultana-Dyer metric requires a global electric current, besides a central (pointlike) electric charge. With the aim of comparing to the charged McVittie metric, new charged solut...

  2. Rotating black holes in an expanding Universe from fake supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimento, Samuele; Klemm, Dietmar

    2015-02-01

    Using the recipe of Meessen and Palomo-Lozano (2009 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP05(2009)042), where all fake supersymmetric backgrounds of matter-coupled fake N = 2, d = 4 gauged supergravity were classified, we construct dynamical rotating black holes in an expanding FLRW Universe. This is done for two different prepotentials that are both truncations of the stu model and correspond to just one vector multiplet. In this scenario, the cosmic expansion is driven by two U(1) gauge fields and by a complex scalar that rolls down its potential. Generically, the solutions of Meessen and Palomo-Lozano are fibrations over a Gauduchon-Tod base space, and we make three different choices for this base, namely flat space, the three-sphere and the Berger sphere. In the first two cases, the black holes are determined by harmonic functions on the base, while in the last case they obey a deformed Laplace equation that contains the squashing parameter of the Berger sphere. This is the generalization to a cosmological context of the usual recipe in ungauged supergravity, where black holes are given in terms of harmonic functions on three-dimensional Euclidean space. The constructed solutions may be instrumental in addressing analytically certain aspects of black hole physics in a dynamical context.

  3. Life, the Universe, and Nothing: Life and Death in an Ever-expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Lawrence M.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2000-03-01

    Current evidence suggests that the cosmological constant is not zero, or that we live in an open universe. We examine the implications for the future under these assumptions, and find that they are striking. If the universe is cosmological constant-dominated, our ability to probe the evolution of large-scale structure will decrease with time; presently observable distant sources will disappear on a timescale comparable to the period of stellar burning. Moreover, while the universe might expand forever, the integrated conscious lifetime of any civilization will be finite, although it can be astronomically long. We argue that this latter result is far more general. In the absence of possible exotic and uncertain strong gravitational effects, the total information recoverable by any civilization over the entire history of our universe is finite. Assuming that consciousness has a physical computational basis, and therefore is ultimately governed by quantum mechanics, life cannot be eternal.

  4. Charged black holes in expanding Einstein-de Sitter universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Manuela G.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2015-06-01

    Inspired by a previous work by McClure and Dyer (2006) (Class. Quantum Grav. 23 1971), we analyze some solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations that were originally written to describe charged black holes in cosmological backgrounds. A detailed analysis of the electromagnetic sources for a sufficiently general metric is performed, and we then focus on deriving the electromagnetic four-current as well as the conserved electric charge of each metric. The charged McVittie solution is revisited, and a brief study of its causal structure is performed, showing that it may represent a charged black hole in an expanding universe, with the black hole horizon being formed at infinite late times. Charged versions of solutions originally put forward by Vaidya (Vd) and Sultana and Dyer (SD) are also analyzed. It is shown that the charged SD metric requires a global electric current, besides a central (spherically symmetric) electric charge. With the aim of comparing to the charged McVittie metric, new charged solutions of Vd and SD types are considered. In these cases, the original mass and charge parameters are replaced by particular functions of the cosmological time. In the new generalized charged Vaidya metric, the black hole horizon never forms, whereas in the new generalized SD case, both the Cauchy and the black hole horizons develop at infinite late times. A charged version of the Thakurta metric is also studied here. It is also a new solution. As in the charged SD case, the natural source of the electromagnetic field is a central electric charge with an additional global electric current. The global structure is briefly studied, and it is verified that the corresponding spacetime may represent a charged black hole in a cosmological background. All the solutions present initial singularities as found in the McVittie metric.

  5. Hubble Diagram Test of Expanding and Static Cosmological Models: The Case for a Slowly Expanding Flat Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo A. Marosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new redshift (RS versus photon travel time ( test including 171 supernovae RS data points. We extended the Hubble diagram to a range of z = 0,0141–8.1 in the hope that at high RSs, the fitting of the calculated RS/ diagrams to the observed RS data would, as predicted by different cosmological models, set constraints on alternative cosmological models. The Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM, the static universe model, and the case for a slowly expanding flat universe (SEU are considered. We show that on the basis of the Hubble diagram test, the static and the slowly expanding models are favored.

  6. Expanding the Education Universe: A Fifty-State Strategy for Course Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    After twenty years of expanding school-choice options, state leaders, educators, and families have a new tool: course choice, a strategy for students to learn from unconventional providers that might range from top-tier universities or innovative community colleges to local employers, labs, or hospitals. In "Expanding the Education Universe:…

  7. Hubble Redshift, Explained in both a Static Universe and an Expanding/Compressing Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabounski, Dmitri

    2009-04-01

    In my recent study (2009 APS April Meeting; Progress in Phys., 1/2009), I showed that a photon loses energy with distance due to the work done against the non-holonomity/rotation field of the isotropic space (photon home space, rotating with the velocity of light). This is due to the solution E=E0exp(-H^2AT/c) for the scalar geodesic equation of a photon (the equation of energy), where deformation of space is neglected (a static universe). Here H is the angular velocity of the isotropic space (equal to the Hubble constant H0=c/A), A is the radius of the Universe, T=L/c is the time of the photon's travel. The resulting redshift z=exp(H0L/c)- (z H0/c at small distances) matches the observed Hubble law. Now I obtain the respective solutions in a deforming universe. The solutions reveal: 1) in an expanding unverse the redshift increases faster with distance than in a static case; 2) in a compressing universe the blueshift increases with distance slower than the redshift due to the space non-holonomity, so the blueshift changes to the redshift at a large distance compared to the radius of the Universe. The results have been presented in detail in Zelmanov Journal, v.2, 2009.

  8. Creation of quantized particles, gravitons and scalar perturbations by the expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Quantum creation processes during the very rapid early expansion of the universe are believed to give rise to temperature anisotropies and polarization patterns in the CMB radiation. These have been observed by satellites such as COBE, WMAP, and PLANCK, and by bolometric instruments placed near the South Pole by the BICEP collaborations. The expected temperature anisotropies are well-confirmed. The B-mode polarization patterns in the CMB are currently under measurement jointly by the PLANCK and BICEP groups to determine the extent to which the B-modes can be attributed to gravitational waves from the creation of gravitons in the earliest universe. It was during 1962 that I proved that quanta of the minimally-coupled scalar field were created by the general expanding FLRW universe. This was relevant also to the creation of quantized perturbations of the gravitational field, since these perturbations satisfied linear field equations that could be quantized in the same way as the minimally-coupled scalar field e...

  9. The expanding Universe a primer on relativistic cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Heacox, William D

    2015-01-01

    Cosmology - the science of the Universe at large - has experienced a renaissance in the decades bracketing the turn of the twenty-first century. Exploring our emerging understanding of cosmology, this text takes two complementary points of view: the physical principles underlying theories of cosmology, and the observable consequences of models of Universal expansion. The book develops cosmological models based on fundamental physical principles, with mathematics limited to the minimum necessary to keep the material accessible for students of physics and astronomy at the advanced undergraduate level. A substantial review of general relativity leading up to the Einstein field equations is included, with derivations of explicit formulations connecting observable features of the Universe to models of its expansion. Self-contained and up to date in respect of modern observations, the text provides a solid theoretical grounding in modern cosmology while preparing readers for the changes that will inevitably come fr...

  10. Gravitational Collapse of Massless Fields in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Chul-Moon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field with the periodic boundary condition in a cubic box is reported. This system can be regarded as a lattice universe model. The initial data is constructed for a Gaussian like profile of the scalar field taking the integrability condition associated with the periodic boundary condition into account. For a large initial amplitude, a black hole is formed after a certain period of time. While the scalar field spreads out in the whole region for a small initial amplitude. The difference of the late time expansion law of the lattice universe depending on the final fate of the gravitational collapse is discussed.

  11. Gravitational Collapse of Massless Fields in an Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2018-01-01

    Gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field with the periodic boundary condition in a cubic box is reported. This system can be regarded as a lattice universe model. The initial data is constructed for a Gaussian like profile of the scalar field taking the integrability condition associated with the periodic boundary condition into account. For a large initial amplitude, a black hole is formed after a certain period of time. While the scalar field spreads out in the whole region for a small initial amplitude. The difference of the late time expansion law of the lattice universe depending on the final fate of the gravitational collapse is discussed.

  12. Time, space, and disorder in the expanding proteome universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minde, David-Paul; Dunker, A Keith; Lilley, Kathryn S

    2017-04-01

    Proteins are highly dynamic entities. Their myriad functions require specific structures, but proteins' dynamic nature ranges all the way from the local mobility of their amino acid constituents to mobility within and well beyond single cells. A truly comprehensive view of the dynamic structural proteome includes: (i) alternative sequences, (ii) alternative conformations, (iii) alternative interactions with a range of biomolecules, (iv) cellular localizations, (v) alternative behaviors in different cell types. While these aspects have traditionally been explored one protein at a time, we highlight recently emerging global approaches that accelerate comprehensive insights into these facets of the dynamic nature of protein structure. Computational tools that integrate and expand on multiple orthogonal data types promise to enable the transition from a disjointed list of static snapshots to a structurally explicit understanding of the dynamics of cellular mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. Proteomics Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Expanding the Universe of "Astronomy on Tap" Public Outreach Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Emily L.; Levine, Brian; Livermore, Rachael C.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Tyndall, Amy; Muna, Demitri; Garofali, Kristen; Morris, Brett; Byler, Nell; Fyhrie, Adalyn; Rehnberg, Morgan; Hart, Quyen N.; Connelly, Jennifer L.; Silvia, Devin W.; Morrison, Sarah J.; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Tremblay, Grant; Schwamb, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomy on Tap (AoT, astronomyontap.org) is free public outreach event featuring engaging science presentations in bars, often combined with music, games, and prizes, to encourage a fun, interactive atmosphere. AoT events feature several short astronomy-related presentations primarily by local professional scientists, but also by visiting scientists, students, educators, amatuer astronomers, writers, and artists. Events are held in social venues (bars, coffee shops, art galleries, etc.) in order to bring science directly to the public in a relaxed, informal atmosphere. With this we hope to engage a more diverse audience than typical lectures at academic and cultural institutions and to develop enthusiasm for science among voting, tax-paying adults. The flexible format and content of an AoT event is easy to adapt and expand based on the priorities, resources, and interests of local organizers. The social nature of AoT events provides important professional development and networking opportunities in science communication. Since the first New York City event in April 2013, Astronomy on Tap has expanded to more than ten cities globally, including monthly events in NYC, Austin, Seattle, and Tucson; semi-regular events in Columbus, New Haven, Santiago, Toronto, and Denver; occasional (so far) events in Rochester (NY), Baltimore, Lansing, and Washington, DC; and one-off events in Chicago and Taipei. Several venues regularly attract audiences of over 200 people. We have received media coverage online, in print, and occasionally even on radio and television. In this poster we describe the overarching goals and characteristics of AoT events, distinct adaptations of various locations, resources we have developed, and the methods we use to coordinate among the worldwide local organizers.

  14. Harming others : universal subjectivism and the expanding moral circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Floris van den

    2011-01-01

    Harming Others expounds what the author calls universal subjectivism, which is a cosmopolitan theory of political philosophy that deals with global justice, non-human animals and future generations. Although its main focus is political philosophy, the theory has wide applications to contemporary

  15. Black holes in an expanding universe and supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Klemm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the supersymmetric solutions to five and six-dimensional minimal (ungauged supergravities for which the bilinear Killing vector constructed from the Killing spinor is null. We focus on the spacetimes which admit an additional SO(1,1 boost symmetry. Upon the toroidal dimensional reduction along the Killing vector corresponding to the boost, we show that the solution in the ungauged case describes a charged, nonextremal black hole in a Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW universe with an expansion driven by a massless scalar field. For the gauged case, the solution corresponds to a charged, nonextremal black hole embedded conformally into a Kantowski–Sachs universe. It turns out that these dimensional reductions break supersymmetry since the bilinear Killing vector and the Killing vector corresponding to the boost fail to commute. This represents a new mechanism of supersymmetry breaking that has not been considered in the literature before.

  16. The expanding universe of thiolated gold nanoclusters and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, De-en

    2013-08-21

    Thiolated gold nanoclusters form a universe of their own. Researchers in this field are constantly pushing the boundary of this universe by identifying new compositions and in a few "lucky" cases, solving their structures. Such solved structures, even if there are only few, provide important hints for predicting the many identified compositions that are yet to be crystallized or structure determined. Structure prediction is the most pressing issue for a computational chemist in this field. The success of the density functional theory method in gauging the energetic ordering of isomers for thiolated gold clusters has been truly remarkable, but to predict the most stable structure for a given composition remains a great challenge. In this feature article from a computational chemist's point of view, the author shows how one understands and predicts structures for thiolated gold nanoclusters based on his old and new results. To further entertain the reader, the author also offers several "imaginative" structures, claims, and challenges for this field.

  17. Expanding and contracting universes in third quantized string cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Buonanno, A; Maggiore, Michele; Ungarelli, C

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of quantum transitions from the string perturbative vacuum to cosmological configurations characterized by isotropic contraction and decreasing dilaton. When the dilaton potential preserves the sign of the Hubble factor throughout the evolution, such transitions can be represented as an anti-tunnelling of the Wheeler--De Witt wave function in minisuperspace or, in a third-quantization language, as the production of pairs of universes out of the vacuum.

  18. Republication of: On the gravitational stability of the expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, E.

    2017-02-01

    This is the republished English edition of a paper by E. Lifshitz, first published in 1946, in which the author investigates the gravitational stability of the non-stationary isotropic models of the universe. The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by George F. R. Ellis, and by a brief biography of Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz, written by Andrzej Krasiński.

  19. Microstates of black holes in expanding universe from interacting branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Shotaro

    2017-05-01

    Thermodynamics of the near extremal black p-branes can be described by collective motions of gravitationally interacting branes. This proposal is called the p-soup model. In this paper, we check this proposal in the case of black brane system which is asymptotically Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe in an infinite distance. As a result, we can show that the gravitationally interacting branes explain free energy, entropy, temperature and other physical quantities in these systems. This implies that the microstates of this kind of brane system can be also understood in the p-soup model.

  20. Beyond NK Cells: The Expanding Universe of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Marina; Miller, Hannah; Song, Christina

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, natural killer (NK) cells were thought to be the only innate immune lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. These ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive T helper subsets in their repertoire of secreted soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response that is appropriate for the incoming insult. Here, we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development. PMID:24982658

  1. Miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expander (MARPE: the quest for pure orthopedic movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Suzuki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The midpalatal suture has bone margins with thick connective tissue interposed between them, and it does not represent the fusion of maxillary palatal processes only, but also the fusion of palatal processes of the jaws and horizontal osseous laminae of palatal bones. Changing it implies affecting neighboring areas. It has got three segments that should be considered by all clinical analyses, whether therapeutic or experimental: the anterior segment (before the incisive foramen, or intermaxillary segment, the middle segment (from the incisive foramen to the suture transversal to the palatal bone and the posterior segment (after the suture transversal to the palatal bone . Rapid palatal expansion might be recommended for patients at the final pubertal growth stage, in addition to adult patients with maxillary constriction. It represents a treatment solution that can potentially avoid surgical intervention. When performed in association with rapid palatal expanders, it might enhance the skeletal effects of the latter. Of the various designs of expansion appliances, MARPE (miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expander has been modified in order to allow its operational advantages and outcomes to become familiar in the clinical practice.

  2. Fractal geometry in an expanding, one-dimensional, Newtonian universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bruce N; Rouet, Jean-Louis; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel

    2007-09-01

    Observations of galaxies over large distances reveal the possibility of a fractal distribution of their positions. The source of fractal behavior is the lack of a length scale in the two body gravitational interaction. However, even with new, larger, sample sizes from recent surveys, it is difficult to extract information concerning fractal properties with confidence. Similarly, three-dimensional N-body simulations with a billion particles only provide a thousand particles per dimension, far too small for accurate conclusions. With one-dimensional models these limitations can be overcome by carrying out simulations with on the order of a quarter of a million particles without compromising the computation of the gravitational force. Here the multifractal properties of two of these models that incorporate different features of the dynamical equations governing the evolution of a matter dominated universe are compared. For each model at least two scaling regions are identified. By employing criteria from dynamical systems theory it is shown that only one of them can be geometrically significant. The results share important similarities with galaxy observations, such as hierarchical clustering and apparent bifractal geometry. They also provide insights concerning possible constraints on length and time scales for fractal structure. They clearly demonstrate that fractal geometry evolves in the mu (position, velocity) space. The observed patterns are simply a shadow (projection) of higher-dimensional structure.

  3. Universal primers for rapid detection of hytrosaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Alla, Adly M M; Salem, Tamer Z; Parker, Andrew G; Wang, Yongjie; Jehle, Johannes A; Vreysen, Marc J B; Boucias, Drion

    2011-01-01

    Hytrosaviridae is a proposed virus family encompassing viruses that cause salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) syndrome in infected insects and reduce the fertility in their dipteran insect hosts. They contain a large, double stranded DNA genome of 120-190 kbp. To date, these viruses have been detected only in adult Diptera. These include hytrosaviruses detected in various tsetse fly species (Glossina spp.), the narcissus bulb fly Merodon equestris and the house fly Musca domestica. The limited number of hytrosaviruses reported to date may be a reflection of the frequent absence of external symptoms in infected adult flies and the fact that the virus does not cause rapid mortality. Based on the complete genome sequence of Glossinia pallidipes (GpSGHV) and Musca domestica (MdSGHV) salivary gland hypertrophy viruses, a PCR based methodology was developed to detect the viruses in these species. To be able to detect hytrosaviruses in other Diptera, five degenerate primer pairs were designed and tested on GpSGHV and MdSGHV DNA using gradient PCR with annealing temperatures from 37 to 61°C. Two pairs of primers were selected from p74, two pairs from PIF-1 and one pair from ODV-e66 homologous proteins. Four primer pairs generated a virus specific PCR product on both MdSGHV and GpSGHV at all tested annealing temperatures, while the ODV-e66 based primers did not generate a virus specific product with annealing temperatures higher that 47°C. No non-specific PCR product was found when using genomic DNA of infected flies as template DNA. These results offer new sets of primers that could be used to detect hytrosaviruses in other insects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on Inertia as a Gravity Induced Property of Mass, in an Infinite Hubble Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen van Engelshoven

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass is experienced to have two intrinsic properties: inertia (resistance to acceleration and gravity (attraction to other masses. In this paper we evaluate the gravitational effect of all masses of the universe on an accelerated mass, starting from linearized general relativity. The gravitational interaction of all masses in a finite static universe model is shown to create a finite resistance to acceleration, which is inertia. Then, we propose a generalization of the linearized theory and evaluate the Hubble expanding universe. It is shown that the gravitational impact of an infinite expanding universe creates finite inertia, according to . The Friedmann critical mass density is found to be valid. The Mach principle is made explicit. The value and sign of the gravitational constant G are found to be of no consequence on an astronomical scale.

  5. A universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for genomic DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MOHAMMED BAQUR SAHIB A. AL-SHUHAIB

    Abstract. There is no 'one' procedure for extracting DNA from the whole blood of both mammals and birds, since each species has a unique property that require different methods to release its own DNA. Therefore, to obtain genomic DNA, a universal, rapid, and noncostly method was developed. A very simple biological ...

  6. A universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for genomic DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of both mammals and birds, since each species has a unique property that require different methods to release its own DNA. Therefore, to obtain genomic DNA, a universal, rapid, and noncostly method was developed. A very simple biological basis is followed in this procedure, in which, when the bloodis placed in water, ...

  7. `Un-Darkening' the Cosmos: New laws of physics for an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, William

    2017-11-01

    Dark matter is believed to exist because Newton's Laws are inconsistent with the visible matter in galaxies. Dark energy is necessary to explain the universe expansion. (also available from www.turbulence-online.com) suggested that the equations themselves might be in error because they implicitly assume that time is measured in linear increments. This presentation couples the possible non-linearity of time with an expanding universe. Maxwell's equations for an expanding universe with constant speed of light are shown to be invariant only if time itself is non-linear. Both linear and exponential expansion rates are considered. A linearly expanding universe corresponds to logarithmic time, while exponential expansion corresponds to exponentially varying time. Revised Newton's laws using either leads to different definitions of mass and kinetic energy, both of which appear time-dependent if expressed in linear time. And provide the possibility of explaining the astronomical observations without either dark matter or dark energy. We would have never noticed the differences on earth, since the leading term in both expansions is linear in δ /to where to is the current age.

  8. LATTICEEASY A Program for Lattice Simulations of Scalar Fields in an Expanding Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Tkachev, Igor; Felder, Gary

    2008-01-01

    We describe a C++ program that we have written and made available for calculating the evolution of interacting scalar fields in an expanding universe. The program is particularly useful for the study of reheating and thermalization after inflation. The program and its full documentation are available on the Web at http://physics.stanford.edu/gfelder/latticeeasy. In this paper we provide a brief overview of what the program does and what it is useful for.

  9. Gravitational Lagrangians, Mach’s Principle, and the Equivalence Principle in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanno Essén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational Lagrangians as derived by Fock for the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann approach, and by Kennedy assuming only a fourth rank tensor interaction, contain long range interactions. Here we investigate how these affect the local dynamics when integrated over an expanding universe out to the Hubble radius. Taking the cosmic expansion velocity into account in a heuristic manner it is found that these long range interactions imply Mach’s principle, provided the universe has the critical density, and that mass is renormalized. Suitable higher order additions to the Lagrangians make the formalism consistent with the equivalence principle.

  10. Decoherence and disentanglement of qubits detecting scalar fields in an expanded universe

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yujie; Shi, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We consider Unruh-Wald qubit detector model adopted for the far future region of an exactly solvable 1+1 dimensional scalar field theory in a Robertson-Walker expanding spacetime. It is shown that the expansion of the universe in its history enhances the decoherence of the qubit coupled with a scalar field. Moreover, we consider two entangled qubits, each locally coupled a scalar field. The expansion of the universe in its history degrades the entanglement between the qubits, and can lead to entanglement sudden death if the initial entanglement is small enough. The details depend on the parameters characterizing the expansion of the universe. This work, albeit on a toy model, suggests that the history of the universe might be probed through the coherent and entanglement behavior of future detectors of quantum fields.

  11. Unemployment, Entrepreneurial Education and Mega Universities: Challenges to Expanding Access in Education in Nigeria University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undie, John Atewhoble; Okafor, Victor

    2014-01-01

    In fundamental economics, individuals acquired education for two broad reasons, as an investment and as consumption. The investment function of education has continued to create tension for job search leading to cases of unemployment. Entrepreneurship education and establishment of mega universities have been identified as panaceas. This paper…

  12. EXCIMER-LASER ABLATION OF SOFT-TISSUE - A STUDY OF THE CONTENT OF RAPIDLY EXPANDING AND COLLAPSING BUBBLES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T. G.; Jansen, E. D.; Motamedi, M.; Welch, A. J.; Borst, C.

    1994-01-01

    Both holmium (lambda = 2.09 mum) and excimer (lambda = 308 nm) lasers are used for ablation of tissue. In a previous study, excimer laser ablation of aorta produced rapidly expanding and collapsing vapor bubbles. To investigate whether the excimer-induced bubble is caused by vaporization of (tissue)

  13. Gardening in the desert: a spatial optimization approach to locating gardens in rapidly expanding urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Elizabeth A; Tong, Daoqin; Credit, Kevin

    2017-10-16

    Food access is a global issue, and for this reason, a wealth of studies are dedicated to understanding the location of food deserts and the benefits of urban gardens. However, few studies have linked these two strands of research together to analyze whether urban gardening activity may be a step forward in addressing issues of access for food desert residents. The Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area is used as a case to demonstrate the utility of spatial optimization models for siting urban gardens near food deserts and on vacant land. The locations of urban gardens are derived from a list obtained from the Maricopa County Cooperative Extension office at the University of Arizona which were geo located and aggregated to Census tracts. Census tracts were then assigned to one of three categories: tracts that contain a garden, tracts that are immediately adjacent to a tract with a garden, and all other non-garden/non-adjacent census tracts. Analysis of variance is first used to ascertain whether there are statistical differences in the demographic, socio-economic, and land use profiles of these three categories of tracts. A maximal covering spatial optimization model is then used to identify potential locations for future gardening activities. A constraint of these models is that gardens be located on vacant land, which is a growing problem in rapidly urbanizing environments worldwide. The spatial analysis of garden locations reveals that they are centrally located in tracts with good food access. Thus, the current distribution of gardens does not provide an alternative food source to occupants of food deserts. The maximal covering spatial optimization model reveals that gardens could be sited in alternative locations to better serve food desert residents. In fact, 53 gardens may be located to cover 96.4% of all food deserts. This is an improvement over the current distribution of gardens where 68 active garden sites provide coverage to a scant 8.4% of food desert

  14. Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: Life, The Universe, and Nothing: Life and Death in an Ever-Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Lawrence M.

    2001-04-01

    In this talk, I will ruminate on the future of the Universe, and also on the future of life within it, using as my starting point recent observations in cosmology that have changed the way we think about the Universe on large scales. I will briefly review these observations and then discuss why the Universe we appear to inhabit may be the worst of all possible universes, as far as the long-term quality and quantity of life is concerned. Then, I will describe how fundamental aspects of the way in which we teach cosmology, in particular the relation between geometry and destiny, have been altered by the recognition that the cosmological constant may be zero. Finally, I will introduce the fascinating, if somewhat academic question of whether life can be eternal in an eternally expanding universe. Surprisingly, perhaps, the answer to this question appears to hinge on issues of basic physics, in particular on issues of quantum mechanics and computation, which may determine whether life is ultimately analogue or digital.

  15. Professional Development in the International Year of Astronomy: Expanding the Universe in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfeld, Erika L.; Harman, P.; Lee, M. H.; Bailey, J. M.

    2008-05-01

    The International Year of Astronomy offers unparalleled opportunity to expand our audiences’ understanding about the universe. However, many learners, students and adults alike, are unfamiliar with the universe beyond the solar system. This collaborative workshop explores strategies for teacher professional development around the origin and evolution of the universe, using the resources of the Beyond the Solar System Professional Development Project as a guide. The Beyond the Solar System (BtSS) Professional Development Project is a NASA-supported initiative from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) designed to foster public understanding of NASA's exciting astronomy and space science research. The BtSS portfolio includes video resources, assessment tools, data about common student ideas, content presentations, online telescope investigations, and other classroom activities designed to deepen content knowledge and improve the quality of teaching and learning about current scientific models and evidence for the origin and evolution of our universe of galaxies. During this session, members of the BtSS Leadership Team from around the country will share their experience using these resources in educator workshops and teacher-training courses, and facilitate discussions among workshop participants about how these materials and pedagogical strategies can be used in their own professional development efforts during the International Year of Astronomy. EPO specialists and scientists will engage in focused exploration of the project's DVD--"Expanding the Universe in the Classroom"--in order make explicit connections between the themes of the International Year of Astronomy and their own work. The goals of this workshop are to equip professional development providers to support IYA education efforts in classrooms, afterschool programs, and informal education venues and to raise awareness about the opportunities for continuing Galileo's legacy of discovery

  16. Expanding Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Residency Education Through a Multisite University-Affiliated Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiss, Sarah K; Westberg, Sarah M; Moon, Jean Y; Sorensen, Todd D

    2017-12-01

    As the health-care system evolves and shifts to value-based payment systems, there is a recognized need to increase the number of ambulatory care trained pharmacists. The objective of this article is to describe the administrative structure of the University of Minnesota Postgraduate Year 1 (PGY1) Pharmacy Residency program and to encourage adoption of similar models nationally in order to expand ambulatory care residency training opportunities and meet the demand for pharmacist practitioners. Program Structure: The University of Minnesota PGY1 Pharmacy Residency program is a multisite program centered on the practice of pharmaceutical care and provision of comprehensive medication management (CMM) services in ambulatory care settings. The centralized administration of a multisite academic-affiliated training model creates efficiency in the administration process, while allowing sites to focus on clinical training. This model also offers many innovative and unique opportunities to residents. A multisite university-affiliated ambulatory care residency training model provides efficiency in program administration, while successfully accelerating the growth of quality ambulatory care residency training and supporting innovative delivery of shared core learning experiences. Consequently, practice sites grow in their service delivery capacity and quality of care.

  17. Decoupling in an expanding universe: backreaction barely constrains short distance effects in the cosmic microwave background

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, B R; Shiu, G; Van der Schaar, J P; Greene, Brian R.; Schalm, Koenraad; Shiu, Gary; Schaar, Jan Pieter van der

    2005-01-01

    We clarify the status of transplanckian effects on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy. We do so using the boundary effective action formalism of hep-th/0401164 which accounts quantitatively for the cosmological vacuum ambiguity. In this formalism we can clearly 1) delineate the validity of cosmological effective actions in an expanding universe. The corollary of the initial state ambiguity is the existence of an earliest time. The inability of an effective action to describe physics before this time demands that one sets initial conditions on the earliest time hypersurface. A calculation then shows that CMB anisotropy measurements are generically sensitive to high energy corrections to the initial conditions. 2) We compute the one-loop contribution to the stress-tensor due to high-energy physics corrections to an arbitrary cosmological initial state. We find that phenomenological bounds on the backreaction do not lead to strong constraints on the coefficient of the leading boundary irrelevant op...

  18. Managing the social impacts of the rapidly-expanding extractive industries in Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild; Vanclay, Frank; Croal, Peter; Skjervedal, Anna Sofie Hurup

    2016-01-01

    The recent rapid expansion of extractive industries in Greenland is both causing high hopes for the future and anxieties among the local population. In the Arctic context, even small projects carry risks of major social impacts at local and national scales, and have the potential to severely affect

  19. Managing the social impacts of the rapidly expanding extractive industries in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild; Vanclay, Frank; Croal, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The recent rapid expansion of extractive industries in Greenland is both causing high hopes for the future and anxieties among the local population. In the Arctic context, even small projects carry risks of major social impacts at local and national scales, and have the potential to severely affect...

  20. Rapid Ultrasound in Shock (RUSH) Velocity-Time Integral: A Proposal to Expand the RUSH Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pablo; Aguiar, Francisco Miralles; Blaivas, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound assessment of patients in shock is becoming the standard of care in emergency and critical care settings worldwide. One of the most common protocols used for this assessment is the rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) examination. The RUSH protocol is a rapid evaluation of cardiac function, key vascular structures, and likely sources of hypotension. Stroke volume is an established important value to assess in the setting of shock, allowing the provider to predict the patient's response to treatment. However, the calculation of stroke volume or its surrogates is not part of any protocol, including RUSH. We propose the addition of ultrasound calculation of stroke volume or surrogates to the RUSH protocol and provide support for its utility and relative ease of calculation. The resulting product would be the RUSH velocity-time integral protocol. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. Camouflage treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion with asymmetry using a bone-borne rapid maxillary expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    This case report presents the successful use of palatal mini-implants for rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular distalization in a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The patient was a 13-year-old girl with the chief complaint of facial asymmetry and a protruded chin. Camouflage orthodontic treatment was chosen, acknowledging the possibility of need for orthognathic surgery after completion of her growth. A bone-borne rapid expander (BBRME) was used to correct the transverse discrepancy and was then used as indirect anchorage for distalization of the lower dentition with Class III elastics. As a result, a Class I occlusion with favorable inclination of the upper teeth was achieved without any adverse effects. The total treatment period was 25 months. Therefore, BBRME can be considered an alternative treatment in skeletal Class III malocclusion.

  2. Structural genomics: keeping up with expanding knowledge of the protein universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Marek; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Minor, Wladek

    2010-01-01

    Structural characterization of the protein universe is the main mission of Structural Genomics (SG) programs. However, progress in gene sequencing technology, set in motion in the 1990s, has resulted in rapid expansion of protein sequence space — a twelvefold increase in the past seven years. For the SG field, this creates new challenges and necessitates a reassessment of its strategies. Nevertheless, despite the growth of sequence space, at present nearly half of the content of the Swiss-Prot database and over 40% of Pfam protein families can be structurally modeled based on structures determined so far, with SG projects making an increasingly significant contribution. The SG contribution of new Pfam structures nearly doubled from 27.2% in 2003 to 51.6% in 2006. PMID:17587562

  3. Enhancing Hubble's vision service missions that expanded our view of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2016-01-01

    After a 20-year struggle to place a large, sophisticated optical telescope in orbit the Hubble Space Telescope was finally launched in 1990, though its primary mirror was soon found to be flawed. A dramatic mission in 1993 installed corrective optics so that the intended science program could finally begin. Those events are related in a companion to this book, The Hubble Space Telescope: From Concept to Success.   Enhancing Hubble’s Vision: Service Missions That Expanded Our View of the Universe tells the story of the four missions between 1997 and 2009 that repaired, serviced and upgraded the instruments on the telescope to maintain its state-of-the-art capabilities. It draws on first hand interviews with those closely involved in the project. The spacewalking skills and experiences gained from maintaining and upgrading Hubble had direct application to the construction of the International Space Station and help with its maintenance. These skills can be applied to future human and robotic satellite servic...

  4. Expanding the Enzyme Universe: Accessing Non-Natural Reactions by Mechanism-Guided Directed Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renata, Hans; Wang, Z. Jane

    2015-01-01

    High selectivities and exquisite control over reaction outcomes entice chemists to use biocatalysts in organic synthesis. However, many useful reactions are not accessible because they are not in nature’s known repertoire. We will use this review to outline an evolutionary approach to engineering enzymes to catalyze reactions not found in nature. We begin with examples of how nature has discovered new catalytic functions and how such evolutionary progressions have been recapitulated in the laboratory starting from extant enzymes. We then examine non-native enzyme activities that have been discovered and exploited for chemical synthesis, emphasizing reactions that do not have natural counterparts. The new functions have mechanistic parallels to the native reaction mechanisms that often manifest as catalytic promiscuity and the ability to convert from one function to the other with minimal mutation. We present examples of how non-natural activities have been improved by directed evolution, mimicking the process used by nature to create new catalysts. Examples of new enzyme functions include epoxide opening reactions with non-natural nucleophiles catalyzed by a laboratory-evolved halohydrin dehalogenase, cyclopropanation and other carbene transfer reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 variants, and non-natural modes of cyclization by a modified terpene synthase. Lastly, we describe discoveries of non-native catalytic functions that may provide future opportunities for expanding the enzyme universe. PMID:25649694

  5. An Educational Look at an alternative to the Expanding Universe Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriske, Richard

    2009-11-01

    The author often toys with an alternative view to the expanding universe model and believes it would be a good way to teach the Scientific method. In the author's (R.M. Kriske) model the red shift is a result of magnifying the horizon of a 4 dimensional surface. On a two dimensional surface such as the earth the horizon is not maginifiable since things on the surface naturally tilt away from the observer in every direction and everything is transformed into a curved line (the Horizon) (the students can verify this as a globe can be used with some pins in it-for example). Likewise one would expect this signature of curvature to show up on three curved space dimensions, and instead of pins, a perpendicular time dimension. As the observer looks toward the pins they tilt away from him/her and in four dimensions this means they are accelerating away from him/her even though the globe is standing still. At each point a pair is being produced with its attendant gamma ray emission, but the points are of course seen as accelerating away, simply due to the curvature of the globe and nothing else, resulting in a red shift. This author produced model has never been suggested before and never presented to the Scientific community. The students would then need to compare this to the current simpler model that point sources accelerating away from the observer undergo a redshift due to the Doppler Effect. The Students would then have to review these models and determine the size of the globe for the amount of red shift seen from the two competing models. One model has a cut- off mode, since the pins not only tip backward in the curved space model but are also cut off. How does this cut-off show up, is it simply dimming, and can an experiment be done for it? The last step of this exercise is to see if one could tell the difference between these models, and if a mixed model is better, since the Globe could also be expanding (Of course the instructor could also ask what the result

  6. Book Symposium on Don Ihde's Expanding Hermeneutics: Visualism in Science. Northwestern University Press 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Jan Kyrre Berg

    2012-01-01

    Et symposium der omhandler Don Ihde's bog Expanding Hermeneutics og denne bogs betydning for forståelsen af hermeneutik i perceptionsforskningen.......Et symposium der omhandler Don Ihde's bog Expanding Hermeneutics og denne bogs betydning for forståelsen af hermeneutik i perceptionsforskningen....

  7. Expanding the vision of entrepreneurial universities: a case study of UNIRIO in Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Almeida, Mariza; Santos, Douglas; Aragão, Luiziana; Nogueira, Gabriel; Bonifácio, Andrea; Simões, Bruno; Terra, Branca

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to study a set of entrepreneurial activities at a public university and the interaction with other universities, the business sector and government at Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Brazil...

  8. Correction of a skeletal Class II malocclusion with severe crowding by a specially designed rapid maxillary expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghong; Feng, Jing; Lu, Peijun; Shen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    To correct an Angle Class II malocclusion or to create spaces in the maxillary arch by nonextraction treatment, distal movement of the maxillary molars is required. Various modalities for distalizing the buccal segment have been reported. Conventional extraoral appliances can be used to obtain maximum anchorage. However, many patients reject headgear wear because of social and esthetic concerns, and the success of this treatment depends on patient compliance. Intraoral appliances, such as repelling magnets, nickel-titanium coils, pendulum appliance, Jones jig appliance, distal jet appliance, and modified Nance appliance, have been introduced to distalize the molars with little or no patient cooperation. However, intraoral appliances can result in anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the maxillary molars. In this case report, we introduce a diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance that was custom designed and fabricated for the treatment of a growing girl with a skeletal Class II malocclusion and severe crowding from a totally lingually positioned lateral incisor. The appliance concomitantly expanded the maxilla transversely and retracted the buccal segment sagittally, distalizing the maxillary molars to reach a Class I relationship and creating the spaces to displace the malpositioned lateral incisor. The uniqueness of this special diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance was highlighted by a series of reconstructions and modifications at different stages of the treatment to reinforce the anchorage. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Universality of the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of a rapidly rotating neutron star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlGendy, Mohammad; Morsink, Sharon M. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-08-20

    On the surface of a rapidly rotating neutron star, the effective centrifugal force decreases the effective acceleration due to gravity (as measured in the rotating frame) at the equator while increasing the acceleration at the poles due to the centrifugal flattening of the star into an oblate spheroid. We compute the effective gravitational acceleration for relativistic rapidly rotating neutron stars and show that for a star with mass M, equatorial radius R{sub e} , and angular velocity Ω, the deviations of the effective acceleration due to gravity from the nonrotating case take on a universal form that depends only on the compactness ratio M/R{sub e} , the dimensionless square of the angular velocity Ω{sup 2}R{sub e}{sup 3}/GM, and the latitude on the star's surface. This dependence is universal, in that it has very little dependence on the neutron star's equation of state. The effective gravity is expanded in the slow-rotation limit to show the dependence on the effective centrifugal force, oblate shape of the star, and the quadrupole moment of the gravitational field. In addition, an empirical fit and simple formula for the effective gravity is found. We find that the increase in the acceleration due to gravity at the poles is of the same order of magnitude as the decrease in the effective acceleration due to gravity at the equator for all realistic value of mass, radius, and spin. For neutron stars that spin with frequencies near 600 Hz, the difference between the effective gravity at the poles and the equator is about 20%.

  10. The rapidly expanding universe of giant viruses: Mimivirus, Pandoravirus, Pithovirus and Mollivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abergel, Chantal; Legendre, Matthieu; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2015-11-01

    More than a century ago, the term 'virus' was introduced to describe infectious agents that are invisible by light microscopy and capable of passing through sterilizing filters. In addition to their extremely small size, most viruses have minimal genomes and gene contents, and rely almost entirely on host cell-encoded functions to multiply. Unexpectedly, four different families of eukaryotic 'giant viruses' have been discovered over the past 10 years with genome sizes, gene contents and particle dimensions overlapping with that of cellular microbes. Their ongoing analyses are challenging accepted ideas about the diversity, evolution and origin of DNA viruses. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Are Melt Migration Rates Through the Mantle Universally Rapid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, M. K.; Sims, K. W.

    2001-12-01

    Significant enrichments in 226Ra over 230Th have been observed in basalts erupted in nearly all tectonic settings. These enrichments generally are greatest in lavas with low concentrations of U, Th and other incompatible elements, including those from mid-ocean ridges and "depleted" volcanic arcs. Excesses of 226Ra over 230Th in mid-ocean ridge settings are commonly attributed to smaller bulk partition coefficients for Ra with respect to Th during mantle melting, and extraction of ingrown Ra into melts slowly migrating through interconnected pore space. In contrast, 226Ra excesses in basalts from volcanic arcs have been attributed to fluid additions from subducting slabs to the sources of the basalt and rapid (102 - 103y) melt migration to the surface (e.g. Turner et al., 2001). Such rapid melt velocities imply channeled flow rather than diffuse porous flow, and suggest that basalts from other tectonic settings migrate similarly rapidly. Here, we show that the compositions of basalts from both arc and mid-ocean ridge settings indeed can be explained by melting models involving rapid transit times to the surface. Simple fluxed melting models and rapid transfer of melt to the surface explain the U-Th-Ra systematics and incompatible trace element compositions of arc basalts. The U-Th-Ra and trace element data for young MORB from the East Pacific Rise (Sims et al. 2001) and the Siqueiros transform (Lundstrom et al. 1999) are modeled using simple 2-d polybaric melting based on Braun et al. (2000) and rapid melt migration rates. Successful models mix small-degree fractional melts derived from a broad cross-sectional area of mantle at depth with high-degree melts derived from a small cross-sectional area of shallow mantle that is the aged residue of the small degree melt.

  12. RESEARCH NOTE A Universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    very satisfactory for many researchers to prepare reagents for “all in one” ready to use method to extract gDNA from very wide range sources of blood samples. To meet these criteria, a universal and versatile DNA extraction procedure should be developedwith a minimal chemicals and equipment.On the other hand, the ...

  13. A universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for genomic DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reagents for 'all in one' / ready to use tool to extract genomic. DNA (gDNA) from a very wide spectrum of blood samples. To meet these criteria, a universal and versatile DNA extrac- tion procedure should be developed with minimal chemicals and equipment. On the other hand, the interesting natural relation between RBCs ...

  14. A New Landscape: Opportunities and Pitfalls for Universities Expanding in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiConsiglio, John

    2009-01-01

    Dozens of universities--primarily from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia--are eyeing the Gulf region as a largely untapped reservoir of academic potential and economic opportunity. During the last few years, UAE states like Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Qatar, and Ras al Khaymah have spent billions to entice top universities. And many colleges…

  15. High performance bio-based hyperbranched polyurethane/carbon dot-silver nanocomposite: a rapid self-expandable stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarah, Rituparna; Singh, Yogendra P; Gupta, Prerak; Mandal, Biman B; Karak, Niranjan

    2016-10-27

    Development of a bio-based smart implantable material with multifaceted attributes of high performance, potent biocompatibility and inherent antibacterial property, particularly against drug resistant bacteria, is a challenging task in biomedical domain. Addressing these aspects at the bio-nano interface, we report the in situ fabrication of starch modified hyperbranched polyurethane (HPU) nanocomposites by incorporating different weight percentages of carbon dot-silver nanohybrid during polymerization process. This nanohybrid and its individual nanomaterials (Ag and CD) were prepared by facile hydrothermal approaches and characterized by various instrumental techniques. The structural insight of the nanohybrid, as well as its nanocomposites was evaluated by TEM, XRD, FTIR, EDX and thermal studies. The significant improvement in the performance in terms of tensile strength (1.7 fold), toughness (1.5 fold) and thermal stability (20 °C) of the pristine HPU was observed by the formation of nanocomposite with 5 wt.% of nanohybrid. They also showed notable shape recovery (99.6%) and nearly complete self-expansion (>99%) just within 20s at (37 ± 1) °C. Biological assessment established in vitro cytocompatibility of the HPU nanocomposites. The fabricated nanocomposites not only assisted the growth and proliferation of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells that exhibited reduced platelet adhesion but also displayed in vitro hemocompatibility of mammalian RBCs. Significantly, the antibacterial potency of the nanocomposites against Escherichia coli MTCC 40 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 3160 bacterial strains vouched for their application to countercheck bacterial growth, often responsible for biofilm formation. Thus, the present work forwards the nanocomposites as potential tough infection-resistant rapid self-expandable stents for possible endoscopic surgeries.

  16. Study on Inertia as a Gravity Induced Property of Mass, in an Infinite Hubble Expanding Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroen van Engelshoven

    2013-01-01

    Mass is experienced to have two intrinsic properties: inertia (resistance to acceleration) and gravity (attraction to other masses). In this paper we evaluate the gravitational effect of all masses of the universe on an accelerated mass, starting from linearized general relativity. The gravitational interaction of all masses in a finite static universe model is shown to create a finite resistance to acceleration, which is inertia. Then, we propose a generalization of the linearized theory and...

  17. Undergraduate Chemistry Education in Chinese Universities: Addressing the Challenges of Rapid Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Xiaojun; Cao, Haishi

    2010-01-01

    In the past 30 years, university-level chemistry education in China has been experiencing significant changes because of the rapid expansion of its university education system. These changes are reflected in improvements to the existing education goals, classroom teaching methods, textbooks, teaching facilities, teacher profiles, lab activities,…

  18. Contact in an expanding universe: an instructive exercise in dynamic geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Seth

    2010-11-01

    The particular problem solved in this paper is that of calculating the time required to overtake a distant object receding under cosmic expansion, and the speed at which that object is passed. This is a rarely investigated problem leading to some interesting apparent paradoxes. We employ the problem to promote a deeper understanding of the dynamic geometry behind the expansion of space in three eras, especially for physics undergraduates. We do not utilize the standard cosmological formulae, but deliberately take a simpler approach, comprehensible to any student comfortable with differentials. This should offer an intuitive preparation for later courses in general relativity. The paper can be read straight through, or offered to a class in segments as problems to investigate. The overall intention is to leave students with a more tangible grasp of expanding space.

  19. Expanding Horizons for Students with Dyslexia in the 21st Century: Universal Design and Mobile Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gavin; Strnadova, Iva; Cumming, Therese

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of mobile technology in supporting people with dyslexia within the theoretical framework of Universal Design for Learning. The authors discuss how students with dyslexia can use mobile technology to address a diverse range of academic needs (such as reading, composing text, notetaking, metacognition and studying…

  20. The Expanding Universe: Time, Space and Spirit--Keys to Scientific Literacy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonebarger, Bill

    Nearly every culture has made important discoveries about the universe. Most cultures have searched for a better understanding of the cosmos and how the earth and human life relate. The discussion in this booklet considers time, space, and spirit. Time refers to a sense of history; space refers to geography; and spirit refers to life and thought.…

  1. Expanding Downward: Innovation, Diffusion, and State Policy Adoptions of Universal Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, F. Chris

    2015-01-01

    Framed within the theoretical framework of policy innovation and diffusion, this study explores both interstate (diffusion) and intrastate predictors of adoption of state universal preschool policies. Event history analysis methodology is applied to a state level dataset drawn from the Census, the NCES Common Core, the Book of the States, and…

  2. First-quantized theory of expanding universe from field quantization in mini-superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Daisuke; Saito, Miyuki

    2014-08-01

    We propose an improved variant of the third-quantization scheme, for the spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models in Einstein gravity coupled with a neutral massless scalar field. Our strategy is to specify a semi-Riemannian structure on the mini-superspace and to consider the quantum Klein-Gordon field on the mini-superspace. Then, the Hilbert space of this quantum system becomes inseparable, which causes the creation of infinite number of universes. To overcome this issue, we introduce a vector bundle structure on the Hilbert space and the connection of the vector bundle. Then, we can define a consistent unitary time evolution of the quantum universe in terms of the connection field on the vector bundle. By doing this, we are able to treat the quantum dynamics of a single-universe state. We also find an appropriate observable set constituting the CCR-algebra, and obtain the Schrödinger equation for the wave function of the single-universe state. We show that the present quantum theory correctly reproduces the classical solution to the Einstein equation.

  3. Large-scale computation of the exponentially expanding universe in a simplified Lorentzian type IIB matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Yuta; Tsuchiya, Asato

    2015-01-01

    The type IIB matrix model is a conjectured nonperturbative formulation of superstring theory. Recent studies on the Lorentzian version of the model have shown that only three out of nine spatial directions start to expand after some critical time. On the other hand, due to the unbounded action of the Lorentzian model, one has to introduce infrared (IR) cutoffs in order to make the partition function finite. In this work we investigate whether the effects of the IR cutoffs disappear in the infinite volume limit. For that purpose, we study a simplified model with large matrix size up to $N=256$ by Monte Carlo simulation. First we confirm the exponentially expanding behavior of the "universe". Then we generalize the form of the IR cutoffs by one parameter, and find that the results become universal in some region of the parameter. It is suggested that the effects of IR cutoffs disappear in this region, which is confirmed also from the studies of Schwinger-Dyson equations.

  4. Dark Matter Freeze-in Production in Fast-Expanding Universes

    OpenAIRE

    D'Eramo, F; Fernandez, N; Profumo, S

    2018-01-01

    If the dark matter is produced in the early universe prior to Big Bang nucleosynthesis, a modified cosmological history can drastically affect the abundance of relic dark matter particles. Here, we assume that an additional species to radiation dominates at early times, causing the expansion rate at a given temperature to be larger than in the standard radiation-dominated case. We demonstrate that, if this is the case, dark matter production via freeze-in (a scenario when da...

  5. Expanding protein universe and its origin from the biological Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Shakhnovich, Boris; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2002-10-29

    The bottom-up approach to understanding the evolution of organisms is by studying molecular evolution. With the large number of protein structures identified in the past decades, we have discovered peculiar patterns that nature imprints on protein structural space in the course of evolution. In particular, we have discovered that the universe of protein structures is organized hierarchically into a scale-free network. By understanding the cause of these patterns, we attempt to glance at the very origin of life.

  6. Expanding Midscale Solar: Examining the Economic Potential, Barriers, and Opportunities at Offices, Hotels, Warehouses, and Universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The midscale market for solar photovoltaics (PV), defined as behind-the-meter systems between 100 kW and 2 MW, has grown more slowly than other PV market segments in recent years. A number of key barriers have impeded growth, including tenant and landlord split incentives, contracting challenges, the mismatch in building lease and PV financing terms, and high transaction costs relative to project sizes. This report explores prospects for expansion of the midscale solar market, with a focus on four building segments: offices, hotels, warehouses, and universities.

  7. Expanding the Gamma-ray Universe: High Redshift Fermi-LAT Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Paliya, Vaidehi; Gasparrini, Dario; Ajello, Marco; Cutini, Sara; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High-redshift blazars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) are of great astrophysical import as they are extreme objects whose energetics remain a mystery. Such blazars are intrinsically interesting since they inform us about the evolution of gamma-ray blazars and are, by definition, some of the more luminous blazars in the Fermi-LAT sample. These blazars appear to host very massive black holes and could shed light on the origin and growth of black holes in the early Universe. We present the latest high redshift blazar detections in the LAT and discuss some of their implications.

  8. The correlation function for density perturbations in an expanding universe. I - Linear theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclelland, J.; Silk, J.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of the two-point correlation function for adiabatic density perturbations in the early universe is studied. Analytical solutions are obtained for the evolution of linearized spherically symmetric adiabatic density perturbations and the two-point correlation function for these perturbations in the radiation-dominated portion of the early universe. The results are then extended to the regime after decoupling. It is found that: (1) adiabatic spherically symmetric perturbations comparable in scale with the maximum Jeans length would survive the radiation-dominated regime; (2) irregular fluctuations are smoothed out up to the scale of the maximum Jeans length in the radiation era, but regular fluctuations might survive on smaller scales; (3) in general, the only surviving structures for irregularly shaped adiabatic density perturbations of arbitrary but finite scale in the radiation regime are the size of or larger than the maximum Jeans length in that regime; (4) infinite plane waves with a wavelength smaller than the maximum Jeans length but larger than the critical dissipative damping scale could survive the radiation regime; and (5) black holes would also survive the radiation regime and might accrete sufficient mass after decoupling to nucleate the formation of galaxies.

  9. Dark Matter Freeze-in Production in Fast-Expanding Universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Fernandez, Nicolas; Profumo, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    If the dark matter is produced in the early universe prior to Big Bang nucleosynthesis, a modified cosmological history can drastically affect the abundance of relic dark matter particles. Here, we assume that an additional species to radiation dominates at early times, causing the expansion rate at a given temperature to be larger than in the standard radiation-dominated case. We demonstrate that, if this is the case, dark matter production via freeze-in (a scenario when dark matter interacts very weakly, and is dumped in the early universe out of equilibrium by decay or scattering processes involving particles in the thermal bath) is dramatically suppressed. We illustrate and quantitatively and analytically study this phenomenon for three different paradigmatic classes of freeze-in scenarios. For the frozen-in dark matter abundance to be as large as observations, couplings between the dark matter and visible-sector particles must be enhanced by several orders of magnitude. This sheds some optimistic prospects for the otherwise dire experimental and observational outlook of detecting dark matter produced by freeze-in.

  10. Effect of bone-borne rapid maxillary expanders with and without surgical assistance on the craniofacial structures using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Cheon; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Kim, Ki Beom; Araujo, Eustaquio A; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze stress distribution and displacement of the craniofacial structures resulting from bone-borne rapid maxillary expanders with and without surgical assistance using finite element analysis. Five designs of rapid maxillary expanders were made: a tooth-borne hyrax expander (type A); a bone-borne expander (type B); and 3 bone-borne surgically assisted modalities: separation of the midpalatal suture (type C), added separation of the pterygomaxillary sutures (type D), and added LeFort I corticotomy (type E). The geometric nonlinear theory was applied to evaluate the Von Mises stress distribution and displacement. The surgical types C, D, and E demonstrated more transverse movement than did the nonsurgical types A and B. The amounts of expansion were greater in the posterior teeth in types A and B, but in types C, D, and E, the amounts of expansion were greater in the anterior teeth. At the midpalatal suture, the nonsurgical types showed more anterior expansion than did the posterior region, and higher stresses than with the surgical types. Type B showed the highest stresses at the infraorbital margin, anterior and posterior nasal spines, maxillary tuberosity, and pterygoid plate and hamulus. The 3 surgical models showed similar amounts of stress and displacement along the teeth, midpalatal sutures, and craniofacial sutures. Therefore, when using a bone-borne rapid maxillary expander in an adult, it is recommended to assist it with midpalatal suture separation, which requires minimal surgical intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A prospective study of the short-term treatment effects of the acrylic-splint rapid maxillary expander combined with the lower Schwarz appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Lisa K; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2005-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluated the short-term treatment effects of acrylic-splint rapid maxillary expander in conjunction with lower Schwarz appliance (RME-Sz) therapy to the acrylic-splint rapid maxillary expansion alone (RME-only group). Pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were analyzed for 25 RME patients and 19 RME-Sz patients. The average time between films ranged between nine and 12 months. Statistical comparisons of the treatment changes in the RME-only and RME-Sz groups were performed by means of independent sample t-tests (P appliance prevented the mesial movement of the lower molars during the treatment period.

  12. Expanding the enzyme universe: accessing non-natural reactions by mechanism-guided directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renata, Hans; Wang, Z Jane; Arnold, Frances H

    2015-03-09

    High selectivity and exquisite control over the outcome of reactions entice chemists to use biocatalysts in organic synthesis. However, many useful reactions are not accessible because they are not in nature's known repertoire. In this Review, we outline an evolutionary approach to engineering enzymes to catalyze reactions not found in nature. We begin with examples of how nature has discovered new catalytic functions and how such evolutionary progression has been recapitulated in the laboratory starting from extant enzymes. We then examine non-native enzyme activities that have been exploited for chemical synthesis, with an emphasis on reactions that do not have natural counterparts. Non-natural activities can be improved by directed evolution, thus mimicking the process used by nature to create new catalysts. Finally, we describe the discovery of non-native catalytic functions that may provide future opportunities for the expansion of the enzyme universe. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Dentoskeletal outcomes of a rapid maxillary expander with differential opening in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate: A prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, Daniela; Lauris, Rita De Cássia Moura Carvalho; Calil, Louise Resti; Alves, Arthur César De Medeiros; Janson, Guilherme; De Almeida, Araci Malagodi; Cevidanes, Lúcia Helena Soares; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this 2-arm parallel study was to evaluate the dentoskeletal effects of rapid maxillary expansion with differential opening (EDO) compared with the hyrax expander in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate. A sample of patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate was prospectively and consecutively recruited. Eligibility criteria included participants in the mixed dentition with lip and palate repair performed during early childhood and maxillary arch constriction with a need for maxillary expansion before the alveolar bone graft procedure. The participants were consecutively divided into 2 study groups. The experimental and control groups comprised patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion using EDO and the hyrax expander, respectively. Cone-beam computed tomography examinations and digital dental models of the maxillary dental arches were obtained before expansion and 6 months postexpansion. Standardized cone-beam computed tomography coronal sections were used for measuring maxillary transverse dimensions and posterior tooth inclinations. Digital dental models were used for assessing maxillary dental arch widths, arch perimeters, arch lengths, palatal depths, and posterior tooth inclinations. Blinding was used only during outcome assessment. The chi-square test was used to compare the sex ratios between groups (P variables before expansion. No significant differences were found between the EDO and the hyrax expander groups regarding skeletal changes. The EDO promoted significantly greater increases of intercanine width (difference, 3.63 mm) and smaller increases in canine buccal tipping than the conventional hyrax expander. No serious harm was observed other than transitory variable pressure sensations on the maxillary alveolar process in both groups. The EDO produced skeletal changes similar to the conventional hyrax expander. The differential expander is an adequate alternative to conventional rapid maxillary

  14. Dynamical vacuum energy in the expanding Universe confronted with observations: a dedicated study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Valent, Adrià; Solà, Joan [High Energy Physics Group, Dept. ECM, and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Univ. de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Basilakos, Spyros, E-mail: adriagova@ecm.ub.edu, E-mail: sola@ecm.ub.edu, E-mail: svasil@academyofathens.gr [Academy of Athens, Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, Soranou Efesiou 4, 11527, Athens (Greece)

    2015-01-01

    Despite the many efforts, our theoretical understanding of the ultimate nature of the dark energy component of the universe still lags well behind the astounding experimental evidence achieved from the increasingly sophisticated observational tools at our disposal. While the canonical possibility is a strict cosmological constant, or rigid vacuum energy density ρ{sub Λ} = const., the exceeding simplicity of this possibility lies also at the root of its unconvincing theoretical status, as there is no explanation for the existence of such constant for the entire cosmic history. Herein we explore general models of the vacuum energy density slowly evolving with the Hubble function H and/or its time derivative, ρ{sub Λ} = ρ{sub Λ}(H, H-dot ). Some of these models are actually well-motivated from the theoretical point of view and may provide a rich phenomenology that could be explored in future observations, whereas some others have more limitations. In this work, we put them to the test and elucidate which ones are still compatible with the present observations and which ones are already ruled out. We consider their implications on structure formation, in combination with data on type Ia supernovae, the Cosmic Microwave Background, the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations, and the predicted redshift distribution of cluster-size collapsed structures. The relation of these vacuum models on possible evidence of dynamical dark energy recently pointed out in the literature is also briefly addressed.

  15. Aspects Of Soliton Physics Existence Of Static Solitons In An Expanding Universe And Quantum Soliton-antisoliton Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhu, N

    1998-01-01

    We prove that static solitons exist in the 1 + 1 dimensional Sine- Gordon theory in an expanding de Sitter universe if and only if $\\alpha\\equiv {{m\\sp2}\\over{H\\sp2}} > 2, $ where m is the mass parameter of the Sine-Gordon theory and H the Hubble constant. The threshold $\\alpha = 2$ is then qualitatively explained in terms of the interplay between the gravitational tidal forces (that tend to pull a soliton apart) and the restoring tensile forces in the soliton (that resist any perturbation of the soliton). In fact, we show that, by comparing the estimates of the tensile force in the soliton and the tidal force of de Sitter spacetime, one can not only infer the existence of a threshold in $\\alpha$ but also obtain an estimate of the threshold which agrees with the exact value ($\\alpha$ = 2) to within a factor of 4....

  16. Rapid Development of Hybrid Courses for Distance Education: A Midwestern University's Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jodi

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive case study was used to explore how repurposing and a pedagogical-based instructional design model, the multimodal model (Picciano, 2009), were used to create quality distance education courses in a rapid development setting at a Midwestern land grant university. Data triangulation was used to secure data from faculty member…

  17. HomeSpace:Maputo Dwelling Processes in ten Rapidly Expanding Peri-Urban Areas of an African City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Sollien, Silje Erøy; Costa, Ana Bénard da

    2013-01-01

    This chapter deals with key concepts and preliminary findings of the ressearch programme "Home Space-Meanings and perceptions of the built envioment in Peri-urban Maputo, Mozambique." The Programme examines the nature of emerging forms of "urbanism as a way of Life" in a rapidly urbanizing African...

  18. NABIR Assessment Element, Expanded Rapid, Comprehensive, Lipid Biomarker Analysis for Subsurface, Community Composition and Nutritional/Physiological Status as Monitors of Remediation and Detoxification Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. White

    2005-09-14

    NABIR funding at the University of Tennessee Center for Biomarker Analysis (CBA) has led to several key contributions to the investigation of bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. This lab has played an integral part in assessing microbial communities at the field scale at the ORNL FRC (Istok et al., 2004) and two UMTRA sites (Anderson et al., 2003, Chang et al., 2001). Our work over the period of the grant has resulted in 42-peer reviewed publications, 62 presentations (14 of which were international), and one patent pending. Currently CBA has 2 papers in press. The main objectives relating to the field portion of this program were to provide comprehensive biomarker analysis for NABIR collaborators to enhance the understanding of microbial geo-bioprocesses involved in the effective immobilization of metals (We have worked with and published or currently are publishing with 10 groups of NAIBR investigators). The laboratory portion of our research centered on methods development and has led to three major innovations that could result in a systematic way of evaluating sites for potential bioremediation. The first of these is the development of an in situ sampling device (Peacock et al., 2004, Anderson et al., 2003, Istok et al., 2004) for the collection and concentration of microbial biomass. The second is the development of expanded lipid analysis based on the significantly greater sensitivity and selectivity of the LC/MS/MS that allows the analysis of respiratory quinones, diglycerides, sterols, intact phospholipids, poly-hydroxyalkonates, and potentially archaeol, and caldarchaeols from archea. These new analyses are accomplished more rapidly and with increased sensitivities and resolution than in the past (Lytle et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, Geyer et al., 2004). The third advance is the coupling of lipid analysis with 13C enrichment experiments (Lytle et al., 2001b, Geyer et al. 2005). With this technique it is now possible to follow the active portion of

  19. UNIVERSAL AUTO-CALIBRATION FOR A RAPID BATTERY IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENT DEVICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon P. Christophersen; John L. Morrison; William H. Morrison

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been shown to be a valuable tool for diagnostics and prognostics of energy storage devices such as batteries and ultra-capacitors. Although measurements have been typically confined to laboratory environments, rapid impedance spectrum measurement techniques have been developed for on-line, embedded applications as well. The prototype hardware for the rapid technique has been validated using lithium-ion batteries, but issues with calibration had also been identified. A new, universal automatic calibration technique was developed to address the identified issues while also enabling a more simplified approach. A single, broad-frequency range is used to calibrate the system and then scaled to the actual range and conditions used when measuring a device under test. The range used for calibration must be broad relative to the expected measurement conditions for the scaling to be successful. Validation studies were performed by comparing the universal calibration approach with data acquired from targeted calibration ranges based on the expected range of performance for the device under test. First, a mid-level shunt range was used for calibration and used to measure devices with lower and higher impedance. Next, a high excitation current level was used for calibration, followed by measurements using lower currents. Finally, calibration was performed over a wide frequency range and used to measure test articles with a lower set of frequencies. In all cases, the universal calibration approach compared very well with results acquired following a targeted calibration. Additionally, the shunts used for the automated calibration technique were successfully characterized such that the rapid impedance measurements compare very well with laboratory-scale measurements. These data indicate that the universal approach can be successfully used for onboard rapid impedance spectra measurements for a broad set of test devices and range of

  20. Rapid detection and identification of viroids in the genus Coleviroid using a universal probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongmei; Hou, Wanying; Sano, Teruo; Kang, Ni; Qin, Lü; Wu, Zujian; Li, Shifang; Xie, Lianhui

    2013-02-01

    A simple, low-cost hybridization assay using a universal DIG-labeled riboprobe for the rapid detection and identification of coleus viroids is presented. An octamer of 32-nucleotide sequence derived from the central conserved region (CCR) of viroids in the genus Coleviroid was used to develop a universal cRNA probe (8-central-conserved-region probe, 8CCR probe) for coleus viroids. Dot-blot hybridization assays demonstrated that the sensitivity of this probe was similar to specific probes for each CbVd, and Northern hybridization results revealed that at least four coleus viroids could be distinguished readily and simultaneously using the 8CCR probe. Batch detection assay showed that hybridization using the 8CCR probe can identify coleus viroids rapidly and effectively. This rapid and low-cost molecular hybridization technique is an effective way to survey the occurrence of coleus viroids, and has reference for the detection of other viroids and possibly viruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES) test: A new measure of rapid picture naming for concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbs, Lucy; Hasanaj, Lisena; Amorapanth, Prin; Rizzo, John-Ross; Nolan, Rachel; Serrano, Liliana; Raynowska, Jenelle; Rucker, Janet C; Jordan, Barry D; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J

    2017-01-15

    This study introduces a rapid picture naming test, the Mobile Universal Lexicon Evaluation System (MULES), as a novel, vision-based performance measure for concussion screening. The MULES is a visual-verbal task that includes 54 original photographs of fruits, objects and animals. We piloted MULES in a cohort of volunteers to determine feasibility, ranges of picture naming responses, and the relation of MULES time scores to those of King-Devick (K-D), a rapid number naming test. A convenience sample (n=20, age 34±10) underwent MULES and K-D (spiral bound, iPad versions). Administration order was randomized; MULES tests were audio-recorded to provide objective data on temporal variability and ranges of picture naming responses. Scores for the best of two trials for all tests were 40-50s; average times required to name each MULES picture (0.72±0.14s) was greater than those needed for each K-D number ((spiral: 0.33±0.05s, iPad: 0.36±0.06s, 120 numbers), psystems than more commonly used rapid number naming tasks. Rapid picture naming may require additional processing devoted to color perception, object identification, and categorization. Both tests rely on initiation and sequencing of saccadic eye movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  3. Green, Rapid, and Universal Preparation Approach of Graphene Quantum Dots under Ultraviolet Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinli; Tang, Yanfeng; Wang, Gang; Mao, Jiarong; Liu, Zhiduo; Sun, Tongming; Wang, Miao; Chen, Da; Yang, Yucheng; Li, Jipeng; Deng, Yuan; Yang, Siwei

    2017-04-26

    It is of great significance and importance to explore a mild, clean, and highly efficient universal approach for the synthesis of graphene quantum dots. Herein, we introduced a new green, rapid, and universal preparation approach for graphene quantum dots via the free-radical polymerization of oxygen-containing aromatic compounds under ultraviolet irradiation. This approach had a high yield (86%), and the byproducts are only H2O and CO2. The obtained graphene quantum dots were well-crystallized and showed remarkable optical and biological properties. The colorful, different-sized graphene quantum dots can be used in fluorescent bioimaging in vitro and in vivo. This approach is suitable not only for the preparation of graphene quantum dots but also for heteroatom-doped graphene quantum dots.

  4. The big bang as a result of the first-order phase transition driven by a change of the scalar curvature in an expanding early Universe: The “hyperinflation” scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashitskii, E. A., E-mail: pashitsk@iop.kiev.ua; Pentegov, V. I. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine)

    2016-01-15

    We suggest that the Big Bang could be a result of the first-order phase transition driven by a change in the scalar curvature of the 4D spacetime in an expanding cold Universe filled with a nonlinear scalar field φ and neutral matter with an equation of state p = νε (where p and ε are the pressure and energy density of the matter, respectively). We consider the Lagrangian of a scalar field with nonlinearity φ{sup 4} in a curved spacetime that, along with the term–ξR|φ|{sup 2} quadratic in φ (where ξ is the interaction constant between the scalar and gravitational fields and R is the scalar curvature), contains the term ξRφ{sub 0}(φ + φ{sup +}) linear in φ, where φ{sub 0} is the vacuum mean of the scalar field amplitude. As a consequence, the condition for the existence of extrema of the scalar-field potential energy is reduced to an equation cubic in φ. Provided that ν > 1/3, the scalar curvature R = [κ(3ν–1)ε–4Λ] (where κ and Λ are Einstein’s gravitational and cosmological constants, respectively) decreases with decreasing ε as the Universe expands, and a first-order phase transition in variable “external field” parameter proportional to R occurs at some critical value R{sub c} < 0. Under certain conditions, the critical radius of the early Universe at the point of the first-order phase transition can reach an arbitrary large value, so that this scenario of unrestricted “inflation” of the Universe may be called “hyperinflation.” After the passage through the phase-transition point, the scalar-field potential energy should be rapidly released, which must lead to strong heating of the Universe, playing the role of the Big Bang.

  5. A tool for rapid assessment of product usability and universal design: development and preliminary psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenker, James A; Nasarwanji, Mahiyar; Paquet, Victor; Feathers, David

    2011-01-01

    While there are many available tools and methods to evaluate product usability, few have been tested on user groups with disabilities and even fewer systematically consider universal design principles. This paper describes the development and preliminary psychometric testing of the Rapid Assessment of Product Usability & Universal Design (RAPUUD), a 12-item user-report tool based on the seven principles of universal design. A preliminary set of items was created to elicit ratings of diverse product characteristics (e.g., physical effort, cognitive effort, assistance required, safety). Data were gathered from 61 participants who rated the usability of products they use in their own environments. Each item elicited a full range of responses, with no apparent floor or ceiling effects. Collectively, the 12 items achieved a high internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.80). The data indicate that the tool was sensitive to differences in functional abilities, as well as differences in product characteristics. The instrument was usable for a range of consumer products, though not all items were appropriate for each and every product. The results suggest that the instrument could become a pragmatic tool for designers to identify usability problems experienced by a diversity of user populations. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

  6. A MATLAB Library for Rapid Prototyping of Wireless Communications Algorithms with the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) Radio Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    A MATLAB Library for Rapid Prototyping of Wireless Communications Algorithms with the Universal Software Radio Peripheral ( USRP ) Radio Family...Algorithms with the Universal Software Radio Peripheral ( USRP ) Radio Family Gunjan Verma and Paul Yu Computational and Information Sciences...Universal Software Radio Pheriphal ( USRP ) Radio Family 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gunjan Verma

  7. [Development and scientific rationale for a universal index for rapid assessment of readability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teksheva, L M

    2007-01-01

    The hygienic regulations of academic books, including teachware, for children and adolescents necessitate the performance of special studies to assess their readability by the unified procedure that would suggest a visual response while reading. This study has developed and warranted a universal readability index by the velocity of reading. There are significant regression correlations between the velocity of reading as the readability index and the degree of tiredness, detected by various visual functions. The parameters of accommodation and adaptive properties of the eye are most sensitive to visual load on reading. Reading velocity as an indicator of readability of illogical texts may be used as a rapid method under laboratory and natural conditions to determine the action of various textual loads on the visual system.

  8. Methods University Health System Can Use to Expand Medicaid Coverage to Uninsured Poor Parents with Medicaid Eligible Children: Policy Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMahon, III, Robert T

    2006-01-01

    ... and the continuing reduction in local employer-sponsored insurance. The cost for providing health care to this population has fallen to Bexar County residents through local taxes in support of the county hospital, University Health System...

  9. Disease-associated CAG·CTG triplet repeats expand rapidly in non-dividing mouse cells, but cell cycle arrest is insufficient to drive expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Pereira, Mário; Hilley, James D; Morales, Fernando; Adam, Berit; James, Helen E; Monckton, Darren G

    2014-06-01

    Genetically unstable expanded CAG·CTG trinucleotide repeats are causal in a number of human disorders, including Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy type 1. It is still widely assumed that DNA polymerase slippage during replication plays an important role in the accumulation of expansions. Nevertheless, somatic mosaicism correlates poorly with the proliferative capacity of the tissue and rates of cell turnover, suggesting that expansions can occur in the absence of replication. We monitored CAG·CTG repeat instability in transgenic mouse cells arrested by chemical or genetic manipulation of the cell cycle and generated unequivocal evidence for the continuous accumulation of repeat expansions in non-dividing cells. Importantly, the rates of expansion in non-dividing cells were at least as high as those of proliferating cells. These data are consistent with a major role for cell division-independent expansion in generating somatic mosaicism in vivo. Although expansions can accrue in non-dividing cells, we also show that cell cycle arrest is not sufficient to drive instability, implicating other factors as the key regulators of tissue-specific instability. Our data reveal that de novo expansion events are not limited to S-phase and further support a cell division-independent mutational pathway. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Reverse transcription genome exponential amplification reaction assay for rapid and universal detection of human rhinoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Li; Zhao, Lin-Qing; Zhou, Hang-Yu; Nie, Kai; Li, Xin-Na; Zhang, Dan; Song, Juan; Qian, Yuan; Ma, Xue-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) have long been recognized as the cause of more than one-half of acute viral upper respiratory illnesses, and they are associated with more-serious diseases in children, such as asthma, acute otitis media and pneumonia. A rapid and universal test for of HRV infection is in high demand. In this study, a reverse transcription genome exponential amplification reaction (RT-GEAR) assay targeting the HRV 5' untranslated region (UTR) was developed for pan-HRV detection. The reaction was performed in a single tube in one step at 65 °C for 60 min using a real-time fluorometer (Genie(®)II; Optigene). The RT-GEAR assay showed no cross-reactivity with common human enteroviruses, including HEV71, CVA16, CVA6, CVA10, CVA24, CVB5, Echo30, and PV1-3 or with other common respiratory viruses including FluA H3, FluB, PIV1-4, ADV3, RSVA, RSVB and HMPV. With in vitro-transcribed RNA containing the amplified regions of HRV-A60, HRV-B06 and HRV-C07 as templates, the sensitivity of the RT-GEAR assay was 5, 50 and 5 copies/reaction, respectively. Experiments to evaluate the clinical performance of the RT-GEAR assay were also carried out with a panel of 143 previously verified samples, and the results were compared with those obtained using a published semi-nested PCR assay followed by sequencing. The tested panel comprised 91 HRV-negative samples and 52 HRV-positive samples (18 HRV-A-positive samples, 3 HRV-B-positive samples and 31 HRV-C-positive samples). The sensitivity and specificity of the pan-HRVs RT-GEAR assay was 98.08 % and 100 %, respectively. The kappa correlation between the two methods was 0.985. The RT-GEAR assay based on a portable Genie(®)II fluorometer is a sensitive, specific and rapid assay for the universal detection of HRV infection.

  11. The expanding spectrum of neurological phenotypes in children with ATP1A3 mutations, Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood, Rapid-onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism, CAPOS and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweney, Matthew T; Newcomb, Tara M; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    ATP1A3 mutations have now been recognized in infants and children presenting with a diverse group of neurological phenotypes, including Rapid-onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP), Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC), and most recently, Cerebellar ataxia, Areflexia, Pes cavus, Optic atrophy, and Sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS) syndrome. Existing literature on ATP1A3-related disorders in the pediatric population were reviewed, with attention to clinical features and associated genotypes among those with RDP, AHC, or CAPOS syndrome phenotypes. While classically defined phenotypes associated with AHC, RDP, and CAPOS syndromes are distinct, common elements among ATP1A3-related neurological disorders include characteristic episodic neurological symptoms and signs that vary in severity, duration, and frequency of occurrence. Affected children typically present in the context of an acute onset of paroxysmal, episodic neurological symptoms ranging from oculomotor abnormalities, hypotonia, paralysis, dystonia, ataxia, seizure-like episodes, or encephalopathy. Neurodevelopmental delays or persistence of dystonia, chorea, or ataxia after resolution of an initial episode are common, providing important clues for diagnosis. The phenotypic spectrum of ATP1A3-related neurological disorders continues to expand beyond the distinct yet overlapping phenotypes in patients with AHC, RDP, and CAPOS syndromes. ATP1A3 mutation analysis is appropriate to consider in the diagnostic algorithm for any child presenting with episodic or fluctuating ataxia, weakness or dystonia whether they manifest persistence of neurological symptoms between episodes. Additional work is needed to better identify and classify affected patients and develop targeted treatment approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expanding (3+1)-dimensional universe from a lorentzian matrix model for superstring theory in (9+1) dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Nishimura, Jun; Tsuchiya, Asato

    2012-01-06

    We reconsider the matrix model formulation of type IIB superstring theory in (9+1)-dimensional space-time. Unlike the previous works in which the Wick rotation was used to make the model well defined, we regularize the Lorentzian model by introducing infrared cutoffs in both the spatial and temporal directions. Monte Carlo studies reveal that the two cutoffs can be removed in the large-N limit and that the theory thus obtained has no parameters other than one scale parameter. Moreover, we find that three out of nine spatial directions start to expand at some "critical time," after which the space has SO(3) symmetry instead of SO(9).

  13. Expanding the Scope of Technical Communication: Examples from the Department of Technical Communication at the University of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselkorn, Mark P.; Sauer, Geoffrey; Turns, Jennifer; Illman, Deborah L.; Tsutsui, Michio; Plumb, Carolyn; Williams, Tom; Kolko, Beth; Spyridakis, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Presents eight current projects involving faculty in the University of Washington's Department of Technical Communication that illustrate the broadening of the field. Notes these projects address: the cognitive processing of visual material; Web-based education; strategic management of information; communicating science and technology in the…

  14. Tolman Test from z = 0.1 to z = 5.5: Preliminary Results challenge the Expanding Universe Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, E. J.

    2009-12-01

    We performed the Tolman surface-brightness test for the expansion of the universe using a large UV dataset of disk galaxies in a wide range of redshifts (from 0.03 to 5.7). We combined data for low-z galaxies from GALEX observations with those for high-z objects from HST UltraDeep Field images. Starting from the data in publicly- available GALEX and UDF catalogs, we created 6 samples of galaxies with observations in a rest-frame band centered at 1410Å and 5 with data from one centered on 2250Å . These bands correspond, respectively, to the FUV and NUV bands of GALEX for objects at z = 0.1. By maintaining the same rest-frame wave-band of all observations we greatly minimized the effects of k-correction and filter transformation. Since SB depends on the absolute magnitude, all galaxy samples were then matched for the absolute magnitude range (-17.7 4, and there are inconsistencies in the GALEX measurements when using this model. Given the importance of any test of the expansion of the universe, we intend to check these preliminary results with additional data.

  15. The Expanding Universe: Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don; Nord, Brian

    2014-01-01

    As is true of a far more famous story, it all began a long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away. It even involved a binary star system. A small star, called a white dwarf, had become a burned out husk of its former self and it turned to gorging on hydrogen and helium from its bloated red giant neighbor. The transferred gas reignited the fires of…

  16. Expanded partnerships between medical faculty and medical students: Developing a Global Health curriculum as an example of 'student-led learning' at the University of Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merridew, Nancy; Wilkinson, David

    2010-01-01

    Reflecting trends in medical education from didactic teaching to student-centred learning, the novel approach of student-led learning was applied at the University of Queensland (UQ) School of Medicine. This article examines the benefits, risks and limitations of curriculum development led by students. The Project aimed to trial student-led development of a Global Health curriculum module for the UQ medical programme, as part of an international collaboration with related Health Sciences activities of Universitas 21 (U21). The Head (Dean) of the UQ School of Medicine instigated the Project. A student Convenor was appointed to lead it and, in conjunction with faculty, to design curriculum Learning Objectives and supporting resources. The initial vision of the Project was greatly expanded, from an optional elective to a compulsory curriculum module with inbuilt prospective outcome measures. The module was established in less than 12 months and is now being delivered throughout the 4-year medical programme. A process for ongoing student leadership of the Project was established. Student-led learning can be effective if given adequate support by faculty. The UQ School of Medicine's new curriculum module and collaboration with U21 promote the teaching of Global Health.

  17. Rapid Visual Site Analysis for Post-disaster Landscape Planning: Expanding the Range of Choice in a Tsunami-affected Town in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wescoat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement In post-disaster situations, it is often necessary to undertake rapid visual site reconnaissance to characterise patterns of damage and identify reconstruction opportunities and constraints. Rapid visual site analysis can occur over a period of hours to days rather than weeks to months. The time constraint is often necessary to assess the viability of initial reconstruction scenarios and help broaden the range of choice among site planning options. Rapid assessment can also minimise the use of scarce local post-disaster resources during the initial reconnaissance phases of planning. Because it involves visual methods rather than equipment-intensive survey techniques, it serves as an initial scoping of alternatives. It may follow emergency shelter response planning methods (for example, Sphere Project, 2011, ch 4 and be followed by more comprehensive site mapping and screening. This action–research project reviews the literature on post-disaster site analysis with an emphasis on the tsunami-affected area of north-eastern Japan. Because research on rapid visual site analysis in post-disaster contexts is limited, we combined field-based site analysis methods, adapted for post-disaster planning, with visual methods for assessing seismic and tsunami hazards.

  18. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  20. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  1. BREAKDOWN OF I-LOVE-Q UNIVERSALITY IN RAPIDLY ROTATING RELATIVISTIC STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doneva, Daniela D.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Kokkotas, Kostas D. [Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Stergioulas, Nikolaos, E-mail: daniela.doneva@uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2014-01-20

    It was shown recently that normalized relations between the moment of inertia (I), the quadrupole moment (Q), and the tidal deformability (Love number) exist and for slowly rotating neutron stars they are almost independent of the equation of state (EOS). We extend the computation of the I-Q relation to models rotating up to the mass-shedding limit and show that the universality of the relations is lost. With increasing rotation rate, the normalized I-Q relation departs significantly from its slow-rotation limit, deviating up to 40% for neutron stars and up to 75% for strange stars. The deviation is also EOS dependent and for a broad set of hadronic and strange matter EOSs the spread due to rotation is comparable to the spread due to the EOS, if one considers sequences with fixed rotational frequency. Still, for a restricted sample of modern realistic EOSs one can parameterize the deviations from universality as a function of rotation only. The previously proposed I-Love-Q relations should thus be used with care, because they lose their universality in astrophysical situations involving compact objects rotating faster than a few hundred Hz.

  2. Prognostic values of pneumonia severity index, CURB-65 and expanded CURB-65 scores in community-acquired pneumonia in Zagazig University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah M. Shehata

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Expanded CURB-65 score is simple, objective and more accurate scoring system for evaluation of CAP severity and can improve the efficiency of predicting the mortality in CAP patients, better than CURB-65 and PSI scores. Also, Expanded CUEB-65 may generate new therapeutic and prognostic modality in CAP especially in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  3. Partition expanders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 378-395 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : expanders * pseudorandomness * communication complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00224-016-9738-5

  4. Acceptability and feasibility of universal offer of rapid point of care testing for HIV in an acute admissions unit: results of the RAPID project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Burns

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: UK guidance recommend all acute medical admissions be offered an HIV test. Our aim was to determine whether a dedicated staff member using a multimedia tool, a model found to be effective in the USA, is an acceptable, feasible, and cost-effective model when translated to a UK setting. DESIGN: Between 14(th Jan to 12(th May 2010, a Health advisor (HA approached 19-65 year olds at a central London acute medical admissions unit (AAU and offered a rapid HIV point of care test (POCT with the aid of an educational video. Patients with negative results had the option to watch a post-test video providing risk-reduction information. For reactive results the HA arranged a confirmatory test, and ensured linkage into HIV specialist care. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through surveys and uptake rates. Costs per case of HIV identified were established. RESULTS: Of the 606 eligible people admitted during the pilot period, 324 (53.5% could not be approached or testing was deemed inappropriate. In total 23.0% of eligible admissions had an HIV POCT. Of the patients who watched the video and had not recently tested for HIV, 93.6% (131/140 agreed to an HIV test; four further patients had an HIV test but did not watch the video. Three tests (2.2%, 3/135 were reactive and all were confirmed HIV positive on laboratory testing. 97.5% felt HIV testing in this setting was appropriate, and 90.1% liked receiving the information via video. The cost per patient of the intervention was £21. DISCUSSION: Universal POCT HIV testing in an acute medical setting, facilitated by an educational video and dedicated staff appears to be acceptable, feasible, effective, and low cost. These findings support the recommendation of HIV testing all admissions to AAU in high prevalence settings, although with the model used a significant proportion remained untested.

  5. Rapid kV-switching single-source dual-energy CT ex vivo renal calculi characterization using a multiparametric approach: refining parameters on an expanded dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegshauser, J Scott; Paden, Robert G; He, Miao; Humphreys, Mitchell R; Zell, Steven I; Fu, Yinlin; Wu, Teresa; Sugi, Mark D; Silva, Alvin C

    2017-09-26

    We aimed to determine the best algorithms for renal stone composition characterization using rapid kV-switching single-source dual-energy computed tomography (rsDECT) and a multiparametric approach after dataset expansion and refinement of variables. rsDECT scans (80 and 140 kVp) were performed on 38 ex vivo 5- to 10-mm renal stones composed of uric acid (UA; n = 21), struvite (STR; n = 5), cystine (CYS; n = 5), and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM; n = 7). Measurements were obtained for 17 variables: mean Hounsfield units (HU) at 11 monochromatic keV levels, effective Z, 2 iodine-water material basis pairs, and 3 mean monochromatic keV ratios (40/140, 70/120, 70/140). Analysis included using 5 multiparametric algorithms: Support Vector Machine, RandomTree, Artificial Neural Network, Naïve Bayes Tree, and Decision Tree (C4.5). Separating UA from non-UA stones was 100% accurate using multiple methods. For non-UA stones, using a 70-keV mean cutoff value of 694 HU had 100% accuracy for distinguishing COM from non-COM (CYS, STR) stones. The best result for distinguishing all 3 non-UA subtypes was obtained using RandomTree (15/17, 88%). For stones 5 mm or larger, multiple methods can distinguish UA from non-UA and COM from non-COM stones with 100% accuracy. Thus, the choice for analysis is per the user's preference. The best model for separating all three non-UA subtypes was 88% accurate, although with considerable individual overlap between CYS and STR stones. Larger, more diverse datasets, including in vivo data and technical improvements in material separation, may offer more guidance in distinguishing non-UA stone subtypes in the clinical setting.

  6. Expanded Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, D B; Salvi, Sonali; Chandanwale, Ajay

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal. In clinical practice, the occurrence of atypical presentation should prompt us to investigate for dengue. Knowledge of expanded dengue helps to clinch the diagnosis of dengue early, especially during ongoing epidemics, avoiding further battery of investigations. Dengue has proved to be the epidemic with the ability to recur and has a diverse array of presentation as seen in large series from India, Srilanka, Indonesia and Taiwan. WHO has given the case definition of dengue fever in their comprehensive guidelines. Accordingly, a probable case is defined as acute febrile illness with two or more of any findings viz. headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, hemorrhagic manifestations, leucopenia and supportive serology. There have been cases of patients admitted with fever, altered mentation with or without neck stiffness and pyramidal tract signs. Some had seizures or status epilepticus as presentation. When they were tested for serology, dengue was positive. After ruling out other causes, dengue remained the only culprit. We have come across varied presentations of dengue fever in clinical practice and the present article throws light on atypical manifestations of dengue. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  7. Expanding cosmic horizons of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Narlikar, J. V.; Wickramasinghe, J. T.; Wainwright, Milton

    2003-02-01

    The conceptual boundaries of life are rapidly expanding far beyond the confines of our planet to encompass an ever-widening region of the universe. Complex organic molecules in interstellar dust and comets appear most plausibly to be biologically derived, or at least closely related spectroscopically and structurally to such material. A de novo origin of life from non-living material is reckoned to have so minuscule a probability that its occurrence once in the universe can be considered miracle enough. The widespread distribution of similar material (e.g with the characteristics of the diffuse infrared bands and 2175 absorption features) throughout the galaxy and in external galaxies adds weight to the theory of panspermia, where it is supposed that the components of life at a generic level are readily transferred from one place to another. Spectroscopic evidence consistent with life extends to redshifts z=0.5, and from elemental abundance studies alone (e.g, of C, O and metals) in distant galaxies the possibility of cosmic life extends to redshifts as high as z=3.

  8. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    upon qualitative interviews with residents as well as road network data and travel speed data collected with GPS to offer a combination of local testimony with GIS-based modelling of overall accessibility. It is argued that the use of digital network analysis enables planners to obtain a better......A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... knowledge of the spatial patterns of urban accessibility, while the analysis of mobility practices of residents enables a better understanding of the constraints people experience related to their livelihood strategies. Finally, the paper addresses how local residents engage in providing and improving...

  9. Analysis of readmission rates to the intensive care unit after implementation of a rapid response team in a University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco E Paula, R; Tanita, M T; Festti, J; Queiroz Cardoso, L T; Carvalho Grion, C M

    2017-10-01

    To compare readmission rates to the intensive care unit (ICU) before and after the implementation of a rapid response team (RRT), and to identify risk factors for readmission. A quasi-experimental before-after study was carried out. A University Hospital. All patients discharged from the ICU from January to December 2008 (control group) and from January 2010 to December 2012 (intervention group). Implementation of an RRT. The data included demographic parameters, diagnoses upon admission, ICU readmission, APACHE II, SOFA, and TISS 28 scores, and routine daily assessment by an RRT of patients discharged from the ICU. During the study interval, 380 patients were analyzed in the period prior to the implementation of the RRT and 1361 after implementation. There was a tendency toward decreased readmission rates one year after RRT implementation. The APACHE II score and SOFA score at ICU discharge were independent factors associated to readmission, as well as clinical referral to the ICU. The RRT intervention resulted in a sustained decrease in readmission rates one year after implementation of this service. The use of a specialized team in health institutions can be recommended for ICU survivors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Universal Probe Library based real-time PCR for rapid detection of bacterial pathogens from positive blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Shen, Ding-Xia; Zhou, Qiming; Liu, Chao-Jun; Li, Zexia; Fang, Xiangdong; Li, Quan-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    A set of real-time PCR based assays using the locked nucleic acid probes from Roche Universal ProbeLibrary were developed for rapid detection of eight bacterial species from positive blood culture bottles. Four duplex real-time PCR reactions targeting to one Gram-positive bacterium and one Gram-negative bacterium were optimized for species identification according to Gram stain results. We also included mecA-specific primers and probes in the assays to indicate the presence of methicillin resistance in the bacterial species. The analytical sensitivity was in the range of 1-10 CFU per PCR reaction mixture. The specificity and cross reactivity of the assay was validated by 28 ATCC reference strains and 77 negative blood culture specimens. No cross-reactivity was observed in these samples thus demonstrating 100 % specificity. 72 previously characterized clinical isolates were tested by the real-time PCR assay and validated the accuracy and feasibility of the real-time PCR assay. Furthermore, 55 positive blood culture samples were tested using real-time PCR and 50 (90.9 %) of them were identified as the same species as judged by biochemical analysis. In total, real-time PCR showed 98.2 % consistent to that of traditional methods. Real-time PCR can be used as a supplement for early detection of the frequently-occurred pathogens from the positive blood cultures.

  11. [Use of Rapid Antigen Detection Test (RADT) among general practitioner teachers at the Paris Descartes University: 2005-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, C; Robinet, J; Partouche, H

    2009-06-01

    The distribution of the Rapid Antigen Detection Test (RADT) and the National Health Insurance's information campaign should efficiently reduce the unjustified use antibiotic. However, a preliminary survey among GP trainers at the Paris Descartes University indicated that the RADT was seldom used. This study had for aim to describe the RADT use trend among trainers since 2005 and the main obstacles to its widespread use, and to assess the Mac Isaac score use and antibiotic prescriptions. Between February and May 2007, a survey was carried out among 66 GPs who were required to report their first ten patients over three years of age presenting with pharyngitis. RADT use and antibiotic prescriptions were compared with those of the 2005 survey. RADT use had decreased (52.5% [48.2-56.8] versus 57.5% [52.1-68.8], p<0.05). GPs did not use the RADT because they considered it "useless in decision making". Clinical findings were sufficient in most cases. The Mac Isaac score was not widely used by GPs (28.3%) and antibiotic prescription had increased except for macrolides which had decreased (10% vs 15%). Among patients with a negative RADT, 11.9% (vs 10.5% en 2005, p<0.001) were prescribed antibiotics. The RADT use decreased in two years among GP trainers. GPs still prescribe treatment according to clinical findings, most without using diagnostic tools.

  12. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities

    OpenAIRE

    Nor, A.N.M.; R. Corstanje; Harris, J.A.; Grafius, D.R.; Siriwardena, G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for ...

  13. Medical Information & Technology: Rapidly Expanding Vast Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Anil K.

    2012-12-01

    During ÑMedical Council Of India?, Platinum Jubilee Year (1933-2008) Celebrations, In Year 2008, Several Scientific Meeting/Seminar/Symposium, On Various Topics Of Contemporary Importance And Relevance In The Field Of ÑMedical Education And Ethics?, Were Organized, By Different Medical Colleges At Various Local, State, National Levels. The Present Discussion, Is An Comprehensive Summary Of Various Different Aspects of ìMedical Information Communication Technologyî, Especially UseFul For The Audience Stratum Group Of Those Amateur Medical & Paramedical Staff, With No Previous Work Experience Knowledge Of Computronics Applications. Outlining The, i.Administration Applications: Medical Records Etc, ii. Clinical Applications: Pros pective Scope Of TeleMedicine Applicabilities Etc iii. Other Applications: Efforts To Augment Improvement Of Medical Education, Medical Presentations, Medical Education And Research Etc. ÑMedical Trancription? & Related Recent Study Fields e.g ÑModern Pharmaceuticals?,ÑBio-Engineering?, ÑBio-Mechanics?, ÑBio-Technology? Etc., Along With Important Aspects Of Computers-General Considerations, Computer Ergonomics Assembled To Summarize, The AwareNess Regarding Basic Fundamentals Of Medical Computronics & Its Practically SuccessFul Utilities.

  14. Expanding the Trilinos developer community.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2010-10-01

    The Trilinos Project started approximately nine years ago as a small effort to enable research, development and ongoing support of small, related solver software efforts. The 'Tri' in Trilinos was intended to indicate the eventual three packages we planned to develop. In 2007 the project expanded its scope to include any package that was an enabling technology for technical computing. Presently the Trilinos repository contains over 55 packages covering a broad spectrum of reusable tools for constructing full-featured scalable scientific and engineering applications. Trilinos usage is now worldwide, and many applications have an explicit dependence on Trilinos for essential capabilities. Users come from other US laboratories, universities, industry and international research groups. Awareness and use of Trilinos is growing rapidly outside of Sandia. Members of the external research community are becoming more familiar with Trilinos, its design and collaborative nature. As a result, the Trilinos project is receiving an increasing number of requests from external community members who want to contribute to Trilinos as developers. To-date we have worked with external developers in an ad hoc fashion. Going forward, we want to develop a set of policies, procedures, tools and infrastructure to simplify interactions with external developers. As we go forward with multi-laboratory efforts such as CASL and X-Stack, and international projects such as IESP, we will need a more streamlined and explicit process for making external developers 'first-class citizens' in the Trilinos development community. This document is intended to frame the discussion for expanding the Trilinos community to all strategically important external members, while at the same time preserving Sandia's primary leadership role in the project.

  15. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  16. university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Universities occupy a special place in the city’s life, the place where centuries-old traditions of the past meet the future. Universities keep their ancestral roots stretching back into the Middle Ages. University rooms and laboratories are the places where the future of science and society is built and discussed.The oldest Siberian University located in Tomsk was included in the City Charter as a city-forming enterprise. Other Siberian cities have not yet come to such deep comprehension of the role of universities. But who can doubt the significance and beneficence of this role?A complex and debatable process of reformation of the Russian higher education has been going on for several decades. Many things are perceived painfully. Irkutsk has been a student city for a long time and ranked second in the percentage of students among citizens. But recently we have lost Irkutsk High Military Aviation Engineering School, nearly lost the MIA High School. Pedagogical University has lost its status of university, and then its independence. Linguistic University has turned into a branch of Moscow University…Besides, external threats still exist and even grow. The lands and the buildings of universities are of keen interest among big businessmen, speculators and developers… Isn’t it the reason why the ideas to evacuate universities to suburban campuses arise increasingly frequently?What is the impact of dislocation of universities out of the city historical center? Does it make the city poorer and older? Or safer and more manageable? As usual, we tried to show the challenge and diversity of the main topic of the issue.

  17. Lemaître, the expanding universe, and the cosmological constant (German Title: Lemaître, das expandierende Universum und die kosmologische Konstante )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Kurt

    The scientific and human relations of Albert Einstein and Georges Lemaître are discussed. In 1927 the later had interpreted the general theory of relativity for a model of an expanding cosmos using a positive value of the cosmological constant. In the three open questions between them: expansion of cosmos, primordial state of a quantum vacuum (``primeval atom''), importance of the cosmological constant for vacuum energy, Lemaître finally won over the heavily opposing Einstein. The philosophical and ontological tendency of Einstein's thinking was contrasted with the strict epistemological line of the catholic priest Lemaître. The dramatic changes between friendship and controversy finally led to a diminution of Lemaître's reputation as ``Darwin of Cosmology''. In that case, the late Einstein proved to be a hindrance rather than a promoter of evolution in cosmology.

  18. Expanding the Scope of Anatomical Sciences: The Case of "Human Evolution--The Fossil Evidence" Course at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notzer, Netta; Abramovitz, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The Anatomy Department at Tel-Aviv University Medical School offers its students an elective course of 26 didactic hours on human evolution. The course is open to students from all faculties, who must fulfill all academic requirements, without a prerequisite of a background in anatomy. Approximately 120 students attend annually, a third of them…

  19. Expanding hollow metal rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Harold B [Evans, GA; Imrich, Kenneth J [Grovetown, GA

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  20. Unsolved Mysteries of Science: A Mind-Expanding Journey through a Universe of Big Bangs, Particle Waves, and Other Perplexing Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John

    2001-08-01

    A LIVELY EXPLORATION OF THE BIGGEST QUESTIONS IN SCIENCE How Did the Universe Begin? The Big Bang has been the accepted theory for decades, but does it explain everything? How Did Life on Earth Get Started? What triggered the cell division that started the evolutionary chain? Did life come from outer space, buried in a chunk of rock? What is Gravity? Newton's apple just got the arguments started, Einstein made things more complicated. Just how does gravity fit in with quantum theory? What Is the Inside of the Earth Like? What exactly is happening beneath our feet, and can we learn enough to help predict earthquakes and volcanic eruptions? How Do We Learn Language? Is language acquisition an inborn biological ability, or does every child have to start from scratch? Is There a Missing Link? The story of human evolution is not complete. In addition to hoaxes such as "Piltdown Man" and extraordinary finds such as "Lucy," many puzzles remain. What, in the end, do we mean by a "missing link"?

  1. Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  2. Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Updated for 2011, the Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.

  3. Expanding the scope of anatomical sciences: the case of "Human evolution: The fossil evidence" course at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notzer, Netta; Abramovitz, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The Anatomy Department at Tel-Aviv University Medical School offers its students an elective course of 26 didactic hours on human evolution. The course is open to students from all faculties, who must fulfill all academic requirements, without a prerequisite of a background in anatomy. Approximately 120 students attend annually, a third of them are nonmedical students who major in philosophy, archeology, and sociology. This article discusses the course's contributions to students' understanding of a scientific concept that a scientific theory can be contradicted by new evidence, because facts govern science. Also, research methods of applying scientific principles establish the understanding of the human body, which evidently contributes to health and medicine. In the classes, the students are divided into mini-groups of 2-3 students, while the lecturer moves among students to examine fossils. In addition, analogies, open-discussions, and explanations accompany the tangible experiences. The lecturer of the course is an experienced anthropologist-anatomist researcher. He is a role-model and a mentor, sharing with the students his belief that a scientist should be persistent in his research to overcome difficult circumstances. Students, regardless of their backgrounds, express high appreciation of the course in their feedback questionnaires. The message conveyed by this course is that not only knowledge counts but also its integration with scientific principles. This course teaches us that science can bring students from different areas to study together and share ideas. In conclusion, this is a unique course in the eyes of the faculty and students alike. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. WWW-based rapid prototyping as a strategy for training university faculty to teach WWW-based courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Khan, Badrul H.

    2001-01-01

    At the Faculty of Educational Science and Technology of the University of Twente a major initiative is taking place. This initiative involves the re-design of our courses for more-flexible delivery, in particular to prepare for the simultaneous participation in our courses of three different groups

  5. Challenges and Successes in the Application of Universal Access Principles in the Development of Bus Rapid Transport Sytems in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The National Department of Transport started a programme to upgrade public transport systems throughout South Africa in 2008, which included the upgrading of transport systems for host cities of the 2010 World Cup. This was the first time there was a clear commitment to produce universally accessible public transport systems in South Africa. The requirement to achieve universal access was reinforced by National Treasuries stipulation, that universal access was a precondition for the approval of all funding for these projects. In the absence of any specific legislation in the transport sector to address universal access and the South African National Building Regulations and the associated deemed to satisfy code, South African National Standard (SANS) 10400 Part S: "Facilities for Persons with Disabilities", providing the only associated standards, there has been a need to revisit traffic engineering codes. This has created an opportunity to look at the functionality and safety of commuters, especially those who have functional limitations, at traffic intersections and midblock pedestrian crossings, especially as the commuters have to access predominately median located Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) trunk stations. Included in the specific areas of focus that impact on the issues of pedestrian safety, has been the application and functionality of tactile wayfinding and warning surfaces and other support systems for commuters with functional sight limitations and the integration of the systems with other infrastructure and the safety of all commuter. In addition to the issues of functionality, this paper will address the influence of misdirected foreign expertise that set the initial BRT Systems on a high floor vehicle modality, which has created operational challenges that have seriously compromised functional universal access. This presentation will highlight these challenges, opportunities and solutions, the procedural complexities, as well as the inherent resistance

  6. Endothelial-regenerating cells: an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Martin; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2010-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common cause for cardiovascular diseases and is based on endothelial dysfunction. A growing body of evidence suggests the contribution of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells, monocytic cells, and mature endothelial cells to vessel formation and endothelial rejuvenation. To this day, various subsets of these endothelial-regenerating cells have been identified according to cellular origin, phenotype, and properties in vivo and in vitro. However, the definition and biology, especially of endothelial progenitor cells, is complex and under heavy debate. In this review, we focus on current definitions of endothelial progenitor cells, highlight the clinical relevance of endothelial-regenerating cells, and provide new insights into cell-cell interactions involved in endothelial cell rejuvenation.

  7. Spironolactone in cardiovascular disease: an expanding universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, John W

    2017-01-01

    Spironolactone has been marketed for over half a century as a 'potassium-sparing diuretic', used primarily in patients with ascites. With the realization that primary aldosteronism is the most common (5-13%) form of secondary hypertension, it has become widely used as a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. More recently, in the wake of the RALES trial, spironolactone in addition to standard therapy has been shown to be very beneficial in heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction. Despite the failure of the TOPCAT trial, spironolactone is being increasingly used in diastolic heart failure (i.e. with a preserved ejection fraction). The third currently accepted role for spironolactone is in hypertension resistant to three conventional antihypertensives including a diuretic, where it has been proven to be effective, in contra-distinction to renal artery denervation. Finally, brief consideration will be given to 'areas in waiting' - pulmonary hypertension/fibrosis, cancer - where spironolactone may play very useful roles.

  8. General relativistic quantum theories Foundations. Expanding Universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Claudio

    2015-07-01

    Here the space-time is represented by the usual, four-dimensional manifold and at every space-time point is assigned an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, seat of a (local) quantum description: states, probabilities and expectations. On the space-time manifold is assigned a metric tensor and it is assumed that the quantum fields commutations relations do not only depend on the metric tensor but also on its Ricci tensor: this is a fundamental postulate. This assumption has many relevant consequences: the theory is regularized; the commutators and the propagators are well defined functions and, applying the theory to electroweak interactions, we can obtain a finite and discrete specter of leptons masses.

  9. Feasibility of implementing rapid oral fluid HIV testing in an urban University Dental Clinic: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 1 million individuals in the U.S. are infected with HIV; approximately 20% of whom do not know they are infected. Early diagnosis of HIV infection results in earlier access to treatment and reductions in HIV transmission. In 2006, the CDC recommended that health care providers offer routine HIV screening to all adolescent and adult patients, regardless of community seroprevalence or patient lifestyle. Dental providers are uniquely positioned to implement these recommendations using rapid oral fluid HIV screening technology. However, thus far, uptake into dental practice has been very limited. Methods The study utilized a qualitative descriptive approach with convenience samples of dental faculty and students. Six in-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with dental faculty and three focus groups were conducted with fifteen dental students. Results Results were fairly consistent and indicated relatively high levels of acceptability. Barriers and facilitators of oral fluid HIV screening were identified in four primary areas: scope of practice/practice enhancement, skills/knowledge/training, patient service/patient reactions and logistical issues. Conclusions Oral fluid HIV screening was described as having benefits for patients, dental practitioners and the public good. Many of the barriers to implementation that were identified in the study could be addressed through training and interdisciplinary collaborations.

  10. Assessment of Universal Healthcare Coverage in a District of North India: A Rapid Cross-Sectional Survey Using Tablet Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tarundeep; Roy, Pritam; Jamir, Limalemla; Gupta, Saurav; Kaur, Navpreet; Jain, D K; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    A rapid survey was carried out in Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar District of Punjab state in India to ascertain health seeking behavior and out-of-pocket health expenditures. Using multistage cluster sampling design, 1,008 households (28 clusters x 36 households in each cluster) were selected proportionately from urban and rural areas. Households were selected through a house-to-house survey during April and May 2014 whose members had (a) experienced illness in the past 30 days, (b) had illness lasting longer than 30 days, (c) were hospitalized in the past 365 days, or (d) had women who were currently pregnant or experienced childbirth in the past two years. In these selected households, trained investigators, using a tablet computer-based structured questionnaire, enquired about the socio-demographics, nature of illness, source of healthcare, and healthcare and household expenditure. The data was transmitted daily to a central server using wireless communication network. Mean healthcare expenditures were computed for various health conditions. Catastrophic healthcare expenditure was defined as more than 10% of the total annual household expenditure on healthcare. Chi square test for trend was used to compare catastrophic expenditures on hospitalization between households classified into expenditure quartiles. The mean monthly household expenditure was 15,029 Indian Rupees (USD 188.2). Nearly 14.2% of the household expenditure was on healthcare. Fever, respiratory tract diseases, gastrointestinal diseases were the common acute illnesses, while heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and respiratory diseases were the more common chronic diseases. Hospitalizations were mainly due to cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal problems, and accidents. Only 17%, 18%, 20% and 31% of the healthcare for acute illnesses, chronic illnesses, hospitalizations and childbirth was sought in the government health facilities. Average expenditure in government health facilities was 16.6% less

  11. Assessment of Universal Healthcare Coverage in a District of North India: A Rapid Cross-Sectional Survey Using Tablet Computers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarundeep Singh

    Full Text Available A rapid survey was carried out in Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar District of Punjab state in India to ascertain health seeking behavior and out-of-pocket health expenditures.Using multistage cluster sampling design, 1,008 households (28 clusters x 36 households in each cluster were selected proportionately from urban and rural areas. Households were selected through a house-to-house survey during April and May 2014 whose members had (a experienced illness in the past 30 days, (b had illness lasting longer than 30 days, (c were hospitalized in the past 365 days, or (d had women who were currently pregnant or experienced childbirth in the past two years. In these selected households, trained investigators, using a tablet computer-based structured questionnaire, enquired about the socio-demographics, nature of illness, source of healthcare, and healthcare and household expenditure. The data was transmitted daily to a central server using wireless communication network. Mean healthcare expenditures were computed for various health conditions. Catastrophic healthcare expenditure was defined as more than 10% of the total annual household expenditure on healthcare. Chi square test for trend was used to compare catastrophic expenditures on hospitalization between households classified into expenditure quartiles.The mean monthly household expenditure was 15,029 Indian Rupees (USD 188.2. Nearly 14.2% of the household expenditure was on healthcare. Fever, respiratory tract diseases, gastrointestinal diseases were the common acute illnesses, while heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and respiratory diseases were the more common chronic diseases. Hospitalizations were mainly due to cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal problems, and accidents. Only 17%, 18%, 20% and 31% of the healthcare for acute illnesses, chronic illnesses, hospitalizations and childbirth was sought in the government health facilities. Average expenditure in government health facilities was

  12. Layouts of Expander Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Sidiropoulos, Anastasios; Wood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Bourgain and Yehudayoff recently constructed $O(1)$-monotone bipartite expanders. By combining this result with a generalisation of the unraveling method of Kannan, we construct 3-monotone bipartite expanders, which is best possible. We then show that the same graphs admit 3-page book embeddings, 2-queue layouts, 4-track layouts, and have simple thickness 2. All these results are best possible.

  13. Is There an Australian Idea of a University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the idea of a university as it exists and is discussed in Australia at the beginning of the 21st century. Australia's history and partly derivative culture provide the relatively unintellectual context for sceptical utilitarianism in relation to a system which has expanded rapidly and is frequently described as being in…

  14. Internationalization for Quality in Chinese Research Universities: Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wanhua; Yue, Yun

    2015-01-01

    China's rapidly expanding university system aims to balance quantity and quality through a variety of measures, including internationalization. This paper employs data from a survey of 1264 students from 39 higher education institutions in order to understand students' view on institutional approaches to internationalization. The data show that…

  15. Developing Universal Genetic Tools for Rapid and Efficient Deletion Mutation in Vibrio Species Based on Suicide T-Vectors Carrying a Novel Counterselectable Marker, vmi480.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Luo

    Full Text Available Despite that Vibrio spp. have a significant impact on the health of humans and aquatic animals, the molecular basis of their pathogenesis is little known, mainly due to the limited genetic tools for the functional research of genes in Vibrio. In some cases, deletion of target DNAs in Vibrio can be achieved through the use of suicide vectors. However, these strategies are time-consuming and lack universality, and the widely used counterselectable gene sacB does not work well in Vibrio cells. In this study, we developed universal genetic tools for rapid and efficient deletion mutations in Vibrio species based on suicide T-Vectors carrying a novel counterselectable marker, vmi480. We explored two uncharacterized genes, vmi480 and vmi470, in a genomic island from Vibrio mimicus VM573 and confirmed that vmi480 and vmi470 constitute a two-component toxin-antitoxin system through deletion and expression of vmi480 and vmi470. The product of vmi480 exhibited strong toxicity to Escherichia coli cells. Based on vmi480 and the PBAD or PTAC promoter system, we constructed two suicide T-vectors, pLP11 and pLP12, and each of these vectors contained a multiple cloning region with two AhdI sites. Both vectors linearized by AhdI digestion could be stored and directly ligated with purified PCR products without a digestion step. By using pLP11 and pLP12 coupled with a highly efficient conjugation system provided by E. coli β2163, six genes from four representative Vibrio species were easily deleted. By using the counterselective marker vmi480, we obtained 3-12 positive colonies (deletion mutants among no more than 20 colonies randomly selected on counterselection plates. The strategy does not require the digestion of PCR products and suicide vectors every time, and it avoids large-scale screening colonies on counterselective plates. These results demonstrate that we successfully developed universal genetic tools for rapid and efficient gene deletion in Vibrio

  16. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  17. Expanding CTE Opportunities through Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The global economy, 21st century skills, knowledge society, college and career readiness, digital and project-based learning are all common terms to educators who are expanding their learning environments beyond the classroom to meet the needs of all students. It is common knowledge that the rapid technological advances of this century have…

  18. Universal quantum dot-based sandwich-like immunoassay strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of small molecules using portable and reusable optofluidic nano-biosensing platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liping; Zhu, Anna; Lou, Xuening; Song, Dan; Yang, Rong [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing (China); Shi, Hanchang [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Long, Feng, E-mail: longf04@ruc.edu.cn [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing (China)

    2016-01-28

    A universal sandwich-like immunoassay strategy based on quantum-dots immunoprobe (QD-labeled anti-mouse IgG antibody) was developed for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of small molecules. A portable and reusable optofluidic nano-biosensing platform was applied to investigate the sandwich-like immunoassay mechanism and format of small molecules, as well as the binding kinetics between QD immunoprobe and anti-small molecule antibody. A two-step immunoassay method that involves pre-incubation mixture of different concentration of small molecule and anti-small molecule antibody, and subsequent introduction of QD immunoprobe into the optofluidic cell was conducted for small molecule determination. Compared with the one-step immunoassay method, the two-step immunoassay method can obtain higher fluorescence signal and higher sensitivity index, thus improving the nano-biosensing performance. Based on the proposed strategy, two mode targets, namely, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and Bisphenol A (BPA) were tested with high sensitivity, rapidity, and ease of use. A higher concentration of small molecules in the sample led to less anti-small molecule antibody bound with antigen-carrier protein conjugate immobilized onto the sensor surface, and less QD immunoprobes bound with anti-small molecule antibody. This phenomenon lowered the fluorescence signal detected by nano-biosensing platform. Under optimal operating conditions, MC-LR and BPA exhibited a limit of detection of 0.003 and 0.04 μg/L, respectively. The LODs were better than those of the indirect competitive immunoassay method for small molecules via Cy5.5-labeled anti-small molecule antibody. The proposed QD-based sandwich-like immunoassay strategy was evaluated in spiked water samples, and showed good recovery, precision and accuracy without complicated sample pretreatments. All these results demonstrate that the new detection strategy could be readily applied to the other trace small molecules in real water samples

  19. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  20. TRIPLE ACTION PALATE EXPANDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yordanova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Malocclusion correction essentially involves expansion of the maxilla, protrusion of anterior teeth and opening the bite. Expansion is often the stage preceding the treatment with fixed appliances. The elevation of the occlusion using accomplished with different devices (bite planes -fixed or removable, composite material on the occlusall surface of molars carries the risk of breaking or debonding them.The present article proposes an expanding appliance with triple action as a therapeutic means of choice in an orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The expander can simultaneously be used to protrude upper teeth, to expand the upper jaw and disarticulate the occlusion. It can be easily fabricated in clinical conditions, causes no discomfort and does not hamper oral hygiene because it can be removed and cleaned.

  1. Long-term implications of observing an expanding cosmological civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. Jay

    2018-01-01

    Suppose that advanced civilizations, separated by a cosmological distance and time, wish to maximize their access to cosmic resources by rapidly expanding into the universe. How does the presence of one limit the expansionistic ambitions of another, and what sort of boundary forms between their expanding domains? We describe a general scenario for any expansion speed, separation distance and time. We then specialize to a question of particular interest: What are the future prospects for a young and ambitious civilization if they can observe the presence of another at a cosmological distance? We treat cases involving the observation of one or two expanding domains. In the single-observation case, we find that almost any plausible detection will limit one's future cosmic expansion to some extent. Also, practical technological limits to expansion speed (well below the speed of light) play an interesting role. If a domain is visible at the time one embarks on cosmic expansion, higher practical limits to expansion speed are beneficial only up to a certain point. Beyond this point, a higher speed limit means that gains in the ability to expand are more than offset by the first-mover advantage of the observed domain. In the case of two visible domains, it is possible to be `trapped' by them if the practical speed limit is high enough and their angular separation in the sky is large enough, i.e. one's expansion in any direction will terminate at a boundary with the two visible civilizations. Detection at an extreme cosmological distance has surprisingly little mitigating effect on our conclusions.

  2. Women Engineering Faculty: Expanding the Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greni, Nadene Deiterman

    2006-01-01

    The purpose for this case study was to explore the features of undergraduate engineering departmental and college support that influenced the persistence of women students. Women engineering faculty members were among the participants at three Land Grant universities in the Midwest. The data revealed the theme, Expanding the Pipeline, and…

  3. Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Eytan A; Lavy, Eran; Friedman, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon

    2003-06-24

    Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms (GRDFs) have been designed for the past 3 decades. They were originally created for possible veterinary use, but later the design was modified for enhanced drug therapy in humans. These GRDFs are easily swallowed and reach a significantly larger size in the stomach due to swelling or unfolding processes that prolong their gastric retention time (GRT). After drug release, their dimensions are minimized with subsequent evacuation from the stomach. Gastroretentivity is enhanced by the combination of substantial dimensions with high rigidity of the dosage form to withstand the peristalsis and mechanical contractility of the stomach. Positive results were obtained in preclinical and clinical studies evaluating GRT of expandable GRDFs. Narrow absorption window drugs compounded in such systems have improved in vivo absorption properties. These findings are an important step towards the implementation of expandable GRDFs in the clinical setting. The current review deals with expandable GRDFs reported in articles and patents, and describes the physiological basis of their design. Using the dog as a preclinical screening model prior to human studies, relevant imaging techniques and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic aspects of such delivery systems are also discussed.

  4. HiPERCAM: a high-speed quintuple-beam CCD camera for the study of rapid variability in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Vikram S.; Marsh, Thomas R.; Bezawada, Naidu; Black, Martin; Dixon, Simon; Gamble, Trevor; Henry, David; Kerry, Paul; Littlefair, Stuart; Lunney, David W.; Morris, Timothy; Osborn, James; Wilson, Richard W.

    2016-08-01

    HiPERCAM is a high-speed camera for the study of rapid variability in the Universe. The project is funded by a ɛ3.5M European Research Council Advanced Grant. HiPERCAM builds on the success of our previous instrument, ULTRACAM, with very significant improvements in performance thanks to the use of the latest technologies. HiPERCAM will use 4 dichroic beamsplitters to image simultaneously in 5 optical channels covering the u'g'r'I'z' bands. Frame rates of over 1000 per second will be achievable using an ESO CCD controller (NGC), with every frame GPS timestamped. The detectors are custom-made, frame-transfer CCDs from e2v, with 4 low noise (2.5e-) outputs, mounted in small thermoelectrically-cooled heads operated at 180 K, resulting in virtually no dark current. The two reddest CCDs will be deep-depletion devices with anti-etaloning, providing high quantum efficiencies across the red part of the spectrum with no fringing. The instrument will also incorporate scintillation noise correction via the conjugate-plane photometry technique. The opto-mechanical chassis will make use of additive manufacturing techniques in metal to make a light-weight, rigid and temperature-invariant structure. First light is expected on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope on La Palma in 2017 (on which the field of view will be 10' with a 0.3"/pixel scale), with subsequent use planned on the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias on La Palma (on which the field of view will be 4' with a 0.11"/pixel scale) and the 3.5m New Technology Telescope in Chile.

  5. Expandable LED array interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  6. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  7. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  8. Cosmology understanding the evolution of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Bridging astronomy and physics, cosmology seeks to examine the nature of the universe as a whole. Scientific investigation of cosmology began in ancient times and progressed rapidly after the Scientific Revolution, which produced the discovery of gravity and the heliocentric model of Copernicus. This volume examines the historical developments in the field of cosmology, the evidence supporting the Big Bang theory, and the future implications of dark matter and an expanding universe. Readers will also be introduced to the various thinkers who helped advance study of this endlessly fascinating f

  9. Origin (?) of the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Origin (?) of the Universe. 2. The Expanding Universe. Jayant Narlikar, Director,. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and. Astrophysics, works on action at a distance in physics, new theories of gravitation and new models of the universe. He has made strong efforts to promote teaching and research in astronomy in.

  10. Expander Families and Cayley Graphs A Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Krebs, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The theory of expander graphs is a rapidly developing topic in mathematics and computer science, with applications to communication networks, error-correcting codes, cryptography, complexity theory, and much more. Expander Families and Cayley Graphs: A Beginner's Guide is a comprehensive introduction to expander graphs, designed to act as a bridge between classroom study and active research in the field of expanders. It equips those with little or no prior knowledge with the skills necessary to both comprehend current research articles and begin their own research. Central to this book are fou

  11. A Dual-Mode University Instructional Design Model for Academic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Online learning is expanding rapidly today in many Canadian universities. Fuelled by Canada's unprecedented broadband access, online teaching is creating new challenges for faculty and new responsibilities for educational developers. Although there is adequate literature with regard to faculty thinking about course planning in general, there are…

  12. Equipping Liberal Arts Students with Skills in Data Analytics: Drake University Partners with Regional Businesses to Offer New Programs in a Rapidly Growing Field. A BHEF Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business-Higher Education Forum, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines how Business-Higher Education Forum (BHEF) member Drake University, a private university with a strong liberal arts tradition, is equipping its students to become data-enabled professionals. Through the collaboration of its business and higher education members, BHEF launched the National Higher Education and Workforce…

  13. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis: Rapid, Cost-effective and Simultaneous Detection of Toxoplasma Anti-IgG, IgM and IgA Antibodies Using Very Small Serum Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    No dataset associated with this publication.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Augustine, S. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis: Rapid, Cost-effective and Simultaneous Detection of Toxoplasma Anti-IgG, IgM and IgA Antibodies Using Very Small Serum Volumes. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, USA, 56(7): 1-2, (2016).

  14. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  15. Expanding Sports Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koger, Dale

    2001-01-01

    Explains how colleges and universities can increase revenue and enhance status by upgrading their stadiums and arenas. Related issues considered are: determining how much a school should add to its existing stadium and arena, selecting the design and management team, and raising capital. Outlines key areas that design and construction teams should…

  16. Expanding the Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch-Brioso, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They are not the topics found in a conventional law review: An Austin-based journal delved into the reproductive rights of Hispanic women entering into commercial surrogacy contracts. The next issue of a University of California, Berkeley-based journal will probe the Voting Rights Act--and how it affects Puerto Ricans. A Harvard-based review once…

  17. A Universally Applicable and Rapid Method for Measuring the Growth of Streptomyces and Other Filamentous Microorganisms by Methylene Blue Adsorption-Desorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of growth of filamentous microorganisms, such as streptomycetes, is generally restricted to determination of dry weight. Here, we describe a straightforward methylene blue-based sorption assay to monitor microbial growth quantitatively, simply, and rapidly. The assay is equally applicable to unicellular and filamentous bacterial and eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:23666340

  18. A Universally Applicable and Rapid Method for Measuring the Growth of Streptomyces and Other Filamentous Microorganisms by Methylene Blue Adsorption-Desorption

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Marco; Sawers, R. Gary

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of growth of filamentous microorganisms, such as streptomycetes, is generally restricted to determination of dry weight. Here, we describe a straightforward methylene blue-based sorption assay to monitor microbial growth quantitatively, simply, and rapidly. The assay is equally applicable to unicellular and filamentous bacterial and eukaryotic microorganisms.

  19. A universally applicable and rapid method for measuring the growth of streptomyces and other filamentous microorganisms by methylene blue adsorption-desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marco; Sawers, R Gary

    2013-07-01

    Quantitative assessment of growth of filamentous microorganisms, such as streptomycetes, is generally restricted to determination of dry weight. Here, we describe a straightforward methylene blue-based sorption assay to monitor microbial growth quantitatively, simply, and rapidly. The assay is equally applicable to unicellular and filamentous bacterial and eukaryotic microorganisms.

  20. Expander chunked codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu

    2015-12-01

    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  1. The Higgs and the inflation of the Universe

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    “Inflation” is the theorized very rapid and powerful expansion of the early Universe. This type of evolution could be explained by the presence of a spin-zero elementary particle born with the Big Bang. The Higgs boson is such a particle but this is not sufficient for it to be identified as the “inflaton”, the hypothetical particle thought to be responsible for this inflation.   "The Higgs universe". Image: ATLAS, NASA, ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) - edited by Katarina Anthony. It is thought that almost immediately (around 10-35 seconds) after the Big Bang, the Universe increased in volume extremely rapidly by undergoing an exponential expansion phase. Following this “inflationary” period, the Universe continued to expand but at a slower rate. A quantum field corresponding to an elementary spin-zero boson could, in principle, have caused such a violent evolution. According to the Standard Model, the...

  2. CSU Standard for the CLSI Expanded Title Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karen; And Others

    The revised system specifications described in this document were adopted by the 19 California State University and College (CSUC) libraries for a second test version of the CLSI "Expanded Title Record" public access online catalog at California State University at Chico. Should this pilot demonstration of the data format prove…

  3. CSUC Standard for the CLSI Expanded Title Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Barbara; And Others

    The system specifications described have been adopted by the 19 California State University and Colleges Libraries for use with the CL Systems "Expanded Title Record" format. It is anticipated that these specifications will be tested at California State University, Chico, beginning midyear 1981. Should this pilot demonstration prove…

  4. Development of automated system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits with application of universal system of representation of rocks, transition rocks and coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schejbal Ctirad

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The Geoinformatic section of Institute of geological engineering HGF VŠB-TU Ostrava is engaged a long time in the creation of coal databases, elaboration of automated systems of graphical presentation of exploration and/or mining data and in the development of automated system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits. This paper describes the main stages of problems solving, namely:− analysis of both classification and documentation systems of coal deposits,− creation of both structure and content of specialized databases,− principles of the selection of appropriate statistical/geostatistical procedures of geodata analysis,− proposal of the automated generation of both deposits documents and graphical symbols,− elaboration of the automated system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits.

  5. Does information entropy play a role in the expansion and acceleration of the Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Biswajit

    2017-10-01

    We propose an interpretation of the expansion and acceleration of the Universe from an information theoretic viewpoint. We obtain the time evolution of the configuration entropy of the mass distribution in a static Universe and show that the process of gravitational instability leads to a rapid dissipation of configuration entropy during the growth of the density fluctuations making such a Universe entropically unfavourable. We find that in an expanding Universe, the configuration entropy rate is governed by the expansion rate of the Universe and the growth rate of density fluctuations. The configuration entropy rate becomes smaller but still remains negative in a matter dominated Universe and eventually becomes zero at some future time in a $\\Lambda$ dominated Universe. The configuration entropy may have a connection to the dark energy and possibly plays a driving role in the current accelerating expansion of the Universe leading the Universe to its maximum entropy configuration.

  6. Rapid prototyping as a faculty-wide activity: An innovative approach to the redesign of courses and instructional medthods at the University of Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; de Boer, Willem

    1998-01-01

    At the Faculty of Educational Science and Technology (Toegepaste Onderwijskunde, T.O.) of the University of Twente a revolutionary process of institutional change is occurring. Under the banner of C@MPUS+, we have made a commitment to blend the best of our old values of good teaching and an

  7. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  8. Expanding access to gerontological education via distance learning: the Management of Aging Services Masters Program at UMass Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadash, Pamela; Miller, Edward Alan; Porell, Frank W; Birchander, Ellen; Glickman, Lillian; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the online Management of Aging Services Masters Program at the University of Massachusetts Boston and reports on a recent Program review. The Program has experienced rapid growth, evolving from seven matriculating students in 2003 to 108 in 2012. It has graduated 125 students and boasts a 78% completion rate. The authors describe the Program and report on faculty and student perceptions of performance. The Program demonstrates sound pedagogical practice for online education, incorporating techniques to foster community and encourage students and faculty interaction. Distance learning holds considerable promise for expanding access to gerontological education to reach future aging services professionals.

  9. Universe Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay; Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an educational programme coordinated by Leiden University that uses the beauty and grandeur of the Universe to encourage young children, particularly those from an underprivileged background, to have an interest in science and technology and foster their sense of global citizenship from the earliest age.UNAWE's twofold vision uses our Universe to inspire and motivate very young children: the excitement of the Universe provides an exciting introduction to science and technology, while the vastness and beauty of the Universe helps broaden the mind and stimulate a sense of global citizenship and tolerance. UNAWE's goals are accomplished through four main activities: the coordination of a global network of more than 1000 astronomers, teachers and educators from more than 60 countries, development of educational resources, teacher training activities and evaluation of educational activities.Between 2011 and 2013, EU-UNAWE, the European branch of UNAWE, was funded by the European Commission to implement a project in 5 EU countries and South Africa. This project has been concluded successfully. Since then, the global project Universe Awareness has continued to grow with an expanding international network, new educational resources and teacher trainings and a planned International Workshop in collaboration with ESA in October 2015, among other activities.

  10. A lightweight universe?

    OpenAIRE

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Fan, Xiaohui

    1998-01-01

    How much matter is there in the universe? Does the universe have the critical density needed to stop its expansion, or is the universe underweight and destined to expand forever? We show that several independent measures, especially those utilizing the largest bound systems known - clusters of galaxies - all indicate that the mass-density of the universe is insufficient to halt the expansion. A promising new method, the evolution of the number density of clusters with time, provides the most ...

  11. Rapid recurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Peruvian patients after successful eradication. Gastrointestinal Physiology Working Group of the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and The Johns Hopkins University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Ramos, A; Gilman, R H; Leon-Barua, R; Recavarren-Arce, S; Watanabe, J; Salazar, G; Checkley, W; McDonald, J; Valdez, Y; Cordero, L; Carrazco, J

    1997-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Since gastric cancer is common in Peru, eradication of H. pylori may help to reduce the occurrence of gastric cancer. This study involved three randomized trials to determine the efficacy of four different triple-drug therapy regimens. The most successful regimen was furazolidone combined with bismuth subsalicylate and amoxicillin, which eradicated infection in 82% of patients. Patients successfully treated were followed every 2-3 months to determine the recurrence rate of H. pylori infection. Of 105 patients with H. pylori eradication documented by pathology and culture, 52% (55) returned for follow-up endoscopy, and in 73% (40) of these 55 the infection recurred during the 8-month follow-up period. Thirty-five patients from whom H. pylori was eradicated and who were tested for antibodies to H. pylori remained consistently seropositive. Rapid recurrence of H. pylori infection after successful eradication suggests that measures other than antimicrobial therapy are needed to fight H. pylori in developing countries.

  12. A lightweight universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Fan, Xiaohui

    1998-01-01

    How much matter is there in the universe? Does the universe have the critical density needed to stop its expansion, or is the universe underweight and destined to expand forever? We show that several independent measures, especially those utilizing the largest bound systems known—clusters of galaxies—all indicate that the mass-density of the universe is insufficient to halt the expansion. A promising new method, the evolution of the number density of clusters with time, provides the most powerful indication so far that the universe has a subcritical density. We show that different techniques reveal a consistent picture of a lightweight universe with only ∼20–30% of the critical density. Thus, the universe may expand forever. PMID:9600898

  13. Education Abroad for Students with Disabilities: Expanding Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneson, Heidi M.; Fisher, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    Education abroad is a rapidly expanding opportunity for undergraduate students in the United States. Concurrent with this growth in total numbers is a growth in the diversity of participants. Students with different ethnic backgrounds, academic majors, age, socioeconomic status, and disabilities are increasingly seeking opportunities overseas. In…

  14. First Time Rapid and Accurate Detection of Massive Number of Metal Absorption Lines in the Early Universe Using Deep Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinan; Ge, Jian; Yuan, Xiaoyong; Li, Xiaolin; Zhao, Tiffany; Wang, Cindy

    2018-01-01

    Metal absorption line systems in the distant quasar spectra have been used as one of the most powerful tools to probe gas content in the early Universe. The MgII λλ 2796, 2803 doublet is one of the most popular metal absorption lines and has been used to trace gas and global star formation at redshifts between ~0.5 to 2.5. In the past, machine learning algorithms have been used to detect absorption lines systems in the large sky survey, such as Principle Component Analysis, Gaussian Process and decision tree, but the overall detection process is not only complicated, but also time consuming. It usually takes a few months to go through the entire quasar spectral dataset from each of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release. In this work, we applied the deep neural network, or “ deep learning” algorithms, in the most recently SDSS DR14 quasar spectra and were able to randomly search 20000 quasar spectra and detect 2887 strong Mg II absorption features in just 9 seconds. Our detection algorithms were verified with previously released DR12 and DR7 data and published Mg II catalog and the detection accuracy is 90%. This is the first time that deep neural network has demonstrated its promising power in both speed and accuracy in replacing tedious, repetitive human work in searching for narrow absorption patterns in a big dataset. We will present our detection algorithms and also statistical results of the newly detected Mg II absorption lines.

  15. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV: the pre-rapid advice experience of the university of Nigeria teaching hospital Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu, South-east Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibeziako Ngozi S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mother-to-child transmission of human immune deficiency virus (HIV is the most common route of HIV transmission in the pediatric age group. A number of risk factors contribute to the rate of this transmission. Such risk factors include advance maternal HIV disease, lack of anti-viral prophylaxis in the mother and child, mixing of maternal and infant blood during delivery and breastfeeding. This study aims to determine the cumulative HIV infection rate by 18 months and the associated risk factors at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Results A retrospective study, involving HIV exposed infants seen at the pediatric HIV clinic of UNTH between March 2006 and September 2008. Relevant data were retrieved from their medical records. The overall rate of mother to child transmission of HIV in this study was 3.9% (95% CI 1.1%- 6.7%. However, in children breastfed for 3 months or less, the rate of transmission was 10% (95% CI −2.5%-22.5%, compared to 3.5% (95% CI 0.5%-6.5% in children that had exclusive replacement feeding. Conclusions This retrospective observational study shows a 3.9% cumulative rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV by 18 months of age in Enugu. Holistic but cost effective preventive interventions help in reducing the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV even in economically-developing settings like Nigeria.

  16. The Political Economy of Growing a Rural University in the USA Using Online Education: An Examination of Incentives for Educational Imperialism and Academic Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharakis, Jeff; Tolar, Mary; Collins, Royce Ann

    2014-01-01

    Rural colleges and universities in the USA struggle to recruit new students, as their geographic region is depopulating and costs to attend classes on campus are increasing. Online education using the Internet is rapidly expanding as an effective growth strategy to reach new groups of students. In this paper, we take the position that online…

  17. Winthrop-University Hospital Infectious Disease Division's swine influenza (H1N1) pneumonia diagnostic weighted point score system for hospitalized adults with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) and negative rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Syed, Uzma; Stroll, Stephanie; Mickail, Nardeen; Laguerre, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In spring 2009, a novel strain of influenza A originating in Veracruz, Mexico, quickly spread to the United States and throughout the world. This influenza A virus was the product of gene reassortment of 4 different genetic elements: human influenza, swine influenza, avian influenza, and Eurasian swine influenza. In the United States, New York was the epicenter of the swine influenza (H1N1) pandemic. Hospital emergency departments (EDs) were inundated with patients with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) requesting screening for H1N1. Our ED screening, as well as many others, used a rapid screening test for influenza A (QuickVue A/B) because H1N1 was a variant of influenza A. The definitive laboratory test i.e., RT-PCR for H1N1 was developed by the Centers for Disease Control (Atlanta, GA) and subsequently distributed to health departments. Because of the extraordinary volume of test requests, health authorities restricted reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Hence most EDs, including our own, were dependent on rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) for swine influenza. A positive rapid influenza A test was usually predictive of RT-PCR H1N1 positivity, but the rapid influenza A screening test (QuickVue A/B) was associated with 30% false negatives. The inability to rely on RIDTs for H1N1 diagnosis resulted in underdiagnosing H1N1. Confronted with adults admitted with ILIs, negative RIDTs, and restricted RT-PCR testing, there was a critical need to develop clinical criteria to diagnose probable swine influenza H1N1 pneumonia. During the pandemic, the Infectious Disease Division at Winthrop-University Hospital developed clinical criteria for adult admitted patients with ILIs and negative RIDTs. Similar to the one developed for the clinical diagnosis of legionnaire's disease. The Winthrop-University Hospital Infectious Disease Division's diagnostic weighted point score system for swine influenza H1N1 pneumonia is based on key clinical and

  18. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    . It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...... as a guideline for evaluating game design thinking and for measuring solutions made in the development process. To strengthen our model of expanded design space, we will present examples from our game design courses.......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space...

  19. Backyard Telescopes Watch an Expanding Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    eclipsing binary system. Then the system must be observed regularly over a very long period of time.Though such a feat is challenging, a team of astronomers has done precisely this. The Center for Backyard Astrophysics (CBA) a group of primarily amateur astronomers located around the world has collectively observed the AM CVn star system ES Ceti using seven different telescopes over more than a decade. In total, they now have measurements of ES Cetis period spanning 20012017. Now, in a publication led by Enrique de Miguel (CBA-Huelva and University of Huelva, Spain), the group details the outcomes of their patience.Testing the ModelThis OC diagram of the timings of minimum light relative to a test ephemeris demonstrates that ES Cetis orbital period is steadily increasing over time. [de Miguel et al. 2017]De Miguel and collaborators find that ES Cetis 10.3-minute orbital period has indeed increased over time as predicted by the model at a relatively rapid rate: the timescale for change, described by P/(dP/dt), is 10 million years. This outcome is consistent with the hypothesis that the mass transfer and binary evolution of such systems is driven by gravitational radiation marking one of the first such demonstrations with a cataclysmic variable.Whats next for ES Ceti? Systems such as this one will make for interesting targets for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA; planned for a 2034 launch). The gravitational radiation emitted by AM CVns like ES Ceti should be strong enough and in the right frequency range to be detected by LISA, providing another test of our models for how these star systems evolve.CitationEnrique de Miguel et al 2018 ApJ 852 19. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa9ed6

  20. Flow boiling in expanding microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna

    2017-01-01

    This Brief presents an up to date summary of details of the flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and instability characteristics; two phase flow patterns of expanding microchannels. Results obtained from the different expanding microscale geometries are presented for comparison and addition to that, comparison with literatures is also performed. Finally, parametric studies are performed and presented in the brief. The findings from this study could help in understanding the complex microscale flow boiling behavior and aid in the design and implementation of reliable compact heat sinks for practical applications.

  1. Expanding nail or expanding femur? An adverse event with the expandable intramedullary nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Soham; Riley, Nicholas D; Sivaji, Chellappan K

    2010-01-01

    The expandable intramedullary nail is self-locking and has the advantage of reducing operating time and exposure to ionizing radiation. The nail is recommended for simple diaphyseal fractures involving the middle third of long bones, where the nail can bypass the fracture site by at least 5 cm. We encountered a unique complication with the expandable nail in a simple transverse shaft fracture at the junction of the middle and distal third of the left femur in an otherwise healthy 57-year-old man. The fracture was reduced and a 12-mm expandable nail was inserted. Following full expansion, intraoperative radiographs were obtained prior to closure. After six postoperative weeks, it was noted that the nail expanded the femoral canal, converting a simple fracture to a distally progressing comminuted fracture with a butterfly fragment. A review of the intraoperative radiographs showed slight widening of the medullary canal at the level of the fracture. As the alignment was satisfactory and callus was present, no further surgical intervention was considered. The patient was advised not to bear weight and was provided with a locked knee brace in extension to wear for six weeks. Radiographs at 12 weeks demonstrated good progress of healing with adequate callus and the patient was permitted to bear weight as tolerated and commence knee flexion. The fracture united satisfactorily at four months. This adverse experience emphasizes that caution should be exercised when expanding the nail, with close observation of the medullary canal diameter during the later stages of expansion.

  2. Can a supersonically expanding Bose-Einstein Condensates be used to study cosmological inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Swarnav; Eckel, Stephen; Kumar, Avinash; Jacobson, Ted; Spielman, Ian; Campbell, Gretchen

    2017-04-01

    The massive scale of the universe makes the experimental study of cosmological inflation difficult. This has led to an interest in developing analogous systems using table top experiments. Here, we present the basic features of an expanding universe by drawing parallels with an expanding toroidal Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) of 23Na atoms. The toroidal BEC serves as the background vacuum and phonons are the analogue to photons in the expanding universe. We study the dynamics of phonons in both non-expanding and expanding condensates and measure dissipation using the structure factor. We demonstrate red shifting of phonons and quasi-particle production similar to pre-heating after the inflation of universe. At the end of expansion, we also observe spontaneous non-zero winding numbers in the ring. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, we predict the widths of the resulting winding number distribution, which agree well with our experimental findings.

  3. Gravitational Collapse and Structure Formation in an Expanding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE. September 2015. GENERAL ARTICLE. Gravitational Collapse and Structure Formation in an. Expanding Universe. J S Bagla and Pritpal Kaur Sandhu. Keywords. Cosmology, gravitational col- lapse, galaxy formation. (left) Jasjeet Bagla works at IISER Mohali. His research is mainly in the area of cosmology.

  4. Dynamics of moduli and gaugino condensates in an expanding universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papineau, C.; Ramos-Sanchez, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Postma, M. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    We study dynamical moduli stabilization driven by gaugino condensation in supergravity. In the presence of background radiation, there exists a region of initial conditions leading to successful stabilization. We point out that most of the allowed region corresponds to initial Hubble rate H close to the scale of condensation {lambda}, which is the natural cutoff of the effective theory. We first show that including the condensate dynamics sets a strong bound on the initial conditions. We then find that (complete) decoupling of the condensate happens at H about two orders of magnitude below {lambda}. This bound implies that in the usual scenario with the condensate integrated out, only the vicinity of the minimum leads to stabilization. Finally, we discuss the effects of thermal corrections. (orig.)

  5. Functional diversification of Argonautes in nematodes:an expanding universe

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Amy H; Blaxter, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many diverse RNAi (RNA interference) pathways have been discovered that mediate gene silencing at epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The diversity of RNAi pathways is inherently linked to the evolution of Ago (Argonaute) proteins, the central protein component of RISCs (RNA-induced silencing complexes). An increasing number of diverse Agos have been identified in different species. The functions of most of these proteins are not yet known, but the...

  6. International or Global--The Expanding Universe of Librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Lynne M.

    2009-01-01

    This year, the United States Department of Education Title VI programs will celebrate their 50th anniversary. During the Cold War, the United States government passed the National Defense Education Act to marshal all possible resources to improve education in multiple subject areas, initiating the development of National Research Centers (NRCs) in…

  7. Expanding the Entamoeba Universe: New Hosts Yield Novel Ribosomal Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Alison S; Busby, Eloise J; Levy, Abigail D; Komm, Natasha; Clark, C Graham

    2016-01-01

    Removing the requirement for cell culture has led to a substantial increase in the number of lineages of Entamoeba recognized as distinct. Surveying the range of potential host species for this parasite genus has barely been started and it is clear that additional sampling of the same host in different locations often identifies additional diversity. In this study, using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we identify four new lineages of Entamoeba, including the first report of Entamoeba from an elephant, and extend the host range of some previously described lineages. In addition, examination of microbiome data from a number of host animals suggests that substantial Entamoeba diversity remains to be uncovered. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  8. Brave New Worlds: The Expanding Universe of Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brandee L; Tourand, Yvonne; Brissette, Catherine A

    2017-09-01

    Projections around the globe suggest an increase in tick-vectored disease incidence and distribution, and the potential for emergence of novel tick-borne pathogens. Lyme disease is the most common reported tick-borne illness in the Unites States and is prevalent throughout much of central Europe. In recent years, the worldwide burden of Lyme disease has increased and extended into regions and countries where the disease was not previously reported. In this review, we discuss the trends for increasing Lyme disease, and examine the factors driving Lyme disease expansion, including the effect of climate change on the spread of vector Ixodid ticks and reservoir hosts; and the impacts of increased awareness on disease reporting and diagnosis. To understand the growing threat of Lyme disease, we need to study the interplay between vector, reservoir, and pathogen. In addition, we need to understand the contributions of climate conditions to changes in disease risk.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGENS AND ANTIANDROGENS: AN EXPANDING CHEMICAL UNIVERSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the last ten years, awareness has grown about environmental chemicals that display antiandrogenic or androgenic activity. While studies in the early 1990s focused on pesticides that acted as androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, it soon became evident that this was not the ...

  10. Single-dose mucosal immunization with a candidate universal influenza vaccine provides rapid protection from virulent H5N1, H3N2 and H1N1 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme E Price

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The sudden emergence of novel influenza viruses is a global public health concern. Conventional influenza vaccines targeting the highly variable surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase must antigenically match the emerging strain to be effective. In contrast, "universal" vaccines targeting conserved viral components could be used regardless of viral strain or subtype. Previous approaches to universal vaccination have required protracted multi-dose immunizations. Here we evaluate a single dose universal vaccine strategy using recombinant adenoviruses (rAd expressing the conserved influenza virus antigens matrix 2 and nucleoprotein.In BALB/c mice, administration of rAd via the intranasal route was superior to intramuscular immunization for induction of mucosal responses and for protection against highly virulent H1N1, H3N2, or H5N1 influenza virus challenge. Mucosally vaccinated mice not only survived, but had little morbidity and reduced lung virus titers. Protection was observed as early as 2 weeks post-immunization, and lasted at least 10 months, as did antibodies and lung T cells with activated phenotypes. Virus-specific IgA correlated with but was not essential for protection, as demonstrated in studies with IgA-deficient animals.Mucosal administration of NP and M2-expressing rAd vectors provided rapid and lasting protection from influenza viruses in a subtype-independent manner. Such vaccines could be used in the interval between emergence of a new virus strain and availability of strain-matched vaccines against it. This strikingly effective single-dose vaccination thus represents a candidate off-the-shelf vaccine for emergency use during an influenza pandemic.

  11. EFFECT OF INCORPORATING EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Abstract. Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, affects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction.

  12. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  13. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-02-28

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  14. Expanding the Conversation: Further Explorations into Indigenous Environmental Science Education Theory, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowan, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous environmental science education is a diverse, dynamic, and rapidly expanding field of research, theory, and practice. This article highlights, challenges, and expands upon key areas of discussion presented by Mack et al. (Cult Stud Sci Educ 7, "2012") as part of the forum on their article "Effective Practices for Creating…

  15. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    layer establishes correspondence between formal elements of computer games and the structure of problem-based creativity. It addresses how game design challenges should be formulated and how creative solutions can be measured. The fourth and final layer demonstrates how clear framing can act......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...

  16. Exposing medical students to expanding populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindenthal JJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available JJ Lindenthal,1,2 JA DeLisa,3 GF Heinrich,4 WS Calderón Gerstein,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; 3Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of New Mexico Health Science Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA; 4Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; 5Hospital Nacional Ramiro Prialé, EsSalud, Huancayo, Peru Abstract: Physicians are required to advocate for and counsel patients based on the best science and the interests of the individual while avoiding discrimination, ensuring equal access to health and mental services. Nonetheless, the communication gap between physician and patients has long been observed. To this end, the Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine of the Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School has expanded its efforts. This report describes two new programs: a legacy lecture series for medical students and an international “experience”, in Huancayo, Peru, for medical students and faculty. The MiniMed outreach program, now in its ninth year and first described in this journal in 2012, was designed to empower the powerless to communicate more effectively with clinicians, thus improving both the effectiveness of the physician–patient relationship and health care outcomes. The approach of the two new programs and their effects on patients, particularly the underserved, and medical students and faculty, are outlined in the following article. Keywords: MiniMed program, equal access, underserved populations, Newark Renaissance House, Kintock Group, role modeling 

  17. A review of the expanding field of exotic animal oral health care--veterinary dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, D A; Oosterhuis, J E; Kirkman, J E

    1998-09-01

    This article reviews the clinical literature of the field of Veterinary Dentistry from its conception in the late 1960's to its rapidly expanding role today as an emerging clinical specialty practice in veterinary medicine. It defines eight dental sub-disciplines in contemporary veterinary oral health care from a practical point of view and provides information concerning standardization of key words searches, definition of terms, and use of the expanded Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) necessary for a comprehensive review of the rapidly expanding literature stored in electronic databases.

  18. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  19. Universal homotopy theories

    OpenAIRE

    Dugger, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Given a small category C, we show that there is a universal way of expanding C into a model category, essentially by formally adjoining homotopy colimits. The technique of localization becomes a method for imposing `relations' into these universal gadgets. The paper develops this formalism and discusses various applications, for instance to the study of homotopy colimits, the Dwyer-Kan theory of framings, and to the homotopy theory of schemes.

  20. Fissioning universe: Topological inflation and Kaluza-Klein cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaku, Michio; Lykken, J.

    1986-05-05

    We propose a Kaluza-Klein cosmology by reversing the usual scenario: instead of starting with a flat 4+N dimensional universe in which N of the dimensions curl up into a compact manifold, we start with a compact 3+N dimensional manifold in which 3 of the dimensions are allowed to peel off and expand into the known universe. We reverse the usual ''spontaneous compactification'' scenario begin with a closed manifold Msup(3+N) which undergoes ''spontaneous fissioning'' into a product manifold M/sup 3/xMsup(N). Remarkably, the 3-dimensional universe M/sup 3/ can undergo a rapid de Sitter expansion large enough to solve the horizon and flatness problem. We call this ''topological inflation'', which we propose as an alternative to the usual GUT inflation. The inflationary phase automatically terminates into a big bang phase. (orig.).

  1. Improving health system quality in low- and middle-income countries that are expanding health coverage: a framework for insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Kedar S; Sifrim, Zoe K; Chalkidou, Kalipso; Cluzeau, Francoise; Cutler, Derek; Kimball, Meredith; Morente, Tricia; Smits, Helen; Barker, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Low- and middle-income countries are increasingly pursuing health financing reforms aimed at achieving universal health coverage. As these countries rapidly expand access to care, overburdened health systems may fail to deliver high-quality care, resulting in poor health outcomes. Public insurers responsible for financing coverage expansions have the financial leverage to influence the quality of care and can benefit from guidance to execute a cohesive health-care quality strategy. and selection Following a literature review, we used a cascading expert consultation and validation process to develop a conceptual framework for insurance-driven quality improvements in health care. The framework presents the strategies available to insurers to influence the quality of care within three domains: ensuring a basic standard of quality, motivating providers and professionals to improve, and activating patient and public demand for quality. By being sensitive to the local context, building will among key stakeholders and selecting context-appropriate ideas for improvement, insurers can influence the quality through four possible mechanisms: selective contracting; provider payment systems; benefit package design and investments in systems, patients and providers. This framework is a resource for public insurers that are responsible for rapidly expanding access to care, as it places the mechanisms that insurers directly control within the context of broader strategies of improving health-care quality. The framework bridges the existing gap in the literature between broad frameworks for strategy design for system improvement and narrower discussions of the technical methods by which payers directly influence the quality.

  2. Origin (?) of the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W de Sitter wrote a paper in which he solved Einstein's equations with the A-term, and obtained a model in which the universe expands with a scale factor that increases exponentially with time. The Hubble constant for this univers~ is given by. H = [(113) Ac2]l/2. Thus this model is apparently closer to reality than Einstein's.

  3. OCT Expanded Clinical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baalen, Mary; Tafreshi, Ali; Patel, Nimesh; Young, Millennia; Mason, Sara; Otto, Christian; Samuels, Brian; Koslovsky, Matthew; Schaefer, Caroline; Taiym, Wafa; hide

    2017-01-01

    Vision changes identified in long duration space fliers has led to a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to expand our current OCT data analysis capability by implementing a volumetric approach. Volumetric maps will be created by combining the circle scan, the disc block scan, and the radial scan. This assessment may provide additional information about the optic nerve and further characterize changes related microgravity exposure. We will discuss challenges with collection and analysis of OCT data, present the results of this reanalysis and outline the potential benefits and limitations of the additional data.

  4. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  5. Expanding Human Cognition and Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spohrer, Jim [IBM, North Castle, NY (United States); Pierce, Brian M. [Raytheon Co., Waltham, MA (United States); Murray, Cherry A. [Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Golledge, Reginald G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Horn, Robert E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Turkle, Sherry [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Yonas, Gerold [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glicken Turnley, Jessica [Galisteo Consulting Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pollack, Jordan [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Burger, Rudy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Robinett, Warren; Wilson, Larry Todd [Inst. of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Bainbridge, W. S.; Canton, J.; Kuekes, P.; Loomis, J.; Penz, P.

    2013-01-01

    To be able to chart the most profitable future directions for societal transformation and corresponding scientific research, five multidisciplinary themes focused on major goals have been identified to fulfill the overall motivating vision of convergence described in the previous pages. The first, “Expanding Human Cognition and Communication,” is devoted to technological breakthroughs that have the potential to enhance individuals’ mental and interaction abilities. Throughout the twentieth century, a number of purely psychological techniques were offered for strengthening human character and personality, but evaluation research has generally failed to confirm the alleged benefits of these methods (Druckman and Bjork 1992; 1994). Today, there is good reason to believe that a combination of methods, drawing upon varied branches of converging science and technology, would be more effective than attempts that rely upon mental training alone.

  6. Universal protocol for the rapid automated detection of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli directly from blood cultures by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviaño, Marina; Sparbier, Katrin; Barba, Maria José; Kostrzewa, Markus; Bou, Germán

    2016-12-01

    Detection of carbapenemase-producing bacteria directly from blood cultures is a major challenge, as patients with bacteraemia are critically ill. Early detection can be helpful for selection of the most appropriate antibiotic therapy as well as adequate control of outbreaks. In the current study, a novel matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF)-based method was developed for the rapid, automated detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii directly from blood cultures. Carbapenemase activity was determined in 30 min by measuring hydrolysis of imipenem (0.31 mg/mL) in blood cultures spiked with a series of 119 previously characterised isolates, 81 of which carried a carbapenemase enzyme (10 blaKPC, 10 blaVIM, 10 blaNDM, 10 blaIMP, 26 blaOXA-48-type, 9 blaOXA-23, 1 blaOXA-237, 3 blaOXA-24 and 2 blaOXA-58). Twenty blood cultures obtained from bacteraemic patients carrying blaOXA-48-producing isolates were also analysed using the same protocol. Analysis was performed using MALDI-TOF Biotyper® Compass software, which automatically provides a result of sensitivity or resistance, calculated as the logRQ or ratio of hydrolysis of the antibiotic. This assay is simple to perform, inexpensive, time saving, universal for Gram-negative bacilli, and highly reliable (overall sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 100%, respectively). Moreover, the protocol could be established as a standardised method in clinical laboratories as it does not require specialised training in mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Anazi, Shams

    2017-09-22

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  8. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazi, Shams; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asi, Yasmine T; Alsahli, Saud; Alhashem, Amal; Shamseldin, Hanan E; AlZahrani, Fatema; Patel, Nisha; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous M; Hashem, Mais; Alhashmi, Nadia; Al Murshedi, Fathiya; Al Kindy, Adila; Alshaer, Ahmad; Rumayyan, Ahmed; Al Tala, Saeed; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsaman, Abdulaziz; Alasmari, Ali; Banu, Selina; Sultan, Tipu; Saleh, Mohammed M; Alkuraya, Hisham; Salih, Mustafa A; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Al Musafri, Fatima; Ali, Rehab; Suleiman, Jehan; Tabarki, Brahim; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Bupp, Caleb; Alfadhel, Majid; Al Tassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Arold, Stefan T; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Lashley, Tammaryn; Houlden, Henry; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2017-11-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  9. Microbial Biofilms and Breast Tissue Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Karau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed and validated a vortexing-sonication technique for detection of biofilm bacteria on the surface of explanted prosthetic joints. Herein, we evaluated this technique for diagnosis of infected breast tissue expanders and used it to assess colonization of breast tissue expanders. From April 2008 to December 2011, we studied 328 breast tissue expanders at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Of seven clinically infected breast tissue expanders, six (85.7% had positive cultures, one of which grew Propionibacterium species. Fifty-two of 321 breast tissue expanders (16.2%, 95% CI, 12.3–20.7% without clinical evidence of infection also had positive cultures, 45 growing Propionibacterium species and ten coagulase-negative staphylococci. While vortexing-sonication can detect clinically infected breast tissue expanders, 16 percent of breast tissue expanders appear to be asymptomatically colonized with normal skin flora, most commonly, Propionibacterium species.

  10. A bibliometric analysis of recent energy efficiency literatures. An expanding and shifting focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Huibin; Wei, Linxue; Wang, Yangyang [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, 300072 Tianjin (China); Brown, M.A. [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 30332, GA (United States); Shi, Zheng [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, 18015, PA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    To meet the energy requirements of sustainable economic growth, policymakers, analysts, and business leaders have increasingly turned to the role that energy efficiency might play. This has resulted in a growing energy efficiency literature, which is examined in this paper. Using bibliometric techniques, we analyze the database of Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index covering the 1991-2010 period. Of the 8,244 publications, 78.8 % were journal articles, and about 95.5 % were published in English. Based on the h-index, an evaluative indicator, the USA has produced the most influential set of publications on energy efficiency, followed by Canada, UK, Japan, and China. In contrast, China is second to the USA in the volume of its publications. Correspondingly, the University of California at Berkeley, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Tsinghua University were the most productive research organizations. The three most common subjects examined in this body of research were 'energy and fuels', 'environmental sciences', and 'electrical and electronic engineering'. Energy Policy has been the most productive journal, and 'A water and heat management model for proton-exchange-membrane fuel-cells', has had the most citations (587 through May 2012). Based on an analysis of article titles and keywords, we conclude that the hotspots of energy efficiency research have been green communications, renewable energy, and energy sustainability; green communications, in particular, has developed rapidly as a focus of energy efficiency publications in recent years.

  11. Structure of the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Haubold, H. J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    An introductory account is given of the understanding of the structure of the universe. At present the most plausible theory of the origin of the universe is that it formed from the explosion of an extremely hot and dense fireball several billion years ago. During the first few seconds after the big bang, the energy density was so great that only fundamental particles (leptons, quarks, gauge bosons) existed. As the universe cooled and expanded after the big bang, nuclei and atoms formed and c...

  12. Compact Radiometers Expand Climate Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, NASA plans to embark on the Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission in 2015. To prepare, Goddard Space Flight Center provided Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding to ProSensing Inc., of Amherst, Massachusetts, to develop a compact ultrastable radiometer for sea surface salinity and soil moisture mapping. ProSensing incorporated small, low-cost, high-performance elements into just a few circuit boards and now offers two lightweight radiometers commercially. Government research agencies, university research groups, and large corporations around the world are using the devices for mapping soil moisture, ocean salinity, and wind speed.

  13. Expanding Medicaid managed care: the right choice for Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Swapna; Finley, Marisa; Posey, Dan; Rohack, James J

    2012-10-01

    We set out to determine whether expanding Medicaid managed care in Texas is the solution to the challenges faced by the state of meeting the healthcare needs of a rapidly growing Medicaid population while addressing its own fiscal limitations. We reviewed the Texas Medicaid program, the potential effects of federal healthcare reform, and the state political climate through the perspectives (advantages and disadvantages) of the primary stakeholders: patients, practitioners, hospitals, and insurers. Research was performed through online, federal and state regulatory, and legislative review. In addition, we reviewed government and peer-reviewed reports and articles pertaining to issues related to Medicaid populations, healthcare practitioners, and hospitals that serve them. Each primary stakeholder had potential advantages and disadvantages associated with the expansion of Medicaid managed care. We conclude that expanding Medicaid managed care, if done in a manner responsive to the needs of recipients, can meet enrollees' healthcare needs while controlling the state's costs.

  14. Expanding the knowledge translation metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Sandset, Tony Joakim; Ødemark, John

    2017-03-13

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences. We show that the current construal of KT as separate from and secondary to the original scientific message is close to the now deeply compromised literary view of translation as the simple act of copying the original. Inspired by recent theories of translation, we claim that KT can be more adequately understood in terms of a 'double supplement' - on the one hand, KT offers new approaches to the communication of scientific knowledge to different groups in the healthcare system with the aim of supplementing a lack of knowledge among clinicians (and patients). On the other, it demonstrates that a textual and cultural supplement, namely a concern with target audiences (clinicians and patients), is inevitable in the creation of an 'autonomous' science. Hence, the division between science and its translation is unproductive and impossible to maintain. We discuss some possible implications of our suggested shift in concept by drawing on pharmaceutical interventions for the prevention of HIV as a case. We argue that such interventions are based on a supplementary and paradoxical relation to the target audiences, both presupposing and denying their existence. More sophisticated theories of translation can lay the foundation for an expanded model of KT that incorporates a more adequate and reflective description of the interdependency of scientific, cultural, textual and material practices.

  15. Improving and expanding NGO programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A

    1993-06-01

    India has massive problems and is in need of improving and expanding non governmental organization (NGO) programs by broadening the scope of NGO activities, identifying successful NGO activities, and by moving closer to the community to participate in their activities. The problems and experience in the last few decades indicate that with expansion bureaucratization takes place. The institution begins to depend on donors and follows donor-driven agendas. As more money is given by the government, many more so called GONGO or Government-NGO projects materialize. Another problem is that the government almost always approaches the NGOs for the implementation of a project, and there is complete lack of cooperation at the planning stage. The government is considering a loan from the World Bank and UNICEF to launch a mother and child health program, but there has not been any discussion with the dozens of people who have worked on issues concerning mother and child health issues for many years. There is a need to be more demanding of the government about the various programs that are implemented for the government. Very few NGO health and family welfare projects are run by ordinary nurses or ordinary Ayurvedic doctors under ordinary conditions. Since successful NGO work has to be extended to other parts of the country, they will have to be run by ordinary people with very ordinary resources. Over the years, the NGO community has become preoccupied with its own agenda. Today, despite very sophisticated equipment and infrastructure, they are not able to reach the 60,000-70,000 workers and employees. Some of the ideas with respect to the strengthens and weaknesses of community participation have to be shared. NGOs should include all the existing non governmental organizations throughout the country, and have a dialogue with other nongovernmental bodies such as trade unions. The challenge is to adjust the current agenda, prevailing style, and present way of operating and move

  16. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  17. Emergent sclerotherapy of a newborn with expanding lymphatic malformation causing respiratory distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron C. Sheehan, BS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a case of acute airway obstruction in a newborn caused by an expanding hemorrhagic macrocystic lymphatic malformation (LM, which was successfully treated with emergent decompression and interventional radiology-guided sclerotherapy. The use of sclerotherapy for macrocystic LMs has been well described for various indications. The urgent interventional treatment obviated the need for a tracheostomy. This case describes the rapid diagnosis and use of sclerotherapy in a large expanding macrocystic LM.

  18. Emergent sclerotherapy of a newborn with expanding lymphatic malformation causing respiratory distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Cameron C; Idicula, Winslo; Raabe, Andrew; Jatana, Kris; Chiang, Tendy; Elmaraghy, Charles A

    2017-06-01

    The present report describes a case of acute airway obstruction in a newborn caused by an expanding hemorrhagic macrocystic lymphatic malformation (LM), which was successfully treated with emergent decompression and interventional radiology-guided sclerotherapy. The use of sclerotherapy for macrocystic LMs has been well described for various indications. The urgent interventional treatment obviated the need for a tracheostomy. This case describes the rapid diagnosis and use of sclerotherapy in a large expanding macrocystic LM.

  19. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as "pseudomenopause" or "medical oophorectomy," which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a work by temporarily "switching off" the ovaries. Ovaries can be "switched off" for the therapy and therapeutic trial of many conditions which include but are not limited to subfertility, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomas, precocious puberty, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, chronic pelvic pain, or the prevention of menstrual bleeding in special clinical situations. Rapidly expanding vistas of usage of GnRH agonists encompass use in sex reassignment of male to female transsexuals, management of final height in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and preserving ovarian function in women undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hypogonadic side effects caused by the use of GnRH agonists can be tackled with use of "add-back" therapy. Goserelin, leuprolide, and nafarelin are commonly used in clinical practice. GnRH-a have provided us a powerful therapeutic approach to the treatment of numerous conditions in reproductive medicine. Recent synthesis of GnRH antagonists with a better tolerability profile may open new avenues for both research and clinical applications. All stakeholders who are partners in women′s healthcare need to join hands to spread awareness so that these drugs can be used to realize their full potential.

  20. Análise comparativa da expansão maxilar com três marcas de parafusos com limitador posterior: ensaio laboratorial em Typodont Comparative analysis of rapid maxillary expansion using three brands of fan-type expander screw: laboratory trial using typodont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Damo Meneguzzi

    2011-10-01

    treatment generally involves the expansion of the arch. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expansion pattern obtained with three different fan-type expander screws. METHODS: Using Typodont, 18 expansions were executed, six for each group, according to the expander tested: G1- DentaurumTM; G2- LeoneTM and G3- MorelliTM. For each essay, 13 activations of 2/4 of a turn were done in each appliance, leading to a total activation of 5.2mm. Using a caliper, measurements were taken in the beginning of the testing (T1; in half the total turnings (T2 and in the end of the testing (T3. Different measures were considered: interpremolar width (IP1, intersecond premolar width (IP2, intermolar width (IM and also the arch length (CA. The data obtained was analyzed through Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Tukey and Freeman tests as well as by ANOVA. RESULTS: It could be observed that all tested groups showed a "V" expansion pattern, with major expansion in the anterior region of the arch, that was even more expressive in G3 (IP1=29.85% and IM=9.73%. Increases in the CA measurements were similar for groups G1 and G3 (+12.65% and +12.13%, respectively, and lower for G2 (+8.23%. CONCLUSIONS: It could be concluded that all the fan-type expander screws tested in the present study can be used for treating transverse constriction of the maxilla. However, Morelli expander showed a greater expansion in the anterior region of the arch in relation to the posterior region, which is an important characteristic when treating cleft lip and palate patients. Clinical studies are also necessary to confirm the findings of the present study.

  1. La oferta de la prueba rápida del VIH en la calle dentro del ámbito universitario: ¿una estrategia prioritaria? Street outreach rapid HIV testing in university settings: a priority strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hoyos

    2012-04-01

    analyzing the prevalence of infection, risk behaviors and history of sexually transmitted infections and by performing HIV tests. Methods: During October-November of 2008 and November-December of 2009, 1668 persons received rapid HIV testing in a mobile unit located in university campuses in the cities of Madrid, Málaga and Salamanca (Spain. While waiting for the test results, participants completed a brief questionnaire. Results: A total of 15.7% were men who had sex with men (MSM, 28.6% were exclusively heterosexual men (HTX, and 55.7% were women. Nearly three-quarters (73.3% were under 25 years of age, 8.5% were born abroad and only 4% had no secondary education. Fifty-one percent of HTX, 42% of women and 6.3% of MSM had casual sexual partners in the past 12 months without always using a condom. This behavior was also reported by 41.5% of MSM with same sex partners. A sexually transmitted infection had previously been diagnosed in 24.7% of MSMs, 14.7% of women and 5.6% of HTX. Four positive results were found, all in MSM who had been tested in the previous 2 years. The prevalence was 1.6% (95% CI: 0.43-3.95 within this group, and 0.2% overall (95% CI: 0.07-0.62. Conclusions: Despite the high frequency of risk behaviors, the low prevalence of HIV infection and the history of HIV testing suggest that university campuses are not a priority location to develop these programs, which would achieve greater impact and efficiency in more vulnerable populations.

  2. AstroCom NYC: Expanding the Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, Timothy; Ford, Saavik; Agueros, Marcel A.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Robbins, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    AstroCom NYC is an undergraduate mentoring program designed to improve urban minority student access to opportunities in astrophysical research by greatly enhancing partnerships between research astronomers in New York City (City University of New York - an MSI, American Museum of Natural History, and Columbia). AstroCom NYC provides centralized, personalized mentoring as well as financial and academic support, to CUNY undergraduates throughout their studies, plus the resources and opportunities to further CUNY faculty research with students. The goal is that students' residency at AMNH helps them build a sense of belonging in the field, and readies and inspires them for graduate study. AstroCom NYC provides a rigorous Methods of Scientific Research course developed specifically to this purpose, a laptop, research and career mentors, outreach activities, scholarships and stipends, Metrocards, and regular assessment for maximum effectiveness. Stipends in part alleviate the burdens at home typical for CUNY students so they may concentrate on their academic success. AMNH serves as the central hub for our faculty and students, who are otherwise dispersed among all five boroughs of the City. For our second cohort, we dramatically improved the application and screening process, implemented a number of tools to evaluate their potential for grad school, and began growing a network of potential hosts for summer internships around NY State and the US. We review these implementations and outcomes, as well as plans for Year 3, when we expect many of our current students to compete for external summer REUs, and after greatly expanding the program reach through a NASA community college initiative.

  3. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 13 May 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Observing the extreme universe with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Prof. Olaf Reimer / Stanford University The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST, formerly GLAST) is an international observatory-type satellite mission with a physics program spanning from gamma-ray astronomy to particle astrophysics and cosmology. FGST was launched on June 11, 2008 and is successfully conducting science observations of the high-energy gamma-ray sky since August 2008. A varienty of discoveries has been made already, including monitoring rapid blazar variability, the existence of GeV gamma-ray bursts, and numerous new gamma-ray sources of different types, including those belonging to previously unknown gamma-ray source classes like msPSRs, globula...

  4. Rapid heating of matter using high power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Woosuk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-08

    This slide presentation describes motivation (uniform and rapid heating of a target, opportunity to study warm dense matter, study of nuclear fusion reactions), rapid heating of matter with intense laser-driven ion beams, visualization of the expanding warm dense gold and diamond, and nuclear fusion experiments using high power lasers (direct heating of deuterium spheres (radius ~ 10nm) with an intense laser pulse.

  5. A comparison of skin expansion and contraction between one expander and two expanders: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gan-lin; Zhang, Jin-ming; Ji, Chen-yang; Meng, Hong; Huang, Jian-hua; Luo, He-yuan; Zhang, Hua-sheng; Liu, Xiao-tao; Hong, Xiao-fang

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the difference between the skin expansion and contraction rates for an expanded flap with one versus two expanders. The study cohort comprised 24 cases of two overlapping expanders and 15 cases of a single implanted expander involving 22 patients. The method of "wet-cloth sampling" was applied to measure the expanded flap area and the initial unexpanded area and to calculate the skin expansion rate. Two points 5 cm apart in the center of the expanded flap were selected before the second surgical stage. After removal of the expander, the distance between the two fixed points was measured and recorded. The contraction rate of the expanded flap then was calculated. During the same period of expansion in the two groups (p = 0.06, >0.01), the skin expansion rate was 3.5 ± 0.9 % in the group with two overlapping expanders and 2.6 ± 0.6 % in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.002, 0.05). We fitted a linear regression model that was Y = 0.533 − 0.003X, where Y was the contraction rate of the expanded flap and X was the period of expansion. The contraction rate of the expanded flap was negatively correlated with the period of expansion. Compared with the traditional method of implanting a single expander, the new method of overlapping two expanders in a single cavity increased the skin expansion rate. The instantly expanded flap contraction rate did not differ significantly between the two groups, so the amount of expanded skin area absolutely increased. The clinical application of the new method is worth promoting. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  6. Journal impact factor in the era of expanding literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Julia; Belmont, John; Cho, Cheng T

    2006-12-01

    The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) of the Science Citation Index (SCI), published by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), provides a comprehensive database for analysis of journals. Recent use of JCR's journal impact factor for evaluation of journals and authors has provoked strongly mixed reactions among investigators. This paper examines the effects of the rapidly expanding literature on the impact factor over the past decade and examines the limitations of journal impact factor for evaluating individual author's contributions. The JCR analyzed 6088 journals in 2005, a 32% increase in new listings since 1995. During the same period, there was a 39% increase in new journal listings in the infectious diseases category. The phenomenon of journal proliferation has had a profound effect on the journal impact factor. During the past decade an increased impact factor was observed in 92% of the top ranking major journals, especially in young and rapidly expanding research fields. Certain highly cited new journals published primarily review articles - not original contributions. There was no increase in impact factor among some of the best known journals, such as Journal of Experimental Medicine, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), and Journal of Infectious Diseases. Clearly, journal impact factor is an imperfect tool for measuring the quality of articles, and its use in evaluating authors has inherent risks. In spite of its limitations, journal impact factor can be used as a rough indicator of scientific quality in specific subject categories and for serious reading and learning.

  7. The Dichotomous Cosmology with a Static Material World and Expanding Luminous World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heymann Y.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The dichotomous cosmology is an alternative to the expanding Universe theory, and consists of a static matter Universe, where cosmological redshifts are explained by a tired-light model with an expanding luminous world. In this model the Hubble constant is also the photon energy decay rate, and the luminous world i s expanding at a constant rate as in de Sitter cosmology for an empty Universe. The present model explains both the luminosity distance versus redshift relationship of supernovae Ia, and ageing of spectra observed with the stretching of supernovae light curves. Furthermore, it is consistent with a radiation energy density factor (1 + z 4 inferred from the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.

  8. The expansion rate and size of the universe

    CERN Multimedia

    Freedman, Wendy L

    1998-01-01

    The age, evolution and fate of the universe depend on just how fast it is expanding. By measuring the size of the universe using a variety of new techniques, astronomers have recently improved estimates of the expansion rate

  9. The universal access handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Stephanidis, Constantine

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the field of Universal Access has made significant progress in consolidating theoretical approaches, scientific methods and technologies, as well as in exploring new application domains. Increasingly, professionals in this rapidly maturing area require a comprehensive and multidisciplinary resource that addresses current principles, methods, and tools. Written by leading international authorities from academic, research, and industrial organizations and nonmarket institutions, The Universal Access Handbook covers the unfolding scientific, methodological, technological, and pol

  10. Ceftibuten: a new expanded-spectrum oral cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, D R

    1997-09-01

    To review the antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and tolerability of ceftibuten, a new expanded-spectrum oral cephalosporin. Literature was identified by a MEDLINE search (January 1983-June 1996) of the medical literature, review of English-language literature and bibliographies of these articles, and data on file. Clinical efficacy data were selected from all published and unpublished trials and abstracts that mentioned ceftibuten. Additional information concerning in vitro susceptibility, safety, chemistry, and pharmacokinetic profile of ceftibuten also was reviewed. Ceftibuten, an oral expanded-spectrum cephalosporin, has a broad spectrum of activity against many gram-negative and selected gram-positive organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae. Ceftibuten is stable to hydrolysis by many common beta-lactamases. Ceftibuten is rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is primarily eliminated renally as unchanged drug. The elimination half-life of ceftibuten is slightly longer than 2 hours. Efficacy has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials in adults and children with upper and lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., acute otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis, bronchitis) and urinary tract infections. The adverse effect profile is equal to that of comparator agents. Ceftibuten is an alternative to other antimicrobial agents with convenient once-daily dosing in the treatment of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Similar to other oral expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, ceftibuten has antimicrobial activity against common pathogens of the respiratory tract and is stable in the presence of many beta-lactamases. The clinical choice of an oral expanded-spectrum cephalosporin will be based on patient acceptance, frequency of administration, and cost.

  11. The bibliometric behaviour of an expanding specialisation of medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelwall, M.; Levitt, J.

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates macular disease research and cataract research, which are both specialisations of Ophthalmology. Macular disease and cataracts are amongst the three leading causes of blindness in the world. Macular research expanded between 1992 and 2006 in that the proportion of Ophthalmology articles classified as macular increased by over 300% in that period. By contrast, during that same period the proportion of Ophthalmology articles classified as ‘cataract’ decreased by over 20%. This study investigates the bibliometric differences between the rapidly expanding specialisation of ‘macular’ and the slightly contracting specialisation of ‘cataract’. Our rationale for investigating these bibliometric differences is that previous researchers have suggested that articles in expanding specialisations are likely to be more highly cited than articles in relatively static specialisations, and it seems important, when comparing specialisations, to try to ensure that articles in a relatively static specialisation are not penalised. This study first identifies substantial macro-level bibliometric differences between the two specialisations and then gauges the extent to which these differences were associated with the expansion of Macular compared with Cataract. The initial investigation uses coarse-grained delineations of the specialisation, formed from search terms frequently associated with macular (and cataract). It finds that articles in the relatively expanding specialisation were substantially more highly cited and that these differences were associated with the expansion of the specialisation rather than the size of the specialisation (the Matthew effect). A major limitation of this study is that its coarse-grained delineation of specialisations fails to identify substantial numbers of articles in the specialisation. A more fine-grained delineation using PubMed’s Medical Subject Headings (MESH) has been piloted and additional articles

  12. Expanding Scope of Practice for Ontario Optometrists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Bray; Ivy Bourgault

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, The Optometry Act, 1991 was amended to include The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice Regulation which expanded the scope of practice for Ontario optometrists to include prescribing...

  13. Efficacy of Nickel-Titanium Palatal Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Paul

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : To conclude, a Ni-Ti expander brings about expansion by a combination of orthodontic and orthopedic effects by an increase in maxillary intermolar, maxillary intercanine and mandibular intercanine widths as also the opening of the midpalatal suture.

  14. Expanded carrier screening in gamete donors of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Maria Teresa; Benjamin, Isaac; Medina, Randolfo; Jiménez, José; Trías, Laura; Lerner, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    To discuss the implications of expanded genetic carrier screening for preconception purposes based on our practice. One hundred and forty-three potential gamete donors aged 20-32 years old (µ=24, 127 females and 16 males), signed informed consent forms and were selected according to the REDLARA guidelines. Blood or saliva samples were examined by one of these genetic carrier screening methods: Genzyme screening for Cystic Fibrosis (CF), Fragile X and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA); Counsyl Universal panel or Recombine Carrier Map. Genotyping results for all donors were analyzed; 41% (58/143) of donors were identified as carriers for at least one condition. We found a carrier frequency of 1/24 for CF, 1/72 for SMA and 0/120 for Fragile X syndrome. Among the high-impact most prevalent conditions in our study (Carrier Map group) were: 21-Hydroxilase-Deficient Congenital Nonclassical Adrenal Hyperplasia (1/8), Factor V deficiency (1/12), Hemochromatosis: Type 1: HFE Related (1/12), Short Chain Acyl-CoA (1/14) and MTHFR deficiency 1/3 (39%). The rate of gamete donors identified as carriers of at least one condition was 41%, which supports the offering of expanded carrier screening to our population. Studies in Latin American populations could help customize screening panels. The ART patient population has a unique opportunity to be offered expanded carrier screening and appropriate counseling, to make its best-informed decisions.

  15. Expanded cardiac rehabilitation in socially vulnerable patients with myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk. A research project performed at a university hospital in Denmark offered an expanded CR intervention to socially vulnerable patients. One-year follow-up showed significant improvements concerning medicine...... compliance, lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index when compared with socially vulnerable patients receiving standard CR. The aim of the study was to perform a long-term follow-up on the socially differentiated CR intervention and examine the impact of the intervention on all-cause mortality......, cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal recurrent events and major cardiac events (MACE) 10 years after. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The cardiac ward at a university hospital in Denmark from 2000 to 2004. PARTICIPANTS: 379 patients aged

  16. Coordination of glucose and glutamine utilization by an expanded Myc network

    OpenAIRE

    Kaadige, Mohan R; Elgort, Marc G; Ayer, Donald E

    2010-01-01

    Glucose and glutamine are the most abundant circulating nutrients and support the growth and proliferation of all cells, in particular rapidly growing and dividing cancer cells. Several recent studies implicate an expanded Myc network in how cells sense and utilize both glucose and glutamine. These studies reveal an unappreciated coordination between glycolysis and glutaminolysis, potentially providing new targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer.

  17. University spin-offs: Opportunity or challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaogang

    2006-12-01

    With industrial research increasingly under pressure to produce rapid profits, and universities rightly concerned with primary research, can university spin-off companies fill the gap between invention and commercialization?

  18. Origin(?) of the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inflation: Approach of the latter kind led in the 1980s to the now well known idea of the inflationary universe. ... This rapid expansion is called inflation. Just as compound interest grows much faster than simple ... Some Practical Weaknesses of Big Bang Cosmology. Let us now look at a few of the problems that the big bang.

  19. University Engagement at INL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrell, Sean Robert [Idaho National Laboratory; Rynes, Amanda Renee [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-07-01

    There are currently over 900 facilities in over 170 countries which fall under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. As additional nations look to purse civilian nuclear programs or to expand infrastructure already in place, the number of reactors and accompanying facilities as well as the quantity of material has greatly increased. Due to the breadth of the threat and the burden placed on the IAEA as nuclear applications expand, it has become increasingly important that safeguards professionals have a strong understanding of both the technical and political aspects of nonproliferation starting early in their career. To begin overcoming this challenge, Idaho National Laboratory, has partnered with local universities to deliver a graduate level nuclear engineering course that covers both aspects of the field with a focus on safeguards applications. To date over 60 students across multiple disciplines have participated in this course with many deciding to transition into a nonproliferation area of focus in both their academic and professional careers.

  20. Design of laser afocal zoom expander system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lian; Zeng, Chun-Mei; Hu, Tian-Tian

    2018-01-01

    Laser afocal zoom expander system due to the beam diameter variable, can be used in the light sheet illumination microscope to observe the samples of different sizes. Based on the principle of afocal zoom system, the laser collimation and beam expander system with a total length of less than 110mm, 6 pieces of spherical lens and a beam expander ratio of 10 is designed by using Zemax software. The system is focused on laser with a wavelength of 532nm, divergence angle of less than 4mrad and incident diameter of 4mm. With the combination of 6 spherical lens, the beam divergence angle is 0.4mrad at the maximum magnification ratio, and the RMS values at different rates are less than λ/4. This design is simple in structure and easy to process and adjust. It has certain practical value.

  1. Bank Directors’ Perceptions of Expanded Auditor's Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolaky, Pran Krishansing; Quick, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    of expanded audit reports, namely information on the assurance level, materiality levels and key audit matters (KAM), on bank director perceptions of the quality of the financial statements, the audit and the audit report, as well as on their credit approval decisions. We conduct an experiment involving......Subsequent to the financial crisis, standard setters developed suggestions for enhancing the audit function, in order to increase financial stability. One related idea is to expand the audit report disclosed to the public, to ensure that it is fit for purpose. This study investigates the impact...... the materiality level or KAM. As a consequence, standard setters should carefully analyse the effect of additional information before making decisions on expanding the content of the audit report. Such expansions are not necessarily perceived as useful by stakeholders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd...

  2. Universal health coverage in Turkey: enhancement of equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Aydın, Sabahattin; Chakraborty, Sarbani; Sümer, Safir; Aran, Meltem; Gürol, Ipek; Nazlıoğlu, Serpil; Ozgülcü, Senay; Aydoğan, Ulger; Ayar, Banu; Dilmen, Uğur; Akdağ, Recep

    2013-07-06

    Turkey has successfully introduced health system changes and provided its citizens with the right to health to achieve universal health coverage, which helped to address inequities in financing, health service access, and health outcomes. We trace the trajectory of health system reforms in Turkey, with a particular emphasis on 2003-13, which coincides with the Health Transformation Program (HTP). The HTP rapidly expanded health insurance coverage and access to health-care services for all citizens, especially the poorest population groups, to achieve universal health coverage. We analyse the contextual drivers that shaped the transformations in the health system, explore the design and implementation of the HTP, identify the factors that enabled its success, and investigate its effects. Our findings suggest that the HTP was instrumental in achieving universal health coverage to enhance equity substantially, and led to quantifiable and beneficial effects on all health system goals, with an improved level and distribution of health, greater fairness in financing with better financial protection, and notably increased user satisfaction. After the HTP, five health insurance schemes were consolidated to create a unified General Health Insurance scheme with harmonised and expanded benefits. Insurance coverage for the poorest population groups in Turkey increased from 2·4 million people in 2003, to 10·2 million in 2011. Health service access increased across the country-in particular, access and use of key maternal and child health services improved to help to greatly reduce the maternal mortality ratio, and under-5, infant, and neonatal mortality, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Several factors helped to achieve universal health coverage and improve outcomes. These factors include economic growth, political stability, a comprehensive transformation strategy led by a transformation team, rapid policy translation, flexible implementation with

  3. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...... inexpensive synthesis, constant availability, a good safety profile, biodegradability and the long clinical use as plasma expanders. Three polymers have been tested for cytotoxicity and cytokine activation in cell cultures and conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye: hydroxyethyl starches (HES 200 k...

  4. Universal trellises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA flow in three-dimensions is universal if the periodic orbits contains all knots and links. Universal flows were shown to exist by Ghrist, and can be constructed by means of templates. Likewise, a planar diffeomorphism is universal if it has a suspension flow which is a universal flow.

  5. "On Course" for Supporting Expanded Participation and Improving Scientific Reasoning in Undergraduate Thesis Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Jason E.; Roy, Christopher P.; Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; Reynolds, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Chemistry at Duke University has endeavored to expand participation in undergraduate honors thesis research while maintaining the quality of the learning experience. Accomplishing this goal has been constrained by limited departmental resources (including faculty time) and increased diversity in students' preparation to engage in…

  6. Doing More with Less: How a Library Expanded Its Oral History Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKether, Willie L.; Jeter, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights a successful collaborative project between the Toledo-Lucas County Library System, a university professor, and a local production company in order to expand the library's African American oral history collection. The project, made possible from a state technology grant, also resulted in the production of 20…

  7. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses, it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, which helps prevent moisture formation retaining its strength due to the greater adherence shown with dry polystyrene. It was more flexible, which makes it less vulnerable to cracking walls due to soil displacements. Furthermore, it is economical, because it uses recyclable material and has properties that prevent deterioration increasing its useful life. We recommend the use of the fully dry EP under a dry environment to obtain the best properties of brick.

  8. Expanding refractory rectus sheath hematoma: a therapeutic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Guo-Shiang; Liau, Guo-Shiou; Shyu, Hann-Yeh; Chu, Shi-Jye; Ko, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kuo-An

    2012-01-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon but well-described complication of a tussive paroxysm. It is an accumulation of blood within the sheath of the rectus abdominis secondary to disruption of the epigastric vessels or the rectus muscle and is often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen. Increases in the number of elderly patients and the use of therapeutic anticoagulation may increase the prevalence and severity of rectus sheath hematomas encountered in clinical practice. Expanding rectus sheath hematomas are occasionally refractory to conservative treatment and may require hemostatic intervention. Here, we describe the case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with two separate rectus sheath hematomas that were precipitated by a paroxysm of coughing. Repeated computed tomography showed two separate expanding rectus sheath hematomas, which were not accompanied by obvious contrast extravasation on angiography. Empiric left inferior epigastric artery embolization resulted in rapid hemodynamic stabilization, and the hematomas shrank gradually. Early empiric transcatheter arterial embolization may be appropriate for patients who are poor surgical candidates and have enlarging hematomas that are refractory to conservative treatment.

  9. Rapid palatal expansion: a comparison of two appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda do Prado Rodrigues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed occlusal radiographs to compare the transverse changes produced in patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion using two types of appliances. The sample consisted of 31 children aged 7 to 10.6 years, of both genders, with posterior cross-bite. Fifteen children were treated with a tooth-borne expander and 16 were treated with a tooth-tissue-borne expander. Occlusal radiographs obtained at treatment onset and at the end of the retention period were digitized. The following variables were measured: intermolar distance (IMD, interapical distance (IApD, interbase distance (IBaD and interarm distance (IArD. The results revealed increases in all measurements in both groups after rapid maxillary expansion. Comparison between groups revealed that the increases were greater in patients treated with the tooth-borne expander, except for the IArD measurement, which presented the same increase in both groups. Even though the IMD measurements differed between expanders, they were proportional to the activation of the appliances (IBaD. The increase in the IApD measurement was proportionally greater in the group treated with the tooth-borne expander (0.7:1.0 than in that treated with the tooth-tissue-borne expander (0.4:1.0. It was concluded that both appliances had similar effects, although the tooth-tissue-borne expander produced a lesser opening at the apical region of the incisors.

  10. Replicating an expanded genetic alphabet in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, John C

    2014-09-05

    Recent advances in synthetic biology have made it possible to replicate an unnatural base pair in living cells. This study highlights the technologies developed to create a semisynthetic organism with an expanded genetic alphabet and the potential challenges of moving forward. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Expanding the Focus of Career Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Jared D.; Hogan, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Issues affecting career assessment include change in the focus and definition of career, emphasis on quality of work life, expansion of career paths, increased amount of career information available on the Internet, and questionable quality of online assessment. An expanded model of career assessment now includes technical fit, personal fit,…

  12. Expanding the Reader Landscape of Histone Acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abid; Bridgers, Joseph B; Strahl, Brian D

    2017-04-04

    In this issue of Structure,Klein et al. (2017) expand our understanding of what reader domains bind to by showing that MORF, a double PHD domain containing lysine acetyltransferase, is a preferential reader of histone lysine acylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic catalysts and ...

  14. Expanding Your Horizons Conference in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Chromek-Burckhart, Doris

    2011-01-01

    CERN and its experiments participated in Expanding Your Horizons (EYH) in Science and Mathematics conference in Geneva on 12th November. EYH nurture girls' interest in science and math courses to encourage them to consider careers in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  15. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic ...

  16. Technical Note: Effect of Incorporating Expanded Polystyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, aects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction leads to reduction in both ...

  17. Expanding the collaboration between CERN and Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Parvez Butt, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and CERN Director General, Luciano Maiani, signed a letter of intent last week to expand collaboration. Through an agreement which should be formalized within a few months, Pakistan would make a substantial contribution to the LHC and its detectors, coordinated by the Pakistani National Centre of Physics.

  18. Circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburg, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the dynamics of skew product maps defined by circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps. We construct an open class of such systems that are robustly topologically mixing and for which almost all points in the same fiber converge under iteration. This property follows from the

  19. Discrete Groups, Expanding Graphs and Invariant Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Lubotzky, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Presents the solutions to two problems: the first is the construction of expanding graphs - graphs which are of fundamental importance for communication networks and computer science, and the second is the Ruziewicz problem concerning the finitely additive invariant measures on spheres

  20. Expanding Educational Excellence: The Power of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Ruth; Winn, Donna-Marie; Harradine, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore four major barriers to academic success that must be addressed, briefly describe two projects that have worked to address these barriers, and make recommendations for moving forward as they work to expand educational excellence for all students. They provide examples of the myriad ways in which schools have the…

  1. Expanded Core Curriculum: 12 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeier, Keri; Blankenship, Karen; Hatlen, Phil

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated changes in teachers' and parents' understanding and implementation of or philosophy on the implementation of the content areas of the expanded core curriculum for students who are visually impaired. The results demonstrated some changes since the original survey results were reported in 1998 and a discrepancy between the…

  2. Expanded austenite, crystallography and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    compositions and (b) unravelling of the contributions of stress-depth and composition-depth profiles in expanded austenite layers are summarised and discussed. It is shown through simulation of line profiles that the combined effects of composition gradients, stress gradients and stacking fault gradients can...

  3. Particle creation in a toroidal universe

    OpenAIRE

    Fornal, Bartosz

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the particle production rate in an expanding universe with a three-torus topology. We discuss also the complete evolution of the size of such a universe. The energy density of particles created through the nonzero modes is computed for selected masses. The unique contribution of the zero mode and its properties are also analyzed.

  4. A Theory of the Universe and Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Lee Stark

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy centers are Black holes with concentrated dark matter collected by gravity. The high velocity dark matter particles excite themselves upon collisions creating a dark matter particle with an EM force. The EM forces create our matter and disperse the matter back into the universe, thus explaining the expanding universe. This simple theory is supported by experimental results.

  5. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  6. Dynamics of domain coverage of the protein sequence universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The currently known protein sequence space consists of millions of sequences in public databases and is rapidly expanding. Assigning sequences to families leads to a better understanding of protein function and the nature of the protein universe. However, a large portion of the current protein space remains unassigned and is referred to as its “dark matter”. Results Here we suggest that true size of “dark matter” is much larger than stated by current definitions. We propose an approach to reducing the size of “dark matter” by identifying and subtracting regions in protein sequences that are not likely to contain any domain. Conclusions Recent improvements in computational domain modeling result in a decrease, albeit slowly, in the relative size of “dark matter”; however, its absolute size increases substantially with the growth of sequence data. PMID:23157439

  7. Rapidly expanding knowledge on the role of the gut microbiome in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cenit, M. C.; Matzaraki, V.; Tigchelaar-Feenstra, E. F.; Zhernakova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The human gut is colonized by a wide diversity of micro-organisms, which are now known to play a key role in the human host by regulating metabolic functions and immune homeostasis. Many studies have indicated that the genomes of our gut microbiota, known as the gut microbiome or our "other genome"

  8. Four-year treatment outcomes of adult patients enrolled in Mozambique's rapidly expanding antiretroviral therapy program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Auld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Mozambique during 2004-2007 numbers of adult patients (≥15 years old enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART increased about 16-fold, from 60 kg, WHO stage IV (AHR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.4, reference group WHO stage I/II, lack of co-trimoxazole prescription (AHR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8, and later calendar year of ART initiation (AHR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8. Rates of immunologic treatment failure and regimen-switch were 14.0 and 0.6 events per 100-patient years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ART initiation at earlier disease stages and scale-up of co-trimoxazole among ART patients could improve outcomes. Research to determine reasons for low regimen-switch rates and increasing rates of attrition during program expansion is needed.

  9. The Challenge--To Meet The Needs of the Rapidly Expanding Horticulture Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Russell C.

    1977-01-01

    A horticulture instructor outlines various methods of getting information from the horticulture industry for use in planning instructional programs to fill industry needs. He suggests that student learning packets to implement the program could be developed with the assistance of industry. (MF)

  10. Expandable and Rapidly Differentiating Human Induced Neural Stem Cell Lines for Multiple Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M. Cairns

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited availability of human neurons poses a significant barrier to progress in biological and preclinical studies of the human nervous system. Current stem cell-based approaches of neuron generation are still hindered by prolonged culture requirements, protocol complexity, and variability in neuronal differentiation. Here we establish stable human induced neural stem cell (hiNSC lines through the direct reprogramming of neonatal fibroblasts and adult adipose-derived stem cells. These hiNSCs can be passaged indefinitely and cryopreserved as colonies. Independently of media composition, hiNSCs robustly differentiate into TUJ1-positive neurons within 4 days, making them ideal for innervated co-cultures. In vivo, hiNSCs migrate, engraft, and contribute to both central and peripheral nervous systems. Lastly, we demonstrate utility of hiNSCs in a 3D human brain model. This method provides a valuable interdisciplinary tool that could be used to develop drug screening applications as well as patient-specific disease models related to disorders of innervation and the brain.

  11. Metrics for rapid quality control in RNA structure probing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Krishna; Shih, Nathan P; Deng, Fei; Ledda, Mirko; Li, Bo; Aviran, Sharon

    2016-12-01

    The diverse functionalities of RNA can be attributed to its capacity to form complex and varied structures. The recent proliferation of new structure probing techniques coupled with high-throughput sequencing has helped RNA studies expand in both scope and depth. Despite differences in techniques, most experiments face similar challenges in reproducibility due to the stochastic nature of chemical probing and sequencing. As these protocols expand to transcriptome-wide studies, quality control becomes a more daunting task. General and efficient methodologies are needed to quantify variability and quality in the wide range of current and emerging structure probing experiments. We develop metrics to rapidly and quantitatively evaluate data quality from structure probing experiments, demonstrating their efficacy on both small synthetic libraries and transcriptome-wide datasets. We use a signal-to-noise ratio concept to evaluate replicate agreement, which has the capacity to identify high-quality data. We also consider and compare two methods to assess variability inherent in probing experiments, which we then utilize to evaluate the coverage adjustments needed to meet desired quality. The developed metrics and tools will be useful in summarizing large-scale datasets and will help standardize quality control in the field. The data and methods used in this article are freely available at: http://bme.ucdavis.edu/aviranlab/SPEQC_software CONTACT: saviran@ucdavis.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Alternative approaches to expanding pediatric urology services and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canon, Stephen; Basham, Kyle; Canon, Honor Lee; Purifoy, Jody Ann; Swearingen, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    We critically assessed the outcomes of a new model of pediatric urology delivery using alternative approaches to expand care without increasing the number of pediatric urologists. The approaches included the use of advanced practice nurse practitioners, pediatric physician specialists, part-time contract pediatric urologists from neighboring institutions and part-time contract adult urologists from our university. Data were collected from the Division of Pediatric Urology at Arkansas Children's Hospital during 2009 and 2010. The only pediatric urologist at our institution retired in December 2009 with an immediate transition to a new pediatric urologist in January 2010. Comparisons were made in the numbers of clinic visits, inpatient admissions/consultations, surgical volume and patient satisfaction scores. Average clinic monthly visits in 2009 and 2010 were 153 and 271, respectively (p productivity and maximize the quality of delivery of these services. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gemini Observatory Takes its Local Communities on an Expanding Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Janice; Michaud, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Currently in its 7th year (2011) Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe (JttU) program is a flagship Gemini Observatory public education/outreach initiative involving a broad cross-section of the local Hawai'i Island astronomical community, the public, educators, businesses, local government officials, and thousands of local students. This paper describes the program, its history, planning, implementation, as well as the program's objectives and philosophy. The success of this program is documented here, as measured by continuous and expanding engagement of educators, the community, and the public, along with formal evaluation feedback and selected informal verbal testimony. The program's success also serves as justification for the planned adaptation of a version of the program in Chile in 2011 (adapted for Chilean educational and cultural differences). Finally, lessons learned are shared which have refined the program for Gemini's host communities but can also apply to any institution wishing to initiate a similar program.

  14. Expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach to the internal auditory canal: Pilot clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presutti, Livio; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Bonali, Marco; Rubini, Alessia; Pavesi, Giacomo; Feletti, Alberto; Masotto, Barbara; Anschuetz, Lukas; Marchioni, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the feasibility of an expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach, developed from the exclusive endoscopic transcanal transpromontorial approach. Retrospective case series. Retrospective chart review of 10 patients operated by an expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach in two tertiary referral centers (University Hospital of Modena, Italy and University Hospital of Verona, Italy). Data from charts and video documentation were collected and analyzed. Between April 2015 and January 2016, 10 patients underwent an expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach for vestibular schwannoma Koos stage I or II and were enrolled in the study. The size of the tumors ranged from 7 to 19 mm in maximum diameter. A gross total resection was achieved in all cases. One subject experienced postoperative cerebrospinal fluid otorhinorrhea and three subjects experienced temporary postoperative facial weakness, all of which completely resolved. The mean follow-up was 5 months. The expanded transcanal transpromontorial approach allowed bimanual dissection using a microscopic technique for the treatment of pathologies of the internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle. This novel approach resulted in minimal morbidity and comparable facial nerve preservation rates to the traditional approaches to the internal auditory canal. The expanded transpromontorial approach to the internal auditory canal holds promise for addressing pathology in this region of the temporal bone from the external auditory canal. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2608-2614, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Universal Trellises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstract A flow in three-dimensions is universal if the periodic orbits contains all knots and links. Universal flows were shown to exist by Ghrist, and can be constructed by means of templates. Likewise, a planar diffeomorphism is universal if it has a suspension

  16. Microwave Energy for Expanding Perlite Ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Aguilar-Garib

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Perlite is an igneous mineral composed by silicon, aluminum, oxygen and water. It can be expanded by heating it up at temperatures above 870 °C, then it becomes plastic, and the steam formed inside pressures out of the mineral. Maximum expansion is possible if the particles are heated up quickly, since the expansion degree strongly depends on the remaining water in the particles at the time that they reach the temperature where they become plastic. The typical expansion process consist in pouring the particles in rotary kilns operated with natural gas, but it is proposed in this research that the particles can be heated quickly with microwaves at 2.45 GHz. Particles of 0.08 cm and 0.018 cm of average diameter were expanded 10 to 20 times.

  17. Expanding roles for GILT in immunity

    OpenAIRE

    West, Laura Ciaccia; Cresswell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT), a thioredoxin-related oxidoreductase, functions in MHC class II-restricted antigen processing and MHC class I-restricted cross-presentation by reducing disulfide bonds of endocytosed proteins and facilitating their unfolding and optimal degradation. However, recent reports have greatly expanded our understanding of GILT’s function. Several studies of GILT and antigen processing have shown that the influence of GILT on the peptide re...

  18. Japan: Implications of an Expanded Military Role,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-03

    served by diplomatic, economic and foreign assistance strategies. The Fukuda and Ohira " doctrines " emphasized the role of non-military policy in...encourage it to expand economic assistance under the comprehensive security doctrine . Weinstein is criticizing U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union; he...the United States. The second category of opinion which developed centered -~ on support for a policy line orginally set forth In the Yoshida Doctrine

  19. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  20. Characterization of commercial expandable graphite fire retardants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Walter Wilhelm, E-mail: walter.focke@up.ac.za; Badenhorst, Heinrich; Mhike, Washington; Kruger, Hermanus Joachim; Lombaard, Dewan

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Expandable graphite is less well-ordered than its graphite bisulfate progenitor. • It includes graphite oxide as a randomly interstratified phase. • CO{sub 2}, CO and SO{sub 2} are released during thermal-driven exfoliation. - Abstract: Thermal analysis and other techniques were employed to characterize two expandable graphite samples. The expansion onset temperatures of the expandable graphite's were ca. 220 °C and 300 °C respectively. The key finding is that the commercial products are not just pure graphite intercalation compounds with sulfuric acid species intercalated as guest ions and molecules in between intact graphene layers. A more realistic model is proposed where graphite oxide-like layers are also randomly interstratified in the graphite flakes. These graphite oxide-like layers comprise highly oxidized graphene sheets which contain many different oxygen-containing functional groups. This model explains the high oxygen to sulfur atomic ratios found in both elemental analysis of the neat materials and in the gas generated during the main exfoliation event.

  1. Expanding and improving urban outreach immunization in Patna, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Narottam; Ryman, Tove K; Varkey, Sherin; Ranjan, Alok; Gupta, Satish K; Krishna, Gopal; Swetanki, R P; Young, Randall

    2012-03-01

    We conducted a case study of an urban immunization outreach strategy to determine the feasibility of the intervention and to measure administrative immunization coverage outcomes. A multipronged strategy for improving immunization coverage in Urban Patna, India, was implemented for 1 year (2009/2010). The strategy was designed to increase immunization sites, shift human resources, plan logistics, improve community mobilization, provide supervision, strengthen data flow and implement special vaccination drives. Over 1 year, the coverage of all primary vaccines of the Universal Immunization Program improved by over 100%. Coverage can be rapidly improved through outreach immunization in low socioeconomic areas if existing opportunities are carefully utilized. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. PHENIX Results on Heavy-Flavor Yields at Forward Rapidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M.

    2016-12-01

    The PHENIX collaboration is actively pursuing a physics program to make precision open and closed heavy flavor measurements over a large rapidity range (- 2.2 production at all rapidities and are expanding our measurements of inclusive open heavy flavor to separated charm and beauty measurements carried out via single lepton measurements and through the separation of prompt and B → J / ψ + X production. We present the current status of these measurements.

  3. Between universalism and regionalism: universal systematics from imperial Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung

    2015-12-01

    Historiographic discussions of the universality and regionality of science have to date focused on European cases for making regional science universal. This paper presents a new perspective by moving beyond European origins and illuminating a non-European scientist's engagement with the universality and regionality of science. It will examine the case of the Japanese botanist Nakai Takenoshin (1882-1952), an internationally recognized authority on Korean flora based at Tokyo Imperial University. Serving on the International Committee on Botanical Nomenclature in 1926, Nakai endorsed and acted upon European claims of universal science, whilst simultaneously unsettling them with his regionally shaped systematics. Eventually he came to promote his own systematics, built regionally on Korean flora, as the new universal. By analysing his shifting claims in relation to those of other European and non-European botanists, this paper makes two arguments. First, universalism and regionalism were not contradictory foundations of scientific practice but useful tools used by this non-European botanist in maintaining his scientific authority as a representative Japanese systematist. Second, his claims to universality and regionalism were both imperially charged. An imperially monopolized study of Korean plants left a regional imprint on Nakai's systematics. In order to maintain his scientific authority beyond its region of origin he had to assert either the expanding regionalism of 'East Asia' or universalism.

  4. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  5. Expanding Greenland’s Glacial Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Anders Anker

    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet and adjecent glaciers and ice caps has accelerated within the last decades, and these changes are accurately observed using a variety of different data products. However, the observational era is relatively short offering little insight into past dynamics....... On order to expand the glacial history of Greenland, this thesis explores physical and geological archives for evidence of the glaciers’ past response to climatic variations. Using aerial photographs, the dynamic history of the Greenland Ice Sheet is extended back to 1900 C.E. Glacier changes covering...

  6. Expanding the Bethe/Gauge dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, Mathew; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Lukowski, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    We expand the Bethe/Gauge dictionary between the XXX Heisenberg spin chain and 2d N = (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories to include aspects of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. We construct the wave functions of off-shell Bethe states as orbifold defects in the A-twisted supersymmetric gauge theory and study their correlation functions. We also present an alternative description of off-shell Bethe states as boundary conditions in an effective N = 4 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Finally, we interpret spin chain R-matrices as correlation functions of Janus interfaces for mass parameters in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  7. FOAM: Expanding the horizons of climate modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobis, M.; Foster, I.T.; Schafer, C.M. [and others

    1997-10-01

    We report here on a project that expands the applicability of dynamic climate modeling to very long time scales. The Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) is a coupled ocean atmosphere model that incorporates physics of interest in understanding decade to century time scale variability. It addresses the high computational cost of this endeavor with a combination of improved ocean model formulation, low atmosphere resolution, and efficient coupling. It also uses message passing parallel processing techniques, allowing for the use of cost effective distributed memory platforms. The resulting model runs over 6000 times faster than real time with good fidelity, and has yielded significant results.

  8. Expanding Slayer Statutes to Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    Common law has a dictum that people must not benefit from their crimes. In years past, states have enacted slayer rules to prevent killers from inheriting from their victims. The specific criteria and applicability of slayer rules vary by jurisdiction. Recently, several states, including Washington, have expanded their slayer rules to disqualify persons from inheriting if they have been involved in abuse or financial exploitation of the deceased. Reviewed herein are the abuse disinheritance laws, the relationship of the laws to concepts of testamentary capacity and undue influence, and the relevance to forensic psychiatric evaluations. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  9. Bang! the complete history of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    May, Brian; Lintott, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Bang! Space, time, matter...the Universe was born 13.7 billion years ago. Infinitely small at first, it expanded more rapidly than anyone can contemplate. Brian May, Patrick Moore and Chris Lintott explain how all this came about, from the moment when time and space came into existence, to the formation of the first stars, galaxies and planets, and to the evolution of human beings able to contemplate our own origins and ultimate destiny. Then on towards that destiny in the infinite future, long after the Earth has been consumed by the Red Giant Sun. The story is told in clear, straight forward terms, in the strict order in which the events happened, and uses no mathematics. "Bang!" is an amazing story and this newly revised text brings it "Bang!" up to date. Is it fiction? The authors hope not, since it is based upon lifetimes work by great scientists such as Albert Einstein, Stephen Hawking and hundreds of other brilliant minds. Enjoy, and let your imagination run riot.

  10. Construction of Agricultural University Students’ Entrepreneurship Incubation Base – Taking Sichuan Agricultural University as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Yao; Jianping Xie; Linchun He

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, as an effective practice in university students’ entrepreneurship education, construction of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base has been rapidly developed in different universities. This paper takes construction of the entrepreneurship incubation base in Sichuan Agricultural University as a case study, analyzes the current status of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base and makes a discussion on establishment of management institution, f...

  11. Unintended Consequences of Expanding the Genetic Alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollum, Marvin; Ashwood, Brennan; Jockusch, Steffen; Lam, Minh; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E

    2016-09-14

    The base pair d5SICS·dNaM was recently reported to incorporate and replicate in the DNA of a modified strain of Escherichia coli, thus making the world's first stable semisynthetic organism. This newly expanded genetic alphabet may allow organisms to store considerably more information in order to translate proteins with unprecedented enzymatic activities. Importantly, however, there is currently no knowledge of the photochemical properties of d5SICS or dNaM-properties that are central to the chemical integrity of cellular DNA. In this contribution, it is shown that excitation of d5SICS or dNaM with near-visible light leads to efficient trapping of population in the nucleoside's excited triplet state in high yield. Photoactivation of these long-lived, reactive states is shown to photosensitize cells, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species and to a marked decrease in cell proliferation, thus warning scientists of the potential phototoxic side effects of expanding the genetic alphabet.

  12. PCR with an expanded genetic alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, Denis A; Seo, Young Jun; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2009-10-21

    Expansion of the genetic alphabet with a third base pair would lay the foundation for a semisynthetic organism with an expanded genetic code and also have immediate in vitro applications. Previously, the unnatural base pairs formed between d5SICS and either dNaM or dMMO2 were shown to be well-replicated by DNA polymerases under steady-state conditions and also transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase efficiently in either direction. We now demonstrate that DNA containing either the d5SICS-dNaM or d5SICS-dMMO2 unnatural base pair may be amplified by PCR with fidelities and efficiencies that approach those of fully natural DNA. These results further demonstrate that the determinants of a functional unnatural base pair may be designed into predominantly hydrophobic nucleobases with no structural similarity to the natural purines or pyrimidines. Importantly, the results reveal that the unnatural base pairs may function within an expanded genetic alphabet and make possible many in vitro applications.

  13. The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Dale E.; Hurford, G. J.; Nita, G. M.; White, S. M.; Tun, S. D.; Fleishman, G. D.; McTiernan, J. M.

    2011-05-01

    The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) is now under construction near Big Pine, CA as a solar-dedicated microwave imaging array operating in the frequency range 1-18 GHz. The solar science to be addressed focuses on the 3D structure of the solar corona (magnetic field, temperature and density), on the sudden release of energy and subsequent particle acceleration, transport and heating, and on space weather phenomena. The project will support the scientific community by providing open data access and software tools for analysis of the data, to exploit synergies with on-going solar research in other wavelengths. The New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) is expanding OVSA from its previous complement of 7 antennas to a total of 15 by adding 8 new antennas, and will reinvest in the existing infrastructure by replacing the existing control systems, signal transmission, and signal processing with modern, far more capable and reliable systems based on new technology developed for the Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR). The project will be completed in time to provide solar-dedicated observations during the upcoming solar maximum in 2013 and beyond. We provide an update on current status and our preparations for exploiting the data through modeling and data analysis tools. This research is supported by NSF grants AST-0908344, and AGS-0961867 and NASA grant NNX10AF27G to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  14. Familiarity expands space and contracts time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Anna; Spiers, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    When humans draw maps, or make judgments about travel-time, their responses are rarely accurate and are often systematically distorted. Distortion effects on estimating time to arrival and the scale of sketch-maps reveal the nature of mental representation of time and space. Inspired by data from rodent entorhinal grid cells, we predicted that familiarity to an environment would distort representations of the space by expanding the size of it. We also hypothesized that travel-time estimation would be distorted in the same direction as space-size, if time and space rely on the same cognitive map. We asked international students, who had lived at a college in London for 9 months, to sketch a south-up map of their college district, estimate travel-time to destinations within the area, and mark their everyday walking routes. We found that while estimates for sketched space were expanded with familiarity, estimates of the time to travel through the space were contracted with familiarity. Thus, we found dissociable responses to familiarity in representations of time and space. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Expanding CEP290 mutational spectrum in ciliopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, Lorena; Brancati, Francesco; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Audollent, Sophie; Bertini, Enrico; Kaplan, Josseline; Perrault, Isabelle; Iannicelli, Miriam; Mancuso, Brunella; Rigoli, Luciana; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Swistun, Dominika; Tolentino, Jerlyn; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Gleeson, Joseph G; Valente, Enza Maria; Zankl, A; Leventer, R; Grattan-Smith, P; Janecke, A; D'Hooghe, M; Sznajer, Y; Van Coster, R; Demerleir, L; Dias, K; Moco, C; Moreira, A; Kim, C Ae; Maegawa, G; Petkovic, D; Abdel-Salam, G M H; Abdel-Aleem, A; Zaki, M S; Marti, I; Quijano-Roy, S; Sigaudy, S; de Lonlay, P; Romano, S; Touraine, R; Koenig, M; Lagier-Tourenne, C; Messer, J; Collignon, P; Wolf, N; Philippi, H; Kitsiou Tzeli, S; Halldorsson, S; Johannsdottir, J; Ludvigsson, P; Phadke, S R; Udani, V; Stuart, B; Magee, A; Lev, D; Michelson, M; Ben-Zeev, B; Fischetto, R; Benedicenti, F; Stanzial, F; Borgatti, R; Accorsi, P; Battaglia, S; Fazzi, E; Giordano, L; Pinelli, L; Boccone, L; Bigoni, S; Ferlini, A; Donati, M A; Caridi, G; Divizia, M T; Faravelli, F; Ghiggeri, G; Pessagno, A; Briguglio, M; Briuglia, S; Salpietro, C D; Tortorella, G; Adami, A; Castorina, P; Lalatta, F; Marra, G; Riva, D; Scelsa, B; Spaccini, L; Uziel, G; Del Giudice, E; Laverda, A M; Ludwig, K; Permunian, A; Suppiej, A; Signorini, S; Uggetti, C; Battini, R; Di Giacomo, M; Cilio, M R; Di Sabato, M L; Leuzzi, V; Parisi, P; Pollazzon, M; Silengo, M; De Vescovi, R; Greco, D; Romano, C; Cazzagon, M; Simonati, A; Al-Tawari, A A; Bastaki, L; Mégarbané, A; Sabolic Avramovska, V; de Jong, M M; Stromme, P; Koul, R; Rajab, A; Azam, M; Barbot, C; Martorell Sampol, L; Rodriguez, B; Pascual-Castroviejo, I; Teber, S; Anlar, B; Comu, S; Karaca, E; Kayserili, H; Yüksel, A; Akcakus, M; Al Gazali, L; Sztriha, L; Nicholl, D; Woods, C G; Bennett, C; Hurst, J; Sheridan, E; Barnicoat, A; Hennekam, R; Lees, M; Blair, E; Bernes, S; Sanchez, H; Clark, A E; DeMarco, E; Donahue, C; Sherr, E; Hahn, J; Sanger, T D; Gallager, T E; Dobyns, W B; Daugherty, C; Krishnamoorthy, K S; Sarco, D; Walsh, C A; McKanna, T; Milisa, J; Chung, W K; De Vivo, D C; Raynes, H; Schubert, R; Seward, A; Brooks, D G; Goldstein, A; Caldwell, J; Finsecke, E; Maria, B L; Holden, K; Cruse, R P; Swoboda, K J; Viskochil, D

    2009-10-01

    Ciliopathies are an expanding group of rare conditions characterized by multiorgan involvement, that are caused by mutations in genes encoding for proteins of the primary cilium or its apparatus. Among these genes, CEP290 bears an intriguing allelic spectrum, being commonly mutated in Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD), Meckel syndrome (MKS), Senior-Loken syndrome and isolated Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Although these conditions are recessively inherited, in a subset of patients only one CEP290 mutation could be detected. To assess whether genomic rearrangements involving the CEP290 gene could represent a possible mutational mechanism in these cases, exon dosage analysis on genomic DNA was performed in two groups of CEP290 heterozygous patients, including five JSRD/MKS cases and four LCA, respectively. In one JSRD patient, we identified a large heterozygous deletion encompassing CEP290 C-terminus that resulted in marked reduction of mRNA expression. No copy number alterations were identified in the remaining probands. The present work expands the CEP290 genotypic spectrum to include multiexon deletions. Although this mechanism does not appear to be frequent, screening for genomic rearrangements should be considered in patients in whom a single CEP290 mutated allele was identified.

  16. High-expanding cortical regions in human development and evolution are related to higher intellectual abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M; Westlye, Lars T; Amlien, Inge; Tamnes, Christian K; Grydeland, Håkon; Engvig, Andreas; Espeseth, Thomas; Reinvang, Ivar; Lundervold, Astri J; Lundervold, Arvid; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2015-01-01

    Cortical surface area has tremendously expanded during human evolution, and similar patterns of cortical expansion have been observed during childhood development. An intriguing hypothesis is that the high-expanding cortical regions also show the strongest correlations with intellectual function in humans. However, we do not know how the regional distribution of correlations between intellectual function and cortical area maps onto expansion in development and evolution. Here, in a sample of 1048 participants, we show that regions in which cortical area correlates with visuospatial reasoning abilities are generally high expanding in both development and evolution. Several regions in the frontal cortex, especially the anterior cingulate, showed high expansion in both development and evolution. The area of these regions was related to intellectual functions in humans. Low-expanding areas were not related to cognitive scores. These findings suggest that cortical regions involved in higher intellectual functions have expanded the most during development and evolution. The radial unit hypothesis provides a common framework for interpretation of the findings in the context of evolution and prenatal development, while additional cellular mechanisms, such as synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, dendritic arborization, and intracortical myelination, likely impact area expansion in later childhood. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Occupational Stress and Its Related Factors among University Teachers in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Wei; Wu, Hui; Wang, Lie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: University teachers in China are expected to suffer serious occupational stress due to the expanding enrollment in universities without a proportional increase in teacher resources and the fact...

  18. Occupational Stress and Its Related Factors among University Teachers in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei SUN; Hui WU; Lie WANG

    2011-01-01

    [Objectives]: University teachers in China are expected to suffer serious occupational stress due to the expanding enrollment in universities without a proportional increase in teacher resources and the fact...

  19. The Expanding Marketplace for Applied Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, N.; Sirles, P.

    2012-12-01

    While the image of geophysics for the proverbial "layman" often seems limited to volcanoes and earthquakes, and to the geoscientist this image enlarges to include oil or minerals exploration and whole earth studies, there has been a steady increase in the application of geophysics into the realm of "daily life", such as real estate deals, highway infrastructure, and flood protection. This expansion of applications can be attributed to the improved economics from advances in equipment and interpretation. Traditional geophysical methods that at one time often only fit within the budgets of oil, gas, and minerals exploration programs can now be economically applied to much smaller scale needs like contaminant mapping, landfill delineation, and levee investigations. A real-world, economic example of this expanding marketplace is our company, which began very small and was aimed almost exclusively at the minerals exploration market. Most of our growth has been in the last 10 years, when we have expanded to five offices and a staff with almost 40 geoscientist degrees (21 in geophysics); much of this growth has been in the non-oil, non-minerals arenas. While much of our work still includes minerals exploration, other projects this year include wind-farm foundation studies, cavity detection above underground nuclear tests, landfill studies, acid mine drainage problems, and leaks in evaporation ponds. A methodology example of this expanding market is the induced polarization (IP) survey, once primarily used for minerals exploration, particularly large porphyry copper deposits, but now efficient enough to also use in environmental studies. The IP method has been particularly useful in delineating and characterizing old, poorly documented landfills, and recent research suggests it may also be useful in monitoring the accelerated biodegradation processes used in some cases to rehabilitate the sites. Compared to temperature monitoring systems, IP may be more useful in providing

  20. Expanded Polystyrene Re-Expansion Analysis Following Impact Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-04

    USAARL Report No. 2015-08 Expanded Polystyrene Re-Expansion Analysis Following Impact Compression By Mark S. Adams Frederick Brozoski Katie...13 iv This page is intentionally left blank. 1 Introduction Expanded bead polystyrene (EPS) is widely...steep rise in the stress-strain curve and little or no energy attenuation. When compressive stresses are removed, EPS foam will partially re- expand

  1. Expanding Global Mindedness through a 4-H International Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.; Peterson, Donna J.; Iwata, Chieko; Kobia, Caroline; Reddy, Raja

    2017-01-01

    With expanding global interdependence, it is vital that 4-H youths learn more about the ever-increasing diverse cultures in their own communities as well as expand their global mindedness and understanding of globalization. The 4-H International Village (a) offers a comfortable yet engaging avenue for youths to expand their knowledge of and…

  2. 46 CFR 56.30-15 - Expanded or rolled joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expanded or rolled joints. 56.30-15 Section 56.30-15... APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-15 Expanded or rolled joints. (a) Expanded or rolled joints may be used where experience or test has demonstrated that the joint is suitable for the...

  3. Transapical implantation of a novel self-expanding sutureless aortic valve prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Mario; Suri, Rakesh M; Kraehenbuehl, Eva S; Hellige, Gerrit; Wenaweser, Peter; Zobrist, Claudia; Schaff, Harzell V; Carrel, Thierry P

    2010-03-01

    To date, transapical aortic valve implantation has required a balloon-expandable stented valve prosthesis. More recently, a novel self-expanding sutureless stented bovine pericardial prosthesis has been developed which allows rapid aortic valve replacement via an open transaortic approach in humans. The aim of this animal study was to develop a reliable protocol to facilitate the transapical implantation of this self-expanding valve in a porcine model. Off-pump transapical aortic valve implantation was performed through a left mini-thoracotomy using a bovine pericardial valve mounted on a self-expandable nitinol stent of size 21 mm and 23 mm in 11 pigs (average weight 60 kg). The crimped valve was introduced through the left ventricular apex using a flexible and steerable delivery sheath, using a three-step technique. Biplane fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography were simultaneously used for guidance. Successful adjustment of alignment along three axes prior to deployment of the valve was accomplished in each animal. Deployments were performed during a period of rapid pacing. All valves were successfully deployed and functioned normally following transapical removal of the delivery system. Paravalvular leak was documented in one case (9.1%) due to prosthetic misalignment. There was no evidence of valve migration. Correct anatomic seating was confirmed during post-procedure necropsy. Successful transapical implantation of a novel self-expandable bovine pericardial valve was accomplished in 11 animals, without cardiopulmonary bypass. A flexible, steerable delivery system with a three-step release mechanism allowed precise positioning of the valve with a low rate of paravalvular leakage, and excellent device stability.

  4. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  5. Financing Expanded Learning Time in Schools: A Look at Five District-Expanded Time Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Claire; Farbman, David A.; Deich, Sharon; Padgette, Heather Clapp

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several years, public education in the U.S. has experienced a remarkable growth in the number of schools that have expanded their schedules beyond the conventional calendar of 180 6.5-hour days. Spurred by significant policy activity at the federal, state, and local levels, more and more educators have capitalized on opportunities to…

  6. Ergodic theory of expanding thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Thurston maps are topological generalizations of postcritically-finite rational maps. This book provides a comprehensive study of ergodic theory of expanding Thurston maps, focusing on the measure of maximal entropy, as well as a more general class of invariant measures, called equilibrium states, and certain weak expansion properties of such maps. In particular, we present equidistribution results for iterated preimages and periodic points with respect to the unique measure of maximal entropy by investigating the number and locations of fixed points. We then use the thermodynamical formalism to establish the existence, uniqueness, and various other properties of the equilibrium state for a Holder continuous potential on the sphere equipped with a visual metric. After studying some weak expansion properties of such maps, we obtain certain large deviation principles for iterated preimages and periodic points under an additional assumption on the critical orbits of the maps. This enables us to obtain general eq...

  7. The expanding world of DNA and RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingjian; Hongdilokkul, Narupat; Liu, Zhixia; Thirunavukarasu, Deepak; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2016-10-01

    DNA and RNA are remarkable because they can both encode information and possess desired properties, including the ability to bind specific targets or catalyze specific reactions. Nucleotide modifications that do not interfere with enzymatic synthesis are now being used to bestow DNA or RNA with properties that further increase their utility, including phosphate and sugar modifications that increase nuclease resistance, nucleobase modifications that increase the range of activities possible, and even whole nucleobase replacement that results in selective pairing and the creation of unnatural base pairs that increase the information content. These modifications are increasingly being applied both in vitro and in vivo, including in efforts to create semi-synthetic organisms with altered or expanded genetic alphabets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efforts to expand the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romesberg, Floyd E

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to develop an unnatural base pair with which to expand the genetic code we have examined a wide variety of simple phenyl rings derivatized with methyl, fluoro, or nitrogen. The small aromatic surface of these base pairs should prevent inter-strand intercalation, which is thought to inhibit the polymerase-mediated synthesis of base pairs with larger aromatic surface area. Surprisingly, despite reduced aromatic surface area and hydrogen-bonding potential, some of these base pairs are stable and synthesized with reasonable efficiency. We have also been examining the use of activity-based selection systems to evolve DNA polymerases to more efficiently recognize the unnatural substrates, and our initial successes are described.

  9. Rubella Seroprevalence Before Expanded Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sener

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Altough rubella is usually a mild childhood disease, but when it occurs early in pregnancy are severe. In this study, seroprevalence of rubella antibodies have been invastegated in various age groups especially chilbearing age’s women before Expanded Vaccination Programme. IgM and IgG antibodies against rubella were tested by ELISA kits. Seropositivity of rubella IgG was 89,5% in chlidbearing age’s women. In Turkey, the vaccine has been on the market since 1989 but rubella vaccination is currently included in the national immunization programme. Hence, our results are important for comparison of the seroprevalence rates after national vaccination program. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 371-374

  10. Rubella Seroprevalence Before Expanded Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sener

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Altough rubella is usually a mild childhood disease, but when it occurs early in pregnancy are severe. In this study, seroprevalence of rubella antibodies have been invastegated in various age groups especially chilbearing age’s women before Expanded Vaccination Programme. IgM and IgG antibodies against rubella were tested by ELISA kits. Seropositivity of rubella IgG was 89,5% in chlidbearing age’s women. In Turkey, the vaccine has been on the market since 1989 but rubella vaccination is currently included in the national immunization programme. Hence, our results are important for comparison of the seroprevalence rates after national vaccination program. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 371-374

  11. Neuroimmunology: an expanding frontier in autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana eHöftberger

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-neuronal autoimmune encephalitis (AIE comprises a recently characterized group of immune-mediated disorders that result in limbic, multifocal, or diffuse encephalitis due to direct interaction of autoantibodies with neuronal surface or synaptic proteins. The pathological effects of the autoantibodies vary according to the target antigen but when they are removed neuronal dysfunction is commonly reversed. Ongoing research on AIE constantly increases the number of novel autoantibodies and expands the spectrum of neurological syndromes that are important in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric illness, dementia, or viral encephalitis. This review summarizes recent advances in AIE, focusing on pathogenetic mechanisms and novel associations with other CNS disorders such as neurodegeneration, relapsing symptoms post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis, and demyelinating diseases. In addition, an algorithmic approach to detect and characterize neuronal cell surface autoantibodies is proposed.

  12. Expanding Technological Frames Towards Mediated Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Scupola, Ada; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    of their work practices and use of technology. Finally the third step includes participants' commitment and practical enactment of groupware. One of the key findings is that in groupware adoption the alignment of the individual technological frames requires articulation and re-evaluation of experienced......This paper provides an in-depth analysis of technological and social factors leading to the successful adoption of groupware in a virtual team in educational setting. Drawing on a theoretical framework based on the concept of technological frames, we conducted an action research study to analyze...... the chronological sequence of events leading to groupware adoption. We argue that groupware adoption can be conceptualized as a three-step process of expanding and aligning individual technological frames towards groupware: The first step comprises activities facilitating participants in articulation and evaluation...

  13. Web Content Analysis: Expanding the Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Susan C.

    Are established methods of content analysis (CA) adequate to analyze web content, or should new methods be devised to address new technological developments? This article addresses this question by contrasting narrow and broad interpretations of the concept of web content analysis. The utility of a broad interpretation that subsumes the narrow one is then illustrated with reference to research on weblogs (blogs), a popular web format in which features of HTML documents and interactive computer-mediated communication converge. The article concludes by proposing an expanded Web Content Analysis (WebCA) paradigm in which insights from paradigms such as discourse analysis and social network analysis are operationalized and implemented within a general content analytic framework.

  14. The law's interface with expanding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    The role of the law in technology assessment is described in generalized terms of a legal system as it confronts expanding technology. The functions of a technology assessment are considered to be twofold; provide for legislative action designed to channel technological advance along lines which are regarded as optimal from the standpoint of society's interests; and encourage and promote legislative action which will deal decisively with the potential disruptions and injuries caused by technology at a much earlier stage of the growth of the technology than is feasible under the present legal system. It is concluded that since new law always has a disruptive effect on expectations and commitments arrived at under old law, it is generally desirable that new legislation should make the least possible change in the law consistant with accomplishing the desired objective.

  15. Particles formation in an expanding plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescoute, E.; Hallo, L.; Chimier, B.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Stenz, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CELIA, CNRS-CEA, 33 - Talence (France); Hebert, D.; Chevalier, J.M.; Rullier, J.L.; Palmier, S. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2009-08-15

    Interaction of a laser beam with a target generates a high velocity expanding plasma plume, solid debris and liquid nano- and micro-particles. They are produced from plasma recombination and vapor condensation and can be deposited on optical elements located nearby the target. Two distinct kinds of particles were observed depending on the temperature achieved in the plasma plume: large micrometer-size fragments for temperatures lower than the critical temperature, and very small nanometer-size particles for higher temperatures. The paper presents experimental observations of fragments and nano-particles in plasma plumes and a comparison with models. A good agreement has been found for nano-particle sizes and distributions. This simple modeling can also be used for nuclei production in the nanosecond time scale. Our estimates show that particle size can be correlated to laser wavelength and fluences.

  16. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Expanding the applicability of Heallth Technology Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Eva; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the presentation is to expand the foundations of input into policy decision making relying on health technology assessments (HTA). HTAs are primarily based on systematic reviews (SR) and thereby mostly on randomized controlled trials (RCT). RCTs can be distinguished on a continuum......-oriented perspective and aims at supporting health policy makers and therefore have to reflect policy applicable questions and answers. Simply relying on strictly controlled explanatory RCTs alone is too narrow to answer questions of relevance for policy making. It is suggested to supplement these highly controlled...... between explanatory and pragmatic trials according to their level of control over variables in the study besides the examined technology. In explanatory trials emphasis are placed on internal validity in order to test the efficacy of a technology under ideal conditions while pragmatic trials emphasizes...

  18. Expanding Policy Imagination in Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature in political economy seeks to capture an essential insight into the evolution of political and economic systems to provide a foundation for policy advice. This article suggests that attempts to nut out the kernels of change often restrict rather than expand policy imagination...... be implemented. Historical sociology provides a way to generate information about contextual constellations through two "tonics": intentional rationality and social mechanisms. With the assistance of these tonics, historical sociology widens political economy's policy imagination........ Three "fevers" are identified as involved in the narrowing of policy imagination and two "tonics" are offered to widen it. The three fevers are: 1. viewing the present as natural; 2. seeing history as overtly path dependent; and 3. viewing history as driven by "Great Men". These fevers limit our...

  19. Expanded uncertainty regions for complex quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B. D.

    2013-10-01

    The expanded measurement uncertainty of a complex quantity is a region in the complex plane surrounding the measured value. This paper considers different shaped uncertainty regions in the form of ellipses, circles, rectangles and parallelograms. The different types of region are compared, under a variety of measurement error conditions, with regard to coverage probability and relative area. Elliptical confidence regions are commonly used in multivariate statistics. However, this shape has not been adopted widely in metrology, perhaps because there is no simple way to report the extent of an elliptical region. The other shapes considered are easier to use. Unfortunately, the coverage probability of circular uncertainty regions is found to be sensitive to both the form of the distribution of measurement errors and to the number of degrees of freedom, making this shape a poor choice. Parallelograms and rectangles both performed well, with parallelograms giving the best results overall.

  20. The universe

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Where did the Universe come from? The single biggest and most difficult question that there is. From early religions through Greek Philosophy and Western Science man has attempted to discover the meaning of our place in the Universe. In the last twenty years these debates have been cast in a new light by amazing discoveries, big bang theory and ideas about new sub-atomic layers. The nature of Time and Space are truly up for grabs. With a witty and accessible style Osborne leads us on a historical and informative journey through the philosophies of the universe including the importance

  1. Transcription of an expanded genetic alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Jun; Matsuda, Shigeo; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2009-04-15

    Expansion of the genetic alphabet with a third base pair would have immediate biotechnology applications and also lay the foundation for a semisynthetic organism with an expanded genetic code. A variety of unnatural base pairs have been shown to be formed efficiently and selectively during DNA replication, and the pairs formed between the unnatural nucleotide d5SICS and either dMMO2 or dNaM are particularly interesting because they have been shown to be replicated with efficiencies and fidelities that are beginning to approach those of a natural base pair. Not only are these unnatural base pairs promising for different applications, but they also demonstrate that nucleobase shape and hydrophobicity are sufficient to control replication. While a variety of unnatural base pairs have been shown to be substrates for transcription, none are transcribed in both possible strand contexts, and the transcription of a fully hydrophobic base pair has not been demonstrated. We show here that both of the unnatural base pairs d5SICS:dMMO2 and d5SICS:dNaM are selectively transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase and that the efficiency of d5SICS:dNaM transcription in both possible strand contexts is only marginally reduced relative to that of a natural base pair. Thus, as with replication, we find that hydrogen-bonding is not essential for transcription and may be replaced with packing and hydrophobic forces. The results also demonstrate that d5SICS:dNaM is both replicated and transcribed with efficiencies and fidelities that should be sufficient for use as part of an in vitro expanded genetic alphabet.

  2. Roots Air Management System with Integrated Expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stretch, Dale [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Wright, Brad [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fortini, Matt [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fink, Neal [Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ramadan, Bassem [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States); Eybergen, William [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2016-07-06

    PEM fuel cells remain an emerging technology in the vehicle market with several cost and reliability challenges that must be overcome in order to increase market penetration and acceptance. The DOE has identified the lack of a cost effective, reliable, and efficient air supply system that meets the operational requirements of a pressurized PEM 80kW fuel cell as one of the major technological barriers that must be overcome. This project leveraged Roots positive displacement development advancements and demonstrated an efficient and low cost fuel cell air management system. Eaton built upon its P-Series Roots positive displacement design and shifted the peak efficiency making it ideal for use on an 80kW PEM stack. Advantages to this solution include: • Lower speed of the Roots device eliminates complex air bearings present on other systems. • Broad efficiency map of Roots based systems provides an overall higher drive cycle fuel economy. • Core Roots technology has been developed and validated for other transportation applications. Eaton modified their novel R340 Twin Vortices Series (TVS) Roots-type supercharger for this application. The TVS delivers more power and better fuel economy in a smaller package as compared to other supercharger technologies. By properly matching the helix angle with the rotor’s physical aspect ratio, the supercharger’s peak efficiency can be moved to the operating range where it is most beneficial for the application. The compressor was designed to meet the 90 g/s flow at a pressure ratio of 2.5, similar in design to the P-Series 340. A net shape plastic expander housing with integrated motor and compressor was developed to significantly reduce the cost of the system. This integrated design reduced part count by incorporating an overhung expander and motor rotors into the design such that only four bearings and two shafts were utilized.

  3. Methamphetamine and the expanding complications of amphetamines.

    OpenAIRE

    Albertson, T. E.; Derlet, R W; Van Hoozen, B E

    1999-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the use of methamphetamine has increased rapidly in the West and throughout the United States. Because of this increase, our attention has focused on methamphetamine's toxicity. Methamphetamine and related compounds generate many of the same toxic effects as cocaine. Because of methamphetamine's widespread use, clinicians should be familiar with its medical effects and toxicity and with treatment options for acute and long-term effects of methamphetamine abuse.

  4. Expanding Opportunity through Intentional Equity: Transforming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen years after the transition from a racially divided higher education system, which was designed to uphold white privilege and black subordination, apartheid continues to rear its ugly head. There is inadequate response to the changing face of South African universities; persistent inequality in the representation of ...

  5. Dynamic characteristics and seismic stability of expanded polystyrene geofoam embankments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Zahra A.

    Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) geofoam has become a preferred material in various construction applications due to its light weight. Application of EPS accelerates the projects particularly on soft soils. The focus of this research is on the application of the EPS in embankments and its behavior mainly under harmonic vibration. The goal of this study was to investigate dynamic characteristics of freestanding vertical EPS geofoam embankment and address potential seismic issues that result from the distinguished dynamic behavior of such systems due to the layered and discrete block structure. A series of experimental studies on EPS 19 and a commercially available adhesive was conducted. Two-dimensional numerical analyses were performed to replicate the response of EPS geofoam embankment to horizontal and vertical harmonic motions. The results of the analyses have shown that for some acceleration amplitude levels interlayer sliding is expected to occur in EPS geofoam embankments almost immediately after the start of the base excitation; however, as a highly efficient energy dissipation mechanism sliding ceases rapidly. Shear keys and adhesive may be used to prevent interlayer sliding if they cover the proper extent of area of the embankment. EPS blocks placed in the corners of the embankment and at the edges of the segment prohibited from sliding may experience high stress concentrations. The embankment may show horizontal sway and rocking once sliding is prevented.

  6. New DEA rules expand options for controlled substance disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David M

    2015-03-01

    Prescription drug abuse and overdose are rapidly growing problems in the United States. The United States federal Disposal of Controlled Substances Rule became effective 9 October 2014, implementing the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 (Disposal Act). These regulations target escalating prescription drug misuse by reducing accumulation of unused controlled substances that may be abused, diverted or accidentally ingested. Clinical areas that can now participate in collecting unused controlled substances include retail pharmacies, hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy, and narcotic treatment programs. Collection methods include placing a controlled substance collection receptacle or instituting a mail-back program. Because prompt onsite destruction of collected items is required of mail-back programs, collection receptacles are more likely to be used in clinical areas. Retail pharmacies and hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy may also place and maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. The Act and Rule are intended to increase controlled substance disposal methods and expand local involvement in collection of unused controlled substances. Potential barriers to participating in controlled substance collection include acquisition of suitable collection receptacles and liners, lack of available space meeting the necessary criteria, lack of employee time for verification and inventory requirements, and program costs.

  7. The Expanding Role for Retinoid Signaling in Heart Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta L. Hoover

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of retinoid signaling during cardiac development has long been appreciated, but recently has become a rapidly expanding field of research. Experiments performed over 50 years ago showed that too much or too little maternal intake of vitamin A proved detrimental for embryos, resulting in a cadre of predictable cardiac developmental defects. Germline and conditional knockout mice have revealed which molecular players in the vitamin A signaling cascade are potentially responsible for regulating specific developmental events, and many of these molecules have been temporally and spatially characterized. It is evident that intact and controlled retinoid signaling is necessary for each stage of cardiac development to proceed normally, including cardiac lineage determination, heart tube formation, looping, epicardium formation, ventricular maturation, chamber and outflow tract septation, and coronary arteriogenesis. This review summarizes many of the significant milestones in this field and particular attention is given to recently uncovered cross-talk between retinoid signaling and other developmentally significant pathways. It is our hope that this review of the role of retinoid signaling during formation, remodeling, and maturation of the developing heart will serve as a tool for future discoveries.

  8. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  9. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  10. USAID University

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID University is USAID's learning management system. Features include 1) Access online courses 2) Register for instructor-led courses 3)Access your student...

  11. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  12. Rapid communication: K 0

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. A SINGH1 A KUMAR1 R RAJA2 V BHATNAGAR1 V SINGH3. Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India; Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia 50610, USA; Banarus Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India ...

  13. Meeting report: SMART timing--principles of single molecule techniques course at the University of Michigan 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartke, Rebecca M; Cameron, Elizabeth L; Cristie-David, Ajitha S; Custer, Thomas C; Denies, Maxwell S; Daher, May; Dhakal, Soma; Ghosh, Soumi; Heinicke, Laurie A; Hoff, J Damon; Hou, Qian; Kahlscheuer, Matthew L; Karslake, Joshua; Krieger, Adam G; Li, Jieming; Li, Xiang; Lund, Paul E; Vo, Nguyen N; Park, Jun; Pitchiaya, Sethuramasundaram; Rai, Victoria; Smith, David J; Suddala, Krishna C; Wang, Jiarui; Widom, Julia R; Walter, Nils G

    2015-05-01

    Four days after the announcement of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy" based on single molecule detection, the Single Molecule Analysis in Real-Time (SMART) Center at the University of Michigan hosted a "Principles of Single Molecule Techniques 2014" course. Through a combination of plenary lectures and an Open House at the SMART Center, the course took a snapshot of a technology with an especially broad and rapidly expanding range of applications in the biomedical and materials sciences. Highlighting the continued rapid emergence of technical and scientific advances, the course underscored just how brightly the future of the single molecule field shines. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Engineering Bioluminescent Proteins: Expanding their Analytical Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Laura; Dikici, Emre; Daunert, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Bioluminescence has been observed in nature since the dawn of time, but now, scientists are harnessing it for analytical applications. Laura Rowe, Emre Dikici, and Sylvia Daunert of the University of Kentucky describe the origins of bioluminescent proteins and explore their uses in the modern chemistry laboratory. The cover features spectra of bioluminescent light superimposed on an image of jellyfish, which are a common source of bioluminescent proteins. Images courtesy of Emre Dikici and Sh...

  15. Expanding space, quasars and St. Augustine's fireworks

    CERN Document Server

    Chashchina, O I

    2014-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain time non-dilation allegedly observed in quasar light curves. The explanation is based on the assumption that quasar black holes are, in some sense, foreign for our Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe and do not participate in the Hubble flow. Although at first sight such a weird explanation requires unreasonably fine-tuned Big Bang initial conditions, we find a natural justification for it using the Milne cosmological model as an inspiration.

  16. Vision 2040: Evolving the Successful International Space University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary; Marti, Izan Peris; Tlustos, Reinhard; Lorente, Arnau Pons; Panerati, Jocopo; Mensink, Wendy; Sorkhabi, Elbruz; Garcia, Oriol Gasquez; Musilova, Michaela; Pearson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Space exploration has always been full of inspiration, innovation, and creativity, with the promise of expanding human civilization beyond Earth. The space sector is currently experiencing rapid change as disruptive technologies, grassroots programs, and new commercial initiatives have reshaped long-standing methods of operation. Throughout the last 28 years, the International Space University (ISU) has been a leading institution for space education, forming international partnerships, and encouraging entrepreneurship in its over 4,000 alumni. In this report, our Vision 2040 team projected the next 25 years of space exploration and analyzed how ISU could remain a leading institution in the rapidly changing industry. Vision 2040 considered five important future scenarios for the space sector: real-time Earth applications, orbital stations, lunar bases, lunar and asteroid mining, and a human presence on Mars. We identified the signals of disruptive change within these scenarios, including underlying driving forces and potential challenges, and derived a set of skills that will be required in the future space industry. Using these skills as a starting point, we proposed strategies in five areas of focus for ISU: the future of the Space Studies Program (SSP), analog missions, outreach, alumni, and startups. We concluded that ISU could become not just an increasingly innovative educational institution, but one that acts as an international organization that drives space commercialization, exploration, innovation, and cooperation.

  17. University Internationalization and University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    are determined by the structure and exercise of university autonomy settings at home and in the host countries, and that the process itself cannot be successfully achieved and maintained without changes in the autonomy settings. The key question the authors ask is to what degree universities, in embracing new......, dissimilar, and sometimes conflicting dimensions of the financial, legal, organisational, staffing, and academic autonomy of the host country, are compromising key aspects of their own autonomy and core mission?...

  18. Sustainable energy for all. Technical report of task force 1 in support of the objective to achieve universal access to modern energy services by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birol, Fatih [International Energy Agency, Paris (France); Brew-Hammond, Abeeku (University of Science and Technology (Ghana

    2012-04-15

    The UN Secretary General established the Sustainable Energy for All initiative in order to guide and support efforts to achieve universal access to modern energy, rapidly increase energy efficiency, and expand the use of renewable energies. Task forces were formed involving prominent energy leaders and experts from business, government, academia and civil society worldwide. The goal of the Task Forces is to inform the implementation of the initiative by identifying challenges and opportunities for achieving its objectives. This report contains the findings of Task Force One which is dedicated to the objective of achieving universal access to modern energy services by 2030. The report shows that universal energy access can be realized by 2030 with strong, focused actions set within a coordinated framework.

  19. Health Information Technology: An Expanded Care Coordination in Rural Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, John S; Green, Philip D

    2015-01-01

    The Expanded Care Coordination through the Use of Health Information Technology in Rural Tennessee was a 3-year initiative implemented by The University of Tennessee Children's Mental Health Services Research Center and the Helen Ross McNabb Center Regional Mental Health System. The program targeted rural adults in the East Tennessee area. This intervention utilized the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST), and AC-COD screening tools. After the initial screening, the appropriate level of intervention was assessed. Clients completed modules on the program's website and met with a clinician for a minimum for four face-to-face meetings. Alcohol use and drug use declined significantly over the course of the program. Alcohol use and outpatient treatment for alcohol and substance abuse declined significantly over the course of the program. There were also significant decreases in days of probations, depression, physical complaints, and violent behaviors. Health information technology is becoming more common in mental health treatment facilities. However, more testing needs to be done with larger samples to assess the efficacy of the program.

  20. Rotavirus vaccination within the South African Expanded Programme on Immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seheri, L Mapaseka; Page, Nicola A; Mawela, Mothahadini P B; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Steele, A Duncan

    2012-09-07

    Diarrhoeal diseases are ranked the third major cause of childhood mortality in South African children less than 5 years, where the majority of deaths are among black children. Acute severe dehydrating rotavirus diarrhoea remains an important contributor towards childhood mortality and morbidity and has been well documented in South Africa. As the preventive strategy to control rotavirus diarrhoea, South Africa became the first country in the WHO African Region to adopt the rotavirus vaccine in the national childhood immunisation programme in August 2009. The rotavirus vaccine in use, Rotarix, GSK Biologicals, is given at 6 and 14 weeks of age, along with other vaccines as part of Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). Studies which facilitated the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in South Africa included the burden of rotavirus disease and strain surveillance, economic burden of rotavirus infection and clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of vaccine candidates. This paper reviews the epidemiology of rotavirus in South Africa, outlines some of the steps followed to introduce rotavirus vaccine in the EPI, and highlights the early positive impact of vaccination in reducing the rotavirus burden of disease based on the post-marketing surveillance studies at Dr George Mukhari hospital, a sentinel site at University of Limpopo teaching hospital in Pretoria, South Africa, which has conducted rotavirus surveillance for >20 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A New Cosmological Model: Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new cosmological model called black hole universe is proposed. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient mate- rials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we are living, the outside called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer is infinite in radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. The relationships among all layers or universes can be connected by the universe family tree. Mathematically, the entire space can be represented as a set of all universes. A black hole universe is a subset of the en- tire space or a subspace. The child universes are null sets or empty spaces. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics - the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-walker metric of spacetime - and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. The entire life of a universe begins from the birth as a hot star-like or supermassive black hole, passes through the growth and cools down, and expands to the death with infinite large and zero mass density and absolute temperature. The black hole universe model is consistent with the Mach principle, the observations of the universe, and the Einstein general theory of relativity. Its various aspects can be understood with the well-developed physics without any difficulty. The dark energy is not required for the universe to accelerate its expansion. The inflation is not necessary because the black hole universe

  2. Plant Growth Research for Food Production: Development and Testing of Expandable Tuber Growth Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Brennan A.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled and reliable growth of a variety of vegetable crops is an important capability for manned deep space exploration systems for providing nutritional supplementation and psychological benefits to crew members. Because current systems have been limited to leafy vegetables that require minimal root space, a major goal for these systems is to increase their ability to grow new types of crops, including tuber plants and root vegetables that require a large root space. An expandable root zone module and housing was developed to integrate this capability into the Vegetable Production System (Veggie). The expandable module uses a waterproof, gas-permeable bag with a structure that allows for root space to increase vertically throughout the growth cycle to accommodate for expanding tuber growth, while minimizing the required media mass. Daikon radishes were chosen as an ideal tuber crop for their subterraneous tuber size and rapid growth cycle, and investigations were done to study expanding superabsorbent hydrogels as a potential growth media. These studies showed improved water retention, but restricted oxygen availability to roots with pure gel media. It was determined that these hydrogels could be integrated in lower proportions into standard soil to achieve media expansion and water retention desired. Using the constructed module prototype and ideal gel and soil media mixture, daikon radishes are being grown in the system to test the capability and success of the system through a full growth cycle.

  3. Expanded polylactide bead foaming - A new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofar, M.; Ameli, A.; Park, C. B.

    2015-05-01

    Bead foaming technology with double crystal melting peak structure has been recognized as a promising method to produce low-density foams with complex geometries. During the molding stage of the bead foams, the double peak structure generates a strong bead-to-bead sintering and maintains the overall foam structure. During recent years, polylactide (PLA) bead foaming has been of the great interest of researchers due to its origin from renewable resources and biodegradability. However, due to the PLA's low melt strength and slow crystallization kinetics, the attempts have been limited to the manufacturing methods used for expanded polystyrene. In this study, for the first time, we developed microcellular PLA bead foams with double crystal melting peak structure. Microcellular PLA bead foams were produced with expansion ratios and average cell sizes ranging from 3 to 30-times and 350 nm to 15 µm, respectively. The generated high melting temperature crystals during the saturation significantly affected the expansion ratio and cell density of the PLA bead foams by enhancing the PLA's poor melt strength and promoting heterogeneous cell nucleation around the crystals.

  4. Filtration application from recycled expanded polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, C

    2006-10-01

    Water-in-oil emulsion with drop size less than 100 mum is difficult to separate. Coalescence filtration is economical and effective for separation of secondary dispersions. Coalescence performance depends on flow rate, bed depth, fiber surface properties, and drop size. The amount of surface area of the fibers directly affects the efficiency. A new recycling method was investigated in the previous work in which polystyrene (PS) sub-mum fibers were electro-spun from recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS). These fibers are mixed with micro glass fibers to modify the glass fiber filter media. The filter media are tested in the separation of water droplets from an emulsion of water droplets in oil. The experimental results in this work show that adding nanofibers to conventional micron sized fibrous filter media improves the separation efficiency of the filter media but also increases the pressure drop. An optimum in the performance occurs (significant increase in efficiency with minimal increase in pressure drop) with the addition of about 4% by mass of 500 nm diameter PS nanofibers to glass fibers for the filters.

  5. Germany's expanding role in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Franz, Christian; Holzscheiter, Anna; Hunger, Iris; Jahn, Albrecht; Köhler, Carsten; Razum, Oliver; Schmidt, Jean-Olivier

    2017-08-26

    Germany has become a visible actor in global health in the past 10 years. In this Series paper, we describe how this development complements a broad change in perspective in German foreign policy. Catalysts for this shift have been strong governmental leadership, opportunities through G7 and G20 presidencies, and Germany's involvement in managing the Ebola virus disease outbreak. German global health engagement has four main characteristics that are congruent with the health agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals; it is rooted in human rights, multilateralism, the Bismarck model of social protection, and a link between development and investment on the basis of its own development trajectory after World War 2. The combination of momentum and specific characteristics makes Germany well equipped to become a leader in global health, yet the country needs to accept additional financial responsibility for global health, expand its domestic global health competencies, reduce fragmentation of global health policy making, and solve major incoherencies in its policies both nationally and internationally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phase-coded pulse expander-compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. L.

    1985-04-01

    A pulse expansion and compression system, especially useful for radar ranging, comprising a pulse coder for expanding an input pulse and a pulse compressor of the matched-filter type. The coder consists of a plurality of delay stages into which the input pulse is fed, a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) circuit to which the output signals of the delay stages are fed by way of respective phase weights and for which every other frequency port is inverted prior to entry to a time-dispersion-means (TDM) comprising an arrangement of adders interconnected by delay stages for differently delaying the output signals from the DFT. The adders are connected in N/2-fold cyclically permutated order to the frequency ports, where N is the number of frequency ports if that number is even, and N is the number of frequency ports less one if that number is odd. The TDM output is fed to a phase modulator and then to the transmitter. The echo signals are conjugated, time-inverted, and passed through the same DFT as the input pulse signal by way of the phase weights. The outputs of the DFT are then inverted at every other frequency port and passed through the TDM, but this time in time-inverted order. The outputs of the TDM are fed through an envelope detector to provide a cross-correlated facsimile of the original input pulse.

  7. P2 polyphase code expander-compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, F. F.

    1985-06-01

    A pulse expansion and compression system, especially useful for radar ranging, comprising a pulse coder for expanding an input pulse and a pulse compressor of the matched-filter type. The coder consists of a plurality of delay stages into which the input pulse is fed, a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) circuit to which the output signals of the delay stages are fed by way of respective phase weights and for which every frequency port is phase-shifted prior to entry to a time-dispersion-means (TDM) comprising an arrangement of delay stages for differently delaying the output signals from the DFT. The TDM output is fed to a phase modulator and then to the transmitter. The echo signals are conjugated, time-inverted, and passed through the same DFT as the input pulse signal by way of the phase weights. The outputs of the DFT are then phase-shifted at every frequency port and passed through the TDM, but this time in time-inverted order. The outputs of the TDM are fed through an envelope detector to provide a cross-correlated facsimile of the original input pulse.

  8. P1 polyphase code expander-compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, F. F.

    1985-04-01

    A pulse expansion and compression system, especially useful for radar ranging, comprising a pulse coder for expanding and input pulse and a pulse compressor of the matched-filter type. The coder consists of a plurality of delay stages into which the input pulse is fed, a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) circuit to which the output signals of the delay stages are fed by way of respective phase weights and for which every other frequency port is inverted prior to entry to a time-dispersion-means (TDM) comprising an arrangement of adders interconnected by delay stages for differently delaying the output signals from the DFT. The TDM output is fed to a phase modulator and then to the transmitter. The echo signals are conjugated, time-inverted, and passed through the same DFT as the input pulse signal by way of the phase weights. The outputs of the DFT are then inverted at every other frequency port and passed through the TDM, but this tme in time-inverted order. The outputs of the TDM are fed through an envelope detector to provide a cross-correlated facsimile of the original input pulse.

  9. Phase coded pulse expander-compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. L.

    1985-06-01

    A pulse expansion and compression system, especially useful for radar ranging, comprising a pulse coder for expanding an input pulse and a pulse compressor of the matched-filter type. The coder consists of a plurality of delay stages into which the input pulse is fed, a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) circuit to which the output signals of the delay stages are fed by way of respective phase weights and for which every other frequency port is inverted prior to entry to a time-dispersion means (TDM) comprising an arrangement of adders interconnected by delay stages for differently delaying the output signals from the DFT. The TDM output is fed to a phase modulator and then to the transmitter. The echo signals are conjugated, time-inverted, and passed through the same DFT as the input pulse signal by way of the phase weights. The outputs of the DFT are then inverted at every other frequency port and passed through the TDM, but this time in time-inverted order. The outputs of the TDM are fed through an envelope detector to provide a cross-correlated facsimile of the original input pulse.

  10. Expanding the role of internal facility assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.L.; Levenson, J.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Weaver, M.A. [Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP) is an effective and comprehensive system to evaluate environmental compliance at individual USAF installations. The ECAMP assessment is typically performed by a team of experts from the installation`s Major Command (MAJCOM) Headquarters, and is often augmented with technical contractor support. As directed by Air Force policy, an external ECAMP assessment is required at a minimum of every three years for each installation. In the intervening years, each installation is required to perform an internal ECAMP assessment, with its own personnel and resources. Even though team composition differs, the internal and external ECAMP assessments are likely to be very similar in scope, objectives, and deliverables. For over nine years, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has supported several Air Force MAJCOMs in performing their external ECAMP assessments. More recently, ANL has also had the opportunity to provide technical support and training at individual installations during their preparation and conduct of internal ECAMP assessments. From that experience, the authors have learned that the quality and value of the internal assessment is enhanced by making it a vehicle for training, planning, and interaction among organizations. Various strategies and techniques have been successfully employed to derive maximum benefit and insight from the internal assessment process. Experiences that involve expanding the scope and objectives of internal assessments to meet specific goals are presented. The expansion of scope and objectives include preassessment training, planning, and evaluator interactions as part of the overall internal assessment process.

  11. Helical Screw Expander Evaluation Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, R.

    1982-03-01

    A functional 1-MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested in Utah in 1978 to 1979 with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer-equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000-kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Additional testing was performed in Mexico in 1980 under a cooperative test program using the same test array, and machine efficiency was measured at 62% maximum with the rotors partially coated with scale, compared with approximately 54% maximum in Utah with uncoated rotors, confirming the importance of scale deposits within the machine on performance. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

  12. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Terri [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rai, Neha [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reber, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muzammil, Maliha [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Mahmood, Tasfiq [International Center for Climate Change and Development, Baridhara (Bangladesh); Kaur, Nanki [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Tesfaye, Lidya [Echnoserve Consulting (Ethiopia); Mamuye, Simret [Echnoserve Consulting (Ethiopia); Knuckles, James [Univ. of London (England). Cass Business School; Morris, Ellen [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); de Been, Merijn [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Steinbach, Dave [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Acharya, Sunil [Digo Bikas Inst. (Nepal); Chhetri, Raju Pandit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhushal, Ramesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.

  13. Developing Marketing Strategies for University Teaching Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    University teaching hospitals face increasing competition from community hospitals, expanding regulation of health care, consumerism, and a declining urban population base. New marketing strategies are seen as ways in which teaching hospitals can achieve better relationships with institutions, practitioners, and surrounding communities and…

  14. OER Perspectives: Emerging Issues for Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, Don

    2012-01-01

    This reflection examines some of the continuing and emerging issues in the open educational resources (OER) field. These include blending OER with university management structures; formal and non-formal OER; the need for sustainable OER business models; and expanding awareness, adoption, and use of OER. In the future, research will need to examine…

  15. Chaotic Maps Dynamics, Fractals, and Rapid Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Goong

    2011-01-01

    This book consists of lecture notes for a semester-long introductory graduate course on dynamical systems and chaos taught by the authors at Texas A&M University and Zhongshan University, China. There are ten chapters in the main body of the book, covering an elementary theory of chaotic maps in finite-dimensional spaces. The topics include one-dimensional dynamical systems (interval maps), bifurcations, general topological, symbolic dynamical systems, fractals and a class of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems which are induced by interval maps, plus rapid fluctuations of chaotic maps as a

  16. Expanded carrier screening : What determines intended participation and can this be influenced by message framing and narrative information?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorwinden, Jan S.; Buitenhuis, Anne H.; Birnie, Erwin; Lucassen, Anneke M.; Verkerk, Marian A.; van Langen, Irene M.; Plantinga, Mirjam; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Next-generation sequencing enabled us to create a population-based expanded carrier screening (ECS) test that simultaneously tests for 50 serious autosomal recessive diseases. Before offering this test universally, we wanted to know what factors are related to intended participation and how the

  17. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  18. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-05

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accurate Estimation of Target amounts Using Expanded BASS Model for Demand-Side Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Woong; Park, Jong-Jin; Kim, Jin-O.

    2008-10-01

    The electricity demand in Korea has rapidly increased along with a steady economic growth since 1970s. Therefore Korea has positively propelled not only SSM (Supply-Side Management) but also DSM (Demand-Side Management) activities to reduce investment cost of generating units and to save supply costs of electricity through the enhancement of whole national energy utilization efficiency. However study for rebate, which have influence on success or failure on DSM program, is not sufficient. This paper executed to modeling mathematically expanded Bass model considering rebates, which have influence on penetration amounts for DSM program. To reflect rebate effect more preciously, the pricing function using in expanded Bass model directly reflects response of potential participants for rebate level.

  20. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  1. Expanding on Successful Concepts, Models, and Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Edwards, Stephen W.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Anderson, Kim A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kile, Molly L.; L. Massey Simonich, Staci; Stone, David; Tanguay, Robert L.; Waters, Katrina M.; Harper, Stacey L.; Williams, David E.

    2016-09-06

    In her letter to the editor1 regarding our recent Feature Article “Completing the Link between Exposure Science and Toxicology for Improved Environmental Health Decision Making: The Aggregate Exposure Pathway Framework” 2, Dr. von Göetz expressed several concerns about terminology, and the perception that we propose the replacement of successful approaches and models for exposure assessment with a concept. We are glad to have the opportunity to address these issues here. If the goal of the AEP framework was to replace existing exposure models or databases for organizing exposure data with a concept, we would share Dr. von Göetz concerns. Instead, the outcome we promote is broader use of an organizational framework for exposure science. The framework would support improved generation, organization, and interpretation of data as well as modeling and prediction, not replacement of models. The field of toxicology has seen the benefits of wide use of one or more organizational frameworks (e.g., mode and mechanism of action, adverse outcome pathway). These frameworks influence how experiments are designed, data are collected, curated, stored and interpreted and ultimately how data are used in risk assessment. Exposure science is poised to similarly benefit from broader use of a parallel organizational framework, which Dr. von Göetz correctly points out, is currently used in the exposure modeling community. In our view, the concepts used so effectively in the exposure modeling community, expanded upon in the AEP framework, could see wider adoption by the field as a whole. The value of such a framework was recognized by the National Academy of Sciences.3 Replacement of models, databases, or any application with the AEP framework was not proposed in our article. The positive role broader more consistent use of such a framework might have in enabling and advancing “general activities such as data acquisition, organization…,” and exposure modeling was discussed

  2. Universities 2035

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the future of Western higher education. Situated midway between an analysis and a polemic, it concerns itself with how we might begin to actively design the universities of the future. That will require a productionist account of higher education which is so far sadly lacking. But there are signs that such an account might be…

  3. Expanding awareness of docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Rebecca; Akkersdyk, Shann; Yeatman, Heather; Meyer, Barbara J

    2013-04-02

    Pregnant women do not currently meet the consensus recommendation for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (≥200 mg/day). Pregnant women in Australia are not receiving information on the importance of DHA during pregnancy. DHA pregnancy education materials were developed using current scientific literature, and tested for readability and design aesthetics. The study aimed to evaluate their usefulness, the desire for pregnant women to receive these materials and whether a larger separate study (using a control group) is warranted to evaluate the influence the materials may have on increasing DHA consumption in pregnant women in Australia. Pregnant women (N = 118) were recruited at antenatal clinics at two NSW hospitals. Participants completed a 16-item questionnaire and DHA educational materials (pamphlet and shopping card) were provided. Participants were contacted via phone two weeks later and completed the second questionnaire (25-item, N = 74). Statistics were conducted in SPSS and qualitative data were analysed to identify common themes. Ninety three percent of women found the materials useful, with the main reason being it expanded their knowledge of DHA food sources. Only 34% of women had received prior information on DHA, yet 68% said they would like to receive information. Due to the small sample size and lack of a control group, this small study cannot provide a cause and effect relationship between the materials and nutrition related behaviours or knowledge, however the results indicate a potential positive influence towards increased fish consumption and awareness of DHA containing foods. This suggests a larger study, with a control group is warranted to identify the impact such materials could have on Australian pregnant women.

  4. Expanding the boundaries of local similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durno, W Evan; Hanson, Niels W; Konwar, Kishori M; Hallam, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Pairwise comparison of time series data for both local and time-lagged relationships is a computationally challenging problem relevant to many fields of inquiry. The Local Similarity Analysis (LSA) statistic identifies the existence of local and lagged relationships, but determining significance through a p-value has been algorithmically cumbersome due to an intensive permutation test, shuffling rows and columns and repeatedly calculating the statistic. Furthermore, this p-value is calculated with the assumption of normality -- a statistical luxury dissociated from most real world datasets. To improve the performance of LSA on big datasets, an asymptotic upper bound on the p-value calculation was derived without the assumption of normality. This change in the bound calculation markedly improved computational speed from O(pm²n) to O(m²n), where p is the number of permutations in a permutation test, m is the number of time series, and n is the length of each time series. The bounding process is implemented as a computationally efficient software package, FASTLSA, written in C and optimized for threading on multi-core computers, improving its practical computation time. We computationally compare our approach to previous implementations of LSA, demonstrate broad applicability by analyzing time series data from public health, microbial ecology, and social media, and visualize resulting networks using the Cytoscape software. The FASTLSA software package expands the boundaries of LSA allowing analysis on datasets with millions of co-varying time series. Mapping metadata onto force-directed graphs derived from FASTLSA allows investigators to view correlated cliques and explore previously unrecognized network relationships. The software is freely available for download at: http://www.cmde.science.ubc.ca/hallam/fastLSA/.

  5. PROFAM expands Mexican family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico.

  6. The Phenix expandable prosthesis: early American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, R M; Soubeiran, A

    2001-01-01

    One of the major dilemmas in limb preservation in skeletally immature children involves the ability to maintain leg length equality. Many attempts have been made to design a prosthesis that could be expanded easily either nonoperatively or through a minor surgical procedure. Most of these designs have had mechanical difficulty or the lengthening procedure becomes a major surgical endeavor. The Phenix technology has been used in France for several years. The basic principle involves storage of energy in a spring which is maintained compressed by an original locking system. Once implanted, prosthetic lengthening is achieved via exposure to an external electromagnetic field that pilots the locking system and allows controlled release of the spring energy. Seven Phenix prostheses have been implanted in six patients. All patients had been treated for Stage II-B osteosarcoma. Six of the seven prostheses were implanted during revision procedures in salvage situations; one prosthesis was implanted during an index procedure. The surgical procedures were completed without complications. One patient sustained a fracture of the prosthesis in a fall and had an infection develop after implantation of the second prosthesis. Twenty-one expansions have been performed in six patients (mean lengthening at each procedure, 8 mm). There were no acute complications attributable to the lengthening procedure. Prosthetic expansions required an average of 20 to 30 seconds and were accompanied by very mild discomfort, if any. Most patients were given an oral analgesic either before or during the lengthening procedure. The Phenix prosthesis shows promise in handling the difficult problem of limb preservation in a growing child. Additional investigation is underway regarding limb lengthening and other dynamic applications.

  7. Expanding Awareness of Docosahexaenoic Acid during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women do not currently meet the consensus recommendation for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (≥200 mg/day. Pregnant women in Australia are not receiving information on the importance of DHA during pregnancy. DHA pregnancy education materials were developed using current scientific literature, and tested for readability and design aesthetics. The study aimed to evaluate their usefulness, the desire for pregnant women to receive these materials and whether a larger separate study (using a control group is warranted to evaluate the influence the materials may have on increasing DHA consumption in pregnant women in Australia. Pregnant women (N = 118 were recruited at antenatal clinics at two NSW hospitals. Participants completed a 16-item questionnaire and DHA educational materials (pamphlet and shopping card were provided. Participants were contacted via phone two weeks later and completed the second questionnaire (25-item, N = 74. Statistics were conducted in SPSS and qualitative data were analysed to identify common themes. Ninety three percent of women found the materials useful, with the main reason being it expanded their knowledge of DHA food sources. Only 34% of women had received prior information on DHA, yet 68% said they would like to receive information. Due to the small sample size and lack of a control group, this small study cannot provide a cause and effect relationship between the materials and nutrition related behaviours or knowledge, however the results indicate a potential positive influence towards increased fish consumption and awareness of DHA containing foods. This suggests a larger study, with a control group is warranted to identify the impact such materials could have on Australian pregnant women.

  8. Comparing the Open University Systems of China and India: Origins, Developments and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perris, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The national open universities of China and India are unique adaptations of the open university model that emanated from the UK. These institutions have expanded to become the largest universities in the world as measured by current enrollment of approximately four million each. This article comparatively analyzes how these open universities have…

  9. Sakurai's Object Continues to Brighten and Expand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Joyce, Richard R.; Matheson, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Sakurai's Object (V4334 Sgr), the prototype final flash object discovered in the mid-1990s, was observed to undergo rapid cooling becoming as faint as 25th magnitude at K during the first decade of the 21st century. A review of imaging data suggests the minimum K magnitude occurred about 2006. Sakuarai's Object was re-acquired at K in 2010. Between 2010 Sep and 2013 Apr Sakurai's object brightened more than 2 magnitudes to K=14.2. Here we report on a Gemini-NIRI K band AO image obtained in 2016 July. The Ks magnitude was 13.35. The AO image also records the continuing expansion of the debris cloud. The central star remains obscured. Spectro-spatial NIFS images of the spectral region around He I 1.0830 micron and a GMOS optical spectrum, both observed in 2015, will also be displayed.

  10. Lightweight High Strength Concrete with Expanded Polystyrene Beads

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Tengku Fitriani L

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a literature study about lightweight high strength concrete by incorporating expanded polystyrene beads. Basically polystyrene is disposal material from packaging industry. However, after being processed in a special manner, polystyrene can be expanded and used as lightweight concrete making material. Therefore, the use of expanded polystyrene beads in concrete is not only beneficial for engineering studies but also provide solution for the environmental problem

  11. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  12. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  13. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  14. Can the Universe create itself?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, J. Richard, III; Li, Li-Xin

    1998-07-01

    The question of first-cause has troubled philosophers and cosmologists alike. Now that it is apparent that our universe began in a big bang explosion, the question of what happened before the big bang arises. Inflation seems like a very promising answer, but as Borde and Vilenkin have shown, the inflationary state preceding the big bang could not have been infinite in duration-it must have had a beginning also. Where did it come from? Ultimately, the difficult question seems to be how to make something out of nothing. This paper explores the idea that this is the wrong question-that that is not how the Universe got here. Instead, we explore the idea of whether there is anything in the laws of physics that would prevent the Universe from creating itself. Because spacetimes can be curved and multiply connected, general relativity allows for the possibility of closed timelike curves (CTCs). Thus, tracing backwards in time through the original inflationary state we may eventually encounter a region of CTCs-giving no first-cause. This region of CTCs may well be over by now (being bounded toward the future by a Cauchy horizon). We illustrate that such models-with CTCs-are not necessarily inconsistent by demonstrating self-consistent vacuums for Misner space and a multiply connected de Sitter space in which the renormalized energy-momentum tensor does not diverge as one approaches the Cauchy horizon and solves Einstein's equations. Some specific scenarios (out of many possible ones) for this type of model are described. For example, a metastable vacuum inflates producing an infinite number of (big-bang-type) bubble universes. In many of these, either by natural causes or by action of advanced civilizations, a number of bubbles of metastable vacuum are created at late times by high energy events. These bubbles will usually collapse and form black holes, but occasionally one will tunnel to create an expanding metastable vacuum (a baby universe) on the other side of the

  15. Allogeneic lymphocyte-licensed DCs expand T cells with improved antitumor activity and resistance to oxidative stress and immunosuppressive factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive T-cell therapy of cancer is a treatment strategy where T cells are isolated, activated, in some cases engineered, and expanded ex vivo before being reinfused to the patient. The most commonly used T-cell expansion methods are either anti-CD3/CD28 antibody beads or the “rapid expansion protocol” (REP, which utilizes OKT-3, interleukin (IL-2, and irradiated allogeneic feeder cells. However, REP-expanded or bead-expanded T cells are sensitive to the harsh tumor microenvironment and often short-lived after reinfusion. Here, we demonstrate that when irradiated and preactivated allosensitized allogeneic lymphocytes (ASALs are used as helper cells to license OKT3-armed allogeneic mature dendritic cells (DCs, together they expand target T cells of high quality. The ASAL/DC combination yields an enriched Th1-polarizing cytokine environment (interferon (IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-2 and optimal costimulatory signals for T-cell stimulation. When genetically engineered antitumor T cells were expanded by this coculture system, they showed better survival and cytotoxic efficacy under oxidative stress and immunosuppressive environment, as well as superior proliferative response during tumor cell killing compared to the REP protocol. Our result suggests a robust ex vivo method to expand T cells with improved quality for adoptive cancer immunotherapy.

  16. Non-surgical treatment of transverse deficiency in adults using Microimplant-assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion (MARPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, Daniel Paludo; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzzotti; Machado, Andre Wilson; Moon, Won

    2017-02-01

    Maxillary transverse deficiency is a highly prevalent malocclusion present in all age groups, from primary to permanent dentition. If not treated on time, it can aggravate and evolve to a more complex malocclusion, hindering facial growth and development. Aside from the occlusal consequences, the deficiency can bring about serious respiratory problems as well, due to the consequent nasal constriction usually associated. In growing patients, this condition can be easily handled with a conventional rapid palatal expansion. However, mature patients are frequently subjected to a more invasive procedure, the surgically-assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). More recently, researches have demonstrated that it is possible to expand the maxilla in grown patients without performing osteotomies, but using microimplants anchorage instead. This novel technique is called microimplant-assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE). The aim of the present article was to demonstrate and discuss a MARPE technique developed by Dr. Won Moon and colleagues at University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA). All laboratory and clinical steps needed for its correct execution are thoroughly described. For better comprehension, a mature patient case is reported, detailing all the treatment progress and results obtained. It was concluded that the demonstrated technique could be an interesting alternative to SARPE in the majority of non-growing patients with maxillary transverse deficiency. The present patient showed important occlusal and respiratory benefits following the procedure, without requiring any surgical intervention.

  17. Non-surgical treatment of transverse deficiency in adults using Microimplant-assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion (MARPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paludo Brunetto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Maxillary transverse deficiency is a highly prevalent malocclusion present in all age groups, from primary to permanent dentition. If not treated on time, it can aggravate and evolve to a more complex malocclusion, hindering facial growth and development. Aside from the occlusal consequences, the deficiency can bring about serious respiratory problems as well, due to the consequent nasal constriction usually associated. In growing patients, this condition can be easily handled with a conventional rapid palatal expansion. However, mature patients are frequently subjected to a more invasive procedure, the surgically-assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE. More recently, researches have demonstrated that it is possible to expand the maxilla in grown patients without performing osteotomies, but using microimplants anchorage instead. This novel technique is called microimplant-assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE. Objective: The aim of the present article was to demonstrate and discuss a MARPE technique developed by Dr. Won Moon and colleagues at University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA. Methods: All laboratory and clinical steps needed for its correct execution are thoroughly described. For better comprehension, a mature patient case is reported, detailing all the treatment progress and results obtained. Conclusion: It was concluded that the demonstrated technique could be an interesting alternative to SARPE in the majority of non-growing patients with maxillary transverse deficiency. The present patient showed important occlusal and respiratory benefits following the procedure, without requiring any surgical intervention.

  18. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  19. Class of probe brane universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilić, Milovan

    2013-06-01

    I examine the idea that our world is a branelike object of negligible influence on the bulk spacetime. No particular action functional is specified. Instead, the probe brane dynamics is derived from the universally valid stress-energy conservation equations. As an example, I study the case of a three-sphere in the five-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. The resulting four-universe turns out to depend on the equation of state of the brane constituent matter but differs from that of general relativity. One observes that, for every general relativistic universe, there exists a brane universe of equal geometry but a slightly different equation of state. As for the stability of brane universes, I find that no equation of state leads to a stable solution. However, the situation changes if the bulk spacetime has a Euclidean signature. In this case, a class of stable cosmological solutions is obtained. The brane vibrations are guided by the covariant Klein-Gordon equation with an effective metric of the Minkowski signature. It is this effective metric that local observers actually detect. As a consequence, the detected Universe is of bouncing type, with an accelerating expanding phase.

  20. Determinants of health-related lifestyles among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceijas, Carmen; Waldhäusl, Sabrina; Lambert, Nicky; Cassar, Simon; Bello-Corassa, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate students' health-related lifestyles and to identify barriers and social determinants of healthier lifestyles. An online survey, two focus groups and three in-depth interviews across 2014/2015. A stratified by school size and random sample ( n = 468) of university students answered a 67-item questionnaire comprising six scales: Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity, Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Patients-Short Version, CAGE, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale short version, and ad hoc scale for drug use/misuse. Stratified by gender, χ(2) tests were run to test associations/estimate risks and three multivariate Logistic Regression models were adjusted. A thematic approach guided the analysis of qualitative data. A total of 60% of the respondents were insufficiently physically active, 47% had an unbalanced diet and 30% had low mental wellbeing. Alcohol drinkers versus abstinent were almost equally distributed. A total of 42% of alcohol drinkers reported getting drunk at least once a month. Smokers accounted for 16% of the respondents. Identified risk factors for suboptimal physical activity were as follows: being a woman, not using the university gym and smoking. Risk factors for unbalanced diet were low mental wellbeing and drug use. Poor mental wellbeing was predicted by unbalanced diet, not feeling like shopping and cooking frequently, and a lack of help-seeking behaviour in cases of distress. Qualitative analysis revealed seven thematic categories: transition to new life, university environment and systems, finances, academic pressure, health promotion on campus and recommendations. This study provides robust evidence that the health-related lifestyles of the student population are worrying and suggests that the trend in chronic diseases associated with unhealthy lifestyles sustained over years might be unlikely to change in future generations. University students

  1. Histone variant innovation in a rapidly evolving chordate lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pascal WTC

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone variants alter the composition of nucleosomes and play crucial roles in transcription, chromosome segregation, DNA repair, and sperm compaction. Modification of metazoan histone variant lineages occurs on a background of genome architecture that shows global similarities from sponges to vertebrates, but the urochordate, Oikopleura dioica, a member of the sister group to vertebrates, exhibits profound modification of this ancestral architecture. Results We show that a histone complement of 47 gene loci encodes 31 histone variants, grouped in distinct sets of developmental expression profiles throughout the life cycle. A particularly diverse array of 15 male-specific histone variants was uncovered, including a testes-specific H4t, the first metazoan H4 sequence variant reported. Universal histone variants H3.3, CenH3, and H2A.Z are present but O. dioica lacks homologs of macroH2A and H2AX. The genome encodes many H2A and H2B variants and the repertoire of H2A.Z isoforms is expanded through alternative splicing, incrementally regulating the number of acetylatable lysine residues in the functionally important N-terminal "charge patch". Mass spectrometry identified 40 acetylation, methylation and ubiquitylation posttranslational modifications (PTMs and showed that hallmark PTMs of "active" and "repressive" chromatin were present in O. dioica. No obvious reduction in silent heterochromatic marks was observed despite high gene density in this extraordinarily compacted chordate genome. Conclusions These results show that histone gene complements and their organization differ considerably even over modest phylogenetic distances. Substantial innovation among all core and linker histone variants has evolved in concert with adaptation of specific life history traits in this rapidly evolving chordate lineage.

  2. The gravitational wave symphony of the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    extremely strong and highly nonlinear. The network will listen to the waves from rapidly spinning non-axisymmetric neutron stars, normal modes of black holes, binary black hole inspiral and merger, phase transitions in the early Universe, quantum fluctuations resulting in a characteristic background in the early Universe.

  3. The Scholarly Communication Process within the University Research Corridor (Michigan State University, the University of Michigan, and Wayne State University): A Case Study in Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Timothy; Holley, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of open access publishing, the development of institutional repositories, and the availability of millions of digitized monographs and journals are rapidly changing scholarly communication. This case study looks at the current and possible uses of these tools by Michigan's three largest universities: Michigan State University, the…

  4. The counter ion: expanding excipient functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireesh Apte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Excipients have increasingly become 'enablers' of drug delivery and efficacy rather than passive bystanders. Advances in pharmaceutical technology have enabled the ability to deliver specific counter ions (in the form of the counter ion containing excipient and the API simultaneously to preselected targets in the body. This, coupled with a near universal mechanism of columbic interactions that determine the [API- counter ion] efficacy, can be harnessed to exploit this hitherto unavailable or unrecognized enabling mechanism. New excipients may be assembled by a near inexhaustible supply of different permutations of counter ions and their judicious use in specific situations could potentially drive a renaissance in excipient innovation (and drug delivery and efficacy despite regulatory stagnation.

  5. CERN encourages girls to "expand their horizons"

    CERN Multimedia

    François Briard

    2015-01-01

    On 14 November, CERN took part for the fourth time in "Élargis tes horizons" (see here), a conference organised every two years at Geneva University for girls from the local region aged 11 to 14 aiming to encourage them to take up studies and careers in the scientific and technical domains.   Claude Sanz (left), a fellow in the EN Department, explaining to three girls how to build a particle accelerator in a salad bowl. This year, young physicists and engineers from ATLAS and CMS ran three workshops: "Seeing the invisible using a cloud chamber", "Great cold fun and treats with liquid nitrogen" and "Build your own accelerator in a salad bowl!" CERN was also represented at the Forum de Découverte, represented by the Diversity Office and the Medialab team, presenting the "Higgnite" interactive experiment, which illustrates the principle of the Higgs field. More...

  6. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  7. Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with

  8. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  9. University writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Zabalza Beraza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.

  10. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition: Expanding theUniverse of Protein Families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yooseph, Shibu; Sutton, Granger; Rusch, Douglas B.; Halpern,Aaron L.; Williamson, Shannon J.; Remington, Karin; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Heidelberg, Karla B.; Manning, Gerard; Li, Weizhong; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Cieplak, Piotr; Miller, Christopher S.; Li, Huiying; Mashiyama, Susan T.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; van Belle, Christopher; Chandonia, John-Marc; Soergel, David A.; Zhai, Yufeng; Natarajan, Kannan; Lee, Shaun; Raphael,Benjamin J.; Bafna, Vineet; Friedman, Robert; Brenner, Steven E.; Godzik,Adam; Eisenberg, David; Dixon, Jack E.; Taylor, Susan S.; Strausberg,Robert L.; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J.Craig

    2006-03-23

    Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans) from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.

  11. The expanding universe of transposon technologies for gene and cell engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivics Zoltán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposable elements can be viewed as natural DNA transfer vehicles that, similar to integrating viruses, are capable of efficient genomic insertion. The mobility of class II transposable elements (DNA transposons can be controlled by conditionally providing the transposase component of the transposition reaction. Thus, a DNA of interest (be it a fluorescent marker, a small hairpin (shRNA expression cassette, a mutagenic gene trap or a therapeutic gene construct cloned between the inverted repeat sequences of a transposon-based vector can be used for stable genomic insertion in a regulated and highly efficient manner. This methodological paradigm opened up a number of avenues for genome manipulations in vertebrates, including transgenesis for the generation of transgenic cells in tissue culture, the production of germline transgenic animals for basic and applied research, forward genetic screens for functional gene annotation in model species, and therapy of genetic disorders in humans. Sleeping Beauty (SB was the first transposon shown to be capable of gene transfer in vertebrate cells, and recent results confirm that SB supports a full spectrum of genetic engineering including transgenesis, insertional mutagenesis, and therapeutic somatic gene transfer both ex vivo and in vivo. The first clinical application of the SB system will help to validate both the safety and efficacy of this approach. In this review, we describe the major transposon systems currently available (with special emphasis on SB, discuss the various parameters and considerations pertinent to their experimental use, and highlight the state of the art in transposon technology in diverse genetic applications.

  12. Expanding the universe of cytokines and pattern recognition receptors: galectins and glycans in innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerliani, Juan P; Stowell, Sean R; Mascanfroni, Iván D; Arthur, Connie M; Cummings, Richard D; Rabinovich, Gabriel A

    2011-02-01

    Effective immunity relies on the recognition of pathogens and tumors by innate immune cells through diverse pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that lead to initiation of signaling processes and secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Galectins, a family of endogenous lectins widely expressed in infected and neoplastic tissues have emerged as part of the portfolio of soluble mediators and pattern recognition receptors responsible for eliciting and controlling innate immunity. These highly conserved glycan-binding proteins can control immune cell processes through binding to specific glycan structures on pathogens and tumors or by acting intracellularly via modulation of selective signaling pathways. Recent findings demonstrate that various galectin family members influence the fate and physiology of different innate immune cells including polymorphonuclear neutrophils, mast cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Moreover, several pathogens may actually utilize galectins as a mechanism of host invasion. In this review, we aim to highlight and integrate recent discoveries that have led to our current understanding of the role of galectins in host-pathogen interactions and innate immunity. Challenges for the future will embrace the rational manipulation of galectin-glycan interactions to instruct and shape innate immunity during microbial infections, inflammation, and cancer.

  13. The correlation function for density perturbations in an expanding universe. II - Nonlinear theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclelland, J.; Silk, J.

    1977-01-01

    A formalism is developed to find the two-point and higher-order correlation functions for a given distribution of sizes and shapes of perturbations which are randomly placed in three-dimensional space. The perturbations are described by two parameters such as central density and size, and the two-point correlation function is explicitly related to the luminosity function of groups and clusters of galaxies

  14. Expanding Roles and Resources: Assessing the Collaboration between Florida Atlantic University Libraries and Taras Oceanographic Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Diane; Brunnick, Barbara; Plocharczyk, Leah

    2015-01-01

    As academic libraries struggle to remain relevant when technological advancements and electronic resources threaten to make them obsolete, libraries are learning to re-invent themselves by molding and adapting staff skills to cultivate innovative outreach programs. The Science Outreach Committee of the John D. MacArthur Campus library at Florida…

  15. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition: expanding the universe of protein families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibu Yooseph

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.

  16. University physics

    CERN Document Server

    Arfken, George

    1984-01-01

    University Physics provides an authoritative treatment of physics. This book discusses the linear motion with constant acceleration; addition and subtraction of vectors; uniform circular motion and simple harmonic motion; and electrostatic energy of a charged capacitor. The behavior of materials in a non-uniform magnetic field; application of Kirchhoff's junction rule; Lorentz transformations; and Bernoulli's equation are also deliberated. This text likewise covers the speed of electromagnetic waves; origins of quantum physics; neutron activation analysis; and interference of light. This publi

  17. University Research Funding: The United States Is Behind and Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert D.; Stewart, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    Research and development drives innovation and innovation drives long-run economic growth, creating jobs and improving living standards in the process. University-based research is of particular importance to innovation, as the early-stage research that is typically performed at universities serves to expand the knowledge pool from which the…

  18. Internationalization of the Language Curriculum at the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article analyzes the internationalization of the language curriculum at the University of Botswana. The internationalization process is part of the implementation of the University's Policy on Internationalization that was rolled out in 2006. The policy has three objectives: to expand international student and staff exchanges; ...

  19. University Knowledge Production and Innovation: Getting a Grip

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    Today universities are increasingly seen as motors of innovation: they not only need to provide trained manpower and publications to society, but also new products, new processes and new services that create firms, jobs, and economic growth. This function of universities is controversial, and a huge and still expanding literature has tried to…

  20. University lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In the past year, an increasing number of individual academic institutions have lobbied in Congress for new science facilities funds thus circumventing the traditional peer review process of evaluating the merits of such facilities. As an attempt to stem this rising tide, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) governing council and the Association of American Universities (AAU) recently and independently issued strong statements condemning lobbying by individual universities and enthusiastically supporting the peer review system.“Informed peer judgments on the scientific merits of specific proposals, in open competition, should be a central element in the awarding of all federal funds for science,” the NAS resolution stated. AAU, meanwhile, implored “scientists, leaders of America's universities, and members of Congress” to “refrain from actions that would make scientific decisions a test of political influence rather than a judgment on the quality of the work to be done.” Roughly 50 research institutions constitute AAU; the two AAU Canadian members did not vote on the consortium's statement.

  1. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  2. Study and design of beam expander with wide aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Jin, Guangyong; Cai, Jixing; Zhang, Wei; Wei, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve the capacity of beam collimation for laser beam expander, it is necessary to design a more reasonable and feasible structure of beam expander system. Laser beam expander is used to compress the laser divergence angle, in order to reduce the energy losing in long distance scanning acquisition system. This paper introduces the working principle and design idea of the laser beam expander, the collimating multiplying power focal length and the collimated magnification formula of expander main, secondary mirror. According to the third-order aberration theory, Considering the spherical aberration, sine difference and divergence angle, the reasonable analysis of optical path, ZEMAX optical design software was used to design large-diameter laser beam expander and analysis and optimize, And given the actual design data and results. Display the maximum optical path difference is +/-0.01λ of the main light ray and each light ray. To combination the rear- group objective lens of Galileo and Kepler beam expander, a large-diameter(1.475m) laser beam expander was designed with 0.2m in the diameter, 1/2m in the relative caliber. In the objective lens System, a high-order aspherical was used to the aberration of extra-axial point. we can see that the image quality is close to the diffraction limit from the curves of wavefront. In addition to improve image quality effectively, the system has the characteristics of simple structure, less costly and less design difficulty to compare with the other beam expanding system. And make the output beam's divergence angle smaller, energy density higher, and the beam quality has been greatly improved. The results show that the beam expander is fully meet the design requirements, the use effect is good. Design and research of laser beam expanding system not only improves the quality of the laser beam in the laser system, but also enlarge the application field of laser technology in photoelectric system.

  3. Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K. R.; Levine, A.

    2014-09-01

    The Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit combines the former Geothermal Regulatory Roadmap, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Database, and other resources into a Web-based tool that gives the regulatory and utility-scale geothermal developer communities rapid and easy access to permitting information. RAPID currently comprises five tools - Permitting Atlas, Regulatory Roadmap, Resource Library, NEPA Database, and Best Practices. A beta release of an additional tool, the Permitting Wizard, is scheduled for late 2014. Because of the huge amount of information involved, RAPID was developed in a wiki platform to allow industry and regulatory agencies to maintain the content in the future so that it continues to provide relevant and accurate information to users. In 2014, the content was expanded to include regulatory requirements for utility-scale solar and bulk transmission development projects. Going forward, development of the RAPID Toolkit will focus on expanding the capabilities of current tools, developing additional tools, including additional technologies, and continuing to increase stakeholder involvement.

  4. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  5. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  6. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  7. Expanded GAA repeats impair FXN gene expression and reposition the FXN locus to the nuclear lamina in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana M; Brown, Jill M; Buckle, Veronica J; Wade-Martins, Richard; Lufino, Michele M P

    2015-06-15

    Abnormally expanded DNA repeats are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. In Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), expanded GAA repeats in intron 1 of the frataxin gene (FXN) reduce FXN mRNA levels in averaged cell samples through a poorly understood mechanism. By visualizing FXN expression and nuclear localization in single cells, we show that GAA-expanded repeats decrease the number of FXN mRNA molecules, slow transcription, and increase FXN localization at the nuclear lamina (NL). Restoring histone acetylation reverses NL positioning. Expanded GAA-FXN loci in FRDA patient cells show increased NL localization with increased silencing of alleles and reduced transcription from alleles positioned peripherally. We also demonstrate inefficiencies in transcription initiation and elongation from the expanded GAA-FXN locus at single-cell resolution. We suggest that repressive epigenetic modifications at the expanded GAA-FXN locus may lead to NL relocation, where further repression may occur. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  9. Compressive and Tensile Strength of Expanded Polystyrene Beads Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Tengku Fitriani L

    2005-01-01

    Penelitian ini betujuan untuk mempelajari property dari beton ringan yang mengandung expanded polystyrene beads, yaitu kuat tekan (compressive strength) dan kuat tarik (tensile strength). Property tersebut kemudian dibandingkan dengan beton normal (beton tanpa expanded polystyrene beads) sebagai campuran pengontrol. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa jumlah polystyrene beads yang dimasukkan sebagai campuran beton mempengaruhi property beton; yaitu dapat menurunkan kuat tekan beton. Tetapi...

  10. Principles of the fifth order tuning of beam expanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F.; Aniel, T.

    1995-12-31

    An analytical treatment of the third and fifth order optics of beam expanders is described, which allows precise tuning of the optical elements of the beam line, and efficient optimization of the beam uniformizing at the extended target. An application to a two-dimensional expander is given as an illustration. (authors). 4 refs.

  11. 21 CFR 878.5035 - Nonabsorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene surgical suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... surgical suture. 878.5035 Section 878.5035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 878.5035 Nonabsorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene surgical suture. (a) Identification. Nonabsorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) surgical suture is a monofilament, nonabsorbable, sterile...

  12. Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable Extension Practice in Nigeria. ... The expanded scope could include marketing extension, non-farm rural micro enterprise development, service to farmers' associations, technical extension service and urban extension. These services should be provided at ...

  13. Comparision of the Expandable Nail with Locked Nail in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... fracture patterns as informed in a biomechanical study. Maher et al.[36] compared the expandable nail with a standard locked nail in fracture model, finding that spiral fracture patterns, rather than transverse fractures, were more suitable for expandable nail fixation.. However, in this study bending and ...

  14. New York: Expanding Time, Increasing Opportunities for Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tiffany D.

    2014-01-01

    New York is poised to take an important step to improve student achievement by expanding learning time for students attending high-poverty, low-performing schools. Recent district- and state-level investments in expanded learning time--a promising strategy to close achievement and opportunity gaps--will give students more time to learn core…

  15. Detection of tissue expander leakage by methylene blue instillation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tissue expansion is an important and widely used technique of soft tissue reconstruction. Leakage of the expanders is one of the complications and it might at times be difficult to detect. Method and Conclusion: We used methylene blue stained saline for inflation of tissue expanders in 42 cases and found it to ...

  16. Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. Christopher, II, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society" addresses the successes and failures of "Brown v. Board of Education" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as well as the continuing challenge of expanding educational opportunity in the United States and across the Black diaspora. The educational, political, and social influence…

  17. Surveying the expanding prokaryotic Rubisco multiverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Ramya, Ramaswamy Chettiyan Seetharaman; Mueller-Cajar, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    The universal, but catalytically modest, CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco is currently experiencing intense interest by researchers aiming to enhance crop photosynthesis. These efforts are mostly focused on the highly conserved hexadecameric enzyme found in land plants. In comparison, prokaryotic organisms harbor a far greater diversity in Rubisco forms. Recent work towards improving our appreciation of microbial Rubisco properties and harnessing their potential is surveyed. New structural models are providing informative glimpses into catalytic subtleties and diverse oligomeric states. Ongoing characterization is informing us about the conservation of constraints, such as sugar phosphate inhibition and the associated dependence on Rubisco activase helper proteins. Prokaryotic Rubiscos operate under a far wider range of metabolic contexts than the photosynthetic function of higher plant enzymes. Relaxed selection pressures may have resulted in the exploration of a larger volume of sequence space than permitted in organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis. To tap into the potential of microbial Rubiscos, in vivo selection systems are being used to discover functional metagenomic Rubiscos. Various directed evolution systems to optimize their function have been developed. It is anticipated that this approach will provide access to biotechnologically valuable enzymes that cannot be encountered in the higher plant Rubisco space. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Rossum's universal robots: not the machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-12-01

    One assumes in the era of rapidly expanding technology that robot implies mechanical beings. This is not how the word was used initially and represents one of those metamorphoses to another conceptualization. This is an investigation into Capek's original play, Rossum's Universal Robots, for an understanding of his intended meaning. Karel Capek was Czechoslovakian. His play was written in 1920, first performed in 1921, and presented in New York in 1922. It has come to symbolize Western society's feelings about robots. Capek's writing and the original play might clarify the definition of robot for the record, in light of some controversy as to whether the da Vinci Surgical System is a robot or not. THE PLAY: Rossum was a great physiologist who chemically synthesized living protoplasm and was capable of constructing artificial life forms: first, a dog; then, a man. His son was an engineer who quickly was able to manufacture large numbers of humanoids at lower costs " ... producing a robot has been brought down within 15 years from $10,000 to $150." This is the first foreshadowing of Moore's Law. But critically, these are not machines, even though his robots outperform humans. The story turns sinister as the robots eventually revolt and kill their creators. Like many things in our vocabulary, the term robot was initially used for a biologic organism that was created for servitude. Defined by the Robotic Institute of America (1979), a robot is ... "a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks." This is far from the in tended use envisioned by Capek, but applies to the da Vinci Surgical System. As Alquist in R.U.R. concludes: "... if there are no more human beings left, at least let there be Robots!"

  19. [Reconstruction in plastic surgery using osmotic tissue expanders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronovich, Yoav; Binenboym, Rami; Retchkiman, Meir; Eizenman, Nirit; Lotan, Adi; Stuchiner, Barak; Tuchman, Izhak

    2015-03-01

    Tissue expander is a major reconstructive modality. Its main disadvantages include: long and inconvenient period of inflation with temporary deformity of the surrounding tissue. Osmotic expander was developed in order to eliminate some of these limitations. It is a self-filling device which absorbs fluids in order to achieve tissue expansion faster. We present our experience with 28 consecutive cases of tissue reconstruction using osmotic expanders. We wish to emphasize the main advantages and limitations of this device. The present study was launched in May 2008, until April 2014, for twenty eight patients, median age 26 years with reconstructions using an osmotic expander (total of 35 expanders). The reasons for using tissue expander included large congenital nevi (75%) and scars. In all of the cases, the operative and post-operative management was uneventful. During the expansion period, there were 2 outpatient clinical visits. The average expansion time was 9 weeks. In 11% (three patients) there was partial extrusion of the expander. In all other cases there were no complications and the final aesthetic results were satisfying. Osmotic expander is an advanced modality for tissue reconstruction. The final shape and size are precisely predictable. Its initial small size allows for a small surgical incision and short overall operating time. The expansion period is shorter and more convenient for the patient. Its main disadvantage includes the inability to control the filling rate and the need to remove the expander in case of damage to the overlying tissue. Osmotic expander is a reliable tool for tissue expansion. It allows for a satisfying aesthetic result in a shorter period of time and with less inconvenience to the patient.

  20. Open University

    CERN Multimedia

    Pentz,M

    1975-01-01

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  1. More and Better Learning: Year Three Report on the National Demonstration of ExpandED Schools. A TASC Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traill, Saskia; Brohawn, Katie

    2015-01-01

    In the 2013-14 school year, TASC entered the third year of its national demonstration of ExpandED Schools. Ten elementary and middle schools in New York City, Baltimore and New Orleans continued their partnerships with youth-serving community organizations, such as settlement houses or community development corporations. Together, principals,…

  2. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 9 March 2009 COLLOQUIUM at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Are We Descended From Heavy Neutrinos? Prof. Boris Kayser / Fermilab (Fermi National Accelerator Center, Geneva, Illinois, USA) Neutrinos are among the most abundant particles in the universe. The discovery that they have nonzero masses has raised a number of very interesting questions about them, and about their connections to other areas of physics and to cosmology. After briefly reviewing what has been learned about the neutrinos so far, we will identify the major open questions, explain why they are interesting, and discuss ideas and plans for answering them through future experiments. We will highlight a particularly intriguing question: Are neutrinos the key to understanding why the universe contains matter but almost no antimatter, making it s...

  3. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  4. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  5. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  6. International Society of Nephrology-Hydration and Kidney Health Initiative - Expanding Research and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moist, Louise M; Clark, William F; Segantini, Luca; Damster, Sandrine; Le Bellego, Laurent; Wong, Germaine; Tonelli, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to describe a collaborative research initiative to explore the role of hydration in kidney health. Our understanding of the effects of hydration in health and disease is surprisingly limited, particularly when we consider the vital role of hydration in basic human physiology. Recent initiatives and research outcomes have challenged the global medical community to expand our knowledge about hydration, including the differences between water, sugared beverages and other consumables. Identification of the potential mechanisms contributing to the benefits of hydration has stimulated the global nephrology community to advance research regarding hydration for kidney health. Hydration and kidney health has been a focus of research for several research centers with a rapidly expanding world literature and knowledge. The International Society of Nephrology has collaborated with Danone Nutricia Research to promote development of kidney research initiatives, which focus on the role of hydration in kidney health and the global translation of this new information. This initiative supports the use of existing data in different regions and countries to expand dialogue among experts in the field of hydration and health, and to increase scientific interaction and productivity with the ultimate goal of improving kidney health. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Thermodynamics: The Unique Universal Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamics is a physical branch of science that governs the thermal behavior of dynamical systems from those as simple as refrigerators to those as complex as our expanding universe. The laws of thermodynamics involving conservation of energy and nonconservation of entropy are, without a doubt, two of the most useful and general laws in all sciences. The first law of thermodynamics, according to which energy cannot be created or destroyed, merely transformed from one form to another, and the second law of thermodynamics, according to which the usable energy in an adiabatically isolated dynamical system is always diminishing in spite of the fact that energy is conserved, have had an impact far beyond science and engineering. In this paper, we trace the history of thermodynamics from its classical to its postmodern forms, and present a tutorial and didactic exposition of thermodynamics as it pertains to some of the deepest secrets of the universe.

  8. Universal Interconnection Technology Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheaffer, P.; Lemar, P.; Honton, E. J.; Kime, E.; Friedman, N. R.; Kroposki, B.; Galdo, J.

    2002-10-01

    The Universal Interconnection Technology (UIT) Workshop - sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Distributed Energy and Electric Reliability (DEER) Program, and Distribution and Interconnection R&D - was held July 25-26, 2002, in Chicago, Ill., to: (1) Examine the need for a modular universal interconnection technology; (2) Identify UIT functional and technical requirements; (3) Assess the feasibility of and potential roadblocks to UIT; (4) Create an action plan for UIT development. These proceedings begin with an overview of the workshop. The body of the proceedings provides a series of industry representative-prepared papers on UIT functions and features, present interconnection technology, approaches to modularization and expandability, and technical issues in UIT development as well as detailed summaries of group discussions. Presentations, a list of participants, a copy of the agenda, and contact information are provided in the appendices of this document.

  9. Roshan's telemedicine: expanding the frontier of quality healthcare through mobile technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoja, Shainoor

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights the power of mobile technology in expanding access to quality healthcare by telling the story of the first successful operation by Afghan doctors to separate conjoined twins at The French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children (FMIC) in Kabul, Afghanistan's capital. Roshan, Afghanistan's leading telecommunications provider, set up the telemedicine link in 2007, connecting three hospitals in Kandahar, Bamiyan and Badakhshan Provinces to FMIC in Kabul, and all three to one of the best and most modern hospitals in the region: The Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.

  10. Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: America's Science and Technology Talent at the Crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabowski, F. A.

    2011-12-01

    This talk will focus on the recent National Academies Report, Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: America's Science and Technology Talent at the Crossroads. The report (1) suggests stronger coordination among national agencies in developing policies and incentives for broadening participation and (2) focuses on the key roles of different types of educational institutions, from K-12 through higher education. The talk will focus on those issues most important for minority success in STEM, including academic preparation, access and motivation, academic and financial support, and social integration. Finally, Dr. Hrabowski will draw upon his experience in developing the Meyerhoff Scholars Program for talented minority students at his university.

  11. Intraluminal Palmaz stent implantation. First clinical case report on a balloon-expandable vessel prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Richter, G.M.; Noeldge, G.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Wenz, W.

    1987-12-01

    A 74-year-old patient suffering from severe iliac artery stenosis and claudication was chosen to be the first candidate in the world to receive the Palmaz stent, a balloon-expandable intraluminal stent. This procedure was done in the Department of Radiology, University of Freiburg, FRG. The intervention and postprocedural course were uneventful. His walking distance improved from less than 100 m to unlimited walking capacity. The intra-arterial pressure gradient and ankle-arm pressure ratio also returned to normal.

  12. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  14. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians’ attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. Results The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Conclusions Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to

  15. Research universities for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The `public outcomes` from research universities are educated students and research that extends the frontiers of knowledge. Measures of these `public outcomes` are inadequate to permit either research or education consumers to select research universities based on quantitative performance data. Research universities annually spend over $20 billion on research; 60% of these funds are provided by Federal sources. Federal funding for university research has recently grown at an annual rate near 6% during a time period when other performers of Federal research have experienced real funding cuts. Ten universities receive about 25% of the Federal funds spent on university research. Numerous studies of US research universities are reporting storm clouds. Concerns include balancing research and teaching, the narrow focus of engineering education, college costs, continuing education, and public funding of foreign student education. The absence of research on the `public outcomes` from university research results in opinion, politics, and mythology forming the basis of too many decisions. Therefore, the authors recommend studies of other nations` research universities, studies of various economic models of university research, analysis of the peer review process and how well it identifies the most capable research practitioners and at what cost, and studies of research university ownership of intellectual property that can lead to increased `public outcomes` from publicly-funded research performed by research universities. They advocate two practices that could increase the `public outcomes` from university research. These are the development of science roadmaps that link science research to `public outcomes` and `public outcome` metrics. Changes in the university research culture and expanded use of the Internet could also lead to increased `public outcomes`. They recommend the use of tax incentives to encourage companies to develop research partnerships with research

  16. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 18 November  2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Highlights of the European Strategy Workshop for Future Neutrino Physics Dr Ilias Efthymiopoulos, CERN   Seminar cancelled! Information Organizer : J.-S. Graulich Monday 7 December 2009 PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Topological insulators and topological superconductors Professor Shoucheng Zhang Department of Physics, Stanford University, CA   Recently, a new class of topological states has been theoretically predicted and experimentally realized. The topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge or surface states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the edge s...

  17. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 7 December 2009 PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Topological insulators and topological superconductors Professor Shoucheng Zhang Department of Physics, Stanford University, CA   Recently, a new class of topological states has been theoretically predicted and experimentally realized. The topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge or surface states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the edge states give rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, in the absence of any external magnetic field. I shall review the theoretical prediction of the QSH state in HgTe/CdTe semiconductor quantum wells, and its recent experimental observation. The edge states of the QSH state supports fr...

  18. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Ecole de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 28 April 2008 PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17.00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Gravity : an Emergent Perspective by Prof. Thanu Padmanabhan, Pune University Dean, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India I will motivate and describe a novel perspective in which gravity arises as an emergent phenomenon, somewhat like elasticity. This perspective throws light on several issues which are somewhat of a mystery in the conventional approach. Moreover it provides new insights on the dark energy problem. In fact, I will show that it is necessary to have such an alternative perspective in order to solve the cosmological constant problem.Information: http://theory.physics.unige.ch/~fiteo/seminars/COL/collist.html

  19. The Effects of Rapid Assessments and Adaptive Restudy Prompts in Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkl, Alexander; Skuballa, Irene T.; Schwonke, Rolf; Harr, Nora; Leber, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of rapid assessment tasks and different adaptive restudy prompts in multimedia learning. The adaptivity was based on rapid assessment tasks that were interspersed throughout a multimedia learning environment. In Experiment 1 (N = 52 university students), we analyzed to which extent rapid assessment tasks were reactive…

  20. Rupture of an expander prosthesis mimics axillary cancer recurrence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismael, T

    2005-10-01

    Regional silicone gel migration from a ruptured breast implant has been reported at different locations including the upper extremity, chest wall muscles, axilla and back. We report a patient who presented with an axillary mass that mimicked a regional recurrence 5 years after breast cancer reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap and silicon gel expander-prosthesis. Surgical exploration revealed that the mass contained silicone gel around the port of the breast expander that had ruptured. The mass was confluent with an intracapsular silicone leak through a tract along the tube of the expander port.

  1. Acute expanded perlite exposure with persistent reactive airway dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chung-Li; Wang, Jung-Der; Chu, Po-Chin; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon

    2010-01-01

    Expanded perlite has been assumed as simple nuisance, however during an accidental spill out in Taiwan, among 24 exposed workers followed for more than 6 months, three developed persisted respiratory symptoms and positive provocation tests were compatible with reactive airway dysfunction syndrome. During simulation experiment expanded perlite is shown to be very dusty and greatly exceed current exposure permission level. Review of literature and evidence, though exposure of expanded perlite below permission level may be generally safe, precautionary protection of short term heavy exposure is warranted.

  2. A comparative study of the removal of trivalent chromium from aqueous solutions by bentonite and expanded perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakir, Achraf; Bessiere, Jacques; Kacemi, Kacem E L; Marouf, Bouchaïb

    2002-11-11

    Local bentonite and expanded perlite (Morocco) have been characterised and used for the removal of trivalent chromium from aqueous solutions. The kinetic study had showed that the uptake of Cr(III) by bentonite is very rapid compared to expanded perlite. To calculate the sorption capacities of the two sorbents, at different pH, the experimental data points have been fitted to the Freundlich and Langmuir models, respectively, for bentonite and expanded perlite. For both sorbents the sorption capacity increases with increasing the pH of the suspensions. The removal efficiency has been calculated for both sorbents resulting that bentonite (96% of Cr(III) was removed) is more effective in removing trivalent chromium from aqueous solution than expanded perlite (40% of Cr(III) was removed). In the absence of Cr(III) ions, both bentonite and expanded perlite samples yield negative zeta potential in the pH range of 2-11. The changes of expanded perlite charge, from negative to positive, observed after contact with trivalent chromium(III) solutions was related to Cr(III) sorption on the surface of the solid. Thus, it was concluded that surface complexation plays an important role in the sorption of Cr(III) species on expanded perlite. In the case of bentonite, cation-exchange is the predominate mechanism for sorption of trivalent chromium ions, wherefore no net changes of zeta potential was observed after Cr(III) sorption. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, at different pH values, were also made to corroborate the zeta potential results.

  3. Teaching Function at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Elena Figueroa Rubalcava

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A peremptory change in education and the higher education at universities is occurriyng. Since 60´s to date theoretical issues on the role of education are continuously on modification more rapidly than the teaching and learning practices that need more time to be realized. In this paper is presented a broad scope of main national and international organizations that propose, promote and systematize those educational changes since a half century ago and specially, those that impact the formation tendency based on competences. On other side, and not pretending be exhaustive, in this paper is highlighted a list of educational competences that teachers need to develop if they pretend to realize their teaching functions with high quality standards, mainly those related with velocity involvement as curriculum constructor.

  4. Rapid prototyping tools

    OpenAIRE

    Birkeland, Petter I

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the description of the method and result of the master project of Petter Ildgruben at the Department of Engineering Design and Materials (IPM) at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in the spring of 2016. The goal of this master s thesis has been to explore the barriers that novel users face in makerspaces, specifically when interacting with the 3D printer, the laser cutter and the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) mill and how to overcome them. The first...

  5. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 2 November 2009 Colloquium at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Laser induced electron tunnel ionization : instantaneous or invalid concept? Prof. Ursula Keller / Physics Department, ETH Zurich It is typically assumed that electrons can escape from atoms through tunneling when exposed to strong laser fields, but the timing of the process has been controversial, and far too rapid to probe in detail. We have used attosecond angular streaking [1] to place an upper limit of 34 attoseconds and an intensity-averaged upper limit of 12 attoseconds on the tunneling delay time in strong field ionization of a helium atom in the non-adiabatic tunneling regime [2]. This is the fastest process that has ever been measured. To achieve this we exploit the exact timing of a close to circular polarized intense laser field in t...

  6. Expanding the bandwidth of low level photo-electric amplifier using continuous equal-potential shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kai; Sun, Bin; Shi, Xueyou; Huang, Anfeng; Xi, Ruoyao

    2016-03-01

    For the low level current preamplifier circuits in photo-electric detection, the bandwidth and the low noise characteristics are usually contradictory, because the bandwidth is limited by the high value resistor and its inevitable parasitic capacitances, which together exhibit low-pass characteristics. To expand the bandwidth of low level current amplifier, a novel method is proposed by using continuous equal-potential shielding to eliminate the parasitic capacitances and expand the bandwidth. The shielded resistor contains three layers: the center is high value resistance strip; the top and bottom layers are high conductivity shielding films with same path to center strip. The surrounding electric field energy could be provided by shielding structure instead by high value resistor itself, so the parasitic capacitances would be greatly reduced. In this paper, the principle and the structure of the equal potential shielding are presented, and the possible results are predicted by finite element simulation. The simulation was conducted by the ultra-low current preamplifier with a trans-impedance gain of 50 GΩ. The results indicated that the parasitic capacitances reduced from 1.36×10-2pF to 1.18×10-3pF, meanwhile the bandwidth was expanded from 234.1 Hz to 2.43 kHz with more than 10 times of increase; the rise time decreased from 1.53ms to 0.085ms. The advantage of this method is that the bandwidth could be expanded without extra compensation; meanwhile the shielding layers improve the noise immunity. This method is suitable for the demand of rapid response to low level current in photo-electric detection field, such as scanning tunneling microscopy and laser radar.

  7. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  8. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  10. Neuromuscular Control of Rapid Linear Accelerations in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    fish : Final Report Eric D. Tytell Department of Biology , Tufts University, eric.tytell@tufts.edu Abstract In this project, we measured muscle... important aspects of how rapid movements are controlled, but will have to be done using a negative stimulus such as a object accelerating toward the fish ...sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Animals with flexible bodies, like fishes , face a tradeoff for rapid movements. To produce high forces, they must

  11. REGIONAL MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS. External Audit Reporting Could Be Expanded

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    While the traditional role of the external audit function is to express an independent opinion on an entity's financial statements, this role has increasingly been expanded to include reviews of internal control...

  12. Expandable Cryogenic Tankage for On Orbit Depot Storage Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed expandable depot storage tanks would make it possible to have an on-orbit tank larger in volume than any existing or planned launch vehicles. The size...

  13. Development of a New Air Liquide Cryogenic Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot, G.; Courty, J. C.; Delcayre, F.; Drevard, L.; Durand, F.; Gianese, P.

    2006-04-01

    Air Liquide's Advanced Technology Division is a manufacturer of cryogenic expanders. More than 450 units are now working around the world, mainly dedicated to liquefiers, refrigerators and H2-CO purification units. In order to cope with the power increase of these units, a new expander called "TC7" has been developed and tested. This expander permits turbine wheel diameters up to 110 mm, while the other units of the range (from TC3 to TC6, by increasing wheel diameter) are limited to 78 mm. The maximum flow rate is therefore doubled. The main technical features of the existing range have been kept, and adapted in size: static radial and thrust bearings, low loss casing, variety of wheel shapes (radial-radial shrouded or un-shrouded, radial-axial). This paper describes the main design characteristics of this new expander, together with manufacturing aspects and test results.

  14. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  15. Self-Expanding, Tough Biodegradable Elastomers for Wound Stasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    the civilian setting, with no effective therapies available at point of injury. We previously reported that a self- expanding polyurethane foam...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Arsenal...setting, with no effective therapies available at point of injury. We previously reported that a self-expanding polyurethane foam significantly

  16. Expanding the concept of sustainable seafood using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Friederike; Hornborg, Sara; Green, Bridget S

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries management and sustainability assessment of fisheries more generally have recently expanded their scope from single-species stock assessment to ecosystem-based approaches, aiming to incorporate economic, social and local environmental impacts, while still excluding global-scale environm......Fisheries management and sustainability assessment of fisheries more generally have recently expanded their scope from single-species stock assessment to ecosystem-based approaches, aiming to incorporate economic, social and local environmental impacts, while still excluding global...

  17. An Expanded CAG Repeat in Huntingtin Causes +1 Frameshifting*

    OpenAIRE

    Saffert, Paul; Adamla, Frauke; Schieweck, Rico; Atkins, John F.; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of triplet decoding is crucial for the expression of functional protein because deviations either into the −1 or +1 reading frames are often non-functional. We report here that expression of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 with expanded CAG repeats, implicated in Huntington pathology, undergoes a sporadic +1 frameshift to generate from the CAG repeat a trans-frame AGC repeat-encoded product. This +1 recoding is exclusively detected in pathological Htt variants, i.e. those with expanded re...

  18. An Expanded Model of Distributed Leadership in Organizational Knowledge Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Cannatelli, B.; Smith, B. J.; Giudici, A.; Jones, J; Conger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a three-year qualitative, longitudinal case study of a social venture partnership, we extend the understanding of distributed leadership in organizational knowledge creation. We develop an expanded model of distributed leadership that identifies the antecedents, different forms, and enablers of distributed leadership in knowledge creation. Our findings move beyond a static and monolithic understanding of distributed leadership to illustrate how an expanded model informs the situation...

  19. Anthropology at the University of Yaounde I: A Historical Overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The teaching of anthropology at the University of Yaoundé I dates back to the very birth of the university, even though, the word anthropology was not used explicitly. The rapid growth of the discipline was enhanced by the 1993/94 university reforms which offered a window of opportunity to the discipline to redefine itself and ...

  20. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél. 022 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 14 October 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Long-lived particle searches at colliders Dr. Philippe Mermod / Oxford University The discovery of exotic long-lived particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics such as the origin and composition of dark matter and the unification of the fundamental forces. This talk will focus on searches for long-lived charged massive particles, where "charged" refers to the magnetic, electric or colour charge. Previous searches at the LEP and Tevatron Colliders allowed to put mass and cross section limits on various kinds of long-lived particles, such as Magnetic Monopoles and metastable leptons and up-type quarks. The new energy regime made available at the LHC will probe physics regions well beyond these limits. F...